WorldWideScience

Sample records for lumber association electronic

  1. Commercial lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent A. McDonald; David E. Kretschmann

    1999-01-01

    In a broad sense, commercial lumber is any lumber that is bought or sold in the normal channels of commerce. Commercial lumber may be found in a variety of forms, species, and types, and in various commercial establishments, both wholesale and retail. Most commercial lumber is graded by standardized rules that make purchasing more or less uniform throughout the country...

  2. Drying of building lumber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washimi, Hiroshi

    1988-08-20

    Dried lumber is classified into air dried and kiln-dried lumber. The water content of kiln-dried lumber is specified by the Japan Agricultural Standards. However, since building lumber varies in such factors as the location where it was growing, species and shape, the standards, though relaxed, are not being observed. In fact, lumbered products which are not ''Kiln-dried'' frequently bear ''kiln-dried lumber'' marks. In an attempt to correct the situation, the Forestry Agency has set up voluntary standards, but problems still remain. The conventional drying method consists of first subjecting the lumber to optimum drying, then letting bending and deformations to freely and fully appear, and follow this with corrective sawing to produce planks straight from end to end. Compared with air dried lumber in terms of moisture content, kiln-dried lumber remains much with same with minimal shrinkage and expansion. For oil-containing resin, such normal treatments as drying by heating, steaming and boiling seem to be quite effective. Kiln drying, which is becoming more and more important with changes in the circulation system, consists of the steaming-drying-heating method and the dehumidizing type drying method. The major factor which determines the drying cost is the number of days required for drying, which depends largely on the kind of lumber and moisture content. The Forestry Angency is promoting production of defoiled lumber. (2 figs, 2 tables)

  3. Drying hardwood lumber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, A T

    1988-11-14

    Dried lumber is a high-value-added product, especially when it is of high quality. Lumber damaged during the drying operation can represent substantial lost revenue. It has been demonstrated that dehumidification kilns can improve lumber quality, and reduce energy consumption over conventional drying methods. A summary of the literature on drying hardwood lumber, particularly using heat pump dehumidification, has been prepared to allow the information to be readily accessible to Ontario Hydro personnel who work with customers in the lumber industry. For that purpose, this summary has been prepared from the perspective of the customer, a dry kiln operator. Included are brief descriptions of drying schedules, precautions needed to minimize drying defects in the lumber, and rules-of-thumb for selecting and estimating the capital cost of the drying equipment. A selection of drying schedules and moisture contents of green lumber, a glossary of lumber defects and brief descriptions of the possible preventive measures are also included. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Pierce Lumber, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Pierce Lumber, Inc. (“Respondent”), located at 1629 13th Street, Belle Plaine, IA for alleged violations of its National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit (perm

  5. Laminated lumber may be more profitable than sawn lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Koch

    1976-01-01

    By laminating 1/4-in. rotary-cut veneer into structural lumber, manufacturers can expand lumber output by at least 30% without increasing volume logged. The idea merits intensive study. Manufacturing plus raw material costs should total about $142/Mbf; sales price for desirable widths and lengths of the strong laminated product should approach or exceed $200/Mbf.

  6. The automatic lumber planing mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch

    1957-01-01

    It is probable that a truly automatic planning operation could be devised if some of the variables commonly present in the mill-run lumber were eliminated and the remaining variables kept under close control. This paper will deal with the more general situation faced by mostl umber manufacturing plants. In other words, it will be assumed that the incoming lumber has...

  7. Lumber defect detection by ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. A. McDonald

    1978-01-01

    Ultrasonics, the technology of high-frequency sound, has been developed as a viable means for locating most defects In lumber for use in digital form in decision-making computers. Ultrasonics has the potential for locating surface and internal defects in lumber of all species, green or dry, and rough sawn or surfaced.

  8. Commercial lumber, round timbers, and ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Kretschmann

    2010-01-01

    When sawn, a log yields round timber, ties, or lumber of varying quality. This chapter presents a general discussion of grading, standards, and specifications for these commercial products. In a broad sense, commercial lumber is any lumber that is bought or sold in the normal channels of commerce. Commercial lumber may be found in a variety of forms, species, and types...

  9. Quality drying of hardwood lumber : guidebook -- checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S. Boone; M. R. Milota; J. D. Danielson; D. W. Huber

    The IMPROVE Lumber Drying Program is intended to increase awareness of the lumber drying system as a critical component in the manufacture of quality lumber. One objective of the program is to provide easy-to-use tools that a kiln operator can use to maintain an efficient kiln operation and therefore improve lumber drying quality. This report is one component of the...

  10. Quality drying of softwood lumber : guidebook - checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. R. Milota; J. D. Danielson; R. S. Boone; D. W. Huber

    The IMPROVE Lumber Drying Program is intended to increase awareness of the lumber drying system as a critical component in the manufacture of quality lumber. One objective of the program is to provide easy-to-use tools that a kiln operator can use to maintain an efficient kiln operation and therefore contribute to lumber drying quality. This report is one component of...

  11. Life-cycle inventory of manufacturing hardwood lumber in Southeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2012-01-01

    Environmental impacts associated with the building industry have become of increasing importance. Materials and energy consumed during manufacture of building materials such as lumber affect a building’s environmental performance. This study determined environmental impacts of manufacturing hardwood lumber in the southeastern US using the life-cycle inventory method....

  12. Hardwood log grades and lumber grade yields for factory lumber logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland F. Hanks; Glenn L. Gammon; Robert L. Brisbin; Everette D. Rast

    1980-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Standard Grades for Hardwood Factory Lumber Logs are described, and lumber grade yields for 16 species and 2 species groups are presented by log grade and log diameter. The grades enable foresters, log buyers, and log sellers to select and grade those log suitable for conversion into standard factory grade lumber. By using the apropriate lumber...

  13. Trends in lumber processing in the Western United States. Part II: Overrun and lumber recovery factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Keegan; Todd A. Morgan; Keith A. Blatner; Jean M. Daniels

    2010-01-01

    This article describes trends in three measures of lumber recovery for sawmills in the western United States: lumber overrun (LO), lumber recovery factor (LRF), and cubic lumber recovery (CLR). All states and regions showed increased LO during the last three decades. Oregon and Montana had the highest LO at 107 and 100 percent, respectively. Alaska had the lowest LO at...

  14. 78 FR 15053 - Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Shelton, Washington; Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Tacoma, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ...,372B] Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Shelton, Washington; Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Tacoma, Washington; Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Longview, Washington; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration On... Reconsideration for the workers and former workers of Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Shelton, Washington (TA-W-81...

  15. Evolution of tensile design stresses for lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    William L. Galligan; C. C. Gerhards; R. L. Ethington

    1979-01-01

    Until approximately 1965, allowable design stresses for lumber in tension were taken as equal to those assigned for bending. As interest in tensile properties increased, testing machines were designed specifically to stress lumber in tension. Research results that accumulated on tensile tests of full-size lumber suggested lower design stresses for tension than for...

  16. Machine grading of lumber : practical concerns for lumber producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    William L. Galligan; Kent A. McDonald

    2000-01-01

    Machine lumber grading has been applied in commercial operations in North America since 1963, and research has shown that machine grading can improve the efficient use of wood. However, industry has been reluctant to apply research findings without clear evidence that the change from visual to machine grading will be a profitable one. For instance, mill managers need...

  17. Lumber Cost Minimization through Optimum Grade-Mix Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoqiu Zuo; Urs Buehlmann; R. Edward Thomas; R. Edward Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Rough mills process kiln-dried lumber into components for the furniture and wood products industries, Lumber is a significant portion of total rough mill costs and lumber quality can have a serious impact on mill productivity. Lower quality lumber is less expensive yet is harder to process. Higher quality lumber is more expensive yet easier to process. The problem of...

  18. Predictors of job tenure in a lumber-plywood mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Wolf

    1973-01-01

    Multiple discriminant analysis was used to identify biographic and employment history variables associated with job tenure in a lumber-plywood mill. Several variables-friends and relatives, type of housing, commuting distance, and prior work experience in the wood industry-were found to be significant.

  19. Hardwood lumber supply chain: current status and market opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Al Schuler; Mark Barford

    2007-01-01

    The membership of the Appalachian Hardwood Manufacturers Association was surveyed in 2005 to determine the current status of large Appalachian sawmills. The primary focus was to assess the impacts of globalization on primary manufacturing, but attention was also paid to general issues affecting the hardwood lumber supply chain-from concerns over forest health and log...

  20. Opportunities for expanded and higher value utilization of No. 3A Common hardwood lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian P. Shepley; Jan Wiedenbeck; Robert L. Smith

    2004-01-01

    The percentage of low-grade material composing the annual hardwood lumber production in the United States is on the rise. As a result, finding markets for low-grade and low-value lumber has been identified as a top priority by researchers and industry associations. This research used the ROMI-RIP and ROMI-CROSS simulation programs to determine specific conditions that...

  1. Automatic Edging and Trimming of Hardwood Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Eugene M. Wengert; Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    Studies have shown that there is a potential to increase hardwood lumber value by more than 20 percent through optimum edging and trimming. Even a small portion of this percentage can boost the profitability of hardwood lumber manufacturers substantially. The objective of this research project is to develop an automated system which would assist in correct edging and...

  2. Lumber stress grades and design properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Kretschmann; David W. Green

    1999-01-01

    Lumber sawn from a log, regardless of species and size, is quite variable in mechanical properties. Pieces may differ in strength by several hundred percent. For simplicity and economy in use, pieces of lumber of similar mechanical properties are placed in categories called stress grades, which are characterized by (a) one or more sorting criteria, (b) a set of...

  3. What's ahead in automated lumber grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Philip A. Araman

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses how present scanning technologies are being applied to automatic lumber grading. The presentation focuses on 1) what sensing and scanning devices are needed to measure information for accurate grading feature detection, 2) the hardware and software needed to efficiently process this information, and 3) specific issues related to softwood lumber...

  4. Factors determining lumber recovery in sawmilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele

    1984-01-01

    Lumber volume recovery in sawmilling is determined by a confusing interaction of several factors. The more one knows about each individual factor, the more one can understand how the factors interact. The author identifies and discusses in detail seven factors influencing lumber recovery. Past and current research is cited, and examples are given to illustrate the...

  5. Factors affecting regional changes in hardwood lumber production

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Gilbert P. Dempsey; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1994-01-01

    Hardwood lumber production increased by nearly 1.8 billion board feet between 1986 and 1990 and decreased sharply in 1991. However, not all areas of the country experienced the same growth in hardwood lumber production during the 1980s. While lumber production in inland regions of the eastern United States and the west increased during the 1980s, lumber output in...

  6. An assessment of the industrial markets for softwood clearwood lumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan L. Eastin; Christine L. Lane; Roger D. Fight; Jamie Barbour

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to assess market opportunities for second growth clearwood lumber by identifying industry segments that currently utilize clearwood lumber and determining whether alternative markets will continue to exist for clearwood lumber produced from intensively managed forests in the Pacific Northwest. A survey of industrial lumber...

  7. Quality drying in a hardwood lumber predryer : guidebook--checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. M. Wengert; R. S. Boone

    The IMPROVE Lumber Drying Program is intended to increase awareness of the lumber drying system as a critical component in the manufacture of quality lumber. One objective of the program is to provide easy-to-use tools that a kiln/predryer operator can use to maintain an efficient drying operation and therefore improve lumber drying quality. This report is one...

  8. Quality Characteristics of Appalachian Red Oak Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice K Wiedenbeck; Charles J. Gatchell; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1995-01-01

    Red oak lumber defect information derived from a well-constructed board data bank was analyzed. The potential utility of No. 1 Common and No. 2A Common lumber is indicated by the finding that 23 percent of the No. 1 Common boards and 35 percent of the No. 2A Common boards in the data bank contain clear-face cutting percentages that meet the minimum requirement for the...

  9. The state of hardwood lumber markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert P. Dempsey; William G. Luppold

    1992-01-01

    Although the 1990-91 recession has temporarily dampened the demand for hardwood lumber, the decade of the 1980s was a period of strong growth in the hardwood market. After experiencing a flat market in 1980 and a decline in 1982, the demand for hardwood lumber by both the domestic industry and the export market increased strongly—from 8 billion board feet in 1982 to 11...

  10. Mechanical properties: wood lumber versus plastic lumber and thermoplastic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Zandomenico Dias

    Full Text Available Abstract Plastic lumber and thermoplastic composites are sold as alternatives to wood products. However, many technical standards and scientific studies state that the two materials cannot be considered to have the same structural behaviour and strength. Moreover, there are many compositions of thermoplastic-based products and plenty of wood species. How different are their mechanical properties? This study compares the modulus of elasticity and the flexural, compressive, tensile and shear strengths of such materials, as well as the materials' specific mechanical properties. It analyses the properties of wood from the coniferae and dicotyledon species and those of commercialized and experimental thermoplastic-based product formulations. The data were collected from books, scientific papers and manufacturers' websites and technical data sheets, and subsequently compiled and presented in Ashby plots and bar graphs. The high values of the compressive strength and specific compressive and tensile strengths perpendicular to the grain (width direction shown by the experimental thermoplastic composites compared to wood reveal their great potential for use in compressed elements and in functions where components are compressed or tensioned perpendicularly to the grain. However, the low specific flexural modulus and high density of thermoplastic materials limit their usage in certain civil engineering and building applications.

  11. An econometric model of the hardwood lumber market

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold

    1982-01-01

    A recursive econometric model with causal flow originating from the demand relationship is used to analyze the effects of exogenous variables on quantity and price of hardwood lumber. Wage rates, interest rates, stumpage price, lumber exports, and price of lumber demanders' output were the major factors influencing quantities demanded and supplied and hardwood...

  12. Growth and shifts in eastern hardwood lumber production

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of recent trends in eastern U.S. hardwood lumber production indicates that total output increased sharply between 1977 and 1991. The increase, however, was much more pronounced in the East's northern tier of states than in the southern. This paper first examines recent hardwood lumber usage trends and historic hardwood lumber production trends. Changes...

  13. Dimension yields from yellow-poplar lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. C. Gilmore; J. D. Danielson

    1984-01-01

    The available supply of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), its potential for new uses, and its continuing importance to the furniture industry have created a need to accumulate additional information about this species. As an aid to better utilization of this species, charts for determining cutting stock yields from yellow poplar lumber are presented for each...

  14. Burst fracture of the fifth lumber vertebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Hetao; Hu Zhenmin; Shi Yuxin

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the stability of the fifth lumber vertebra after burst fracture. Methods: 7 patients with burst fracture of the fifth lumber vertebra were examined by X-ray and CT, and followed for 6-36 months. The changes of wedge index, lordosis, degree of spinal canal stenosis and neurological features were observed during the episode and followed up. Results: The three spinal column structure was disrupted in 6 of 7 patients. The anterior and mid columns were involved in 1 case. Spinal stenosis of first and second degrees was seen in 3 cases, and in one case, there was no spinal canal stenosis. Lower lumber motor-root deficits were found in 2 of 7 patients and resolved in follow up. There was no tendency of progressive collapse of the vertebral body and spinal stenosis. Conclusions: Burst fracture of the fifth lumber vertebra was specific, most of them were stable fractures, although two or three columns of the spine were disrupted and accompanied by spinal canal stenosis

  15. Burst fracture of the fifth lumber vertebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetao, Cao; Zhenmin, Hu; Yuxin, Shi [Affiliated Hosptial of Nantong Medical College, JS, Nantong (China). Dept. of Radiology

    1999-04-01

    Objective: To investigate the stability of the fifth lumber vertebra after burst fracture. Methods: 7 patients with burst fracture of the fifth lumber vertebra were examined by X-ray and CT, and followed for 6-36 months. The changes of wedge index, lordosis, degree of spinal canal stenosis and neurological features were observed during the episode and followed up. Results: The three spinal column structure was disrupted in 6 of 7 patients. The anterior and mid columns were involved in 1 case. Spinal stenosis of first and second degrees was seen in 3 cases, and in one case, there was no spinal canal stenosis. Lower lumber motor-root deficits were found in 2 of 7 patients and resolved in follow up. There was no tendency of progressive collapse of the vertebral body and spinal stenosis. Conclusions: Burst fracture of the fifth lumber vertebra was specific, most of them were stable fractures, although two or three columns of the spine were disrupted and accompanied by spinal canal stenosis

  16. Durability of wood-plastic composite lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    2010-01-01

    Wood-plastic composite (WPC) lumber has been marketed as a low-maintenance, high-durability product. Retail sales in the United States were slightly less than $1 billion in 2008. Applications include docking, railing, windows, doors, fencing, siding, moldings, landscape timbers, car interior parts, and furniture. The majority of these products are used outdoors and...

  17. Influences of obese (ob/ob and diabetes (db/db genotype mutations on lumber vertebral radiological and morphometric indices: Skeletal deformation associated with dysregulated systemic glucometabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garris David R

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both diabetes and obesity syndromes are recognized to promote lumbar vertebral instability, premature osteodegeneration, exacerbate progressive osteoporosis and increase the propensity towards vertebral degeneration, instability and deformation in humans. Methods The influences of single-gene missense mutations, expressing either diabetes (db/db or obese (ob/ob metabolic syndromes on vertebral maturation and development in C57BL/KsJ mice were evaluated by radiological and macro-morphometric analysis of the resulting variances in osteodevelopment indices relative to control parameters between 8 and 16 weeks of age (syndrome onset @ 4 weeks, and the influences of low-dose 17-B-estradiol therapy on vertebral growth expression evaluated. Results Associated with the indicative genotypic obesity and hyper-glycemic/-insulinemic states, both db/db and ob/ob mutants demonstrated a significant (P ≤ 0.05 elongation of total lumbar vertebrae column (VC regional length, and individual lumbar vertebrae (LV1-5 lengths, relative to control VC and LV parameters. In contrast, LV1-5 width indices were suppressed in db/db and ob/ob mutants relative to control LV growth rates. Between 8 and 16 weeks of age, the suppressed LV1-5 width indices were sustained in both genotype mutant groups relative to control osteomaturation rates. The severity of LV1-5 width osteosuppression correlated with the severe systemic hyperglycemic and hypertriglyceridemic conditions sustained in ob/ob and db/db mutants. Low-dose 17-B-estradiol therapy (E2-HRx: 1.0 ug/ 0.1 ml oil s.c/3.5 days, initiated at 4 weeks of age (i.e., initial onset phase of db/db and ob/ob expressions re-established control LV 1–5 width indices without influencing VC or LV lengths in db/db groups. Conclusion These data demonstrate that the abnormal systemic endometabolic states associated with the expression of db/db and ob/ob genomutation syndromes suppress LV 1–5 width osteomaturation

  18. INDUSTRIAL EVALUATION OF RE-DRY STRATEGY FOR SOFTWOOD LUMBER

    OpenAIRE

    Elustondo, Diego; Avramidis, Stavros

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental evaluation of the first commercial scale dry-sort-redry (DSRD) strategy for drying of 2x4 Pacific coast hemlock (PCH) lumber. The DSRD strategy is a methodology designed to reduce final moisture content variability in kiln dried lumber by complementing conventional drying with radio frequency vacuum (RFV) drying technology. The strategy′s objective is to avoid producing over-dried lumber in conventional drying by setting the target moisture content to...

  19. Accelerated conventional temperature drying of 30mm thick rubberwood lumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthon Srivaro1,

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Lumber drying is the most energy and time consuming process within the rubberwood lumber industry. The aim ofthis study was to develop an effective drying schedule for rubberwood lumber by accelerating the moisture movement out oflumber without degrading the lumber during drying. The study explored the effect of dry bulb temperature (60oC, 75oC and90oC, steaming at the beginning of drying, predrying of lumber prior to drying, and top loading of lumber on the dryingcharacteristics and lumber quality (bow, crook, twist, end splitting and color of 30mm thick rubberwood lumber under thetarget EMC at 4% and air velocity of 4m/s. Accelerated conventional temperature drying of lumber at 90oC reduced thedrying time by ~50% from 117 hours to 54 hours but increased the energy consumption by 22% with respect to the conventionaltemperature drying at 60oC. The average activation energy for drying was 26 kJ/mol. Drying temperature had verylittle effect on quality of lumber after drying (bow, crook, twist, end splitting and color. Steaming at the beginning of dryingand predrying of lumber prior to drying reduced and increased the percentage of end splitting, respectively. A top load ofabout 300 kg/m2 slightly decreased twist. Drying at higher temperatures produced more casehardening within the lumber butconditioning at higher temperatures was more effective in releasing the residual stress generated by drying. After conditioningat high temperatures prong of less than 0.5° casehardening was obtained.

  20. 1992 Data Bank for Red Oak Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles J. Gatchell; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Elizabeth S. Walker; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Data Bank for Red Oak Lumber is a collection of fully described FAS, Selects, No. 1 Common, and No. 2A Common boards (a total of 1,578 at present). The data bank has two unique features to aid in sample selection. The first feature is the double grading of FAS, No. 1 Common, and No. 2A Common boards to reflect the surface area in grading cuttings when grading...

  1. Evolution of allowable stresses in shear for lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Ethington; William L. Galligan; Henry M. Montrey; Alan D. Freas

    1979-01-01

    This paper surveys research leading to allowable shear stress parallel to grain for lumber. In early flexure tests of lumber, some pieces failed in shear. The estimated shear stress at time of failure was generally lower than shear strength measured on small, clear, straight-grained specimens. This and other engineering observations gave rise to adjustments that...

  2. Automatic scanning of rough hardwood lumber for edging and trimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman; Sang-Mook Lee

    2001-01-01

    Scanning of unplaned, green hardwood lumber has received relatively little attention in the research community. This has been due in part to the difficulty of clearly imaging fresh-cut boards whose fibrous surfaces mask many wood features. Nevertheless, it is important to improve lumber processing early in the manufacturing stream because much wood material is...

  3. Match Your Hardwood Lumber to Current Market Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Steven A. Sinclair; Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    This article explains how hardwood lumber producers can best market their product. The study included four segments of the market for hardwood lumber. These segments were: furniture, cabinet, dimension and flooring, and molding/millwork manufacturers. The article explains how the study was conducted and the characteristics of companies (i.e., potential customers) that...

  4. Regional analysis of hardwood lumber production: 1963 - 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Luppold; Matthew Bumgardner

    2008-01-01

    Between 1963 and 2005 hardwood lumber production in the eastern United States increased by more than 50%. Production more than doubled in the northeastern and north central regions while increasing by less than 25% in the southeastern and south central regions. Increased lumber production in the northern regions was facilitated by an expanding sawtimber inventory,...

  5. 40 years of hardwood lumber comsumption: 1963 to 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Luppold; Matthew Bumgardner

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of hardwood lumber consumption found that demand has changed dramatically over the past four decades as a result of material substitution, changes in construction and remodeling products markets, and globalization. In 1963 furniture producers consumed 36 percent of the hardwood products lumber used by domestic manufacturers. Producers of hardwood...

  6. Low-grade hardwood lumber production, markets, and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Cumbo; Robert Smith; Philip A. Araman

    2003-01-01

    Due to recent downturn in the economy and changes in traditional hardwood markets. U.S. hardwood manufacturers are facing significant difficulties. In particular, markets for low-grade lumber have been diminishing, while increased levels of the material are being produced at hardwood sawmills in the United States. A nationwide survey of hardwood lumber manufacturers...

  7. Why do stumpage prices increase more than lumber prices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; John E. Baumgras; John E. Baumgras

    1998-01-01

    Every sawmiller who has been in business more than 5 years realizes that hardwood stumpage prices tend to increase faster than lumber prices, decreasing the margin between these two prices. Although increases in stumpage versus lumber prices are readily apparent, the reason for the decrease in the margin is not. Recent research findings indicate that the stumpage/...

  8. Boron Diffusion in Surface-Treated Framing Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia K. Lebow; Stan T. Lebow; Steven A. Halverson

    2013-01-01

    The extent of boron penetration in framing lumber treated by spray applications during construction is not well quantified. This study evaluated the effect of formulation and concentration on diffusion of boron in lumber specimens that were equilibrated in conditions that produced wood moisture contents of 18 to 21 percent. One set of specimens was pressure treated...

  9. Softwood Lumber – Some Lessons from the Last Softwood (Lumber IV Dispute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Feldman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The checkered history of softwood lumber disputes between Canada and its southern neighbour stretches back to the 1800s, with five of them occurring since 1982. Two years ago, the settlement obtained in 2006 expired and most Canadian softwood lumber exporters now face a combined countervailing and anti-dumping duty rate from the Americans of around 27 per cent. On the surface, the last dispute, known as Lumber IV, appeared to be a squabble over subsidization and dumping of Canadian softwood lumber exports. However, closer scrutiny revealed that this dispute was really about commercial interests triumphing over policy – the U.S. lumber industry wanted to ensure it kept a certain share of the market at the highest price possible. Complicating attempts to resolve any dispute is the fact that Canada is not a single entity in the lumber business; interest in quota or duties varies across regions as do the countervailing (CVD and anti-dumping (AD rates that the U.S. imposes on particular Canadian producers. These variations thus create almost a divide-and-conquer situation in which one group of producers feels others are getting an advantage. The Canadian industry instead should be standing together as much as possible, creating a united front in any dispute with the U.S. Drafting new policy and resorting to litigation to settle Lumber IV failed because the potential settlement got bogged down by the drawbacks of both of those routes. Policy failed because it quickly became clear that the U.S. was going to act with impunity to determine whether there was a subsidy, regardless of what the trade rules permitted. And litigation created an endless loop in which contradictory rulings were handed back and forth between NAFTA panels and the U.S. International Trade Commission, stalling any resolution. Lumber IV also taught the Canadians that taking their complaints to both NAFTA and the World Trade Organization, which does not order a refunding of wrongly

  10. Impacts of changing hardwood lumber consumption and price on stumpage and sawlog prices in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Luppold; Matthew Bumgardner; T. Eric. McConnell

    2014-01-01

    In the early 2000s, increasing US furniture imports preceded declining US hardwood lumber demand and price. In the summer of 2002, however, hardwood lumber prices started to increase as demand by construction industries increased. By the mid-2000s, hardwood lumber prices hit all-time highs. Lumber prices hit all-time highs for red oak (Quercus spp...

  11. Influence of Lumber Volume Maximization on Value in Sawing Hardwood Sawlogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Francis G. Wagner; Lalit Kumar; Philip A. Araman

    1992-01-01

    Research based on applying volume-maximizing sawing solutions to idealized hardwood log forms has shown that average lumber yield can be increased by 6 percent. It is possible, however, that a lumber volume-maximizing solution may result in a decrease in lumber grade and a net reduction in total value of sawn lumber. The objective of this study was to determine the...

  12. The influence of lumber grade on machine productivity in the rough mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Jan Wiedenbeck; Rubin Shmulsky; Anura Perera; Anura Perera

    1999-01-01

    Lumber grade effect on hardwood-part processing time was investigated with a digitally described lumber database in conjunction with a crosscut-first rough mill yield optimization simulator. In this study, the digital lumber sample was subdivided into five hardwood lumber grades. Three cutting bills with varying degrees of difficulty were Cut." The three cutting...

  13. Second-order polynomial model to solve the least-cost lumber grade mix problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Xiaoqiu Zuo; R. Edward. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Material costs when cutting solid wood parts from hardwood lumber for secondary wood products manufacturing account for 20 to 50 percent of final product cost. These costs can be minimized by proper selection of the lumber quality used. The lumber quality selection problem is referred to as the least-cost lumber grade mix problem in the industry. The objective of this...

  14. Coronal Magnetic Field Lines and Electrons Associated with Type III

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coronal Magnetic Field Lines and Electrons Associated with Type III–V Radio Bursts in a Solar Flare ... velocities of the electron streams associated with the above two types of bursts indicate ... Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | News ...

  15. The Research and Development of COM-PLY Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. McAlister

    1989-01-01

    Between 1974 and 1986, a Southeastern Station Research Work Unit developed standards for composite studs, joists, and truss lumber and manufactured and demonstrated the materials. Economic feasibility was considered in every stage of research. Further development is left to industry.

  16. Pierce Lumber, Inc. - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Pierce Lumber, Inc. (“Respondent”), located at 1629 13th Street, Belle Plaine, IA for alleged violations of its National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit (perm

  17. Data bank for short-length red oak lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Charles J. Gatchell; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1994-01-01

    This data bank for short-length lumber (less than 8 feet long) contains information on board outlines and defect size and quality for 426 414-inch-thick red oak boards. The Selects, 1 Common, 2A Common, and 3A Common grades are represented in the data bank. The data bank provides the kind of detailed lumber description that is required as input by computer programs...

  18. An equipment test for grading lumber by transverse vibration technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigo Carreira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the great variability of its mechanical properties, the rational use of lumber for structural purposes is directly conditioned to its grading. There are several techniques available for grading structural lumber. The most relevant one is the transverse vibration technique which obtained reliable results in non-destructive evaluation of lumber. The purpose of this work is to present the bases for the mechanical grading of lumber and the results of the calibration test of the frst transverse vibration equipment developed in Brazil. In this research 30 beams of cupiúba (Goupia glabra with nominal dimensions of 5 cm X 10 cm X 300 cm, were used. The tests were accomplished at the Wood and Timber Structures Laboratory (LaMEM of the University of São Paulo (USP. The results showed a strong correlation between the elasticity modulus measured by the static bending test and the one obtained with the transverse vibration equipment, showing the high reliability of the vibration method for the grading of structural lumber. A determination coeffcient (R² of 0.896 was obtained with the Brazilian equipment, showing that it can be used in the grading of lumber.

  19. Electron currents associated with an auroral band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiger, R.J.; Anderson, H.R.

    1975-01-01

    Measurements of electron pitch angle distributions and energy spectra over a broad auroral band were used to calculate net electric current carried by auroral electrons in the vicinity of the band. The particle energy spectrometers were carried by a Nike-Tomahawk rocket launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, at 0722 UT on February 25, 1972. Data are presented which indicate the existence of upward field-aligned currents of electrons in the energy range 0.5-20 keV. The spatial relationship of these currents to visual structure of the auroral arc and the characteristics of the electrons carrying the currents are discussed

  20. Electron currents associated with an auroral band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiger, R. J.; Anderson, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    Measurements of electron pitch angle distributions and energy spectra over a broad auroral band were used to calculate net electric current carried by auroral electrons in the vicinity of the band. The particle energy spectrometers were carried by a Nike-Tomahawk rocket launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, at 0722 UT on February 25, 1972. Data are presented which indicate the existence of upward field-aligned currents of electrons in the energy range 0.5-20 keV. The spatial relationship of these currents to visual structure of the auroral arc and the characteristics of the electrons carrying the currents are discussed.

  1. Electron cyclotron heating and associated parallel cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapozo, C. da C.; Assis, A.S. de; Busnardo Neto, J.

    1990-01-01

    It has been experimentally observed that during the electron-cyclotron heating the electron longitudinal temperature drops as the perpendicular temperature increases. The experiment was carried in a linear mirror machine with a low density (10 10 cm -3 ) weakly ionized (< 1.0 %) plasma. (Author)

  2. Crook and overlength in hardwood lumber:results from a 14-mill survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; John Brown; Neal Bennett

    2003-01-01

    Data on red oak lumber were collected at 14 furniture and cabinet industry rough mills to identify how crook and overlength are related to lumber grade and size from mill to mill. The amount of crook in a sample of dry, 4/4 thickness, red oak lumber was significantly influenced by lumber grade and length, supply region, and mill. There were no differences in crook...

  3. An ultrasonic technique for predicting tensile strength of southern pine lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Rajeshwar; D.A. Bender; D.E. Bray; K.A. McDonald

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this research was to develop nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology to enhance mechanical stress rating of lumber. An ultrasonic NDE technique was developed that is sensitive to grain angle and edge knots in lumber - two primary determinants of lumber strength. The presence of edge knots increased the acoustic wave travel time and selectively...

  4. Examination of worldwide hardwood lumber production, trade, and apparent consumption: 1995-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide hardwood lumber production fluctuated between 1995 and 2013 and changed considerably with respect to regional market shares. Similarly, worldwide hardwood lumber imports and exports have been constantly changing. Understanding these changes is important because collectively, they define the hardwood lumber consumption of a region or country. In 1995, North...

  5. Characterizing the adoption of low-grade hardwood lumber by the secondary wood processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Smith; Wibke Pohle; Philip Araman; Dan Cumbo

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the adoption of low-grade lumber in the secondary hardwood industry. Factors influencing decisions regarding the utilization of low-grade lumber were identified and value-added opportunities to increase the use of low-grade lumber among manufacturers currently using higher grades were evaluated. Data were collected via a nationwide mail survey...

  6. LamLum : a tool for evaluating the financial feasibility of laminated lumber plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.M. (Ted) Bilek; John F. Hunt

    2006-01-01

    A spreadsheet-based computer program called LamLum was created to analyze the economics of value- added laminated lumber manufacturing facilities. Such facilities manufacture laminations, typically from lower grades of structural lumber, then glue these laminations together to make various types of higher value laminated lumber products. This report provides the...

  7. Regional Changes in the Timber Resources of and Lumber Production in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2005-01-01

    In this study we examine regional differences in the hardwood timber resources of Pennsylvania and explain how the combined changes in this resource and in lumber prices have influenced regional lumber production. Isolation of these relationships is important because shifts in lumber production affect harvesting levels and harvesting activity influences long-term...

  8. Maintenance Procedures for North American Visually-graded Dimension Lumber Design Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Kretschmann; Don DeVisser; Kevin Cheung; Bob Browder; Al Rozek

    2014-01-01

    ASTM International D1990 Standard Practice for Establishing Allowable Properties for Visually-Graded Dimension Lumber from In-Grade Tests of Full-Size Specimens, that governs the development of design values for dimension lumber in North America, was first adopted in 1991with recognition that the resource and manufacturing of lumber could change over time impacting...

  9. Economic analysis of the Canada-United States softwood lumber dispute : playing the quota game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.

    2002-01-01

    The Canada-U.S. Softwood Lumber Agreement (SLA) was the latest measure to restrict Canadian exports of softwood lumber to the United States. Rather than a countervail duty or export tax, SLA employed a quota that provides a large windfall (quota) rent to Canadian lumber producers in addition to

  10. 29 CFR 780.200 - Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited. 780.200 Section 780.200 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... Lumbering Operations § 780.200 Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited...

  11. Influence of markets and forest composition on lumber production in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examine regional differences in the hardwood timber resources of Pennsylvania and how the combined changes in inventory volume, forest composition, and lumber prices have influenced regional lumber production. Isolation of these relationships is important because shifts in lumber production reflect changes in harvesting activity. In turn, harvesting...

  12. Automated hardwood lumber grading utilizing a multiple sensor machine vision technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Chris Surak; Philip A. Araman

    2003-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, scientists at the Thomas M. Brooks Forest Products Center, the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and the USDA Forest Service have been working on lumber scanning systems that can accurately locate and identify defects in hardwood lumber. Current R&D efforts are targeted toward developing automated lumber grading...

  13. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Experimental lumber drying kiln. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaman, D.; Irwin, B.

    1989-10-01

    Goals were to demonstrate feasibility of using the geothermal waste effluent from the HGP-A well as a heat source for a kiln operation to dry hardwoods, develop drying schedules, and develop automatic systems to monitor/control the geothermally heated lumber dry kiln systems. The feasibility was demonstrated. Lumber was dried in periods of 2 to 6 weeks in the kiln, compared to 18 months air drying and 6--8 weeks using a dehumidified chamber. Larger, plate-type heat exchangers between the primary fluid and water circulation systems may enable the kiln to reach the planned temperatures (180--185 F). However, the King Koa partnership cannot any longer pursue the concept of geothermal lumber kilns.

  14. Legal Risk Associated with Electronic Funds Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulah, Samahir

    2014-01-01

    The past thirty years have seen rapid advances in the technological component of banking services and as a consequence new legal issues have come to the fore, especially with regard to Electronic Fund Transfers (EFTs) which are now used to transfer money around the world, and have made fund transactions between payers and payees easier, faster and more secure. The method involves risks for both banks and customers, due to the possibility of unauthorized payments risks, credit and insolvency p...

  15. National library associations: websites and electronic discussion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reviews the state of national library association websites in Africa based on an examination and analysis of the Botswana, Namibia, Nigeria, Swaziland, Tanzania and Zambia sites. Problems identified include lack of regular updates, technical errors, lack of funds to acquire quality website editing tools and ...

  16. Simulations of solid lumber strength property monitoring tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Verrill; David E. Kretschmann; James W. Evans

    2017-01-01

    Dimension lumber, visually graded in accordance with the National Grading Rule and assigned design values derived in accordance with procedures found in ASTM D 1990, has provided satisfactory performance in homes and other structural applications for many years. This ongoing satisfactory performance depends upon a recognition that all standards are living documents...

  17. A Machine Vision System for Automatically Grading Hardwood Lumber - (Proceedings)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas H. Drayer; Joe G. Tront; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon

    1990-01-01

    Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that has...

  18. Clearwood quality and softwood lumber prices: what's the real premium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Waggener; Roger D. Fight

    1999-01-01

    Diminishing quantities of appearance grade lumber and rising price premiums for it have accompanied the transition from old-growth to young-growth timber. The price premiums for better grades are an incentive for producers to undertake investments to increase the yield of those higher valued products. Price premiums, however, are also an incentive for users to...

  19. Acoustic analysis of warp potential of green ponderosa pine lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; William T. Simpson

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential of acoustic analysis as presorting criteria to identify warp-prone boards before kiln drying. Dimension lumber, 38 by 89 mm (nominal 2 by 4 in.) and 2.44 m (8 ft) long, sawn from open-grown small-diameter ponderosa pine trees, was acoustically tested lengthwise at green condition. Three acoustic properties (acoustic speed, rate of...

  20. Production of lumber, lath, and shingles in 1917

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin H. Smith; Albert H. Pierson

    1919-01-01

    In this bulletin, which is one of an annual series covering the period 1904 to 1917, inclusive, with the exception of 1914, are detailed statistics of the 1917 production of lumber, lath, and shingles in the continental United States, with comparative figures from previous annual reports. The collection and compilation of the statistics for the Western States was done...

  1. Impact of human error on lumber yield in rough mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; R. Edward Thomas; R. Edward Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Rough sawn, kiln-dried lumber contains characteristics such as knots and bark pockets that are considered by most people to be defects. When using boards to produce furniture components, these defects are removed to produce clear, defect-free parts. Currently, human operators identify and locate the unusable board areas containing defects. Errors in determining a...

  2. Influence of Lumber Volume Maximization in Sawing Hardwood Sawlogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Francis G. Wagner; Lalit Kumar; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    The Best Opening Face (BOF) technology for volume maximization during sawing has been rapidly adopted by softwood sawmills. Application of this technology in hardwood sawmills has been limited because of their emphasis on sawing for the highest possible grade of lumber. The reason for this emphasis is that there is a relatively large difference in price between the...

  3. Forest thinnings for integrated lumber and paper production

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; C.T. Scott; R. Gleisner; D. Mann; D.W. Vahey; D.P. Dykstra; G.H. Quinn; L.L. Edwards

    2007-01-01

    Integrated lumber and paper productions using forest thinning materials from U.S. national forests can significantly reduce the cost of prescriptive thinning operations. Many of the trees removed during forest thinnings are in small-diameter classes (diameter at breast height

  4. Chapter 4:Grading and properties of hardwood structural lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green

    2005-01-01

    Structural lumber markets have traditionally been dominated by softwood species. Historically, however, hardwood species have been extensively used for certain structural products such as timbers for railway and highway bridges, railway ties, mine timbers, and for pallets and containers. In the 1920s, when uniform procedures were first developed for structural grading...

  5. Thermal injury patterns associated with electronic cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Jiwani, Alisha Z; Williams, James F; Rizzo, Julie A; Chung, Kevin K; King, Booker T; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2017-01-01

    E-cigarettes are typically lithium-ion battery-operated devices that simulate smoking by heating a nicotine-solution into a vapor that the user inhales. E-cigarette use is becoming rapidly popular as an alternative to traditional cigarette smoking. This report describes an emerging problem associated with e-cigarettes, consisting of 10 thermally injured patients seen at a single burn center over a 2-year period from 2014 to 2016. Our cohort was comprised mainly of young adults who sustained m...

  6. Thermal injury patterns associated with electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwani, Alisha Z; Williams, James F; Rizzo, Julie A; Chung, Kevin K; King, Booker T; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2017-01-01

    E-cigarettes are typically lithium-ion battery-operated devices that simulate smoking by heating a nicotine-solution into a vapor that the user inhales. E-cigarette use is becoming rapidly popular as an alternative to traditional cigarette smoking. This report describes an emerging problem associated with e-cigarettes, consisting of 10 thermally injured patients seen at a single burn center over a 2-year period from 2014 to 2016. Our cohort was comprised mainly of young adults who sustained mixed partial and full thickness burns as a result of e-cigarette-related explosions. In many documented scenarios, a malfunctioning or over-heated battery is the cause. Our data support the need for increased awareness among healthcare providers and the general public of the potential harms of e-cigarette use, modification, storage, and charging.

  7. Better lumber drying process with a non-greenhouse type solar kiln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, K C

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary study of using solar energy for lumber drying in NW Ontario is proven applicable and practical by the evidence of data collected. It was found that lumber seasoning using solar energy in the region is more favorable in the summer than in the winter. The most significant advantages of lumber drying with a solar kiln are: (1) low percentage of drying defect lumber produced; (2) higher strength properties of lumber produced; (3) unlimited sources of heat energy from the sun are available. The longer drying periods with a solar kiln as compared to a conventional steam kiln can be overcome by utilizing a supplemental heat system, e.g., wood residue burner to shorten the drying period. However, some improvements and modification of the existing kiln should be done in order to increase the efficiency of the lumber drying system.

  8. ROMI 3.1 Least-cost lumber grade mix solver using open source statistical software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca A. Buck; Urs Buehlmann; R. Edward. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The least-cost lumber grade mix solution has been a topic of interest to both industry and academia for many years due to its potential to help wood processing operations reduce costs. A least-cost lumber grade mix solver is a rough mill decision support system that describes the lumber grade or grade mix needed to minimize raw material or total production cost (raw...

  9. THERMAL DEGRADATION AND MORPHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF FOUR WOOD SPECIES USED IN LUMBER INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Poletto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was characterize four wood waste samples from lumber industry in order to obtain previous information about structure and properties of wood before use it as a biofuel or as reinforcement in composite formulations. The influence of wood components on the thermal degradation stability of different wood species has been investigated using thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. Four wood species, Eucalyptus grandis (EUG, Pinus elliottii (PIE, Dipteryx odorata (DIP and Mezilaurus itauba (ITA, were used in this study. The results showed that higher extractives contents may form a thin film on the wood fiber surface which can accelerate the degradation process and reduce the wood thermal stability

  10. DE 1 and Viking observations associated with electron conical distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menietti, J. D.; Weimer, D. R.; Andre, M.; Eliasson, L.

    1994-01-01

    Data from the electron detectors on board the Swedish Viking satellite launched during a period of low solar activity and from the Dynamic Explorer (DE) 1 satellite launched during active solar coditions have been examined for the occurrence and location of electron conical distributions and several conclusions can be drawn. First, we note that most of the best examples of electron conics observed by the V-3 experiment onboard Viking occurred in the afternoon sector in the range of magneitc local time 14 hours less than Magnetic Local Time (MLT) less than 18 hours, at midaltitudes in the range 10,000 km less than h less than 13,500 km, with few occurring in the nightside auroral region, a region poorly sampled at altitudes greater than 5000 km. For the Viking data there is an association of electron conics with upper hybrid waves. DE 1 observations made by the high-altitude plasma instrument (HAPI) indicate that electron conics were observed in the midmorning sector and the late evening sector, and as has been reported earlier, the correlation with upper hybird waves was good. The HAPI did not sample the afternoon sector. The electon conics observed on both satellites occurred in the presence of at least a modest (several kilovolts) potential difference beneath the satellite with a maximum energy that was usually, but not always, equal to or greater than the maximum energy of the electron conics. Two independent sets of observations by DE 1 suggest two distinct production mechanisms for electron conics. Examiniation of DE 1 electric field measurements from the plasma wave instrument during the observation of electron conics show simultaneous parallel oscillations in the frequency range of 0.2 Hz less than f less than 0.5 Hz during one and perhaps two of four events examined, and upper hybrid waves were observed on all four events. In addition, recent observations of '90-deg' electron conics associated with auroral kilometric radiation source regions suggest a

  11. A Computer Vision System for Automated Grading of Rough Hardwood Lumber Using a Knowledge-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai-Hoon Cho; Richard W. Conners; Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    A sawmill cuts logs into lumber and sells this lumber to secondary remanufacturers. The price a sawmiller can charge for a volume of lumber depends on its grade. For a number of species the price of a given volume of material can double in going from one grade to the next higher grade. Thus, accurately establishing the grade of a volume of hardwood lumber is very...

  12. 76 FR 24479 - In the Matter of the Taylor Lumber and Treating Superfund Site, Sheridan, Oregon, Amendment to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9300-9] In the Matter of the Taylor Lumber and Treating... Taylor Lumber and Treating Site, which PWPO was acquiring, in exchange for several obligations related to...-553- 0705. Comments should reference the Taylor Lumber and Treating Superfund Site in Sheridan, Oregon...

  13. Hardwood lumber widths and grades used by the furniture and cabinet industries: Results of a 14-mill survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; John Brown; Neal Bennett; Everette Rast

    2003-01-01

    Data on red oak lumber width, length, and grade were collected at 14 furniture and cabinet industry rough mills to identify relationships among these lumber attributes and the degree to which they differ from mill to mill. Also, this information is needed to formulate valid lumber size distributions that will improve the quality of theresults obtained in mill and...

  14. Framing Lumber from Building Removal: How do We Best Utilize This Untapped Structural Resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk; Steven Cramer; James Evans

    2013-01-01

    Compared with other construction materials, wood products are environmentally attractive because they sequester carbon, are renewable, and are low in embodied energy. Lumber salvaged from building removal possesses these same qualities but with additional environmental attributes. In spite of the environmental attractiveness of reclaimed lumber, its widespread...

  15. Influence of Product and Supplier Attributes on Hardwood Lumber Purchase Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig L. Forbes; Steven A. Sinclair; Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1994-01-01

    This study determined the influence of product and supplier attributes on hardwood lumber purchases by wood furniture manufacturers and investigated differences across manufacturer type, geographic region, firm size, and kiln ownership. Professional lumber buyers rated the importance and difference across suppliers of various attributes. Purchase influence scores were...

  16. International trade of U.S. hardwood lumber and logs, 1990-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2014-01-01

    United States (U.S.) hardwood log and lumber exports surged in the early- and mid-1970s in response to the adoption of floating exchange rates. However, assessing these changes in international trade became difficult in the 1980s due to increased underreporting of hardwood lumber and log shipments between the U.S. and Canada. By 1990, these data problems were rectified...

  17. Impact of elliptical shaped red oak logs on lumber grade and volume recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick M. Rappold; Brian H. Bond; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Roncs Ese-Etame

    2007-01-01

    This research examined the grade and volume of lumber recovered from red oak logs with elliptical shaped cross sections. The volume and grade of lumber recovered from red oak logs with low (e ≤ 0.3) and high (e ≥ 0.4) degrees of ellipticity was measured at four hardwood sawmills. There was no significant difference (...

  18. The changing structure of the hardwood lumber industry with implications on technology adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Luppold; John Baumgras; John Baumgras

    2000-01-01

    The hardwood sawmilling industry has been changing over the last 50 years as a result of changes in hardwood sawtimber inventory and in the demand for hardwood lumber. In 1950 the industry was composed of numerous individual mills, few of which produced more than 3 million board feet of lumber annually. During this time the furniture industry was the major user of...

  19. The international hardwood lumber market and potential impacts on your bottom line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Luppold; Matthew. Bumgardner

    2014-01-01

    Even if you don't sell logs or lumber to foreign customers, the international hardwood market can impact your business in significant ways, and smart business leaders are taking notice so that they are ready for shifting market impacts. Many people believe that lumber exporting is only an opportunity for larger sawmills. However, even if you have a portable mill...

  20. Tensile and dimensional properties of wood strands made from plantation southern pine lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinglin Wu; Zhiyong Cai; Jong N. Lee

    2005-01-01

    Working stresses and performance of strand composite lumber largely depend upon the properties of each individual strand. Southern pine strands from plantation lumber grown in southern Louisiana were investigated in this study in order to understand strand behaviors. The effects of hot-pressing and resin application on tensile modulus, strength, and dimensional...

  1. Drying hard maple (Acer saccharum L.) lumber in a small dehumidification kiln

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal. Bennett

    2013-01-01

    Portable sawmill owners quickly recognize the advantage to kiln drying lumber they produce. Having the ability to provide properly kiln-dried lumber opens new market opportunities and can increase profit margins. However, the construction and operation of a dry kiln must be economical and simple. A small dehumidification dry kiln constructed and tested in Princeton, WV...

  2. Future photomultiplier assemblies and associated electrons in large experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duteil, P.; Hammarstroem, R.; Innocenti, P.G.; Michelini, A.; Smith, B.; Soso, F.

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of a working group study on reducing costs of proposed counter experiments in high-energy physics where several thousand photomultipliers are involved. Photomultiplier design is briefly discussed and new designs are presented for tube housings and high-voltage supplies. An outline presentation is given of a simplified electronics system, based on the Eurocard, for fast logic, data handling, and associated power supplies, suitable for photomultipliers or wire counters. Substantial savings in cost are shown to be possible without affecting performance but with some loss in convenience. (Auth.)

  3. 76 FR 22751 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... 23, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Maureen T. Pello, Marketing Specialist, Research and... procedure, Advertising, Consumer information, Marketing agreements, Softwood lumber, Promotion, Reporting... Vol. 76 Friday, No. 78 April 22, 2011 Part II Department of Agriculture Agricultural Marketing...

  4. 75 FR 61025 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Information Order; Referendum Procedures AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule..., Washington, DC 20503. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Maureen T. Pello, Marketing Specialist, Research and... procedure, Advertising, Consumer information, Marketing agreements, Softwood Lumber, Promotion, Reporting...

  5. Trends in domestic and international markets for ash logs and lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan. Meyer

    2010-01-01

    While ash is a "minor" commercial hardwood species relative to oak, poplar, and maple, it still accounts for roughly 3 percent of all hardwood lumber produced, with an estimated kiln-dried value exceeding $150 million annually.

  6. Political pressure: An examination of U S Senators actions in restricting Canadian softwood lumber imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Godwin; Daowei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 30 years the U.S.–Canadian softwood lumber trade dispute has resulted in three managed trade agreements that have not been voted on in the U.S. Congress. Nevertheless, U.S. Senators have played an important role in shaping the political environment that has nurtured these agreements. In this paper we construct a lumber influence index based on 14 known...

  7. The effect of power intensity properties of microwave modified oil palm trunk lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzati Ibrahim, Anis; Salim, Nurjannah; Roslan, Rasidi; Ashry Jusoh, Mohammad; Hashim, Rokiah

    2018-04-01

    In the decade, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) in Malaysia is one of the conventional sources that will be rising, and the rate of biomass will considerably increase in yet to come. Presently, oil palm biomass is going through research and development and appears to be the most sustainable alternative. Investigations on oil palm biomass have been conducted to support in draw out waste of oil palm and in the meantime can help economic yield to the country. This study was expected to estimate the effect of power intensity properties of microwave modified oil palm trunk lumber. Microwave treatment of oil palm trunk samples was set of connections by using a microwave operating at 2.45 GHz with the liberated process input power intensity (600-1000W) were studied under the given condition. Impact and compression of the samples were tested. The analysis of properties of the fresh material and dry samples was employed by scanning electron microscopy. Oven drying technique also was involved as a comparison of the conventional drying process in this research. Based on the outcomes of this study, both drying methods improved the characteristics of the specimens.

  8. Martian Dust Devil Electron Avalanche Process and Associated Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Telana L.; Farrell, William M.; Delory, Gregory T.; Nithianandam, Jeyasingh

    2010-01-01

    Mars' dynamic atmosphere displays localized dust devils and larger, global dust storms. Based on terrestrial analog studies, electrostatic modeling, and laboratory work these features will contain large electrostatic fields formed via triboelectric processes. In the low-pressure Martian atmosphere, these fields may create an electron avalanche and collisional plasma due to an increase in electron density driven by the internal electrical forces. To test the hypothesis that an electron avalanche is sustained under these conditions, a self-consistent atmospheric process model is created including electron impact ionization sources and electron losses via dust absorption, electron dissociation attachment, and electron/ion recombination. This new model is called the Dust Devil Electron Avalanche Model (DDEAM). This model solves simultaneously nine continuity equations describing the evolution of the primary gaseous chemical species involved in the electrochemistry. DDEAM monitors the evolution of the electrons and primary gas constituents, including electron/water interactions. We especially focus on electron dynamics and follow the electrons as they evolve in the E field driven collisional gas. When sources and losses are self-consistently included in the electron continuity equation, the electron density grows exponentially with increasing electric field, reaching an equilibrium that forms a sustained time-stable collisional plasma. However, the character of this plasma differs depending upon the assumed growth rate saturation process (chemical saturation versus space charge). DDEAM also shows the possibility of the loss of atmospheric methane as a function of electric field due to electron dissociative attachment of the hydrocarbon. The methane destruction rates are presented and can be included in other larger atmospheric models.

  9. Life cycle inventory of oil palm lumber production: A gate-to-gate case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsudin, Noor Ainna; Sahid, Ismail; Mokhtar, Anis; Muhamad, Halimah; Ahmad, Shamim

    2018-04-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been applied in the Malaysian oil palm industry since 2010. It is important to ensure that this main industry is ready to meet the demands and expectations of European market on the environmental performance of the oil palm industry. In addition, oil palm biomass, especially oil palm trunk (OPT) are abundantly available after replanting every year. In order to maximize the usage of OPT as a green product, it can be converted to palm lumber as a value-added product. Palm lumber act as a basis product from OPT before it is converted to panel product such as plywood, sandwich board and so on. However, the LCA study on palm lumber production is still scarce in Malaysia. Hence, this paper aims to perform and collect the inventory data for palm lumber production, which is known as Life Cycle Inventory (LCI). A gate-to-gate system boundary and the functional unit of 1 m3 of palm lumber produced have been used in this study. This inventory data was collected from three batches of the production cycle. The inputs are mainly the raw materials which are the OPT and the energy from diesel and electricity from the grid. Generally, each consumption of input such as energy and fossil fuel were different at each stage of palm lumber production. Kiln-drying represents a prominent stage in terms of energy consumption, which electrical use in the dryer represents 94% of total electrical grid consumption as compared to another stage of palm lumber production. By adding the inventory information especially in the downstream sector of biomass industry, hopefully it can improve the sustainability of oil palm industry in Malaysia.

  10. The Work Function Associated with Ultra-relativistic Electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The energy required to liberate an electron in the Fermi level is the work function and is ... potential difference will be developed across a thin gap, called the polar gap. This ... The emission of electrons from the polar region of neutron stars is.

  11. Perceived risk and trust associated with purchasing at Electronic Marketplaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meents, Selmar; Tan, Yao-Hua; Verhagen, Tibert

    2006-01-01

    Understanding consumer behaviour is of vital importance to consumer oriented e-business models today. In this paper we study the relationships between consumer perceptions of risk and trust and the attitude towards purchasing at a consumer-to-consumer electronic marketplace. Typical for electronic

  12. Alopecia associated with unexpected leakage from electron cone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, B.C.; Pennington, E.C.; Hussey, D.H.; Jani, S.K.

    1989-06-01

    Excessive irradiation due to unexpected leakage was found on a patient receiving electron beam therapy. The cause of this leakage was analyzed and the amount of leakage was measured for different electron beam energies. The highest leakage occurred with a 6 x 6 cm cone using a 12 MeV electron beam. The leakage dose measured along the side of the cone could be as great as 40%. Until the cones are modified or redesigned, it is advised that all patient setups be carefully reviewed to assure that no significant patient areas are in the side scatter region.

  13. Lumber attributes, characteristics, and species preferences as indicated by secondary wood products firms in the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nicholls; Joseph. Roos

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate selected lumber attributes, species preferences, and lumber use properties among secondary wood manufacturers in the United States. Our sample included producers of kitchen cabinets, furniture, doors, windows, and molded products who attended regional and national wood manufacturing events. More than 51% of respondents had...

  14. Decline in the U.S. furniture industry: a case study of the impacts to the hardwood lumber supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn T. Grushecky; Urs Buehlmann; Al Schuler; William Luppold; Ed Cesa

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, the wood household furniture industry has accounted for a sizeable portion of total hardwood lumber use in the United States. However, for more than a decade, imports have gained an increasing share of the hardwood furniture market, and lumber consumption by this industry has declined dramatically in the last 5 years. We used a case study methodology to...

  15. Influence of Fiber Bundle Morphology on the Mechanical and Bonding Properties of Cotton Stalk and Mulberry Branch Reconstituted Square Lumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of natural fiber composites can be strengthened in the longitudinal direction if the fiber is formed in a parallel manner. Reconstituted cotton stalk lumber and mulberry branch lumber were fabricated using hot-press technology, and the effects of fiber morphology on their mechanical and bonding properties were investigated. The fiber bundle size had a great influence on the mechanical and bonding properties of the final products. The maximum specific modulus of rupture (MOR and specific modulus of elasticity (MOE of the reconstituted lumber were obtained for medium-size fiber bundles, and the maximum MOR and MOE of reconstituted cotton stalk lumber was 130.3 MPa·g-1·cm-3 and 12.9 GPa·g-1·cm-3, respectively. The maximum MOR and MOE of the mulberry branch lumber was 147.2 MPa·g-1·cm-3 and 14.7 GPa·g-1·cm-3, respectively. Mechanical interlocking structures in the lumber were observed via fluorescence microscopy, showing that phenol-formaldehyde adhesive had penetrated into several cell layers of the fiber bundle under heating and pressure. The adhesive penetration capacity was stronger when the fiber bundles were smaller in size and density. The reconstituted lumber fabricated from both materials exhibited excellent mechanical performance in the parallel direction. Therefore, reconstituted cotton stalk and mulberry branch lumber are attractive potential materials for the construction industry.

  16. 75 FR 16748 - Final Voluntary Product Standard; DOC PS 20-10 “American Softwood Lumber Standard”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ...-0146-02] Final Voluntary Product Standard; DOC PS 20-10 ``American Softwood Lumber Standard'' AGENCY... of Standards and Technology (NIST) announces voluntary product standard DOC PS 20-10 ``American Softwood Lumber Standard'' which will supersede DOC PS 20-05. The Standard establishes standard sizes and...

  17. Employment changes in U.S. hardwood lumber consuming industries during economic expansions and contractions since 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matt Bumgardner

    2016-01-01

    Understanding employment trends is important for discerning the economic vitality of U.S. hardwood lumber users. After a period of growth in the 1990s, employment in industries consuming hardwood lumber has declined in the 21st century. The wood household furniture industry has experienced the greatest decline, with North Carolina, Virginia, and California being the...

  18. Factors influencing changes in U.S. hardwood log and lumber exports from 1990 to 2011. BioResources

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2013-01-01

    Domestic consumption of hardwood products in the United States since 2000 has trended downward, making exports the single most important market for higher grade hardwood lumber and a major market for higher value hardwood logs. Between 1990 and 2011, hardwood lumber exports increased by 46%. During most of this period, Canada was the largest export market for U.S....

  19. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report Number 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, H.; Banerjee, S. [Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Conners, T.; Ingram, L.L.; Dalton, A.T.; Templeton, M.C.; Diehl, S.V. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Results from a multi-year study show that a significant part of the extensive variability observed in oriented strand board (OSB) flake dryer emissions can be traced to physiological effects, and the rest can be attributed to handling and other factors. Low-headspace treatment of lumber was scaled up to the 50 kg level. The amount of turpentine collected was of the same magnitude as that released upon drying lumber. For the process to be economical, the wood must first be brought to about 95 C with steam, and then processed with RF. Attempts to remove VOCs from OSB through low-headspace by placing a curtain over the wood failed because of leaks. A more rigid container will be required. RF-treatment does not alter the gas permeability of lumber.

  20. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report Number 9 [January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, H.; Banerjee, S. [Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Conners, T.; Ingram, L.L.; Dalton, A.T.; Templeton, M.C.; Diehl, S.V. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Results from a multi-year study show that a significant part of the extensive variability observed in oriented strand board (OSB) flake dryer emissions can be traced to physiological effects, and the rest can be attributed to handling and other factors. Low-headspace treatment of lumber was scaled up to the 50 kg level. The amount of turpentine collected was of the same magnitude as that released upon drying lumber. For the process to be economical, the wood must first be brought to about 95 C with steam, and then processed with RF. Attempts to remove VOCs from OSB through low-headspace by placing a curtain over the wood failed because of leaks. A more rigid container will be required. RF-treatment does not alter the gas permeability of lumber.

  1. Perceived risk and trust associated with purchasing at electronic marketplaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, T.; Meents, S.; Tan, Y.H.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding consumer behaviour is of vital importance to consumer-oriented e-business models today. In this paper, we study the relationships between consumer perceptions of risk and trust and the attitude towards purchasing at a consumer-to-consumer electronic marketplace (EM). Typical for EM

  2. Coronal Magnetic Field Lines and Electrons Associated with Type III ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P. Kishore

    2017-06-19

    Jun 19, 2017 ... of the electron streams that generate type V bursts, spread in the velocity spectrum, and the curvature of the magnetic field lines along which they travel. Keywords. Sun—corona—magnetic field—flares—radio bursts—polarization. 1. Introduction. Type V bursts are relatively unusual solar radio tran- sients.

  3. Pulsations of Energetic Electron Pulsations In Association With Substorm Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åsnes, A.; Stadsnes, J.; Bjordal, J.; Østgaard, N.; Haaland, S.; Rosenberg, T. J.; Detrick, D. L.

    The Polar Ionospheric X-ray Imaging Experiment (PIXIE) is giving detailed images of the energetic electron precipitation when the POLAR satellite is near perigee over the Antarctica. In this area the PIXIE images have a spatial resolution of the order of 100 km, and a temporal resolution of 10 s can be obtained. In this paper we present the results of a study focusing on the onset and expansion of a substorm occuring on July 24, 1998. In this event we observe strong modulations of the energetic electron precipitation with period around 1 minute following substorm onset. The pulsations were restricted to a narrow magnetic local time sector in the pre-midnight region, about 0.5 hours wide, and showed movement towards higher latitudes and earlier lo- cal times. The event will be discussed in context of measurements from ground sta- tions and satellites in geosynchronous orbit. Precipitation of energetic electrons will be compared with VLF/ELF ground measurements. Features in the energetic elec- tron precipitation will be mapped to the magnetospheric equatorial plane by field line tracing.

  4. College students' electronic victimization in friendships and dating relationships: anticipated distress and associations with risky behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Diana C; Guran, Elyse L; Ramos, Michelle C; Margolin, Gayla

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated college students' reports of electronic victimization in friendships and dating relationships. We examined 22 items representing four categories of electronic victimization: hostility, humiliation, exclusion, and intrusiveness. Nearly all participants (92%) reported some electronic victimization in the past year, with males reporting more victimization and females anticipating more distress. Both females and males anticipated more distress from electronic victimization in dating relationships than friendships. More actual experience with electronic victimization related to lower anticipated distress. Electronic victimization was associated with females' alcohol use, even after controlling for other victimization experiences. Discussion focuses on the contextualized nature of electronic victimization, and on the importance of understanding what makes electronic victimization highly distressing for some individuals.

  5. A Machine Vision System for Automatically Grading Hardwood Lumber - (Industrial Metrology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas T. Drayer; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon

    1992-01-01

    Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that has...

  6. Automated grading, upgrading, and cuttings prediction of surfaced dry hardwood lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang-Mook Lee; Phil Araman; A.Lynn Abbott; Matthew F. Winn

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns the scanning, sawing, and grading of kiln-dried hardwood lumber. A prototype system is described that uses laser sources and a video camera to scan boards. The system automatically detects defects and wane, searches for optimal sawing solutions, and then estimates the grades of the boards that would result. The goal is to derive maximum commercial...

  7. Value loss from weevil-caused defects in eastern white pine lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myron D. Ostrander; Carl H. Stoltenberg

    1957-01-01

    Owners of eastern white pine stands suffer financially in several ways from attacks by the white-pine weevil (Pissodes strobi). Crooks, forks, and other weevil-caused tree-bole deformities increase bucking, logging, and sawing costs, and they reduce recoverable volumes. The injuries also reduce the average value of the lumber recovered. It is only with this reduction...

  8. Decision Criteria for German Hardwood Lumber Buyers: Market Needs and Purchase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas G. Ponzurick; Robert J. Bush; Dieter Schaupp; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a better understanding of hardwood exports to the German market. A mail survey was conducted which resulted in a 47.8 percent rate of response. Of those German hardwood buyers responding to the survey, 71 percent purchased hardwood lumber directly from North America.

  9. A summary of modulus of elasticity and knot size surveys for laminating grades of lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. W. Wolfe; R. C. Moody

    1981-01-01

    A summary of modulus of elasticity (MOE) and knot data is presented for grades of lumber commonly used to manufacture glued-laminated (glulam) timber by the laminating Industry. Tabulated values represent 30 different studies covering a time span of over 16 years. Statistical estimates of average and near-maximum knot sizes as well as mean and coefficient of variation...

  10. Effect of moisture content on strength of CCA-treated lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies on the effects of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treatment on lumber design properties have primarily evaluated the effects of such treatment at or near 12% moisture content and at failure times of 1 to 10 min. The influence of various moisture contents and faster loading rates is unknown. This report discusses the influence of moisture content and its...

  11. Evolution of standardized procedures for adjusting lumber properties for change in moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; James W. Evans

    2001-01-01

    This paper documents the development of procedures in American Society for Testing and Materials standards for adjusting the allowable properties of lumber for changes in moisture content. The paper discusses the historical context of efforts to establish allowable properties on a consensus basis, beginning in the 19th century. Where possible, the reasons for proposed...

  12. 76 FR 22757 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... concrete dominate larger residential and nonresidential projects. Brick, concrete, and vinyl are often used... products like cement and vinyl has also helped to reduce demand for softwood lumber. \\12\\ Price data was... votes would have to be confirmed in writing and recorded in Board minutes. The proposed Order would...

  13. Variations in productivity and performance in grade lumber industries in Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia-1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert P. Dempsey; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1987-01-01

    Sawmill effectiveness is crucial to the growth and development of wood industries among locales, states, regions, and countries. Productivity ratios, structural factors, and other indicators of economic performance were used to measure the relative productive efficiency of the grade hardwood lumber industries in Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Despite...

  14. Environmental impact of manufacturing softwood lumber in northeastern and north central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2010-01-01

    Finding the environmental impact of building materials is becoming increasingly more important because of public environmental awareness. Accurate and precise life-cycle inventory data on wood products are needed to meet this demand. This study examined softwood lumber manufacturing in the northeastern and north central US using life-cycle inventory methods. Material...

  15. Deriving allowable properties of lumber : a practical guide for interpretation of ASTM standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Bendtsen; William L. Galligan

    1978-01-01

    The ASTM standards for establishing clear wood mechanical properties and for deriving structural grades and related allowable properties for visually graded lumber can be confusing and difficult for the uninitiated to interpret. This report provides a practical guide to using these standards for individuals not familiar with their application. Sample stress...

  16. Reducing lumber thickness variation using real-time statistical process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Young; Brian H. Bond; Jan Wiedenbeck

    2002-01-01

    A technology feasibility study for reducing lumber thickness variation was conducted from April 2001 until March 2002 at two sawmills located in the southern U.S. A real-time statistical process control (SPC) system was developed that featured Wonderware human machine interface technology (HMI) with distributed real-time control charts for all sawing centers and...

  17. Identifying and locating surface defects in wood: Part of an automated lumber processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; Charles W. McMillin; Kingyao Lin; Ramon E. Vasquez-Espinosa

    1983-01-01

    Continued increases in the cost of materials and labor make it imperative for furniture manufacturers to control costs by improved yield and increased productivity. This paper describes an Automated Lumber Processing System (ALPS) that employs computer tomography, optical scanning technology, the calculation of an optimum cutting strategy, and 1 computer-driven laser...

  18. Performance of a rigid and a flexible adhesive in lumber joints subjected to moisture content changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. P. Krueger; R. F. Blomquist

    1964-01-01

    Experimental work was undertaken to investigate the extent and magnitude of deterioration that can occur in typical plywood-to-lumber glue joints subjected to stresses resulting from changes in the moisture content of the wood, and to compare the performance of a somewhat flexible or deformable adhesive to that of a rigid adhesive in these joints. Results showed that...

  19. 75 FR 61001 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... lumber is used in products like flooring, siding and framing. The program would be financed by an... whether they favor implementation of the program prior to it going into effect. This rule also announces... Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. It is not intended to have retroactive effect. Section 524 of...

  20. Trends in the US hardwood lumber distribution industry: changing products, customers, and services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Omar Espinoza; Matthew Bumgardner; Bob. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Efficient and effective supply chains are the backbone of any industry, including the forest products industry. As the US secondary hardwood industry has undergone a profound transformation and large parts of the industry have moved offshore, the supply chain is adapting to these new realities. Remaining and new customers of US hardwood lumber distributors tend to be...

  1. Stress wave techniques for determining quality of dimensional lumber from switch ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. C. Schad; D. E. Kretschmann; K. A. McDonald; R. J. Ross; D. W. Green

    1995-01-01

    Researchers at the Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, have been studying nondestructive techniques for evaluating the strength of wood. This report describes the results of a pilot study on using these techniques to determine the quality of large dimensional lumber cut from switch ties. First, pulse echo and dynamic (transverse vibration) techniques were...

  2. The water footprint of wood for lumber, pulp, paper, fuel and firewood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schyns, Joseph Franciscus; Booij, Martijn J.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    This paper presents the first estimate of global water use in the forestry sector related to roundwood production for lumber, pulp, paper, fuel and firewood. For the period 1961-2010, we estimate forest evaporation at a high spatial resolution level and attribute total water consumption to various

  3. Lumber recovery from small-diameter ponderosa pine from Flagstaff, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eini C. Lowell; David W. Green

    2001-01-01

    Thousands of acres of densely stocked ponderosa pine forests surround Flagstaff, AZ. These stands are at high risk of fire, insect, and disease outbreak. Stand density management activity can be expensive, but product recovery from the thinned material could help defray removal costs. This project evaluated the yield and economic return of lumber recovered from small-...

  4. 19 CFR 12.140 - Entry of softwood lumber products from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry of softwood lumber products from Canada. 12... products from Canada. The requirements set forth in this section are applicable for as long as the Softwood... and Canada, remains in effect. (a) Definitions. The following definitions apply for purposes of this...

  5. Environmental impact of producing hardwood lumber using life-cycle inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; S.A. Bowe

    2007-01-01

    Using sustainable building materials is gaining a significant presence in the United States therefore proving sustainability claims are becoming increasingly more important. Showing wood products as green building materials is vital for the long-term productivity of the wood building industry. This study examined hardwood lumber manufacturing using Life-Cycle Inventory...

  6. Harem: Hardwood lumber remanufacturing program for maxmizing value based on size, grade and current market prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.J. Schwehm; P. Klinkhachorn; Charles W. McMillin; Henry A. Huber

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an expert system computer program which will determine the optimum way to edge and trim a hardwood board so as to yield the highest dollar value based on the grade, size of each board, and current market prices. The program uses the Automated Hardwood Lumber Grading Program written by Klinkhachorn, et al. for determining the grade of each board...

  7. Moisture meter calibrations for untreated and ACQ-treated southern yellow pine lumber and plywood

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.R. Boardman; Samuel V. Glass; Charles G. Carll

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ) preservative treatment and of plywood glue lines on resistance-based moisture content (MC) measurements. Moisture meter readings using stainless steel screws as electrodes were acquired over a range of moisture conditions in Southern Yellow Pine (SYP) lumber and plywood. Calibration equations are...

  8. Relationships between Loblolly Pine small clear specimens and Dimension Lumber Tested in Static Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Alexander Butler; Joseph Dahlen; Finto Antony; Michael Kane; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Huizhe Jin; Kim Love-Myers; John Paul McTague

    2016-01-01

    Prior to the 1980s, the allowable stresses for lumber in North America were derived from testing of small clear specimens. However, the procedures were changed because these models were found to be inaccurate. Nevertheless, small clear testing continues to be used around the world for allowable stress determinations and in studies that examine forest management impacts...

  9. How clustering dynamics influence lumber utilization patterns in the Amish-based furniture industry in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew S. Bumgardner; Gary W. Graham; P. Charles Goebel; Robert L. Romig

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary studies have suggested that the Amish-based furniture and related products manufacturing cluster located in and around Holmes County, Ohio, uses sizeable quantities of hardwood lumber. The number of firms within the cluster has grown even as the broader domestic furniture manufacturing sector has contracted. The present study was undertaken in 2008 (spring/...

  10. The economic benefits of sorting SPF lumber to be kiln-dried on the basis of initial moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, S.; Johnson, G.

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic benefits of sorting green lumber into moisture content classes before kiln-drying. Laser moisture sensing technology was implemented in the sawmill for sorting purposes. The grade outturn and energy savings resulting from shortened drying times were examined. The final moisture content distribution resulting from moisture sorting did not show overdrying or underdrying. Based on grade outturn, the benefits were as much as $15.94 per thousand board feet (MBF) for 2 by 4 by 16 lumber and $19.66 per MBF for 2 by 6 by 16 lumber; energy savings were $1.88 per thousand board feet

  11. Plasma behavior during energetic electron streaming events: Further evidence for substorm-associated magnetic reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieber, J.W.; Stone, E.C.; Hones, E.W. Jr.; Baker, D.N.; Bame, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    A recent study showed that streaming energetic (>200 keV) electrons in Earth's magnetotail are statistically associated with southward magnetic fields and with enhancements of the AE index. It is shown here that the streaming electrons characteristically are preceded by aapprox.15 minute period of tailward plasma flow and followed by a dropout of the plasma sheet, thus demonstrating a clear statistical association between substorms and the classical signatures of magnetic reconnection and plasmoid formation. Additionally, a brief upward surge of mean electron energy preceded plasma dropout in several of the events studied, providing direct evidence of localized, reconnection-associated heating processes

  12. The Association between Electronic Bullying and School Absenteeism among High School Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinshteyn, Erin; Yang, Y. T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We examined the relationship between exposure to electronic bullying and absenteeism as a result of being afraid. Methods: This multivariate, multinomial regression analysis of the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey data assessed the association between experiencing electronic bullying in the past year and how often students were absent…

  13. 49 CFR 393.118 - What are the rules for securing dressed lumber or similar building products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... plywood, gypsum board or other materials of similar shape. Lumber or building products which are not... the middle tier that must be secured may not exceed 6 feet about the deck of the trailer; or (ii...

  14. Peculiarities of laser phase behavior associated with the accelerated electron in a chirped laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Q.; Wu, X. Y.; Wang, J. X.; Kawata, S.; Wang, P. X.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we qualitatively analyzed peculiarities of laser phase behavior associated with the accelerated electron in a chirped laser pulse. We unveiled the relationship between the changes in the orientation of the electron trajectory and the cusps in magnitude of the phase velocity of the optical field along the electron trajectory in a chirped laser pulse. We also explained how the chirp effect induced the singular point of the phase velocity. Finally, we discussed the phase velocity and phase witnessed by the electron in the particle's moving instantaneous frame

  15. To Make Long Character-Marked Cuttings From Low-Grade Yellow-Poplar Lumber - Rip First

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman

    1979-01-01

    Long, character-marked furniture cuttings are easily obtained when low-grade (2A and 2B Common) yellow-poplar lumber is first ripped into strips and then crosscut to remove objectionable defects. Overall yields of character-marked material using this procedure were 78% from 1 Common and 2A Common and 70% from 2B Common yellow-poplar lumber. Furthermore, 82% of the 1...

  16. Streaming energetic electrons in earth's magnetotail - Evidence for substorm-associated magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, J. W.; Stone, E. C.

    1980-01-01

    This letter reports the results of a systematic study of streaming greater than 200 keV electrons observed in the magnetotail with the Caltech Electron/Isotope Spectrometers aboard IMP-7 and IMP-8. A clear statistical association of streaming events with southward magnetic fields, often of steep inclination, and with substorms as evidenced by the AE index is demonstrated. These results support the interpretation that streaming energetic electrons are indicative of substorm-associated magnetic reconnection in the near-earth plasma sheet.

  17. Interfacial Adhesion and Damping Characteristics of Laminated Veneer Lumber Intercalated with Rubber Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingquan Han

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Laminated wood veneer lumber intercalated with rubber sheets (LLVR was fabricated using a layered adhesive system composed of polyaryl polymethylene isocyanate (PAPI for wood-rubber inter-bonding and phenol formaldehyde (PF resin to glue the wood veneers. The optimized manufacturing process (chloroprene rubber: CR; PAPI: 80 g/m2; PF: 200 g/m2; and silane: 9.0 wt.% was determined. The process as developed was then utilized to fabricate nine-ply LLVRs of five balanced constructions with two or three CR laminates used as various layers. The physico-mechanical properties of the LLVRs were evaluated, and the results showed that LLVRs had strong shear strength, sound dimensional stability, decent bending strength, and favorable toughening and buffering performances. The newly developed product is an interesting potential alternative to traditional laminated veneer lumber or plywood.

  18. The Association Between Electronic Bullying and School Absenteeism Among High School Students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinshteyn, Erin; Yang, Y T

    2017-02-01

    We examined the relationship between exposure to electronic bullying and absenteeism as a result of being afraid. This multivariate, multinomial regression analysis of the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey data assessed the association between experiencing electronic bullying in the past year and how often students were absent in the last month due to feeling unsafe at/in transit to school. The model controlled for other predictors of school absence including demographics, physical/behavioral health, and risk factors. Missing data were multiply imputed. Electronic bullying was significantly associated with absences. Controlling for model covariates, the relative risk of missing 1 day of school was 1.77 times higher, the relative risk of missing 2 to 3 days of school per month increased by a factor of 2.08, and the relative risk of missing 4 or more days of school per month increased by a factor of 1.77 for those who experienced electronic bullying in the past year compared with those who were not electronically bullied. Electronic bullying's association with absenteeism places it among already recognized negative influences such as depression and binge drinking, necessitating schools to implement policies to mediate the resulting harmful effects. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  19. Parametrication of numerical simulation of drying process in atypicall condenzation lumber kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Zejda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deal with modelling of the process of drying, air flow, temperature and moisture distribution in a condensation lumber kiln. This model was made and solved in the computing system ANSYS with the use of the finite element method. There are comparationes of the 2D and 3D models, shape of wood stacks and variability of their parameters (height, width, length, cross section in the work. The flow velocity and orientation, pressure and temperature field were observed.

  20. Flexural properties of laminated veneer lumber manufactured from ultrasonically rated red maple veneer : a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; Brian K. Brashaw; Steven A. Verhey; John W. Forsman; John R. Erickson

    2003-01-01

    The study described in this report was conducted to examine the flexural properties of laminated veneer lumber (LVL) manufactured from red maple veneer. Ultrasonically rated veneer, which was peeled from low value red maple saw-logs, was fabricated into 1/2-in.-(1.3-cm-) and 2-in.-(5-cm-) thick LVL billets. The flexural properties of the billets and of corresponding...

  1. Posterior Decompression, Lumber Interbody Fusion and Internal Fixation in the Treatment of Upper Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONG Zhan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the clinical outcomes of posterior decompression, interbody fusion and internal fixationfor the treatment of the upper lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. Methods: Twelve patients with the upper lumbar intervertebral disc herniation were treated by posterior decompression, interbosy fusion and internal fixation. The time of the operation, the amount of bleeding and the clinical efficacy were evaluated. Results: The time of operation was (143±36 min and the amount of bleeding during operation was (331.5±47.9 mL. There was no spinal cord and injuries, nerve injury, epidural damage and leakage of cerebrospinal fluid. All patients were followed up for 10~19 months with the average being 12.6 months. The functional scoring of Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA before the operation was (11.4±3.3 scores and final score after follow-up was (22.9±3.1 scores and there were statistical difference (P<0.01. Lumber interbody fusion of all patients completed successfully and the good rate after the operation was 91.7%. Conclusion: Posterior decompression, interbody fusion and internal fixation for the treatment of the upper lumbar intervertebral disc herniation was characterized by full exposure, safety and significant efficacy.

  2. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3063 When must I comply if my air curtain...

  3. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What...

  4. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3067 How must I monitor opacity for...

  5. Anisotropic correlated electron model associated with the Temperley-Lieb algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, Angela; Links, Jon; Roditi, Itzhak

    1997-12-01

    We present and anisotropic correlated electron model on a periodic lattice, constructed from an R-matrix associated with the Temperley-Lieb algebra. By modification of the coupling of the first and last sites we obtain a model with quantum algebra invariance. (author)

  6. Interplanetary magnetic field orientations associated with bidirectional electron heat fluxes detected at ISEE 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stansberry, J.A.; Gosling, J.T.; Thomsen, M.F.; Bame, S.J.; Smith, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    A statistical survey of interplanetary magnetic field orientations associated with bidirectional electron heat fluxes observed at ISEE 3 in orbit about the Sunward Lagrange point indicates that magnetic connection of the spacecraft to the Earth's bow shock was frequently the source of the bidirectionality. When the interplanetary magnetic field was oriented within 5 0 of the Earth-spacecraft line, backstreaming electrons from the bow shock were clearly observed approximately 18% of the time, and connections apparently occurred for angles as large as ∼30 0 --35 0 . copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  7. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  8. Frequent electronic media communication with friends is associated with higher adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gommans, Rob; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Finne, Emily; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Boniel-Nissim, Meyran; ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the unique associations between electronic media communication (EMC) with friends and adolescent substance use (tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis), over and beyond the associations of face-to-face (FTF) interactions with friends and the average level of classroom substance use. Drawn from the cross-national 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in The Netherlands, 5,642 Dutch adolescents (Mage = 14.29) reported on their substance use, EMC, and FTF interactions. Two-level multilevel analyses (participants nested within classrooms) were run. Electronic media communication was positively associated with adolescent substance use, though significantly more strongly with alcohol (β = 0.15, SEβ = 0.02) than with tobacco (β = 0.05, SEβ = 0.02, t (5,180) = 3.33, p Electronic media communication was uniquely associated with substance use, predominantly with alcohol use. Thus, adolescents' EMC and other online behaviors should not be left unnoticed in substance use research and prevention programs.

  9. Identifying risk factors for healthcare-associated infections from electronic medical record home address data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenman Marc B

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Residential address is a common element in patient electronic medical records. Guidelines from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention specify that residence in a nursing home, skilled nursing facility, or hospice within a year prior to a positive culture date is among the criteria for differentiating healthcare-acquired from community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections. Residential addresses may be useful for identifying patients residing in healthcare-associated settings, but methods for categorizing residence type based on electronic medical records have not been widely documented. The aim of this study was to develop a process to assist in differentiating healthcare-associated from community-associated MRSA infections by analyzing patient addresses to determine if residence reported at the time of positive culture was associated with a healthcare facility or other institutional location. Results We identified 1,232 of the patients (8.24% of the sample with positive cultures as probable cases of healthcare-associated MRSA based on residential addresses contained in electronic medical records. Combining manual review with linking to institutional address databases improved geocoding rates from 11,870 records (79.37% to 12,549 records (83.91%. Standardization of patient home address through geocoding increased the number of matches to institutional facilities from 545 (3.64% to 1,379 (9.22%. Conclusions Linking patient home address data from electronic medical records to institutional residential databases provides useful information for epidemiologic researchers, infection control practitioners, and clinicians. This information, coupled with other clinical and laboratory data, can be used to inform differentiation of healthcare-acquired from community-acquired infections. The process presented should be extensible with little or no added data costs.

  10. Ulf waves in the auroral zone ionosphere and associated electron precipitation variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petelski, E.F.; Fahleson, U.; Shawhan, S.D.

    1977-12-01

    On four rocket flights, ULF electric fields were observed in the nighttime auroral oval and in the polar cleft. They had periods between 0.5 and 3 sec, amplitudes from 2 to 30 mV/m, and exhibited left- and right-hand elliptical polarization. Intensifications of these fields often coincided with bursts of energetic electron precipitation which were on occasion modulated with nearly the same period as the fields. The events in the auroral oval were associated with substorms and visual auroral activity. The spectral and polarization properties of the ULF fields suggest that they represented the electric components of Pcl or Pil micropulsations. To model these waves and the concurrent electron flux variations, different mechanisms for wave excitation, electron acceleration, and wave-particle interaction are considered. One likely interpretation attributes the micropulsations to Birkeland current chopping by an unstable double layer located at approximately equal to 1 R(sub)E altitude. It is suggested that the double layer also accelerates the observed electrons, the electron flux variations being due either to the intrinsic variations of the double layer or to its interaction with the micropulsations. Due to the sparcity of parameters measured so far, the models are provisional. A follow-up experiment is proposed to further investigate the problem. (author)

  11. Association between Emotional Symptoms and Job Demands in an Asian Electronics Factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Lieh; Guo, Yue Leon; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Jui; Chu, Po-Ching

    2017-09-19

    Various work-related issues including mental health have been described for the electronic industry. Although East Asian countries play important roles in the electronics industry, the association between job demands and emotional symptoms has been rarely examined. The present study recruited 603 workers from either office or clean room environments in an electronics factory in Taiwan. Their personal factors, work-related factors, and emotional symptoms were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. The symptoms of depression and hostility were reported in 24.88% and 24.38% of the subjects, respectively, while 14.93% reported both. A multivariate analysis showed that, overall, women workers were more likely to have emotional symptoms than male workers (odds ration (OR) = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.02-2.18). Among clean room workers, working under high pressure (OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.05-3.21), conflicting demands (OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.30-3.57), and social isolation at work (OR = 2.99, 95% CI = 1.23-7.30) were associated with emotional symptoms. The findings suggest that in the Asian electronics industry, for women, working under high pressure, conflicting demands, and social isolation at work are risk factors for emotional symptoms, especially for clean room workers. Further large-scale, longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm and prevent the mental health problems in this fast-evolving, highly competitive industry.

  12. Study of luminous emissions associated to electron emissions in radiofrequency cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maissa, S.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates luminous emissions simultaneously to electron emissions and examines their features in order to better understand the field electron emission phenomenon. A RF cavity, operating at room temperature and in pulsed mode, joined to a sophisticated experimental apparatus has been especially developed. The electron and luminous emissions are investigated on cleaned or with metallic, graphitic and dielectric particles contaminated RF surfaces in order to study their influence on these phenomena. During the surface processing, unstable luminous spots glowing during one RF pulse are detected. Their apparition is promoted in the vicinity of the metallic particles or scratches. Two hypotheses could explain their origin: the presence of micro-plasmas associated to electronic explosive emission during processing or the thermal radiation of the melted metal during this emission. Stable luminous spots glowing during several RF pulses are also detected and appear to increase on RF surfaces contaminated with dielectric particles, leading to strong and explosive luminous emissions. Two interpretations are considered: the initiation of surface breakdowns on the dielectric particles or the heating by the RF field at temperatures sufficiently intense to provoke their thermal radiation then their explosion. Finally a superconducting cavity has been adapted to observe luminous spots, which differ from the former ones bu their star shape and could be associated to micro-plasmas, revealed by the starbursts observed on superconducting cavity walls. (author)

  13. Optical-electronic shape recognition system based on synergetic associative memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Bao, Jie; Chen, Dingguo; Yang, Youqing; Yang, Xuedong

    2001-04-01

    This paper presents a novel optical-electronic shape recognition system based on synergetic associative memory. Our shape recognition system is composed of two parts: the first one is feature extraction system; the second is synergetic pattern recognition system. Hough transform is proposed for feature extraction of unrecognized object, with the effects of reducing dimensions and filtering for object distortion and noise, synergetic neural network is proposed for realizing associative memory in order to eliminate spurious states. Then we adopt an approach of optical- electronic realization to our system that can satisfy the demands of real time, high speed and parallelism. In order to realize fast algorithm, we replace the dynamic evolution circuit with adjudge circuit according to the relationship between attention parameters and order parameters, then implement the recognition of some simple images and its validity is proved.

  14. Introduction of electronic referral from community associated with more timely review by secondary services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, J; White, S; Day, K J; Gu, Y; Pollock, M

    2011-01-01

    Electronic referral (eReferral) from community into public secondary healthcare services was introduced to 30 referring general medical practices and 28 hospital based services in late 2007. To measure the extent of uptake of eReferral and its association with changes in referral processing. Analysis of transactional data from the eReferral message service and the patient information management system of the affected hospital; interview of clinical, operational and management stakeholders. eReferral use rose steadily to 1000 transactions per month in 2008, thereafter showing moderate growth to 1200 per month in 2010. Rate of eReferral from the community in 2010 is estimated at 56% of total referrals to the hospital from general practice, and as 71% of referrals from those having done at least one referral electronically. Referral latency from letter date to hospital triage improves significantly from 2007 to 2009 (psystem usability issues. With eReferrals, a referral's status can be checked, and its content read, by any authorized user at any time. The period of eReferral uptake was associated with significant speed-up in referral processing without changes in staffing levels. The eReferral system provides a foundation for further innovation in the community-secondary interface, such as electronic decision support and shared care planning systems. We observed substantial rapid voluntary uptake of eReferrals associated with faster, more reliable and more transparent referral processing.

  15. Discovering disease associations by integrating electronic clinical data and medical literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony B Holmes

    Full Text Available Electronic health record (EHR systems offer an exceptional opportunity for studying many diseases and their associated medical conditions within a population. The increasing number of clinical record entries that have become available electronically provides access to rich, large sets of patients' longitudinal medical information. By integrating and comparing relations found in the EHRs with those already reported in the literature, we are able to verify existing and to identify rare or novel associations. Of particular interest is the identification of rare disease co-morbidities, where the small numbers of diagnosed patients make robust statistical analysis difficult. Here, we introduce ADAMS, an Application for Discovering Disease Associations using Multiple Sources, which contains various statistical and language processing operations. We apply ADAMS to the New York-Presbyterian Hospital's EHR to combine the information from the relational diagnosis tables and textual discharge summaries with those from PubMed and Wikipedia in order to investigate the co-morbidities of the rare diseases Kaposi sarcoma, toxoplasmosis, and Kawasaki disease. In addition to finding well-known characteristics of diseases, ADAMS can identify rare or previously unreported associations. In particular, we report a statistically significant association between Kawasaki disease and diagnosis of autistic disorder.

  16. The organizational implications of smokeless tobacco use in the lumber mill industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, S I; Dent, C W; Sussman, S; Stoddard, J L; Severson, H H

    1996-01-01

    Although much is known about the characteristics of employees who smoke cigarettes, very little is known about workers who use smokeless tobacco. The current study was designed to understand the characteristics of smokeless tobacco users in relation to their performance at work and compare them with smokers and former tobacco users. Data were collected via interviews and questionnaires from a random sample of employees working at Pacific Lumber Company (N = 146), the largest single-site lumber mill in California. A total of 63 smokeless tobacco users (21 of whom also smoked cigarettes), 43 cigarette smokers, and 40 employees who had successfully quit using tobacco (34 of whom previously used cigarettes only) provided information about their health behavior, quality of work life, and performance at work. Analyses revealed that smokeless tobacco users reported less healthful sleep patterns, drank alcohol more often, were intoxicated more often, reported less job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and reported that both chewers and smokers do not work as hard and take more breaks than do tobacco-free employees (quitters). Specific differences among chewers-only, smokers-only, smokers-and-chewers, and quitters are presented. Results suggest the organizational value of developing worksite cessation programs for smokeless tobacco users.

  17. Relativistic Electrons Observed at UARS and the Interpretation of their Storm-Associated Intensity Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.; Chenette, D. L.; Gaines, E. E.

    1999-01-01

    The High Energy Particle Spectrometer (HEPS) instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) provides a database of electron intensities well resolved in energy and pitch-angle. Because of its 57 deg. orbital inclination, UARS encounters with magnetic shells L greater than 2 occur quite far off-equator (B/B (sub 0) greater than 9), corresponding to equatorial pitch angle alpha (sub 0) greater than 20 deg. Data acquired by HEPS (October 1991 through September 1994) span the declining phase of Solar Cycle 22. To reveal the storm-associated time dependence of relativistic electron intensities over the wide range of energies (50 keV to 5 MeV) covered by HEPS, we divide the daily average of the measured spectrum at a given L value (bin width = 0.25) by the corresponding 500-day average and plot the results with a color scale that spans only 2.5 decades. The data show that our off-equatorial electron intensities typically increase with time after the end of recovery phase (not during main phase or recovery phase) of each geomagnetic storm. The delay in off-equatorial energetic electron response and the subsequent lifetime of the corresponding electron flux enhancement seem to increase with particle energy above 300 keV. The trend below 300 keV seems to be opposite, such that the delay varies inversely with electron energy. Our working hypothesis for interpretation is that stormtime radial transport tends to increase the phase-space densities of trapped relativistic electrons but typically leads to a flux increases at specified energies only as the current (as indicated by Dst) decays. Flux enhancements in early recovery phase are greatest for equatorially mirroring electrons, and to pitch-angle anisotropies are initially large. Subsequent pitch-angle diffusion broadens the flux enhancement to particles that mirror off equator, thus gradually increasing low-altitude electron intensities (as detected by HEPS/UARS) on time scales equal to about 20% of

  18. Are associations between electronic media use and BMI different across levels of physical activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melkevik, Ole; Haug, Ellen; Rasmussen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    and girls who did not comply with physical activity guidelines. Among physically active adolescents, EM was found to be significantly associated with BMI or odds for overweight among girls, but not among boys. CONCLUSION: While the usage of EM appear to be inconsequential for BMI and the risk of overweight...... among physically active boys, we find evidence indicating that EM use is associated with BMI and risk for overweight among girls, including those who report complying with MVPA guidelines.......BACKGROUND: The use of electronic media has been found to be a risk factor for higher BMI and for being overweight. Physical activity has been found to be associated with lower BMI and lower risk for being overweight. Little is known about whether the associations between physical activity...

  19. South Carolina Shipyards: Labour, Logistics, Lumber and Ladies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lynn

    2010-10-01

    Southern shipyards, like Hobcaw and Mars Bluff, were established at locations chosen primarily for convenient access to transportation networks, building materials, clientele and labour. The historical record reveals a home front role played by local plantation owners and slaves as shipyard labour. Women served as project fundraisers, shipyard dilettantes, shipwright’s wives and possibly slave mistresses with a paucity of material culture to confirm their presence in the archaeological record. Archaeological investigations on land and underwater yield evidence of artefacts associated with diet, shipbuilding, warfare and ethnicity.

  20. Ionospheric Electron Heating Associated With Pulsating Auroras: Joint Optical and PFISR Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun; Donovan, E.; Reimer, A.; Hampton, D.; Zou, S.; Varney, R.

    2018-05-01

    In a recent study, Liang et al. (2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JA024127) repeatedly identified strong electron temperature (Te) enhancements when Swarm satellites traversed pulsating auroral patches. In this study, we use joint optical and Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) observations to further investigate the F region plasma signatures related to pulsating auroras. On 19 March 2015 night, which contained multiple intervals of pulsating auroral activities, we identify a statistical trend, albeit not a one-to-one correspondence, of strong Te enhancements ( 500-1000 K) in the upper F region ionosphere during the passages of pulsating auroras over PFISR. On the other hand, there is no discernible and repeatable density enhancement in the upper F region during pulsating auroral intervals. Collocated optical and NOAA satellite observations suggest that the pulsating auroras are composed of energetic electron precipitation with characteristic energy >10 keV, which is inefficient in electron heating in the upper F region. Based upon PFISR observations and simulations from Liang et al. (2017) model, we propose that thermal conduction from the topside ionosphere, which is heated by precipitating low-energy electrons, offers the most likely explanation for the observed electron heating in the upper F region associated with pulsating auroras. Such a heating mechanism is similar to that underlying the "stable auroral red arcs" in the subauroral ionosphere. Our proposal conforms to the notion on the coexistence of an enhanced cold plasma population and the energetic electron precipitation, in magnetospheric flux tubes threading the pulsating auroral patch. In addition, we find a trend of enhanced ion upflows during pulsating auroral intervals.

  1. Domestic market opportunities for Alaska lumber-species preferences by secondary wood products manufacturers in the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Roos; David L. Nicholls

    2006-01-01

    New equipment, technology, and marketing efforts have allowed Alaska’s wood products producers to consider opportunities previously unavailable to them. Until recently, the primary product produced by Alaska firms was rough, unseasoned lumber sold primarily within local markets. Given the purchase and installation of new drying and planing equipment, Alaska producers...

  2. Life Cycle Primary Energy and Carbon Analysis of Recovering Softwood Framing Lumber and Hardwood Flooring for Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Hongmei Gu; Thomas R. Napier; James Salazar; Robert H. Falk

    2012-01-01

    Recovering wood for reuse in a new house affects energy and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper finds the energy and emissions for recovering softwood framing lumber and hardwood flooring from an old house for installation in a new house. Recovering wood displaces primary production of new wood products and avoids the end-of-life (EOL) burdens for the old house. We...

  3. Form and toxicity of copper released into marine systems from conventionally and nano-sized copper treated lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fate and effects of pristine engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in simplified systems have been widely studied; however, little is known about the potential release and impact of ENMs from consumer goods, especially lumber that has been treated with micronized copper. Micronized...

  4. Method for linking a media work to perform an action, involves linking an electronic media work with a reference electronic media work identifier associated with a reference electronic media work using an approximate neighbor search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    A computer-implemented method including the steps of: receiving, by a computer system including at least one computer, a media work uploaded from a first electronic device; receiving, by the computer system from a second electronic device, a tag associated with the media work having a media work...... identifier; storing, by the computer system, the media work identifier and the associated tag; obtaining, by the computer system from a third electronic device, a query related to the associated tag; correlating, by the computer system, the query with associated information related to an action...... to be performed; and providing, from the computer system to the third electronic device, the associated information to be used in performing the action....

  5. Diagnosing low earth orbit satellite anomalies using NOAA-15 electron data associated with geomagnetic perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nizam; Herdiwijaya, Dhani; Djamaluddin, Thomas; Usui, Hideyuki; Miyake, Yohei

    2018-05-01

    A satellite placed in space is constantly affected by the space environment, resulting in various impacts from temporary faults to permanent failures depending on factors such as satellite orbit, solar and geomagnetic activities, satellite local time, and satellite construction material. Anomaly events commonly occur during periods of high geomagnetic activity that also trigger plasma variation in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. In this study, we diagnosed anomalies in LEO satellites using electron data from the Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-15 satellite. In addition, we analyzed the fluctuation of electron flux in association with geomagnetic disturbances 3 days before and after the anomaly day. We selected 20 LEO anomaly cases registered in the Satellite News Digest database for the years 2000-2008. Satellite local time, an important parameter for anomaly diagnosis, was determined using propagated two-line element data in the SGP4 simplified general perturbation model to calculate the longitude of the ascending node of the satellite through the position and velocity vectors. The results showed that the majority of LEO satellite anomalies are linked to low-energy electron fluxes of 30-100 keV and magnetic perturbations that had a higher correlation coefficient ( 90%) on the day of the anomaly. The mean local time calculation for the anomaly day with respect to the nighttime migration of energetic electrons revealed that the majority of anomalies (65%) occurred on the night side of Earth during the dusk-to-dawn sector of magnetic local time.

  6. Geosynchronous Relativistic Electron Events Associated with High-Speed Solar Wind Streams in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungeun Lee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent enhancements of relativistic electron events at geosynchronous orbit (GREEs were observed in 2006. These GREE enhancements were associated with high-speed solar wind streams coming from the same coronal hole. For the first six months of 2006, the occurrence of GREEs has 27 day periodicity and the GREEs were enhanced with various flux levels. Several factors have been studied to be related to GREEs: (1 High speed stream, (2 Pc5 ULF wave activity, (3 Southward IMF Bz, (4 substorm occurrence, (5 Whistler mode chorus wave, and (6 Dynamic pressure. In this paper, we have examined the effectiveness about those parameters in selected periods.

  7. Satisfaction with electronic health records is associated with job satisfaction among primary care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine D Jones

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the association between electronic health record (EHR satisfaction and job satisfaction in primary care physicians (PCPs.Method Cross-sectional survey of PCPs at 825 primary care practices in North Carolina.Results Surveys were returned from 283 individuals across 214 practices (26% response rate for practices, of whom 122 were physicians with EHRs and no missing information. We found that for each point increase in EHR satisfaction, job satisfaction increased by ~0.36 points both in an unadjusted and an adjusted model (β 0.359 unadjusted, 0.361 adjusted; p < 0.001 for both models.Conclusion We found that EHR satisfaction was associated with job satisfaction in a cross-sectional survey of PCPs. Our conclusions are limited by suboptimum survey response rate, but if confirmed may have substantial implications for how EHR vendors develop their product to support the needs of PCPs.

  8. Thick-target Pixe analysis of chromium, copper and arsenic impregnated lumber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarela, K-E.; Harju, L.; Lill, J-O.; Rajander, J.; Lindroos, A.; Heselius, S-J.

    1999-01-01

    Chromium, copper and arsenic (CCA) have for decades been used for wood preservation. Of these elements especially arsenic is very toxic. As CCA impregnated wood is still today used for many construction purposes, a monitoring of these metal ions is of great environmental importance. Thick-target PIXE is a powerful method for the determination of trace metals in wood. The TTPIXE method enabled study of variations of the elemental concentrations in lumber treated with CCA impregnation solution. Distribution patterns were obtained for both naturally occurring elements and elements introduced in the treatment process. During the impregnation process a desorption of e.g. alkali metal ions takes place from the wood. The sensitivity of the method is improved by dry ashing of the samples prior to PIXE analysis. The TTPIXE method was calibrated and validated using international certified reference materials (CRM) based on wood material

  9. Design of pedestrian truss bridge with Sengon-Rubber laminated veneer lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbudiman, B.; Pranata, Y. A.; Pangestu, L.

    2017-12-01

    Timber bridges are one of the bridge that has long been used, but nowadays, large dimension of sawn timber has limited supply and also it is not environmental-friendly. Laminated veneer lumber (LVL) is a engineered wood that becomes one of the promising alternative, because it is made from lower quality wood that processed to be used as a more quality one. The bridge planned to be a pedestrian truss bridge with length of 9 m, width of 3 m, height of 2.5 m, and using bolt and steel plate as its connection system. Mechanical properties of LVL obtained directly from laboratory test result. Bridge modeling and planning for wood construction refers to SNI 7973:2013, while the loading refers to SNI 1725:2016. Based on the modelling and calculation, the dimension of truss frame and girder beam which are 9 cm x 9 cm and 9 cm x 18 cm have adequate strengths and satisfy deflection requirement.

  10. Outbreaks of health care-associated influenza-like illness in France: Impact of electronic notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier-Marion, Elodie; Bénet, Thomas; Dananché, Cédric; Soing-Altach, Sophan; Maugat, Sylvie; Vaux, Sophie; Vanhems, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Mandatory notification of health care-associated (HA) infections, including influenza-like illness (ILI) outbreaks, has been implemented in France since 2001. In 2012, the system moved to online electronic notification of HA infections (e-SIN). The objectives of this study are to describe ILI outbreak notifications to Santé publique France (SPF), the French national public health agency, and to evaluate the impact of notification dematerialization. All notifications of HA ILI outbreaks between July 2001 and June 2015 were included. Notifications before and after e-SIN implementation were compared regarding notification delay and information exhaustiveness. Overall, 506 HA ILI outbreaks were reported, accounting for 7,861 patients and health care professionals. Median delay between occurrence of the first case and notification was, respectively, 32 and 13 days before and after e-SIN utilization (P < .001). Information exhaustiveness was improved by electronic notification regarding HA status (8.5% of missing data before and 2.3% after e-SIN, P = .003), hypotheses of cause (25.4% of missing data before vs 8.0% after e-SIN, P < .001), and level of event control (23.7% of missing data before vs 7.5% after e-SIN, P < .001). HA influenza notifications, including HA ILI or influenza, to health authorities are essential to guide decisional instances and health care practices. Electronic notifications have improved the timeliness and quality of information transmitted. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Japan Home-health Apparatus Industrial Association: investigation of home-use electronic sphygmomanometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, O; Terada, H; Niwano, K; Nakanishi, T; Kanai, M; Miyawaki, Y; Souma, T; Tanaka, T; Kusunoki, T

    2001-12-01

    The Japanese Home-health Apparatus Industrial Association is an official independent organization comprising ten departments. That concerned with home electronic sphygmomanometers, which has seven participants from different Japanese manufacturers, has already undertaken and is currently involved in various activities related to voluntary standards for performance validation and quality assurance. Because Japanese companies form a large proportion of manufacturers, these activities are important in terms of autonomic regulation. Although many improvements have been made to home electronic sphygmomanometers, some problems still remain unresolved, especially in terms of measurement reliability and easy operation by lay people. Another aspect of the department's work relates to making proposals on major validation standards, such as those of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, the British Hypertension Society and Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN). Clinical validation should be discussed in order to define a more accurate standard method of measurement using auscultation and more appropriate criteria that are unaffected by primary blood pressure variation.

  12. Electronic cigarette use and its association with smoking in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Ho, Sai Yin; Leung, Lok Tung; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are increasingly used in adolescents with unknown impacts on conventional cigarette smoking. We examined the associations of e-cigarette use with smoking intention, nicotine addiction and smoking cessation in Chinese adolescents. A total of 45,128 students (age 14.6 ± 1.9; boys 51.4%) from 75 randomly selected schools in Hong Kong reported e-cigarette use (in the past 30 days), conventional cigarette use and socio-demographic characteristics in an anonymous questionnaire survey. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of intention to smoke, morning smoking urge, intention to quit and quit attempts; and beta-coefficient (β) of cigarette consumption per day were calculated in relation to e-cigarette use. E-cigarette use was associated with intention to smoke with an AOR (95% CI) of 1.74 (1.30-2.31) in all students, 2.18 (1.12-4.23) in never and 2.79 (2.05-3.79) in ever smokers (non-significant interaction by smoking status). The associations were also significant in experimental and former smokers but not in current smokers. In current smokers, e-cigarette use was significantly associated with heavier smoking (β 2.54, 95% CI 1.28-3.81) and morning smoking urge (AOR 2.54, 95% CI 1.50-3.11), and non-significantly associated with lower quit intention (0.76, 0.52-1.09) and attempts (0.80, 0.56-1.23). E-cigarette use was associated with smoking intention in never, experimental and former smokers in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. In current smokers, e-cigarette use was associated with nicotine addiction but not quit intention and attempts. Prospective studies with detailed measurements on e-cigarette use are warranted for further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Upper extremities musculoskeletal disorders: Prevalence and associated ergonomic factors in an electronic assembly factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somthus Pullopdissakul

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:To determine the magnitude, distribution and associated ergonomic factors of upper extremities musculoskeletal disorders (UEMSD among workers of electronic assembly in Thailand. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. 591 of 853 workers in an electronic and electrical appliance assembly factory in Bangkok, Thailand, participated in this study. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of demographic data and ergonomic factors was collected from October 2010 to January 2011. Clinical examination of each worker was performed by an occupational physician. The criteria for diagnosis of UEMSD came as a result of a consensus reached by a group of orthopedists. The associated factors were analyzed using a multiple logistic regression. Results: The point prevalence of clinically diagnosed UEMSD was as follows: radial styloid tenosynovitis - 13.03% (95% CI: 10.31-15.75, trigger finger - 9.48% (95% CI: 7.11-11.84, carpal tunnel syndrome - 8.12% (95% CI: 5.91-10.33, lateral epicondylitis - 3.38% (95% CI: 1.92-4.85, and medial epicondylitis - 1.69% (95% CI: 0.65-2.73, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio with statistical significance associated with UEMSD was as follows: high force of wrist - 1.78 (95% CI: 1.06-2.99, awkward posture of wrist - 2.37 (95% CI: 1.28-4.37 and contact stress at wrists - 1.75 (95% CI: 1.02-3.00 to develop radial styloid tenosynovitis. For trigger finger, the ratios were awkward posture of fingers - 2.09 (95% CI: 1.12-3.90 and contact stress on finger - 1.86 (95% CI: 1.04-3.34. For medial epicondylitis, it was an awkward posture of using elbows - 3.14 (95% CI: 1.10-8.95. However, this study did not find any associations between repetitive motion and any UEMSD. Conclusions: UEMSD are most commonly found in electronic assembly workers. The relevant parties should provide comprehensive ergonomic resolution for these workers.

  14. Association between electronic cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among US young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Blair N; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Ambrose, Bridget K; Green, Kerry M; Choiniere, Conrad J; Bunnell, Rebecca; King, Brian A

    2015-02-01

    Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), is increasing. One concern is the appeal of these products to youth and young adults and the potential to influence perceptions and use of conventional cigarettes. Using data from the 2012-2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, characteristics of adults aged 18-29 years who had never established cigarette smoking behavior were examined by ever use of e-cigarettes, demographics, and ever use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, cigars, hookah, and cigarettes). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among young adults, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or in the next year. Among young adults who had never established cigarette smoking behavior (unweighted n = 4,310), 7.9% reported having ever tried e-cigarettes, and 14.6% of those who reported having ever tried e-cigarettes also reported current use of the product. Ever e-cigarette use was associated with being open to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.3), as was being male, aged 18-24 years, less educated, and having ever used hookah or experimented with conventional cigarettes. Ever use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products was associated with being open to cigarette smoking. This study does not allow us to assess the directionality of this association, so future longitudinal research is needed to illuminate tobacco use behaviors over time as well as provide additional insight on the relationship between ENDS use and conventional cigarette use among young adult populations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Association Between Electronic Cigarette Use and Openness to Cigarette Smoking Among US Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Green, Kerry M.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Bunnell, Rebecca; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), is increasing. One concern is the appeal of these products to youth and young adults and the potential to influence perceptions and use of conventional cigarettes. Methods: Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, characteristics of adults aged 18–29 years who had never established cigarette smoking behavior were examined by ever use of e-cigarettes, demographics, and ever use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, cigars, hookah, and cigarettes). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among young adults, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or in the next year. Results: Among young adults who had never established cigarette smoking behavior (unweighted n = 4,310), 7.9% reported having ever tried e-cigarettes, and 14.6% of those who reported having ever tried e-cigarettes also reported current use of the product. Ever e-cigarette use was associated with being open to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.3), as was being male, aged 18–24 years, less educated, and having ever used hookah or experimented with conventional cigarettes. Conclusions: Ever use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products was associated with being open to cigarette smoking. This study does not allow us to assess the directionality of this association, so future longitudinal research is needed to illuminate tobacco use behaviors over time as well as provide additional insight on the relationship between ENDS use and conventional cigarette use among young adult populations. PMID:25378683

  16. [Associated factors to availability and use of electronic media in children from preschool to 4th grade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Diana Marina; Orozco, Luis Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The increased availability of electronic media has changed the behavior in children and young people by encouraging sedentary lifestile, with health effects from a very young age. To characterize the availability and use of electronic media and its associated factors in children from preschool through 4 th grade. A cross-sectional study with cluster sampling was carried out. Parents filled out the demographic survey, the availability and use of electronic media at home and in the child´s room. Log-binomial regression models were applied to estimate prevalence ratios adjusted for the sampling. Seven hundred and ten parents answered. The average age of the children was 6.7 years and 49.7% were male. Factors such as the mother working out of the house and family income were positively associated with the availability of electronic media at home and in the child´s room. The availability of a TV, computer and console in the child´s room, contributes to longer use of these electronic media. Both, the male gender and age of the child, were positively associated with the availability and use of electronic media. This is the first study in Colombia that reports the availability and use of electronic media in children. It is clear that modern life encourages sedentary behavior from the earliest years of life, which has been associated with health problems from early childhood. Intervention studies are needed aimed at reducing these behaviors in our context.

  17. Characteristics of Hospitals Associated with Complete and Partial Implementation of Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhounsule, Prajakta; Peterson, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    (1) To determine the proportion of hospitals with and without implementation of electronic health records (EHRs). (2) To examine characteristics of hospitals that report implementation of EHRs partially or completely versus those that report no implementation. (3) To identify hospital characteristics associated with nonimplementation to help devise future policy initiatives. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study using the 2012 American Hospital Association Annual Survey Database. The outcome variable was the implementation of EHRs completely or partially. Independent variables were hospital characteristics, such as staffing, organization structure, accreditations, ownership, and services and facilities provided at the hospitals. Descriptive frequencies were determined, and multinomial logistic regression was used to determine variables independently associated with complete or partial implementation of EHRs. In this study, 12.6 percent of hospitals reported no implementation of EHRs, while 43.9 percent of hospitals implemented EHRs partially and 43.5 percent implemented EHRs completely. Overall characteristics of hospitals with complete and partial implementation were similar. The multinomial regression model revealed a positive association between the number of licensed beds and complete implementation of EHRs. A positive association was found between children's general medical, surgical, and heart hospitals and complete implementation of EHRs. Conversely, psychiatric and rehabilitation hospitals, limited service hospitals, hospitals participating in a network, service hospitals, government nonfederal hospitals, and nongovernment not-for-profit hospitals showed less likelihood of complete implementation of EHRs. Study findings suggest a disparity of EHR implementation between larger, for-profit hospitals and smaller, not-for-profit hospitals. Low rates of implementation were observed with psychiatric and rehabilitation hospitals. EHR policy initiatives

  18. A processing architecture for associative short-term memory in electronic noses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioggia, G.; Ferro, M.; Di Francesco, F.; DeRossi, D.

    2006-11-01

    Electronic nose (e-nose) architectures usually consist of several modules that process various tasks such as control, data acquisition, data filtering, feature selection and pattern analysis. Heterogeneous techniques derived from chemometrics, neural networks, and fuzzy rules used to implement such tasks may lead to issues concerning module interconnection and cooperation. Moreover, a new learning phase is mandatory once new measurements have been added to the dataset, thus causing changes in the previously derived model. Consequently, if a loss in the previous learning occurs (catastrophic interference), real-time applications of e-noses are limited. To overcome these problems this paper presents an architecture for dynamic and efficient management of multi-transducer data processing techniques and for saving an associative short-term memory of the previously learned model. The architecture implements an artificial model of a hippocampus-based working memory, enabling the system to be ready for real-time applications. Starting from the base models available in the architecture core, dedicated models for neurons, maps and connections were tailored to an artificial olfactory system devoted to analysing olive oil. In order to verify the ability of the processing architecture in associative and short-term memory, a paired-associate learning test was applied. The avoidance of catastrophic interference was observed.

  19. Adolescent Electronic Cigarette Use: Associations With Conventional Cigarette and Hookah Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Tracey E; Soule, Eric K; Forrest, Jamie R; Porter, Lauren; Tomar, Scott L

    2015-08-01

    The emerging trends and rapid growth of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adolescents are being monitored closely. The trends are critical as policy to prevent uptake among adolescents is considered. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of e-cigarette use and potential correlates for use. Associations between e-cigarettes, cigarettes, and hookah are assessed. This study used data from the 2013 Florida Youth Tobacco Survey. Prevalence estimates were calculated in 2014 and differences were determined based on CIs. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to identify correlates of e-cigarette use among participants based on demographic and other tobacco products used. There were no sex differences in middle school, whereas male high school students reported higher use than their female counterparts. Cigarette smoking and hookah use were significantly associated with ever and current e-cigarette use among both middle and high school students. Although e-cigarettes are being assessed as a potential replacement product for traditional tobacco, evidence from this study indicates the possibility of multiple product use among adolescents. E-cigarettes are not only associated with traditional cigarettes, but also with hookahs, a similar emerging product that offer tobacco flavors that may appeal to adolescents. Notably, many e-cigarette users also reported no cigarette or hookah use. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Electron beam injection and associated phenomena as observed in a large space simulation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beghin, C.; Arnal, Y.; Delahaye, J.Y.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter describes an experiment whose main purpose was to perform a simulation under conditions where the ambient neutral and ionized gas, magnetic field strength and lay-out of the different packages were as close as possible to those anticipated for the First Spacelab Flight (FSLP) mission. Phenomena Induced by Charged Particle Beams (PICPAB) are planned to be investigated during the FSLP using a Euopean payload. The PICPAB experiment consists of two accelerators of electron and ion beams and associated diagnostic instruments including wave receivers, thermal plasma probes and return current particle energy-analyzers. The main results of the test with the electron beam are reported. Topics considered include the experimental configuration; a transverse dc electric field in the absence of background plasma; a transverse dc electric field in the background plasma; ambient plasma response; a high-frequency electric field; return current characteristics; and collector vs. plasma behavior. The complexity of the beam-plasma-collector-gun system is shown where nonlinear processes are generated in several consecutive steps. It is concluded that under the peculiar conditions described (with the beam propagation distance shorter than the first node focalization length and nearly zero pitch-angle injection, neutral gas pressure ranging from less to 10 -6 up to 10 -4 torr), the beam plasma discharge was never triggered

  1. Associated Electron-Muon Events from High-Energy Hadronic Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaag, Robert Emil

    The inclusive reaction p + N (--->) e + (mu) + X was measured at an energy of 38.8 GeV (center of mass). Data representing a total luminosity of 13.4 inverse femtobarns (13.4 x 10('39) cm('-2)) were analyzed. Three associated electron-muon events were observed. The observed signal was 0.02 (+OR-) 0.015 of the Drell-Yan di-muon production. The expected number of e(mu) events from tau lepton pair production and decay was calculated to be 0.5 (+OR-) 0.1. A two sigma upper limit for (lepton family number violating) two body resonant decays to e + (mu) was obtained (produc- tion of ) D + (')D (--->) e + K (--->) e + (mu) interpretation of these candidate events was consistent with the lower limit on charm production obtained with the prompt e(mu) rate.

  2. The effect of curve sawing two-sided cants from small diameter hardwood sawlogs on lumber and pallet part yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Hamner; Marshall S. White; Philip A. Araman

    2006-01-01

    Curve sawing is a primary log breakdown process that incorporates gang-saw technology to allow two-sided cants from logs with sweep to be cut parallel to the log surface or log axis. Since curve-sawn logs with sweep are cut along the grain, the potential for producing high quality straight-grain lumber and cants increases, and strength, stiffness, and dimensional...

  3. Comparison of two kiln-drying schedules for turkish hazel ( Corylus colurna ) lumber of 5-cm thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Korkut, Süleyman; As, Nusret; Büyüksari, Ümit

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: Turkish hazel (Corylus colurna) lumber with a nominal thickness of 5 cm from the Kastamonu region, Turkey, was dried through conventional kiln drying using two different programs, a non-protective drying schedule and a protective drying schedule. The goal of the study was to obtain a kiln schedule that would maintain wood quality and also save drying time until a final moisture content of 8 ± 2% was reached. The intensity of warping (twisting, bowing, cupping, crooking), superficial...

  4. Using a standing-tree acoustic tool to identify forest stands for the production of mechanically-graded lumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Normand; Auty, David; Carter, Peter; Achim, Alexis

    2013-03-12

    This study investigates how the use of a Hitman ST300 acoustic sensor can help identify the best forest stands to be used as supply sources for the production of Machine Stress-Rated (MSR) lumber. Using two piezoelectric sensors, the ST300 measures the velocity of a mechanical wave induced in a standing tree. Measurements were made on 333 black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) trees from the North Shore region, Quebec (Canada) selected across a range of locations and along a chronosequence of elapsed time since the last fire (TSF). Logs were cut from a subsample of 39 trees, and sawn into 77 pieces of 38 mm × 89 mm cross-section before undergoing mechanical testing according to ASTM standard D-4761. A linear regression model was developed to predict the static modulus of elasticity of lumber using tree acoustic velocity and stem diameter at 1.3 m above ground level (R2 = 0.41). Results suggest that, at a regional level, 92% of the black spruce trees meet the requirements of MSR grade 1650Fb-1.5E, whilst 64% and 34% meet the 2100Fb-1.8E and 2400Fb-2.0E, respectively. Mature stands with a TSF < 150 years had 11 and 18% more boards in the latter two categories, respectively, and therefore represented the best supply source for MSR lumber.

  5. Associations of attitudes towards electronic cigarettes with advertisement exposure and social determinants: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, Benjamin; Fischbein, Rebecca; Bhamidipalli, Surya Sruthi; Bryant, Jennifer; Kenne, Deric R

    2017-01-01

    The exposure of young adults to electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) advertisements has risen rapidly. E-cigarette ads have been shown to increase short term perceived acceptability of using e-cigarettes in places where traditional cigarettes are banned. We set out to investigate if advertising exposure was related to perceptions of harm, addictiveness, and acceptability of use of e-cigarettes in places where traditional cigarettes are banned. Using a cross-sectional design, 6037 students at a large Midwestern university between the ages of 18-24 were surveyed about e-cigarette use and smoking status. Bivariate analyses were performed associating perception of harm, addictiveness, and acceptability of e-cigarette use in places where smoking is banned with demographic and other background factors, and e-cigarette advertising exposure through different media channels. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the relationship of these factors on perceptions of harm, addictiveness and acceptability of e-cigarette use in places where smoking is banned. More than a quarter (27.4%) of respondents had used an e-cigarette, greater than half (53.2%) had seen an advertisement on TV and 42.0% had seen an advertisement on the Internet. Logistic regressions revealed that being white, male, an e-cigarette user, a smoker, having a mother who smoked, and Internet advertisement exposure were associated with lower perceived harm of e-cigarettes. The same factors, plus having seen advertisements on TV, were associated with increased likelihood of perceiving e-cigarette use in bars, stores, at work and in a dorm as acceptable. Perceiving use of e-cigarettes as acceptable in classrooms was also associated with the aforementioned factors and also included race. Only being male and an e-cigarette user were associated with lower perceived addictiveness of e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is increasing in adolescents and young adults, as is exposure to e-cigarette advertising

  6. Quantitative study of substorm-associated VLF phase anomalies and precipitating energetic electrons on November 13, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, T.; Evans, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    The phase anomalies associated with substorms are observed on VLF signals propagating on transauroral paths (transmitters at OMEGA-ALDRA (13.6 kHz), GBR (16.0 kHz), and OMEGA--NORTH DAKOTA (13.6 kHz)) which were continually received at Inubo, Japan, during the events on November 13, 1979. Detailed comparisons are made between these phase anomalies and geomagnetic bays, and quantitative relations are obtained with precipitating energetic electrons (E>30, E>100, and E>300 keV) detected on board the TIROS-N and NOAA 6 satellites. It is concluded that two types of VLF phase anomalies exist which, in turn, are associated with two phases in the history of energetic electron precipitation into the atmosphere. The first type of phase anomaly is associated with direct injection of energetic electrons into the outer magnetosphere and atmosphere which, in turn, is completely correlated in time with development of the auroral electrojet current system. The second type arises from energetic electrons which subsequently precipitate from a trapped electron population and has a delayed onset and prolonged duration. An excellent quantitative correlation is obtained between the logarithm of the electron flux and the magnitude of the phase anomaly on the OMEGA-ALDRA signal. From the local time characteristics of this quantitative relation it is deduced that the electrons with E>300 keV are the main source of D region ionization responsible for the VLF phase anomaly

  7. Raman scattering and associated fast electron production. Final technical report, April 16, 1984-April 15, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, R.D.; Pietrzyk, Z.A.

    1985-08-01

    High energy electrons in plasmas have been attributed to various causes including trapping by electron plasma waves created by stimulated Raman scattering. A theory, consistent with experimental results, based on the acceleration of trapped electrons by such electron plasma waves as they propagate in the presence of a density gradient away from the region where they are created is presented. Single particle simulations show accelerating voltages as high as 20 GV/m

  8. Merging Electronic Health Record Data and Genomics for Cardiovascular Research: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jennifer L; Ryan, John J; Bray, Bruce E; Brown, Candice; Lanfear, David; Newby, L Kristin; Relling, Mary V; Risch, Neil J; Roden, Dan M; Shaw, Stanley Y; Tcheng, James E; Tenenbaum, Jessica; Wang, Thomas N; Weintraub, William S

    2016-04-01

    The process of scientific discovery is rapidly evolving. The funding climate has influenced a favorable shift in scientific discovery toward the use of existing resources such as the electronic health record. The electronic health record enables long-term outlooks on human health and disease, in conjunction with multidimensional phenotypes that include laboratory data, images, vital signs, and other clinical information. Initial work has confirmed the utility of the electronic health record for understanding mechanisms and patterns of variability in disease susceptibility, disease evolution, and drug responses. The addition of biobanks and genomic data to the information contained in the electronic health record has been demonstrated. The purpose of this statement is to discuss the current challenges in and the potential for merging electronic health record data and genomics for cardiovascular research. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Electron tomography of HIV-1 infection in gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladinsky, Mark S; Kieffer, Collin; Olson, Gregory; Deruaz, Maud; Vrbanac, Vladimir; Tager, Andrew M; Kwon, Douglas S; Bjorkman, Pamela J

    2014-01-01

    Critical aspects of HIV-1 infection occur in mucosal tissues, particularly in the gut, which contains large numbers of HIV-1 target cells that are depleted early in infection. We used electron tomography (ET) to image HIV-1 in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of HIV-1-infected humanized mice, the first three-dimensional ultrastructural examination of HIV-1 infection in vivo. Human immune cells were successfully engrafted in the mice, and following infection with HIV-1, human T cells were reduced in GALT. Virions were found by ET at all stages of egress, including budding immature virions and free mature and immature viruses. Immuno-electron microscopy verified the virions were HIV-1 and showed CD4 sequestration in the endoplasmic reticulum of infected cells. Observation of HIV-1 in infected GALT tissue revealed that most HIV-1-infected cells, identified by immunolabeling and/or the presence of budding virions, were localized to intestinal crypts with pools of free virions concentrated in spaces between cells. Fewer infected cells were found in mucosal regions and the lamina propria. The preservation quality of reconstructed tissue volumes allowed details of budding virions, including structures interpreted as host-encoded scission machinery, to be resolved. Although HIV-1 virions released from infected cultured cells have been described as exclusively mature, we found pools of both immature and mature free virions within infected tissue. The pools could be classified as containing either mostly mature or mostly immature particles, and analyses of their proximities to the cell of origin supported a model of semi-synchronous waves of virion release. In addition to HIV-1 transmission by pools of free virus, we found evidence of transmission via virological synapses. Three-dimensional EM imaging of an active infection within tissue revealed important differences between cultured cell and tissue infection models and furthered the ultrastructural understanding of

  10. Electron tomography of HIV-1 infection in gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S Ladinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical aspects of HIV-1 infection occur in mucosal tissues, particularly in the gut, which contains large numbers of HIV-1 target cells that are depleted early in infection. We used electron tomography (ET to image HIV-1 in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT of HIV-1-infected humanized mice, the first three-dimensional ultrastructural examination of HIV-1 infection in vivo. Human immune cells were successfully engrafted in the mice, and following infection with HIV-1, human T cells were reduced in GALT. Virions were found by ET at all stages of egress, including budding immature virions and free mature and immature viruses. Immuno-electron microscopy verified the virions were HIV-1 and showed CD4 sequestration in the endoplasmic reticulum of infected cells. Observation of HIV-1 in infected GALT tissue revealed that most HIV-1-infected cells, identified by immunolabeling and/or the presence of budding virions, were localized to intestinal crypts with pools of free virions concentrated in spaces between cells. Fewer infected cells were found in mucosal regions and the lamina propria. The preservation quality of reconstructed tissue volumes allowed details of budding virions, including structures interpreted as host-encoded scission machinery, to be resolved. Although HIV-1 virions released from infected cultured cells have been described as exclusively mature, we found pools of both immature and mature free virions within infected tissue. The pools could be classified as containing either mostly mature or mostly immature particles, and analyses of their proximities to the cell of origin supported a model of semi-synchronous waves of virion release. In addition to HIV-1 transmission by pools of free virus, we found evidence of transmission via virological synapses. Three-dimensional EM imaging of an active infection within tissue revealed important differences between cultured cell and tissue infection models and furthered the ultrastructural

  11. Association between electronic equipment in the bedroom and sedentary lifestyle, physical activity, and body mass index of children

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Matsudo, Victor; Fisberg, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the association between electronic devices in the bedroom with sedentary time and physical activity, both assessed by accelerometry, in addition to body mass index in children from São Caetano do Sul. Methods: The sample consisted of 441 children. The presence of electronic equipment (television, personal computer, and videogames) in the bedroom was assessed by a questionnaire. For seven consecutive days, children used an accelerometer to objectively monitor the sede...

  12. Production of hot electrons in mirror systems associated with ECR heating with longitudinal input of microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhil'tsov, V.A.; Skovoroda, A.A.; Timofeev, A.V.; Kharitonov, K.Yu.; Shcherbakov, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    Almost all experiments on ECR plasma heating are accompanied by the formation of hot electrons (i.e., electrons with energy substantially greater than the average of the bulk population). In mirror systems these electrons may determine the basic energy content (β) of the plasma. In this paper, results are presented from experimental measurements of the hot electron population resulting from ECR heating of the plasma in OGRA-4. A theoretical model is developed which describes the hot electron dynamics and the propagation of electromagnetic oscillations in the plasma self-consistently. The results obtained with this model are in agreement with experimental data

  13. Environmental market factors associated with electronic health record adoption among cancer hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, Will L; Menachemi, Nir

    2017-02-22

    Although recent literature has explored the relationship between various environmental market characteristics and the adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) among general, acute care hospitals, no such research currently exists for specialty hospitals, including those providing cancer care. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between market characteristics and the adoption of EHRs among Commission on Cancer (CoC)-accredited hospitals. Secondary data on EHR adoption combined with hospital and environmental market characteristics were analyzed using logistic regression. Using the resource dependence theory, we examined how measures of munificence, complexity, and dynamism are related to the adoption of EHRs among CoC-accredited hospitals and, separately, hospitals not CoC-accredited. In a sample of 2,670 hospitals, 141 (0.05%) were academic-based CoC-accredited hospitals and 562 (21%) were community-based CoC-accredited hospitals. Measures of munificence such as cancer incidence rates (OR = 0.99, CI [0.99, 1.00], p = .020) and percentage population aged 65+ (OR = 0.99, CI [0.99, 1.00], p = .001) were negatively associated with basic EHR adoption, whereas urban location was positively associated with comprehensive EHR adoption (OR = 3.07, CI [0.89, 10.61], p = .076) for community-based CoC-accredited hospitals. Measures of complexity such as hospitals in areas with less competition were less likely to adopt a basic EHR (OR = 0.33, CI [0.19, 0.96], p = .005), whereas Medicare Managed Care penetration was positively associated with comprehensive EHR adoption (OR = 1.02, CI [1.00, 1.05], p = .070) among community-based CoC-accredited hospitals. Lastly, dynamism, measured as population change, was negatively associated with the adoption of comprehensive EHRs (OR = 0.99, CI [0.99, 1.00], p = .070) among academic-based CoC-accredited hospitals. A greater understanding of the environment's relationship to health information technology adoption in

  14. Mechanical properties of rubberwood oriented strand lumber (OSL: The effect of strand length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhnnum Kyokong

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of strand length on mechanical properties (tension, compression and bending of oriented strand lumber (OSL made of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. was reported. Three strand lengths of 50 mm, 100 mm, and 150 mm with 1 mm thickness and 15 mm width were used. The strands were mixed with 5% pMDI glue (weight basis in a tumble mixer. The OSL specimens were formed by hot pressing process of unidirectionally aligned strands. Average specific gravity and moisture content were 0.76 and 8.34%, respectively. Tension and compression tests were carried out for directions both parallel and perpendicular to grain while bending test was performed only in parallel direction. Ultimate stresses and moduli of elasticity were examined from the stress-strain curves. It was found that for the parallel-to-grain direction, the longer strand OSL gave higher strength. The role of the strand length did not appear for the direction normal to the grain. The relationship between the mechanical properties of OSL and strand length was well described by the modified Hankinson formula.

  15. Production of laminated veneer lumber LVL using veneer of Schizolobium amazonicum, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the quality of laminated veneer lumber - LVL manufactured with veneers of Schizolobium amazonicum (paricá, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda. The LVL panels were manufactured in the laboratory conditions composed by seven veneers, 2,0 mm thickness, with different structural compositions, using phenol-formaldehyde resin. The veneers of Schizolobium amazonicum- paricá- were pre-classified by using stress wave machine. The veneers of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda were disposed in the face layer to reinforce the structural strength of LVL panels. The LVL quality was evaluated using glue line shear strength and static bending test (MOE and MOR, edge and flat. Grading of paricá veneers based on MOEd did not affected significantly the results of the glue line shear strength and MOE and MOR edge. For the MOE and MOR flat, the use of veneers of MOEd grade 1 contributed significantly to increasing the average values of these properties. In the same way, using the Eucalyptus saligna veneers on the face of LVL resulted in higher average values of MOE and MOR, edge and flat.

  16. The water footprint of wood for lumber, pulp, paper, fuel and firewood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyns, Joep F.; Booij, Martijn J.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the first estimate of global water use in the forestry sector related to roundwood production for lumber, pulp, paper, fuel and firewood. For the period 1961-2010, we estimate forest evaporation at a high spatial resolution level and attribute total water consumption to various forest products, including ecosystem services. Global water consumption for roundwood production increased by 25% over 50 years to 961 × 109 m3/y (96% green; 4% blue) in 2001-2010. The water footprint per m3 of wood is significantly smaller in (sub)tropical forests compared to temperate/boreal forests, because (sub)tropical forests host relatively more value next to wood production in the form of other ecosystem services. In terms of economic water productivity and energy yield from bio-ethanol per unit of water, roundwood is rather comparable with major food, feed and energy crops. Recycling of wood products could effectively reduce the water footprint of the forestry sector, thereby leaving more water available for the generation of other ecosystem services. Intensification of wood production can only reduce the water footprint per unit of wood if the additional wood value per ha outweighs the loss of value of other ecosystem services, which is often not the case in (sub)tropical forests. The results of this study contribute to a more complete picture of the human appropriation of water, thus feeding the debate on water for food or feed versus energy and wood.

  17. Ownership of consumer electronics is associated with measures of adiposity during health transition in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cheng; Pomer, Alysa; Dancause, Kelsey N; Chan, Chim W; Olszowy, Kathryn M; Silverman, Harold; Lee, Gwang; Tarivonda, Len; Taleo, George; Regenvanu, Ralph; Kaneko, Akira; Weitz, Charles A; Garruto, Ralph M; Lum, J Koji

    2017-03-01

    The Republic of Vanuatu, like many developing nations, is undergoing a rapid health transition. Our previous study identified several behavioral risk factors for the rising prevalence of obesity. Unexpectedly, daily time spent using television and radio was revealed as a protective factor for obesity in 2007. In this study, we sought to explore associations between ownership of consumer electronics (CE) and measures of adiposity in Vanuatu in 2011. We surveyed 873 adults from five islands varying in level of economic development. Height, weight, and waist circumferences; triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac skinfolds; and percent body fat by bioelectrical impedance were measured. Ownership of eight types of CE, diet through 24-h dietary recall and leisure-time activity patterns were assessed using a questionnaire. Participants from more developed islands owned more types of CE, and revealed higher measures of adiposity on average as well as higher prevalence of obesity/central obesity. When controlling for demographic factors, and dietary and activity patterns, increased measures of adiposity and risk for obesity/central obesity were associated with ownership of cellphones, music players, televisions, video players, microwaves, and/or refrigerators. Positive correlations between CE ownership and measures of adiposity were mainly observed among men on the two most developed islands. The results of this study indicate a possible role of CE use in the rising prevalence of obesity and the shift to a sedentary lifestyle in Vanuatu and many other modernizing regions, where prevention efforts including education on healthy use of CE are imperative. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Dissolution chemistry and biocompatibility of single-crystalline silicon nanomembranes and associated materials for transient electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Suk-Won; Park, Gayoung; Edwards, Chris; Corbin, Elise A; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Cheng, Huanyu; Song, Jun-Kyul; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Yu, Sooyoun; Ng, Joanne; Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Jiyoung; Yee, Cassian; Bhaduri, Basanta; Su, Yewang; Omennetto, Fiorenzo G; Huang, Yonggang; Bashir, Rashid; Goddard, Lynford; Popescu, Gabriel; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Rogers, John A

    2014-06-24

    Single-crystalline silicon nanomembranes (Si NMs) represent a critically important class of material for high-performance forms of electronics that are capable of complete, controlled dissolution when immersed in water and/or biofluids, sometimes referred to as a type of "transient" electronics. The results reported here include the kinetics of hydrolysis of Si NMs in biofluids and various aqueous solutions through a range of relevant pH values, ionic concentrations and temperatures, and dependence on dopant types and concentrations. In vitro and in vivo investigations of Si NMs and other transient electronic materials demonstrate biocompatibility and bioresorption, thereby suggesting potential for envisioned applications in active, biodegradable electronic implants.

  19. Associations of Electronic Cigarette Nicotine Concentration With Subsequent Cigarette Smoking and Vaping Levels in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenson, Nicholas I; Leventhal, Adam M; Stone, Matthew D; McConnell, Rob S; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L

    2017-12-01

    Research indicates that electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use (vaping) among adolescents is associated with the initiation and progression of combustible cigarette smoking. The reasons for this association are unknown. To evaluate whether use of e-cigarettes with higher nicotine concentrations is associated with subsequent increases in the frequency and intensity of combustible cigarette smoking and vaping. In this prospective cohort study involving students from 10 high schools in the Los Angeles, California, metropolitan area, surveys were administered during 10th grade in the spring (baseline) and 11th grade in the fall (6-month follow-up) of 2015 to students who reported using e-cigarettes within the past 30 days and the nicotine concentration level they used at baseline. Self-report of baseline e-cigarette nicotine concentration of none (0 mg/mL), low (1-5 mg/mL), medium (6-17 mg/mL), or high (≥18 mg/mL) typically used during the past 30 days. Frequency of combustible cigarette smoking and e-cigarette use within the past 30 days (0 days [none], 1-2 days [infrequent], or ≥3 days [frequent]) and daily intensity of smoking and vaping (number of cigarettes smoked per day, number of vaping episodes per day, and number of puffs per vaping episode) at the 6-month follow-up. The analytic sample included 181 students (96 boys [53.0%] and 85 girls [47.0%]; mean [SD] age, 16.1 [0.4] years). Each successive increase in nicotine concentration (none to low, low to medium, and medium to high) vaped was associated with a 2.26 (95% CI, 1.28-3.98) increase in the odds of frequent (vs no) smoking and a 1.65 (95% CI, 1.09-2.51) increase in the odds of frequent (vs no) vaping at follow-up after adjustment for baseline frequency of smoking and vaping and other relevant covariates. Use of e-cigarettes with high (vs no) nicotine concentration was associated with a greater number of cigarettes smoked per day at follow-up (adjusted rate ratio [RR], 7.03; 95% CI, 6.11-7.95). An

  20. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Wenqing [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Chen, Yaowen [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Gairong [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Luo, Jiayi [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Wu, Kusheng, E-mail: kswu@stu.edu.cn [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. Methods: A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Results: Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18–3.98 μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12–1.63 μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1 μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=−0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=−0.278, P=0.001). Conclusions: This study investigated human mercury exposure

  1. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Gairong; Luo, Jiayi; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. Methods: A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Results: Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18–3.98 μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12–1.63 μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1 μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=−0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=−0.278, P=0.001). Conclusions: This study investigated human mercury exposure

  2. Radiation belt seed population and its association with the relativistic electron dynamics: A statistical study: Radiation Belt Seed Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, C. L.; Wang, Y. X.; Ni, B.; Zhang, J.-C.

    2017-01-01

    Using the Van Allen Probes data, we study the radiation belt seed population and it associated with the relativistic electron dynamics during 74 geomagnetic storm events. Based on the flux changes of 1 MeV electrons before and after the storm peak, these storm events are divided into two groups of “non-preconditioned” and “preconditioned”. The statistical study shows that the storm intensity is of significant importance for the distribution of the seed population (336 keV electrons) in the outer radiation belt. However, substorm intensity can also be important to the evolution of the seed population for some geomagnetic storm events. For non-preconditioned storm events, the correlation between the peak fluxes and their L-shell locations of the seed population and relativistic electrons (592 keV, 1.0 MeV, 1.8 MeV, and 2.1 MeV) is consistent with the energy-dependent dynamic processes in the outer radiation belt. For preconditioned storm events, the correlation between the features of the seed population and relativistic electrons is not fully consistent with the energy-dependent processes. It is suggested that the good correlation between the radiation belt seed population and ≤1.0 MeV electrons contributes to the prediction of the evolution of ≤1.0 MeV electrons in the Earth’s outer radiation belt during periods of geomagnetic storms.

  3. Associations of Shift Work and Its Duration with Work-Related Injury among Electronics Factory Workers in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Jia; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Kang, Chungwon; Kim, Hyunjoo

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between shift work and work-related injuries. We collected data on workers from an electronics factory. This cross-sectional study included 13,610 subjects, who were assessed based on a self-reported questionnaire about their shift work experiences, work-related injuries, and other covariates. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between shift work and work-related injuries and were estimated using the odds rati...

  4. Direct observations of low-energy solar electrons associated with a type 3 solar radio burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, L. A.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    On 6 April 1971 a solar X-ray flare and a type 3 solar radio noise burst were observed with instrumentation on the eccentric-orbiting satellite IMP 6. The type 3 solar radio noise burst was detected down to a frequency of 31 kHz. A highly anisotropic packet of low-energy solar electron intensities arrived at the satellite approximately 6000 seconds after the onset of the solar flare. This packet of solar electron intensities was observed for 4200 seconds. Maximum differential intensities of the solar electrons were in the energy range of one to several keV. The frequency drift rate of the type 3 radio noise at frequencies below 178 kHz also indicated an average particle speed corresponding to that of a 3-keV electron. The simultaneous observations of these solar electron intensities and of the type 3 solar radio burst are presented, and their interrelationships are explored.

  5. Association between electronic equipment in the bedroom and sedentary lifestyle, physical activity, and body mass index of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Matsudo, Victor; Fisberg, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    To describe the association between electronic devices in the bedroom with sedentary time and physical activity, both assessed by accelerometry, in addition to body mass index in children from São Caetano do Sul. The sample consisted of 441 children. The presence of electronic equipment (television, personal computer, and videogames) in the bedroom was assessed by a questionnaire. For seven consecutive days, children used an accelerometer to objectively monitor the sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Body mass index was categorized as suggested by the World Health Organization. Overall, 73.9%, 54.2% and 42.8% of children had TV, computer, and videogames in the bedroom, respectively, and spent an average of 500.7 and 59.1 min/day of sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Of the children, 45.3% were overweight/obese. Girls with a computer in the bedroom (45 min/day) performed less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than those without it (51.4 min/day). Similar results were observed for body mass index in boys. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was higher and body mass index was lower in children that had no electronic equipment in the bedroom. Presence of a computer (β=-4.798) and the combination TV+computer (β=-3.233) were negatively associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Videogames and the combinations with two or three electronic devices were positively associated with body mass index. Sedentary time was not associated with electronic equipment. Electronic equipment in the children's bedroom can negatively affect moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and body mass index regardless of gender, school, and annual family income, which can contribute to physical inactivity and childhood obesity. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Magnetite Compensates for the Lack of a Pilin-Associated c-Type Cytochrome in Extracellular Electron Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fanghua; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Shrestha, Pravin

    2015-01-01

    investigation revealed that magnetite attached to the electrically conductive pili of Geobacter species in a manner reminiscent of the association of the multi-heme c-type cytochrome OmcS with the pili of Geobacter sulfurreducens. Magnetite conferred extracellular electron capabilities on an Omc...

  7. An Analysis of the External Environmental and Internal Organizational Factors Associated with Adoption of the Electronic Health Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Clemens Scott

    2013-01-01

    Despite a Presidential Order in 2004 that launched national incentives for the use of health information technology, specifically the Electronic Health Record (EHR), adoption of the EHR has been slow. This study attempts to quantify factors associated with adoption of the EHR and Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) by combining multiple…

  8. Factors associated with experimentation of electronic cigarettes among Parisian teenagers in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautzenberg, Bertrand; Berlin, Ivan; Tanguy, Marie-Laure; Rieu, Nicole; Birkui, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cig.) became widely used among adults. Data are insufficient about e-cig. experimentation among youth. To assess prevalence of e-cig. experimentation and associated factors among the 12 to 19 years old we analyse a cross sectional school based survey in the city of Paris, France in 2013 on a randomly selected sample of 2 % of schoolchildren (n = 3 279). Self-report questionnaire include demographic, individual and family smoking characteristics and questions about e-cig: "Have you ever used an e-cigarette?"- "Did you use e-cigarette in the last 30 days?"-"Did you try e-cigarette as a first tobacco product?". In 2013, 17.9 % (564) schoolchildren reported having experienced the e-cig (boys: 19.0 %, girls: 16.8 %) compared to 9.8 % in 2012. Experimentation rate increases from 5 % among the 12 to 30 % among the 16-year-old. E-cig. experimentation was significantly associated with 11 parameters including : age >15 years (OR: 0.66 (IC95 % = 0.46-0.94)); smoking 10 cigarettes or more (OR = 5.67 (IC95 % = 3.11-10.34)), best friends and siblings smoker (OR = 1.54 (IC95 % = 1.11-2.14)) and (OR = 1.88 (IC95 % = 1.41-2.52)); experimentation of shisha (OR = 2.60 (IC95 % = 1.75-3.86)), cannabis use (OR = 1.90 (IC95 % = 1.32-2.72)); having two parents who forbid smoking (OR = 2.32 (IC95 % = 1.63-3.30)). Only 5.6 % of the study population (and 32.5 % of e-cig. experimenters (183/564)) have used it in the last 30 days; 1.7 % of the study population and 10.0 % of e-cig. experimenters were non-smokers (56/564). Rate of e-cig. experimentation among schoolchildren increased by 8.1 % in 1 year. Non-smoking youth may use e-cig. Prospective studies are urgently needed to assess the evolution of e-cig. use both among smoking and non-smoking youth.

  9. Association of Electronic Cigarette Use With Initiation of Combustible Tobacco Product Smoking in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Adam M; Strong, David R; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Unger, Jennifer B; Sussman, Steve; Riggs, Nathaniel R; Stone, Matthew D; Khoddam, Rubin; Samet, Jonathan M; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2015-08-18

    Exposure to nicotine in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is becoming increasingly common among adolescents who report never having smoked combustible tobacco. To evaluate whether e-cigarette use among 14-year-old adolescents who have never tried combustible tobacco is associated with risk of initiating use of 3 combustible tobacco products (ie, cigarettes, cigars, and hookah). Longitudinal repeated assessment of a school-based cohort at baseline (fall 2013, 9th grade, mean age = 14.1 years) and at a 6-month follow-up (spring 2014, 9th grade) and a 12-month follow-up (fall 2014, 10th grade). Ten public high schools in Los Angeles, California, were recruited through convenience sampling. Participants were students who reported never using combustible tobacco at baseline and completed follow-up assessments at 6 or 12 months (N = 2530). At each time point, students completed self-report surveys during in-classroom data collections. Student self-report of whether he or she ever used e-cigarettes (yes or no) at baseline. Six- and 12-month follow-up reports on use of any of the following tobacco products within the prior 6 months: (1) any combustible tobacco product (yes or no); (2) combustible cigarettes (yes or no), (3) cigars (yes or no); (4) hookah (yes or no); and (5) number of combustible tobacco products (range: 0-3). Past 6-month use of any combustible tobacco product was more frequent in baseline e-cigarette ever users (n = 222) than never users (n = 2308) at the 6-month follow-up (30.7% vs 8.1%, respectively; difference between groups in prevalence rates, 22.7% [95% CI, 16.4%-28.9%]) and at the 12-month follow-up (25.2% vs 9.3%, respectively; difference between groups, 15.9% [95% CI, 10.0%-21.8%]). Baseline e-cigarette use was associated with greater likelihood of use of any combustible tobacco product averaged across the 2 follow-up periods in the unadjusted analyses (odds ratio [OR], 4.27 [95% CI, 3.19-5.71]) and in the analyses adjusted

  10. CEBAF/SURA [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility]/[Southeastern Universities Research Association] 1988 summer workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, F.; Lightbody, J.

    1989-01-01

    This report contains papers from a summer workshop of the continuous electron beam accelerator facility. Some topics of these papers are: spectrometers; electron scattering from deuterons; relativistic correlations in nuclear matter; pion production on 3 He and 3 H; quantum electrodynamic processes in crystals; 12 C(e,e'p) x reaction; deuteron polarization tensor and relativistic spin rotation; electromagnetic excitation of nuclei; electron distortion and structure functions in (e,e'p) reactions; and reaction mechanism of 4 He(e,e'p) 3 H

  11. Lumber intervertebral disk; Correlation with the signal intensity of magnetic resonance imaging and the histological changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Ryusei; Takahashi, Sadao; Ando, Tadashi; Kumano, Kiyoshi; Hiranuma, Kenji; Kanazawa, Yousuke; Konishi, Seiji; Eguchi, Masanobu; Tanioka, Hisaya (KantoRosai Hospital, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1989-11-01

    We studied to provide precise correlations between the intensity of MRI signals and the degenerative changes of the nucleus pulposes of the L4/5 intervertebral disk herniations. 23 cases with the L4/5 intervertebral disk herniations having surgical treatment were examined using Magnetom H 15 (1.5 tesla) with surface coil. The images were obtained with T2 images (long TR (1000{approx}1600 msec), TE (60{approx}90 msec)). The intensity was measured using FUJI densitometer FD 101 at the lumber vertebral body and the intervertebral disk. We calculated the L4/5 intervertebral disk degeneration ratio (determined by comparing the modified L4/5 MR signal intensity with the modified L2/3 MR signal itensity). Histological changes were examined in the cellular components of the nucleus pulposus (such as the number of the nucleus cells, nucleus cell nesting and HE stainability of the nucleus cell) and the matrics substance (such as fibrillation, hyaline degeneration and granular degeneration). Histochemical studies were performed using Scott's Method (AB-0.4 M MgCl{sub 2} Alcinophilia, AB-09 M, MgCl{sub 2} Alcinophilia) to investigate glycosaminoglycans of the nucleus pulposus. We compared the histological and histochemical changes with the MR L4/5 intervetebral disk degeneration ratio. The decreasing MRI signal intensity of the nucleous pulposus was (1) corresponded to the pathological changes such as the increasing number of the cell nesting, fibrillation and hyaline degeneration of the nucleus polposus. (2) corresponded to the decrease in the total glycosaminoglycans of the nucleus pulposus. (3) corresponded to the early stage of degeneration of the nucleus polposus, but in aging when all levels of intervertebral disk degeneration appeared, we could not know the degree of the disk degeneration from the signal intensity of MRI. (J.P.N.).

  12. Magnetospheric Response Associated With Multiple Atmospheric Reflections of Precipitated Electrons in Aurora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Merkin, V. G.; Zesta, E.; Sibeck, D. G.; Grubbs, G. A., II; Chu, M.; Wiltberger, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The magnetosphere and ionosphere are strongly coupled by precipitating electrons during storm times. Therefore, first principle simulations of precipitating electron fluxes are required to understand storm time variations of ionospheric conductances and related electric fields. As has been discussed by Khazanov et al. [2015 - 2017], the first step in such simulations is initiation of electron precipitation from the Earth's plasma sheet via wave particle interaction processes into both magnetically conjugate points, and the step 2 is the follow up of multiple atmospheric reflections of electron fluxes formed at the boundary between the ionosphere and magnetosphere of two magnetically conjugate points. To demonstrate this effect on the global magnetospheric response the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry global magnetosphere model coupled with the Rice Convection Model of the inner magnetosphere has been used and run for the geomagnetic storm of 17 March 2013.

  13. Work-Practice Changes Associated with an Electronic Emergency-Department Whiteboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    , existing work practices, and the clinicians’ experience. Another change in the work practices is distributed access to whiteboard information from the computers in patient rooms. A decrease in the mental workload of the coordinating nurse was envisaged but has not emerged. Achieving more changes appears......Electronic whiteboards are introduced at emergency departments (EDs) to improve work practices. This study investigates whether the time physicians and nurses at an ED spend in patient rooms versus at the control desk increases after the introduction of an electronic whiteboard. After using...... this whiteboard for four months nurses, but not physicians, spend more of their time with the patients. With the electronic whiteboard, nurses spend 28% of their time in patient rooms and physicians 20%. Importantly, the changes facilitated by the electronic whiteboard are also dependent on implementation issues...

  14. Electronic hand hygiene monitoring as a tool for reducing health care-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J William; Blackhurst, Dawn; McAtee, Wendy; Steed, Connie

    2016-08-01

    Electronic monitoring of hand hygiene compliance using the World Health Organization's My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene is a new innovation that has not yet been shown to reduce hospital infections. We analyzed existing data from 23 inpatient units over a 33-month period and found a significant correlation between unit-specific improvements in electronic monitoring compliance and reductions in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection rates (r = -0.37, P < .001). Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancing the power of genetic association studies through the use of silver standard cases derived from electronic medical records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McDavid

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using imperfectly phenotyped "silver standard" samples identified from electronic medical record diagnoses is considered in genetic association studies when these samples might be combined with an existing set of samples phenotyped with a gold standard technique. An analytic expression is derived for the power of a chi-square test of independence using either research-quality case/control samples alone, or augmented with silver standard data. The subset of the parameter space where inclusion of silver standard samples increases statistical power is identified. A case study of dementia subjects identified from electronic medical records from the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE network, combined with subjects from two studies specifically targeting dementia, verifies these results.

  16. Informal processing of electronic waste at Agbogbloshie, Ghana: workers' knowledge about associated health hazards and alternative livelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Emily A; Akormedi, Matthew; Asampong, Emmanuel; Meyer, Christian G; Fobil, Julius N

    2017-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the electronic waste workers' knowledge about the potential health hazards associated with their work as well as the livelihood alternatives that they would prefer if they were given the opportunity. A qualitative cross-sectional study was conducted to gather empirical information on e-waste workers' knowledge about the potential hazards associated with their work and the livelihood alternatives to e-waste recycling with a sample consisting of twenty all-male electronic waste workers at the Agbogbloshie scrap metal yard in Accra, Ghana. Electronic waste workers at Agbogbloshie were found to be exposed to a variety of injuries and illnesses. The workers' knowledge of the association between their health status and their work was generally poor. Apart from the physical injuries, they did not believe their work played any negative role in their health conditions. They preferred occupations such as farming or professional driving located in the northern region of Ghana to be closer to their families. The study concludes that the low knowledge level of the workers on the hazards that are associated with their work has implications for them accepting technologies to protect them and the natural environment from contamination. It is therefore imperative for any intervention to consider the current low level of knowledge and actively educate the workers to raise their awareness level, taking into account the provision of opportunities for workers to acquire applicable skills for future employment in other fields.

  17. Single-photon emission associated with double electron capture in F9+ + C collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Elkafrawy, Tamer; Tanis, John A; Warczak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Radiative double electron capture (RDEC), the one-step process occurring in ion-atom collisions, has been investigated for bare fluorine ions colliding with carbon. RDEC is completed when two target electrons are captured to a bound state of a projectile simultaneously with the emission of a single photon. This work is a follow-up to our earlier measurement of RDEC for bare oxygen projectiles, thus providing a recipient system free of electron-related Coulomb fields in both cases and allowing for the comparison between the two collision systems as well as with available theoretical studies. The most significant mechanisms of x-ray emission that may contribute to the RDEC energy region as background processes are also addressed.

  18. Present status of the ETL electron linac and associated experimental facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomimasu, T.

    1983-01-01

    The 500-MeV electron linac ''TELL'' is operated since Dec. 1980. The main features of TELL are high efficiency, high current - high power acceleration and economical beam sharing to four experimental rooms at the same time. The available beam current is 240 mA (--180 μA ) at 300 MeV at present. A pion channel ( QQDQ ) with solid angle larger than 0.15 sr is under construction. Research on establishing spectro-dosimetric standards of high energy - high intensity electrons, X-rays and pions are in progress. The 600-MeV storage ring ''TERAS'' is operated since Oct. 1981. The circumference is 31.45 m and lambdasub(p) is 22 A. The maximum stored current is 150 mA and 1/e lifetime is 1.5 hours at present. Studies on photometry and soft X ray standards, electronic materials and lithography technology are in progress using synchrotron radiation. (author)

  19. Dead time of different neutron detectors associated with a pulsed electronics with current collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacconnet, Eugene; Duchene, Jean; Duquesne, Henry; Schmitt, Andre

    1968-01-01

    After having outlined that the development of fast neutron reactor physics, notably kinetics, requires highly efficient neutron detectors and pulse measurement chains able to cope with high counting rates, the authors report the measurement of dead time of various neutron detectors which are used in the experimental study of fast neutron reactors. They present the SAITB 1 electronic measurement set, its components, its general characteristics, the protected connection between the detector and the electronics. They present and report the experiment: generalities about detector location and measurements, studied detectors (fission chambers, boron counters), and report the exploitation of the obtained results (principle, data, high-threshold counting gain) [fr

  20. Measuring Higgs Boson Associated Lepton Flavour Violation in Electron-Photon Collisions at the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemura, Shinya; Tsumura, Koji

    2010-08-01

    We study the LFV Higgs production processes e - γ → l - φ (l = μ, τ ;φ = H,A) as a probe of Higgs mediated LFV couplings at an electron-photon collider, where H and A are extra CP even and odd Higgs bosons, respectively, in the two Higgs doublet model. Under the constraints from the current data of muon and tau rare decay, the cross section can be significantly large. It would improve the experimental upper bounds on the effective LFV coupling constants. In addition, the chirality nature of the LFV Higgs coupling constants can be measured by selecting electron beam polarizations. (author)

  1. Split-illumination electron holography for improved evaluation of electrostatic potential associated with electrophotography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki, E-mail: tanigaki-toshiaki@riken.jp; Aizawa, Shinji; Soon Park, Hyun [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Sato, Kuniaki; Akase, Zentaro [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Matsuda, Tsuyoshi [Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Murakami, Yasukazu; Shindo, Daisuke [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kawase, Hiromitsu [Product Environment Technology Development Department, Environment and Energy Technology Development Center R and D Group, RICOH Co., Ltd., Shinei-cho, Tsuzuki-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 224-0035 (Japan)

    2014-03-31

    Precise evaluation of the electrostatic potential distributions of and around samples with multiple charges using electron holography has long been a problem due to unknown perturbation of the reference wave. Here, we report the first practical application of split-illumination electron holography (SIEH) to tackle this problem. This method enables the use of a non-perturbed reference wave distant from the sample. SIEH revealed the electrostatic potential distributions at interfaces of the charged particles used for development in electrophotography and should lead to dramatic improvements in electrophotography.

  2. Split-illumination electron holography for improved evaluation of electrostatic potential associated with electrophotography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Soon Park, Hyun; Sato, Kuniaki; Akase, Zentaro; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Murakami, Yasukazu; Shindo, Daisuke; Kawase, Hiromitsu

    2014-01-01

    Precise evaluation of the electrostatic potential distributions of and around samples with multiple charges using electron holography has long been a problem due to unknown perturbation of the reference wave. Here, we report the first practical application of split-illumination electron holography (SIEH) to tackle this problem. This method enables the use of a non-perturbed reference wave distant from the sample. SIEH revealed the electrostatic potential distributions at interfaces of the charged particles used for development in electrophotography and should lead to dramatic improvements in electrophotography

  3. Rocket measurement of auroral electron fluxes associated with field-aligned currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazich, P.M.; Anderson, H.R.

    1975-01-01

    A Nike-Tomahawk rocket was instrumented with a vector magnetometer and an array of particle detectors including an electron and proton energyspectrometer covering the energy range 0.5-20 keV in seven fixed intervals and measuring the pitch angle distribution from 0degree to 180degree as the rocket spun. The payload was launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, at 0722 UT on February 25, 1972, over a bright auroral band that evidently was the poleward electron aurora, beyond the trapping boundary. An upper limit to the measured proton flux was 10 6 /cm 2 s sr keV. The energy spectrum of the electron flux measured during passage over the visible aurora always exhibited a peak within the measured energy range. During passage over the brighter auroral forms the peak shifted from approx.3 to approx.10 keV, the pitch angle distribution became peaked along B, and the intensity increased. Maximum fluxes of approx.3times10 8 el/cm 2 s sr keV were seen over the aurora, which reached approx.60 kR of lambda5577. The electron flux in regions of maximum flux tended to be the most field-aligned in the energy interval showing the highest intensity

  4. The Impact of Software on Associate Degree Programs in Electronic Engineering Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, David M.

    1986-01-01

    Assesses the range and extent of computer assisted instruction software available in electronic engineering technology education. Examines the need for software skills in four areas: (1) high-level languages; (2) assembly language; (3) computer-aided engineering; and (4) computer-aided instruction. Outlines strategies for the future in three…

  5. Cardiac implantable electronic device and associated risk of infective endocarditis in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lauge; Valeur, Nana; Bundgaard, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) are at increased risk of infective endocarditis (IE) as are patients with a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED). However, few data exist on the IE risk after AVR surgery in patients with a CIED. Methods and results: Using the Danish...

  6. Study of electron anti-neutrinos associated with gamma-ray bursts using KamLAND

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asakura, A.; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hachiya, T.; Hayashida, S.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Ishio, S.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Motoki, D.; Nakamura, K.; Obara, S.; Oki, Y.; Oura, T.; Shimizu, I.; Shirahata, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Tachibana, H.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B.D.; Yoshida, H.; Kozlov, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Fushimi, K.; Piepke, A.; Banks, T.I.; Berger, B.E.; Fujikawa, B.K.; O'Donnell, T.; Learned, J.G.; Maricic, J.; Sakai, M.; Winslow, L.A.; Efremenko, Y.; Karwowski, H.J.; Markoff, D.M.; Tornow, W.; Detwiler, J.A.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    We search for electron anti-neutrinos (-Ve) from long- and short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using data taken by the Kamioka Liquid Scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector (KamLAND) from 2002 August to 2013 June. No statistically significant excess over the background level is found. We place the

  7. Electron precipitation and VLF emissions associated with cyclotron resonance interactions near the plasmapause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.C.; Rosenberg, T.J.

    1976-01-01

    Correlated bursts of bremsstrahlung X rays and VLF emissions were recorded for approx.25 min at Siple Station, Antarctica, on January 2, 1971. The burst occurred quasi-periodically with spectral power predominantly in the period range 4--12 s. A typical VLF burst consisted of 3--5 rising elements of approx.0.1-s duration separated by approx.0.15 s and was confined to the frequency range 1.5--3.8 kHz. Evidence is presented to show that the bursts were triggered by the low-frequency tail of whistlers propagating from the northern hemisphere. The interpretation of the observations in terms of an equatorial cyclotron resonance interaction occurring at the outer edge of the plasmapause on the L=4.2 field line, offered initially by Rosenberg et al. (1971), is given further support by the more extensive analysis presented here of the electron energy-wave frequency relationship in the bursts and the propagation times for the resonant waves and electrons. It is inferred from the X ray data that the equatorial flux of trapped electrons was probably anisotropic and near the stable trapping limit at the time of this event. It is suggested that an important effect of the trigger signal is the increase of the anisotropy of the resonant electrons. Wave growth rates calculated in the random phase approximation for electron pitch angle distributions that might apply in this event can explain certain features of the VLF and precipitation data during and between the bursts

  8. Control architecture for an adaptive electronically steerable flash lidar and associated instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Lyle; Craner, Jeremy; Harris, Timothy

    2014-09-01

    An Electronically Steerable Flash Lidar (ESFL), developed by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation, allows realtime adaptive control of configuration and data-collection strategy based on recent or concurrent observations and changing situations. This paper reviews, at a high level, some of the algorithms and control architecture built into ESFL. Using ESFL as an example, it also discusses the merits and utility such adaptable instruments in Earth-system studies.

  9. Design report on a 10-in. multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) and associated electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.

    1987-02-01

    We discuss the design and specifications of a 10-in. x 10-in. active area wire chamber. Several of these chambers will be combined with polyethylene converters to make a large volume detector intended for use as a high-energy detector displaying moderate energy resolution. We also discuss the amplifiers and discriminators that have been designed for these chambers. This report only concerns the wire chambers and electronics

  10. Associations of attitudes towards electronic cigarettes with advertisement exposure and social determinants: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhold, Benjamin; Fischbein, Rebecca; Bhamidipalli, Surya Sruthi; Bryant, Jennifer; Kenne, Deric R.

    2017-01-01

    Background The exposure of young adults to electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) advertisements has risen rapidly. E-cigarette ads have been shown to increase short term perceived acceptability of using e-cigarettes in places where traditional cigarettes are banned. We set out to investigate if advertising exposure was related to perceptions of harm, addictiveness, and acceptability of use of e-cigarettes in places where traditional cigarettes are banned. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, ...

  11. Associations of attitudes towards electronic cigarettes with advertisement exposure and social determinants: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Reinhold; Rebecca Fischbein; Surya Sruthi Bhamidipalli; Jennifer Bryant; Deric R. Kenne

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The exposure of young adults to electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) advertisements has risen rapidly. E-cigarette ads have been shown to increase short term perceived acceptability of using e-cigarettes in places where traditional cigarettes are banned. We set out to investigate if advertising exposure was related to perceptions of harm, addictiveness, and acceptability of use of e-cigarettes in places where traditional cigarettes are banned. Material and Methods Using a...

  12. Calculation of diffraction patterns associated with electron irradiation induced amorphization of CuTi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devanathan, R.; Meshii, M.; Sabochik, M.J.

    1990-11-01

    A new approach that uses the multislice method in conjunction with molecular dynamics simulations to study electron irradiation induced amorphisation is presented. Diffraction patterns were calculated for CuTi and found to be more sensitive than the pair correlation function to the structural changes preceding amorphisation. The results from this approach and from a study of long range order are presented. 16 refs., 8 figs

  13. Radiological protection problems associated with parasitic X-ray emission from electronic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amlinger, G.; Anger, K.; Billaudelle, H.; Ehlers, J.; Fendt, H.W.; Festag, J.G.; Haug, R.; Herrmann, K.H.; Klein, H.; Kossel, F.; Krebs, A.; Lauterbach, U.; Leibssle, H. Fa.; Lustig, H.; Maushart, R.; Milde, K.G.; Peter, F.; Ritter, J.; Riecke, W.D.; Rosenbaum, O.; Schiekel, M. Fa.; Schleich, F.; Schmidt, Th.; Speyer, K.; Teschke, L.; Tzschaschel, R.; Wagner, H.; Wehner, G.; Wendel, W.; Zehender, E.; Aiginoer, H.; Zakovsky, J.; Blom, G.; De backer, J.; Delhove, J.; Hublet, P.; Lejeune, P.; Misslin, A.; Nuyts, R.; Popovitch, I.; Hjardemaal, O.; Oehlenschlaeger, N.; Gonzalez Del Campo, R.; Becker, S.; Elder, R.L.; Matthews, J.D.; Sheldon, J.L.; Viitaniemi, T.J.; Aouizerate, H.; Aymeric, H.; Barthe, J.; Bermann, F.; Berthaud, Madeleine; Blanc, D.; Bory, P.; Bourrieau, J.; Bouville, A.; Bovagne, H.; Bresson, G.; Casanovas, J.; Cassanhiol, E.; Cassanhiol, E.; Chambragne, J.; Chanteur, J.; Choquet, R.; Cluchet, J.; Commanay, L.; Commanay, P.; Cros, J.L.; Dana, M.; Danna, J.; Decossas, J.L.; Delpla, M.; Destame, D.; Dieval, M.; Drouet, J.; Dubec, A.; Galy, J.; Garnier, A.; Gouerne, R.; Gras, M.; Grob, R.; Guelfucci, J.P.; Guevenoux, J.; Guichardiere, R.; Hamard, J.; Hardy, J.; Haym, J.P.; Hionette, J.; Jacob, G.; Lavie, J.M.; Levy, L.; Logre, P.; Manquene, J.; Martin, H.; Mathieu, J.; Odievre, Monique; Oustrin, J.; Palluel, P.; Patau, J.P.; Penotet, H.; Perrot, A.; Petel, M.; Peyrelavigne, A.; Peyrelavigne, Monique; Provincial, M.; Raedersdorff, J.; Renard, Cl.; Roche, L.; Roche, R.; Schaeffer, R.; Soubiran, J.; Soudain, G.; Stern, J.C.; Terrissol, M.; Tixier, M.; Vialettes, H.; Wauquier, J.M.; Casbolt, P.N.; Ciuciura, A.; Goodhew, E.G.; Jones, I.S.; O'riordan, M.C.; Speight, D.L.; Ward, P.R.; Williams, K.F.; Biro, T.; Vago, G.; Rosental, N.; Argiero, L.; Belli, M.; Boggio, M.; Carfi, N.; Garretti, S.; Loppa, A.; Parisi, A.; Susanna, A.; Ogawa, I.; Koren, K.; Aten, J.B.Th.; Barendsen, G.W.; Den Boer, A.M.; De Pijper, M.A.; Hekman, H.; Julius, H.W.; Strackee, L.; Van daatselaar, G.; Lorentzon, L.; Hadzi-Pealo, M.; Jeremio, M.; Stevanovio, Marija; Oosterkamp, W.J.; Shalmon, E.; Doyen, Diana; Goetschalkx, J.; Puel, R.

    1971-03-01

    During the past few decades there has been an increase in the production of many types of electronic devices such as rectifying tubes, thyratrons, klystrons, magnetrons, etc., containing elements capable of emitting undesirable X-radiation. These components are not only found in equipment used in industry and research laboratories, but also in devices of a more domestic nature, such as colour television sets, usually low in energy, this radiation may nevertheless constitute a health hazard for many users of such devices and may affect not only workers but even the population as a whole. The Commission of the European Communities (Euratom) felt it was desirable to review the state of the art with regard to problems of radiological protection arising in the manufacture, repair and use of such electronic equipment and to seek suitable technical and administrative solutions. In conjunction with the Centre Physique Atomique et Nucleaire of the Paul Sabatier University, the Commission held an International Symposium in Toulouse on 3-6 November 1970, which was attended by manufacturers of electronic equipment, officials of technical inspection bodies and representatives of public health and occupational safety authorities. The following items were discussed: classification and identification of sources of parasitic X-rays, methods of measuring soft X-rays, biological aspects of exposure to soft X-rays, performance standards and methods for testing and inspecting electronic equipment. The Symposium was followed attentively by 180 delegates from 21 countries and international organizations, and was concluded by a round table discussion at which the chairmen of the different sessions, assisted by experts, drew conclusions from their sessions and from the discussions, pointing up the problems which needed most urgently to be studied. This document contains the texts, in their original versions, of the papers presented at the meetings, together with the minutes of the

  14. Electronic implementation of a novel surveillance paradigm for ventilator-associated events. Feasibility and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Klouwenberg, Peter M. C.; van Mourik, Maaike S. M.; Ong, David S. Y.; Horn, Janneke; Schultz, Marcus J.; Cremer, Olaf L.; Bonten, Marc J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate surveillance of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is hampered by subjective diagnostic criteria. A novel surveillance paradigm for ventilator-associated events (VAEs) was introduced. To determine the validity of surveillance using the new VAE algorithm. Prospective cohort study in two

  15. Electrostatic noise bands associated with the electron gyrofrequency and plasma frequency in the outer magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    Naturally occurring noise bands near the electron plasma frequency are frequently detected by the University of Iowa plasma wave experiment on the IMP 6 satellite in the region from just inside the plasmapause to radial distances of about 10 earth radii in the outer magnetosphere. The electric field strength of these noise bands is usually small with electric field spectral densities near 10 -15 volts 2 meter -2 Hz -1 . A wave magnetic field has been detected only in a few unusually intense cases, and in these cases the magnetic field energy density is several orders of magnitude smaller than the electric field energy density. The bands are observed at all magnetic latitudes covered by the IMP 6 orbit (parallelγ/sub m/parallel less than or equal to 45 0 ) and appear to be a permanent feature of the outer magnetosphere. They are found at all local times and occur least frequently in the quadrant from 18 to 24 hours. The bands appear to consist of two distinct spectral types, diffuse and narrow. In both types the center frequency of the noise band is bounded by consecutive harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency, and the bands occur most often between harmonics that are near the local electron plasma frequency. These bands appear to merge continuously into two types of plasma wave emissions that are found in dissimilar regions of the magnetosphere (upper hybrid resonance noise, also called Region 3 noise, inside the plasmasphere and (n + 1/2)f/sub g/ harmonics in the outer magnetosphere). It is suggested that this smooth merging is caused by changes in the plasma wave dispersion relation that occur as the spacecraft moves from the cold plasma within the plasmasphere into the warm non-Maxwellian plasma found in the outer magnetosphere

  16. Study of Electron Anti-neutrinos Associated with Gamma-Ray Bursts Using KamLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, K.; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hachiya, T.; Hayashida, S.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Ishio, S.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Motoki, D.; Nakamura, K.; Obara, S.; Oki, Y.; Oura, T.; Shimizu, I.; Shirahata, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Tachibana, H.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B. D.; Yoshida, H.; Kozlov, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Fushimi, K.; Piepke, A.; Banks, T. I.; Berger, B. E.; Fujikawa, B. K.; O'Donnell, T.; Learned, J. G.; Maricic, J.; Sakai, M.; Winslow, L. A.; Efremenko, Y.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Detwiler, J. A.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M. P.; KamLAND Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    We search for electron anti-neutrinos ({{\\bar{ν }}e}) from long- and short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using data taken by the Kamioka Liquid Scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector (KamLAND) from 2002 August to 2013 June. No statistically significant excess over the background level is found. We place the tightest upper limits on {{\\bar{ν }}e} fluence from GRBs below 7 MeV and place first constraints on the relation between {{\\bar{ν }}e} luminosity and effective temperature.

  17. Electronic and geometric structure of electro-optically active organic films and associated interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanco, J.; Haber, T.; Resel, R.; Netzer, F.P.; Ramsey, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    The electronic and structural properties of sexiphenyl and sexithiophene films grown under ultra-high vacuum conditions on a variety of well-controlled substrate surfaces have been examined. We show that, in contradiction with the general notion, the ionisation potential of the organic films is not a material constant. Considering the variable ionisation potential, the validity of the Schottky-Mott relationship, which expresses a dependence of the band alignment on the substrate work function, is analysed. We also briefly discuss the relevance of the built-in potential behaviour in organic films for the band-bending concept

  18. Electron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, H.; Mogami, A.

    1975-01-01

    A device for measuring electron densities at a given energy level in an electron beam or the like having strong background noise, for example, in the detection of Auger electric energy spectrums is described. An electron analyzer passes electrons at the given energy level and at the same time electrons of at least one adjacent energy level. Detecting means associated therewith produce signals indicative of the densities of the electrons at each energy level and combine these signals to produce a signal indicative of the density of the electrons of the given energy level absent background noise

  19. Associations of Shift Work and Its Duration with Work-Related Injury among Electronics Factory Workers in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jia; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Kang, Chungwon; Kim, Hyunjoo

    2017-11-21

    This study aimed to explore the association between shift work and work-related injuries. We collected data on workers from an electronics factory. This cross-sectional study included 13,610 subjects, who were assessed based on a self-reported questionnaire about their shift work experiences, work-related injuries, and other covariates. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between shift work and work-related injuries and were estimated using the odds ratio. We found that the current and past shift workers, compared to non-shift workers, were associated with a 2.7- and 1.7-fold higher risk of work-related injury. There was a dose-response relationship between shift work duration and work-related injury among current female shift workers. Shift work increased the risk of work-related injuries, and the impact could be different depending on gender.

  20. Associations of Shift Work and Its Duration with Work-Related Injury among Electronics Factory Workers in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ryu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the association between shift work and work-related injuries. We collected data on workers from an electronics factory. This cross-sectional study included 13,610 subjects, who were assessed based on a self-reported questionnaire about their shift work experiences, work-related injuries, and other covariates. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between shift work and work-related injuries and were estimated using the odds ratio. We found that the current and past shift workers, compared to non-shift workers, were associated with a 2.7- and 1.7-fold higher risk of work-related injury. There was a dose-response relationship between shift work duration and work-related injury among current female shift workers. Shift work increased the risk of work-related injuries, and the impact could be different depending on gender.

  1. Photoinduced Electron Transfer of PAMAM Dendrimer-Zinc(II) Porphyrin Associates at Polarized Liquid|Liquid Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Hirohisa; Sakae, Hiroki; Torikai, Taishi; Sagara, Takamasa; Imura, Hisanori

    2015-06-09

    The heterogeneous photoinduced electron-transfer reaction of the ion associates between NH2-terminated polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrinato zinc(II) (ZnTPPS(4-)) was studied at the polarized water|1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) interface. The positive photocurrent arising from the photoreduction of ZnTPPS(4-) by a lipophilic quencher, decamethylferrocene, in the interfacial region was significantly enhanced by the ion association with the PAMAM dendrimers. The photocurrent response of the dendrimer-ZnTPPS(4-) associates was dependent on the pH condition and on the generation of dendrimer. A few cationic additives such as polyallylamine and n-octyltrimethyammonium were also examined as alternatives to the PAMAM dendrimer, but the magnitude of the photocurrent enhancement was rather small. The high photoreactivity of the dendrimer-ZnTPPS(4-) associates was interpreted mainly as a result of the high interfacial concentration of photoreactive porphyrin units associated stably with the dendrimer which was preferably adsorbed at the polarized water|DCE interface. The photochemical data observed in the second and fourth generation PAMAM dendrimer systems demonstrated that the higher generation dendrimer which can incorporate a porphyrin molecule more completely in the interior is less efficient for the photocurrent enhancement at the interface. These results indicated that the photoreactivity of ionic reactant at a polarized liquid|liquid interface can readily be modified via ion association with the charged dendrimer.

  2. ACRATA: a novel electron transfer domain associated to apoptosis and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez-A Carlos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, several members of a vertebrate protein family containing a six trans-membrane (6TM domain and involved in apoptosis and cancer (e.g. STEAP, STAMP1, TSAP6, have been identified in Golgi and cytoplasmic membranes. The exact function of these proteins remains unknown. Methods We related this 6TM domain to distant protein families using intermediate sequences and methods of iterative profile sequence similarity search. Results Here we show for the first time that this 6TM domain is homolog to the 6TM heme binding domain of both the NADPH oxidase (Nox family and the YedZ family of bacterial oxidoreductases. Conclusions This finding gives novel insights about the existence of a previously undetected electron transfer system involved in apoptosis and cancer, and suggests further steps in the experimental characterization of these evolutionarily related families.

  3. Identification of Patient Safety Risks Associated with Electronic Health Records: A Software Quality Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginio, Luiz A; Ricarte, Ivan Luiz Marques

    2015-01-01

    Although Electronic Health Records (EHR) can offer benefits to the health care process, there is a growing body of evidence that these systems can also incur risks to patient safety when developed or used improperly. This work is a literature review to identify these risks from a software quality perspective. Therefore, the risks were classified based on the ISO/IEC 25010 software quality model. The risks identified were related mainly to the characteristics of "functional suitability" (i.e., software bugs) and "usability" (i.e., interface prone to user error). This work elucidates the fact that EHR quality problems can adversely affect patient safety, resulting in errors such as incorrect patient identification, incorrect calculation of medication dosages, and lack of access to patient data. Therefore, the risks presented here provide the basis for developers and EHR regulating bodies to pay attention to the quality aspects of these systems that can result in patient harm.

  4. ACRATA: a novel electron transfer domain associated to apoptosis and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Rojas, Ana M; Valencia, Alfonso; Martinez-A, Carlos; Andrade, Miguel A

    2004-01-01

    Recently, several members of a vertebrate protein family containing a six trans-membrane (6TM) domain and involved in apoptosis and cancer (e.g. STEAP, STAMP1, TSAP6), have been identified in Golgi and cytoplasmic membranes. The exact function of these proteins remains unknown. We related this 6TM domain to distant protein families using intermediate sequences and methods of iterative profile sequence similarity search. Here we show for the first time that this 6TM domain is homolog to the 6TM heme binding domain of both the NADPH oxidase (Nox) family and the YedZ family of bacterial oxidoreductases. This finding gives novel insights about the existence of a previously undetected electron transfer system involved in apoptosis and cancer, and suggests further steps in the experimental characterization of these evolutionarily related families

  5. Clinical application of multi-slice helical CT volumetric scanning in lumber spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ling; Ge Yinghui; Zhu Shaocheng; Zhang Ming; Cheng Tianming; Lei Zhidan; Lv Chuanjian; Sun Xiaoping; Wu Minghui; Guo Ying; Ma Qianli; Wen Zeying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical application value of multi-slice helical CT volumetric (VH) scanning in lumber spine. Methods: One thousand of patients with back and leg pain who underwent CT examinations were selected as subjects. We simulated the traditional protocol of single-slice(SS) discrete scanning for L3/4, L4/5, and L5/S1 intervertebral discs. The VH scanning mode was performed with 120 kV, 210 mAs, pitch of 1.5 and coverage of 97.5 mm. The simulated SS scanning mode was performed with 120 kV, 240 mAs and coverage of 45.0 mm. The diagnostic outcomes and the radiation doses were compared between the two scanning modes. Two groups doctors observed ten terms, including the osseous spinal stenosis, narrowed intervertebral space and so on in two scanning modes respectively. Then consistency analysis of the data was carded out. Results: The VH scanning mode showed far more features than the SS mode. The detection rates of the VH mode in the osseous spinal stenosis, narrowed intervertebral space, herniated nucleus pulposus, narrowed lateral recess, vertebral lesion, hypertrophy of L5 transverse process, abnormal direction of facet, facet degeneration, lumbar spondyloschisis, and paraspinal soft tissue were 11.8% (n=118), 38.5% (n=385), 9.3% (n=93), 46.8% (n=468), 31.4% (n=314), 5.7% (n= 57), 25.4% (n=254), 49.7% (n=497), 9.9% (n=99), and 0.6% (n=6) respectively, while the detection rates of the SS mode in ten terms were 5.6% (n=56), 0, 0.6% (n=6), 27.9% (n=279), 22.4% (n=224), 1.2% (n=12), 16.7% (n=167), 37.2% (n=372), 0.5% (n=5), and 0.2% (n=2) respectively. The difference between the two groups had statistically significance (average P 0.05). The detection rates of the VH mode were higher than the SS mode in the osseous spinal stenosis, narrowed intervertebral space, herniated nucleus pulposus, lumbar spondyloschisis, being 6.2% (n=62), 38.5% (n=385), 8.7% (n=87), and 9.4% (n=94), respectively. In addition, VH mode only partially showed the articular

  6. Associations of attitudes towards electronic cigarettes with advertisement exposure and social determinants: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Reinhold

    2017-02-01

    E-cigarette use is increasing in adolescents and young adults, as is exposure to e-cigarette advertising. Independent of nicotine use and demographics factors, e-cigarette advertising is associated with increased beliefs in acceptability of e-cigarette use in places where cigarettes are banned. E-cigarette advertisements may be responsible for normalizing e-cigarette use. Exposure to internet e-cigarette advertisements was associated with lower perceived harm; this may be due to the false health claims often made in internet advertisements.

  7. Electronic alarm device for radioactivity detector associated with a direct current amplifier or with a integration-based counting assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmaretz, Marc; Ferlicot, Rene

    1964-04-01

    The authors report the study of a device aimed at triggering sound and light alarms when a radiation detector associated with a direct current amplifier or with a counting assembly detects a radiation intensity greater than one or two previously defined thresholds. This device can be used at any time for a detection assembly which is not continuously monitored. It has been designed to be adapted to the CEA standard electronics currently used in installations and on which the alarm function had not been initially foreseen. The assembly comprises an additional safety device for the control of any untimely shutdown of the detection chain [fr

  8. Individual, social, and physical environment factors associated with electronic media use among children: sedentary behavior at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granich, Joanna; Rosenberg, Michael; Knuiman, Matthew W; Timperio, Anna

    2011-07-01

    Individual, home social and physical environment correlates of electronic media (EM) use among children were examined and pattern of differences on school and weekend days. Youth (n = 298) aged 11 to 12 years self-reported time spent using EM (TV, video/DVD, computer use, and electronic games) on a typical school and a weekend day, each dichotomized at the median to indicate heavy and light EM users. Anthropometric measurements were taken. Logistic regression examined correlates of EM use. In total, 87% of participants exceeded electronic media use recommendations of ≤ 2 hrs/day. Watching TV during breakfast (OR = 3.17) and after school (OR = 2.07), watching TV with mother (OR = 1.96), no rule(s) limiting time for computer game usage (OR = 2.30), having multiple (OR = 2.99) EM devices in the bedroom and BMI (OR = 1.15) were associated with higher odds of being heavy EM user on a school day. Boys (OR = 2.35) and participants who usually watched TV at midday (OR = 2.91) and late at night (OR = 2.04) had higher odds of being a heavy EM user on the weekend. Efforts to modify children's EM use should focus on a mix of intervention strategies that address patterns and reinforcement of TV viewing, household rules limiting screen time, and the presence of EM devices in the child's bedroom.

  9. Electron temperature structures associated with magnetic tearing modes in the Madison Symmetric Torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Hillary Dianne

    Tearing mode induced magnetic islands have a significant impact on the thermal characteristics of magnetically confined plasmas such as those in the reversed-field-pinch. Using a state-of-the-art Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic, electron temperature fluctuations correlated with magnetic tearing modes have been observed on the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field-pinch. The TS diagnostic consists of two independently triggerable Nd:YAG lasers that can each pulse up to 15 times each plasma discharge and 21 General Atomics polchromators equipped with avalanche photodiode modules. Detailed calibrations focusing on accuracy, ease of use and repeatability and in-situ measurements have been performed on the system. Electron temperature (Te) profiles are acquired at 25 kHz with 2 cm or less resolution along the minor radius, sufficient to measure the effect of an island on the profile as the island rotates by the measurement point. Bayesian data analysis techniques are developed and used to detect fluctuations over an ensemble of shots. Four cases are studied; standard plasmas in quiescent periods, through sawteeth, through core reconnection events and in plasmas where the tearing mode activity is decreased. With a spectrum of unstable tearing modes, remnant islands that tend to flatten the temperature profile are present in the core between sawtooth-like reconnection events. This flattening is characteristic of rapid parallel heat conduction along helical magnetic field lines. The spatial structure of the temperature fluctuations show that the location of the rational surface of the m/n = 1/6 tearing mode is significantly further in than equilibrium suggestions predict. The fluctuations also provide a measurement of the remnant island width which is significantly smaller than the predicted full island width. These correlated fluctuations disappear during both global and core reconnection events. In striking contrast to temperature flattening, a temperature gradient

  10. [The Impact of Electronic Monitoring on Healthcare Associated Infections: The Role of the HViTAL Platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rita Fontes; Castro, Lídia; Almeida, José Pedro; Alves, Carlos; Ferreira, António

    2016-11-01

    In Portugal, 9.8% of patients admitted were inflicted with healthcare associated infections, corresponding to a prevalence of 11.7%. The Hospital de São João has developed a business intelligence platform able to supervise (the patients), monitor (the clinical condition) and notify (the healthcare personnel): HViTAL. This study aims to assess the impact of electronic monitoring on healthcare associated infections since the year of HViTAL implementation. We evaluated data since January 2008 (moment from which computerized records exist) until December 2011, comparing them with subsequent data, those corresponding to January 2012 (implementation date of HViTAL) until 19 October 2015. There was an upward trend of infection parameters in the 2008 - 2011 period. Since January 2012 and October 2015, all parameters of the infection indicator showed a negative linear trend. The results are very suggestive that the HVITAL may have had an impact on improving parameters associated to healthcare associated infections. Basic measures of infection control were highlighted since 2005, with an increasing number of health professional awareness campaigns, a fact which, although not analyzed in this report, may also have contributed to the observed improvement. Our study did not include other variables such as investment in human capital. There was a clear improvement in all areas characterizing the healthcare associated infections, with obvious positive impact with the introduction of HViTAL.

  11. Latitude-Time Total Electron Content Anomalies as Precursors to Japan's Large Earthquakes Associated with Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Woei Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to determine whether principal component analysis (PCA can be used to process latitude-time ionospheric TEC data on a monthly basis to identify earthquake associated TEC anomalies. PCA is applied to latitude-time (mean-of-a-month ionospheric total electron content (TEC records collected from the Japan GEONET network to detect TEC anomalies associated with 18 earthquakes in Japan (M≥6.0 from 2000 to 2005. According to the results, PCA was able to discriminate clear TEC anomalies in the months when all 18 earthquakes occurred. After reviewing months when no M≥6.0 earthquakes occurred but geomagnetic storm activity was present, it is possible that the maximal principal eigenvalues PCA returned for these 18 earthquakes indicate earthquake associated TEC anomalies. Previously PCA has been used to discriminate earthquake-associated TEC anomalies recognized by other researchers, who found that statistical association between large earthquakes and TEC anomalies could be established in the 5 days before earthquake nucleation; however, since PCA uses the characteristics of principal eigenvalues to determine earthquake related TEC anomalies, it is possible to show that such anomalies existed earlier than this 5-day statistical window.

  12. Association between lead exposure from electronic waste recycling and child temperament alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junxiao; Xu, Xijin; Wu, Kusheng; Piao, Zhongxian; Huang, Jinrong; Guo, Yongyong; Li, Weiqiu; Zhang, Yuling; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2011-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of lead exposure on temperament alterations in children from a primitive e-waste (obsolete electrical and electronic devices) recycling area in Guiyu of China and a control area (Chendian, China). Blood lead levels (BLL) might be correlated with temperament, health, and relevant factors that were evaluated through Parent Temperament Questionnaire (PTQ), physical examination, and residential questionnaires. We collected venipuncture blood samples from 303 children (aged 3-7 years old) between January and February 2008. Child BLL were higher in Guiyu than in Chendian (median 13.2 μg/dL, range 4.0-48.5 μg/dL vs. 8.2 μg/dL, 0-21.3 μg/dL) (Pchildren (all Pchildren with low BLL (BLLchildren by increasing BLL and altering children temperament, although the exposure to other toxicants needs to be examined in future studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization and modelling of interspecies electron transfer mechanisms and microbial community dynamics of a syntrophic association

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagarajan, Harish; Embree, Mallory; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena

    2013-01-01

    Syntrophic associations are central to microbial communities and thus have a fundamental role in the global carbon cycle. Despite biochemical approaches describing the physiological activity of these communities, there has been a lack of a mechanistic understanding of the relationship between...... responds only at the transcriptomic level. This multi-omic approach enhances our understanding of adaptive responses and factors that shape the evolution of syntrophic communities....

  14. Study of planar defects associated to martensite transformation in copper alloys by transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condo, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    In this work the planar faults in non-compact planes (non-basal faults) in the 2H and 18R martensitic phases in Cu-Zn-Al alloys are analyzed. The study was carried out using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combining the two-beam condition technique, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and computer simulated images. The displacement vectors of the faults were determined. It was found that these vectors were different from those of the basal faults, even though the faults are connected. One single class of non-basal faults, named F 1 , was observed in the 2H phase, whereas two different classes were found in the 18R phase, named F o and F x . In the latter phase non-basal faults made up of different segments of F o and F x faults were observed (composed faults). The Burgers vectors of the partial dislocations at the edges of the non-basal faults were determined in both phases. Additionally, the Burgers vectors of the intermediate dislocations found between the different segments of the composed faults in the 18R phase were determined. It was verified that there exist two types of dislocations with Burgers vectors that differ in approximately 1/3 [100]. It was found that the presence of a particular dislocation type depends on the arrangement between the non-basal fault and the basal fault that originates the dislocation. The internal structure of the non-basal faults in the 18R phase was studied with HRTEM. It was observed that the shift of the crystal planes due to the presence of the faults occurs in a region of a finite extension of about 1.5 nm. It was also observed that in this region the crystal planes appear rotated and lose the characteristic corrugation they have in the 18R structure. As a consequence of this, new translation vectors appear in the defect; this fact could be reflected in new plastic deformation systems. The rotation of the crystal planes in the non-basal faulted area of the 18R phase was compared with the rotation

  15. Gallium Nitride: A Nano scale Study using Electron Microscopy and Associated Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed Benaissa; Vennegues, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    A complete nano scale study on GaN thin films doped with Mg. This study was carried out using TEM and associated techniques such as HREM, CBED, EDX and EELS. It was found that the presence of triangular defects (of few nanometers in size) within GaN:Mg films were at the origin of unexpected electrical and optical behaviors, such as a decrease in the free hole density at high Mg doping. It is shown that these defects are inversion domains limited with inversion-domains boundaries. (author)

  16. Brief report: Associations between in-person and electronic bullying victimization and missing school because of safety concerns among U.S. high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Riley J; Rasberry, Catherine N

    2015-08-01

    Although associations between bullying and health risk behaviors are well-documented, research on bullying and education-related outcomes, including school attendance, is limited. This study examines associations between bullying victimization (in-person and electronic) and missing school because of safety concerns among a nationally representative sample of U.S. high school students. We used logistic regression analyses to analyze data from the 2013 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey of students in grades 9-12. In-person and electronic victimization were each associated with increased odds of missing school due to safety concerns compared to no bullying victimization. Having been bullied both in-person and electronically was associated with greater odds of missing school compared to electronic bullying only for female students and in-person bullying only for male students. Collaborations between health professionals and educators to prevent bullying may improve school attendance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. An electronic approach to minimising moisture-associated skin damage in ostomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Naomi; McLister, Anna; McCreadie, Karl; Davis, James

    2015-08-01

    Marked developments in the design of ostomy appliances in recent years have revolutionised stoma care and management but the prevalence of peristomal skin complications continues to be problematic with incidence rates ranging from 10% to 70%. Despite requisite pre and post-operative education for new patients, complications continue to arise - even under the close supervision of specialist nurses. Prolonged exposure of the skin to high pH stoma effluent is widely accepted as a key contributor to the onset of moisture-associated skin disease and it is our hypothesis that a "smart wafer", employing electrochemical manipulation of local pH, could mitigate some of the issues currently plaguing ostomy management. Current electrochemical research strategies translatable to stoma care are presented and their possible implementations critically appraised. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Protonated ions as systemic trapping agents for noble gases: From electronic structure to radiative association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgurel, O; Pauzat, F; Pilmé, J; Ellinger, Y; Bacchus-Montabonel, M-C; Mousis, O

    2017-10-07

    The deficiencies of argon, krypton, and xenon observed in the atmosphere of Titan as well as anticipated in some comets might be related to a scenario of sequestration by H 3 + in the gas phase at the early evolution of the solar nebula. The chemical process implied is a radiative association, evaluated as rather efficient in the case of H 3 + , especially for krypton and xenon. This mechanism of chemical trapping might not be limited to H 3 + only, considering that the protonated ions produced in the destruction of H 3 + by its main competitors present in the primitive nebula, i.e., H 2 O, CO, and N 2 , might also give stable complexes with the noble gases. However the effective efficiency of such processes is still to be proven. Here, the reactivity of the noble gases Ar, Kr, and Xe, with all protonated ions issued from H 2 O, CO, and N 2 , expected to be present in the nebula with reasonably high abundances, has been studied with quantum simulation method dynamics included. All of them give stable complexes and the rate coefficients of their radiative associations range from 10 -16 to 10 -19 cm 3 s -1 , which is reasonable for such reactions and has to be compared to the rates of 10 -16 to 10 -18 cm 3 s -1 , obtained with H 3 + . We can consider this process as universal for all protonated ions which, if present in the primitive nebula as astrophysical models predict, should act as sequestration agents for all three noble gases with increasing efficiency from Ar to Xe.

  19. The effects of crosscutting before gang-ripping on dimension part yields from no. 1 and 2A common red oak lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, J. Gatchell; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Elizabeth S. Walker; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1996-01-01

    Mills should have the option to crosscut red oak lumber prior to gang-ripping to remove crook and worthless material and to take advantage of the quality differences between board ends. At least half of No: 1 and 2A Common red oak boards will have end-to-end yield differences of at least 10 percent. Preprocessing will cause a slight decrease in overall yield but will...

  20. Electronic Cigarette Use among Irish Youth: A Cross Sectional Study of Prevalence and Associated Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Babineau

    Full Text Available To examine prevalence of, and factors associated with, e-cigarette use among young people aged 16-17 in Ireland.In 2014, a representative sample of 821 young people aged 16-17 recruited from secondary schools completed a pen and paper survey on e-cigarette use, tobacco use, and socio-demographic items.A total of 23.8% of respondents had used e-cigarettes at least once. Dual trial of tobacco and e-cigarettes was common with 69.5% of regular smokers and 30.4% of 'ever' smokers having tried e-cigarettes and 10.6% of current smokers using e-cigarettes regularly. 4.2% of never smokers have tried e-cigarettes. Overall, current e-cigarette use (once a month or more was low (3.2%. Binary logistic regression conducted through generalized estimating equations (GEE determined that controlling for other variables, current tobacco use and 'ever' tobacco use predicted ever e-cigarette use. Gender and school-level socioeconomic status were also independent predictors of ever e-cigarette use. Gender stood as the only predictor of on-going e-cigarette use, with males being more likely to regularly use e-cigarettes at least once a month.E-cigarette use among 16-17 year olds in Ireland is of note, with nearly a quarter of students having tried them. Concurrent or experimental use of e-cigarettes and tobacco is more common than sole use, while a small number have tried e-cigarettes without having tried tobacco.

  1. Electronic Health Record-Enabled Big-Data Approaches to Nephrotoxin-Associated Acute Kidney Injury Risk Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Scott M

    2018-06-09

    Nephrotoxin-associated acute kidney injury (NTx-AKI) has become one of the most common causes of AKI among hospitalized adults and children; across acute and intensive care populations, exposure to nephrotoxins accounts for 15-25% of AKI. Although some interventions have shown promise in observational studies, no treatments currently exist for NTx-AKI once it occurs. Thus, nearly all effective strategies are aimed at prevention. The primary obstacle to prevention is risk prediction and the determination of which patients are more likely to develop NTx-AKI when exposed to medications with nephrotoxic potential. Historically, traditional statistical modeling has been applied to previously recognized clinical risk factors to identify predictors of NTx-AKI. However, increased electronic health record adoption and the evolution of "big-data" approaches to predictive analytics may offer a unique opportunity to prevent NTx-AKI events. This article describes prior and current approaches to NTx-AKI prediction and offers three novel use cases for electronic health record-enabled NTx-AKI forecasting and risk profiling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Case report of electronic cigarettes possibly associated with eosinophilic pneumonitis in a previously healthy active-duty sailor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thota, Darshan; Latham, Emi

    2014-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a technology that has been touted as a safe and effective alternative to traditional cigarettes. There is, however, a paucity of literature showing the adverse outcomes of e-cigarettes and a correlation with acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP). To present a possible association between e-cigarettes and AEP. A 20-year-old previously healthy man was found to develop AEP after smoking an e-cigarette. He was treated with antibiotics and steroids and his symptoms improved. Though an alternative to traditional cigarettes, e-cigarettes can have unpredictable and potentially serious adverse effects. More research needs to be conducted to determine their safety. If seeing a patient in the ED with pulmonary symptoms after use of e-cigarettes, AEP should be considered in the differential. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Deep depletions of total electron content associated with severe mid-latitude gigahertz scintillations during geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, T.; Kumagai, H.

    1985-01-01

    Using 136-MHz Faraday rotation data obtained at three closely spaced stations, we present evidence that severe nightime gigahertz scintillations, which appear rarely at mid-latitudes around Japan only during geomagnetic storm conditions, are closely associated with deep depletions of total electron content (TEC). The TEC depletions amount to 2--8 x 10 16 el/m 2 (10--30% of the background TEC), and their durations range from 10 min to 1 hour. These depletions move northeastward or eastward with velocities between 60 and 260 m/s. The depletions are probably not counterparts of the equatorial bubbles but seem to be formed in localized regions around Japan under complicated and peculiar ionospheric conditions. There is an indication that the oscillation of the F region caused by large-scale TID's propagating from north to south (approx.600 m/s) may initiate the generation of the depletion

  4. Elves and associated electron density changes due to cloud-to-ground and in-cloud lightning discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, R. A.; Inan, U. S.; Glukhov, V. S.

    2010-04-01

    A 3-D finite difference time domain model is used to simulate the lightning electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and its interaction with the lower ionosphere. Results agree with the frequently observed, doughnut-shaped optical signature of elves but show that the structure exhibits asymmetry due to the presence of Earth's ambient magnetic field. Furthermore, in-cloud (horizontal) lightning channels produce observable optical emissions without the doughnut shape and, in fact, produce a much stronger optical output for the same channel current. Electron density perturbations associated with elves are also calculated, with contributions from attachment and ionization. Results presented as a function of parameters such as magnetic field direction, dipole current orientation, altitude and amplitude, and ambient ionospheric density profile demonstrate the highly nonlinear nature of the EMP-ionosphere interaction. Ionospheric effects of a sequence of in-cloud discharges are calculated, simulating a burst of in-cloud lightning activity and resulting in large density changes in the overlying ionosphere.

  5. Evaluation of extreme ionospheric total electron content gradient associated with plasma bubbles for GNSS Ground-Based Augmentation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, S.; Yoshihara, T.

    2017-08-01

    Associated with plasma bubbles, extreme spatial gradients in ionospheric total electron content (TEC) were observed on 8 April 2008 at Ishigaki (24.3°N, 124.2°E, +19.6° magnetic latitude), Japan. The largest gradient was 3.38 TECU km-1 (total electron content unit, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2), which is equivalent to an ionospheric delay gradient of 540 mm km-1 at the GPS L1 frequency (1.57542 GHz). This value is confirmed by using multiple estimating methods. The observed value exceeds the maximum ionospheric gradient that has ever been observed (412 mm km-1 or 2.59 TECU km-1) to be associated with a severe magnetic storm. It also exceeds the assumed maximum value (500 mm km-1 or 3.08 TECU km-1) which was used to validate the draft international standard for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Ground-Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS) to support Category II/III approaches and landings. The steepest part of this extreme gradient had a scale size of 5.3 km, and the front-normal velocities were estimated to be 71 m s-1 with a wavefront-normal direction of east-northeastward. The total width of the transition region from outside to inside the plasma bubble was estimated to be 35.3 km. The gradient of relatively small spatial scale size may fall between an aircraft and a GBAS ground subsystem and may be undetectable by both aircraft and ground.

  6. Associations between Electronic Media Use and Involvement in Violence, Alcohol and Drug Use among United States High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denniston, Maxine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We identified associations between time spent watching television and time spent playing video or computer games or using computers and involvement in interpersonal violence, alcohol and drug use in a nationally representative sample of United States high school students.Methods: We analyzed data from the 2007 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Exposure variables were time spent watching television and time spent playing computer or video games or using computers (hereafter denoted as “computer/video game use” on an average school day; outcome variables included multiple measures assessing involvement in violence and alcohol or drug use. Chi-square tests were used to identify statistically significant associations between each exposure variable and each of the outcome variables. We used logistic regression to obtain crude odds ratios for outcome variables with a significant chi-square p-value and to obtain adjusted odds ratios controlling for sex, race, and grade in school.Results: Overall, 35.4% (95% CI=33.1%-37.7% of students reported frequent television (TV use and 24.9% (95% CI=22.9%-27.0% reported frequent computer/video game use. A number of risk behaviors, including involvement in physical fights and initiation of alcohol use before age 13, were significantly associated with frequent TV use or frequent computer/video game use, even after controlling for sex, race/ethnicity and grade.Conclusion: Findings highlight the need for additional research to better understand the mechanisms by which electronic media exposure and health-risk behaviors are associated and for the development of strategies that seek to understand how the content and context (e.g., watching with peers, having computer in common area of media use influence risk behaviors among youth. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(3:310-315.

  7. Characteristics associated with awareness, perceptions, and use of electronic nicotine delivery systems among young US Midwestern adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kelvin; Forster, Jean

    2013-03-01

    We assessed the characteristics associated with the awareness, perceptions, and use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (e-cigarettes) among young adults. We collected data in 2010-2011 from a cohort of 2624 US Midwestern adults aged 20 to 28 years. We assessed awareness and use of e-cigarettes, perceptions of them as a smoking cessation aid, and beliefs about their harmfulness and addictiveness relative to cigarettes and estimated their associations with demographic characteristics, smoking status, and peer smoking. Overall, 69.9% of respondents were aware of e-cigarettes, 7.0% had ever used e-cigarettes, and 1.2% had used e-cigarettes in the past 30 days. Men, current and former smokers, and participants who had at least 1 close friend who smoked were more likely to be aware of and to have used e-cigarettes. Among those who were aware of e-cigarettes, 44.5% agreed e-cigarettes can help people quit smoking, 52.8% agreed e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, and 26.3% agreed e-cigarettes are less addictive than cigarettes. Health communication interventions to provide correct information about e-cigarettes and regulation of e-cigarette marketing may be effective in reducing young adults' experimentation with e-cigarettes.

  8. Characteristics Associated With Awareness, Perceptions, and Use of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Among Young US Midwestern Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the characteristics associated with the awareness, perceptions, and use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (e-cigarettes) among young adults. Methods. We collected data in 2010–2011 from a cohort of 2624 US Midwestern adults aged 20 to 28 years. We assessed awareness and use of e-cigarettes, perceptions of them as a smoking cessation aid, and beliefs about their harmfulness and addictiveness relative to cigarettes and estimated their associations with demographic characteristics, smoking status, and peer smoking. Results. Overall, 69.9% of respondents were aware of e-cigarettes, 7.0% had ever used e-cigarettes, and 1.2% had used e-cigarettes in the past 30 days. Men, current and former smokers, and participants who had at least 1 close friend who smoked were more likely to be aware of and to have used e-cigarettes. Among those who were aware of e-cigarettes, 44.5% agreed e-cigarettes can help people quit smoking, 52.8% agreed e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, and 26.3% agreed e-cigarettes are less addictive than cigarettes. Conclusions. Health communication interventions to provide correct information about e-cigarettes and regulation of e-cigarette marketing may be effective in reducing young adults’ experimentation with e-cigarettes. PMID:23327246

  9. Exploring the Association Between Electronic Health Record Use and Burnout Among Psychiatry Residents and Faculty: a Pilot Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaney, Nicholas M; Torous, John; Greenberg, William E

    2018-05-21

    Burnout is a phenomenon with profound negative effects on the US healthcare system. Little is known about the relationship between time spent working on electronic health record (EHR) and burnout among psychiatry residents. The purpose of this study is to generate preliminary data on EHR use and burnout among psychiatry residents and faculty. In August 2017, psychiatry residents and faculty at an academic medical center were given the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), a standardized measurement tool for burnout, and a survey of factors related to EHR use and potential risk factors for burnout. MBI data along with selected burnout risk and protective factors were analyzed with R Studio software. Responses were obtained from 40 psychiatry residents (73%) and 12 clinical faculty members (40%). Residents reported 22 h per week using EHR on average. Mean score of residents surveyed in postgraduate year (PGY)-1-4 met criteria for high emotional exhaustion associated with burnout. The magnitude of correlation between EHR use and emotional exhaustion was stronger than for other burnout factors including sleep, exercise, and clinical service. Psychiatry residents show signs of high emotional exhaustion, which is associated with burnout. Results demonstrate a strong positive correlation between EHR use and resident burnout. Time spent on EHR use may be an area of importance for psychiatry program directors and other psychiatric educators to consider when seeking to minimize burnout and promote wellness.

  10. Association between electronic equipment in the bedroom and sedentary lifestyle, physical activity, and body mass index of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the association between electronic devices in the bedroom with sedentary time and physical activity, both assessed by accelerometry, in addition to body mass index in children from São Caetano do Sul. Methods: The sample consisted of 441 children. The presence of electronic equipment (television, personal computer, and videogames in the bedroom was assessed by a questionnaire. For seven consecutive days, children used an accelerometer to objectively monitor the sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Body mass index was categorized as suggested by the World Health Organization. Results: Overall, 73.9%, 54.2% and 42.8% of children had TV, computer, and videogames in the bedroom, respectively, and spent an average of 500.7 and 59.1 min/day of sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Of the children, 45.3% were overweight/obese. Girls with a computer in the bedroom (45 min/day performed less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than those without it (51.4 min/day. Similar results were observed for body mass index in boys. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was higher and body mass index was lower in children that had no electronic equipment in the bedroom. Presence of a computer (β = −4.798 and the combination TV + computer (β = −3.233 were negatively associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Videogames and the combinations with two or three electronic devices were positively associated with body mass index. Sedentary time was not associated with electronic equipment. Conclusion: Electronic equipment in the children's bedroom can negatively affect moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and body mass index regardless of gender, school, and annual family income, which can contribute to physical inactivity and childhood obesity. Resumo: Objetivo: Descrever a associação entre equipamentos eletrônicos no quarto com tempo sedentário e atividade f

  11. EFFECTS OF PRESS PRESSURE ON GLUE LINE THICKNESS AND PROPERTIES OF LAMINATED VENEER LUMBER GLUED WITH MELAMINE UREA FORMALDEHYDE ADHESIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Kurt,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Laminated veneer lumbers (LVLs were manufactured from half-round sliced I-214 hybrid poplar clone veneers with MUF adhesives using press pressures ranging from 2.5 to 15 kg cm-2. The results showed that the press pressures affected the glue line thickness (GLT and the physical and mechanical properties of the LVLs. Higher specific gravity (SG and mechanical properties, but lower GLT were developed as a result of using higher press pressures. The optimum press pressure was found to be 10 kg cm-2 in relation to GLT, SG, and mechanical properties. Significant linear correlations were found between GLT and mechanical properties. GLT can be used to determine the quality of wood bonding and may become a valuable tool for this purpose. Reliable data on the optimum GLT and press pressures can be used to design safe wood bonding applications in all aspects of wood based composites, as well as wood constructions when appropriate techniques are adopted to measure the GLT.

  12. Performance of an electronic health record-based phenotype algorithm to identify community associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cases and controls for genetic association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L. Jackson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA is one of the most common causes of skin and soft tissue infections in the United States, and a variety of genetic host factors are suspected to be risk factors for recurrent infection. Based on the CDC definition, we have developed and validated an electronic health record (EHR based CA-MRSA phenotype algorithm utilizing both structured and unstructured data. Methods The algorithm was validated at three eMERGE consortium sites, and positive predictive value, negative predictive value and sensitivity, were calculated. The algorithm was then run and data collected across seven total sites. The resulting data was used in GWAS analysis. Results Across seven sites, the CA-MRSA phenotype algorithm identified a total of 349 cases and 7761 controls among the genotyped European and African American biobank populations. PPV ranged from 68 to 100% for cases and 96 to 100% for controls; sensitivity ranged from 94 to 100% for cases and 75 to 100% for controls. Frequency of cases in the populations varied widely by site. There were no plausible GWAS-significant (p < 5 E −8 findings. Conclusions Differences in EHR data representation and screening patterns across sites may have affected identification of cases and controls and accounted for varying frequencies across sites. Future work identifying these patterns is necessary.

  13. [THE CHARACTERISTICS OF MORPHOLOGY OF BIOFILM OF PERIODONTIUM UNDER INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF GUMS (CHRONIC CATARRHAL GINGIVITIS, CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS, CANDIDA-ASSOCIATED PERIODONTITIS) ACCORDING RESULTS OF ELECTRONIC MICROSCOPY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolitov, E V; Didenko, L V; Tzarev, V N

    2015-12-01

    The study was carried out to analyze morphology of biofilm of periodontium and to develop electronic microscopic criteria of differentiated diagnostic of inflammatory diseases of gums. The scanning electronic microscopy was applied to analyze samples of bioflm of periodont from 70 patients. Including ten patients with every nosologic form of groups with chronic catarrhal periodontitis. of light, mean and severe degree, chronic catarrhal gingivitis, Candida-associated paroperiodontitis and 20 healthy persons with intact periodontium. The analysis was implemented using dual-beam scanning electronic microscope Quanta 200 3D (FEI company, USA) and walk-through electronic micJEM 100B (JEOL, Japan). To detect marker DNA of periodont pathogenic bacteria in analyzed samples the kit of reagentsfor polymerase chain reaction "MultiDent-5" ("GenLab", Russia). The scanning electronic microscopy in combination with transmission electronic microscopy and polymerase chain reaction permits analyzing structure, composition and degree of development of biofilm of periodontium and to apply differentiated diagnostic of different nosologic forms of inflammatory diseases of periodontium, including light form of chronic periodontitis and gingivitis. The electronic microscopical indications of diseases ofperiodontium of inflammatory character are established: catarrhal gingivitis, (coccal morphological alternate), chronic periodontitis (bacillary morphological alternate), Candida-associated periodontitis (Candida morphological alternate of biofilm ofperiodontium).

  14. On the certification of forest concession: non-governmental organizations, enterprises, and the construction of a new institutional frame for the development of the lumber industry in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Sampaio Carneiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the construction process of forest certification in the Brazilian Amazon, emphasizing its importance for the new frame of lumber industry on that region. We sustain that one of the main results of the promotion of forest certification by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC in Amazon was the constitution of an alliance between the environmentalist Non-Governmental Organizations, representative segments of forest business and members of the state bureaucracy for the promotion of lumber exploration based on forest management. In this perspective, the results produced by certification must be understood as part of a process of promotion of forest resources access policies, such as the approval of the Public Forests Management Law, and the creation of state entities destined to the promotion of lumber extraction on Amazon.

  15. Study of the properties of an electron linac beam by means of the electromagnetic fields associated with the beam; Etude des proprietes du faisceau d'electrons d'un accelerateur lineaire au moyen des champs electromagnetiques associes a ce faisceau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergere, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    For measuring the diverse characteristic parameters of a Linac electron beam, the one method causing the least perturbation to the electron beam itself, consists in the detection of signals induced in certain types of detectors by the electromagnets fields associated with the beam. Some particular detectors are then described, for measuring the following characteristic parameters of a Linac electron beam; a) electron beam peak current, a) longitudinal dimension and density of an elementary electron bunch, c) phase position of the electrons on the travelling sine wave of the accelerating field, d) transverse position of the beam. These particular electrodes are then used to provide experimental data In order to check the theoretical computations giving the longitudinal and transversal motions Of the electrons during their acceleration. (author) [French] Parmi les methodes de mesure des diverses caracteristiques du faisceau d'electrons d'un accelerateur lineaire, celles qui perturbent le moins le faisceau sont les methodes dans lesquelles l'energie du signal de mesure provient de la perturbation par l'electrode de mesure des champs electromagnetiques associes au faisceau. On decrit les electrodes de ce type qui ont ete mises au point pour mesurer les caracteristiques suivantes du faisceau d'electrons: a) courant crete, b) extension en phase d'un paquet elementaire d'electrons, c) phase d'accrochage des electrons, d) position transversale moyenne des electrons. On decrit ensuite comment les signaux provenant de ces diverses electrodes peuvent etre utilises pour verifier experimentalement les previsions theoriques des mouvements longitudinaux et transversaux des electrons en cours d'acceleration. (auteur)

  16. Study of the properties of an electron linac beam by means of the electromagnetic fields associated with the beam; Etude des proprietes du faisceau d'electrons d'un accelerateur lineaire au moyen des champs electromagnetiques associes a ce faisceau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergere, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    For measuring the diverse characteristic parameters of a Linac electron beam, the one method causing the least perturbation to the electron beam itself, consists in the detection of signals induced in certain types of detectors by the electromagnets fields associated with the beam. Some particular detectors are then described, for measuring the following characteristic parameters of a Linac electron beam; a) electron beam peak current, a) longitudinal dimension and density of an elementary electron bunch, c) phase position of the electrons on the travelling sine wave of the accelerating field, d) transverse position of the beam. These particular electrodes are then used to provide experimental data In order to check the theoretical computations giving the longitudinal and transversal motions Of the electrons during their acceleration. (author) [French] Parmi les methodes de mesure des diverses caracteristiques du faisceau d'electrons d'un accelerateur lineaire, celles qui perturbent le moins le faisceau sont les methodes dans lesquelles l'energie du signal de mesure provient de la perturbation par l'electrode de mesure des champs electromagnetiques associes au faisceau. On decrit les electrodes de ce type qui ont ete mises au point pour mesurer les caracteristiques suivantes du faisceau d'electrons: a) courant crete, b) extension en phase d'un paquet elementaire d'electrons, c) phase d'accrochage des electrons, d) position transversale moyenne des electrons. On decrit ensuite comment les signaux provenant de ces diverses electrodes peuvent etre utilises pour verifier experimentalement les previsions theoriques des mouvements longitudinaux et transversaux des electrons en cours d'acceleration. (auteur)

  17. Intermittent electron density and temperature fluctuations and associated fluxes in the Alcator C-Mod scrape-off layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kube, R.; Garcia, O. E.; Theodorsen, A.; Brunner, D.; Kuang, A. Q.; LaBombard, B.; Terry, J. L.

    2018-06-01

    The Alcator C-Mod mirror Langmuir probe system has been used to sample data time series of fluctuating plasma parameters in the outboard mid-plane far scrape-off layer. We present a statistical analysis of one second long time series of electron density, temperature, radial electric drift velocity and the corresponding particle and electron heat fluxes. These are sampled during stationary plasma conditions in an ohmically heated, lower single null diverted discharge. The electron density and temperature are strongly correlated and feature fluctuation statistics similar to the ion saturation current. Both electron density and temperature time series are dominated by intermittent, large-amplitude burst with an exponential distribution of both burst amplitudes and waiting times between them. The characteristic time scale of the large-amplitude bursts is approximately 15 μ {{s}}. Large-amplitude velocity fluctuations feature a slightly faster characteristic time scale and appear at a faster rate than electron density and temperature fluctuations. Describing these time series as a superposition of uncorrelated exponential pulses, we find that probability distribution functions, power spectral densities as well as auto-correlation functions of the data time series agree well with predictions from the stochastic model. The electron particle and heat fluxes present large-amplitude fluctuations. For this low-density plasma, the radial electron heat flux is dominated by convection, that is, correlations of fluctuations in the electron density and radial velocity. Hot and dense blobs contribute only a minute fraction of the total fluctuation driven heat flux.

  18. Higher Household Income and the Availability of Electronic Devices and Transport at Home Are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference in Colombian Children: The ACFIES Study

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Gómez-Arbeláez; Paul A. Camacho; Daniel D. Cohen; Katherine Rincón-Romero; Laura Alvarado-Jurado; Sandra Pinzón; John Duperly; Patricio López-Jaramillo

    2014-01-01

    Background: The current “epidemic” of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Objective: To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC), as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents fro...

  19. Physical and mechanical properties of parallel strand lumber made from hot pre-pressed long strand oil palm trunk waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridiyanti, Inayah; Massijaya, M. Y.

    2018-03-01

    This research was focused on the utilization of oil palm trunk waste as a Parallel Strand Lumber (PSL) raw material. This research aimed to analyze the effect of adhesive types and glue spreads to the physical and mechanical properties of PSL. The adhesive types used were isocyanate and urea formaldehyde adhesives. The glue spreads used were 150 g/m2 and 300 g/m2. The research results showed that the moisture content of PSL ranged from 9.30% to 11.80%. The PSL density ranged from 0.64 to 0.78 g/cm3. The volume shrinkage ranged from 5.69 to 7.17%. Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) parallel to the grain and edge side ranged from 51.6 × 103 to 98.3 × 103 kg/cm2, and 62.1 × 103 to 99.9 × 103 kg/cm2, respectively. The Modulus of Rupture (MOR) parallel to the grain and edge side ranged from 269 to 724 kg/cm2 and 342 to 728 kg/cm2, respectively. The PSL hardness perpendicular to the grain, parallel to the grain and the edge side ranged from 135 to 300 kg/cm2, 87 to 321 kg/cm2, and 128 to 251 kg/cm2, respectively. The compressive strength ranged from 181 to 231 kg/cm2. The best adhesive and glue spreads of PSL was isocyanate with glue spread 300 g/m2. PSL made from hot pre-pressed long strand of oil palm trunk waste bonded by isocyanate fulfill JAS 1152: 2007. However, those of bonded by urea formaldehyde failed to fulfill the standard. The physical and mechanical properties of PSL made from oil palm trunk were better compared to those of solid oil palm trunk.

  20. Large-Scale Variations in Lumber Value Recovery of Yellow Birch and Sugar Maple in Quebec, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Hassegawa

    Full Text Available Silvicultural restoration measures have been implemented in the northern hardwoods forests of southern Quebec, Canada, but their financial applicability is often hampered by the depleted state of the resource. To help identify sites most suited for the production of high quality timber, where the potential return on silvicultural investments should be the highest, this study assessed the impact of stand and site characteristics on timber quality in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh. and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.. For this purpose, lumber value recovery (LVR, an estimate of the summed value of boards contained in a unit volume of round wood, was used as an indicator of timber quality. Predictions of LVR were made for yellow birch and sugar maple trees contained in a network of more than 22000 temporary sample plots across the Province. Next, stand-level variables were selected and models to predict LVR were built using the boosted regression trees method. Finally, the occurrence of spatial clusters was verified by a hotspot analysis. Results showed that in both species LVR was positively correlated with the stand age and structural diversity index, and negatively correlated with the number of merchantable stems. Yellow birch had higher LVR in areas with shallower soils, whereas sugar maple had higher LVR in regions with deeper soils. The hotspot analysis indicated that clusters of high and low LVR exist across the province for both species. Although it remains uncertain to what extent the variability of LVR may result from variations in past management practices or in inherent site quality, we argue that efforts to produce high quality timber should be prioritized in sites where LVR is predicted to be the highest.

  1. Large-Scale Variations in Lumber Value Recovery of Yellow Birch and Sugar Maple in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassegawa, Mariana; Havreljuk, Filip; Ouimet, Rock; Auty, David; Pothier, David; Achim, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Silvicultural restoration measures have been implemented in the northern hardwoods forests of southern Quebec, Canada, but their financial applicability is often hampered by the depleted state of the resource. To help identify sites most suited for the production of high quality timber, where the potential return on silvicultural investments should be the highest, this study assessed the impact of stand and site characteristics on timber quality in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.). For this purpose, lumber value recovery (LVR), an estimate of the summed value of boards contained in a unit volume of round wood, was used as an indicator of timber quality. Predictions of LVR were made for yellow birch and sugar maple trees contained in a network of more than 22000 temporary sample plots across the Province. Next, stand-level variables were selected and models to predict LVR were built using the boosted regression trees method. Finally, the occurrence of spatial clusters was verified by a hotspot analysis. Results showed that in both species LVR was positively correlated with the stand age and structural diversity index, and negatively correlated with the number of merchantable stems. Yellow birch had higher LVR in areas with shallower soils, whereas sugar maple had higher LVR in regions with deeper soils. The hotspot analysis indicated that clusters of high and low LVR exist across the province for both species. Although it remains uncertain to what extent the variability of LVR may result from variations in past management practices or in inherent site quality, we argue that efforts to produce high quality timber should be prioritized in sites where LVR is predicted to be the highest.

  2. National data showed that delayed sleep in six-year-old children was associated with excessive use of electronic devices at 12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tsuguhiko; Yorifuji, Takashi; Yamakawa, Michiyo; Inoue, Sachiko

    2018-01-31

    Cross-sectional studies have shown associations between adolescent sleep problems and the use of electronic devices, such as mobile phones, but longitudinal studies remain scarce. We explored any association between delayed bedtimes at six years old and the excessive use of electronic devices at 12 years of age. Texting was a prime focus. We analysed 9607 adolescents who owned mobile phones in 2013 using the Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Newborns in the 21st Century, which started in 2001. The outcomes were daily excessive use of a mobile phone, television (TV) and video games. Delayed bedtime at the age of six years was associated with excessive texting at weekends. The adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals obtained from logistic regression analyses were 1.88 (1.14-3.10) for the 10-11 pm group and 1.98 (1.08-3.63) for the after 11 pm group, compared with the before 9 pm group. Later bedtimes were also associated with increased risks of excessive TV viewing and video game use. Our study indicated that six-year-olds who regularly stayed up late at night used electronic devices more frequently, or for longer, at the age of 12. Parents need to be more aware of links between sleep issues and electronic devices. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Electronic medical record systems are associated with appropriate placement of HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy in rural health facilities in Kenya: a retrospective pre-post study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oluoch, Tom; Katana, Abraham; Ssempijja, Victor; Kwaro, Daniel; Langat, Patrick; Kimanga, Davies; Okeyo, Nicky; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; de Keizer, Nicolette

    2014-01-01

    There is little evidence that electronic medical record (EMR) use is associated with better compliance with clinical guidelines on initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among ART-eligible HIV patients. We assessed the effect of transitioning from paper-based to an EMR-based system on

  4. Construction and operation of a 10 MeV electron accelerator and associated experimental facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York. Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this environmental impact statement is to determine whether there would be significant environmental impacts associated with the construction of an experimental facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory for radiation chemistry research and operation of the 10-MeV electron accelerator proposed for it. The document describes the need for action, alternative actions, the affected environment, and potential environmental impacts

  5. Quality of Co-Prescribing NSAID and Gastroprotective Medications for Elders in The Netherlands and Its Association with the Electronic Medical Record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opondo, Dedan; Visscher, Stefan; Eslami, Saeid; Verheij, Robert A.; Korevaar, Joke C.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2015-01-01

    To assess guideline adherence of co-prescribing NSAID and gastroprotective medications for elders in general practice over time, and investigate its potential association with the electronic medical record (EMR) system brand used. We included patients 65 years and older who received NSAIDs between

  6. Quality of co-prescribing NSAID and gastroprotective medications for elders in The Netherlands and its association with the electronic medical record.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opondo, D.; Visscher, S.; Eslami, S.; Verheij, R.A.; Korevaar, J.C.; Abu-Hanna, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess guideline adherence of co-prescribing NSAID and gastroprotective medications for elders in general practice over time, and investigate its potential association with the electronic medical record (EMR) system brand used. Methods: We included patients 65 years and older who

  7. SU-E-T-66: Characterization of Radiation Dose Associated with Dark Currents During Beam Hold for Respiratory-Gated Electron Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessler, J; Gupta, N; Rong, Y; Weldon, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to estimate the radiation dose contributed by dark currents associated with the respiratory-gated electron therapy during beam hold. The secondary aim was to determine clinical benefits of using respiratory-gated electron therapy for left-sided breast cancer patients with positive internal mammary nodes (IMN). Methods: Measurements of the dark current-induced dose in all electron modes were performed on multiple Siemens and Varian linear accelerators by manually simulating beam-hold during respiratory gating. Dose was quantified at the machine isocenter by comparing the collected charge to the known output for all energies ranging from 6 to 18 MeV for a 10cm × 10cm field at 100 SSD with appropriate solid-water buildup. Using the Eclipse treatment planning system, we compared the additional dose associated with dark current using gated electron fields to the dose uncertainties associated with matching gated photon fields and ungated electron fields. Dose uncertainties were seen as hot and cold spots along the match line of the fields. Results: The magnitude of the dose associated with dark current is highly correlated to the energy of the beam and the amount of time the beam is on hold. For lower energies (6–12 MeV), there was minimal dark current dose (0.1–1.3 cGy/min). Higher energies (15–18 MeV) showed measurable amount of doses. The dark current associated with the electron beam-hold varied between linear accelerator vendors and depended on dark current suppression and the age of the linear accelerator. Conclusion: For energies up to 12 MeV, the dose associated with the dark current for respiratorygated electron therapy was shown to be negligible, and therefore should be considered an option for treating IMN positive left-sided breast cancer patients. However, at higher energies the benefit of respiratory gating may be outweighed by dose due to the dark current

  8. Association between electronic equipment in the bedroom and sedentary lifestyle, physical activity, and body mass index of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: Electronic equipment in the children's bedroom can negatively affect moderate‐to‐vigorous physical activity and body mass index regardless of gender, school, and annual family income, which can contribute to physical inactivity and childhood obesity.

  9. The association between use of electronic media and prevalence of headache in adolescents: results from a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milde-Busch, Astrid; von Kries, Rüdiger; Thomas, Silke; Heinrich, Sabine; Straube, Andreas; Radon, Katja

    2010-02-09

    Use of electronic media, i.e. mobile phones, computers, television, game consoles or listening to music, is very common, especially amongst adolescents. There is currently a debate about whether frequent use of these media might have adverse effects on health, especially on headaches, which are among the most-reported health complaints in adolescents. The aim of the present study was to assess associations between frequent use of electronic media and the prevalence of different types of headache in adolescents. Data were derived from a population-based sample (n = 1,025, ages 13-17 years). Type of headache (i.e. migraine, tension-type headache, unclassifiable headache) was ascertained by standardized questionnaires for subjects reporting headache episodes at least once per month during the last six months. Duration of electronic media use was assessed during personal interviews. Associations were estimated with logistic regression models adjusted for age group, sex, family condition and socio-economic status. Most of the adolescents used computers (85%), watched television (90%) or listened to music (90%) daily, otherwise only 23% of the participants used their mobile phones and only 25% played with game consoles on a daily basis. A statistically significant association between listening to music and any headache (odds ratio 1.8; 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.1 for 30 minutes per day, 2.1; 1.2-3.7 for 1 to 2 hours per day; 2.0; 1.2-3.5 for 3 hours and longer listening to music per day) was observed. When stratifying for type of headache, no statistically significant association was seen. Apart from an association between listening to music on a daily basis and overall headache, no consistent associations between the use of electronic media and different types of headache were observed.

  10. The association between use of electronic media and prevalence of headache in adolescents: results from a population-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straube Andreas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of electronic media, i.e. mobile phones, computers, television, game consoles or listening to music, is very common, especially amongst adolescents. There is currently a debate about whether frequent use of these media might have adverse effects on health, especially on headaches, which are among the most-reported health complaints in adolescents. The aim of the present study was to assess associations between frequent use of electronic media and the prevalence of different types of headache in adolescents. Methods Data were derived from a population-based sample (n = 1,025, ages 13-17 years. Type of headache (i.e. migraine, tension-type headache, unclassifiable headache was ascertained by standardized questionnaires for subjects reporting headache episodes at least once per month during the last six months. Duration of electronic media use was assessed during personal interviews. Associations were estimated with logistic regression models adjusted for age group, sex, family condition and socio-economic status. Results Most of the adolescents used computers (85%, watched television (90% or listened to music (90% daily, otherwise only 23% of the participants used their mobile phones and only 25% played with game consoles on a daily basis. A statistically significant association between listening to music and any headache (odds ratio 1.8; 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.1 for 30 minutes per day, 2.1; 1.2-3.7 for 1 to 2 hours per day; 2.0; 1.2-3.5 for 3 hours and longer listening to music per day was observed. When stratifying for type of headache, no statistically significant association was seen. Conclusions Apart from an association between listening to music on a daily basis and overall headache, no consistent associations between the use of electronic media and different types of headache were observed.

  11. A pilot study to evaluate the magnitude of association of the use of electronic personal health records with patient activation and empowerment in HIV-infected veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Cédric B. Crouch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The HITECH Act signed into law in 2009 requires hospitals to provide patients with electronic access to their health information through an electronic personal health record (ePHR in order to receive Medicare/Medicaid incentive payments. Little is known about who uses these systems or the impact these systems will have on patient outcomes in HIV care. The health care empowerment model provides rationale for the hypothesis that knowledge from an electronic personal health record can lead to greater patient empowerment resulting in improved outcomes. The objective was to determine the patient characteristics and patient activation, empowerment, satisfaction, knowledge of their CD4, Viral Loads, and antiretroviral medication, and medication adherence outcomes associated with electronic personal health record use in Veterans living with HIV at the San Francisco VA Medical Center. The participants included HIV-Infected Veterans receiving care in a low volume HIV-clinic at the San Francisco VA Medical Center, divided into two groups of users and non-users of electronic personal health records. The research was conducted using in-person surveys either online or on paper and data abstraction from medical records for current anti-retroviral therapy (ART, CD4 count, and plasma HIV-1 viral load. The measures included the Patient Activation Measure, Health Care Empowerment Inventory, ART adherence, provider satisfaction, current CD4 count, current plasma viral load, knowledge of current ART, knowledge of CD4 counts, and knowledge of viral load. In all, 40 participants were recruited. The use of electronic personal health records was associated with significantly higher levels of patient activation and levels of patient satisfaction for getting timely appointments, care, and information. ePHR was also associated with greater proportions of undetectable plasma HIV-1 viral loads, of knowledge of current CD4 count, and of knowledge of current viral load. The

  12. Higher household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home are associated with higher waist circumference in Colombian children: the ACFIES study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Arbeláez, Diego; Camacho, Paul A; Cohen, Daniel D; Rincón-Romero, Katherine; Alvarado-Jurado, Laura; Pinzón, Sandra; Duperly, John; López-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2014-02-07

    The current "epidemic" of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC), as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents from Bucaramanga, Colombia. Cross-sectional study of public elementary and high school population, of low-middle socioeconomic status. A total of 668 schoolchildren were recruited. After adjusting for potential confounders, significant positive associations between waist circumference and higher household income (p = 0.011), and waist circumference and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home (p = 0.026) were found. In low-middle socioeconomic status schoolchildren in a developing country, those from relatively more affluent families had greater waist circumference, an association that is opposite to that observed in developed countries. This finding could be related to higher income family's ability to purchase electronic devices and motorized transport which discourage physical activity and for their children to buy desirable and more costly western fast food.

  13. Higher Household Income and the Availability of Electronic Devices and Transport at Home Are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference in Colombian Children: The ACFIES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gómez-Arbeláez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current “epidemic” of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Objective: To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC, as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents from Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study of public elementary and high school population, of low-middle socioeconomic status. Results: A total of 668 schoolchildren were recruited. After adjusting for potential confounders, significant positive associations between waist circumference and higher household income (p = 0.011, and waist circumference and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home (p = 0.026 were found. Conclusions: In low-middle socioeconomic status schoolchildren in a developing country, those from relatively more affluent families had greater waist circumference, an association that is opposite to that observed in developed countries. This finding could be related to higher income family’s ability to purchase electronic devices and motorized transport which discourage physical activity and for their children to buy desirable and more costly western fast food.

  14. The association between body mass index and duration spent on electronic devices in children and adolescents in Western Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Agha, Abdulmoein E; Nizar, F Sarah; Nahhas, Anwar M

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the duration spent on electronic devices, and to assess the factors that can cause obesity among children. A cross-sectional study including 541 participants. Data was collected from March to June 2015 via ambulatory pediatric clinics in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The BMI standard deviation was calculated based on Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) standards. The mean age of the participants was 10.1 years. Children who spent ≥2 hours daily on electronic devices showed an increased BMI, and made up 68.4% of the sample. An increased BMI was more common among children who spent ≥2 hours daily on electronic devices. The relationship between BMI, reduced physical activity, and eating during television viewing was determined.

  15. The association between body mass index and duration spent on electronic devices in children and adolescents in Western Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmoein E. Al-Agha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI and the duration spent on electronic devices, and to assess the factors that can cause obesity among children. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 541 participants. Data was collected from March to June 2015 via ambulatory pediatric clinics in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The BMI standard deviation was calculated based on Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC standards. Results: The mean age of the participants was 10.1 years. Children who spent ≥2 hours daily on electronic devices showed an increased BMI, and made up 68.4% of the sample. Conclusion: An increased BMI was more common among children who spent ≥2 hours daily on electronic devices. The relationship between BMI, reduced physical activity, and eating during television viewing was determined.

  16. Study of luminous emissions associated to electron emissions in radiofrequency cavities; Etude des emissions lumineuses associees aux emissions electroniques dans les cavites hyperfrequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maissa, S

    1996-11-26

    This study investigates luminous emissions simultaneously to electron emissions and examines their features in order to better understand the field electron emission phenomenon. A RF cavity, operating at room temperature and in pulsed mode, joined to a sophisticated experimental apparatus has been especially developed. The electron and luminous emissions are investigated on cleaned or with metallic, graphitic and dielectric particles contaminated RF surfaces in order to study their influence on these phenomena. During the surface processing, unstable luminous spots glowing during one RF pulse are detected. Their apparition is promoted in the vicinity of the metallic particles or scratches. Two hypotheses could explain their origin: the presence of micro-plasmas associated to electronic explosive emission during processing or the thermal radiation of the melted metal during this emission. Stable luminous spots glowing during several RF pulses are also detected and appear to increase on RF surfaces contaminated with dielectric particles, leading to strong and explosive luminous emissions. Two interpretations are considered: the initiation of surface breakdowns on the dielectric particles or the heating by the RF field at temperatures sufficiently intense to provoke their thermal radiation then their explosion. Finally a superconducting cavity has been adapted to observe luminous spots, which differ from the former ones bu their star shape and could be associated to micro-plasmas, revealed by the starbursts observed on superconducting cavity walls. (author) 102 refs.

  17. Scanning electron-microscopic and X-ray-microanalytic observation of diesel-emission particles associated with mutagenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, K.; Yoshitsugu, K.; Tokiwa, H.; Fukuoka Environmental Research Center

    1983-01-01

    The particles formed by diesel combustion, which may contain various mutagenic chemicals like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), are analyzed in their morphology by scanning electron microscopy; their sulfur content is detected by X-ray microanalysis, and mutagenicity is tested with a Salmonella typhimurium bioassay. The authors find a close correlation between sulfur content and mutagenicity of PAH. (Auth.)

  18. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  19. The association between body mass index and duration spent on electronic devices in children and adolescents in Western Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Agha, Abdulmoein E.; Nizar, F. Sarah; Nahhas, Anwar M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the duration spent on electronic devices, and to assess the factors that can cause obesity among children. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 541 participants. Data was collected from March to June 2015 via ambulatory pediatric clinics in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The BMI standard deviation was calculated based on Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) standards. Results: The mean age of...

  20. Association of intracellular and synaptic organization in cochlear inner hair cells revealed by 3D electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Bullen, Anwen; West, Timothy; Moores, Carolyn; Ashmore, Jonathan; Fleck, Roland A.; MacLellan-Gibson, Kirsty; Forge, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ways in which cell architecture is modelled to meet cell function is a poorly understood facet of cell biology. To address this question, we have studied the cytoarchitecture of a cell with highly specialised organisation, the cochlear inner hair cell (IHC), using multiple hierarchies of three-dimensional (3D) electron microscopy analyses. We show that synaptic terminal distribution on the IHC surface correlates with cell shape, and the distribution of a highly organised network ...

  1. Behavioral Reactivity Associated With Electronic Monitoring of Environmental Health Interventions--A Cluster Randomized Trial with Water Filters and Cookstoves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A; Tellez-Sanchez, Sarita; Wick, Carson; Kirby, Miles; Zambrano, Laura; Abadie Rosa, Ghislaine; Clasen, Thomas F; Nagel, Corey

    2016-04-05

    Subject reactivity--when research participants change their behavior in response to being observed--has been documented showing the effect of human observers. Electronics sensors are increasingly used to monitor environmental health interventions, but the effect of sensors on behavior has not been assessed. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in Rwanda among 170 households (70 blinded to the presence of the sensor, 100 open) testing whether awareness of an electronic monitor would result in a difference in weekly use of household water filters and improved cookstoves over a four-week surveillance period. A 63% increase in number of uses of the water filter per week between the groups was observed in week 1, an average of 4.4 times in the open group and 2.83 times in the blind group, declining in week 4 to an insignificant 55% difference of 2.82 uses in the open, and 1.93 in the blind. There were no significant differences in the number of stove uses per week between the two groups. For both filters and stoves, use decreased in both groups over four-week installation periods. This study suggests behavioral monitoring should attempt to account for reactivity to awareness of electronic monitors that persists for weeks or more.

  2. Associations Between Personality Traits and Adherence to Antidepressants Assessed Through Self-Report, Electronic Monitoring, and Pharmacy Dispensing Data: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Hans; Amin, Darya F H; Taxis, Katja; Heerdink, Eibert R; Egberts, Antoine C G; Gardarsdottir, Helga

    2016-10-01

    Treatment with antidepressants is often compromised by substantial nonadherence. To understand nonadherence, specific medication-related behaviors and beliefs have been studied, but less is known about broader and temporally stable personality "traits." Furthermore, adherence has often been assessed by a single method. Hence, we investigated associations between the Big Five personality traits and adherence assessed by self-report, electronic drug use monitoring, and dispensing data. Using the Big Five Inventory, we assessed the personality traits "openness," "conscientiousness," "extraversion," "agreeableness," and "neuroticism" of patients treated with antidepressants who were invited through community pharmacies. Self-reported adherence was assessed with the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (score >24), electronic monitoring with medication event monitoring system (MEMS) devices (therapy days missed ≤ 10% and personality traits, the third and fourth quartiles of "conscientiousness" were associated with better self-reported adherence (odds ratio, 3.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-9.86 and odds ratio, 2.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-8.08; P ≤ 0.05). No relationships were found between personality traits and adherence assessed through electronic drug use monitoring or dispensing data. We therefore conclude that adherence to antidepressant therapy seems to be largely unrelated to personality traits.

  3. “Terms and conditions of use” for journal articles and scholarly journals : A survey on the licensing processes associated with electronic scholarly materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Masako

    Copyright policies and terms directly affect the approach taken by journal editors, authors and readers regarding dealing with of articles and/or copyrighted materials. However Japanese academic society publishers have some trouble in licensing processes for copyrighted materials as previous studies pointed out. In 2011 we conducted a survey on “terms and conditions of use” of electronic journal and the licensing practices associated with electronic scholarly materials. The survey showed commercial publishers have enough announcements on reuse of copyrighted materials for readers. On the other hand Japanese academic societies' cares for readers tend to not enough. They publish journals both in Japanese and in English. Subsequently, English and Japanese templates of “terms and conditions of use” for Japanese academic society publishers were proposed. The templates were developed based on an understanding of the International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers' “STM Permissions Guidelines,” which were designed to establish a standard and reasonable approach to granting permission for republication to all signatory publishers.The survey showed that Japanese academic society publishers and commercial publishers are facing the same issues regarding acceptable use of electronic supplemental materials for journal articles. This issue remains to be solved.

  4. A Select Subset of Electron Transport Chain Genes Associated with Optic Atrophy Link Mitochondria to Axon Regeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Wendy M; Hubert, Thomas; Wu, Zilu; Chisholm, Andrew D; Jin, Yishi

    2017-01-01

    The role of mitochondria within injured neurons is an area of active interest since these organelles are vital for the production of cellular energy in the form of ATP. Using mechanosensory neurons of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to test regeneration after neuronal injury in vivo , we surveyed genes related to mitochondrial function for effects on axon regrowth after laser axotomy. Genes involved in mitochondrial transport, calcium uptake, mitophagy, or fission and fusion were largely dispensable for axon regrowth, with the exception of eat-3/Opa1 . Surprisingly, many genes encoding components of the electron transport chain were dispensable for regrowth, except for the iron-sulfur proteins gas-1, nduf-2.2, nduf-7 , and isp-1 , and the putative oxidoreductase rad-8 . In these mutants, axonal development was essentially normal and axons responded normally to injury by forming regenerative growth cones, but were impaired in subsequent axon extension. Overexpression of nduf-2.2 or isp-1 was sufficient to enhance regrowth, suggesting that mitochondrial function is rate-limiting in axon regeneration. Moreover, loss of function in isp-1 reduced the enhanced regeneration caused by either a gain-of-function mutation in the calcium channel EGL-19 or overexpression of the MAP kinase DLK-1. While the cellular function of RAD-8 remains unclear, our genetic analyses place rad-8 in the same pathway as other electron transport genes in axon regeneration. Unexpectedly, rad-8 regrowth defects were suppressed by altered function in the ubiquinone biosynthesis gene clk-1 . Furthermore, we found that inhibition of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response via deletion of atfs-1 suppressed the defective regrowth in nduf-2.2 mutants. Together, our data indicate that while axon regeneration is not significantly affected by general dysfunction of cellular respiration, it is sensitive to the proper functioning of a select subset of electron transport chain genes, or to the

  5. A Search for Electron Antineutrinos Associated with Gravitational-wave Events GW150914 and GW151226 Using KamLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hachiya, T.; Hayashi, A.; Hayashida, S.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Karino, Y.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Nakamura, K.; Obara, S.; Oura, T.; Ozaki, H.; Shimizu, I.; Shirahata, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Takai, T.; Tamae, K.; Teraoka, Y.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Kozlov, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Fushimi, K.; Piepke, A.; Banks, T. I.; Berger, B. E.; Fujikawa, B. K.; O'Donnell, T.; Learned, J. G.; Maricic, J.; Sakai, M.; Winslow, L. A.; Krupczak, E.; Ouellet, J.; Efremenko, Y.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Detwiler, J. A.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M. P.; KamLAND Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    We present a search, using KamLAND, a kiloton-scale anti-neutrino detector, for low-energy anti-neutrino events that were coincident with the gravitational-wave (GW) events GW150914 and GW151226, and the candidate event LVT151012. We find no inverse beta-decay neutrino events within ±500 s of either GW signal. This non-detection is used to constrain the electron anti-neutrino fluence and the total integrated luminosity of the astrophysical sources.

  6. Fabrication and Performance of a Glue-Pressed Engineered Honeycomb Bamboo (GPEHB Structure with Finger-jointed Ends as a Potential Substitute for Wood Lumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Zhou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing scarcity of wood as a natural resource, bamboo has become a popular substitute for wood. The present work developed a high-strength original state multi-reorganization material (GPEHB, without the use of a hot press or traditional assembly. The original bamboo units were polygonized into outer contours and milled into finger-joints on each ending. The GPEHB was organized and assembled under an external press, using industrial adhesives. The mechanical properties and thermal insulation of GPEHB were characterized. Moreover, the overall GPEHB unit bending strength was 73.15 MPa, and the parallel-to-grain compression was 55.22 MPa (higher than that of Pinus sylvestris lumber, though less than that of glued laminated bamboo. The GPEHB unit overall density was 0.24 g/cm³, 76% lower than that of glued laminated bamboo, and 50% lower than Pinus sylvestris lumber. The compressive strength of GPEHB (7 units was 170.5 kN, while the compressive strength of GPEHB for 14 units was 493.5 kN, which meet the requirements of GB 50005 (2003. The bending strength of GPEHB 7 units was 12 kN, while that of 14 units was 37 kN. The heat conductivity coefficient for GPEHB was 0.25 W/mK, which is better than concrete and steel. The GPEHB has taken full advantage of its honeycomb-structured material, which allows it to avoid stress concentration in the regular polygonal corners.

  7. Optimization of the detector and associated electronics used for high-resolution liquid-scintillation alpha spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorngate, J.H.; Christian, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of various reflector geometries, light coupling liquids, photomultiplier tubes, preamplifiers and linear amplifiers were compared and the configuration found that optimized the combination of pulse-height resolution and pulse-shape discrimination. The best combination used a hemispherical reflector, filled with distilled water, coupled to an 8575 photomultiplier tube, the output of which was conditioned by a special integrating preamplifier and a double-delay-line linear amplifier. Careful choice of the scintillator, sample preparation procedures, and electronic apparatus can produce liquid-scintillation alpha spectroscopy with a pulse-height resolution of 300 keV, or less, and, by using pulse-shape discrimination, background levels as low as 0.01 counts/min. (author)

  8. Sudden post-midnight decrease in equatorial F-region electron densities associated with severe magnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Lakshmi

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of the responses of the equatorial ionosphere to a large number of severe magnetic storms shows the rapid and remarkable collapse of F-region ionisation during post-midnight hours; this is at variance with the presently accepted general behaviour of the low-latitude ionosphere during magnetic storms. This paper discusses such responses as seen in the ionosonde data at Kodaikanal (Geomagn. Lat. 0.6 N. It is also observed that during magnetic storm periods the usual increase seen in the h'F at Kodaikanal during sunset hours is considerably suppressed and these periods are also characterised by increased foF2 values. It is suggested that the primary process responsible for these dramatic pre- and post-midnight changes in foF2 during magnetic storms could be due to changes in the magnitude as well as in the direction of usual equatorial electric fields. During the post-midnight periods the change in electric-field direction from westward to eastward for a short period causes an upward E × B plasma drift resulting in increased h'F and decreased electron densities in the equatorial region. In addition, it is also suggested that the enhanced storm-induced meridional winds in the thermosphere, from the poles towards the equator, may also cause the decreases in electron density seen during post-midnight hours by spatially transporting the F-region ionisation southwards away from Kodaikanal. The paper also includes a discussion on the effects of such decreases in ionisation on low-latitude HF communications.

  9. Bi-directional associations of electronic and combustible cigarette use onset patterns with depressive symptoms in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, William V; Janssen, Tim; Kahler, Christopher W; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Leventhal, Adam M

    2017-03-01

    Whether well-documented patterns of mental health comorbidity with adolescent combustible cigarette use extend to e-cigarette use is unclear. Demonstrating associations between e-cigarette and combustible cigarette use with mental health symptomatology across adolescence may be important for promoting accurate perceptions of populations at risk for and potential consequences of tobacco product use. Adolescents (N=2460; mean age at baseline=14.1; 53.4% female; 44.1% Hispanic) who had never previously used combustible or e-cigarettes were assessed at baseline, and 6- and 12-month follow-ups in Los Angeles, CA (2013-2014). Logistic regression was used to examine associations between baseline depressive symptoms and onset of e-cigarette and cigarette single product and dual use at follow-ups. Latent growth modeling was used to examine associations between sustained use of either product (vs. non-use) and changes in depressive symptoms over 12-months. Higher baseline depressive symptoms predicted subsequent onset of cigarette (OR=1.024, 95% C.I.=1.009-1.055), e-cigarette (OR=1.015, C.I.=1.003-1.023), and dual use of both products (OR=1.021, C.I.=1.003-1.043). Sustained use of e-cigarettes over the 12-month observation (vs. non-use) was associated with a greater rate of increase in depressive symptoms over time (b=1.272, SE=0.513, p=0.01). Among those who sustained use of e-cigarettes, higher frequency of use was associated with higher depressive symptoms at the final follow-up (B=1.611, p=0.04). A bi-directional association of depressive symptoms with e-cigarette use onset across mid adolescence was observed. Further research on the causal nature, etiological underpinnings, and intervention implications of mental health and tobacco product use comorbidity is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Electron paramagnetic resonance of radicals and metal complexes. 2. international conference of the Polish EPR Association. Warsaw 9-13 September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The conference of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Radicals and Metal Complexes has been held in Warsaw from 9 to 13 September 1996. It was the Second International Conference of the Polish EPR Association. The very extensive group of systems containing paramagnetic species has been studied by means of ESR or other magnetic techniques like ENDOR, Spin Echo etc. By radiation or photochemically generated radicals have been stabilized in low temperatures or being detected by means of very fast pulsed techniques. The chemical reactions, reaction kinetics of radicals as well as spin interaction with matrices have been studied and discussed. Over 100 lectures and posters have been presented.

  11. Electron paramagnetic resonance of radicals and metal complexes. 2. international conference of the Polish EPR Association. Warsaw 9-13 September 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The conference of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Radicals and Metal Complexes has been held in Warsaw from 9 to 13 September 1996. It was the Second International Conference of the Polish EPR Association. The very extensive group of systems containing paramagnetic species has been studied by means of ESR or other magnetic techniques like ENDOR, Spin Echo etc. By radiation or photochemically generated radicals have been stabilized in low temperatures or being detected by means of very fast pulsed techniques. The chemical reactions, reaction kinetics of radicals as well as spin interaction with matrices have been studied and discussed. Over 100 lectures and posters have been presented

  12. Electron paramagnetic resonance of radicals and metal complexes. 2. international conference of the Polish EPR Association. Warsaw 9-13 September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The conference of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Radicals and Metal Complexes has been held in Warsaw from 9 to 13 September 1996. It was the Second International Conference of the Polish EPR Association. The very extensive group of systems containing paramagnetic species has been studied by means of ESR or other magnetic techniques like ENDOR, Spin Echo etc. By radiation or photochemically generated radicals have been stabilized in low temperatures or being detected by means of very fast pulsed techniques. The chemical reactions, reaction kinetics of radicals as well as spin interaction with matrices have been studied and discussed. Over 100 lectures and posters have been presented.

  13. Composite quality of care scores, electronic health record maturity models, and their associations; preliminary literature review results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joukes, Erik; de Keizer, Nicolette; Cornet, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    To accurately assess the association between the use of EHR systems and the quality of healthcare we need (composite) measures for quality of healthcare, and a model to measure the maturity of the EHR. This Medline-based literature study therefore focussed on three topics; (1) methods to compose a

  14. Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator Field Mapping and Shielding Models for a 70 mK Superconducting Transition Edge Sensor Array and Associated Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, D. R.; Martinez-Galarce, D. S.; McCammon, D.

    2006-04-01

    An X-ray detection instrument to be flown on a sounding rocket experiment (the Advanced Technology Solar Spectroscopic Imager - ATSSI) for solar physics observations is being developed by the Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory (LMSAL). The detector is a novel class of microcalorimeter, a superconducting Transition-Edge Sensor (TES), that coupled with associated SQUID and feedback electronics requires high temperature stability at ~70 mK to resolve the energy of absorbed X-ray photons emitted from the solar corona. The cooling system incorporates an existing Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR) developed at the University of Wisconsin (UW), which was previously flown to study the diffuse cosmic X-ray background. The Si thermistor detectors for that project required 130 K shielded JFET electronic components that are much less sensitive to the external field of the ADR solenoid than are the 1st (~70 mK) and 2nd (~2 K) SQUID stages used with TESs for solar observations. Modification of the Wisconsin ADR design, including TES focal plane and electronics re-positioning, therefore requires a tradeoff between the existing ADR solenoid nulling coil geometry and a low mass passive solenoid shield, while preserving the vibration isolation features of the existing design. We have developed models to accurately compute the magnetic field with and without shielding or nulling coils at critical locations to guide the re-design of the detector subsystem. The models and their application are described.

  15. Cross section of W and Z inclusive production and the W/Z cross section ratio in association with one jet for the boson decaying into electron(s) with ATLAS 7 TeV data

    CERN Document Server

    Berglund, Elina

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates the inclusive production cross section of W and Z bosons as well as their ratio in association with one jet. The cross sections are estimated with 7 TeV LHC proton-proton collision data, collected by ATLAS during 2010, resulting in an integrated luminosity of approximately 40 pb−1 . This thesis focuses on the analysis performed in the electron channel, while comparisons with the results obtained in the muon channel also are included. This is the first time the W and Z production cross sections are measured at this center-of-mass energy and the results are important for various reasons, such as testing perturbative theoretical calculations and understanding these signatures as backgrounds to other physics processes. The final inclusive cross section values obtained in the electron channel are the following: σ(W → eν ) = 10.255 ± 0.031(stat) ± 0.190(syst) ± 0.349(lumi) ± 0.156(acc) nb σ(Z → ee) = 0.952 ± 0.010(stat) ± 0.026(syst) ± 0.032(lumi) ± 0.019(acc) nb The res...

  16. TEPAPA: a novel in silico feature learning pipeline for mining prognostic and associative factors from text-based electronic medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Frank Po-Yen; Pokorny, Adrian; Teng, Christina; Epstein, Richard J

    2017-07-31

    Vast amounts of clinically relevant text-based variables lie undiscovered and unexploited in electronic medical records (EMR). To exploit this untapped resource, and thus facilitate the discovery of informative covariates from unstructured clinical narratives, we have built a novel computational pipeline termed Text-based Exploratory Pattern Analyser for Prognosticator and Associator discovery (TEPAPA). This pipeline combines semantic-free natural language processing (NLP), regular expression induction, and statistical association testing to identify conserved text patterns associated with outcome variables of clinical interest. When we applied TEPAPA to a cohort of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients, plausible concepts known to be correlated with human papilloma virus (HPV) status were identified from the EMR text, including site of primary disease, tumour stage, pathologic characteristics, and treatment modalities. Similarly, correlates of other variables (including gender, nodal status, recurrent disease, smoking and alcohol status) were also reliably recovered. Using highly-associated patterns as covariates, a patient's HPV status was classifiable using a bootstrap analysis with a mean area under the ROC curve of 0.861, suggesting its predictive utility in supporting EMR-based phenotyping tasks. These data support using this integrative approach to efficiently identify disease-associated factors from unstructured EMR narratives, and thus to efficiently generate testable hypotheses.

  17. Evaluation of enamel by scanning electron microscopy green LED associated to hydrogen peroxide 35% for dental bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Juliana S. C.; de Oliveira, Susana C. P. S.; Zanin, Fátima A. A.; Santos, Gustavo M. P.; Sampaio, Fernando J. P.; Gomes Júnior, Rafael Araújo; Gesteira, Maria F. M.; Vannier-Santos, Marcos A.; Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz B.

    2014-02-01

    Dental bleaching is a frequently requested procedure in clinical dental practice. The literature is contradictory regarding the effects of bleaching agents on both morphology and demineralization of enamel after bleaching. The aim of this study was to analyze by SEM the effect of 35% neutral hydrogen peroxide cured by green LED. Buccal surfaces of 15 pre-molars were sectioned and marked with a central groove to allow experimental and control groups on the same specimen. For SEM, 75 electron micrographs were evaluated by tree observers at 43X, 220X and 1000X. Quantitative analysis for the determination of the surface elemental composition of the samples through X-ray microanalysis by SEM was also performed. The protocol tested neither showed significant changes in mineral composition of the samples nor to dental enamel structure when compared to controls. SEM analysis allowed inferring that there were marked morphological differences between the enamel samples highlighting the need for the use of the same tooth in comparative morphological studies. The tested protocol did not cause morphological damage the enamel surface when compared to their respective controls.

  18. Respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease secondary to electronic nicotine delivery system use confirmed with open lung biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Mark; Nandakumar, Lakshmy; Singh, Mahendra; Wyld, David; Windsor, Morgan; Fielding, David

    2017-05-01

    As a modern phenomenon, there is currently limited understanding of the possible toxic effects and broader implications of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). Large volumes of aerosolized particles are inhaled during "vaping" and there are now an increasing number of case reports demonstrating toxic effects of ENDS, as well as human studies demonstrating impaired lung function in users. This article presents a case of respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD) precipitated by vaping in a 33-year-old male with 10 pack years of traditional cigarette and prior treatment for mixed germ cell tumour. The patient had started vaping 10-15 times per day while continuing to smoke 10 traditional cigarettes per day. After 3 months of exposure to e-cigarette vapour, chest computed tomography demonstrated multiple new poorly defined pulmonary nodules with fluffy parenchyma opacification centred along the terminal bronchovascular units. Video-assisted thoracoscopy with lung biopsy of the right upper and right middle lobes was undertaken. The microscopic findings were overall consistent with RB-ILD. This case demonstrates toxicity with use of ENDS on open lung biopsy with resolution of radiographic findings on cessation. We believe that this is the first case where open lung biopsy has demonstrated this and our findings are consistent with RB-ILD.

  19. Association of intracellular and synaptic organization in cochlear inner hair cells revealed by 3D electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Anwen; West, Timothy; Moores, Carolyn; Ashmore, Jonathan; Fleck, Roland A; MacLellan-Gibson, Kirsty; Forge, Andrew

    2015-07-15

    The ways in which cell architecture is modelled to meet cell function is a poorly understood facet of cell biology. To address this question, we have studied the cytoarchitecture of a cell with highly specialised organisation, the cochlear inner hair cell (IHC), using multiple hierarchies of three-dimensional (3D) electron microscopy analyses. We show that synaptic terminal distribution on the IHC surface correlates with cell shape, and the distribution of a highly organised network of membranes and mitochondria encompassing the infranuclear region of the cell. This network is juxtaposed to a population of small vesicles, which represents a potential new source of neurotransmitter vesicles for replenishment of the synapses. Structural linkages between organelles that underlie this organisation were identified by high-resolution imaging. Taken together, these results describe a cell-encompassing network of membranes and mitochondria present in IHCs that support efficient coding and transmission of auditory signals. Such techniques also have the potential for clarifying functionally specialised cytoarchitecture of other cell types. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Sharing Physician Notes Through an Electronic Portal is Associated With Improved Medication Adherence: Quasi-Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Eric; Darer, Jonathan; Tang, Xiaoqin; Thompson, Jason; Tusing, Lorraine; Fossa, Alan; Delbanco, Tom; Ngo, Long; Walker, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Background In surveys, interviews, and focus groups, patients taking medications and offered Web portal access to their primary care physicians? (PCPs) notes report improved adherence to their regimens. However, objective confirmation has yet to be reported. Objective To evaluate the association between patient Internet portal access to primary care physician visit notes and medication adherence. Methods This study is a retrospective comparative analysis at one site of the OpenNotes quasi-exp...

  1. Optical emissions associated with energetic electrons produced by stepping leaders in cloud-to-ground lightning discharges

    OpenAIRE

    Xu , Wei; Celestin , Sebastien; Pasko , Victor

    2015-01-01

    All data used in this paper are directly available after a request is made to authors W.X. (), S.C. (), or V.P.P. ().; International audience; Both natural cloud-to-ground and rocket-triggered lightning flashes have been found to be associated with intense and brief bursts of X-ray emissions. Using a full energy Monte Carlo model combined with an optical emission model, we quantify the optical emissions induced by the strong accel...

  2. Association of diabetes in pregnancy with child weight at birth, age 12 months and 5 years--a population-based electronic cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Morgan

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of diabetes in pregnancy on offspring weight at birth and ages 1 and 5 years.A population-based electronic cohort study using routinely collected linked healthcare data. Electronic medical records provided maternal diabetes status and offspring weight at birth and ages 1 and 5 years (n = 147,773 mother child pairs. Logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios to describe the association between maternal diabetes status and offspring size, adjusted for maternal pre-pregnancy weight, age and smoking status.We identified 1,250 (0.9% pregnancies with existing diabetes (27.8% with type 1 diabetes, 1,358 with gestational diabetes (0.9% and 635 (0.4% who developed diabetes post-pregnancy. Children whose mothers had existing diabetes were less likely to be large at 12 months (OR: 0.7 (95%CI: 0.6, 0.8 than those without diabetes. Maternal diabetes was associated with high weight at age 5 years in children whose mothers had a high pre-pregnancy weight tertile (gestational diabetes, (OR:2.1 (95%CI:1.25-3.6, existing diabetes (OR:1.3 (95%CI:1.0 to 1.6.The prevention of childhood obesity should focus on mothers with diabetes with a high maternal pre-pregnancy weight. We found little evidence that diabetes in pregnancy leads to long term obesity 'programming'.

  3. Zero suppression logic of the ALICE muon forward tracker pixel chip prototype PIXAM and associated readout electronics development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flouzat, C.; Değerli, Y.; Guilloux, F.; Orsini, F.; Venault, P.

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the ALICE experiment upgrade at HL-LHC, a new forward tracking detector, the Muon Forward Tracker (MFT), is foreseen to overcome the intrinsic limitations of the present Muon Spectrometer and will perform new measurements of general interest for the whole ALICE physics. To fulfill the new detector requirements, CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) provide an attractive trade-off between readout speed, spatial resolution, radiation hardness, granularity, power consumption and material budget. This technology has been chosen to equip the Muon Forward Tracker and also the vertex detector: the Inner Tracking System (ITS). Since few years, an intensive R and D program has been performed on the design of MAPS in the 0.18 μ m CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process. In order to avoid pile up effects in the experiment, the classical rolling shutter readout system of MAPS has been improved to overcome the readout speed limitation. A zero suppression algorithm, based on a 3 by 3 cluster finding (position and data), has been chosen for the MFT. This algorithm allows adequate data compression for the sensor. This paper presents the large size prototype PIXAM, which represents 1/3 of the final chip, and will focus specially on the zero suppression block architecture. This chip is designed and under fabrication in the 0.18 μ m CIS process. Finally, the readout electronics principle to send out the compressed data flow is also presented taking into account the cluster occupancy per MFT plane for a single central Pb-Pb collision

  4. Zero suppression logic of the ALICE muon forward tracker pixel chip prototype PIXAM and associated readout electronics development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouzat, C.; Değerli, Y.; Guilloux, F.; Orsini, F.; Venault, P.

    2015-05-01

    In the framework of the ALICE experiment upgrade at HL-LHC, a new forward tracking detector, the Muon Forward Tracker (MFT), is foreseen to overcome the intrinsic limitations of the present Muon Spectrometer and will perform new measurements of general interest for the whole ALICE physics. To fulfill the new detector requirements, CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) provide an attractive trade-off between readout speed, spatial resolution, radiation hardness, granularity, power consumption and material budget. This technology has been chosen to equip the Muon Forward Tracker and also the vertex detector: the Inner Tracking System (ITS). Since few years, an intensive R&D program has been performed on the design of MAPS in the 0.18 μ m CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process. In order to avoid pile up effects in the experiment, the classical rolling shutter readout system of MAPS has been improved to overcome the readout speed limitation. A zero suppression algorithm, based on a 3 by 3 cluster finding (position and data), has been chosen for the MFT. This algorithm allows adequate data compression for the sensor. This paper presents the large size prototype PIXAM, which represents 1/3 of the final chip, and will focus specially on the zero suppression block architecture. This chip is designed and under fabrication in the 0.18 μ m CIS process. Finally, the readout electronics principle to send out the compressed data flow is also presented taking into account the cluster occupancy per MFT plane for a single central Pb-Pb collision.

  5. The Association between Potential Exposure to Magazine Ads with Voluntary Health Warnings and the Perceived Harmfulness of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Weaver, Scott R; Zahra, Nahleen; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2018-03-23

    (1) Background: Several brands of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) carry voluntary health warning messages. This study examined how potential exposure to ENDS magazine ads with these voluntary health warnings were associated with the perceived harmfulness of ENDS. (2) Methods: Risk perception measures and self-reported exposure to ENDS ads were obtained from the 2014 Georgia State University (GSU) Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions Survey of a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. We examined the association between potential exposure to magazine ads with warnings and the perceived harms of ENDS relative to cigarettes, using binary logistic regressions and controlling for general ENDS ad exposure and socio-demographic characteristics. (3) Results: Potential exposure to ENDS magazine ads with warnings was associated with a lower probability of considering ENDS to be more or equally harmful compared to cigarettes, particularly among non-smokers (OR = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.04-0.77). In addition, ad exposure, ENDS use history, race/ethnicity, gender, education, and income were also associated with harm perceptions. (4) Conclusions: This study did not find evidence that magazine ads with warnings increased misperceptions that ENDS are equally or more harmful than cigarettes. With more ENDS advertisements carrying warnings, more research is needed to determine how the warnings in advertisements convey relative harm information to consumers and the public.

  6. Availability and night-time use of electronic entertainment and communication devices are associated with short sleep duration and obesity among Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, H; Fung, C; Kuhle, S; Veugelers, P J

    2013-02-01

    What is already known about this subject Short sleep duration is a risk factor for obesity. Television (TV) in the bedroom has been shown to be associated with excess body weight in children. Children increasingly use other electronic entertainment and communication devices (EECDs) such as video games, computers, and smart phones. What this study adds Access to and night-time use of EECDs are associated with shortened sleep duration, excess body weight, poorer diet quality, and lower physical activity levels. Our findings reinforce existing recommendations pertaining to TV and Internet access by the American Academy of Pediatrics and suggest to have these expanded to restricted availability of video games and smart phones in children's bedrooms. While the prevalence of childhood obesity and access to and use of electronic entertainment and communication devices (EECDs) have increased in the past decades, no earlier study has examined their interrelationship. To examine whether night-time access to and use of EECDs are associated with sleep duration, body weights, diet quality, and physical activity of Canadian children. A representative sample of 3398 grade 5 children in Alberta, Canada, was surveyed. The survey included questions on children's lifestyles and health behaviours, the Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency questionnaire, a validated questionnaire on physical activity, and measurements of heights and weights. Random effect models were used to assess the associations of night-time access to and use of EECDs with sleep, diet quality, physical activity, and body weights. Sixty-four percent of parents reported that their child had access to one or more EECDs in their bedroom. Access to and night-time use of EECDs were associated with shortened sleep duration, excess body weight, poorer diet quality, and lower physical activity levels in a statistically significant manner. Limiting the availability of EECDs in children's bedrooms and discouraging their

  7. A longitudinal study of electronic cigarette use among a population-based sample of adult smokers: association with smoking cessation and motivation to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Lois; Hargraves, J Lee

    2015-02-01

    Increasingly popular electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may be the most promising development yet to end cigarette smoking. However, there is sparse evidence that their use promotes cessation. We investigated whether e-cigarette use increases smoking cessation and/or has a deleterious effect on quitting smoking and motivation to quit. Representative samples of adults in 2 US metropolitan areas were surveyed in 2011/2012 about their use of novel tobacco products. In 2014, follow-up interviews were conducted with 695 of the 1,374 baseline cigarette smokers who had agreed to be re-contacted (retention rate: 51%). The follow-up interview assessed their smoking status and history of electronic cigarette usage. Respondents were categorized as intensive users (used e-cigarettes daily for at least 1 month), intermittent users (used regularly, but not daily for more than 1 month), and non-users/triers (used e-cigarettes at most once or twice). At follow-up, 23% were intensive users, 29% intermittent users, 18% had used once or twice, and 30% had not tried e-cigarettes. Logistic regression controlling for demographics and tobacco dependence indicated that intensive users of e-cigarettes were 6 times more likely than non-users/triers to report that they quit smoking (OR: 6.07, 95% CI = 1.11, 33.2). No such relationship was seen for intermittent users. There was a negative association between intermittent e-cigarette use and 1 of 2 indicators of motivation to quit at follow-up. Daily use of electronic cigarettes for at least 1 month is strongly associated with quitting smoking at follow-up. Further investigation of the underlying reasons for intensive versus intermittent use will help shed light on the mechanisms underlying the associations between e-cigarette use, motivation to quit, and smoking cessation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  8. Magnitude and direction of the change in dipole moment associated with excitation of the primary electron donor in Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides reaction centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockhart, D.J.; Boxer, S.G.

    1987-02-10

    The magnitude and direction of the change in dipole moment, ..delta mu.., associated with the Q/sub y/ transition of the dimeric primary electron donor (special pair or P870) in Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides reaction centers have been measured by Stark spectroscopy at 20 /sup 0/C. The magnitude of ..delta mu.. is found to be f/sup -1/ (10.3 +/- 0.7) D, where f is a correction factor for the local dielectric properties of the protein matrix. With the spherical cavity approximation and an effective local dielectric constant of 2, f = 1.2, and absolute value of ..delta mu.. is 8.6 +/- 0.6 D. Absolute value of ..delta mu.. for the Q/sub y/ transition of the special pair is approximately a factor of 3.4 and 2 greater than for the monomeric bacteriochlorophylls and bacteriopheophytins, respectively, in the reaction center. The angle between ..delta mu.. and the transition dipole moment for excitation of the first singlet electron state of the special pair was found to be 24 +/- 2/sup 0/. The measured values are combined to suggest a physical model in which the lowest excited singlet state of the special pair has substantial charge-transfer character and where charge is separated between the two monomers comprising the dimeric special pair. This leads to the hypothesis that the first charge-separated state in bacterial photosynthesis is formed directly upon photoexcitation. These data provide stringent values for comparison with theoretical calculations of the electronic structure of the chromophores in the reaction center.

  9. Spirometry, questionnaire and electronic medical record based COPD in a population survey: Comparing prevalence, level of agreement and associations with potential risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlée, Floor; Yzermans, C Joris; Krop, Esmeralda; Aalders, Bernadette; Rooijackers, Jos; Zock, Jan-Paul; van Dijk, Christel E; Maassen, Catharina B M; Schellevis, François; Heederik, Dick; Smit, Lidwien A M

    2017-01-01

    COPD-diagnosis is confirmed by post-bronchodilator (BD) spirometry. However, epidemiological studies often rely on pre-BD spirometry, self-reports, or medical records. This population-based study aims to determine COPD-prevalence based on four different operational definitions and their level of agreement, and to compare associations between COPD-definitions and risk factors. COPD-prevalence in 1,793 adults from the general Dutch population (aged 18-70 years) was assessed based on self-reported data, Electronic Medical Records (EMR), and post-BD spirometry: using the FEV1/FVC below the lower limit of normal (LLN) and GOLD fixed cut-off (FEV1/FVC spirometry as a reference, sensitivity was calculated for self-reported and EMR-based COPD. Associations between COPD and known risk factors were assessed with logistic regression. Data were collected as part of the cross-sectional VGO study (Livestock Farming and Neighboring Residents' Health Study). The highest prevalence was found based on spirometry (GOLD: 10.9%, LLN: 5.9%), followed by self-report (4.6%) and EMR (2.9%). Self-reported or EMR-based COPD identified less than 30% of all COPD-cases based on spirometry. The direction of association between known risk factors and COPD was similar across the four definitions, however, magnitude and significance varied. Especially indicators of allergy were more strongly associated with self-reported COPD compared to the other definitions. COPD-prevalence varied depending on the used definition. A substantial number of subjects with spirometry-based COPD cannot be identified with questionnaires or medical records which can cause underestimation of COPD-prevalence. The influence of the different COPD-definitions on associations with known risk factors was limited.

  10. Modest Associations Between Electronic Health Record Use and Acute Myocardial Infarction Quality of Care and Outcomes: Results From the National Cardiovascular Data Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, Jonathan R; de Lemos, James A; Parikh, Shailja V; Simon, DaJuanicia N; Thomas, Laine E; Wang, Tracy Y; Chan, Paul S; Spertus, John A; Das, Sandeep R

    2015-11-01

    In 2009, national legislation promoted wide-spread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) across US hospitals; however, the association of EHR use with quality of care and outcomes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains unclear. Data on EHR use were collected from the American Hospital Association Annual Surveys (2007-2010) and data on AMI care and outcomes from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry Acute Coronary Treatment and Interventions Outcomes Network Registry-Get With The Guidelines. Comparisons were made between patients treated at hospitals with fully implemented EHR (n=43 527), partially implemented EHR (n=72 029), and no EHR (n=9270). Overall EHR use increased from 82.1% (183/223) hospitals in 2007 to 99.3% (275/277) hospitals in 2010. Patients treated at hospitals with fully implemented EHRs had fewer heparin overdosing errors (45.7% versus 72.8%; P<0.01) and a higher likelihood of guideline-recommended care (adjusted odds ratio, 1.40 [confidence interval, 1.07-1.84]) compared with patients treated at hospitals with no EHR. In non-ST-segment-elevation AMI, fully implemented EHR use was associated with lower risk of major bleeding (adjusted odds ratio, 0.78 [confidence interval, 0.67-0.91]) and mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 0.82 [confidence interval, 0.69-0.97]) compared with no EHR. In ST-segment-elevation MI, outcomes did not significantly differ by EHR status. EHR use has risen to high levels among hospitals in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry. EHR use was associated with less frequent heparin overdosing and modestly greater adherence to acute MI guideline-recommended therapies. In non-ST-segment-elevation MI, slightly lower adjusted risk of major bleeding and mortality were seen in hospitals implemented with full EHRs; however, in ST-segment-elevation MI, differences in outcomes were not seen. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Two conformational states of the membrane-associated Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Ba δ-endotoxin complex revealed by electron crystallography: Implications for toxin-pore formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ounjai, Puey; Unger, Vinzenz M.; Sigworth, Fred J.; Angsuthanasombat, Chanan

    2007-01-01

    The insecticidal nature of Cry δ-endotoxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis is generally believed to be caused by their ability to form lytic pores in the midgut cell membrane of susceptible insect larvae. Here we have analyzed membrane-associated structures of the 65-kDa dipteran-active Cry4Ba toxin by electron crystallography. The membrane-associated toxin complex was crystallized in the presence of DMPC via detergent dialysis. Depending upon the charge of the adsorbed surface, 2D crystals of the oligomeric toxin complex have been captured in two distinct conformations. The projection maps of those crystals have been generated at 17 A resolution. Both complexes appeared to be trimeric; as in one crystal form, its projection structure revealed a symmetrical pinwheel-like shape with virtually no depression in the middle of the complex. The other form revealed a propeller-like conformation displaying an obvious hole in the center region, presumably representing the toxin-induced pore. These crystallographic data thus demonstrate for the first time that the 65-kDa activated Cry4Ba toxin in association with lipid membranes could exist in at least two different trimeric conformations, conceivably implying the closed and open states of the pore

  12. Getting on with your computer is associated with job satisfaction in primary care: entrants to primary care should be assessed for their competency with electronic patient record systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon de Lusignan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Job satisfaction in primary care is associated with getting on with your computer. Many primary care professionals spend longer interacting with their computer than anything else in their day. However, the computer often makes demands rather than be an aid or supporter that has learned its user’s preferences. The use of electronic patient record (EPR systems is underrepresented in the assessment of entrants to primary care, and in definitions of the core competencies of a family physician/general practitioner. We call for this to be put right: for the use of the EPR to support direct patient care and clinical governance to be given greater prominence in training and assessment. In parallel, policy makers should ensure that the EPR system use is orientated to ensuring patients receive evidence-based care, and EPR system suppliers should explore how their systems might better support their clinician users, in particular learning their preferences.

  13. Getting on with your computer is associated with job satisfaction in primary care: entrants to primary care should be assessed for their competency with electronic patient record systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lusignan, Simon; Pearce, Christopher; Munro, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Job satisfaction in primary care is associated with getting on with your computer. Many primary care professionals spend longer interacting with their computer than anything else in their day. However, the computer often makes demands rather than be an aid or supporter that has learned its user's preferences. The use of electronic patient record (EPR) systems is underrepresented in the assessment of entrants to primary care, and in definitions of the core competencies of a family physician/general practitioner. We call for this to be put right: for the use of the EPR to support direct patient care and clinical governance to be given greater prominence in training and assessment. In parallel, policy makers should ensure that the EPR system use is orientated to ensuring patients receive evidence-based care, and EPR system suppliers should explore how their systems might better support their clinician users, in particular learning their preferences.

  14. Acceptance of shared decision making with reference to an electronic library of decision aids (arriba-lib) and its association to decision making in patients: an evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Oliver; Keller, Heidemarie; Krones, Tanja; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert

    2011-07-07

    Decision aids based on the philosophy of shared decision making are designed to help patients make informed choices among diagnostic or treatment options by delivering evidence-based information on options and outcomes. A patient decision aid can be regarded as a complex intervention because it consists of several presumably relevant components. Decision aids have rarely been field tested to assess patients' and physicians' attitudes towards them. It is also unclear what effect decision aids have on the adherence to chosen options. The electronic library of decision aids (arriba-lib) to be used within the clinical encounter has a modular structure and contains evidence-based decision aids for the following topics: cardiovascular prevention, atrial fibrillation, coronary heart disease, oral antidiabetics, conventional and intensified insulin therapy, and unipolar depression. We conducted an evaluation study in which 29 primary care physicians included 192 patients. After the consultation, patients filled in questionnaires and were interviewed via telephone two months later. We used generalised estimation equations to measure associations within patient variables and traditional crosstab analyses. Patients were highly satisfied with arriba-lib and the process of shared decision making. Two-thirds of patients reached in the telephone interview wanted to be counselled again with arriba-lib. There was a high congruence between preferred and perceived decision making. Of those patients reached in the telephone interview, 80.7% said that they implemented the decision, independent of gender and education. Elderly patients were more likely to say that they implemented the decision. Shared decision making with our multi-modular electronic library of decision aids (arriba-lib) was accepted by a high number of patients. It has positive associations to general aspects of decision making in patients. It can be used for patient groups with a wide range of individual

  15. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  16. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  17. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Treatment of adolescent lumber spondylolysis with modified Boston brace. Selection of the patients with bone scintigraphy and repair of the part defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, Hiroyuki; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Kaneda, Kiyoshi; Sato, Eishu [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-06-01

    Results of brace treatment of 29 spondylolysis patients were reported. Patients were those who were diagnosed by scout roentgenography and accumulated {sup 99m}Tc at spondylolytic site by bone scintigraphy or by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) which being found more convenient to see the accumulation than the scintigraphy. Coaptation after brace treatment was observed by flat and tomographic roentgenography. Under limited sports activity, the hard brace was used for about 4 months and then soft one, for 2 months. Coaptation and repair were observed for 46 (79%) of 58 part defects in the 29 patients. Since lumber spine spondylolysis is mostly caused by fatigue fracture and bone metabolism is activated at the lesional site, {sup 99m}Tc accumulation can be seen at the spondylolytic site by bone scintigraphy with high frequency. Therefore, the rate of repair can be increased when brace treatment was applied for patients with positive bone scintigraphy findings. The scintigraphy was thus useful far selecting patients suitable for brace treatment. (K.H.)

  19. Treatment of adolescent lumber spondylolysis with modified Boston brace. Selection of the patients with bone scintigraphy and repair of the part defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Hiroyuki; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Kaneda, Kiyoshi; Sato, Eishu

    1996-01-01

    Results of brace treatment of 29 spondylolysis patients were reported. Patients were those who were diagnosed by scout roentgenography and accumulated 99m Tc at spondylolytic site by bone scintigraphy or by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) which being found more convenient to see the accumulation than the scintigraphy. Coaptation after brace treatment was observed by flat and tomographic roentgenography. Under limited sports activity, the hard brace was used for about 4 months and then soft one, for 2 months. Coaptation and repair were observed for 46 (79%) of 58 part defects in the 29 patients. Since lumber spine spondylolysis is mostly caused by fatigue fracture and bone metabolism is activated at the lesional site, 99m Tc accumulation can be seen at the spondylolytic site by bone scintigraphy with high frequency. Therefore, the rate of repair can be increased when brace treatment was applied for patients with positive bone scintigraphy findings. The scintigraphy was thus useful far selecting patients suitable for brace treatment. (K.H.)

  20. Ecological effects of soil properties and metal concentrations on the composition and diversity of microbial communities associated with land use patterns in an electronic waste recycling region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wencheng; Dong, Changxun; Wu, Jiahui; Liu, Xiaowen; Wu, Yingxin; Chen, Xianbin; Yu, Shixiao

    2017-12-01

    Soil microbes play vital roles in ecosystem functions, and soil microbial communities may be strongly structured by land use patterns associated with electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities, which can increase the heavy metal concentration in soils. In this study, a suite of soils from five land use types (paddy field, vegetable field, dry field, forest field, and e-waste recycling site) were collected in Longtang Town, Guangdong Province, South China. Soil physicochemical properties and heavy metal concentrations were measured, and the indigenous microbial assemblages were profiled using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and clone library analyses. The results showed that mercury concentration was positively correlated with both Faith's PD and Chao1 estimates, suggesting that the soil microbial alpha diversity was predominantly regulated by mercury. In addition, redundancy analysis indicated that available phosphorus, soil moisture, and mercury were the three major drivers affecting the microbial assemblages. Overall, the microbial composition was determined primarily by land use patterns, and this study provides a novel insight on the composition and diversity of microbial communities in soils associated with e-waste recycling activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Detectors - Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J.

    1998-01-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X → e - converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the 3 He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  2. Electron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  3. Time 2 tlk 2nite: use of electronic media by adolescents during family meals and associations with demographic characteristics, family characteristics, and foods served.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Loth, Katie; Bruening, Meg; Berge, Jerica; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-07-01

    We examined the frequency of adolescents' use of electronic media (ie, television/movie watching, text messaging, talking on the telephone, listening to music with headphones, and playing with hand-held games) at family meals and examined associations with demographic characteristics, rules about media use, family characteristics, and the types of foods served at meals using an observational, cross-sectional design. Data were drawn from two coordinated, population-based studies of adolescents (Project Eating Among Teens 2010) and their parents (Project Families and Eating Among Teens). Surveys were completed during 2009-2010. Frequent television/movie watching during family meals by youth was reported by 25.5% of parents. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated significantly higher odds of mealtime media use (P<0.05) for girls and older teens. In addition, higher odds of mealtime media use (P<0.05) were also seen among those whose parents had low education levels or were black or Asian; having parental rules about media use significantly reduced these odds. Frequent mealtime media use was significantly associated with lower scores on family communication (P<0.05) and scores indicating less importance placed on mealtimes (P<0.001). Furthermore, frequent mealtime media use was associated with lower odds of serving green salad, fruit, vegetables, 100% juice, and milk at meals, whereas higher odds were seen for serving sugar-sweetened beverages (P<0.05). The ubiquitous use of mealtime media by adolescents and differences by sex, race/ethnicity, age, and parental rules suggest that supporting parents in their efforts to initiate and follow-through on setting mealtime media use rules may be an important public health strategy. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. "To sleep, perchance to tweet": in-bed electronic social media use and its associations with insomnia, daytime sleepiness, mood, and sleep duration in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sushanth; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Upadhyay, Hinesh; Polos, Peter G

    2018-04-01

    The use of mobile device-based electronic social media (ESM) in bed is rapidly becoming commonplace, with potentially adverse impacts on sleep and daytime functioning. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which in-bed ESM use is associated with insomnia, daytime sleepiness, mood, and sleep duration in adults. This was a cross-sectional observational study conducted among 855 hospital employees and university students (mean age, 43.6years; 85% female) via an online questionnaire. Nearly 70% of participants indulged in in-bed ESM use, with nearly 15% spending an hour or more a night doing so. The degree of in-bed ESM use did not vary by gender, but higher levels of in-bed ESM use were seen in younger and middle-aged than elderly participants. Compared with participants with no in-bed ESM use and controlling for age, gender, and ethnicity, participants with high in-bed ESM use were more likely to have insomnia, anxiety, and short sleep duration on weeknights, but not depression or daytime sleepiness; low in-bed ESM use only increased the likelihood of short sleep duration on weeknights. In-bed ESM use by a bed partner did not have an adverse association with sleep or mood. In-bed ESM use is associated with sleep and mood dysfunction in adults. These findings are of relevance to clinicians, therapists, and the public at large, as they suggest that limitation of in-bed ESM use is a potential interventional strategy in the overall management of sleep hygiene and mental health. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Light and electron microscopic study of the eyelids, conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue and lacrimal gland in Bilgorajska Goose (Anser anser).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klećkowska-Nawrot, Joanna; Nowaczyk, Renata; Goździewska-Harłajczuk, Karolina; Barszcz, Karolina; Kowalczyk, Artur; Łukaszewicz, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Normal structure of the accessory organs of the eye is essential for normal eye physiology. Among the most important accessory organs of the eye are the eyelids, the conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT) and the lacrimal gland (LG). The aim of this study was to demonstrate the histological structure of the eyelids and LG by histochemical and ultrastructural analysis. The study was performed on 13 adult female Bilgorajska geese. Eyelid samples were stained with the Alcian blue (AB pH 2.5) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) methods. Staining methods used for LG were AB pH 2.5, aldehyde fuchsin (AF), PAS and Hale's dialysed iron (HDI). Within the connective tissue of the eyelids, well-developed, diffuse, CALT follicles were observed, mostly under the conjunctival epithelium. Numerous lymphocytes were present within loose connective tissue. Staining of the eyelids with the PAS method demonstrated the presence of goblet cells of a mucous nature, and AB pH 2.5 staining indicated the presence of sulfated acid mucopolysaccharides. PAS staining of LG revealed the presence of secretory cells containing weakly PAS-positive granules. All epithelial cells of the corpus glandulae and the duct systems reacted positively to AB pH 2.5. HDI staining detected the presence of carboxylated acid mucopolysaccharides. Transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed two types of secretory epithelial cells in LG. Both types of LG cells contained drop-like secretory vesicles of different sizes with low or high electron density in cytoplasm, as well as small and large lipid vacuoles, and numerous small primary lysosomes.

  6. Report of the AAPM Task Group No. 105: Issues associated with clinical implementation of Monte Carlo-based photon and electron external beam treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetty, Indrin J.; Curran, Bruce; Cygler, Joanna E.; DeMarco, John J.; Ezzell, Gary; Faddegon, Bruce A.; Kawrakow, Iwan; Keall, Paul J.; Liu, Helen; Ma, C.-M. Charlie; Rogers, D. W. O.; Seuntjens, Jan; Sheikh-Bagheri, Daryoush; Siebers, Jeffrey V.

    2007-01-01

    The Monte Carlo (MC) method has been shown through many research studies to calculate accurate dose distributions for clinical radiotherapy, particularly in heterogeneous patient tissues where the effects of electron transport cannot be accurately handled with conventional, deterministic dose algorithms. Despite its proven accuracy and the potential for improved dose distributions to influence treatment outcomes, the long calculation times previously associated with MC simulation rendered this method impractical for routine clinical treatment planning. However, the development of faster codes optimized for radiotherapy calculations and improvements in computer processor technology have substantially reduced calculation times to, in some instances, within minutes on a single processor. These advances have motivated several major treatment planning system vendors to embark upon the path of MC techniques. Several commercial vendors have already released or are currently in the process of releasing MC algorithms for photon and/or electron beam treatment planning. Consequently, the accessibility and use of MC treatment planning algorithms may well become widespread in the radiotherapy community. With MC simulation, dose is computed stochastically using first principles; this method is therefore quite different from conventional dose algorithms. Issues such as statistical uncertainties, the use of variance reduction techniques, the ability to account for geometric details in the accelerator treatment head simulation, and other features, are all unique components of a MC treatment planning algorithm. Successful implementation by the clinical physicist of such a system will require an understanding of the basic principles of MC techniques. The purpose of this report, while providing education and review on the use of MC simulation in radiotherapy planning, is to set out, for both users and developers, the salient issues associated with clinical implementation and

  7. Lower Hybrid Drift Waves and Electromagnetic Electron Space-Phase Holes Associated With Dipolarization Fronts and Field-Aligned Currents Observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission During a Substorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Contel, O.; Nakamura, R.; Breuillard, H.; Argall, M. R.; Graham, D. B.; Fischer, D.; Retinò, A.; Berthomier, M.; Pottelette, R.; Mirioni, L.; Chust, T.; Wilder, F. D.; Gershman, D. J.; Varsani, A.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Norgren, C.; Ergun, R. E.; Goodrich, K. A.; Burch, J. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Needell, J.; Chutter, M.; Rau, D.; Dors, I.; Russell, C. T.; Magnes, W.; Strangeway, R. J.; Bromund, K. R.; Wei, H. Y.; Plaschke, F.; Anderson, B. J.; Le, G.; Moore, T. E.; Giles, B. L.; Paterson, W. R.; Pollock, C. J.; Dorelli, J. C.; Avanov, L. A.; Saito, Y.; Lavraud, B.; Fuselier, S. A.; Mauk, B. H.; Cohen, I. J.; Turner, D. L.; Fennell, J. F.; Leonard, T.; Jaynes, A. N.

    2017-12-01

    We analyze two ion scale dipolarization fronts associated with field-aligned currents detected by the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission during a large substorm on 10 August 2016. The first event corresponds to a fast dawnward flow with an antiparallel current and could be generated by the wake of a previous fast earthward flow. It is associated with intense lower hybrid drift waves detected at the front and propagating dawnward with a perpendicular phase speed close to the electric drift and the ion thermal velocity. The second event corresponds to a flow reversal: from southwward/dawnward to northward/duskward associated with a parallel current consistent with a brief expansion of the plasma sheet before the front crossing and with a smaller lower hybrid drift wave activity. Electromagnetic electron phase-space holes are detected near these low-frequency drift waves during both events. The drift waves could accelerate electrons parallel to the magnetic field and produce the parallel electron drift needed to generate the electron holes. Yet we cannot rule out the possibility that the drift waves are produced by the antiparallel current associated with the fast flows, leaving the source for the electron holes unexplained.

  8. Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a policy statement from the American Association for Cancer Research and the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Thomas H; Goniewicz, Maciej L; Hanna, Nasser H; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Herbst, Roy S; Hobin, Jennifer A; Ostroff, Jamie S; Shields, Peter G; Toll, Benjamin A; Tyne, Courtney A; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Warren, Graham W

    2015-02-01

    Combustible tobacco use remains the number one preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the United States. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), which include e-cigarettes, are devices capable of delivering nicotine in an aerosolized form. ENDS use by both adults and youth has increased rapidly, and some have advocated these products could serve as harm-reduction devices and smoking cessation aids. ENDS may be beneficial if they reduce smoking rates or prevent or reduce the known adverse health effects of smoking. However, ENDS may also be harmful, particularly to youth, if they increase the likelihood that nonsmokers or formers smokers will use combustible tobacco products or if they discourage smokers from quitting. The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) recognize the potential ENDS have to alter patterns of tobacco use and affect the public's health; however, definitive data are lacking. AACR and ASCO recommend additional research on these devices, including assessing the health impacts of ENDS, understanding patterns of ENDS use, and determining what role ENDS have in cessation. Key policy recommendations include supporting federal, state, and local regulation of ENDS; requiring manufacturers to register with the FDA and report all product ingredients, requiring childproof caps on ENDS liquids, and including warning labels on products and their advertisements; prohibiting youth-oriented marketing and sales; prohibiting child-friendly ENDS flavors; and prohibiting ENDS use in places where cigarette smoking is prohibited. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research and American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  9. Electronic Cigarette Use Among High School Students and Its Association With Cigarette Use And Smoking Cessation, North Carolina Youth Tobacco Surveys, 2011 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Ling; Kowitt, Sarah D; Sutfin, Erin L; Patel, Tanha; Ranney, Leah M; Goldstein, Adam O

    2016-08-04

    Although adolescent cigarette use continues to decline in the United States, electronic cigarette (e‑cigarette) use among adolescents has escalated rapidly. This study assessed trends and patterns of e‑cigarette use and concurrent cigarette smoking and the relationships between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation intentions and behaviors among high school students in North Carolina. Data came from high school students who completed the school-based, cross-sectional North Carolina Youth Tobacco Survey in 2011 (n = 4,791) and 2013 (n = 4,092). This study assessed changes in prevalence of e-cigarette and cigarette use from 2011 through 2013, and cessation-related factors associated with those students' current and past use of e‑cigarettes in 2013. The prevalence of current e-cigarette use (use in the past 30 days) significantly increased from 1.7% (95% CI, 1.3%-2.2%) in 2011 to 7.7% (95% CI, 5.9%-10.0%) in 2013. Among dual users, current e-cigarette use was negatively associated with intention to quit cigarette smoking for good (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.29-0.87) and with attempts to quit cigarette smoking in the past 12 months (RRR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.49-0.97). Current e-cigarette smokers were less likely than those who only smoked cigarettes to have ever abstained from cigarette smoking for 6 months (RRR = 0.42; 95% CI, 0.21-0.82) or 1 year (RRR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.09-0.51) and to have used any kind of aids for smoking cessation (RRR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.29-0.74). Public health practitioners and cessation clinic service providers should educate adolescents about the risks of using any nicotine-containing products, including e-cigarettes, and provide adequate tobacco cessation resources and counseling to adolescent tobacco users.

  10. Drivers for precision livestock technology adoption: A study of factors associated with adoption of electronic identification technology by commercial sheep farmers in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Eliana; Hopkins, Thomas; Gurney, Emma; Shortall, Orla; Lovatt, Fiona; Davies, Peers; Williamson, George; Kaler, Jasmeet

    2018-01-01

    The UK is the largest lamb meat producer in Europe. However, the low profitability of sheep farming sector suggests production efficiency could be improved. Although the use of technologies such as Electronic Identification (EID) tools could allow a better use of flock resources, anecdotal evidence suggests they are not widely used. The aim of this study was to assess uptake of EID technology, and explore drivers and barriers of adoption of related tools among English and Welsh farmers. Farm beliefs and management practices associated with adoption of this technology were investigated. A total of 2000 questionnaires were sent, with a response rate of 22%. Among the respondents, 87 had adopted EID tools for recording flock information, 97 intended to adopt it in the future, and 222 neither had adopted it, neither intended to adopt it. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and multivariable logistic regression modelling were used to identify farmer beliefs and management practices significantly associated with adoption of EID technology. EFA identified three factors expressing farmer's beliefs-external pressure and negative feelings, usefulness and practicality. Our results suggest farmer's beliefs play a significant role in technology uptake. Non-adopters were more likely than adopters to believe that 'government pressurise farmers to adopt technology'. In contrast, adopters were significantly more likely than non-adopters to see EID as practical and useful (p≤0.05). Farmers with higher information technologies literacy and intending to intensify production in the future were significantly more likely to adopt EID technology (p≤0.05). Importantly, flocks managed with EID tools had significantly lower farmer- reported flock lameness levels (p≤0.05). These findings bring insights on the dynamics of adoption of EID tools. Communicating evidence of the positive effects EID tools on flock performance and strengthening farmer's capability in use of technology are likely

  11. Pre-silencing of genes involved in the electron transport chain (ETC) pathway is associated with responsiveness to abatacept in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derambure, C; Dzangue-Tchoupou, G; Berard, C; Vergne, N; Hiron, M; D'Agostino, M A; Musette, P; Vittecoq, O; Lequerré, T

    2017-05-25

    In the current context of personalized medicine, one of the major challenges in the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is to identify biomarkers that predict drug responsiveness. From the European APPRAISE trial, our main objective was to identify a gene expression profile associated with responsiveness to abatacept (ABA) + methotrexate (MTX) and to understand the involvement of this signature in the pathophysiology of RA. Whole human genome microarrays (4 × 44 K) were performed from a first subset of 36 patients with RA. Data validation by quantitative reverse-transcription (qRT)-PCR was performed from a second independent subset of 32 patients with RA. Gene Ontology and WikiPathways database allowed us to highlight the specific biological mechanisms involved in predicting response to ABA/MTX. From the first subset of 36 patients with RA, a combination including 87 transcripts allowed almost perfect separation between responders and non-responders to ABA/MTX. Next, the second subset of patients 32 with RA allowed validation by qRT-PCR of a minimal signature with only four genes. This latter signature categorized 81% of patients with RA with 75% sensitivity, 85% specificity and 85% negative predictive value. This combination showed a significant enrichment of genes involved in electron transport chain (ETC) pathways. Seven transcripts from ETC pathways (NDUFA6, NDUFA4, UQCRQ, ATP5J, COX7A2, COX7B, COX6A1) were significantly downregulated in responders versus non-responders to ABA/MTX. Moreover, dysregulation of these genes was independent of inflammation and was specific to ABA response. Pre-silencing of ETC genes is associated with future response to ABA/MTX and might be a crucial key to susceptibility to ABA response.

  12. Drivers for precision livestock technology adoption: A study of factors associated with adoption of electronic identification technology by commercial sheep farmers in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Thomas; Gurney, Emma; Shortall, Orla; Lovatt, Fiona; Davies, Peers; Williamson, George; Kaler, Jasmeet

    2018-01-01

    The UK is the largest lamb meat producer in Europe. However, the low profitability of sheep farming sector suggests production efficiency could be improved. Although the use of technologies such as Electronic Identification (EID) tools could allow a better use of flock resources, anecdotal evidence suggests they are not widely used. The aim of this study was to assess uptake of EID technology, and explore drivers and barriers of adoption of related tools among English and Welsh farmers. Farm beliefs and management practices associated with adoption of this technology were investigated. A total of 2000 questionnaires were sent, with a response rate of 22%. Among the respondents, 87 had adopted EID tools for recording flock information, 97 intended to adopt it in the future, and 222 neither had adopted it, neither intended to adopt it. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and multivariable logistic regression modelling were used to identify farmer beliefs and management practices significantly associated with adoption of EID technology. EFA identified three factors expressing farmer’s beliefs–external pressure and negative feelings, usefulness and practicality. Our results suggest farmer’s beliefs play a significant role in technology uptake. Non-adopters were more likely than adopters to believe that ‘government pressurise farmers to adopt technology’. In contrast, adopters were significantly more likely than non-adopters to see EID as practical and useful (p≤0.05). Farmers with higher information technologies literacy and intending to intensify production in the future were significantly more likely to adopt EID technology (p≤0.05). Importantly, flocks managed with EID tools had significantly lower farmer- reported flock lameness levels (p≤0.05). These findings bring insights on the dynamics of adoption of EID tools. Communicating evidence of the positive effects EID tools on flock performance and strengthening farmer’s capability in use of

  13. Newnes electronics assembly pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Produced in association with the Engineering Training Authority with contributions from dozens of people in the electronics industry. The material covers common skills in electrical and electronic engineering and concentrates mainly on wiring and assembly. 'Newnes Electronics Assembly Pocket Book' is for electronics technicians, students and apprentices.

  14. Electrons, Electronic Publishing, and Electronic Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownrigg, Edwin B.; Lynch, Clifford A.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a perspective on electronic publishing by distinguishing between "Newtonian" publishing and "quantum-mechanical" publishing. Highlights include media and publishing, works delivered through electronic media, electronic publishing and the printed word, management of intellectual property, and recent copyright-law issues…

  15. Uma análise dos antecedentes da satisfação no trabalho em uma empresa madeireira Aspects of job satisfaction in a lumber company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Afonso Vieira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O tema satisfação no trabalho tem sido considerado nos últimos anos de grande importância tanto pela academia quanto pelos práticos. Estudar os fatores que antecedem a satisfação no trabalho tornou-se um potencial campo de investigação. Diante desse contexto, o objetivo principal deste artigo é verificar os antecedentes da satisfação no trabalho. O método empregou uma pesquisa de tipo conclusiva, caracterizada como quantitativa. Foram entrevistados 182 funcionários de uma grande empresa madeireira do oeste de Santa Catarina. Os resultados, após análise de regressão, identificaram que clima organizacional, benefícios sociais e remuneração para o trabalho foram as variáveis que tiveram uma relação positiva e significativa com a satisfação no trabalho. Considerações finais e sugestões para pesquisas futuras encerram a parte final do artigo.Job satisfaction has been given great importance in recent years not only by scholars but also by professionals. Factors that explain job satisfaction are therefore an interesting subject for investigation. As such, some aspects that contribute to job satisfaction were studied by the conclusive-quantitative method in relation to 182 employees from a large lumber company. Regression analysis of the results substantiated the hypotheses on organizational climate, social benefits and remuneration as having a positive and significant relation with job satisfaction. Suggestions for additional studies were also included.

  16. The Effect of Veneer Layers on the Bending Shear Strength and Delamination of Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) from Oil Palm Trunk (OPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, M. A.; Nordin, K.; Bahari, S. A.; Ahmad, M.

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the number of veneer layers on the bending shear strength and delamination of Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) from oil palm trunk (OPT). Five (5), Six (6) and Seven (7) veneer layers of OPT LVL were manufactured. The dimension of the boards was 45 cm by 45 cm by 1.9 cm. The boards were hot pressed for 13 minutes at a pressure of 31 kgf per m2. Urea formaldehyde (UF) supplied by a local adhesive manufacturer was used as the binder for the boards. The bending shear tests consisted of the edgewise and flatwise tests, whereas the delamination test consisted of the cold and hot water boil tests. The preparation of the test specimens and tests set-up was in accordance to the Japanese Standards, JAS-1991 [1]. Six replications were used for each test. The results were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using the Duncan's Multiple Range Test to test for significant differences. The results indicated that as the number of layers increased the strength also increased. All the boards passed the standard. The difference in strength between the different types of samples was significant at 95 percent confidence level. Bending shear failures were primarily in the veneers. It is possible to use the boards as light weight interior building and furniture components. Over the years, the supply of quality timber resources from the natural forest has decrease as the wood-based industry experienced rapid growth. The supply of rubberwood for the furniture industry is also decreasing as a result of increase latex price. Accordingly, OPT LVL can be an alternative or supplementary raw material for the wood-based industry.

  17. Arriba-lib: association of an evidence-based electronic library of decision aids with communication and decision-making in patients and primary care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Oliver; Keller, Heidemarie; Krones, Tanja; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert

    2012-03-01

    In shared decision-making, patients are empowered to actively ask questions and participate in decisions about their healthcare based on their preferences and values. Decision aids should help patients make informed choices among diagnostic or treatment options by delivering evidence-based information on options and outcomes; however, they have rarely been field tested, especially in the primary care context. We therefore evaluated associations between the use of an interactive, transactional and evidence-based library of decision aids (arriba-lib) and communication and decision-making in patients and physicians in the primary care context. Our electronic library of decision aids ('arriba-lib') includes evidence-based modules for cardiovascular prevention, diabetes, coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation and depression. Twenty-nine primary care physicians recruited 192 patients. We used questionnaires to ask patients and physicians about their experiences with and attitudes towards the programme. Patients were interviewed via telephone 2 months after the consultation. Data were analysed by general estimation equations, cross tab analyses and by using effect sizes. Only a minority (8.9%) of the consultations were felt to be too long because physicians said consultations were unacceptably extended by arriba-lib. We found a negative association between the detailedness of the discussion of the clinical problem's definition and the age of the patients. Physicians discuss therapeutic options in less detail with patients who have a formal education of less than 8 years. Patients who were counselled by a physician with no experience in using a decision aid more often reported that they do not remember being counselled with the help of a decision aid or do not wish to be counselled again with a decision aid. Arriba-lib has positive associations to the decision-making process in patients and physicians. It can also be used with older age groups and patients with less

  18. Binding of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Apo-Bacterioferritin Associated Ferredoxin to Bacterioferritin B Promotes Heme Mediation of Electron Delivery and Mobilization of Core Mineral Iron†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeratunga, Saroja K.; Gee, Casey E.; Lovell, Scott; Zeng, Yuhong; Woodin, Carrie L.; Rivera, Mario

    2009-01-01

    The bfrB gene from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The resultant protein (BfrB), which assembles into a 445.3 kDa complex0020from 24 identical subunits, binds 12 molecules of heme axially coordinated by two Met residues. BfrB, isolated with 5–10 iron atoms per protein molecule, was reconstituted with ferrous ions to prepare samples with a core mineral containing 600 ± 40 ferric ions per BfrB molecule and approximately one phosphate molecule per iron atom. In the presence of sodium dithionite or in the presence of P. aeruginosa ferredoxin NADP reductase (FPR) and NADPH the heme in BfrB remains oxidized and the core iron mineral is mobilized sluggishly. In stark contrast, addition of NADPH to a solution containing BfrB, FPR and the apo-form of P. aeruginosa bacterioferritin associated ferredoxin (apo-Bfd) results in rapid reduction of the heme in BfrB and in the efficient mobilization of the core iron mineral. Results from additional experimentation indicate that Bfd must bind to BfrB to promote heme mediation of electrons from the surface to the core to support the efficient mobilization of ferrous ions from BfrB. In this context, the thus far mysterious role of heme in bacterioferritins has been brought to the front by reconstituting BfrB with its physiological partner, apo-Bfd. These findings are discussed in the context of a model for the utilization of stored iron in which the significant upregulation of the bfd gene under low-iron conditions [Ochsner, U.A., Wilderman, P.J., Vasil, A.I., and Vasil, M.L. (2002) Mol. Microbiol. 45, 1277–1287] ensures sufficient concentrations of apo-Bfd to bind BfrB and unlock the iron stored in its core. Although these findings are in contrast to previous speculations suggesting redox mediation of electron transfer by holo-Bfd, the ability of apo-Bfd to promote iron mobilization is an economical strategy used by the cell because it obviates the need to further deplete cellular iron levels to

  19. Using reclaimed lumber and wood flooring in construction : measuring environmental impact using life-cycle inventory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Hongmei Gu; Robert H. Falk; Thomas R. Napier

    2010-01-01

    With green building concepts becoming widespread in the construction field, building practices and materials are being examined for their environmental impact. Reusing building materials has a distinct advantage over using newly manufactured materials because these reclaimed materials avoid greenhouse gas emissions associated with new (virgin) material manufacturing....

  20. Uncertainty associated to the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in water by solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-electron capture detection-Evaluation using two different approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratola, Nuno; Santos, Lucia; Herbert, Paulo; Alves, Arminda

    2006-01-01

    As the performances of analytical instrumentation are being gradually enhanced, the limits of detection become increasingly lower, allowing more environmental contaminants to be determined in different matrices. Problems emerge when dealing with data from different origins, once the uncertainty of the results is difficult to be compared, especially if its calculation procedure is rather different, as very often happens. Samples of two organochlorine pesticides of somewhat opposite characteristics (lindane and heptachlor, classified as persistent organic pollutants-POPs) were analyzed in aqueous media using headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) prior to gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) and this methodology was in-house validated. Detection limits of 0.097 and 0.050 μg l -1 , average intermediate precision of 11.6% and 27.5%, and average recovery of 95.6% and 103.0%, for lindane and heptachlor, respectively, were found. In the absence of available interlaboratory studies to assess the reliability of the results, the expanded uncertainty was calculated following two different approaches (bottom-up/Eurachem and modified top-down) and the results were compared. Globally it was clearly shown that, for both pesticides, the lower the concentration range, the higher the uncertainty associated to the results. Expanded uncertainties estimated by bottom-up/Eurachem approach varied from 51% to 14% for a lindane concentration range of 0.1-1 μg l -1 , and from 48% to 24% for a heptachlor range of 0.1-2 μg l -1 . Modified top-down approach pointed to 44% (lindane and heptachlor) in the same ranges, meaning that a uniform procedure for uncertainty estimation should be adopted

  1. Statistics on the use of cardiac electronic devices and electrophysiological procedures in the European Society of Cardiology countries: 2014 report from the European Heart Rhythm Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatikainen, M J Pekka; Arnar, David O; Zeppenfeld, Katja; Merino, Jose Luis; Levya, Francisco; Hindriks, Gerhardt; Kuck, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    There has been large variations in the use of invasive electrophysiological therapies in the member countries of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). The aim of this analysis was to provide comprehensive information on cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) and catheter ablation therapy trends in the ESC countries over the last five years. The European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) has collected data on CIED and catheter ablation therapy since 2008. Last year 49 of the 56 ESC member countries provided data for the EHRA White Book. This analysis is based on the current and previous editions of the EHRA White Book. Data on procedure rates together with information on economic aspects, local reimbursement systems and training activities are presented for each ESC country and the five geographical ESC regions. In 2013, the electrophysiological procedure rates per million population were highest in Western Europe followed by the Southern and Northern European countries. The CIED implantation and catheter ablation rate was lowest in the Eastern European and in the non-European ESC countries, respectively. However, in some Eastern European countries with relative low gross domestic product procedure rates exceeded those of some wealthier Western countries, suggesting that economic resources are not the only driver for utilization of arrhythmia therapies. These statistics indicate that despite significant improvements, there still is considerable heterogeneity in the availability of arrhythmia therapies across the ESC area. Hopefully, these data will help identify areas for improvement and guide future activities in cardiac arrhythmia management. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Typewriting by Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etier, Faborn

    1971-01-01

    By using the electronic typewriting teaching aid, it is believed by those closely associated with its use in teaching typing that as much can be accomplished in one semester as in two semesters using the conventional method of teaching. (Editor)

  3. Electron/electron acoustic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    The electron acoustic wave becomes a normal mode of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma in the presence of two electron components with similar densities, but strongly disparate temperatures. The characteristic frequency of this mode is the plasma frequency of the cooler electron component. If these two electron components have a relative drift speed several times the thermal speed of the cooler component, the electron/electron acoustic instability may arise. This paper describes the parametric dependences of the threshold drift speed and maximum growth rate of this instability, and compares these with the same properties of the electron/ion acoustic instability. Under the condition of zero current, the electron/ion acoustic instability typically has the lower threshold drift speed, so that observation of the electron/electron acoustic instability is a strong indication of the presence of an electrical current in the plasma

  4. The changes in caregivers' perceptions about the quality of information and benefits of nursing documentation associated with the introduction of an electronic documentation system in a nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyisia, Esther N; Yu, Ping; Hailey, David

    2011-02-01

    To date few studies have compared nursing home caregivers' perceptions about the quality of information and benefits of nursing documentation in paper and electronic formats. With the increased interest in the use of information technology in nursing homes, it is important to obtain information on the benefits of newer approaches to nursing documentation so as to inform investment, organisational and care service decisions in the aged care sector. This study aims to investigate caregivers' perceptions about the quality of information and benefits of nursing documentation before and after the introduction of an electronic documentation system in a nursing home. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted three months before, and then six, 18 and 31 months after the introduction of an electronic documentation system. Further evidence was obtained through informal discussions with caregivers. Scores for questionnaire responses showed that the benefits of the electronic documentation system were perceived by the caregivers as provision of more accurate, legible and complete information, and reduction of repetition in data entry, with consequential managerial benefits. However, caregivers' perceptions of relevance and reliability of information, and of their communication and decision-making abilities were perceived to be similar either using an electronic or a paper-based documentation system. Improvement in some perceptions about the quality of information and benefits of nursing documentation was evident in the measurement conducted six months after the introduction of the electronic system, but were not maintained 18 or 31 months later. The electronic documentation system was perceived to perform better than the paper-based system in some aspects, with subsequent benefits to management of aged care services. In other areas, perceptions of additional benefits from the electronic documentation system were not maintained. In a number of attributes, there

  5. Life cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction : phase II research report: an extension to the 2005 phase I research report. Module D, Life cycle inventory of softwood lumber manufacturing in the Northeastern and North Central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to gain an understanding of the environmental impact for softwood lumber production through a gate-to-gate life-cycle inventory (LCI) of softwood sawmills in the northeastern and north central United States (NE/NC). Primary mill data were collected per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial Material (CORRIM) Research Guidelines (...

  6. Life cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction : phase II research report: an extension to the 2005 phase I research report. Module C, Life-cycle inventory of hardwood lumber manufacturing in the Northeast and North Central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to find the environmental impact of hardwood lumber production through a gate-to-gate Life-Cycle Inventory (LCI) on hardwood sawmills in the northeast and northcentral (NE/NC) United States. Primary mill data was collected per CORRIM Research Guidelines (CORRIM 2001). Life-cycle analysis is beyond the scope of the study.

  7. Life cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction : phase II research report: an extension to the 2005 phase I research report. Module L, Life-cycle inventory of hardwood lumber manufacturing in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to gain an understanding of the environmental impact of hardwood lumber production through a gate-to-gate life-cycle inventory (LCI) of hardwood sawmills in the Southeastern United States (SE). Primary mill data were collected per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) Research Guidelines. Life-cycle impact...

  8. The sensitivity of the electron transport within bulk zinc-blende gallium nitride to variations in the crystal temperature, the doping concentration, and the non-parabolicity coefficient associated with the lowest energy conduction band valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqua, Poppy; O' Leary, Stephen K., E-mail: stephen.oleary@ubc.ca [School of Engineering, The University of British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, British Columbia V1V 1V7 (Canada)

    2016-09-07

    Within the framework of a semi-classical three-valley Monte Carlo simulation approach, we analyze the steady-state and transient electron transport that occurs within bulk zinc-blende gallium nitride. In particular, we examine how the steady-state and transient electron transport that occurs within this material changes in response to variations in the crystal temperature, the doping concentration, and the non-parabolicity coefficient associated with the lowest energy conduction band valley. These results are then contrasted with those corresponding to a number of other compound semiconductors of interest.

  9. Electronic emission and electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the process of electron emission from metal surface. Although electrons move freely in conductors like metals, they normally do not leave the metal without some manipulation. In fact, heating and bombardment are the two primary ways in which electrons are emitted through the use of a heating element behind the cathode (termed thermionic emission) or as a result of bombardment with a beam of electrons, ions, or metastable atoms (termed secondary emission). Another important emission mechanism called Explosive Electron Emission (EEE) is also often used in various High Voltage Pulse Power Systems to generate very high current (few hundreds of kA) pulsed electron beams. The electron gun is the device in that it shoots off a continuous (or pulsed) stream of electrons. A brief idea about the evolution of the electron gun components and their basis of functioning are also discussed. (author)

  10. Sticker electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Torres Sevilla, Galo Andres; Diaz Cordero, Marlon Steven

    2017-01-01

    Electronic stickers may be manufactured on flexible substrates (110, 120, 130) as layers and packaged together. The package may then have an adhesive applied to one side to provide capability for sticking the electronic devices to surfaces

  11. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    "[to] promote the understanding and, acceptance of and growth in the number of electronic transactions .... Chapter III of the ECT Act is based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic. Commerce ... Communications Technology Law 146. 22.

  12. Ethnicity and the first diagnosis of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases: Associations in a linked electronic health record cohort of 1 million patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie George

    Full Text Available While the association of ethnic group with individual cardiovascular diseases has been studied, little is known about ethnic differences in the initial lifetime presentation of clinical cardiovascular disease in contemporary populations.We studied 1,068,318 people, aged ≥30 years and free from diagnosed CVD at baseline (90.9% White, 3.6% South Asian and 2.9% Black, using English linked electronic health records covering primary care, hospital admissions, acute coronary syndrome registry and mortality registry (CALIBER platform. During 5.7 years median follow-up between 1997-2010, 95,224 people experienced an incident cardiovascular diagnosis. 69.9% (67.2%-72.4% of initial presentation in South Asian <60 yrs were coronary heart disease presentations compared to 47.8% (47.3%-48.3% in White and 40.1% (36.3%-43.9% in Black patients. Compared to White patients, Black patients had significantly lower age-sex adjusted hazard ratios (HRs for initial lifetime presentation of all the coronary disease diagnoses (stable angina HR 0.80 (95% CI 0.68-0.93; unstable angina- 0.75 (0.59-0.97; myocardial infarction 0.49 (0.40-0.62 while South Asian patients had significantly higher HRs (stable angina- 1.67 (1.52-1.84; unstable angina 1.82 (1.56-2.13; myocardial infarction- 1.67 (1.49-1.87. We found no ethnic differences in initial presentation with heart failure (Black 0.97 (0.79-1.20; S Asian 1.04(0.87-1.26. Compared to White patients, Black patients were more likely to present with ischaemic stroke (1.24 (0.97-1.58 and intracerebral haemorrhage (1.44 (0.97-2.12. Presentation with peripheral arterial disease was less likely for Black (0.63 (0.50-0.80 and South Asian patients (0.70 (0.57-0.86 compared with White patients.While we found the anticipated substantial predominance of coronary heart disease presentations in South Asian and predominance of stroke presentations in Black patients, we found no ethnic differences in presentation with heart failure. We

  13. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  14. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  15. Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-01-01

    Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks...

  16. Electronic Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, F. W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes various stages involved in the applications of electronic media to the publishing industry. Highlights include computer typesetting, or photocomposition; machine-readable databases; the distribution of publications in electronic form; computer conferencing and electronic mail; collaborative authorship; hypertext; hypermedia publications;…

  17. Serial changes on MR imaging of herniated lumber discs treated by percutaneous laser nucleotomy. Correlation with early clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraishi, Kumiko; Ohmori, Naoki; Kosaka, Riya; Yonezawa, Takumi; Onomura, Toshinobu; Adachi, Itaru; Matsuoka, Takae; Honghan, Gong; Narabayashi, Isamu

    1996-01-01

    Percutaneous Laser Nucleotomy (PLN) is a new treatment for disc herniation applying neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd : YAG) laser through inserted needle into the center of the disc, with less invasion and shorter hospitalization than conventional open surgery. Serial MR images were observed in 21 patients before and after PLN. Canal occupying ratio (COR) and signal intensity (S.I.) of herniated disc were measured. Recovery rate of symptoms was 57.2%, based on scoring system proposed by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association for low-back pain (JOA score). The successful group (≥30% improvement in JOA score) showed rapid decrease in signal intensity, though the ineffective group ( 2 -weighted sequence. Increase of signal intensity was observed in some patients whose symptoms had become worse. This may correlate with increase of water content and inner pressure on the disc. There was no significant difference between pre- and post-COR; however, more than 10% COR decrease was observed in 7 patients and symptoms improved in these cases. Thus the prognosis of the patients treated with PLN can be assessed by MR findings. (author)

  18. Coherent Electron Focussing in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, H. van; Wees, B.J. van; Mooij, J.E.; Beenakker, C.W.J.; Williamson, J.G.; Foxon, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    The first experimental realization of ballistic point contacts in a two-dimensional electron gas for the study of transverse electron focussing by a magnetic field is reported. Multiple peaks associated with skipping orbits of electrons reflected specularly by the channel boundary are observed. At

  19. Sticker electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-09-08

    Electronic stickers may be manufactured on flexible substrates (110, 120, 130) as layers and packaged together. The package may then have an adhesive applied to one side to provide capability for sticking the electronic devices to surfaces. The stickers can be wrappable, placed on surfaces, glued on walls or mirrors or wood or stone, and have electronics (112, 122, 132) which may or may not be ultrathin. Packaging for the electronic sticker can use polymer on cellulose manufacturing and/or three dimensional (3-D) printing. The electronic stickers may provide lighting capability, sensing capability, and/or recharging capabilities.

  20. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  1. Electron Jet of Asymmetric Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Graham, D. B.; Norgren, C.; Eriksson, E.; Li, W.; Johlander, A.; Vaivads, A.; Andre, M.; Pritchett, P. L.; Retino, A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present Magnetospheric Multiscale observations of an electron-scale current sheet and electron outflow jet for asymmetric reconnection with guide field at the subsolar magnetopause. The electron jet observed within the reconnection region has an electron Mach number of 0.35 and is associated with electron agyrotropy. The jet is unstable to an electrostatic instability which generates intense waves with E(sub parallel lines) amplitudes reaching up to 300 mV/m and potentials up to 20% of the electron thermal energy. We see evidence of interaction between the waves and the electron beam, leading to quick thermalization of the beam and stabilization of the instability. The wave phase speed is comparable to the ion thermal speed, suggesting that the instability is of Buneman type, and therefore introduces electron-ion drag and leads to braking of the electron flow. Our observations demonstrate that electrostatic turbulence plays an important role in the electron-scale physics of asymmetric reconnection.

  2. Cryptococcal meningitis management in Tanzania with strict schedule of serial lumber punctures using intravenous tubing sets: an operational research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, John; Kalluvya, Samuel; Downs, Jennifer A; Chofle, Awilly A; Seni, Jeremiah; Kidenya, Benson; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Peck, Robert N

    2014-06-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) has a mortality rate of ∼70% among HIV-infected adults in low-income countries. Controlling intracranial pressure (ICP) is essential in CM, but it is difficult in low-income countries because manometers and practical ICP management protocols are lacking. As part of a continuous quality improvement project, our Tanzanian hospital initiated a new protocol for ICP management for CM. All adult inpatients with CM are included in a prospective patient registry. At the time of analysis, this registry included data from 2 years before the initiation of this new ICP management protocol and for a 9-month period after. ICP was measured at baseline and at days 3, 7, and 14 by both manometer and intravenous (IV) tubing set. All patients were given IV fluconazole according to Tanzanian treatment guidelines and were followed until 30 days after admission. Among adult inpatients with CM, 32 of 35 patients (91%) had elevated ICP on admission. Cerebrospinal fluid pressure measurements using the improvised IV tubing set demonstrated excellent agreement (r = 0.96) with manometer measurements. Compared with historical controls, the new ICP management protocol was associated with a significant reduction in 30-day mortality (16/35 [46%] vs. 48/64 [75%] in historical controls; hazard ratio = 2.1 [95% CI: 1.1 to 3.8]; P = 0.018]. Increased ICP is almost universal among HIV-infected adults admitted with CM in Tanzania. Intensive ICP management with a strict schedule of serial lumbar punctures reduced in-hospital mortality compared with historical controls. ICP measurement with IV tubing sets may be a good alternative in resource-limited health facilities where manometers are not available.

  3. Electronic Commerce and Electronic Business

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    This special issue is motivated by the recent upsurge of research activity in the areas of electronic commerce and electronic business both in India and all over the world. The current ... Monte Carlo methods for pricing financial options are then.

  4. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K; Gascó, M; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I; Milano, M; Panagiotopoulos, P; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P; Sæbø, Ø

    2016-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies.This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information

  5. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information

  6. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  7. `Twisted' electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Hugo; Kaminer, Ido; Grillo, Vincenzo; Leuchs, Gerd; Padgett, Miles J.; Boyd, Robert W.; Segev, Mordechai; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2018-04-01

    Electrons have played a significant role in the development of many fields of physics during the last century. The interest surrounding them mostly involved their wave-like features prescribed by the quantum theory. In particular, these features correctly predict the behaviour of electrons in various physical systems including atoms, molecules, solid-state materials, and even in free space. Ten years ago, new breakthroughs were made, arising from the new ability to bestow orbital angular momentum (OAM) to the wave function of electrons. This quantity, in conjunction with the electron's charge, results in an additional magnetic property. Owing to these features, OAM-carrying, or twisted, electrons can effectively interact with magnetic fields in unprecedented ways and have motivated materials scientists to find new methods for generating twisted electrons and measuring their OAM content. Here, we provide an overview of such techniques along with an introduction to the exciting dynamics of twisted electrons.

  8. Electronics and Lithuanian Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasys Zajankauskas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is found that the vacuum triode, transistor, monolithic circuit and microprocessor were the most important inventions of traditional electronics. Thus, the origins of the traditional electronics should be associated with the invention of the vacuum triode, but not with the invention of vacuum diode. It is shown that the science of electronics is not as young as computer science or up-to-date information technologies: electronics, including active electronics, had already celebrated the centenary, and the period of 2004–2008 is the period of numerous already solid jubilees. Thus, the terminology of electronics is not at initial stage of evolution as well – general terms should be already systematized and normalized. However, Lithuanian terms for electronic devices invented before tens of years and terms for old-defined notions associated with these devices are still varying, some are worsened. Especially, the incorrectly motivated terms used for variations of transistors and microcircuits are analyzed in the article. It is motivated which terms are preferable, systematic and exact. The paper is dedicated to the 50th anniversary of monolithic circuit, as well as the 60th anniversary of transistor, the 40th jubilee of microprocessor and centenary of electronics.

  9. Influence of laser parameters on the relativistic short electron bunches dynamics in linear accelerators based on RF-guns and development of associated diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinatier, T.

    2015-01-01

    My thesis investigates dynamics and diagnostics related to short electron bunches, namely whose rms duration is not directly measurable by an electronic method locating the border at a few tens of picoseconds. The short nature of the bunch and the necessity of a high peak current for the applications imply strong space-charge forces leading to a degradation of beam properties, as its transverse emittance and duration. The main difficulty is to characterize, model and take into account these effects. The chapter 2 consists in the measurements of several properties of these bunches: charge, transverse emittance, energy and duration. The originality of my work is that I use simple methods, both on the theoretical (analytical at maximum) and technological (using only common elements of electron accelerators) point of view. I have developed a method of charge measurement from the measurement of the light intensity emitted by a scintillating screen following the interaction with an electron beam. I have also developed a method to measure the bunch mean energy with a steering magnet and a scintillating screen, via the displacement of the bunch centroid as a function of the field of the steering magnet. I have also adapted multi-parametric methods to measure the transverse emittance and duration of electron bunches. These indirect methods allow the determination of these properties from the measurement of other more accessible properties: the transverse dimensions for the transverse emittance and the energy spread for the duration. The chapter 3 consists in the comparison of the properties of short electron beams, single or longitudinally modulated, generated by 3 different methods: Injection of a short or longitudinally modulated laser pulse in an RF-gun; Magnetic compression in a chicane; and RF-compression in an accelerating structure (Velocity Bunching). I have shown that, at equal conditions of charge, the generation of short bunches thanks to a short laser pulse

  10. The role of amino acid electron-donor/acceptor atoms in host-cell binding peptides is associated with their 3D structure and HLA-binding capacity in sterile malarial immunity induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patarroyo, Manuel E., E-mail: mepatarr@mail.com [Fundacion Instituto de Inmunologia de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogota (Colombia); Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Almonacid, Hannia; Moreno-Vranich, Armando [Fundacion Instituto de Inmunologia de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogota (Colombia)

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fundamental residues located in some HABPs are associated with their 3D structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron-donor atoms present in {beta}-turn, random, distorted {alpha}-helix structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron-donor atoms bound to HLA-DR53. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron-acceptor atoms present in regular {alpha}-helix structure bound to HLA-DR52. -- Abstract: Plasmodium falciparum malaria continues being one of the parasitic diseases causing the highest worldwide mortality due to the parasite's multiple evasion mechanisms, such as immunological silence. Membrane and organelle proteins are used during invasion for interactions mediated by high binding ability peptides (HABPs); these have amino acids which establish hydrogen bonds between them in some of their critical binding residues. Immunisation assays in the Aotus model using HABPs whose critical residues had been modified have revealed a conformational change thereby enabling a protection-inducing response. This has improved fitting within HLA-DR{beta}1{sup Asterisk-Operator} molecules where amino acid electron-donor atoms present in {beta}-turn, random or distorted {alpha}-helix structures preferentially bound to HLA-DR53 molecules, whilst HABPs having amino acid electron-acceptor atoms present in regular {alpha}-helix structure bound to HLA-DR52. This data has great implications for vaccine development.

  11. Safety risks associated with the lack of integration and interfacing of hospital health information technologies: a qualitative study of hospital electronic prescribing systems in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Kathrin M; Mozaffar, Hajar; Lee, Lisa; Williams, Robin; Sheikh, Aziz

    2017-07-01

    Substantial sums of money are being invested worldwide in health information technology. Realising benefits and mitigating safety risks is however highly dependent on effective integration of information within systems and/or interfacing to allow information exchange across systems. As part of an English programme of research, we explored the social and technical challenges relating to integration and interfacing experienced by early adopter hospitals of standalone and hospital-wide multimodular integrated electronic prescribing (ePrescribing) systems. We collected longitudinal qualitative data from six hospitals, which we conceptualised as case studies. We conducted 173 interviews with users, implementers and software suppliers (at up to three different times), 24 observations of system use and strategic meetings, 17 documents relating to implementation plans, and 2 whole-day expert round-table discussions. Data were thematically analysed initially within and then across cases, drawing on perspectives surrounding information infrastructures. We observed that integration and interfacing problems obstructed effective information transfer in both standalone and multimodular systems, resulting in threats to patient safety emerging from the lack of availability of timely information and duplicate data entry. Interfacing problems were immediately evident in some standalone systems where users had to cope with multiple log-ins, and this did not attenuate over time. Multimodular systems appeared at first sight to obviate such problems. However, with these systems, there was a perceived lack of data coherence across modules resulting in challenges in presenting a comprehensive overview of the patient record, this possibly resulting from the piecemeal implementation of modules with different functionalities. Although it was possible to access data from some primary care systems, we found poor two-way transfer of data between hospitals and primary care necessitating

  12. Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  13. Advanced Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-21

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0114 TR-2017-0114 ADVANCED ELECTRONICS Ashwani Sharma 21 Jul 2017 Interim Report APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...NUMBER Advanced Electronics 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4846 Ashwani Sharma 5e. TASK NUMBER...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. (RDMX-17-14919 dtd 20 Mar 2018) 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Space Electronics

  14. Electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    An introduction to the various techniques in electron spectroscopy is presented. These techniques include: (1) UV Photoelectron spectroscopy, (2) X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy, (3) Auger electron spectroscopy, (4) Electron energy loss spectroscopy, (5) Penning ionization spectroscopy and (6) Ion neutralization spectroscopy. The radiations used in each technique, the basis of the technique and the special information obtained in structure determination in atoms and molecules by each technique are summarised. (A.K.)

  15. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  16. Electronics Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Robert; Carroll-Garrison, Martina; Donovan, Daniel; Fisher, John; Guemmer, Paul; Harms, Robert; Kelly, Timothy; Love, Mattie; McReynolds, James; Ward, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    .... Government action to preserve strategic access to semiconductor producers is clearly needed to ensure DoD electronic systems can be built without compromising sensitive technology, though every...

  17. Microfluidic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  18. Electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Tonomura, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Holography was devised for breaking through the resolution limit of electron microscopes The advent of a "coherent" field emission electron beam has enabled the use of Electron Holography in various areas of magnetic domain structures observation, fluxon observation in superconductors, and fundamental experiments in physics which have been inaccessible using other techniques After examining the fundamentals of electron holography and its applications to the afore mentioned fields, a detailed discussion of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the related experiments is presented Many photographs and illustrations are included to elucidate the text

  19. Electron-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    This discussion concentrates on basic physics aspects of inelastic processes of excitation, ionization, and recombination that occur during electron-ion collisions. Except for cases of illustration along isoelectronic sequences, only multicharged (at least +2) ions will be specifically discussed with some emphasis of unique physics aspects associated with ionic charge. The material presented will be discussed from a primarily experimental viewpoint with most attention to electron-ion interacting beams experiments

  20. Study of charmed baryon Λ+sub(c) associated with an electron release in proton-proton collisions at √s = 63 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajot, G.

    1980-01-01

    The production of the charmed baryon Λ + sub(c) in proton-proton collisions at 63 GeV is studied. The experiment was performed at the C.E.R.N. - I.S.R. on the S.F.M. The event is recorded if an electron is recognized, this electron coming from the semi-leptonic decay of the anticharmed particle accompanying the Λ + sub(c). The total cross section for the production of the pair anticharmed particle Λ + sub(c) is estimated by several models. By comparison with others experiments producing Λ + sub(c) at the I.S.R., one deduces that the model d sigma/dy = cte best agrees with the experimental data [fr

  1. The electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hestenes, David; Weingartshofer, Antonio

    1991-01-01

    The stupendous successes of the Dirac equation and quantum electro-dynamics have established the electron as the best understood of the fundamental constituents of matter. Nevertheless, physicists agree that the electron still has secrets to reveal. Moreover, powerful new theoretical and experimental tools for probing those secrets have been sharpened during the last decade. This workshop was organized to bring theorists and experimentalists together to discuss their common goal of knowing the electron. Present state and future prospects for progress toward that goal are here described. The theoretical papers encompass a wide range of views on the electron. Several argue that the 'Zitter-bewegung' is more than a mathematical peculiarity of the Dirac equation, that it may well be a real physical phenomenon and worthy of serious study, theoretically and experimentally. Besides generating the electron spin and magnetic moment, the 'Zitterbewegung' may be a vital clue to electron structure and self-interaction. Some of the papers employ a radical new formulation of the Dirac theory which reveals a hidden geo-metric structure in the theory that supports a 'Zitterbewegung' inter-pretation. For the last half century the properties of electrons have been probed primarily by scattering experiments at ever higher energies. Recently, however, two powerful new experimental techniques have emerged capable of giving alternative experimental views of the electron. First, techniques for confining single electrons for long term study have led to the most accurate measurements of the electron magnetic moment. Second, the interaction of high intensity laser fields with atoms and electrons have revealed striking new phenomena such as multiphoton ionization. refs.; figs.; tabs

  2. Roles of the twin-arginine translocase and associated chaperones in the biogenesis of the electron transport chains of the human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Andrew; Hall, Stephen J; Myers, Jonathan D; Mulholland, Francis; Jones, Michael A; Kelly, David J

    2010-10-01

    The zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 uses a complex set of electron transport chains to ensure growth with a variety of electron donors and alternative electron acceptors, some of which are known to be important for host colonization. Many of the key redox proteins essential for electron transfer in this bacterium have N-terminal twin-arginine translocase (TAT) signal sequences that ensure their transport across the cytoplasmic membrane in a folded state. By comparisons of 2D gels of periplasmic extracts, gene fusions and specific enzyme assays in wild-type, tatC mutant and complemented strains, we experimentally verified the TAT dependence of 10 proteins with an N-terminal twin-arginine motif. NrfH, which has a TAT-like motif (LRRKILK), was functional in nitrite reduction in a tatC mutant, and was correctly rejected as a TAT substrate by the tatfind and TatP prediction programs. However, the hydrogenase subunit HydA is also rejected by tatfind, but was shown to be TAT-dependent experimentally. The YedY homologue Cj0379 is the only TAT translocated molybdoenzyme of unknown function in C. jejuni; we show that a cj0379c mutant is deficient in chicken colonization and has a nitrosative stress phenotype, suggestive of a possible role for Cj0379 in the reduction of reactive nitrogen species in the periplasm. Only two potential TAT chaperones, NapD and Cj1514, are encoded in the genome. Surprisingly, despite homology to TorD, Cj1514 was shown to be specifically required for the activity of formate dehydrogenase, not trimethylamine N-oxide reductase, and was designated FdhM.

  3. Correlation between phonon anomaly along [211] and the Fermi surface nesting features with associated electron-phonon interactions in Ni2FeGa: A first principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabungbam, Satyananda; Sahariah, Munima B.

    2015-01-01

    First principles calculation reaffirms the presence of phonon anomaly along [211] direction in Ni 2 FeGa shape memory alloy supporting the experimental findings of J. Q. Li et al. Fermi surface scans have been performed in both austenite and martensite phase to see the possible Fermi nesting features in this alloy. The magnitude of observed Fermi surface nesting vectors in (211) plane exactly match the phonon anomaly wavevectors along [211] direction. Electron-phonon calculation in the austenite phase shows that there is significant electron-phonon coupling in this alloy which might arise out of the lattice coupling between lower acoustic modes and higher optical modes combined with the observed strong Fermi nesting features in the system. - Highlights: • Transverse acoustic (TA 2 ) modes show anomaly along [211] direction in Ni 2 FeGa. • The phonon anomaly wavevector has been correlated with the Fermi nesting vectors. • Electron-phonon coupling calculation shows significant coupling in this system. • Max. el-ph coupling occurs in transition frequencies from acoustic to optical modes

  4. Situação das indústrias madeireiras do Estado do Amazonas em 2000 Lumber industries situation in 2000 in Amazonas State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Araújo Lima

    2005-06-01

    industries of the State of Amazonas to better understand the processes of production, industrialization and commercialization, and evaluate their influence on the sustainability of tropical forests. This information is very important in order to establish forest policies for the region. After defining the main forest industry (producers of lumber, plywood and veneer zones of the State, data were collected directly from the forest industries as well as from IBAMA, SUFRAMA, SEFAZ and IBGE. Manaus, Itacoatiara, Manacapuru and Parintins were the main municipalities of sawn products; and Manaus and Itacoatiara for plywood and veneer. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect information such as main tree species, transformation productivity, origin of raw material, transportation, personnel qualification and training, and exportation. In 2000, the annual roundwood production in the State of Amazonas was 323,400m³ (divided equally among sawmill and plywood and veneer industries. More than 50 different tree species are used in the Amazonas sawmills; but only 16 represent 80% of the total volume. Plywood and veneer industries use 17 tree species. Louro inhamui, angelim pedra, amapá, assacu and maçaranduba are the main species for sawmills; while muiratinga, sumaúma, copaíba, assacu and amapá for plywood and veneer industries.

  5. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Crain, John M. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  6. Association Between Real-time Electronic Injury Surveillance Applications and Clinical Documentation and Data Acquisition in a South African Trauma Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargaran, Eiman; Spence, Richard; Adolph, Lauren; Nicol, Andrew; Schuurman, Nadine; Navsaria, Pradeep; Ramsey, Damon; Hameed, S Morad

    2018-03-14

    Collection and analysis of up-to-date and accurate injury surveillance data are a key step in the maturation of trauma systems. Trauma registries have proven to be difficult to establish in low- and middle-income countries owing to the burden of trauma volume, cost, and complexity. To determine whether an electronic trauma health record (eTHR) used by physicians can serve as simultaneous clinical documentation and data acquisition tools. This 2-part quality improvement study included (1) preimplementation and postimplementation eTHR study with assessments of satisfaction by 41 trauma physicians, time to completion, and quality of data collected comparing paper and electronic charting; and (2) prospective ecologic study describing the burden of trauma seen at a Level I trauma center, using real-time data collected by the eTHR on consecutive patients during a 12-month study period. The study was conducted from October 1, 2010, to September 30, 2011, at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. Data analysis was performed from October 15, 2011, to January 15, 2013. The primary outcome of part 1 was data field competition rates of pertinent trauma registry items obtained through electronic or paper documentation. The main measures of part 2 were to identify risk factors to trauma in Cape Town and quality indicators recommended for trauma system evaluation at Groote Schuur Hospital. The 41 physicians included in the study found the electronic patient documentation to be more efficient and preferable. A total of 11 612 trauma presentations were accurately documented and promptly analyzed. Fields relevant to injury surveillance in the eTHR (n = 11 612) had statistically significant higher completion rates compared with paper records (n = 9236) (for all comparisons, P Center (654 [9.0%]), and New Somerset Hospital (400 [5.5%]). Accurate capture and simultaneous analysis of trauma data in low-resource trauma settings are feasible through the integration

  7. The association between use of electronic media in bed before going to sleep and insomnia symptoms, daytime sleepiness, morningness, and chronotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Ingrid Nesdal; Nordnes, Linn Tinnesand; Storemark, Sunniva Straume; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-09-03

    This study investigated whether the use of a television, computer, gaming console, tablet, mobile phone, or audio player in bed before going to sleep was associated with insomnia, daytime sleepiness, morningness, or chronotype. 532 students aged 18-39 were recruited from lectures or via e-mail. Respondents reported the frequency and average duration of their in-bed media use, as well as insomnia symptoms, daytime sleepiness, morningness-eveningness preference and bedtime/rise time on days off. Mean time of media use per night was 46.6 minutes. The results showed that computer usage for playing/surfing/reading was positively associated with insomnia, and negatively associated with morningness. Mobile phone usage for playing/surfing/texting was positively associated with insomnia and chronotype, and negatively associated with morningness. None of the other media devices were related to either of these variables, and no type of media use was related to daytime sleepiness.

  8. The Prompt Gamma-Ray, Prompt Electron and Prompt X-Ray Spectra Associated with Fission Fragments of Specific Mass; Spectres de Rayons Gamma Instantanes, d'Electrons Instantanes et de Rayons X Instantanes Associes a des Fragments de Fission de Masse Donnee; 041c 0413 041d 041e 0414 ; Espectros de Rayos Gamma. Electrones y Rayos X Inmediatos, Vinculados a Fragmentos de Fision de Masa Determinada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, H. R.; Thompson, S. G.; Watson, R. L.; Kapoor, S. S.; Rasmussen, J. O. [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1965-07-15

    Well-defined prompt gamma-rays, prompt-conversion elections and prompt K-X-rays have been observed in coincidence with moving fission fragments of Cf{sup 252}. In a few cases, the masses and charges of the nuclei emitting the gamma-rays and conversion electrons have been identified. The gamma-ray, prompt-electron and prompt X-ray energies as well as the two fission fragments energies were measured with high-resolution solid-state detectors. The masses of the fragments were deduced from their energies, and the nuclear charges were determined by measuring the K-X - ray energies associated with different masses. The magnitude and sign of the Doppler shift in gamma-ray energy allowed assignment of the gamma-ray lines to single members of fragment pairs. The Doppler shift also provides an independent measure of the fragment velocity and hence the fragment mass after neutron emission. The results of the X-ray measurements are consistent with the view that the majority of the prompt X-rays emitted during the spontaneous fission of Cf{sup 252} are the result of internal conversion during the de-excitation of low-energy collective states of the primary fission fragments. Apart from the specific results discussed above, the most important consequence of these experiments has been the demonstration that it is possible to study the properties of individual fission fragments, as identified by their characteristic radiations, rather than studying the properties of an average fission fragment with an average mass and charge. The consequences of this advance in the technique of studying fission fragments ate being explored. (author) [French] Des rayons gamma instantanes, des electrons de conversions instantanes et des rayons X K instantanes bien definis ont ete observes en coincidences avec des fragments de fission de {sup 252}Cf en mouvement. Dans un petit nombre de cas' Les masses, et charges des noyaux emettant les rayons gamma et les electrons de conversion ont ete identifiees

  9. Digital electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, John

    2013-01-01

    An essential companion to John C Morris's 'Analogue Electronics', this clear and accessible text is designed for electronics students, teachers and enthusiasts who already have a basic understanding of electronics, and who wish to develop their knowledge of digital techniques and applications. Employing a discovery-based approach, the author covers fundamental theory before going on to develop an appreciation of logic networks, integrated circuit applications and analogue-digital conversion. A section on digital fault finding and useful ic data sheets completes th

  10. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  11. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  12. Starting electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  13. Stretchable electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Someya, Takao

    2012-01-01

    With its comprehensive coverage this handbook and ready reference brings together some of the most outstanding scientists in the field to lay down the undisputed knowledge on how to make electronics stretchable.As such, it focuses on gathering and evaluating the materials, designs, models and technologies that enable the fabrication of fully elastic electronic devices which can sustain high strain. Furthermore, it provides a review of those specific applications that directly benefit from highly compliant electronics, including transistors, photonic devices and sensors. In addition to stre

  14. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  15. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  16. Implementation and reimbursement of remote monitoring for cardiac implantable electronic devices in Europe: a survey from the health economics committee of the European Heart Rhythm Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairesse, Georges H; Braunschweig, Frieder; Klersy, Katherine; Cowie, Martin R; Leyva, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    Remote monitoring (RM) of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) permits early detection of arrhythmias, device, and lead failure and may also be useful in risk-predicting patient-related outcomes. Financial benefits for patients and healthcare organizations have also been shown. We sought to assess the implementation and funding of RM of CIEDs, including conventional pacemakers (PMs), implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices in Europe. Electronic survey from 43 centres in 15 European countries. In the study sample, RM was available in 22% of PM patients, 74% of ICD patients, and 69% of CRT patients. The most significant perceived benefits were the early detection of atrial arrhythmias in pacemaker patients, lead failure in ICD patients, and worsening heart failure in CRT patients. Remote monitoring was reported to lead a reduction of in-office follow-ups for all devices. The most important reported barrier to the implementation of RM for all CIEDs was lack of reimbursement (80% of centres). Physicians regard RM of CIEDs as a clinically useful technology that affords significant benefits for patients and healthcare organizations. Remote monitoring, however, is perceived as increasing workload. Reimbursement for RM is generally perceived as a major barrier to implementation. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Association of 239Pu with lysosomes in rat, Syrian hamster, and Chinese hamster liver as studied by carrier-free electrophoresis and electron microscopic autoradiography with 241Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, A.; Krueger, E.W.; Wiener, M.; Hotz, G.; Balani, M.; Thies, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    The binding of injected monomeric plutonium in the liver of rats, Syrian hamsters, and Chinese hamsters (species which show profound differences in their ability to eliminate 239 Pu from the liver) was investigated by carrier-free electrophoresis using 239 Pu and electron microscopic autoradiography with 241 Pu. These studies are part of a program designed to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms of the clearance of transuranium elements from liver of different mammals and man. Between 4 and 9 days after nuclide injection, a clear correlation between the majority of the 239 Pu and lysosomal enzymes was observed when the mitochondrial-lysosomal (ML) fraction of the livers was analyzed by carrier-free electrophoresis. In the two hamster species, a second 239 Pu peak exists from the beginning and increases with time to comprise 50% of the total radioactivity at later times. During electron microscopic examination 4 days after 241 Pu injection, beta tracks were frequently observed over globular structures resembling dense bodies in Chinese hamster liver. They were also observed frequently over chromatin-rich portions of the cell nuclei. These results, together with those from previous density gradient studies, show that lysosomes are the primary deposition site for 239 Pu in the liver cytoplasm of these three rodent species. The hypothesis of a morphologic transformation of these lysosomes with time in hamster liver and of rapid bulk exocytosis of the lysosomes in rats are still possible explanations for the extreme differences in the elimination among the three species

  18. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  19. Paper electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald

    2011-05-03

    Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Electron Microprobe

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The JEOL JXA-8600 is a conventional hairpin filament thermal emission electron microprobe that is more than 20 years old. It is capable of performing qualitative and...

  1. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.

  2. Electron Emitters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tzeng, Yonhua

    2002-01-01

    When two carbon-nanotube coated electrodes are placed at a small distance from each other, electron emission from carbon nanotubes allows a DC or AC electrical current to flow between these two electrodes...

  3. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  4. Electronic Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Electronic voting technology is a two edged sword. It comes with many risks but brings also many benefits. Instead of flat out rejecting the technology as uncontrollably dangerous, we advocate in this paper a different technological angle that renders electronic elections trustworthy beyond...... the usual levels of doubt. We exploit the trust that voters currently have into the democratic process and model our techniques around that observation accordingly. In particular, we propose a technique of trace emitting computations to record the individual steps of an electronic voting machine...... for a posteriori validation on an acceptably small trusted computing base. Our technology enables us to prove that an electronic elections preserves the voter’s intent, assuming that the voting machine and the trace verifier are independent....

  5. Electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Zvolánková, Pavla

    2010-01-01

    The thesis deals with a description of electronic commerce from its beginning up to present situation in this area. It explains basic terms connected with electronic commerce and it summarizes the relevant legislation. Moreover it describes e-contracts and rights and duties of both contractual parties. The main view is the view of Internet retailer, which is reflected in the practical part focused on concrete problems of retailers.

  6. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Jessica; Hollis, Joseph Razzell; Wood, Sebastian

    2018-04-01

    The combination of printing technology with manufacturing electronic devices enables a new paradigm of printable electronics, where 'smart' functionality can be readily incorporated into almost any product at low cost. Over recent decades, rapid progress has been made in this field, which is now emerging into the industrial andcommercial realm. However, successful development and commercialisation on a large scale presents some significant technical challenges. For fully-printable electronic systems, all the component parts must be deposited from solutions (inks), requiring the development of new inorganic, organic and hybrid materials.A variety of traditional printing techniques are being explored and adapted forprinting these new materials in ways that result in the best performing electronicdevices. Whilst printed electronics research has initially focused on traditional typesof electronic device such as light-emitting diodes, transistors, and photovoltaics, it is increasingly apparent that a much wider range of applications can be realised. The soft and stretchable nature of printable materials makes them perfect candidates forbioelectronics, resulting in a wealth of research looking at biocompatible printable inks and biosensors. Regardless of application, the properties of printed electronicmaterials depend on the chemical structures, processing conditions, device architecture,and operational conditions, the complex inter-relationships of which aredriving ongoing research. We focus on three particular 'hot topics', where attention is currently focused: novel materials, characterisation techniques, and device stability. With progress advancing very rapidly, printed electronics is expected to grow over the next decade into a key technology with an enormous economic and social impact.

  7. Electronic Mentoring of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Vicki L.

    On July 1, 1991, the ACRL (Association of College and Research Libraries) Research Committee launched a pilot project to mentor academic librarians in their conduct of research. Since the mentors and protegees were potentially from all over the United States, the decision was made to mentor using the electronic conferencing capability of BITNET…

  8. International trends in electronic media communication among 11- to 15-year-olds in 30 countries from 2002 to 2010: association with ease of communication with friends of the opposite sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniel-Nissim, Meyran; Lenzi, Michela; Zsiros, Emese; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Gommans, Rob; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Djalovski, Amir; van der Sluijs, Winfried

    2015-04-01

    Electronic media has become a central part of the lives of adolescents. Therefore, this study examines trends in adolescent electronic media communication (EMC) and its relationship with ease of communication with friends of the opposite sex, from 2002 to 10 in 30 European and North American regions. Data from the HBSC study were collected using self-report questionnaires from 11-, 13- and 15-year-old participants (N = 404 523). EMC use has grown over the years in most of these regions and increases with age. Even though Internet usage is often blamed for its negative effects on teenagers' social interactions in the physical world, in this study EMC was found to predict ease of communication with friends. Especially, the more they use EMC, the easier they find it to talk with friends of the opposite sex. Although these findings suggest that EMC reinforces communication, the interaction between year (2002-2006-2010) and EMC usage was not significant. This finding contradicts research that suggests that EMC contributes to loneliness and isolation, and supports other studies that present electronic media as a powerful tool for helping to connect people. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Consumer preferences and willingness to pay for character-marked cabinets from Alaska birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geof Donovan; David. Nicholls

    2003-01-01

    Alaska birch lumber has a higher occurrence of defects (knots, bark pockets, flecks, spalting, etc.) when compared to competing hardwoods. These defects are a disadvantage when birch lumber is graded under standard National Hardwood Lumber Association (NHLA) grading rules. This paper examines whether defects and other character markings found in birch lumber may be an...

  10. Is the use of electronic cigarettes while smoking associated with smoking cessation attempts, cessation and reduced cigarette consumption? A survey with a 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Leonie S; Hitchman, Sara C; Brown, Jamie; West, Robert; McNeill, Ann

    2015-07-01

    To use a unique longitudinal data set to assess the association between e-cigarette use while smoking with smoking cessation attempts, cessation and substantial reduction, taking into account frequency of use and key potential confounders. Web-based survey, baseline November/December 2012, 1-year follow-up in December 2013. Great Britain. National general population sample of 4064 adult smokers, with 1759 (43%) followed-up. Main outcome measures were cessation attempt, cessation and substantial reduction (≥50% from baseline to follow-up) of cigarettes per day (CPD). In logistic regression models, cessation attempt in the last year (analysis n = 1473) and smoking status (n = 1656) at follow-up were regressed on to baseline e-cigarette use (none, non-daily, daily) while adjusting for baseline socio-demographics, dependence and nicotine replacement (NRT) use. Substantial reduction (n = 1042) was regressed on to follow-up e-cigarette use while adjusting for baseline socio-demographics and dependence and follow-up NRT use. Compared with non-use, daily e-cigarette use at baseline was associated with increased cessation attempts [odds ratio (OR) = 2.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-3.58, P = 0.006], but not with cessation at follow-up (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.28-1.37, P = 0.24). Non-daily use was not associated with cessation attempts or cessation. Daily e-cigarette use at follow-up was associated with increased odds of substantial reduction (OR = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.14-5.45, P = 0.02), non-daily use was not. Daily use of e-cigarettes while smoking appears to be associated with subsequent increases in rates of attempting to stop smoking and reducing smoking, but not with smoking cessation. Non-daily use of e-cigarettes while smoking does not appear to be associated with cessation attempts, cessation or reduced smoking. © 2015 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Achievement report in fiscal 2000 on technical development to recycle waste building materials and glasses. Development of waste building material recycling technology (Research and development of wooden board manufacturing technology using demolished building lumbers); 2000 nendo kenchiku glass nado recycle gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kenhciku haizai recycle gijutsu kaihatsu (kenchiku kaitai mokuzai wo mochiita mokushitsu board seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development has been made on a wooden board manufacturing technology re-utilizing demolished building lumbers and waste plastics with an intention of saving resources and reducing wastes. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. In developing the technology to re-use demolished building lumbers, a method for removing metals attached to demolished building lumbers was established by using a magnetic separator and a metal detector, with which it was verified that iron can be removed nearly 100%. With regard to waste plastics, simultaneous use of specific gravity separation utilizing centrifugal force and electrostatic separation provided a prospect that metals and plastics of high melting points can be removed from mixed resins in waste household electric appliances, and that polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and ABS can be classified at high accuracy. In manufacturing waste wood and waste plastic boards, pilot plants were built to use the 'melt spray method', 'melt blow method', and 'laminating method' as the means to spray molten resin onto wood raw materials, wherein trials were performed on mixing molten resins with wood flakes, and on board forming. (NEDO)

  12. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  13. Electron tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Motohiro [Hamamatsu, JP; Fukasawa, Atsuhito [Hamamatsu, JP; Arisaka, Katsushi [Los Angeles, CA; Wang, Hanguo [North Hills, CA

    2011-12-20

    An electron tube of the present invention includes: a vacuum vessel including a face plate portion made of synthetic silica and having a surface on which a photoelectric surface is provided, a stem portion arranged facing the photoelectric surface and made of synthetic silica, and a side tube portion having one end connected to the face plate portion and the other end connected to the stem portion and made of synthetic silica; a projection portion arranged in the vacuum vessel, extending from the stem portion toward the photoelectric surface, and made of synthetic silica; and an electron detector arranged on the projection portion, for detecting electrons from the photoelectric surface, and made of silicon.

  14. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  15. Electronic Commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, N. [NRG Information Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The concept of electronic commerce in the gas industry was discussed. It was defined as the integration of communication technology, advanced information processing capability and business standards, to improve effectiveness of the business process. Examples of electronic data interchange from the automotive, airline, and banking industry were given. The objective of using this technology in the gas industry was described as the provision of one electronic facility to make seamless contractual and operational arrangements for moving natural gas across participating pipelines. The benefit of seamless integration - one readily available standard system used by several companies - was highlighted. A list of value-added services such as the free movement of bulletins, directories, nominations,and other documents was provided.

  16. Sites involved in intra- and interdomain allostery associated with the activation of factor VIIa pinpointed by hydrogen-deuterium exchange and electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongjian; Olsen, Ole H; Persson, Egon; Rand, Kasper D

    2014-12-19

    Factor VIIa (FVIIa) is a trypsin-like protease that plays an important role in initiating blood coagulation. Very limited structural information is available for the free, inactive form of FVIIa that circulates in the blood prior to vascular injury and the molecular details of its activity enhancement remain elusive. Here we have applied hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry coupled to electron transfer dissociation to pinpoint individual residues in the heavy chain of FVIIa whose conformation and/or local interaction pattern changes when the enzyme transitions to the active form, as induced either by its cofactor tissue factor or a covalent active site inhibitor. Identified regulatory residues are situated at key sites across one continuous surface of the protease domain spanning the TF-binding helix across the activation pocket to the calcium binding site and are embedded in elements of secondary structure and at the base of flexible loops. Thus these residues are optimally positioned to mediate crosstalk between functional sites in FVIIa, particularly the cofactor binding site and the active site. Our results unambiguously show that the conformational allosteric activation signal extends to the EGF1 domain in the light chain of FVIIa, underscoring a remarkable intra- and interdomain allosteric regulation of this trypsin-like protease. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Serious electronic games as behavioural change interventions in healthcare-associated infections and infection prevention and control: a scoping review of the literature and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Kyratsis, Yiannis; Iwami, Michiyo; Rawson, Timothy M; Holmes, Alison H

    2016-01-01

    The uptake of improvement initiatives in infection prevention and control (IPC) has often proven challenging. Innovative interventions such as 'serious games' have been proposed in other areas to educate and help clinicians adopt optimal behaviours. There is limited evidence about the application and evaluation of serious games in IPC. The purposes of the study were: a) to synthesise research evidence on the use of serious games in IPC to support healthcare workers' behaviour change and best practice learning; and b) to identify gaps across the formulation and evaluation of serious games in IPC. A scoping study was conducted using the methodological framework developed by Arksey and O'Malley. We interrogated electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Embase Classic + Embase, PsycINFO, Scopus, Cochrane, Google Scholar) in December 2015. Evidence from these studies was assessed against an analytic framework of intervention formulation and evaluation. Nine hundred sixty five unique papers were initially identified, 23 included for full-text review, and four finally selected. Studies focused on intervention inception and development rather than implementation. Expert involvement in game design was reported in 2/4 studies. Potential game users were not included in needs assessment and game development. Outcome variables such as fidelity or sustainability were scarcely reported. The growing interest in serious games for health has not been coupled with adequate evaluation of processes, outcomes and contexts involved. Explanations about the mechanisms by which game components may facilitate behaviour change are lacking, further hindering adoption.

  18. Intraoperative electron beam radiation therapy: technique, dosimetry, and dose specification: report of task force 48 of the radiation therapy committee, American association of physicists in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palta, Jatinder R.; Biggs, Peter J.; Hazle, John D.; Huq, M. Saiful; Dahl, Robert A.; Ochran, Timothy G.; Soen, Jerry; Dobelbower, Ralph R.; McCullough, Edwin C.

    1995-01-01

    Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is a treatment modality whereby a large single dose of radiation is delivered to a surgically open, exposed cancer site. Typically, a beam of megavoltage electrons is directed at an exposed tumor or tumor bed through a specially designed applicator system. In the last few years, IORT facilities have proliferated around the world. The IORT technique and the applicator systems used at these facilities vary greatly in sophistication and design philosophy. The IORT beam characteristics vary for different designs of applicator systems. It is necessary to document the existing techniques of IORT, to detail the dosimetry data required for accurate delivery of the prescribed dose, and to have a uniform method of dose specification for cooperative clinical trials. The specific charge to the task group includes the following: (a) identify the multidisciplinary IORT team, (b) outline special considerations that must be addressed by an IORT program, (c) review currently available IORT techniques, (d) describe dosimetric measurements necessary for accurate delivery of prescribed dose, (e) describe dosimetric measurements necessary in documenting doses to the surrounding normal tissues, (f) recommend quality assurance procedures for IORT, (g) review methods of treatment documentation and verification, and (h) recommend methods of dose specification and recording for cooperative clinical trials

  19. Electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramyan.

    1981-01-01

    The USSR produces an electron accelerator family of a simple design powered straight from the mains. The specifications are given of accelerators ELITA-400, ELITA-3, ELT-2, TEUS-3 and RIUS-5 with maximum electron energies of 0.3 to 5 MeV, a mean power of 10 to 70 kW operating in both the pulsed and the continuous (TEUS-3) modes. Pulsed accelerators ELITA-400 and ELITA-3 and RIUS-5 in which TESLA resonance transformers are used are characterized by their compact size. (Ha)

  20. Electronic cigarette

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    As we know E-cigarette is becoming increasingly popular all over the world. It is a new product that the most of smoking people would like to buy and use. However, we are not realizing advantages and disadvantages of e-cigarette clearly. My objective was to research the development of electronic cigarette whether it is under control or a good way of marketing. The thesis has two main parts. They include answers to questions what is electronic cigarette and how to manage the whole industry...

  1. Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Füellekrug, M.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E. M. D.

    2011-01-01

    Non-luminous relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds have been detected by the radio signals of low frequency similar to 40-400 kHz which they radiate. The electron beams occur similar to 2-9 ms after positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges at heights between similar to 22-72 km above...... thunderclouds. Intense positive lightning discharges can also cause sprites which occur either above or prior to the electron beam. One electron beam was detected without any luminous sprite which suggests that electron beams may also occur independently of sprites. Numerical simulations show that beams...... of electrons partially discharge the lightning electric field above thunderclouds and thereby gain a mean energy of similar to 7MeV to transport a total charge of similar to-10mC upwards. The impulsive current similar to 3 x 10(-3) Am-2 associated with relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds...

  2. Nuclear electronics laboratory manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    The Nuclear Electronics Laboratory Manual is a joint product of several electronics experts who have been associated with IAEA activity in this field for many years. The manual does not include experiments of a basic nature, such as characteristics of different active electronics components. It starts by introducing small electronics blocks, employing one or more active components. The most demanding exercises instruct a student in the design and construction of complete circuits, as used in commercial nuclear instruments. It is expected that a student who completes all the experiments in the manual should be in a position to design nuclear electronics units and also to understand the functions of advanced commercial instruments which need to be repaired or maintained. The future tasks of nuclear electronics engineers will be increasingly oriented towards designing and building the interfaces between a nuclear experiment and a computer. The manual pays tribute to this development by introducing a number of experiments which illustrate the principles and the technology of interfacing

  3. Effect of battery longevity on costs and health outcomes associated with cardiac implantable electronic devices: a Markov model-based Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmier, Jordana K; Lau, Edmund C; Patel, Jasmine D; Klenk, Juergen A; Greenspon, Arnold J

    2017-11-01

    The effects of device and patient characteristics on health and economic outcomes in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are unclear. Modeling can estimate costs and outcomes for patients with CIEDs under a variety of scenarios, varying battery longevity, comorbidities, and care settings. The objective of this analysis was to compare changes in patient outcomes and payer costs attributable to increases in battery life of implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators (CRT-D). We developed a Monte Carlo Markov model simulation to follow patients through primary implant, postoperative maintenance, generator replacement, and revision states. Patients were simulated in 3-month increments for 15 years or until death. Key variables included Charlson Comorbidity Index, CIED type, legacy versus extended battery longevity, mortality rates (procedure and all-cause), infection and non-infectious complication rates, and care settings. Costs included procedure-related (facility and professional), maintenance, and infections and non-infectious complications, all derived from Medicare data (2004-2014, 5% sample). Outcomes included counts of battery replacements, revisions, infections and non-infectious complications, and discounted (3%) costs and life years. An increase in battery longevity in ICDs yielded reductions in numbers of revisions (by 23%), battery changes (by 44%), infections (by 23%), non-infectious complications (by 10%), and total costs per patient (by 9%). Analogous reductions for CRT-Ds were 23% (revisions), 32% (battery changes), 22% (infections), 8% (complications), and 10% (costs). Based on modeling results, as battery longevity increases, patients experience fewer adverse outcomes and healthcare costs are reduced. Understanding the magnitude of the cost benefit of extended battery life can inform budgeting and planning decisions by healthcare providers and insurers.

  4. Therapeutically interchangeable? A study of real-world outcomes associated with switching basal insulin analogues among US patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using electronic medical records data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, P; Wei, W; Miao, R; Ye, F; Xie, L; Baser, O; Gill, J

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate real-world clinical outcomes for switching basal insulin analogues [insulin glargine (GLA) and insulin detemir (DET)] among US patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Using the GE Centricity Electronic Medical Records database, this retrospective study examined two cohorts: cohort 1, comprising patients previously on GLA and then either switching to DET (DET-S) or continuing with GLA (GLA-C); and cohort 2, comprising patients previously on DET and then either switching to GLA (GLA-S) or continuing with DET (DET-C). Within each cohort, treatment groups were propensity-score-matched on baseline characteristics. At 1-year follow-up, insulin treatment patterns, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, hypoglycaemic events, weight and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated. The analysis included 13 942 patients: cohort 1: n = 10 657 (DET-S, n = 1797 matched to GLA-C, n = 8860) and cohort 2: n = 3285 (GLA-S, n = 858 matched to DET-C, n = 2427). Baseline characteristics were similar between the treatment groups in each cohort. At 1-year follow-up, in cohort 1, patients in the DET-S subgroup were significantly less persistent with treatment, more likely to use a rapid-acting insulin analogue, had higher HbA1c values, lower HbA1c reductions and lower proportions of patients achieving HbA1c Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Serious electronic games as behavioural change interventions in healthcare-associated infections and infection prevention and control: a scoping review of the literature and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Castro-Sánchez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The uptake of improvement initiatives in infection prevention and control (IPC has often proven challenging. Innovative interventions such as ‘serious games’ have been proposed in other areas to educate and help clinicians adopt optimal behaviours. There is limited evidence about the application and evaluation of serious games in IPC. The purposes of the study were: a to synthesise research evidence on the use of serious games in IPC to support healthcare workers’ behaviour change and best practice learning; and b to identify gaps across the formulation and evaluation of serious games in IPC. Methods A scoping study was conducted using the methodological framework developed by Arksey and O’Malley. We interrogated electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Embase Classic + Embase, PsycINFO, Scopus, Cochrane, Google Scholar in December 2015. Evidence from these studies was assessed against an analytic framework of intervention formulation and evaluation. Results Nine hundred sixty five unique papers were initially identified, 23 included for full-text review, and four finally selected. Studies focused on intervention inception and development rather than implementation. Expert involvement in game design was reported in 2/4 studies. Potential game users were not included in needs assessment and game development. Outcome variables such as fidelity or sustainability were scarcely reported. Conclusions The growing interest in serious games for health has not been coupled with adequate evaluation of processes, outcomes and contexts involved. Explanations about the mechanisms by which game components may facilitate behaviour change are lacking, further hindering adoption.

  6. Light and electron microscopic observations on the organization of skin and associated glands of two caecilian amphibians from Western Ghats of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Arun; Reston Saroja, Beyo; Kotharambath, Ramachandran; Mohammad Abdulkader, Akbarsha; Oommen, Oommen V; Lekha, Divya

    2018-03-01

    We adopted light and electron microscopy to understand the structure of the skin of two species of caecilians, Ichthyophis tricolor and Uraeotyphlus cf. oxyurus, from Western Ghats of Kerala, India. The surface of the skin of these caecilians contains an irregular pattern of microridges. Oval, round and polymorphic glandular openings are randomly distributed all over the skin surface. Most of the openings are funnel shaped. The epithelial cells along the rim of the opening descend into the tunnel of the duct. A few glandular openings protrude slightly above the epithelium of the duct. The skin is formed of epidermis and dermis. Small flat disk-like dermal scales, composed of a basal plate of several layers of unmineralized collagen fibers topped with a discontinuous layer of mineralized globular squamulae, are lodged in pouches in the transverse ridges of the skin. Each pouch contains 1-4 scales, which might differ in size. The scales are almost similar between species, yet the difference can be useful in distinguishing between the two species. Flask cells and Merkel cells are present in the epidermis. Two types of glands, mucous and granular, are present in the dermis. The mucous glands are densely packed with mucous vesicles. Darkly stained mucous producing cells are located around the periphery of the gland. Secretory mucous vesicles differ in their organization and distribution. The granular glands are located perpendicular to the skin surface. The granule producing cells of the gland are located near the periphery. There are differently stained spherical secretory granules of various sizes in the cytoplasm. Thus, the use of different microscopic techniques contributed fascinatingly to the first ever understanding of organization of the skin of two selected caecilian species from Western Ghats, revealing certain features to differ between them. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng, E-mail: kswu@stu.edu.cn

    2014-02-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Methods: Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both P < 0.001). Parents' residence in Guiyu, and parents' work related to e-waste recycling were the risk factors associated with neonate's UCB lead and cadmium levels. No significant difference of UCB plasma 8-OHdG levels was found between Guiyu and the control area. After adjusting for potential confounders, cord plasma 8-OHdG concentrations (ng/mL) were positively associated with blood cadmium (β = 0.126 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.055 to 0.198 ng/mL), chromium (β = 0.086 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.014 to 0.158 ng/mL) and nickel (β = 0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. Conclusions: The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. - Highlights: • DNA oxidative damage levels (8-OHdG) in neonates from Guiyu were assessed.

  8. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Methods: Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both P < 0.001). Parents' residence in Guiyu, and parents' work related to e-waste recycling were the risk factors associated with neonate's UCB lead and cadmium levels. No significant difference of UCB plasma 8-OHdG levels was found between Guiyu and the control area. After adjusting for potential confounders, cord plasma 8-OHdG concentrations (ng/mL) were positively associated with blood cadmium (β = 0.126 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.055 to 0.198 ng/mL), chromium (β = 0.086 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.014 to 0.158 ng/mL) and nickel (β = 0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. Conclusions: The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. - Highlights: • DNA oxidative damage levels (8-OHdG) in neonates from Guiyu were assessed. • Neonatal lead

  9. Electronic School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Executive Educator, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This issue of "The Electronic School" features a special forum on computer networking. Articles specifically focus on network operating systems, cabling requirements, and network architecture. Tom Wall argues that virtual reality is not yet ready for classroom use. B.J. Novitsky profiles two high schools experimenting with CD-ROM…

  10. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e-government/e-governance...

  11. Electronics department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities in 1978 of some of the groups within the Electronics Department. The work covered includes plant protection and operator studies, reliability techniques, application of nuclear techniques to mineral exploration, applied laser physics, computing and, lastly, research instrumentation. (author)

  12. Power electronics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kishore Chatterjee

    This special issue of Sadhana is a compilation of papers selected from those presented at the 7th National Power. Electronics Conference (NPEC), held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, on 21–23 December 2015. From among the papers presented in NPEC-2017, selected papers were peer-reviewed for ...

  13. Electron linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loew, G A; Schriber, S O [ed.

    1976-11-01

    A study was made of the present status of the thousand or so electron linacs in the world, and future trends in the field. These machines were classified according to their use: medical, industrial, and nuclear physics. In the medical category, two types of electron linacs are discussed: the conventional ones which are used for x-ray and electron therapy, and those which may in the future be used for negative pion therapy. Industrial machines discussed include linacs for radiographic and other specialized applications. In the nuclear physics category, the status of conventional low- and medium-energy as well as high duty cycle linacs is reviewed. The question of how one might obtain a c-w, 1 GeV, 100..mu..A electron linac is raised, and various options using recirculation and stretchers are examined. In this connection, the status of rf superconductivity is summarized. A review is given of linacs for injectors into synchrotrons and e/sup +-/ storage rings, and recent work done to upgrade the only multi-GeV linac, namely SLAC, is described.

  14. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due...

  15. Electronic seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musyck, E.

    1981-01-01

    An electronic seal is presented for a volume such as container for fissile materials. The seal encloses a lock for barring the space as well as a device for the detection and the recording of the intervention of the lock. (AF)

  16. Nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friese, T.

    1981-09-01

    A short survey is given on nuclear radiation detectors and nuclear electronics. It is written for newcomers and those, who are not very familiar with this technique. Some additional information is given on typical failures in nuclear measurement systems. (orig.) [de

  17. Electron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    To study the present status of the thousand or so electron linacs in the world, and future trends in the field, we have classified these machines according to their use: medical, industrial, and nuclear physics. In the medical category, two types of electron linacs are discussed: the conventional ones which are used for X-ray and electron therapy, and those which may in the future be used for negative pion therapy. The section on industrial machines includes linacs for radiographic and other specialized applications. In the nuclear physics category, the status of conventional low- and medium-energy as well as high duty cycle linacs is reviewed. The question of how one might obtain a C.W., 1 GeV, 100 μA electron linac is raised and various options using recirculation and stretchers are examined. In this connection, the status of RF superconductivity is summarized. Following, there is a review of linacs for injectors into synchrotrons and e +- storage rings. The paper ends with a description of recent work done to upgrade the only multi-GeV linac, namely SLAC. (author)

  18. Advances in electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kasper, Erich; Grimmeiss, Hermann G

    2008-01-01

    This special-topic volume, Advances in Electronic Materials, covers various fields of materials research such as silicon, silicon-germanium hetero-structures, high-k materials, III-V semiconductor alloys and organic materials, as well as nano-structures for spintronics and photovoltaics. It begins with a brief summary of the formative years of microelectronics; now the keystone of information technology. The latter remains one of the most important global technologies, and is an extremely complex subject-area. Although electronic materials are primarily associated with computers, the internet

  19. Contribution to the energy and time measurement of electrons and photons in the ATLAS experiment and search for dark matter production in association to a Higgs boson.

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez Solis, Alvaro

    The discovery of a particle consistent with a Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson in 2012 by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations has opened up new possibilities in searches for physics beyond the SM (BSM). Searches for dark matter in ATLAS focus on a special case of general models called, mono-X, that predict a single object X (jet, photon, W or Z bosons) produced in association to dark matter (DM) particles. The production of these final states depends on the coupling between the radiated object and the colliding particles. This fact motivates the search of mono-Higgs signals since Higgs does not couple to gluons and its couplings to light quarks are very weak. Then, the Standard Model does not predict a large contribution to these mono-Higgs final states, thus any deviation from SM predictions is a direct probe of a coupling between the Higgs and a new BSM sector. A search of DM particles produced in association to a Higgs boson decaying into two photons has been carried out in this thesis. Aiming to increase t...

  20. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  1. PREFACE: Spin Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieny, B.; Sousa, R.; Prejbeanu, L.

    2007-04-01

    Conventional electronics has in the past ignored the spin on the electron, however things began to change in 1988 with the discovery of giant magnetoresistance in metallic thin film stacks which led to the development of a new research area, so called spin-electronics. In the last 10 years, spin-electronics has achieved a number of breakthroughs from the point of view of both basic science and application. Materials research has led to several major discoveries: very large tunnel magnetoresistance effects in tunnel junctions with crystalline barriers due to a new spin-filtering mechanism associated with the spin-dependent symmetry of the electron wave functions new magnetic tunnelling barriers leading to spin-dependent tunnelling barrier heights and acting as spin-filters magnetic semiconductors with increasingly high ordering temperature. New phenomena have been predicted and observed: the possibility of acting on the magnetization of a magnetic nanostructure with a spin-polarized current. This effect, due to a transfer of angular momentum between the spin polarized conduction electrons and the local magnetization, can be viewed as the reciprocal of giant or tunnel magnetoresistance. It can be used to switch the magnetization of a magnetic nanostructure or to generate steady magnetic excitations in the system. the possibility of generating and manipulating spin current without charge current by creating non-equilibrium local accumulation of spin up or spin down electrons. The range of applications of spin electronics materials and phenomena is expanding: the first devices based on giant magnetoresistance were the magnetoresistive read-heads for computer disk drives. These heads, introduced in 1998 with current-in plane spin-valves, have evolved towards low resistance tunnel magnetoresistice heads in 2005. Besides magnetic recording technology, these very sensitive magnetoresistive sensors are finding applications in other areas, in particular in biology. magnetic

  2. Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyay, Rajib

    Human beings have five senses, namely, vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste. The sensors for vision, hearing and touch have been developed for several years. The need for sensors capable of mimicking the senses of smell and taste have been felt only recently in food industry, environmental monitoring and several industrial applications. In the ever-widening horizon of frontier research in the field of electronics and advanced computing, emergence of electronic nose (E-Nose) and electronic tongue (E-Tongue) have been drawing attention of scientists and technologists for more than a decade. By intelligent integration of multitudes of technologies like chemometrics, microelectronics and advanced soft computing, human olfaction has been successfully mimicked by such new techniques called machine olfaction (Pearce et al. 2002). But the very essence of such research and development efforts has centered on development of customized electronic nose and electronic tongue solutions specific to individual applications. In fact, research trends as of date clearly points to the fact that a machine olfaction system as versatile, universal and broadband as human nose and human tongue may not be feasible in the decades to come. But application specific solutions may definitely be demonstrated and commercialized by modulation in sensor design and fine-tuning the soft computing solutions. This chapter deals with theory, developments of E-Nose and E-Tongue technology and their applications. Also a succinct account of future trends of R&D efforts in this field with an objective of establishing co-relation between machine olfaction and human perception has been included.

  3. Electronics Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    countries in developing market nations in Asia (such as Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia , China and Vietnam). The competition for the knowledge, economic...Intel, Infineon Technologies, STMicroelectronics, Samsung Electronics, Texas Instruments, AMD Spansion, Philips Semiconductor, Freescale... Samsung ($19.7B), #5 Toshiba ($9.8B), #6 TSMC ($9.7B), #7 Hynix ($8.0B) and #8 Renesas ($7.9B) (McGrath, 2007, p. 3). Samsung , headquartered in

  4. Electronic banking

    OpenAIRE

    Gradišnik, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The development of information and communication technology is one of the most important reasons for the incredibly fast changes in business. Electronic commerce is spreading unstoppably in the operations of companies. The creation of new models, such as online banking, online shopping and the like, has sped up the development of the World Wide Web. Owing to the rapid progress of the World Wide Web and technologies for secure business operations, we can barely imagine life today without e...

  5. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  6. ELECTRON GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1960-04-01

    A pulsed electron gun capable of delivering pulses at voltages of the order of 1 mv and currents of the order of 100 amperes is described. The principal novelty resides in a transformer construction which is disposed in the same vacuum housing as the electron source and accelerating electrode structure of the gun to supply the accelerating potential thereto. The transformer is provided by a plurality of magnetic cores disposed in circumferentially spaced relation and having a plurality of primary windings each inductively coupled to a different one of the cores, and a helical secondary winding which is disposed coaxially of the cores and passes therethrough in circumferential succession. Additional novelty resides in the disposition of the electron source cathode filament input leads interiorly of the transformer secondary winding which is hollow, as well as in the employment of a half-wave filament supply which is synchronously operated with the transformer supply such that the transformer is pulsed during the zero current portions of the half-wave cycle.

  7. Electronic sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Electronic sputtering covers a range of phenomena from electron and photon stimulated desorption from multilayers to fast heavy ion-induced desorption (sputtering) of biomolecules. In this talk the author attempted. Therefore, to connect the detailed studies of argon ejection from solid argon by MeV ions and keV electrons to the sputtering of low temperatures molecular ices by MeV ions then to biomolecule ejection from organic solids. These are related via changing (dE/dx) e , molecular size, and transport processes occurring in materials. In this regard three distinct regions of (dE/dx) e have been identified. Since the talk this picture has been made explicit using a simple spike model for individual impulsive events in which spike interactions are combined linearly. Since that time also the molecular dynamics programs (at Virginia and Uppsala) have quantified both single atom and dimer processes in solid Ar and the momentum transport in large biomolecule sputtering. 5 refs

  8. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-02-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both Pnickel (β=0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Observation of atomic oxygen O(1S) green-line emission in the summer polar upper mesosphere associated with high-energy (≥30 keV) electron precipitation during high-speed solar wind streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Sook; Kwak, Young-Sil; Kim, Kyung-Chan; Solheim, Brian; Lee, Regina; Lee, Jaejin

    2017-01-01

    The auroral green-line emission at 557.7 nm wavelength as arising from the atomic oxygen O(1S → 1D) transition typically peaks at an altitude of 100 km specifically in the nightside oval, induced by auroral electrons within an energy range of 100 eV-30 keV. Intense aurora is known as being suppressed by sunlight in summer daytime but usually occurs in low electrical background conductivity. However, in the present study in summer (July) sunlit condition, enhancements of O(1S) emission rates observed by using the Wind Imaging Interferometer/UARS were frequently observed at low altitudes below 90 km, where ice particles are created initially as subvisible and detected as polar mesosphere summer echoes, emerging to be an optical phenomenon of polar mesospheric clouds. The intense O(1S) emission occurring in summer exceeds those occurring in the daytime in other seasons both in occurrence and in intensity, frequently accompanied by occurrences of supersonic neutral velocity (300-1500 m s-1). In the mesosphere, ion motion is controlled by electric field and the momentum is transferred to neutrals. The intense O(1S) emission is well associated with high-energy electron precipitation as observed during an event of high-speed solar wind streams. Meanwhile, since the minimum occurrences of O(1S) emission and supersonic velocity are maintained even in the low precipitation flux, the mechanism responsible is not only related to high-energy electron precipitation but also presumably to the local conditions, including the composition of meteoric-charged ice particles and charge separation expected in extremely low temperatures (<150 K).

  10. Electronic Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irene, Eugene A.

    2005-02-01

    A thorough introduction to fundamental principles and applications From its beginnings in metallurgy and ceramics, materials science now encompasses such high- tech fields as microelectronics, polymers, biomaterials, and nanotechnology. Electronic Materials Science presents the fundamentals of the subject in a detailed fashion for a multidisciplinary audience. Offering a higher-level treatment than an undergraduate textbook provides, this text benefits students and practitioners not only in electronics and optical materials science, but also in additional cutting-edge fields like polymers and biomaterials. Readers with a basic understanding of physical chemistry or physics will appreciate the text's sophisticated presentation of today's materials science. Instructive derivations of important formulae, usually omitted in an introductory text, are included here. This feature offers a useful glimpse into the foundations of how the discipline understands such topics as defects, phase equilibria, and mechanical properties. Additionally, concepts such as reciprocal space, electron energy band theory, and thermodynamics enter the discussion earlier and in a more robust fashion than in other texts. Electronic Materials Science also features: An orientation towards industry and academia drawn from the author's experience in both arenas Information on applications in semiconductors, optoelectronics, photocells, and nanoelectronics Problem sets and important references throughout Flexibility for various pedagogical needs Treating the subject with more depth than any other introductory text, Electronic Materials Science prepares graduate and upper-level undergraduate students for advanced topics in the discipline and gives scientists in associated disciplines a clear review of the field and its leading technologies.

  11. Electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, H L

    2010-01-01

    The electronic properties of solids have become of increasing importance in the age of information technology. The study of solids and materials, while having originated from the disciplines of physics and chemistry, has evolved independently over the past few decades. The classical treatment of solid-state physics, which emphasized classifications, theories and fundamental physical principles, is no longer able to bridge the gap between materials advances and applications. In particular, the more recent developments in device physics and technology have not necessarily been driven by new conc

  12. Electronic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regel-Rosocka, Magdalena

    2018-03-01

    E-waste amount is growing at about 4% annually, and has become the fastest growing waste stream in the industrialized world. Over 50 million tons of e-waste are produced globally each year, and some of them end up in landfills causing danger of toxic chemicals leakage over time. E-waste is also sent to developing countries where informal processing of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) causes serious health and pollution problems. A huge interest in recovery of valuable metals from WEEE is clearly visible in a great number of scientific, popular scientific publications or government and industrial reports.

  13. Electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.-Y.; Hughes, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    The invention described relates to cathode ray tubes, and particularly to color picture tubes of the type useful in home television receivers and therefore to electron guns. The invention is especially applicable to self-converging tube-yoke combinations with shadow mask tubes of the type having plural-beam in-line guns disposed in a horizontal plane, an apertured mask with vertically oriented slit-shaped apertures, and a screen with vertically oriented phosphor stripes. The invention is not, however, limited to use in such tubes and may in fact be used, e.g., in dot-type shadow mask tubes and index-type tubes. (Auth.)

  14. Bolometer electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenig, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    High quality is required to the electronic which works with bolometer made of metal for measuring the radiation power in plasmaphysical experiments. If the bandwidth is to be 1 kHz, and the time constant of the bolometer is about 160 ms by high overall gain the critical parameters are the noise of the amplifier, pick up to the system, stability and decoupling of common mode signals. The high overall gain is necessary to be able to measure lowest radiation power. The design made is a good approach to the desired property. (orig.) [de

  15. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  16. Nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero B, E.

    1989-01-01

    The rapid technical development of Colombia over the past years, resulted among others, a considerable increase in the number of measuring instrumentation and testing laboratories, scientific research and metrology centers, in industry, agriculture, public health, education on the nuclear field, etc. IAN is a well organized institution with qualified management, trained staff and reasonably equipped laboratories to carry out tasks as: Metrology, standardization, quality control and maintenance and repair of nuclear instruments. The government of Colombia has adopted a policy to establish and operate through the country maintenance and repair facilities for nuclear instrumentation. This policy is reflected in the organization of electronic laboratories in Bogota-IAN

  17. Practical electronics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Ian R

    2013-01-01

    Practical Electronics Handbook, Third Edition provides the frequently used and highly applicable principles of electronics and electronic circuits.The book contains relevant information in electronics. The topics discussed in the text include passive and active discrete components; linear and digital I.C.s; microprocessors and microprocessor systems; digital-analogue conversions; computer aids in electronics design; and electronic hardware components.Electronic circuit constructors, service engineers, electronic design engineers, and anyone with an interest in electronics will find the book ve

  18. Electron foreshock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimas, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    ISEE particle and wave data are noted to furnish substantial support for the basic features of the velocity dispersed model at the foreshock boundary that was proposed by Filbert and Kellogg (1979). Among many remaining discrepancies between this model and observation, it is noted that unstable reduced velocity distributions have been discovered behind the thin boundary proposed by the model, and that these are at suprathermal energies lying far below those explainable in terms of an oscillating, two-stream instability. Although the long-theorized unstable beam of electrons has been found in the foreshock, there is still no ready explanation of the means by which it could have gotten there. 16 references

  19. Electron spectrometer for gas-phase spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozek, J.D.; Schlachter, A.S. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    An electron spectrometer for high-resolution spectroscopy of gaseous samples using synchrotron radiation has been designed and constructed. The spectrometer consists of a gas cell, cylindrical electrostatic lens, spherical-sector electron energy analyzer, position-sensitive detector and associated power supplies, electronics and vacuum pumps. Details of the spectrometer design are presented together with some representative spectra.

  20. Theoretical study of the interplay of electron-electron interaction and disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezini, A.; Behilil, S.

    1988-10-01

    A disordered Hubbard model with diagonal disorder is used to investigate the electron localization effects associated with both disorder and electron-electron interaction. Extensive results are reported on the ground state properties and compared to other theories. Two regimes have been found: when the electron-electron interaction u is greater than the disorder parameter w and when u < w. (author). 18 refs, 4 figs