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Sample records for lukoil-neftochim-burgas ad bulgaria

  1. Corrosion monitoring in the oil refinery LUKoil-Neftochim-Burgas AD, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyanov, V.; Papazov, B. [Laboratory Corrosion Protection, LUKoil-Neftochim Burgas AD, Strandsha str. 20 A, 8001-Burgas (Bulgaria)

    2004-07-01

    A great variety of corrosion processes are observed on the territory of the Oil Refinery LUKoil-Neftochim Burgas AD, Bulgaria. They are a result of aggressive action of wide range of chemical active reagents and environments, industrial atmosphere with sea climate influence and underground water with varied composition. Substantial corrosion monitoring is used in oil distillation plant, petrochemical and other refinery units. A part of the most important cases of successfully solved corrosion problems are included in this paper - corrosion in Ethyl-benzene unit alcilators, corrosion protection of equipment and floors in concentrated sulfuric acid in the Sulfuric Acid Alkylation plant, corrosion protection of electro-filters in the Chemical Cleaning of Service Water System, chemical resistant floor in PAN and AN plant, outside varnish protection of tanks, vessels, pumps, steelworks etc. There are many proper solutions suggested, including wide range of coatings and new resistant materials offered by well-known companies - Hempel, Chesterton, Permatex DuPont, Paint International and many others which work in close collaboration with our laboratory. Those problems are typical of all oil refineries and petrochemical plants and are possible to be applied successfully. (authors)

  2. Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    This discussion of Bulgaria focuses on the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy (economic reforms and plans, industry and agriculture, and trade); foreign relations; and relations between the US and Bulgaria. The population in December 1980 numbered 8,876,652; the annual growth rate was 3.6/1000. The infant mortality rate was 20.2/1000 with life expectancy 69 years for men and 74 years for women. Bulgaria, which is located on the Balkan Peninsula, extends from the western shore of the Black Sea to Yugoslavia in the west. In the north, the Danube River is a common boundary with Romania. Greece and European Turkey lie to the south and southeast. Population density is 1 of the lowest in Eastern Europe, about 80 persons per square kilometer. More than half of the population lives in urban areas, compared to 1/3 in 1956. Bulgarian is the primary language spoken. Religious activity is discouraged by the Bulgarian communists. Education is free and compulsory to age 15. A fully independent Bulgarian kingdom was proclaimed September 22, 1908. Communist rule began September 9, 1944, when a communist dominated coalition, called the Fatherland Front, seized power from a coalition government formed to arrange an armistice with the Allies. The constitution stipulates that the Communist Party is the leading force in society and in the state. It also provides for a unicameral 400 member National Assembly. The Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP) controls all phases of Bulgarian life. Party organization parallels the government structure with a central apparatus at Sofia and subordinate organizations in provinces and communes. At the end of World War 2, Bulgaria was among the least industrialized European countries. Bulgaria's national income grew rapidly in the 1960s and early 1970s, but increased by only 5.7% in 1980, down from 6.5% in 1979. A major factor in Bulgaria's growth rate has been Soviet assistance. The economic system is

  3. Coal in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConville, L.; Broadbent, J.; Rousaki, K.

    1999-01-01

    Bulgaria`s national energy strategy includes plans to restructure the energy sector by introducing competition and privatisation, to promote energy efficiency and environmental protection and to prepare the country for integration into the EU energy market. Energy prices are still under government control and coal mining is heavily subsidised. Bulgaria is a major producer of coal, all of which is consumed locally. Most of the domestic production is low quality lignite used for electricity generation. Demand for hard coal is met by imports, mainly from the former USSR and the USA. Bulgaria generates almost half of its electricity needs from coal. Total reserves of lignite are estimated at 2.5 Gt. Coal production declined between 1987 and 1991 reflecting the economic disturbance following the break up of the USSR. In 1996, production was 32 Mt. The mining industry is being restructured as Bulgaria is slowly moving from a centrally-controlled economy to a market-based economy. Environmental damage as a result of coal production has been serious in Bulgaria, due to the use of low grade high sulphur content lignite. 84 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Bulgaria : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    An assessment of accounting and auditing practices in Bulgaria is a part of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) joint initiative on reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). The assessment focused on the strengths and weaknesses of the accounting and auditing environment that influences the quality of corporate financial reporting. It used the Internatio...

  5. Current situation of oil refinery in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vershkova, Elena; Petkova, Petinka; Grinkevich, Anastasia

    2016-09-01

    This article deals with the classification approach for oil refineries in international practices. Criteria of refinery estimation group, including its financial status estimation, have been investigated. The analysis object is “Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas” AD (LNCHB) activity. This company is a leading enterprise in Bulgaria. The analysis of LNCHB operating: energy intensity index; index of operating costs and return on investment index have been performed.

  6. Thysanoptera of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olia Karadjova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present checklist includes data on the species composition, geographic distribution and feeding preferences of thrips species in Bulgaria. In total, 155 species in 48 genera are listed. Of these, 125 species belong to suborder Terebrantia and include 103 species of 33 genera in family Thripidae, 14 species of two genera in Aeolothripidae, seven species of two genera in Melanthripidae and one species in Fauriellidae. In suborder Tubulifera, 30 species of 10 genera in the single family Phlaeothripidae are listed. Of the 155 Bulgarian thrips species, 87.7% are phytophagous, 4.5% are obligate predators, 5.8% are mycophagous and 1.9% are with unknown feeding preferences. Fourteen pest species are listed for Bulgaria, of which Frankliniella occidentalis, Thrips tabaci and Haplothrips tritici are of economic importance. The list provides detailed information on the horizontal and vertical distribution of Thysanoptera in 5 regions and 45 subregions of Bulgaria. The present paper also includes an evaluation of the biodiversity of Thysanoptera and the extent to which each region of the country has been studied.

  7. Organ transplantation in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, Elissaveta; Panchev, Petar; Simeonov, Pencho J; Mihaylova, Anastassia; Penkova, Kalina; Boneva, Petia; Marinova, Daniela; Paskalev, Emil; Simeonov, Petar L; Zlatev, Assen

    2008-12-01

    The transplantation program in Bulgaria started in 1968 with renal transplantations to a child and adult woman. In 1986 the first heart transplantation was performed. To date a total of 10 heart transplants have been performed, including one combined heart/lung. A liver transplantation program was launched in 2005 with a total number of 16 transplantations-7 from living donors and 9 from deceased donors. The highest transplantation activity is registered in the field of renal transplantation. During the period 1980-2006, 462 Bulgarian recipients of kidney were transplanted in Bulgaria. The ratio between transplantations from deceased and living related donors is approximately 1:0.9. Annual transplantation activity varies among the years from 1 to 12 renal transplantations p.m.p./per year. The 1- (80.7% vs. 63.1%), 5- (57.86% vs. 39.0%) and 10-year (42.65% vs. 23.62%) graft survival rates are higher for recipients of living donor kidneys compared to those of deceased donor. In 1983 a National kidney waiting list was established. Currently the number of the registered patients eligible for renal transplantation is 885. The proportion of sensitized patients in the waiting list is 20.45% and 4.34% of them are hyperimmunized. Recently HLAMatchmaker program has been implemented not only for sensitized patients but also for those with rare alleles and haplotypes. Post-transplant immunological monitoring showed a strong association between alloantibody presence and delayed graft function (Chi-square=10.73, P<0.001), acute rejection (Chi-square=14.504, P<0.001), chronic rejection (Chi-square=12.84, P<0.001) and graft loss (Chi-square=20.283, P<0.001). Based on the experience in our transplant center a strategy for improvement of long-term renal graft survival was developed and implemented.

  8. Bulgaria health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Antoniya; Rohova, Maria; Moutafova, Emanuela; Atanasova, Elka; Koeva, Stefka; Panteli, Dimitra; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2012-01-01

    In the last 20 years, demographic development in Bulgaria has been characterized by population decline, a low crude birth rate, a low fertility rate, a high mortality rate and an ageing population. A stabilizing political situation since the early 2000s and an economic upsurge since the mid-2000s were important factors in the slight increase of the birth and fertility rates and the slight decrease in standardized death rates. In general, Bulgaria lags behind European Union (EU) averages in most mortality and morbidity indicators. Life expectancy at birth reached 73.3 years in 2008 with the main three causes of death being diseases of the circulatory system, malignant neoplasms and diseases of the respiratory system. One of the most important risk factors overall is smoking, and the average standardized death rate for smoking-related causes in 2008 was twice as high as the EU15 average. The Bulgarian health system is characterized by limited statism. The Ministry of Health is responsible for national health policy and the overall organization and functioning of the health system and coordinates with all ministries with relevance to public health. The key players in the insurance system are the insured individuals, the health care providers and the third party payers, comprising the National Health Insurance Fund, the single payer in the social health insurance (SHI) system, and voluntary health insurance companies (VHICs). Health financing consists of a publicprivate mix. Health care is financed from compulsory health insurance contributions, taxes, outofpocket (OOP) payments, voluntary health insurance (VHI) premiums, corporate payments, donations, and external funding. Total health expenditure (THE) as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) increased from 5.3% in 1995 to 7.3% in 2008. At the latter date it consisted of 36.5% OOP payments, 34.8% SHI, 13.6% Ministry of Health expenditure, 9.4% municipality expenditure and 0.3% VHI. Informal payments in the health

  9. Fieldwork Coastal Engineering: Varna (Bulgaria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, C.; Burgers, J.J.; Van Dijk, M.; Heeringa, E.; Van den Hengel, D.; Lausman, R.; Oortman, N.; Poot, R.; Segboer, T.; De Sonneville, B.

    2004-01-01

    Research has been carried out in St. Konstantin, Varna, Bulgaria. In the second chapter of this report an Analysis of the Tetra pods on breakwater of the “Sunny Day Marina is presented, where the damage is determined and different approaches are used and compared to determine the significant wave he

  10. Catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapeva-Gjonova, Albena; Antonova, Vera; Radchenko, Alexander G.; Atanasova, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The present catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Bulgaria is made on a base of critical reconsideration of literature (covering the period from 1892 till 2009 and part of 2010) as well as on examination of the authors‘ and several museum‘s collections. A lot of data were omitted in the previous Bulgarian monograph on ants, lots of new data were recently added and many important additions and alterations were made due to taxonomic revisions of Eurasian Formicidae during the last three decades. Two new species are reported for the country [Temnothorax graecus (Forel, 1911) and Temnothorax cf. korbi (Emery, 1924)]. This catalogue contains a list of 163 ant species belonging to 40 genera of 6 subfamilies now known from Bulgaria. Synonyms and information on the previously reported names in relevant publications are given. Known localities of the species are grouped by geographic regions. Maps with concrete localities or regions for each species were prepared. The conservation status of 13 ant species is given as they are included in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and Bulgarian Biodiversity Act. In comparison with adjacent Balkan regions the ant fauna of Bulgaria is quite rich and its core is composed of South European elements. PMID:21594018

  11. Catalog of Investment Projects in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    This catalog includes information about 129 potential investment projects in Bulgaria and was developed by a team of experts from InvestBulgaria Agency in cooperation with municipalities and private companies. The document presents in brief general facts about the regions in Bulgaria. Projects are divided into the following categories: Tourism, Manufacturing, Urban Planning, Real Estate, Environment and renewable energy sources, Commerce, and Innovative and creative projects. The catalog provides detailed information about each project such as: status of the project, location, ownership, infrastructure, estimated value, contact information, etc.

  12. Passive solar systems performance under conditions in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, A B; Balcomb, J D

    1989-12-01

    This paper presents energy performance of 12 passive solar systems for three climatically different zones of Bulgaria. The results are compared with a base-case residential house that has a design typical for these areas. The different passive solar systems are compared on the basis of the percentage of solar savings and the yield, which is the annual net benefit of adding the passive solar system. The analyses are provided based on monthly meteorological data, and the method used for calculations is the Solar Load Ratio. Recommendations for Bulgarian conditions are given. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Emergence and Development of Bulgaria's Environmental Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Uday; Snavely, Keith

    1998-01-01

    Bulgaria's environmental movement played a role in ending communist rule, but environmental issues were not completely resolved. Social movements may never achieve their objectives in totality but instead enter a new cycle of the movement. (SK)

  14. Area Handbook Series: Bulgaria. A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    interests of their peasant constituency. Meanwhile, the Macedonian situition in the early 1930s blocked further attempts to heal Balkan disputes. Four Balkan...6,000 Pentecostals in Bulgaria made that sect the largest Protestant group (see table 7, Appendix). The Pentecostal movement was brought to Bulgaria in...declared in 1944, and the fall of Zhivkov brought another surge of interest. In 1991 the Pentecostal Church 92 The Society and Its Environment had

  15. WRF-Fire Applied in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrinkova, Nina; Jordanov, Georgi; Mandel, Jan

    2010-01-01

    WRF-Fire consists of the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting Model) coupled with a fire spread model, based on the level-set method. We describe a preliminary application of WRF-Fire to a forest fire in Bulgaria, oportunities for research of forest fire models for Bulgaria, and plans for the development of an Environmental Decision Support Systems which includes computational modeling of fire behavior.

  16. Stakeholder analysis for coppice forestry in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo Velichkov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the state of coppice forestry in Bulgaria during last 18 years. Stakeholders and their interests and preferences in coppice forests are explored and assessed. Forests restitution process in Bulgaria started in 1997 and has not been finished yet. Nevertheless, significant further changes of the current ownership distribution are not expected. By the end of 2007, the state was the biggest coppice forest owner/stakeholder in Bulgaria with 71.3% of all coppice forests being state property. The other two important stakeholders are the municipalities (14.0% and private owners (12.0%. Currently, forest owners' number in Bulgaria exceeds 1 million, the average holding area being smaller than 1 ha. Only 150 individual plots are larger than 50 ha. The majority of private owners aim at taking maximum and immediate profit from their recently restituted forest properties. In most cases that reflects in clearcuts. Coppice forests management has been one of the problematic issues of Bulgarian forestry for decades. Despite of forest authorities significant efforts, the area of coppice forests in Bulgaria (1.78 million ha in 2007 remained unchanged for a period of 50 years. The official forest policy is still aimed at conversion of coppice forests into seed ones through different silvicultural methods. That policy is applied to almost all coppice forests regardless of their ownership.

  17. Stakeholder analysis for coppice forestry in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IvayloVelichkov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the state of coppice forestry in Bulgaria during last 18 years. Stakeholders and their interests and preferences in coppice forests are explored and assessed. Forests restitution process in Bulgaria started in 1997 and has not been finished yet. Nevertheless, significant further changes of the current ownershipdistribution are not expected. By the end of 2007, the state was the biggest coppice forest owner/stakeholder in Bulgaria with 71.3% of all coppice forests being state property. The other two important stakeholders are the municipalities (14.0% and private owners (12.0%. Currently, forest owners' number in Bulgaria exceeds 1million, the average holding area being smaller than 1 ha. Only 150 individual plots are larger than 50 ha. The majority of private owners aim at taking maximum and immediate profit from their recently restituted forest properties. In most cases that reflects in clearcuts. Coppice forests management has been one of the problematicissues of Bulgarian forestry for decades. Despite of forest authorities significant efforts, the area of coppice forests in Bulgaria (1.78 million ha in 2007 remained unchanged for a period of 50 years. The official forest policy is still aimed at conversionof coppice forests into seed ones through different silvicultural methods. That policy is applied to almost all coppice forests regardless of their ownership.

  18. Circulation factors affecting precipitation over Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojarov, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the influence of circulation factors on precipitation in Bulgaria. The study succeeds investigation on the influence of circulation factors on air temperatures in Bulgaria, as the focus here is directed toward precipitation amounts. Circulation factors are represented through two circulation indices, showing west-east or south-north transport of air masses over Bulgaria and four teleconnection indices (patterns)—North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic, East Atlantic/Western Russia, and Scandinavian. Omega values at 700-hPa level show vertical motions in the atmosphere. Annual precipitation trends are mixed and not statistically significant. A significant decrease of precipitation in Bulgaria is observed in November due to the strengthening of the eastward transport of air masses (strengthening of EA teleconnection pattern) and anticyclonal weather (increase of descending motions in the atmosphere). There is also a precipitation decrease in May and June due to the growing influence of the Azores High. An increase of precipitation happens in September. All this leads to a redistribution of annual precipitation course, but annual precipitation amounts remain the same. However, this redistribution has a negative impact on agriculture and winter ski tourism. Zonal circulation has a larger influence on precipitation in Bulgaria compared to meridional. Eastward transport throughout the year leads to lower than the normal precipitation, and vice versa. With regard to the four teleconnection patterns, winter precipitation in Bulgaria is determined mainly by EA/WR teleconnection pattern, spring and autumn by EA teleconnection pattern, and summer by SCAND teleconnection pattern.

  19. CERN exhibition a big hit in Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The first CERN exhibition in Bulgaria attracted many visitors. In the first ever CERN exhibition to be held in Bulgaria, over 1,400 visitors, many of them students and young physicists, visited the 10-day event in Sofia. The CERN mini-exhibition took place at the National Earth and Mankind Museum between 8 and 17 November. Permanently staffed by young physicists from Sofia University, there were exhibits on display about research activities at CERN, as well as four additional posters describing Bulgaria's participation. The inauguration took place on the morning of 8 November in the presence of the Vice-Minister for Science and Education, Mrs. Vanya Dobreva, and some 200 guests. A series of short speeches were followed by a visit to the exhibition. CERN's representative at the event, Ray Lewis, was then asked by Professor Matey Mateev, President of the Union of Physicists in Bulgaria, to say a few words on behalf of the Organization. Numerous journalists were also present at the inauguration. A painting enti...

  20. Perspectives of development of green jobs in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyanova Zornitsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transformation to green sectors of the economy in Bulgaria leads after it the need of new type of professions, which would be capable to cope with the new conditions and requirements which different businesses are facing. The knowledge of creation of green jobs in Bulgaria is insufficient, which makes this paper state of art. Green jobs in Bulgaria are connected with transfer of business activities to green ones. The paper analyzes and evaluates the current conditions of creation of green jobs in Bulgaria. It is proposed analysis of the requirements in Bulgaria about the eligible criteria to apply for funding under the measurement of green jobs; based on research SWOT analysis of creation of green jobs. The results are systematized in findings, conclusions and policy recommendations, as changing conditions of applying to measurement, payment connected to employees, and etc. As well is proposed cooperation between other existing measurements for reaching sustainable employment in Bulgaria.

  1. Flexible Working Time Arrangements in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Beleva, Iskra

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the flexible working time arrangements in Bulgaria, using a life-course perspective. Two important features have to be outlined, namely: underdeveloped flexible forms of employment in the country, including working time arrangement, and lack of previous analysis on flexible working time arrangements from the angle of life-course perspective. The author describes the regulatory framework, collective agreements at national and company level as a frame w...

  2. Pharmacy Practice and Education in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Petkova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacies in Bulgaria have a monopoly on the dispensing of medicinal products that are authorized in the Republic of Bulgaria, as well as medical devices, food additives, cosmetics, and sanitary/hygienic articles. Aptekari (pharmacists act as responsible pharmacists, pharmacy owners, and managers. They follow a five year Masters of Science in Pharmacy (M.Sc. Pharm. degree course with a six month traineeship. Pomoshnik-farmacevti (assistant pharmacists follow a three year degree with a six month traineeship. They can prepare medicines and dispense OTC medicines under the supervision of a pharmacist. The first and second year of the M.Sc. Pharm. degree are devoted to chemical sciences, mathematics, botany and medical sciences. Years three and four center on pharmaceutical technology, pharmacology, pharmacognosy, pharmaco-economics, and social pharmacy, while year five focuses on pharmaceutical care, patient counselling, pharmacotherapy, and medical sciences. A six month traineeship finishes the fifth year together with redaction of a master thesis, and the four state examinations with which university studies end. Industrial pharmacy and clinical (hospital pharmacy practice are integrated disciplines in some Bulgarian higher education institutions such as the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Medical University of Sofia. Pharmacy practice and education in Bulgaria are organized in a fashion very similar to that in most member states of the European Union.

  3. Bulgaria and Romania: Geography and Economics. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Bulgaria and Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtland, Jack

    This lesson plan on Romania and Bulgaria could be adapted for various grade levels and ability groups. Topics addressed include cultural diversity, the period of Soviet control in the region and its lasting effects, factors contributing to political instability, the current attempts to move towards a market economy, and traditions and customs…

  4. Out of America: Exploring Collaborative Mural Teaching in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kong

    2012-01-01

    In February 2010, the author arrived in the city of Sofia, Bulgaria, to teach mural painting at the National Academy of Art for his five-month Fulbright U.S. Scholarship Program lecturing award. He targeted Bulgaria as his host country in his 2009-2010 Fulbright U.S. Scholarship Program application because of its rich mural painting culture. He…

  5. The Elimination of Turkish Language Instruction in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminov, Ali

    The goals of language policies in Marxist-Leninist states tend to be applied in three stages: (1) pluralism, (2) bilingualism, and (3) monolingualism. The language policies in Bulgaria, particularly as applied to the Turkish minority, fit this pattern. A pluralistic language and education tradition in Bulgaria, inherited from the Ottoman Empire,…

  6. Temporal characteristics of some aftershock sequences in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Solakov

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available We apply statistical analysis to study the temporal distribution of aftershocks in aftershock sequences of five earthquakes which occurred in Bulgaria. We use the maximum likelihood method to estimate the parameters of the modified Omori formula for aftershock sequences which is directly based on a time series. We find that: the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameter p show a regional variation, with lower values of the decay rate in North Bulgaria; the modified Omori formula provides an appropriate representation of temporal variation of the aftershock activity in North Bulgaria; the aftershock sequences in South Bulgaria are best modeled by the combination of an ordinary aftershock sequence with secondary aftershock activity. A plot of the cumulative number of events versus the frequency-linearized time t clearly demonstrates a transition from aftershock to foreshock activity prior to the second 1986 Strazhitsa (North Bulgaria earthquake.

  7. Marketing approaches for OTC analgesics in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Valentina; Valchanova, Velislava; Ibrahim, Adel; Nikolova, Irina; Benbasat, Niko; Dimitrov, Milen

    2014-03-04

    The marketing management includes analysis of market opportunities, selection of target markets, planning, developing and implementing of marketing strategies, monitoring and result control. The object of the present study was to analyse the marketing approaches applied for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Bulgaria. The performed SWOT(planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis for one of the leading Bulgarian manufacturers marked the complex corporative strategy for stimulating the sales of NSAIDs. The study results show that the legislation frame in the country gives an opportunity for regulation of the NSAID market in order that incorrect marketing approaches such as disloyal competition are avoided.

  8. The Contribution of Bulgaria to CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Following the discussions in the Committee of Council on 14th December 2000, concerning the request by Bulgaria for a reduction of its contribution to CERN for 2000 and 2001, the Bulgarian Minister of Education & Science expressed on 26 January 2001 his readiness to accept the scheme of reductions that emerged from these discussions. The Management considers that this scheme constitutes a reasonable solution and invites the Committee of Council to recommend the Council to take note of this document and to approve the annexed draft Resolution (Annex VI).

  9. Simulation of the 2009 Harmanli fire (Bulgaria)

    CERN Document Server

    Jordanov, Georgi; Dobrinkova, Nina; Kochanski, Adam K; Mandel, Jan; Sousedík, Bedřich

    2011-01-01

    We use a coupled atmosphere-fire model to simulate a fire that occurred on August 14--17, 2009, in the Harmanli region, Bulgaria. Data was obtained from GIS and satellites imagery, and from standard atmospheric data sources. Fuel data was classified in the 13 Anderson categories. For correct fire behavior, the spatial resolution of the models needed to be fine enough to resolve the essential micrometeorological effects. The simulation results are compared to available incident data. The code runs faster than real time on a cluster. The model is available from openwfm.org and it extends WRF-Fire from WRF 3.3 release.

  10. Flora of the Mediterranean Rivers in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanka G. Hristeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and distribution of aquatic bryophytes and vascular plants assemblages in Mediteranean Rivers in Bulgaria are presented in this work. Aquatic macrophytes were studied at thirteen rivers in South Bulgaria during 2014, together with abiotic factors (flow velocity, shading, and substrate type, mean depth and altitude. In total, 73 species were registered, of them 13 bryophytes and 60 vascular plants were identified. Aquatic bryophytes included 10 mosses and 3 liverworts. The recorded bryophytes species refer to 7 families and 12 genera. The most frequently distributed species was Leptodictyum riparium (Hedw. Warnst., followed by Cratoneuron filicinum (Hedw. Spruce and Platyhypnidium riparioides (Hedw. Dixon, Brachythecium rivulare Schimp. and Hygroamblystegium tenax (Hedw. Jenn. The recorded 60 species of vascular plants refer to 25 families and 43 genera. The most common hydrophyte species was Lemna minor L., followed by Ranunculus trichophyllus Chaix, Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Potamogeton nodosus Poir. The most abundant species from the group of helophytes and amphiphytes was Mentha aquatica L., followed by Agrostis stolonifera L. Mentha spicata L., Berula erecta (Huds. Coville, Juncus effusus L., Lycopus europaeus L., Lythrum salicaria L., Phalaris arundinacea L., Ranunculus repens L., Sparganium erectum L., Typha latifolia L., and Veronica anagalis-aquatica L. The majority of studied rivers sites were sunny, with moderate velocity, stony bottom, average depth up to 0.3 m and altitude between 100 and 500 m a.s.l.

  11. The story of a 'maverick': Bulgaria's fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botev, N

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of the fertility decline in Bulgaria shows that the perception of Bulgaria as an 'anomaly' in terms of its demographic development is based on a conservative interpretatiion of the demographic transition theory. The features that distinguish Bulgaria from the western European countries (faster decline, persistence of early and universal marriages, etc.) are generally accounted for by the specific social, economic, cultural, and political conditions. These findings suggest that the speed of the fertility decline and the means through which it is achieved are affected by a complex interaction between cultural and economic factors that are often difficult to distinguish in terms of primacy.

  12. THE PERCEPTION OF NEIGHBOUR COUNTRIES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi MARINOV

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The image of the country can be influential in various buying decisions, especially in cases where there is a strong competition among market players and if price is not the factor with the utmost importance. In a psychosemantic experiment we study the demand patterns for imported goods in Bulgaria. We aim to assess how Bulgarian citizens build their image of other countries, especially the neighbour ones. We find that “market dimension” and “power dimension” are the major factors in the perceptions. We find also that perceptions of Bulgarian respondents give a more important role in Bulgarian economy to globally more important economies, despite the vicinity of neighbour countries.

  13. Longshore sediment transport at Golden Sands (Bulgaria

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    Hristo Nikolov

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies on the qualitative and quantitative features of the littoral drift at Golden Sands (Bulgaria, carried out jointly by Polish and Bulgarian researchers. The mathematical modelling of physical coastal processes took wave transformation (wave diffraction and refraction; the effects of shoaling and wave breaking and longshore sediment transport into account. The computations were carried out for the mean statistical annual wave climate, determined on the basis of IO BAS wave data, simulated using the WAM method from long-term Black Sea wind data. The results of sediment transport computations clearly show that its direction off the Golden Sands shore is from north to south.

  14. CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics in Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the Institute for Nuclear Research & Nuclear Energy (INRNE – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences) jointly organised a course on Introduction to Accelerators, at the Grand Hotel Varna, Bulgaria, from 19 September to 1 October, 2010.   CERN Accelerator School group photo. The course was extremely well attended with 109 participants representing 34 different nationalities, coming from countries as far away as Australia, Canada and Vietnam. The intensive programme comprised 39 lectures, 3 seminars, 4 tutorials where the students were split into three groups, a poster session where students could present their own work, and 7 hours of guided and private study. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and excellent quality of their lectures. For the first time at CAS, the CERN Director-General, Rolf Heuer, visited the school and presented a seminar entitled...

  15. Marketing approaches for OTC analgesics in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Valentina; Valchanova, Velislava; Ibrahim, Adel; Nikolova, Irina; Benbasat, Niko; Dimitrov, Milen

    2014-01-01

    The marketing management includes analysis of market opportunities, selection of target markets, planning, developing and implementing of marketing strategies, monitoring and result control. The object of the present study was to analyse the marketing approaches applied for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Bulgaria. The performed SWOT(planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis for one of the leading Bulgarian manufacturers marked the complex corporative strategy for stimulating the sales of NSAIDs. The study results show that the legislation frame in the country gives an opportunity for regulation of the NSAID market in order that incorrect marketing approaches such as disloyal competition are avoided. PMID:26019521

  16. SWOT ANALYSIS OF SPA TOURISM IN BULGARIA

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    Aleksandar Davchev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our time is marked by the increasingly dynamic changing environment. The new conditions in which we operate are characterized by increasing complexity and labor activities that require more responsible behavior. The rising levels of stress and the increasing lack of free time for relaxation and recreation require a new look at the possibilities for the prevention of personal health. The plane of the consumer society in which we live is increasingly shifted by aspiration and vision of an environmentally friendly lifestyle. The focus here is the implementation of a multilevel wellness concept that changes qualitatively the status quo and seeks for ways to harmonize the body with the nature. One of the options is the practice of SPA tourism in whose genesis is the multilayered beneficial impact of a series of procedures and actions. This new alternative through its economic dimensions is an attractive business niche which over time becomes an industry. The current state of the SPA tourism in Bulgaria is controversial despite existing achievements and introduced best practices. Traditions in this direction and the presence of favorable basis for its approval, however, are not sufficient to achieve stability and an upward trend in development. There are existing a number of weaknesses and negative aspects that create frustration in users, which is a real threat to its future. The proposed SWOT-analysis as part of a comprehensive and multilateral study of the state of SPA tourism in Bulgaria reveals some of the existing problems. There have been some suggestions to minimize the impact of weaknesses and eliminate the errors found in leading business organizations managing processes. A detailed analysis and evaluation of the formulated conclusions is ahead, as well as concluding on ideas to improve the state of the sector – a subject of a further investigation by the author.

  17. V.F. Gening and issues on the archaeology of Volga Bulgaria

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    Rudenko Konstantin A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available V.F. Gening’s contribution to the study of the Volga Bulgaria and his views concerning the history and archaeology of this state formation are considered in the article. His sphere of interest first of all included the links between the Volga Bulgaria population and the tribes belonging to preceding cultures, such as Pyanoborye and Imenkovo ones. V.F. Gening investigated the Bolshie Tarkhany, Turaevo and Rozdestveno burial grounds dated by the 8-9th, 5th and 6-7th centuries A.D., and the materials collected modified the notion of the time and character of the Bulgars arrival in the Volga area. He reconsidered the chronology and interpretation of the archaeological monuments, which referred to the epoch preceding the Bulgars appearance on the Volga, and proposed a hypothesis of the Volga Bulgars as a Turkic-Ugrian ethnos. V.F. Gening created a periodization of the Bolgars history in Eastern Europe within the time span between 1st-3rd centuries AD and the early 13th century AD

  18. Genetic analysis of haemophilia A in Bulgaria

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    Kremensky Ivo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemophilias are the most common hereditary severe disorders of blood clotting. In families afflicted with heamophilia, genetic analysis provides opportunities to prevent recurrence of the disease. This study establishes a diagnostical strategy for carriership determination and prenatal diagnostics of haemophilia A in Bulgarian haemophilic population. Methods A diagnostical strategy consisting of screening for most common mutations in the factor VIII gene and analysis of a panel of eight linked to the factor VIII gene locus polymorphisms was established. Results Polymorphic analysis for carrier status determination of haemophilia A was successful in 30 families out of 32 (94%. Carrier status was determined in 25 of a total of 28 women at risk (89%. Fourteen prenatal diagnoses in women at high risk of having a haemophilia A – affected child were performed, resulting in 6 healthy boys and 5 girls. Conclusion The compound approach proves to be a highly informative and cost-effective strategy for prevention of recurrence of haemophilia A in Bulgaria. DNA analysis facilitates carriership determination and subsequent prenatal diagnosis in the majority of Bulgarian families affected by haemophilia A.

  19. Liver transplantations in Bulgaria--initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladov, N; Mihaylov, V; Takorov, I; Vasilevski, I; Lukanova, T; Odisseeva, E; Katzarov, K; Simonova, M; Tomova, D; Konakchieva, M; Petrov, N; Mladenov, N; Sergeev, S; Mutafchiiski, V

    2014-01-01

    The filed of liver transplantation (LT) continues to evolve and is highly effective therapy for many patients with acute and chronic liver failure resulting from a variety of causes. Improvement of perioperative care, surgical technique and immunosuppression in recent years has led to its transformation into a safe and routine procedure with steadily improving results. The aim of this paper is to present the initial experience of the transplant team at Military Medical Academy - Sofia, Bulgaria. For the period of April 2007 - August 2014 the team performed 38 liver transplants in 37 patients (one retransplantation). Patients were followed up prospectively and retrospectively. In 36 (95%) patients a graft from a cadaveric donor was used and in two cases--a right liver grafts from live donor. The mean MELD score of the transplanted patients was 17 (9-40). The preferred surgical technique was "piggyback" with preservation of inferior vena cava in 33 (86%) of the cases and classical technique in 3 (8%) patients. The overall complication rate was 48%. Early mortality rate was 13% (5 patients). The overall 1- and 5-year survival is 81% and 77% respectivelly. The setting of a new LT program is a complex process which requires the effort and effective colaboration of a wide range of speciacialists (hepatologists, surgeons, anesthesiologists, psychologists, therapists, coordinators, etc.) and institutions. The good results are function of a proper selection of the donors and the recipients. Living donation is an alternative in the shortage of cadaveric donors.

  20. The Kresna earthquake of 1904 in Bulgaria

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    N. N. Ambraseys

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The Kresna earthquake in 1904 in Bulgaria is one of the largest shallow 20th century events on land in the Balkans. This event, which was preceded by a large foreshock, has hitherto been assigned a range of magnitudes up to M S = 7.8 but the reappraisal of instrumental data yields a much smaller value of M S = 7.2 and a re-assement of the intensity distribution suggests 7.1. Thus both instrumental and macroseismic data appear consistent with a magnitude which is also compatible with the fault segmentation and local morphology of the region which cannot accommodate shallow events much larger than about 7.0. The relatively large size of the main shock suggests surface faulting but the available field evidence is insufficient to establish the dimensions, attitude andamount of dislocation, except perhaps in the vicinity of Krupnik. This downsizing of the Kresna earthquake has important consequences for tectonics and earthquake hazard estimates in the Balkans.

  1. Shakespeare arean hypertexts in communist Bulgaria Shakespeare arean hypertexts in communist Bulgaria

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    Alexander Shurbanov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the first days of the reception of Shakespeare’s work in Bulgaria during the second half of the nineteenth century down to the present time two of his tragedies, Romeo and Juliet and Hamlet, have held an unrivalled sway on the national stage and over the people’s minds. Another one, Othello, was produced very frequently in the beginning, though often by non-Bulgarian troupes, and yet another, Macbeth, was a set text at the schools for many decades but rarely took the fancy of theatre directors and audiences. Since the first days of the reception of Shakespeare’s work in Bulgaria during the second half of the nineteenth century down to the present time two of his tragedies, Romeo and Juliet and Hamlet, have held an unrivalled sway on the national stage and over the people’s minds. Another one, Othello, was produced very frequently in the beginning, though often by non-Bulgarian troupes, and yet another, Macbeth, was a set text at the schools for many decades but rarely took the fancy of theatre directors and audiences.

  2. Generic policy in Bulgaria: a policy of failure or success?

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    Assena Stoimenova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Generic medicines play a key role in managing the financial resources for pharmaceuticals in every country. This study analysed the generic policy legislative framework in Bulgaria with the aim to identify whether the policy implementation can be considered successful in the light of an international review of such policies introduced in other countries, or on the contrary, it has failed to deliver the main benefits. Legislative analysis, desktop study and macroeconomic overview of the Bulgarian pharmaceutical market were included. The study showed that only 3 out of 11 important policy elements are implemented in the country. Bulgaria has one of the highest shares of generics, an average of 81.39% (volume, for the studied period (2006–2014. However, further research is needed to evaluate the success of the existing generic policy in Bulgaria, as the market share of generic drugs is not the only measure of the policy efficiency.

  3. The activities of Professor Curt Krause in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, T

    1999-01-01

    Prof. C. Krause spent six years in Bulgaria, from 1928 to 1934. He officially assumed his position on October 10, 1928, as he delivered his opening lecture titled About the past, present and future of the general pathology and pathological anatomy. He worked skillfully and with utmost devotion on the organization of the department of General Pathology and Pathological Anatomy at the Veterinary Faculty. The educational process normalized. Seven students completed their doctoral theses under his leadership and first research assistants were prepared. He lay the foundations of the pathoanatomical museum in his department. Prof. Krauseus contributions to the development of the pathological anatomy in Bulgaria both as a scientific discipline and as a veterinary practice are substantial. In 1939, Prof. Krause received the highest honour for his work in Bulgaria - he was awarded the title of doctor honoris causa of veterinary medicine of the Sofia University.

  4. Dynamics in the devolopment of donkey population in Bulgaria

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    R. Vlaeva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the recent study was to trace back the development of the donkey population in Bulgaria for the period 1950 – 2015. For that purpose the data from the National Statistic Institute and FAO was processed and other sources related to the problem were analyzed. Donkeys in Bulgaria used to be a comparatively large share of the traction power animals in the past, with the occurance of the social and economical changes after 1990 their number was dramatically reduced. This process is most noticeable after 2000, when for five year period until 2005 the donkey population in Bulgaria drops down from 207000 to 90000 individuals, as in 2013 this number falls down to 35000 according to FAO.

  5. The use of plants in ritual context during Antiquity in Bulgaria: overview of the archaeobotanical evidence

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    Ivanka Hristova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Botanical remains from sanctuaries and necropolises provide valuable information about ancient religious practices. The current paper discusses old and new archaeobotanical data from Bulgaria and the use of plants in ritual context from Antiquity. The time span of the 44 considered sites (sanctuaries and necropolises is between the 6th century BC and the 3rd century AD. Most of the sanctuaries in Bulgaria, where archaeobotanical remains have been studied, date to the Bronze and Iron Ages, and a large proportion represents the so called “pit fields”. Information concerning later periods is almost completely lacking. Some evidence on plant offerings is available from the necropolises of the Hellenistic and Roman periods. Although the archaeobotanical data from these sites are quite scarce, their increasing number allows the observation of some common tendencies. Cereals and pulses are most commonly identified at sanctuaries, while fruits are typical remains in the necropolises. Very often imported species (like stone pine, pistachio and olive are found which testifies to existing contacts with adjacent regions (mainly the Mediterranean area and North Africa.

  6. ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS IN THE VOLGA BULGARIA

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    D. I. Abdulganieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is much evidence that ankylosing spondylitis (AS is a disease that is also much older than early human civilizations and man as a whole. Until now, the Russia's earliest (14th c ntury archaeological finding of such a patient remains a Volga Bulgaria inhabitant suffering with AS during his life. In the Republic of Tatarstan, at the site of an ancient Bulgar settlement appearing in the early ninth century, archaeologists have discovered an unusual grave: the deceased sitting with his back against the western wall of a tomb pitand having a bronze crosslet under his fingers. According to a historical source, it was the way of burying Christian hierarchs as pastors sitting on the altar and anticipating the great assize during which the destinies of human souls should be ruled. Anthropological analysis showed that the bones belonged to a 35–45-year-old man who was 158–163 cm tall. During the examination of the remains,attention was called to the following features of the spinal structure: ankylosis of the inferior cervical and superior thoracic vertebrae (СV–ThI and inferior thoracic and lumbar spine (ThIV–LII predominantly due to ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament. Facet vertebral joints and costotransverse joints were also ankylosed at the same levels. The man's neck was fixed in a bent-over position with the head down, the chin touching the breast bone – the socalled soliciting posture. By and large, the vertebral changes are characteristic of late (X-ray stage III spondylitis. Spinal and pelvic photos and X-films are given for demonstration. The studies conducted by historical scientists and forensic medical experts suggest that the found remains are most likely to belong to Christian Theodore nicknamed Jerusaleman, also further known as Holy Theodore philosopher Kamsky (Bulgarian, who was mentioned in the Nikon chronicle in 1323.

  7. BULGARIA'S PLACE IN WORLD TOURISM (AN ATTEMPT TO POSITIONING

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    Krasimir Levkov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an attempt to determine the place of Bulgaria in global tourism by using the indicators included in the report of the World Economic Forum in 2015. The positions of the country are compared with those of its main competitors in the Balkan region.

  8. TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC FARMING IN BULGARIA

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    Valentina AGAPIEVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to follow trends in the development of organic farming in Bulgaria, and to identify the factors’ strength and direction of their impact on organic production of agricultural products. The study covers the period from 2003 to 2013 and is based on information from official statistics of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, and the author's own research. There are distinct rates of increase in both areas and organic agricultural production in Bulgaria. While in 2003 the areas under organic management are 8,364 ha by 2013 they numbered 56, 287 ha. Bulgaria has a high potential for production and export of organic agricultural products fresh and processed, but significantly lags behind other European countries. However, there is increasing momentum in organic farming, driven by a group of economic, market, social and legislative initiatives. The main reason for this growth is consumer demand of organic products in Bulgaria. In general, the motivations of Bulgarian consumers of organic products are related to the benefits for health and the environment, to the improvement of food quality and to the support of local small farmers, communities and markets.

  9. Field Susceptibility of Quince Hybrids to Fire Blight in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spread of fire blight in Bulgaria during the last 20 years has nearly eliminated commercial production of pear and quince. Damage has increased in both nurseries and orchards, yet susceptible cultivars continue to be planted. Quince is the host most frequently attacked by Erwinia amylovora in Bulgar...

  10. Moldova and Bulgaria: 20 years of beneficial collaboration

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    Popova Marina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the cooperation and trade relations between Bulgaria and Moldova have marked an upward trend. This is because in recent years many countries have signed the intergovernmental documents on cooperation in various fields, which creates the real premises for improving and expanding the trade relations

  11. MOLDOVA AND BULGARIA: 20 YEARS OF BENEFICIAL COLLABORATION

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    Marina POPOVA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the cooperation and trade relations between Bulgaria and Moldova have marked an upward trend. This is because in recent years many countries have signed the intergovernmental documents on cooperation in various fields, which creates the real premises for improving and expanding the trade relations.

  12. NATO Expansion: Romania and Bulgaria within the Larger Context. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997. (Romania and Bulgaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Thomas M.

    This paper analyzes the issues regarding current expansion of NATO membership to include Romania and Bulgaria. The perspective given is that of the United States and places the Romanian and Bulgarian cases within the context of those issues. Sections of the paper include: (1) "The Road to Madrid: Expansion of NATO"; (2) "No Easy…

  13. Paleomagnetic studies on sedimentary Jurassic rocks from southern Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruczyk, J.; Kaḑziałko-Hofmokl, M.; Nozharov, P.; Petkov, N.; Nachev, I.

    Paleomagnetic investigations were performed on Jurassic sediments sampled in the mobile area of Bulgaria comprising Srednogorie, Kreiste and Stranja. The main carriers of magnetic properties of rocks studied are pigmentary haematite and goethite of post-sedimentary origin. The characteristic component of natural remanence (CARM), isolated by means of analysis of demagnetization procedure is secondary, and was acquired after the main tectonic event that took place in this area during the Upper Cretaceous. The CARM directions before tectonic correction are close to the results for Upper Cretaceous magmatic rocks from Srednogorie. The mean CARM direction and the corresponding polar position obtained for the whole region studied are compared with reference data for the Eurasian Platform. The difference between the reference and our data implies anticlockwise rotation of southern Bulgaria relative to Eurasia by ˜ 10-20° and a northward tilt of the region under study by ˜ 10-15° after acquisition of CARM.

  14. Review of the status of mammals in Bulgaria

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    Daniel Peshev

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the territory of Bulgaria are found 97 species of mammals, belonging to 8 orders. 37 of them are protected. 19 mammalian species are included in the Bulgarian Red Data Book. Two of them are extinct, 8 are endangered and 9 are rare. In Bulgaria there are no endemic mammals. Three species are extinct: Eliomys quercinus, Mustela lutreola and Lynx lynx. 5 species are introduced: Ondatra zibethica, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Cervus nippon, Cervus dama and Ovis ammon. The raccon dog (Nyctereustes procyonoides appeared by natural colonisation.

  15. Evidences for the Lynx recovery in Bulgaria: the Lynx discovered in Western Rhodopes

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    NIKOLAI SPASSOV

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available On photographs taken by a camera trap in the region of Yagodina village, Western Rhodopes, (Bulgaria the presence of the Eurasian Lynx Lynx lynx L. has been registered in the summer of 2014. This is the most reliable to date argument for the presence in Rhodope mountains of this critically endangered species in Bulgaria and for its gradual dispersal from the western mountainous border region of Bulgaria to more appropriate country habitats inland.

  16. Soil organic matter content and composition in different pedoclimatic zones of Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Biser Hristov; Ekaterina Filcheva

    2017-01-01

    The present paper focused on content, quality and composition of soil organic matter in different pedoclimatic zones of Bulgaria. The country has temperate continental climate with Mediterranean influence. There are six combinations of soil temperature and moisture regimes over the territory of Bulgaria, such as Thermic-Xeric, Mesic-Xeric, Mesic-Ustic, Mesic-Udic, Cryic-Udic and Pergelic – Udic. Typical soil types for Bulgaria are Chernozems, Luvisols. Vertisols, Cambisols, Phaeozems, Leptos...

  17. POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF CROCUS L.(IRIDACEAE) IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    UZUNDZHALIEVA KATYA SPASOVA; Maria POPOVA TODOROVA

    2012-01-01

    The pollen of the wild species from the genus Crocus L., spread in Bulgaria has been analyzed. The investigations, made by light microscope show that the pollen of these species is spherical in shape and round in outlines, comparatively big. These morphological characteristics of the pollen of the wild Bulgarian Crocuses define it as a primitive one [6]. The Scanning Electron Microscope investigations, made by Beug [1], established two types of pollen morphology. The results of our investigat...

  18. SERVICE QUALITY MEASUREMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTHCARE SECTOR IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    VASSILEVA, Bistra; BALLONI, Antonio José

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the service quality situation in hospitals in North-Eastern Planning Region in Bulgaria. Our intention was to assess the gap between the expected and perceived healthcare service quality in hospitals. To meet these goals we conducted a study using prospective questionnaire provided by the GESITI project (Management of System and Information Technology in Hospitals [GESITI], 2013) and SERVQUAL scale. The results helped us to summarize the challenges for Bulga...

  19. THE TOURISM REGIONS IN BULGARIA – CONCEPTS AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Stankova, Mariya

    2010-01-01

    Bulgaria’s recent experience as tourism country raised the question about the importance of its tourism regions, and the effectiveness of marketing and advertising strategies. Very weak results were achieved about the “new” tourism region planning. The priority based in 2007 NTA (National Tourism Agency) – the regulator which is controlling the tourism policies in Bulgaria, defined the plan for contemporary needs about tourism planning of regions and the usage of that regions for observ...

  20. Burden of Sleep Disturbance Due to Traffic Noise in Bulgaria

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    Dzhambov Angel M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbance is a risk factor for somatic, psycho-social and spiritual dysfunction. It is also arguably the most deleterious effect of traffic noise pollution. Quantification of its burden is an anchor element of environmental policy making but no data are currently available for Bulgaria where the preponderance of dangerous nighttime noise exposure is highest in Europe. AIM: The aim of this study was to quantify the socio-economic burden of severe sleep disturbance due to traffic noise (road, aircraft and railway in Bulgaria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The official World Health Organization methodology used in Europe was applied in order to estimate this annual loss expressed as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs and their corresponding monetary value (assuming € 12 000 per DALY. RESULTS: Results showed that severe sleep disturbance due to all traffic sources was associated conservatively with 15 468 DALYs (8 839 - 22 097 and € 185 615 861 (€ 106 066 206 - € 265 165 516 lost in 2012, with road traffic being the single most important noise source. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, severe sleep disturbance due to traffic noise bears a heavy environmental and socio-economic burden in Bulgaria which prompts vigorous political action and greater involvement in environmental research. In order to increase the accuracy of future burden of disease analyses other studies would need to establish exposure-response functions based on population-based socio-acoustic surveys in the country.

  1. Burden of Sleep Disturbance Due to Traffic Noise in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D; Mihaylova-Alakidi, Vanina K

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is a risk factor for somatic, psycho-social and spiritual dysfunction. It is also arguably the most deleterious effect of traffic noise pollution. Quantification of its burden is an anchor element of environmental policy making but no data are currently available for Bulgaria where the preponderance of dangerous nighttime noise exposure is highest in Europe. The aim of this study was to quantify the socio-economic burden of severe sleep disturbance due to traffic noise (road, aircraft and railway) in Bulgaria. The official World Health Organization methodology used in Europe was applied in order to estimate this annual loss expressed as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and their corresponding monetary value (assuming € 12 000 per DALY). Results showed that severe sleep disturbance due to all traffic sources was associated conservatively with 15 468 DALYs (8 839 - 22 097) and € 185 615 861 (€ 106 066 206 - € 265 165 516) lost in 2012, with road traffic being the single most important noise source. In conclusion, severe sleep disturbance due to traffic noise bears a heavy environmental and socio-economic burden in Bulgaria which prompts vigorous political action and greater involvement in environmental research. In order to increase the accuracy of future burden of disease analyses other studies would need to establish exposure-response functions based on population-based socio-acoustic surveys in the country.

  2. FORECASTING THE NUMBER OF SPORT TOURISM ARRIVALS IN SOUTHWEST BULGARIA

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    Preslav Mihaylov Dimitrov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of some forecasting methods concerning sport tourism arrivals in Southwest Bulgaria: linear trend forecasting, double exponential forecasting (Holt’s method, triple exponential forecasting (the Holt-Winters Method, and the ARIMA method. A specially designed model for estimating the weight coefficient needed for determining the size of the sport tourism’s sector in the time series of the available data and in the forecast values is presented. In order to test the forecasting methods and produce forecasts up to the year 2030, a time series and past period predictions have been constructed based on statistical records since 1964. Several major problems in the application of the exponential smoothing methods for the purpose of the long-run forecasting and the needs of the sport tourism subsector of Bulgaria tourism industry are addressed. These problems include (a finding a suitable general indicator, (b calculating short-term and long-term forecasts, (c comparing the results of the forecast techniques on the basis of the errors in the forecasts, (d estimating the size of the sport tourism in Southwest Bulgaria in certain terms so that the forecast(s of the above-mentioned general indicator could be particularized especially for examined sub-sector and region. The results from the different forecasting methods and techniques are presented and conclusions are drawn regarding the reliability of the forecasts.

  3. Computer simulations of the atmospheric composition climate of Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadzhev, G.; Ganev, K.; Syrkov, D.; Prodanova, M.; Georgieva, I.; Georgiev, G.

    2015-07-01

    Some extensive numerical simulations of the atmospheric composition fields in Bulgaria have been recently performed. The US EPA Model-3 system was chosen as a modelling tool. As the NCEP Global Analysis Data with 1 degree resolution was used as meteorological background, the MM5 and CMAQ nesting capabilities were applied for downscaling the simulations to a 3 km resolution over Bulgaria. The TNO emission inventory was used as emission input. Special pre-processing procedures are created for introducing temporal profiles and speciation of the emissions. The biogenic emissions of VOC are estimated by the model SMOKE. The simulations were carried out for years 2000-2007. The numerical experiments have been carried out for different emission scenarios, which makes it possible the contribution of emissions from different source categories to be evaluated. The Models-3 “Integrated Process Rate Analysis” option is applied to discriminate the role of different dynamic and chemical processes for the air pollution formation. The obtained ensemble of numerical simulation results is extensive enough to allow statistical treatment – calculating not only the mean concentrations and different source categories contribution mean fields, but also standard deviations, skewness, etc. with their dominant temporal modes (seasonal and/or diurnal variations). Thus some basic facts about the atmospheric composition climate of Bulgaria can be retrieved from the simulation ensemble. (Author)

  4. Computer simulations of the atmospheric composition climate of Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadzhev, G.; Ganev, K.; Syrakov, D.; Prodanova, M.; Georgieva, I.; Georgiev, G.

    2015-07-01

    Some extensive numerical simulations of the atmospheric composition fields in Bulgaria have been recently performed. The US EPA Model-3 system was chosen as a modelling tool. As the NCEP Global Analysis Data with 1 degree resolution was used as meteorological background, the MM5 and CMAQ nesting capabilities were applied for downscaling the simulations to a 3 km resolution over Bulgaria. The TNO emission inventory was used as emission input. Special pre-processing procedures are created for introducing temporal profiles and speciation of the emissions. The biogenic emissions of VOC are estimated by the model SMOKE. The simulations were carried out for years 2000-2007. The numerical experiments have been carried out for different emission scenarios, which makes it possible the contribution of emissions from different source categories to be evaluated. The Models-3 Integrated Process Rate Analysis option is applied to discriminate the role of different dynamic and chemical processes for the air pollution formation. The obtained ensemble of numerical simulation results is extensive enough to allow statistical treatment calculating not only the mean concentrations and different source categories contribution mean fields, but also standard deviations, skewness, etc. with their dominant temporal modes (seasonal and/or diurnal variations). Thus some basic facts about the atmospheric composition climate of Bulgaria can be retrieved from the simulation ensemble. (Author)

  5. Christo Deltshev & Pavel Stoev (eds (2006: European Arachnology 2005, Acta zoologica bulgaria, Suppl. No. 1; Proceedings of the 22nd European Colloquium of Arachnology, Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria, 1-6 August 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunz, Dirk

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available book review: Christo Deltshev & Pavel Stoev (eds (2006: European Arachnology 2005, Acta zoologica bulgaria, Suppl. No. 1; Proceedings of the 22nd European Colloquium of Arachnology, Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria, 1-6 August 2005

  6. 76 FR 50283 - Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System-Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System-- Bulgaria AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Notice of finding regarding foreign social insurance or pension system--Bulgaria... Commissioner of Social Security finds has in effect a social insurance or pension system which is of...

  7. New data on the distribution of Hoplia stenolepis (Scarabaeoidea: Melolonthidae in Bulgaria

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    Yana Petrova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Balkan endemic species Hoplia stenolepis Apfelbeck, 1912 is reported from two localities in Kresna and Zemen Gorge, SW Bulgaria. The Zemen Gorge locality is the most northern for the species in Bulgaria to date. At the Zemen Gorge the species is found in numerous aggregations of male specimens on different grasses. No feeding or mating activity was observed.

  8. Managing uncertainty of young people's transitions to adulthood in Bulgaria

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    Kovacheva Siyka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the strategies of young people in Bulgaria for responding to and dealing with uncertainty in the passage to autonomy. It focuses on the active engagement of the young in the processes of identity formation and gaining independence, thus initiating a change in the common patterns of growing up. The biographical choices that the young make are analysed as embedded in a multilayered social context involving the interplay of macro societal changes, shifts in organisational policies and practices and restructuring of gender and generational relations in the family. Theoretically this paper builds upon the concept of uncertainty in understanding the dilemma of structure and agency in youth transitions. The analysis is based upon official statistical information about economic and demographic trends in 21st century Bulgaria and the findings of an organisational case study of a social service agency and biographical interviews with young working parents, which were conducted within the framework of the international Transitions project. Two case studies of individual strategies of young women - one from a working class family and the other from an ethnic minority - are presented in more detail in order to examine the agency they apply in coping with uncertainty and the resources they mobilize in devising (everyday and short-term life projects. The combination of quantitative and qualitative data allows a reflection on the process of managing uncertainty with regards to the past experiences, present meanings and future aspirations of young people as influenced by the contracting state support and contradictory company policies in Bulgaria.

  9. THE VOLUNTARY HEALTH INSURANCE IN BULGARIA - HISTORY, DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGES

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia M. Shtereva-Nikolova; Nikolay A. Popov; Tsvetelina M. Petrova-Gotova

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show the history and development of the Voluntary Health Insurance (VHI) in Bulgaria and the recent regulatory changes. During the investigated period (2003–2012) the market increases over seven times, the number of working and licensed VHI funds grew over three times. The regulatory changes in 2013 require re-licensing and higher capital, which reduced the number of the VHI companies. We analyze the changes in the market and how VHI funds succeed to meet the inc...

  10. Web-based platform for patient dose surveys in diagnostic and interventional radiology in Bulgaria: Functionality testing and optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, F; Palov, N; Ivanova, D; Kostova-Lefterova, D; Georgiev, E; Zagorska, A; Madzharova, R; Vassileva, J

    2017-05-04

    In the period 2013-2016 the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection (NCRRP) at the Ministry of Health of Bulgaria has developed a web based platform for performing national patient dose surveys and establishing Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs). It is accessible via internet browser, allowing the users to submit data remotely. Electronic questionnaires, specific for radiography, fluoroscopy, image guided interventional procedures, mammography and CT, were provided. Short and clear manuals were added to guide users and minimise human errors. The web-based data collection platform is functional and is currently being used for performing the third national dose survey in Bulgaria, launched in 2016. Data analysis is facilitated due to the standardisation of collected data and their storing. Using the platform, the participating facilities can establish their typical dose levels based on the median value, and compare them to DRLs. A disadvantage of the platform is the need to enter data manually, but it is opened for future upgrades for automatic data harvesting and analysis. Various practical approaches were used to overcome the lack of qualified human resources and insufficient understanding of the DRL and dose tracking concept and to motivate facilities to submit data. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The design of the Bulgaria rad waste repository; Diseno del centro de almacenamiento de residuos radiactivos de Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefonova, I.; Petrov, I.; Navarro, M.; Sanchez, M.; Medinilla, G.

    2012-11-01

    In October 2011 a consortium composed by Westinghouse Engineering Spain SAU, ENRESA and DBE Technology GmbH was awarded a contract for the design of the Bulgaria rad waste repository. The facility, inspired in the spanish centre of El Cabril owned by ENRESA, will consist of a 66 reinforced concrete cells surface repository capable of receiving 18600 already conditioned waste containers of 20 t each, during 60 years, and the related auxiliary facilities and buildings. The project, representing a challenge because of the schedule and required level of detail, goes on fulfilling main milestones and getting customer satisfaction. (Author)

  12. Atmospheric characteristics statistic study of Ruse region, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheleva, I.; Filipova, M.

    2016-10-01

    Temperature, air humidity and atmospheric pressure measurements in Ruse region for 40 years period are statistically studied in this paper. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients and linear regression models for these characteristics are presented and commented. The most variable atmospheric parameter is air humidity during the spring seasons. The hardest change of temperature and atmospheric pressure is during January. Temperature has biggest change in January and smallest - in July. Humidity has biggest change in April and smallest - in October. Atmospheric pressure has biggest change in January and smallest - in July. Characteristics temperature and atmospheric pressure of spring (April) and autumn (October) are very similar. Summer temperatures and atmospheric pressure (July) have smallest change. The atmospheric temperature data for Ruse region are also compared with the official basic data for Bulgaria. It is shown that mean values of the temperature in Ruse region are bigger than the mean temperature for Bulgaria. It is shown that the winter and spring temperatures for Ruse region are slightly going up lately which could be connected with the typical for Ruse region air pollution especially by particle matter.

  13. Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovkova, Mariya; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera; Tasheva-Terzieva, Elena; Pencheva, Aneliya

    2013-01-01

    Investigations on the species composition and host range of aphids on ornamental greenhouse plants in Bulgaria was conducted over a period of five years, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty greenhouses, growing ornamentals for landscaping, plant collections and other purposes were observed. They were located in the regions of Sofia, Plovdiv, Smolyan, Pavlikeni, Varna and Burgas. The total number of collected aphid samples was 279. Their composition included 33 aphid species and one subspecies from 13 genera and 5 subfamilies. Twenty-eight species were found to belong to subfamily Aphidinae. Almost 70 % of all recorded species were polyphagous. The most widespread aphid species was Myzus persicae, detected in 13 greenhouses all year round, followed by Aulacorthum solani (10 greenhouses) and Aphis gossypii (9 greenhouses). The widest host range was shown by Myzus persicae (43 hosts), Aulacorthum solani (32 hosts) and Aulacorthum circumflexum (23 hosts). The list of host plants includes 114 species from 95 genera and 58 families. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Out of all aphid samples 12.9 % were collected on Hibiscus and 6.8 %, on Dendranthema. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Periphyllus californiensis and Aphis (Aphis) fabae mordvilkoi are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Furthermore, Aphis spiraecola has been found in new localities and has widened its host range in this country.

  14. Derecho-like event in Bulgaria on 20 July 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gospodinov, Ilian; Dimitrova, Tsvetelina; Bocheva, Lilia; Simeonov, Petio; Dimitrov, Rumen

    2015-05-01

    In this work we analyze the development of a severe-convective-storm system in northwestern Bulgaria on 20 July 2011 which exhibited derecho-like characteristics. Prior to this event, a derecho had never been documented in Bulgaria. The convective system was associated with a cold front. We present a synoptic-scale analysis of the evolution of the cold front and an overview of the wind and the damage that has occurred in the region with the strongest impact. The convective system consisted of two multi-cell thunderstorms that are analyzed in some detail, based on radar data. The two storms merged and the convective system evolved into a bow-shape reflectivity structure with two rear inflow notches. The analysis of the radar data revealed cloud top heights of 17 km, with the formation of а bounded weak echo region, a maximum radar reflectivity factor of 63 dBZ, and wind speeds above 30 m/s. The field investigation revealed patterns in the damaged crops typical of strong wind gusts.

  15. Human trichinellosis in Bulgaria--epidemiological situation and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdova-Mintcheva, R; Jordanova, D; Ivanova, M

    2009-02-23

    Human trichinellosis is a major food-borne zoonosis in Bulgaria with a high health, social, and economic impact. Every year outbreaks and sporadic cases are registered in the country. Epidemiological data based on standard protocols for epidemiological surveillance and control of human trichinellosis for each region in the country were collected and analysed at the National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, and the main epidemiological trends during the past 17 years (1990-2006) were determined. Since 1991 human trichinellosis has become a re-emerging zoonosis in Bulgaria. A total number of 145 trichinellosis outbreaks and 238 sporadic cases were registered. Altogether, 7544 persons have consumed meat or meat products harbouring Trichinella larvae, and of these, 4108 individuals (54.45%) contracted trichinellosis (with 2 deaths). The annual incidence of human trichinellosis varied from 0.27 to 7.40 per 100,000 population. Fifty-seven of the outbreaks were sourced to wild boar meat consumption, 67 were due to consumption of pork products, and in 21 outbreaks the source of infection was unidentified (4 of them were associated with consumption of mixed meat--pork and wild boar meat products). The peaks of outbreaks (12 per year) were registered in 1994, 1998, 2002, and 2003. In recent years some decrease in the numbers of outbreaks was observed (2004: 6, 2005: 3, and 2006: 7).

  16. Detection of Dobrava hantavirus RNA in Apodemus mice in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christova, Iva; Plyusnina, Angelina; Gladnishka, Teodora; Kalvatchev, Nikolay; Trifonova, Iva; Dimitrov, Hristo; Mitkovska, Vesela; Mohareb, Emad; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Several Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe: Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV), Puumala, Saaremaa, Sochi, and Seoul virus. Although HFRS is endemic in Bulgaria, genome sequences of hantaviruses have never been detected in wild rodents. To identify rodent reservoirs, a total of 691 rodents from three endemic regions were trapped in 2011-2012 and screened by TaqMan RT-PCR for detection of hantaviral genomic RNA. Partial small (S) and/or large (L)-segment sequences were recovered from six Apodemus mice: five of the species A. flavicollis and one A. agrarius. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all recovered sequences belonged to DOBV. On the phylogenetic trees, the novel Bulgarian hantavirus sequences clustered together with sequences of established previously DOBV variants recovered from Bulgarian HFRS patients and also with variants found in wild rodents trapped in Slovenia, Greece, and Slovakia. One of the novel Bulgarian DOBV S-sequences from A. agrarius was related closely to DOBV sequences recovered from A. flavicollis, suggesting a spillover of DOBV from its natural host to A. agrarius mice. The results of this study confirmed the circulation of DOBV in wild rodents in Bulgaria. The complexity of the epidemiological situation in the Balkans requires further studies of hantaviruses in rodent hosts and human HFRS cases.

  17. Asbestos exposure and mesothelioma incidence and mortality in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangelova, Katya; Dimitrova, Irina

    2016-06-01

    Bulgaria totally banned the import, production and use of asbestos in 2005, but produced and used asbestos products during the last 3-4 decades of the 20th century. The aim of this study was to follow the incidence and mortality of mesothelioma in Bulgaria in relation to past occupational exposures. A literature search between 1960 and 2014 was conducted to obtain information on asbestos consumption, occupational exposure and asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). Data on registered mesotheliomas were provided by the National Cancer Register and data for recognized occupational ARDs were provided by the National Social Security Institute. An increase in the incidence of mesothelioma from 5 to 58 from 1993 to 2013, with 666 cases in the 21-year period, was registered. Incidence, mortality rates, deaths and male-to-female ratios and were lower in comparison to industrialized countries. The increase in mesothelioma incidence is considered as a consequence of more recent production and use of asbestos and asbestos products and the high occupational exposure between 1977 and 1989, while the lower rate of mesothelioma deaths and male-to-female ratio need to be investigated further.

  18. Performance of some sunflower genotypes grown under dry weather conditions in south Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurettin Tahsin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Information on yield and agricultural performance of new sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. hybrids grown under dry weather conditions in South Bulgaria is limited. The objectives of this field study is to acquire information on seed yield and other agricultural characteristics of five sunflower hybrids and their parental lines in South Bulgaria. This research was carried out on the Experimental farm at the Agricultural University in Plovdiv, Bulgaria in the seasons of 2008 and 2009. Statistical analysis revealed that the differences among genotypes for all studied characters were significant in both seasons as well as in the combined one.

  19. Latest Cretaceous mosasaurs and lamniform sharks from Labirinta cave, Vratsa District (northwest Bulgaria: A preliminary note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagt John W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary descriptions are given of selected specimens from an assemblage of >65 isolated vertebrate remains, collected in 1985 at the Labirinta cave situated between the villages of Drashan and Breste, east of Cherven Briag (Vratsa district, northwest Bulgaria, from strata of late Maastrichtian age (Kajlâka Formation. Recorded are a fragmentary lower jaw of a mosasaurine squamate, Mosasaurus cf. hoffmanni (MANTELL, 1829, with two teeth preserved in situ, as well as two isolated teeth of lamniform sharks, assigned to Squalicorax pristodontus (AGASSIZ, 1843 and Anomotodon sp. Other vertebrate remains in this assemblage include rather poorly preserved fragments of skull and appendicular skeleton of mosasaurs, but it cannot be ruled out that other vertebrate groups (elasmosaurid plesiosaurs are represented as well. To establish this, the additional material needs to be studied in detail and compared with existing collections; it will be described in full at a later date. A partial phragmocone of a scaphitid ammonite, found associated, is here assigned to Hoploscaphites constrictus (J. SOWERBY, 1817 and briefly described as well. This record dates the Labirinta cave sequence as Maastrichtian, as does the echinoid Hemipneustes striatoradiatus (LESKE 1778; tooth morphology of Squalicorax pristodontus and a find of the pachydiscid ammonite Anapachydiscus (Menuites cf. terminus WARD and KENNEDY 1993 from correlative strata nearby narrow this down to late, or even latest Maastrichtian. Finally, some remarks on mosasaur and plesiosaur distribution during the Campanian-Maastrichtian across Europe are added.

  20. Measurement of indoor radon concentration in kindergartens in Sofia, Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Kremena; Stojanovska, Zdenka; Tsenova, Martina; Badulin, Viktor; Kunovska, Bistra

    2014-11-01

    As a part of the systematic survey of indoor radon in Bulgaria, the indoor radon concentration was measured in 296 kindergarten buildings of Sofia city during 3 months (February to April 2013) using the CR-39 nuclear tract detectors. In 256 buildings at least two frequently occupied rooms (mainly playrooms) were observed. Altogether, 922 measurements were performed. The frequency distribution was well described by the lognormal function. The measured radon concentrations range between 9 and 1415 Bq m(-3) with a geometric mean of 101 Bq m(-3) (2.08) and an arithmetic mean 132 Bq m(-3) with a standard deviation of 118 Bq m(-3). The radon concentrations obtained in this survey were compared with that in Sofia city dwellings obtained from a previous study. A detailed statistical analysis of the building factors was presented.

  1. OPPORTUNITIES AND TRENDS IN WALNUTS GROWING IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Buhalski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a great interest among manufacturers to conventional and organic production of walnuts. Currently Bulgarian market has over 500 walnut producers and about 30,000 acres of industrial walnut orchards. Suitable areas for growing walnuts in Bulgaria are Plovdiv, Pazardzhik, Stara Zagora, Haskovo, Shumen and Razgrad, as most industrial plants are in Stara Zagora, Plovdiv, Pleven and Haskovo. The market for walnuts in Europe is virtually limitless, since about 100 thousand tonnes per year are imported, mostly from the US. Walnuts growing is a profitable business and an excellent long term investment. The return of the investment depends mainly on the choice of locally relevant varieties.

  2. Scenarios of energy demand and efficiency potential for Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzvetanov, P.; Ruicheva, M.; Denisiev, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents aggregated results on macroeconomic and final energy demand scenarios developed within the Bulgarian Country Study on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation, supported by US Country Studies Program. The studies in this area cover 5 main stages: (1) {open_quotes}Baseline{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Energy Efficiency{close_quotes} socioeconomic and energy policy philosophy; (2) Modeling of macroeconomic and sectoral development till 2020; (3) Expert assessments on the technological options for energy efficiency increase and GHG mitigation in the Production, Transport and Households and Services Sectors; (4) Bottom-up modeling of final energy demand; and (5) Sectoral and overall energy efficiency potential and policy. Within the Bulgarian Country Study, the presented results have served as a basis for the final integration stage {open_quotes}Assessment of the Mitigation Policy and Measures in the Energy System of Bulgaria{close_quotes}.

  3. Chromosome study of three species of Dormice from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Peshev

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The karyotypes of three species of dormice were studied. The fat dormouse Myoxus glis is reported with 2n=62. The forest dormouse Dryomys nitedula has 2n=48 and the hazel dormouse Muscardinus avellanarius is reported with 2n=46. A secondary constriction is well visible in all three species. Riassunto Studio cromosomico di tre specie di Mioxidi in Bulgaria - Sono stati studiati i cariotipi di tre specie di mioxidi. M. glis è caratterizzato da 2n=62, D. nitedula da 2n=48 e M. avellanarius da 2n=46. Una costrizione secondaria è ben visibile in tutte e tre le specie.

  4. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF STATE AND DEVELOMENT OF BEEKEEPING IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasko KOPRIVLENSKI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the trends and development of Bulgarian beekeeping. The study is based on official statistical data of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food and fieldwork study for the period 2009-2012. To achieve the above aim, first of all, the authors trance the changes in the production of honey until 2012 and second they analyze the distribution of farms according the number of bee colonies and prophylactic methods of their feeding up. In addition, in study was revealed the reasons for distribution of the bee colonies and identified the important problems facing the sector in term of the legislation, protection of the bee colonies, the control of the importing the queen bees and market development of the bee products. The one of main results of the study showed that the number of bee colonies in the country decrease even highly expert-oriented production of honey in Bulgaria.

  5. Variability of summer-time precipitation in Danube plain, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolova Nina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the recent years the climate extremes like as drought and floods become more often and have negative impact on human society. That is way it is very important to know the peculiarities of precipitation variability. The paper investigates precipitation variability during summer time in one of the most important agriculture region in Bulgaria - Danube Plain. The summer-time is determined for the period May - October. The study is based on monthly precipitation total for the period 1961-2005. The precipitation variability is analyzed by comparison with the period 1961-1990, determined by World Meteorological Organization as "contemporary climate". In order to investigate the precipitation variability the various indices lake as Percent of Normal, Rainfall Anomaly Index and Cumulative Anomaly have been calculated. Two wet spells (1865-1983 and 1993-2005 and one dry spell (1983-1993 have been identified. The Kriging interpolation has been applied for presenting special distribution of precipitation variability.

  6. Collective identity and wellbeing of Roma minority adolescents in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Radosveta; Chasiotis, Athanasios; Bender, Michael; van de Vijver, Fons

    2013-01-01

    In Europe and particularly in Bulgaria, Roma represent the largest low-status minority group that is subjected to marked public intolerance and discrimination. This study examined links among Roma (N = 207) and Bulgarian (N = 399) adolescents' ethnic, familial, and religious identities as salient identity aspects for their psychological wellbeing. Results indicated that, as expected, Roma youth reported lower levels of wellbeing than Bulgarian youth. The latter revealed a weaker religious identity than Roma youth, whereas no ethnic group differences emerged regarding Bulgarian or familial identity. Furthermore, we observed that collective identity was higher in older participants of both groups. Finally, a multigroup analysis using structural equation modeling showed that collective identity was a positive predictor of wellbeing for both Roma and Bulgarian adolescents. Findings demonstrated differences in salience as well as structural communalities regarding ways in which collective identity affects wellbeing of youth from two ethnically diverse communities.

  7. POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF CROCUS L.(IRIDACEAE IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UZUNDZHALIEVA KATYA SPASOVA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollen of the wild species from the genus Crocus L., spread in Bulgaria has been analyzed. The investigations, made by light microscope show that the pollen of these species is spherical in shape and round in outlines, comparatively big. These morphological characteristics of the pollen of the wild Bulgarian Crocuses define it as a primitive one [6]. The Scanning Electron Microscope investigations, made by Beug [1], established two types of pollen morphology. The results of our investigation led to the conclusion that the same types are also presented in Bulgarian species: – C.biflorus –type, or syncolpate and C.vernus – type, or inaperturate. Eight of the species belong to the first type and only C. pallasii belongs to the second. The pollen of C. reticulatus is with quite unclear aperture – maybe transition to the inaperturate type.

  8. Epidemiological analysis of burn patients in east Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayakova, Yolanda; Vajarov, Ivailo; Stanev, Anton; Nenkova, Natalia; Hristov, Hristo

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the basic epidemiological characteristics of burn patients in East Bulgaria, as well as to analyze trends in burns in the region over the last decade. Retrospective data of burn patients treated at Military Hospital-Varna, in the period January 2002-December 2011, was reviewed and statistically interpreted in terms of patients and burn demographics; etiology; place of incidents; hospital stay and mortality. Trends were observed for the entire period and comparative analyses of patients' data were made between two periods: first - 2002-2006 and second 2007-2011. A total of 2627 burn patients, median age 41 years (IQR 9-61) were admitted to our burn unit. For the entire period the most affected age groups were ≤ 4 years (21.6%) and ≥ 65 years (21.1%). Hospitalized patients increased in the second period (n = 1701) compared to the first one (n = 926), while the size of total burn surface area decreased (first period - 9.8% vs. second period - 10.6%). Scald (51%) and flame (23.8%) were the most frequent aetiological agents for both periods. Work related burns reduced in the second period (9.4% vs. 4.9%), while home burns (90.6 vs. 95.1%) increased. Hospital stay declined from 17 days (2002-2006) to 7 days (2007-2011), whereas mortality rate slightly increased (first period - 2.3% vs. second period - 3.6%). Burns remain a significant health problem in Bulgaria. The future preventive actions should take into account the observed changes in burn demographics and target the most vulnerable groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. Tobacco Industry interference in TAPS policy making in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel P Antonov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco industry (TI has a powerful grasp of politics and the media in Bulgaria, but there is limited knowledge of its methods and communication messages. To explore and analyse them, we are using a recent case from the policy advocacy practice of the Smoke-free Life Coalition, ENSP member in Bulgaria. A mixed social research methodology was employed, involving: a case study; qualitative content analysis of documented communication; ethnographic participant observation; and semi-structured interviews with TAPS advocacy campaigners, policy makers and TI representatives, in the action research tradition. The case study analyses TI reaction to a surprising proposal for a complete ban of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, submitted to Bulgaria’s Parliament in November 2016 – and consecutively withdrawn. Being involved in all stages of the case and present at meetings between TI and MPs enables the researchers to gather rich information and analyse it, to cast light on: the methods for successful interference with democratic decision making, applied by industry representatives; the specific communication messages and arguments they employ to suppress smoke-free legislation. The paper observes how TI speculates with the interests of different groups, affected by and involved in its operations, to successfully contradict health concerns voiced by MPs. Democratically elected representatives appear unable to uphold the social and health interests of their voters and succumb to TI priorities. The paper concludes that a pro-industry discourse, which favours corporate incomes over concerns for people’s health and life, dominates democratic decision making mechanisms in Bulgaria’s post-socialist political landscape. Funding The Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases

  10. Presentations at TENCompetence Workshop in Sofia, Bulgaria. March 30th-31st, 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Several

    2006-01-01

    Several (2006). Presentations at International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development. March, 30-31, 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence Conference. The full proceedings can be downloaded at: http://hdl.handle.net/1820/836.

  11. Leadership training in science, technology, engineering and mathematics education in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairaktarova, Diana; Cox, Monica F.; Evangelou, Demetra

    2011-12-01

    This synthesis paper explores current leadership training in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education in Bulgaria. The analysis begins with discussion of global factors influencing the implementation of leadership training in STEM education in general and then presents information about the current status of leadership training in Bulgaria with emphases on the country's economics, politics and geographical location as specific factors influencing leadership education. A short background of Bulgaria is presented with regard to population, gross domestic product, educational system, engineering force and possible need for leaders in industry in Bulgaria and the European Union. The paper provides an overall view about the current status of leadership training in all Bulgarian universities offering STEM education and concentrates specifically on two major universities by examining their currently offered programmes. As part of the discussion, similar training elements in other European countries and the USA are presented.

  12. Presentations at TENCompetence Workshop in Sofia, Bulgaria. March 30th-31st, 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Several

    2006-01-01

    Several (2006). Presentations at International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development. March, 30-31, 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence Conference. The full proceedings can be downloaded at: http://hdl.handle.net/1820/836.

  13. Flashes from the Past: Establishment of the Bulgarian national Bank as Central bank of Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bojinov, Bojidar

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to outline the specifics related with the emergence and development of central banking in Bulgaria. Established in 1879 as an ordinary commercial bank, Bulgarian National Bank experienced a number of ups and downs in its 130 year history. In its evolutionary development, it became a central issue and Bank of Bulgaria in 1928. In the years of socialism, Bulgarian National Bank is experiencing its devolution development to become in the period 1971-1982 in the only bank in count...

  14. A new outbreak of brucellosis in Bulgaria detected in July 2015--preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenova, Rumiana; Tomova, Iskra; Saparevska, Raina; Kantardjiev, Todor

    2015-01-01

    During July 2015 a brucellosis outbreak was detected in Kyustendil district, west Bulgaria. As of 15 August, 31 patients have been diagnosed all with an epidemiological connection to Rila town. Patients have not travelled/worked abroad. Breeding family-owned goats and/or improper use of their milk appear to be the main risk factors for transmission of the infection. This second autochthonous brucellosis outbreak in Bulgaria since 2006, affects the western part of the country.

  15. STUDY ON SOME FACTORS FOR HEALTHY NUTRITION ENVIRONMENT IN RESTAURANTS IN SOUTHWESTERN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmila Ivanova; Julieta Trifonova; Ilinka Terziyska

    2012-01-01

    The purpose – The purpose of the study is to conduct a regional survey in tourist companies in Southwestern Bulgaria for examining some key factors for building/forming a healthy nutrition environment. Design – The special focus is given to analysis of the key factors for creating healthy nutrition environment in restaurants. Methodology – A cross sectional survey conducted including 34 respondents from 120 operating hotels with restaurants in Southwestern Bulgaria and 30 independent restaura...

  16. ISO 9001 certification for hospitals in Bulgaria: does it help service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoimenova, Assena; Stoilova, Ani; Petrova, Guenka

    2014-03-04

    The aim of our study is to review the published literature on establishment and implementation of ISO 9001 QMS in European hospitals, to study the availability of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) quality management systems (QMS) in Bulgarian hospitals and to outline the main advantages of ISO implementation in the hospitals in Bulgaria. The information on availability of ISO QMS in the hospitals in Bulgaria was gathered via Bulgarian certification register, the registries of various quality associations, websites of hospitals and certification companies presented in Bulgaria. A total number of 312 hospitals in Bulgaria were screened for the availability of QMS certified against the ISO 9001 requirements. The experience of European hospitals that implemented QMS is positive and the used approaches to improve the processes and the demonstrated effects from ISO implementation are analysed by the researchers. Unlike other European Union member states, the establishment of quality management systems in Bulgaria is not compulsory. However, our study revealed that 14.42% of the hospitals in Bulgaria have implemented and have certified quality systems against the requirements of ISO 9001. Our study confirmed that a quality management system using the ISO 9001 standard is useful for the hospitals as it can help to increase the operational efficiencies, to reduce errors, improve patient safety and produce a more preventive approach instead of a reactive environment.

  17. PROFILES AND PREFERENCES OF ON-LINE MILLENIAL SHOPPERS IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia R. Loubeau

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to develop a better understanding of the factors affecting on-line purchasing behavior among Generation Y (Gen Y consumers in Bulgaria. Also called millenials and born between the mid-1970s and late 1990s, this generation is especially active on-line and will be a dominant influence shaping e-commerce. An empirical study was conducted based on a written survey of a sample consisting of 367 high school and university students in Bulgaria. The most important reason why Bulgarian young people shop on-line is the pursuit of unique products not locally available, followed by convenience and better pricing, and their favorite category of internet purchases is “Apparel and Accessories.” Bulgarian millennials are using the internet to shop for trendy fashion and to obtain a variety of brands that are unavailable locally. Like other regions of the world, concern about financial transactions security is a major barrier limiting the willingness to shop on-line in Bulgaria. Unlike other markets where on-line music purchases are growing, high levels of digital piracy in Bulgaria strongly discourage Bulgarian students from purchasing music on-line. One limitation of this study arises because of its reliance on a convenience sample of students from medium sized cities in Southern Bulgaria. Further research employing stratified random sampling across Bulgaria is needed to assess whether the findings are broadly generalizable for the Gen Y population.

  18. Diplomacy of Bulgaria to resolve «macedonian question» before the first world war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Melish

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article gives a short overview of the international situation on the eve of World war I, the analysis of foreign policy and diplomacy Bulgaria relatively solving the «Macedonian question». Particular attention is given to the diplomatic conflict between Bulgaria and the Balkans, and the role of Bulgaria in the conflict. Emphasizes the controversial policy of Bulgaria, which is quite evasive and carefully behaved on the eve of global conflict. It is noted that the beginning of the military conflict in Europe automatically done Bulgarian revisionist foreign policy revanchist policy. The fact that the Bulgarian national question was also a territorial issue. Bulgaria had a claim to almost each of its four neighbors. Diversity its revisionism would cause significant difficulties in any major state or coalition of states that have set a goal of attracting Bulgaria as an ally. It is noted that the definition of Bulgarian foreign policy concept of the crucial role played by King Ferdinand. «All Bulgarian political life, especially foreign policy, guided by the king, - said the Russian envoy in Sofia AA Savinskyy. - Ministers are blind instrument in his hands.» [5, P. 741-742]. It is noted that at the beginning of the first World War Macedonian lands were subject to bargaining between Bulgaria and the Entente, on the one hand and the Central Powers - on the other. For entry into the war both coalition promised Sophia accession Vardarskoyi and the part of Aegean Macedonia. Bulgaria’s main mistake was that it entered the World War on the side not to «friends» and to the side of the oppressor century of Bulgarian land - of the Ottoman Empire. The article was followed that liberated severe suffering, Bulgaria passed to the enemy, seeking «justice.» This step was considered by public opinion as «ingratitude» and under the authority of Bulgaria fell more. The article also contains description of the situation in the country before world war

  19. Comparative mineralogical characteristics of red soils from South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Yaneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to compare mineralogical composition of red soils, formed on marbles in South Bulgaria. We used mineralogical analysis of heavy and light mineral fraction in immersion under polarizing microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis of bulk sample and clay fraction. Three test polygons, located in South Bulgaria were examined: Petrovo, Nova Lovcha and Dobrostan, which are characterized with different latitude, altitude, and exposition. Three or more sites from each polygon were sampled and analyzed. The red soils are formed on white and gray calcite and calcite-dolomite marbles, impure silicate-rich marbles and only in one site – on marble breccias. We determined the following mineral phases in red soils: calcite, dolomite, quarts, and feldspars, mica, illite-type mica, illite, smectite, vermiculite-smectite, and kaolinite. Heavy minerals are represented by amphibole, titanite and epidote, and minor amounts of zircon, garnet, tourmaline, rutile, pyroxene, andalusite, kyanite, sillimanite and apatite. Opaque minerals are predominantly goethite and hematite. Plant tissue is abundant in light fraction from the uppermost soil horizons. Analyses of heavy mineral fraction show presence of metamorphic and igneous minerals which indicate participation of weathering products from other rock types in the nearby area. The types of heavy minerals in soils depend more on composition of parent rocks and geomorphic position than on climate type. Soils from Nova Lovcha show similar composition, but the quantity of goethite and hematite significantly increase in soil from plain. Typical high-metamorphic minerals as andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite present only in Nova Lovcha, while garnet dominates in Petrovo and opaque minerals - in Dobrostan. Red soils, formed on slopes, where erosion prevails over accumulation, contain more illite, smectite and vermiculite-smectite, and very few or no kaolinite, whereas the kaolinite is dominant in soils

  20. An ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anely Nedelcheva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study focuses on the wild vascular plants traditionally used for human consumption in Bulgaria and its aim is to present data about the richness and diversity of plants used as a nutrition source, about folk botanical knowledge and to give an impression about their contemporary state and development in relation to natural plant resources and traditional food culture. The study covers the period from the end of 19th to the middle of the 20th century. Materials and Methods: The study gathered data from more than 30 ethnobotanical and ethnographical sources which provide information for the end of 19th to the middle of the 20th century, in addition to field data collected through semi-structured interviews. Results: A total of 88 wild plant species, 25 families and 52 genera were identified as edible plants. Prevailing are representatives of Rosaceae, Amaranthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Brassicaceae, Compositae and Polygonaceae. The largest numbers of species are from Allium, Rumex and Chenopodium. Similar in number are the species which are used as leaves (43 and fruits (38, followed by young shoots (9, seeds (7, roots (4, bulbs (4 and inflorescences (2. The largest group is from plants whose aboveground parts are gathered mainly during the spring and used as vegetables. Important species are Urtica dioica, Rumex acetosa, Rumex patientia, Chenopodium album, Atriplex prostrata and Amaranthus retroflexus. The fruits are mostly gathered from Rosaceae, Adoxaceae, Ericaceae and Vitaceae shrubs and trees. The study determined eight major food groups: fresh greens and fruits, stuffed pies, stewed and boiled greens, boiled cereals, sweets (boiled fruit products, dried fruits, snacks and lacto-fermented products. The predominant taste is salty-sour-spicy. Some of wild foods are also used for medicinal purposes and included in preventing or healing diets. Conclusion: Today’s traditional diet is very different from the past. Bulgaria provides a

  1. Household energy management strategies in Bulgaria's transitioning energy sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carper, Mark Daniel Lynn

    Recent transition literature of post-socialist states has addressed the shortcomings of a rapid blanket implementation of neo-liberal policies and practices placed upon a landscape barren of the needed institutions and experiences. Included in these observations are the policy-making oversight of spatial socioeconomic variations and their individual and diverse methods of coping with their individual challenges. Of such literature addressing the case of Bulgaria, a good portion deals with the spatial consequences of restructuring as well as with embedded disputes over access to and control of resources. With few exceptions, studies of Bulgaria's changing energy sector have largely been at the state level and have not been placed within the context of spatial disparities of socioeconomic response. By exploring the variations of household energy management strategies across space, my dissertation places this resource within such a theoretical context and offers analysis based on respective levels of economic and human development, inherited material infrastructures, the organization and activities of institutions, and fuel and technological availability. A closed survey was distributed to explore six investigational themes across four geographic realms. The investigational themes include materials of housing construction, methods of household heating, use of electrical appliances, energy conservation strategies, awareness and use of energy conservation technologies, and attitudes toward the transitioning energy sector. The geographic realms include countrywide results, the urban-rural divide, regional variations, and urban divisions of the capital city, Sofia. Results conclude that, indeed, energy management strategies at the household level have been shaped by multiple variables, many of which differ across space. These variables include price sensitivity, degree of dependence on remnant technologies, fuel and substitute availability, and level of human and

  2. Ad Libitum

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    20. mai. Segakoor Ad Libitum laulis Niguliste Muuseum-kontserdisaalis. Dirigendid Alice Pehk ja Kaie Viigipuu. Kaastegev Tiit Kiik (orel). Esitati koorimuusikat renessansist tänapäevani ning prantsuse orelimuusikat : [täistekst

  3. FACTORS AFFECTING THE VEGETABLE FARMING EFFICIENCY IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora STOEVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency is the major economic category, which measures the final result and the expenses related to the production and provides value expression. The article aims to analyze the prospects and conditions for the development of field vegetable production in Bulgaria. Field vegetable farming is a traditional and fast developing sector of the Bulgarian agriculture. Its condition and development is determined by the various natural and geographic conditions in the country and the experience in cultivating and farming vegetable crops, which are traditional for the Bulgarian population. The vegetable farming is organized in individual private agricultural farms and agricultural farming cooperatives and is performed in small areas. The crisis in the vegetable farming raised a lot of questions that need to be answered. It is necessary to overcome the decrease in vegetable production. This can happen by establishing efficiently operating organizational companies. The most important reasons for the reported decrease are the result of the improperly conducted reforms in the agriculture industry as a result of which the economic condition of the sector is declining. A serious flaw is that the farmers are selecting certain crop production without conducting any preliminary marketing and without any signed contracts for produce realization.

  4. Tourism Competitiveness Index – An Empirical Analysis Romania vs. Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai CROITORU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of the current economic downturn, many specialists consider tourism as one of the sectors with the greatest potential to provide worldwide economic growth and development. A growing tourism sector can contribute effectively to employment, increase national income, and can also make a decisive mark on the balance of payments. Thus, tourism can be an important driving force for growth and prosperity, especially in emerging economies, being a key element in reducing poverty and regional disparities. Despite its contribution to economic growth, tourism sector development can be undermined by a series of economic and legislative barriers that can affect the competitiveness of this sector. In this context, the World Economic Forum proposes, via the Tourism Competitiveness Index (TCI, in addition to a methodology to identify key factors that contribute to increasing tourism competitiveness, tools for analysis and evaluation of these factors. In this context, this paper aims to analyze the underlying determinants of TCI from the perspective of two directly competing states, Romania and Bulgaria in order to highlight the effects of communication on the competitiveness of the tourism sector. The purpose of this analysis is to provide some answers, especially in terms of communication strategies, which may explain the completely different performances of the two national economies in the tourism sector.

  5. ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF PEANUT PRODUCTION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly BENCHEVA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Peanut is not listed as one of the major crops in the Bulgarian agricultural sector, but its economic and fi nancial viability is promising, but unknown. We use enterprise budgets, capital budgeting techniques, risk analysis and logistic regression models to examine the fi nancial and economic structure of peanut farms and to evaluate the factors infl uencing short and long-term profi tability. The results show that peanut production is a profi table venture for most peanut farmers in Bulgaria. Long-run analyses show that peanut production may be economically feasible and producers engaged in production for a period of seven years, and at a discount rate of 13%, may generate internal rates of return (IRR that vary from -20.57% to 67.39%. About 70% of the farms studied had IRRs greater than the discount rate. Sensitivity analyses show that profi tability of peanut production was infl uenced by yield and variable costs. There were risks at the village level associated with peanut production.

  6. Adding Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Shelley

    2007-01-01

    Ajax can bring many advantages to an existing web application without forcing you to redo the whole thing. This book explains how you can add Ajax to enhance, rather than replace, the way your application works. For instance, if you have a traditional web application based on submitting a form to update a table, you can enhance it by adding the capability to update the table with changes to the form fields, without actually having to submit the form. That's just one example.Adding Ajax is for those of you more interested in extending existing applications than in creating Rich Internet Applica

  7. 76 FR 63985 - Notice of Receipt of Cultural Property Request From the Government of the Republic of Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Notice of Receipt of Cultural Property Request From the Government of the Republic of Bulgaria Bulgaria, concerned that its cultural heritage is in jeopardy from pillage, made a request to the Government of the United States under Article 9 of the...

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Bulgaria--An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Pappa, Styliani; Panayotova, Elitsa; Papadopoulou, Elpida; Christova, Iva

    2016-05-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is endemic in Bulgaria. During 2013-2014, 11 confirmed CCHF cases have been reported in the country (seven in 2013 and four in 2014). The present study provides the CCHF molecular epidemiology in Bulgaria based on all currently available S, M, and L RNA segment nucleotide sequences spanning the years 1978-2014. A relatively low genetic difference (0-6%, the maximum seen in the M RNA segment) was seen among the CCHFV sequences suggesting that a slow evolving CCHFV strain belonging to "Europe 1" clade is present in Bulgaria. Although the virus emerged in new foci during the recent years, it is more active in the established endemic foci which seem to offer the most suitable ecosystem and environment. Understanding the CCHF epidemiology and virus evolution is the basis for public health programs and vaccine design.

  9. Species composition and morphology of protostrongylids (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) in ruminants from Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayotova-Pencheva, Mariana Stancheva

    2011-10-01

    Lungs of 52 ruminants from different regions of Bulgaria, 16 from goats (Capra aegagrus f. domestica L.), 15 from sheep (Ovis ammon f. domestica L.), 11 from mouflons (Ovis musimon L.), and 10 from chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra L.), were investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of small lungworms in these hosts. The obtained results are summarized with those of previous studies, and a picture of the present status of the species composition of protostrongylids in ruminants from Bulgaria is forwarded. Morphometric data about the species Muellerius capillaris, Cystocaulus ocreatus, Neostrongylus linearis, Protostrongylus brevispiculum, and Protostrongylus rufescens are presented. The data on the morphology of these five species are supplied for the first time both for Bulgaria and the south-east part of the European continent.

  10. Assessment of the mitigation options in the energy system in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christov, C.; Vassilev, C.; Simenova, K. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Bulgaria signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the UNCEP in Rio in June 1992. The parliament ratified the Convention in March 1995. In compliance with the commitments arising under the Convention, Bulgaria elaborates climate change polity. The underlying principles in this policy are Bulgaria to joint the international efforts towards solving climate change problems to the extent that is adequate to both the possibilities of national economy and the options to attract foreign investments. All policies and measures implemented should be as cost-effective as possible. The Bulgarian GHG emission profile reveals the energy sector as the most significant emission source and also as an area where the great potential for GHG emissions reduction exists. This potential could be achieved in many cases by relatively low cost or even no-cost options. Mitigation analysis incorporates options in energy demand and energy supply within the period 1992-2020.

  11. Trends in Organic Farming Development in Bulgaria: Applying Circular Economy Principles to Sustainable Rural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrov Dimitar K.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the development of organic farming in Bulgaria through the viewpoint of its links to circular economy concept and its potential to contribute to sustainable rural development. The significant increase in the number of organic operators and areas is analyzed in the context of stable growth in the European sector and worldwide and the increase in consumer demand. Main indicators reported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food of the Republic of Bulgaria and the support provided by the National Rural Development Program are used to present the characteristics of organic production and agricultural holdings. The advantages of Bulgaria are underlined as a country offering the necessary conditions, along with the main problems in production and marketing. Recommendations are provided for organic sector encouragement as a sustainable business model and an entrepreneurial initiative for sustainable rural development putting a special accent on networking and capacity building activities in connection to potential solutions and policy development.

  12. First records of Laboulbeniales (Ascomycota on ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albena Lapeva-Gjonova

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The myrmecophilous fungi Rickia wasmannii Cavara, 1899 and Laboulbenia camponoti S. W. T. Batra, 1963 (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales are reported for the first time from Bulgaria. Rickia wasmannii was found on Myrmica scabrinodis Nylander, 1846 ant workers (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in South-eastern Bulgaria near to the Black Sea coast. This is the easternmost record of Rickia wasmannii in Europe. Laboulbenia camponoti was found in six different localities in Bulgaria on the carpenter ants Camponotus aethiops (Latreille, 1798, C. universitatis Forel, 1890 and C. pilicornis (Roger, 1859. Camponotus aethiops and C. universitatis are new hosts for the fungus. For both fungi species the known distribution and host ranges summarized. This is the first record of the ant species Camponotus pilicornis for the Bulgarian fauna.

  13. UNMET NEEDS FOR HEALTH CARE SERVICES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka Atanasova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In all European countries, an important policy objective is the equity of access to health care. The factors that affect access to health care can differ as the demand- and supply-side factors. Moreover, there are many tools to assess the extent of inequity in access to services. One simple tool is the assessing reports of unmet needs for health care. Purpose: The study has two objectives: to examine the evidence of self-reported unmet needs and to analyze the relationship between foregone medical care and both type of residence and socioeconomic status. Materials and Methods: We use data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. The access to health care is measured using the concept of unmet need for medical examination or treatment during the last 12 months. The relationship between foregone medical care and both type of residence and socioeconomic status is examined through the representative survey conducted in 2014. Results: The Eurostat results show that treatment costs are the most common reason for foregone medical care in Bulgaria. We observe a gradual decrease in the share of people who reported having unmet needs due to being too expensive. According to the 2014 survey, significant differences between urban and rural areas as well as among the income groups are identified. The results show the problems in access to health care services mainly in small towns and villages. Conclusion: Although major essential changes were made in the Bulgarian health care system, the equity problems remain an important challenge to policy-makers.

  14. Detection of rare reassortant G5P[6] rotavirus, Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenova, Zornitsa; Papp, Hajnalka; Lengyel, György; Kisfali, Péter; Steyer, Andrej; Steyer, Adela F; Esona, Mathew D; Iturriza-Gómara, Miren; Bányai, Krisztián

    2012-12-01

    During the ongoing rotavirus strain surveillance program conducted in Bulgaria, an unusual human rotavirus A (RVA) strain, RVA/Human/BG/BG620/2008/G5P[6], was identified among 2200 genotyped Bulgarian RVAs. This strain showed the following genomic configuration: G5-P[6]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1-E1-H1. Phylogenetic analysis of the genes encoding the neutralization proteins and backbone genes identified a probable mixture of RVA genes of human and porcine origin. The VP1, VP6 and NSP2 genes were more closely related to typical human rotavirus strains. The remaining eight genes were either closely related to typical porcine and unusual human-porcine reassortant rotavirus strains or were equally distant from reference human and porcine strains. This study is the first to report an unusual rotavirus isolate with G5P[6] genotype in Europe which has most likely emerged from zoonotic transmission. The absence of porcine rotavirus sequence data from this area did not permit to assess if the suspected ancestral zoonotic porcine strain already had human rotavirus genes in its genome when transmitted from pig to human, or, the transmission was coupled or followed by gene reassortment event(s). Because our strain shared no neutralization antigens with rotavirus vaccines used for routine immunization in children, attention is needed to monitor if this G-P combination will be able to emerge in human populations. A better understanding of the ecology of rotavirus zoonoses requires simultaneous monitoring of rotavirus strains in humans and animals.

  15. Change in tobacco excise policy in Bulgaria: the role of tobacco industry lobbying and smuggling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skafida, Valeria; Silver, Karin E; Rechel, Boika P D; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-05-01

    To examine how transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) tried to penetrate the Bulgarian cigarette market and influence tobacco excise tax policy after the fall of communism and during Bulgaria's accession to the European Union (EU). Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents supplemented by analysis of press coverage, tobacco industry journals, market reports and key informant interviews. TTCs have been involved in cigarette smuggling to and through Bulgaria since at least 1975 and used smuggling as a market-entry strategy. National tobacco company Bulgartabac appears to have been involved in smuggling its own cigarettes from and reimporting them to Bulgaria. Since Bulgaria's accession to the EU opened the market to the TTCs, TTCs have exaggerated the scale of the illicit trade to successfully convince politicians and public health experts that tax increases lead to cigarette smuggling. Yet, sources point to TTCs' continued complicity in cigarette smuggling to and through Bulgaria between 2000 and 2010. TTCs aimed to influence the Bulgarian tobacco excise tax regime, import duties and pricing mechanism, but appear to have been less successful than in other former communist countries in part due to the co-existence of a state-owned tobacco company. Undisclosed meetings between the tobacco industry and government ministers and officials are ongoing despite Bulgaria being a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). The TTCs continued involvement in smuggling suggests that deals in 2004, 2007 and 2010 which the European Commission has reached with TTCs to address cigarette smuggling are inadequate. The TTCs' continued access to policymakers suggests that the FCTC is not being properly implemented. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Atmospheric Patterns During the Storms from January 2014 in Bulgaria and Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiotoroiu Brindusa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Synoptic conditions associated with strong winds and snowfalls on January 2014 in Bulgaria and Romania are investigated in this paper. The Romanian authorities established the orange and red codes while the Bulgarian ones the orange code. A first peak was recorded in northern and especially northeastern Bulgaria and south-eastern Romania on January 25-26 and a second one on January 29 2014. The purpose is to understand what regulates the duration and intensity of these events. For their study, NCEP-500/700/850 and SLP analyses, different model outputs and soundings as well as data from 12 weather stations have been used.

  17. PROFILES AND PREFERENCES OF ON-LINE MILLENIAL SHOPPERS IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Loubeau, Patricia R.; Robert Jantzen; Elitsa Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This research seeks to develop a better understanding of the factors affecting on-line purchasing behavior among Generation Y (Gen Y) consumers in Bulgaria. Also called millenials and born between the mid-1970s and late 1990s, this generation is especially active on-line and will be a dominant influence shaping e-commerce. An empirical study was conducted based on a written survey of a sample consisting of 367 high school and university students in Bulgaria. The most important reason why Bulg...

  18. Typology of consumer behavior in times of economic crisis: A segmentation study from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrandjiev Hristo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the second part of results from a survey-based market research of Bulgarian households. In the first part of the paper the author analyzes the changes of consumer behavior in times of economic crisis in Bulgaria. Here, the author presents market segmentation from the point of view of consumer behavior changes in times of economic crisis. Four segments (clusters were discovered, and profiled. The similarities/dissimilarities between clusters are presented through the technique of multidimensional scaling (MDS The research project is planned, organized and realized within the Scientific Research Program of University of National and World Economy, Sofia, Bulgaria.

  19. Current aspects of wind-energy utilization - status and prospects in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godev, N.; Georgieva, E.

    1982-01-01

    Problems arising in the use of wind energy on a significant scale are discussed, and the progress made in this area in Bulgaria is summarized. On the basis of calculations of the wind-energy distribution on Cape Kaliakra in Bulgaria, the wind-energy resources in this region are compared with the findings of Kiuchukova and Ivanov (1975). It is shown that whereas conditions exist in the country for using wind energy on a large scale, the meteorological network does not encompass all the suitable regions. A method of finding places suitable for exploitation is outlined. The method involves both numerical evaluations and observational tests.

  20. First report of Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis, 1909 (Hemiptera: Aphididae from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tasheva-Terzieva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiopterus nephrelepidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae is reported for the first time in Bulgaria on ornamental ferns in four greenhouses in Sofia and Varna. Dense colonies of apterous viviparous females and larvae were observed. The established host plants are Nephrolepis exaltata, Asplenium nidus and Pteris cretica. Infested ferns exhibit leaf deformation. The aphids were reared in laboratory conditions for four months. A morphometric study of apterae was carried out. Taking into account the presence of host plants of I. nephrelepidis in Bulgaria which are native to the local flora and the reports of the aphid from the Balkan area, it may spread in the country outdoors.

  1. Studying the impacts of event tourism on the host communities in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toneva Petya Ivanova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The research interest is directed towards assessing the impacts of event tourism in Bulgaria as a popular and dynamic element of the tourism supply and demand, which is has a potential for combinations, development and creation. The article outlines the main theoretical and methodological principles of assessing the impacts of event tourism. Based on the existing achievements in the specialized literature, the study offers a model for assessing these effects. The developed instrument is applied empirically and the collected data is analysed. The impacts of the contemporary event tourism on destination Bulgaria are assessed at the aggregate level.

  2. Control of public expenditure on drug products in Bulgaria – Policies and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Yonkov Vekov

    2015-12-01

    implementing agreements on controlled access of patients after June 2009. This led to an annual increase in the expenditures on drug products for home treatment (on average, 17% for the period 2009-2012. Conclusion: This trend in Bulgaria will continue in the future since expenditure control only through price control by means of a reference system and the positive list of medicines is ineffective. There is a need for implementation of combined drug policies in Bulgaria in the form of negotiations on rebates with manufacturers and agreements on controlled access of patients and reference pricing.

  3. Published data and new records to the fauna of Eupelmidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIROSLAV ANTOV

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents information about published data on eupelmid fauna of Bulgaria and new records of 16 species distributed in the country. Some of them are reared from Cynipidae (Hymenoptera galls on Quercus, Rosa, Hypecoum, as well as from Cecidomyiidae (Diptera developing in stems of Eryngium campestre L. Other species are reared from pods of Astragalus glycyphyllos L. and seeds of Dianthus giganteus dʼUrv. New host associations are established. As a result of the study 4 species and 1 genus are new to the fauna of Bulgaria.

  4. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DEMAND FOR LOCAL AND FOREIGN WINES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petyo BOSHNAKOV

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We use a semantic differential based instrument to assess the main factors in demand attitudes of Bulgarian customers. We aim to find out whether specific marketing techniques could alter the demand for such a traditional product as the wine in Bulgaria. Given the fact that the Bulgarian customer only recently received the possibility to know them, we find that foreign wines are evaluated mainly with a prejudice of past knowledge, not linked to the actual product. We discover a rigidity in such prejudice and adhering to "standard" definitions of "prestige" and quality of wines. Most likely demanded in Bulgaria will continue to be mainly Bulgarian wines.

  5. Le minoranze islamiche nella Bulgaria post-comunista: ingerenze statali e libertà confessionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Fantelli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Contributo segnalato dal Prof. Paolo Moneta, ordinario di Diritto ecclesiastico nella facoltà di Giurisprudenza dell’’Università di PisaSOMMARIO: 1. Profili istituzionali delle relazioni tra Stato e confessioni religiose nella Bulgaria post-comunista: la posizione dell’Islam. 2. Le ingerenze del Governo bulgaro nell’organizzazione interna delle rappresentanze islamiche secondo la Corte di Strasburgo. 3. Alcune osservazioni sull’ingresso della Bulgaria nell’U.E. e sulle problematiche dell’Islam bulgaro – balcanico.

  6. Characteristics of Logistics Outsourcing in Bulgaria: The Perspectives of the Logistics Service Providers and their Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakovska Miroslava

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The increased demand and supply of logistics services bring together the logistics service providers (LSPs and the companies that outsource logistics activities. LSPs stand in between those companies and their customers, thus playing an essential role for supply chain integration. If the two parties have different viewpoints of the processes in the supply chain, the fulfillment of the goal to satisfy the end customers may be hindered. The purpose of this article is two-fold: First, to investigate the characteristics of logistics outsourcing in Bulgaria from the perspectives of the logistics service providers and their customers, and more specifically, to compare their viewpoints concerning the motives for outsourcing, the methods and contents of communication and some relationship management aspects; Second, to assess the relations of the communication and relationship management aspects to customer satisfaction. This article is based on empirical data provided by 138 manufacturing and trading companies and 136 LSPs and collected through two structured questionnaires designed to address the researched issues. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the independent samples t-test. The research found that the service related reasons for logistics outsourcing are prevailing and that LSPs overestimate, compared to manufacturing and trading companies, motives related to service, organizational capabilities and relationships, while more manufacturing and trading companies concern as important the availability of logistics assets and the provision of value-added services. The research also found that both the LSPs and their customers consider that the extent of sharing of knowledge and information essential for material flow integration is very low and that the usage of team meetings and joint teams is quite rare. Also, customers do not view their relationships with the LSPs as so collaborative as viewed by the LSPs. Furthermore, the

  7. Phytophthora Root and Crown Rot on Apples in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Nakova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora is a genus of Oomycota responsible for some of the most serious diseases with great economic impact (Judelson and Blanco, 2005. While 54 species were found in the 20th century (Erwin and Ribeiro, 1996 another 51-54 new species have been identified(Brasier, 2008 since the year 2000. They are spread worldwide and have broad range of host plants – fruit trees, citrus, forest and park species. Phytophthora can cause serious damages in orchards and nurseries of apples, cherries, etc. In Bulgaria they have been found first on young apples and cherries (1998-1999 in Plovdiv region (Nakova, 2003. Surveys have been done for discovering disease symptoms in Plovdiv and Kjustendil regions. Isolates have been obtained from infected plant material (roots and stem bases applying baiting bioassay (green apples, variety Granny Smith and/or PARP 10 selective media. Phytophthora strains were identified based on standard morphology methods – types of colonies on PDA, CMA, V 8, type and size of sporangia, oogonia and antheridia, andoospores. Cardial temperatures for their growth were tested on CMA and PDA.For molecular studies, DNA was extracted from mycelium using the DNA extraction kit.DNA was amplified using universal primers ITS 6 and ITS 4. Amplification products concentrations were estimated by comparison with the standard DNA. Sequencing was done at the Scottish Crop Research Institute (SCRI, Dundee, Scotland. Phytophthora root and crown rot symptoms first appear in early spring. Infected trees show bud break delay, have small chlorotic leaves, and branches die all of a sudden. Later symptoms are found in August-September. Leaves of the infected trees show reddish discoloration and drop down. Both symptoms are connected with lesions (wet, necrotic in appearance at stem bases of the trees.Disease spread was 2-3% in most gardens, only in an apple orchard in Bjaga (Plovdiv region it was up to 8-10%. Morphologically, the isolates acquired from

  8. Sustainable Coastal Development and Open Planning? Transferring the Integrated Area Approach to Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieperink, C.; Boesten, R.; Hovens, J.; Tonkes, H.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable development asks for open planning processes. Such open planning processes have become common practice in the Netherlands and other Western countries. Since EU accession, new member states such as Bulgaria also have to face the challenge of organizing more open planning processes in thei

  9. The legal structure of households in Serbia and Bulgaria in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svirčević Miroslav M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This scholarly work treats only the legal structure of households in Serbia and Bulgaria in the 19th century. The author's intention is to describe and present similarities and differences between the most important household's structural elements (Household Council, Household Head, Household Woman and Household Members, their relationships and status in the Ottoman legal-political order.

  10. Fathers in Context: Comparative Analysis of Father Involvement in Bulgaria and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A. Conkova (Nina); B.E. Ory (Brett)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis report compares father involvement with their children in Bulgaria and the Netherlands by examining country differences in family formation patterns, policy context, and cultural prescriptions regarding family life. In studying the time fathers spend with their children, it is

  11. Interculturalizing Education in Bulgaria: The Contribution of the National Helpdesk for Intercultural Learning Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Richard; Davcheva, Leah

    2005-01-01

    Whilst there has been extensive discussion of the models and policies concerning intercultural education in Bulgaria, there has been to date surprisingly little work undertaken regarding the potential contribution of Bulgarian school textbooks across the curriculum towards the objectives of intercultural education. The National Helpdesk for…

  12. Pathogenicity of Phytophthora isolates originating from several woody hosts in Bulgaria and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubenova Aneta B.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to examine the virulence of eight Phytophthora isolates belonging to three species (Phytophthora cryptogea, Phytophthora plurivora and Phytophthora quercina obtained from diverse European ecosystems (in Bulgaria, Poland and Germany towards three forest tree hosts – English oak (Quercus robur L., Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L..

  13. Taxonomic status of the roses (Rosa) described by S.G. Dimitrov from Bulgaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, J.; Petrova, A; Tan, Kit

    2004-01-01

    The original herbarium vouchers for six species of Rosa (Rosaceae) described by S. G. Dimitrov from Bulgaria are taxonomically evaluated. Two species (R. balcanica, R. orphei) are considered hybrids, four other names (R. bulgarica, R. parilica, R. pontica and R. rhodopaea) are taxonomic synonyms...

  14. Terrestrial gastropods of Srebarna Nature Reserve, North-Eastern Bulgaria (Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivailo Dedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We give the results from the first investigation focused on the land snail fauna in Srebarna Nature Reserve in Bulgaria. A total of 23 localities were studied and 27 species of terrestrial gastropods were found, 23 of which were new observations for the Reserve.

  15. Terrestrial gastropods of Srebarna Nature Reserve, North-Eastern Bulgaria (Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedov, Ivailo; Antonova, Vera

    2015-01-01

    We give the results from the first investigation focused on the land snail fauna in Srebarna Nature Reserve in Bulgaria. A total of 23 localities were studied and 27 species of terrestrial gastropods were found, 23 of which were new observations for the Reserve.

  16. In search of a homogeneous nation: the assimilation of Bulgaria's Turkish minority, 1984-1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesselin Dimitrov

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the causes of the most extreme nationalist undertaking in Eastern Europe in the 1980s - the Bulgarian government's attempt to change the names of nearly one million Turks in the space of a few weeks in 1984-1985. The article argues that the assimilation campaign emerged as a result of a combination of threats and opportunities on a number of levels. Domestically, the failure of alternative strategies of dealing with the ethnic minorities created a temptation to resort to a radical solution, whilst the political and economic resources which the communist leadership commanded and which reached their high point in the mid-1980s gave it the means to undertake such a policy. Internationally, the Soviet Union, Bulgaria's main strategic ally, was powerful enough to protect it against possible Turkish and Western reprisals, but not strong enough to impose its own more tolerant nationalities policy on Bulgaria. Turkey, Bulgaria's historical enemy and the perceived patron of the Turkish minority, was seen as both posing a threat to Bulgaria after the invasion of Cyprus, and as suffering from weaknesses which would prevent it from undertaking serious counteractions. There thus existed in 1984-1985 a false 'window of opportunity' which encouraged the Bulgarian communist leadership to obliterate once and for all the problem of ethnic diversity with which they were increasingly unable to deal by other means.

  17. The Present Situation and the Future Development of Special Education in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholakova, Maya; Georgieva, Dobrinka

    This paper describes the present situation of special education in Bulgaria and discusses the results of a study of attitudes toward the mainstreaming of students with intellectual disabilities. The first part of the paper discusses the classification of children with intellectual disabilities into "educable" and "non-educable"…

  18. Analysing the Transformation of Higher Education Governance in Bulgaria and Lithuania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbins, Michael; Leisyte, Liudvika

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on sociological neo-institutional theory and models of higher education governance, we examine current developments in Bulgaria and Lithuania and explore to what extent those developments were shaped by the Bologna reform. We analyse to what extent the state has moved away from a model of st

  19. Chalybion Omissum (Kohl, 1889 (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae, Sceliphrini: New Records from the Balkan Peninsula (Southern Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olszewski Piotr

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents new information about the occurrence of Chalybion omissum (KOHL, 1889 in central part of Balkan Peninsula (southern Bulgaria. Seven specimens were caught at 4 sites: N of Kurdzhali (UTM: LG61, Usstrem village (MG55, NE of Kalimantsi village (GL09, NE of Madzharovo (MG01.

  20. Holy Places and Pilgrimage in the Post-Socialist Bulgaria (Karamihova, 2014 [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Antova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After the communist regime in Bulgaria, the interest of the people to religion was revived. Many of anthropological dimensions with religious nature are considered in Karamihova’s book (2014. Religious tourism and places of pilgrimages are described. The dynamics of this new social development is studied.

  1. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 19: The Balkan States (Bulgaria and Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilova, Savina; Skoric, Lea

    2016-09-01

    This is the 19th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan Region (Bulgaria and Croatia). The next regular feature column will investigate two other Balkan states - Serbia and Slovenia. JM.

  2. Editorial: First Report of Cercospora beticola as a Pathogen of German Statice (Goniolimon tataricum) in Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobev, S.G.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    German statice (Goniolimon tataricum) is a protected, herbaceous, perennial plant species that occurs sporadically throughout Bulgaria. Some varieties, however, are cultivated outdoors because of their dry flowers, which are widely utilized by florists. For the past 3 years, a severe leaf disease ha

  3. Good Practices in Roma Education in Bulgaria during the Years of Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyuchukov, Hristo

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present good educational practices from Bulgaria that relate to Roma education. In the so-called Years of Transition, educational conditions changed considerably. Non-governmental organizations have attempted to promote high-quality education for Roma children. The Bulgarian Ministry of Education has made various…

  4. Motivational factors for the adoption of ISO 9001 standards in Eastern Europe: the case of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Georgiev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study analyzes the motivational factors for ISO 9001 certification in Bulgaria from the internal/external motivations perspective, or the so-called dual model.Design/methodology/approach: This study is based on a mixed method research approach, which employed two interviews with experts in the field of quality management at the exploratory stage, and a survey involving 127 companies at the descriptive stage.Findings: This study claims that enhanced company image and competitiveness – an external motivation - is the leading motivational factor for ISO 9001 certification in Bulgaria. At the same time, our primary investigation reveals that Bulgarian firms are not predominantly externally driven, for internal motivations including process improvement and product quality improvement seem to be an important driver for ISO 9001 certification. Last but not least, this research asserts that enhanced company image and competitiveness has a stronger impact on the motivations for ISO 9001 certification than customer and supplier pressure, which is in line with previous research works on developing economy economies such as Bulgaria. Finally, our study indicates a moderate, yet positive correlation between motivations for and benefits of ISO 9001 certification.Social implications: This research work casts some light on the evolution of quality management in Bulgaria since the end of communism, which can serve as an important foundation for the better understanding of quality management in former communist economies in general and Eastern European states in particular.Originality/value: Derived from the acute gap between ISO studies in Western and former communist economies, this research work presents one of the first official, international studies in the field of ISO certification in Bulgaria, and more precisely, a paper describing the motives for ISO 9001 certification among Bulgarian businesses.

  5. The Byzantine Church of ``40 Holy Martyrs'' in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria: Pigments and Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, E.; Zorba, T.; Pavlidou, E.; Angelova, S.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    The "St. 40 Martyrs" church is the most famous medieval building in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria. It is located in Assenova mahala, just next to Tsarevets. It was built and its walls were painted during the reign of Bulgarian king Ivan Assen II after the victory against Epyrus despot Theodoros Comninos (1230 AD). It consists of two buildings - a six-column basilica and another, smaller building on its western wall, which was built later. During the presence of the Ottoman Turks, maybe until the first half of the 18th century, the church remained christian. When it was converted to a mosque, all the christian symbols in it were destroyed. The archeological researches on site were initiated in 1969. As it is clear, the 40 Martyrs church is a historical monument of culture with great significance. The church had murals, from the earlier period, but in the following years and especially during the Ottoman period, the church has suffered many and different destructions. Nevertheless, the very few pieces of murals that are rescued till nowadays provide important information for the technique and the pigments that were used on its wall paintings. In the present work, twelve series of samples from the wall paintings were studied in order to characterize the materials and the technique used for church iconography. The study was based on the micro-analytical techniques of the Fourier Transform Infrared micro-spectroscopy (μs-FTIR), the Optical Microscopy and the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled to an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDS). In the FTIR spectra of all pigments the characteristic peaks of calcite were detected, confirming the use of fresco technique for the creation of murals. The combination of FTIR spectroscopy and SEM-EDS analysis, reveal the existence of lapis-lazuli for the blue color, green earth for the green color, cinnabar for the red color, calcite for the white color and carbon black for the black color. Moreover, in other chromatic layers

  6. Porphyry-copper mineralisation in the central Srednogorie zone, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strashimirov, Strashimir; Petrunov, Rumen; Kanazirski, Milko

    2002-08-01

    The porphyry-copper systems in the central part of the Srednogorie zone (Bulgaria) are represented by three major deposits (Elatsite, Medet and Assarel) and several smaller deposits and occurrences, all of them within the Panagyurishte ore district. The hydrothermal systems are related to Late Cretaceous calc-alkaline igneous complexes. Ore mineralisation is developed predominantly in the apical parts of subvolcanic and intrusive bodies as well as within the volcanic and basement metamorphic rocks. Several of the porphyry systems are spatially associated with shallow-level intermediate and high-sulphidation volcanic-hosted epithermal deposits of economic importance, such as the major gold-copper mine at Chelopech located 10 km from the Elatsite porphyry-copper deposit. Mineralisation processes in the porphyry deposits start with intensive hydrothermal alteration of the wall rocks. K-silicate alteration is characteristic for pre-ore hydrothermal activity in all of them, and it is located mostly in their central parts. Propylitic alteration is prominent in the Medet and Assarel deposits. The Assarel deposit is located in the central part of a palaeovolcanic structure and shows a large spectrum of pre-ore alterations, including propylitic, sericitic, and advanced argillic assemblages. The initial stages of the hydrothermal systems are characterised by high temperatures (>550-500 °C) and highly saline (50-20 wt% NaCl equiv.) and vapour-rich fluids of likely magmatic origin. The composition of the fluids gradually changes from H2O-NaCl±FeCl2 to H2O-NaCl-KCl and H2O-NaCl-dominated as the fluids cool, react with wall rocks, and may become diluted with meteoric water. Fe-Ti-oxide mineral associations were formed early in all deposits, later followed, in the Elatsite deposit, by an assemblage of bornite, chalcopyrite, platinum group element (PGE) phases, Co-Ni thiospinels, Ag- and Bi-tellurides, and selenides. The main ore stage in all deposits is dominated by

  7. Demography and market impacts on dental practices’ development in Bulgaria during the period of transition 1990-2010

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lydia Katrova; Krassimir Tzokov

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to present the impact of demography and market dynamics on the organizational and technological development of dental practices in Bulgaria during the period of socio...

  8. [Pregnancy termination in Bulgaria – past, present and future perspectives. Drugs induced abortion – guidelines by WHO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, B; Andreeva, A

    2013-01-01

    There are still too many unsafe abortions performed worldwide. Together with the efforts to reduce the abortion by choice, we note a rise in the need for mid trimester pregnancy termination for medical reasons. The article looks at the past present and future perspective of the abortion as a procedure in Bulgaria. States the fact that medical abortion is officially not widely performed. We reckon that with the existing guidelines by WHO and with Mifepriston and Misoprostol recently registered in Bulgaria, it is time for the medical abortion to become part of the clinical practice in Bulgaria. We believe that early medical abortion as well as mid trimester induced abortion is and adequate if not better alternative to the existing in Bulgaria procedures.

  9. Trans-border (south-east Serbia/west Bulgaria correlations of the Jurassic sediments: Infra-Getic Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchoumatchenco Platon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Infra-Getic Unit is a palaeogeographic unit, predestined by palaeotectonics. From the point of view of geological heritage, it represents a geosites framework. For the purpose of the correlation, the Serbian sections of Lukanja, Bogorodica Monastery, Rosomač and Senokos, as well as the Bulgarian sections of Komshtitsa, Gintsi, and Stanyantsi were used. The Jurassic sediments of the Infra-Getic Unit crop out on the southern slops of the Stara Planina Mountain in east Serbia and west Bulgaria. The Lower Jurassic started with continental and continental-marine sediments (clays and sandstones (Lukanja clastics and Lukanja coal beds in Serbia and the Tuden Formation in Bulgaria and continue with Lukanja quartz sandstones (Serbia and the Kostina Formation (Bulgaria. These sediments are covered by Lukanja brachiopod beds and Lukanja limestones (Serbia and the Romanov Dol, Ravna and Dolni Loukovit Members of the Ozirovo Formation (Bulgaria predominantly consist of bioclastic limestones. The sedimentations follow with Lukanja belemnites-gryphaea beds (marls and clayey limestones, which in Bulgaria correspond to the Bukorovtsi Member (also marls and clayey limestones of the Ozirovo Formation. The Middle Jurassic sedimentation started with black shales with Bossitra alpine. These sediments are individualized in Serbia as Senokos aleurolites and clays and in Bulgaria they are known as the Etropole Formation. In Serbia the section continues with sandstones called Vodenički sandstones of Bajocian age, known in Bulgaria as the Dobrogled Member of the Polaten Formation. However, in Bulgaria, the age is Upper Bajocian-Lower Bathonian, and it cover the marls of the lower member (Gornobelotintsi Member of the Bov Formation and is covered by the upper member - alternation of marls and clayey limestones - the Verenitsa Member of the Bov Formation. The Vodenički sandstones-Dobrogled Member which ended their distribution in the section of Komshtitsa, to the

  10. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assesment for Bulgaria as a Basis for a new National Building Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solakov, D.; Simeonova, S.; Christoskov, L.; Trifonova, P.; Aleksandrova, I.

    2012-04-01

    The territory of Bulgaria represents a typical example of high seismic risk area in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula. Bulgaria contains important industrial areas that face considerable earthquake risk. Moreover, the seismicity of the neighboring countries, like Greece, Turkey, former Yugoslavia and Romania (especially Vrancea-Romania intermediate earthquakes involving the non-crustal lithosphere), influences the seismic hazard in Bulgaria. Seismic hazard maps proposed as part of a new building code for Bulgaria based on the recommendations in EUROCODE 8 are presented in the study. The probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) carries out integration over the total expected seismicity during a given exposure period to provide the estimate of a strong-motion parameter of interest with a specified confidence level. The basic approach used for the creation of ground motion maps combines via GIS, source-geometry, earthquake occurrence model, the strength of the earthquake sources, and the appropriate attenuation relations. In the study seismic hazard maps for Bulgaria are presented in terms of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) in agreement with EC8. As recommended in EC8, the maps are calculated for a 475 years return period (probability of exceedance of 10% in 50 years) for the design earthquake and for a 95 years return period (probability of exceedance of 10% in 10 years) for weaker earthquakes with higher frequency of occurrence. The PSHA was performed, using the Bulgarian version of computer code EQRISK. For the sensitivity analysis on the characterization of the seismicity in the seismic sources a PSHA for 500 randomly chosen models was run. The results suggested that uncertainties in seismic characteristics have relatively small effect on the final seismic hazard. A procedure called disaggregation has been applied to examine the spatial and magnitude dependence of PSHA results. The aim is to determine the magnitudes and distances that contribute to the

  11. Feasibility assessment of a solar-powered charging station for electric vehicles in the North Central region of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilieva Liliya Mihaylova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the topical issue related to the prospects of widespread deployment of electric vehicles and their associated infrastructure in Bulgaria. The main problems hindering the development of electric vehicle transport are summarized and the current status of charging infrastructure in the country is discussed. An approach is proposed for analysis and evaluation of the financial feasibility of investment in a solar-powered charging station for electric vehicles in North Central region of Bulgaria.

  12. The climate of Bulgaria during 19th and 20th centuries by instrumental and indirect data : Solar modulated cycles and their evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Komitov, Boris; Duchlev, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Two types of data sets for investigation of solar- modulated cycles in the climate of Bulgaria during the last ~ 200 years has been used in this study: 1. Instrumental data for the rainfalls and temperatures in 26 stations during the period AD 1899-1994; A smoothing dendrochronological data series of the tree rings width of a beech sample (Fagus) for the period of AD 1780-1982. The data proceedings has been provided separately for the "winter" (November-April) and "summer" (May-October) half- years. A well expressed quasi-20-22 and 54 yr cycles in the rains and temperature instrumental "summer" series as well as quasi 11yr cycle for the "winter" temeperature data has been established for the studied period 1899-1994. However there are also very serious variations of the 11 and 22 yr cycle magnitudes. The quasi 20-22 yr ("summer") cycle is weak expressed before AD 1930, while the 11 yr (winter) cycle is faded rapidly after ~AD 1975/76. The existence of 20-22 yr climatic cycle could be traced since the end of t...

  13. Probabilistic seismic hazard map for Bulgaria as a basis for a new building code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Simeonova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A seismic hazard map proposed as part of a new building code for Bulgaria is presented here on basis of the recommendations in EUROCODE 8. Seismic source zones within an area of about 200 km around Bulgaria were constructed considering seismicity, neotectonic and geological development. The most time consuming work was to establish a homogeneous earthquake catalogue out of different catalogues. The probabilistic seismic hazard assessment in terms of intensities is performed following Cornell (1968 with the program EQRISK (see McGuire, 1976, modified by us for use of intensities. To cope with the irregular isoseismals of the Vrancea intermediate depth earthquakes a special attenuation factor is introduced (Ardeleanu et al., 2005, using detailed macroseismic maps of three major earthquakes. The final seismic hazard is the combination of both contributions, of zones with crustal earthquakes and of the Vrancea intermediate depth earthquakes zone. Calculations are done for recurrence periods of 95, 475 and 10 000 years.

  14. New Results from Air Pollution Studies in Bulgaria (Moss Survey 2000-2001)

    CERN Document Server

    Stamenov, J N; Vachev, B; Gueleva, E; Yurukova, L; Ganeva, A; Mitrikov, M; Antonov, A; Srentz, A; Varbanov, Z; Batov, I V; Damov, K; Marinova, E; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Strelkova, L P

    2002-01-01

    New results of moss survey 2000 of systematic study of air pollution with heavy metals and other toxic elements in Bulgaria are reported. The moss samples collected at 103 sites in Bulgaria, along the borders with Yugoslavia, Macedonia, Greece and Turkey were analyzed by instrumental activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 pulsed fast reactor for a wide set of elements including heavy metals and rare earth elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, and U). The results obtained are consistent with the mean European values for most of elements. The principle component analysis is applied to distinguish heavy and light crust elements and vegetation ones from those of anthropogenic origin.

  15. Seismic Hazard and risk assessment for Romania -Bulgaria cross-border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Stela; Solakov, Dimcho; Alexandrova, Irena; Vaseva, Elena; Trifonova, Petya; Raykova, Plamena

    2016-04-01

    Among the many kinds of natural and man-made disasters, earthquakes dominate with regard to their social and economical impact on the urban environment. Global seismic hazard and vulnerability to earthquakes are steadily increasing as urbanization and development occupy more areas that are prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The assessment of the seismic hazard and risk is particularly important, because it provides valuable information for seismic safety and disaster mitigation, and it supports decision making for the benefit of society. Romania and Bulgaria, situated in the Balkan Region as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt, are characterized by high seismicity, and are exposed to a high seismic risk. Over the centuries, both countries have experienced strong earthquakes. The cross-border region encompassing the northern Bulgaria and southern Romania is a territory prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The area is significantly affected by earthquakes occurred in both countries, on the one hand the events generated by the Vrancea intermediate-depth seismic source in Romania, and on the other hand by the crustal seismicity originated in the seismic sources: Shabla (SHB), Dulovo, Gorna Orjahovitza (GO) in Bulgaria. The Vrancea seismogenic zone of Romania is a very peculiar seismic source, often described as unique in the world, and it represents a major concern for most of the northern part of Bulgaria as well. In the present study the seismic hazard for Romania-Bulgaria cross-border region on the basis of integrated basic geo-datasets is assessed. The hazard results are obtained by applying two alternative approaches - probabilistic and deterministic. The MSK64 intensity (MSK64 scale is practically equal to the new EMS98) is used as output parameter for the hazard maps. We prefer to use here the macroseismic intensity instead of PGA, because it is directly related to the degree of damages and, moreover, the epicentral intensity is the original

  16. Comparative Evaluation of the Environmental Culture of 8th Grade Students in Bulgaria and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kostova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The article reports the results from an investigation of the ecological and general scientific knowledge of students in the upper grade of elementary school (8th grade, 15 year old in Bulgaria and Turkey with the aid of a questionnaire, containing 40 terms from ecology, geography, biology, chemistry, nature conservation, health and nutrition. It has allowed us to investigate the effects of several factors such as the students` social status (Turkey, the science education in school, school entrance exams in biology (Bulgaria, the interrelation between environmental and scientific knowledge, evaluation and self-evaluation, analysis and self-analysis. On the basis of the results and the conclusions of their analysis the students` achievements in respect to the state educational standards have been evaluated. Furthermore, adequate measures are recommended to teachers in order to overcome the deficiencies and shortcomings in students` knowledge and understanding. The research identifies several problems for future investigation

  17. 'Mafia Baroque': post-socialist architecture and urban planning in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleran, Max

    2014-03-01

    This paper traces the reception of the architectural style known as 'Mafia Baroque' within the professions of architecture and urban planning in Bulgaria. The debate within these professions was strongly linked to the general decline of power among former intellectual elites and the specific decline of architects and planners, who were sidelined as arbiters of 'good taste' and disempowered as regulators of urban growth. The reaction to this style also highlights the rise in public concern over corruption and organized crime and dissatisfaction with post-socialist urbanization. This paper chronicles the extent of changes in construction and regulation in Bulgaria during the 1990s and argues that planners and architects were challenged not only by their professional marginalization but also by a deeper embarrassment over cultural change. It then relates this debate to broader post-socialist anxieties over insufficient regulation of urbanization and fear of failing to meet Western European goals for economic and political change.

  18. Recently revised diagnostic reference levels in nuclear medicine in Bulgaria and in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, H; Bly, R; Vassileva, J; Ingilizova, K; Stoyanova, T; Kostadinova, I; Slavchev, A

    2010-01-01

    An EU twinning project entitled 'Strengthening of administrative structures for radiation protection and safe use of ionising radiation in diagnostics and therapy' was established between Bulgaria and Finland, lasting from June 2008 to May 2009. One component of the project was to improve the optimisation of patient protection in nuclear medicine (NM) through revising diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). The revised DRLs are based on national surveys on the numbers of NM procedures and activities given to the patients in different procedures. The survey in Bulgaria was carried out in 2008 and that in Finland in 2007. National DRLs were established for the most frequent and dose-relevant examinations. The proposed DRLs in both countries are in good agreement with other national recommendations in Europe.

  19. Refurbishing apartments and houses in Latvia and Bulgaria: levers and brakes

    OpenAIRE

    Gosselain, Véronique; Ozoliņa , Līga; Garā, Evita; Vassileva, Dobrina; Stamova, Grozdanka; Bartiaux, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates levers and brakes for carrying out energy effective retrofits in private dwellings in Latvia and in Bulgaria. In both countries, 24 home owners occupying either their apartment or their single family house, were interviewed in 2009-10 about their energy-saving renovation works and their justifications, both in cities and in the countryside. The paper begins with a description of the building stock in the two countries. Both have a large proportion of apartments (46 % o...

  20. Improvisation and Variation: Post-Communist Bulgaria Challenges National Folklore Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka Agoston-Nikolova

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the tension in post-totalitarian Bulgaria betweenthe national folklore tradition of Communist times with government sanctioned state ensembles and festivals and age-old Balkan multiculturalism now represented in a westernized free-market consumer society, where spontaneity and improvisation bridge the urban and the rural, the local and the global. Folk pop, folk jazz or other mixed genres reverberate with humor , parody and, above all, freedom and love of improvisation.

  1. Detection of Antibodies Reactive with Ehrlichia canis in a Kennel in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Tsachev, Ilia

    2006-01-01

    A seroepidemiological study on Ehrlichia canis infection was performed in 16 dogs in a kennel in the region of Plovdiv in Bulgaria. For this purpose, anti-E. canis antibodies were detected by the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test. The results showed that 75% of the dogs examined were positive to E. canis. The antibody titres 1:100, 1:200 and 1:400 were detected.

  2. Union formation and fertility in Bulgaria and Russia: A life table description of recent trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiva Jasilioniene

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an extensive descriptive analysis and comparison of recent trends in union formation and fertility in Bulgaria and Russia. The analysis is based on data from the Generation and Gender Surveys (GGS carried out in 2004. We generate a large number of single- and multi-decrement life tables describing various life course events: leaving home and separation from the parental family, entry into union, first and second childbirth, divorce. Life tables are constructed for real cohorts as well as for synthetic cohorts. We study four real cohorts, born in 1940-44, 1950-54, 1960-64 and 1970-74. Synthetic-cohort life tables are constructed for three periods of time, referring to the pre-transitional demographic situation (1985-1989, the beginning of the transition (1990-1994 and recent demographic developments (1999-2003. We study also Roma and Turkish ethnic groups in Bulgaria. The life tables deliver detailed information that is otherwise unavailable. Our tentative findings indicate that societal transformation had a stronger impact on family-related behavior in the Bulgarian population than in the population of Russia. There is evidence that in some aspects Bulgaria is lagging behind other former socialist and Western European countries where the second demographic transition is more advanced. Evidence also suggests that Russia is lagging behind Bulgaria. However, certain specific features distinctive to Russia, such as the low level of childlessness, a drastic drop in second and subsequent births, and very high divorce rates even compared to Western European countries (it is a long-standing, not just recent trend, lead us to think that Russia may have a model of change particular to the country.

  3. 14 October 2014 - R. Plevneliev President of the Republic of Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2014-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Rosen Plevneliev President Republic of Bulgaria welcoming by CERN Director-General at CMS (Point 5); visiting the CMS cavern with CMS Spokesperson T. Camporesi; visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Technology Department Head J.M. Jiménez; signing the Guest-Book; assisting to a meeting with Bulgarians at CERN and family photograph with Bulgarians at CERN.

  4. South-East Region in Bulgaria: Economic Performance and Key Sectors Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Golemanova, Antoaneta

    2008-01-01

    The present paper attempts to provide insight into the economic performance of the South-east region (SER) of Bulgaria by presenting quantitative relationships between sectors in the regional economy. Methodologically it is based on the construction of the regional Input–Output model. It was carried out trough applying the non-servey GRIT technique, based on Flegg & Webber location quotient (2000). The dirived Rasmussen & Hirschman backward linkages and Mattas & Shrestha input-output elastici...

  5. Karyological and morphological variations within the genus Dysphania (Chenopodiaceae) in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Grozeva, Neli H.; Cvetanova, Yanka G.

    2013-01-01

    The karyological and morphological variability of species from the genus Dysphania were studied. The results demonstrated that genus Dysphania is represented in Bulgaria by five species: Dysphania ambrosioides, D. multifida, D. botrys, D. schraderiana and D. pumilio. The first two species are tetraploids with chromosome number 2n = 32 for D. ambrosioides and 2n = 36 for D. multifida. The remaining three species are diploids with 2n = 18. The results from statistical analysis demonstrated that...

  6. Filamentous cyanoprokaryotes (Cyanoprokaryota/Cyanobacteria in standing waters of Bulgaria: diversity and ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PLAMEN STOYANOV

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanoprokaryotes are widespread organisms, which dominate in different water basins. In the present study, we have investigated the diversity of this group and related physicochemical parameters in 35 standing water basins in Bulgaria. We found 29 cyanoprokaryotic species, which belong to 13 genera from the orders Synechococcales, Spirulinales and Oscillatoriales. The frequency quotient of each species was calculated. Information about the distribution of the identified species and typology of the water basins is also provided.

  7. Investigation about the presence of organochlorine pollutants in mussels from the Black Sea, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Stanislava

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (HCB, DDT and its metabolites and HCBD in mussels from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis are aquatic organisms which are immobile so that the concentration of pollutants should primarily be considered as an indication of local levels of organochlorine compounds. Samples were collected from three areas of Black Sea coast of Bulgaria in summer 2015.

  8. JPRS Report, Supplement, East Europe: Bulgaria: New Political Parties and Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    calls for the was subjected to repressive measures and sentenced to restoration of the Bulgarian Agricultural Cooperative death as the leader of the...of The party was founded in 1895. Its first leader was Petko nationalistic chauvinism; freedom and respect for the Karavelov and after his death the...teachers. The Era-3 Movement is unborn , to future Bulgaria! The majority of nonparty headed by a General Staff chaired by Slavomir Tsankov. people are not

  9. Contribution to the knowledge for distribution of Criodrilus lacuum (Annelida: Oligochaeta: Criodrilidae from Bulgaria

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    Hristo Valchovski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available All known records of Criodrilidae earthworms in the country were presented. The current knowledge for distribution of family Criodrilidae in Bulgaria was summarized. In this paper we report new locality of Criodrilus lacuum Hoffmeister, 1845. Surprisingly this species was found in one of the parks in Sofia Town. New data confirm its presence in Sofia Plane. Also information about ecology, habitat type locality and short description of Criodrilus lacuum was provided.

  10. Contribution to the knowledge for distribution of Criodrilus lacuum (Annelida: Oligochaeta: Criodrilidae) from Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Hristo Valchovski

    2013-01-01

    All known records of Criodrilidae earthworms in the country were presented. The current knowledge for distribution of family Criodrilidae in Bulgaria was summarized. In this paper we report new locality of Criodrilus lacuum Hoffmeister, 1845. Surprisingly this species was found in one of the parks in Sofia Town. New data confirm its presence in Sofia Plane. Also information about ecology, habitat type locality and short description of Criodrilus lacuum was provided.

  11. Investigating the opportunities of using mobile learning by young children in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kraleva, Radoslava; Stoimenovski, Aleksandar; Kostadinova, Dafina; Kralev, Velin

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of literature related to the use of mobile devices in teaching young children. For this purpose, the most popular mobile operating systems in Bulgaria are considered and the functionality of the existing mobile applications with Bulgarian interface is discussed. The results of a survey of parents' views regarding the mobile devices as a learning tool are presented and the ensuing conclusions are provided.

  12. Craniological study and subspecific status of three species of Dormice from Bulgaria

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    Daniel Peshev

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The craniology of three species of dormice was studied and their subspecific status determined. No intersexual differences were found. For the territory of Bulgaria one subspecies of the fat dormouse - Myoxus glis minutus and two subspecies of the forest dormouse - Dryomys nitedula wingei and D. n. robustus and two subspecies of the hazel dormouse - Muscardinus a. avellanarius and M. a. zeus are described. Riassunto Studio craniologico e status sottospecifico di tre specie di Mioxidi della Bulgaria - Tre specie di Mioxidi sono state studiate craniologicamente ed è stato determinato il loro status sottospecifico. Non sono state osservate differenze tra i sessi. Per il territorio della Bulgaria vengono descritte: una sottospecie di Ghiro (M. glis minutus, due sottospecie di Driomio (D. nitedula wingei e D. n. robustus e due sottospecie di Moscardino (M. a. avellanarius e M. a. zeus.

  13. Isolation and characterization of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus from plants in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaylova, Michaela; Minkova, Svetlana; Kimura, Katsunori; Sasaki, Takashi; Isawa, Kakuhei

    2007-04-01

    One of the traditional ways of preparation of yogurt starter in Bulgaria is placing a branch of a particular plant species into boiled sheep's milk maintained at about 45 degrees C, which is further incubated until a dense coagulum is obtained. To investigate the possible origin of the yogurt starter bacteria, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) and Streptococcus thermophilus (S. thermophilus), the traditional way of yogurt-starter preparation was followed. Hundreds of plant samples were collected from four regions in Bulgaria and incubated in sterile skim milk. The two target bacteria at low frequencies from the plant samples collected were successfully isolated. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of these bacterial isolates revealed that they were identified as L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus. Twenty isolates of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, respectively, were selected from the isolated strains and further characterized with regard to their performance in yogurt production. Organoleptic and physical properties of yogurt prepared using the isolated strains from plants were not significantly different from those prepared using commercial yogurt-starter strains. It was therefore suggested that L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus strains widely used for commercial yogurt production could have originated from plants in Bulgaria. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation and characterization of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus strains from plants.

  14. Comparative estimate of resistance to drought fro selected karstic aquifers in Bulgaria

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    Orehova Tatiana

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective management of water resources requires adequate knowledge of groundwater system including the influence of climate variability and climate change. The drought of 1982-1994 in Bulgaria has led to important decrease of springflow and lowering of water levels. Therefore, groundwater demonstrated its vulnerability to drought. The purpose of this paper is to determine relative resistance of selected aquifers in Bulgaria to a prolonged decrease of recharge to groundwater. The drought resistance indicator has been defined for some karstic aquifers based on the method proposed in report of BRGM. The data from National Hydrogeological Network located in the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology were processed. For the aim of this study, time-series of discharge for karstic springs were used. Stations with significant impact of human activity on groundwater were eliminated. The results show that most of studied aquifers in Bulgaria have moderate and weak resistance to the drought. They are vulnerable to droughts and need good management for effective use of groundwater resources.

  15. TRADITIONAL WOMEN’S APPARELS OF BULGARIA N IMMIGRANTS LIVING IN ESKİŞEHİR

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    Başak BOĞDAY SAYĞILI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of culture, clothing is a phenomenon which develops with humanity, which is specific to communities, being shap ed according to the ir taste, and reflecting the community’s living conditions and li fe styles . T he Turks who e migrated changed their clothing to adapt to the geo graphical and physical features as well as the living conditions at the places they migrated to, and through being influenced by the people in their region. Bulgaria is one of the countries to which great e migrations from the Ottoman empire took place. Having lived together for many years, the Turks and the Bulgarians were influenced by each other in clothing culture just as in every other field. These migrations , which took place intensively from time to time , are still co ntinuing. This research aims to reveal the traditional women’s apparels of immigrants from Bulgaria living in Eskişehir and the characteristics of their apparel . Historical and review methods were used in the research. From the sources reached using the survey form prepared as data collection tool, apparels reflecting general characteristics of the traditional women’s apparels of the immigrants from Bulgaria livi ng in Eskişehir were examined.

  16. Analysis of the Logistics Systems in Bulgaria under the Requirements of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner Cebeci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The new EU member countries will participate actively in the growing freight development (Beckmann and Baum, 2002. The new EU member Bulgaria forms the ultimate frontier of the EU and because of its geographical location an important transit country for the transport between Europe and Asia. Because of numerous deficiencies in the Bulgarian transport infrastructure, the Bulgarian sections of the Trans-European road network cannot be used efficiently and thus Bulgaria loses large shares of the transit transport. To meet the challenges of the globalization and to benefit from the growing Euro-Asian logistics services in the future, the Bulgarian government has set the main objectives in the national transport policy in a master plan, which should be implemented by the year 2020. The aim of this study is to analyze the transport situation and the national strategic reference framework in the transport sector of the Eastern European EU member Bulgaria and based on the EU requirements for efficiency and sustainability of the European transport systems, to derive recommendations for the future development of the logistics systems in the accession country.

  17. String Theory on AdS Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.

    2000-01-01

    In these notes we discuss various aspects of string theory in AdS spaces. We briefly review the formulation in terms of Green-Schwarz, NSR, and Berkovits variables, as well as the construction of exact conformal field theories with AdS backgrounds. Based on lectures given at the Kyoto YITP Workshop

  18. A detailed study of the Pernik (Bulgaria) seismic sequence of 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykova, Plamena; Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Dimitrova, Liliya

    2014-05-01

    A detailed study of the Pernik (Bulgaria) seismic sequence of 2012 D.Solakov, S.Simeonova ,I. Georgiev, P.Raykova, L.Dimitrova and V.Protopopova National Institute of Geophysics, Geodesy and Geography-BAS, Sofia, Bulgaria The spatial and temporal clustering of aftershocks is the dominant non-random element of seismicity, so that when aftershocks are removed, the remaining activity can be modelled (as first approximation) as a Poisson process. The properties of aftershock sequences (distinct cluster, for example; even aftershocks can have aftershocks) allow time-dependent prediction of aftershock probabilities. Consideration of recent earthquake sequences suggests that aftershocks to large earthquakes although they are still, by definition, smaller events, can be very damaging and should be addressed in emergence planning scenarios. Because of the factors such as location and radiation pattern and the cumulative nature of building damage, aftershocks can cause more damage than the main shock. An earthquake of moment magnitude 5.6 hit Sofia seismic zone, on May 22nd, 2012. The earthquake occurred in the vicinity of Pernik city, at about 25 km south west of the city of Sofia (the capital of Bulgaria). The event was followed by intensive activity. The active area is situated in the central part of western Bulgaria. That is the most populated (more than 1.2 mil. inhabitants), industrial and cultural region of Bulgaria. Seismicity in the zone is related to the marginal neotectonic faults of Sofia graben. The boundaries of the graben are represented by SE-NW fault system with expressive neotectonic activity. This zone is characterized by shallow earthquakes. The strongest known event in the region is the 1858 quake with intensity I0=9-10 MSK. The 1858 earthquake caused heavy destruction in the city of Sofia and the appearance of thermal spring. It is worth mentioning that the seismic sequence of May 2912 occurred in an area characterized by a long quiescence (of 95 years

  19. Online Ad Assignment with an Ad Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák, Wolfgang; Henzinger, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Ad exchanges are becoming an increasingly popular way to sell advertisement slots on the internet. An ad exchange is basically a spot market for ad impressions. A publisher who has already signed contracts reserving advertisement impressions on his pages can choose between assigning a new ad impression for a new page view to a contracted advertiser or to sell it at an ad exchange. This leads to an online revenue maximization problem for the publisher. Given a new impression to sell decide whe...

  20. Genetic variation of the East Balkan Swine (Sus scrofa) in Bulgaria, revealed by mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, D; Doichev, V D; Raichev, E G; Palova, N A; Nakev, J L; Yordanov, Y M; Kaneko, Y; Masuda, R

    2015-04-01

    East Balkan Swine (EBS) Sus scrofa is the only aboriginal domesticated pig breed in Bulgaria and is distributed on the western coast of the Black Sea in Bulgaria. To reveal the breed's genetic characteristics, we analysed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y chromosomal DNA sequences of EBS in Bulgaria. Nucleotide diversity (πn ) of the mtDNA control region, including two newly found haplotypes, in 54 EBS was higher (0.014 ± 0.007) compared with that of European (0.005 ± 0.003) and Asian (0.006 ± 0.003) domestic pigs and wild boar. The median-joining network based on the mtDNA control region showed that the EBS and wild boar in Bulgaria comprised mainly two major mtDNA clades, European clade E1 (61.3%) and Asian clade A (38.7%). The coexistence of two mtDNA clades in EBS in Bulgaria may be the relict of historical pig translocation. Among the Bulgarian EBS colonies, the geographical differences in distribution of two mtDNA clades (E1 and A) could be attributed to the source pig populations and/or historical crossbreeding with imported pigs. In addition, analysis of the Y chromosomal DNA sequences for the EBS revealed that all of the EBS had haplotype HY1, which is dominant in European domestic pigs.

  1. Segmented Strings in $AdS_3$

    CERN Document Server

    Callebaut, Nele; Samberg, Andreas; Toldo, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    We study segmented strings in flat space and in $AdS_3$. In flat space, these well known classical motions describe strings which at any instant of time are piecewise linear. In $AdS_3$, the worldsheet is composed of faces each of which is a region bounded by null geodesics in an $AdS_2$ subspace of $AdS_3$. The time evolution can be described by specifying the null geodesic motion of kinks in the string at which two segments are joined. The outcome of collisions of kinks on the worldsheet can be worked out essentially using considerations of causality. We study several examples of closed segmented strings in $AdS_3$ and find an unexpected quasi-periodic behavior. We also work out a WKB analysis of quantum states of yo-yo strings in $AdS_3$ and find a logarithmic term reminiscent of the logarithmic twist of string states on the leading Regge trajectory.

  2. Polarised black holes in AdS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-06-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global AdS 4 with conformal boundary {S}2× {{{R}}}t. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic AdS behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an AdS soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the AdS geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both AdS soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawking-Page phase transition. The AdS soliton dominates the low temperature phase and the black hole the high temperature phase, with a critical temperature that decreases as the external electric field increases. Finally, we consider the simple case of a free charged scalar field on {S}2× {{{R}}}t with conformal coupling. For a field in the SU(N ) adjoint representation we compare the phase diagram with the above gravitational system.

  3. The importance of quality, access and price to health care consumers in Bulgaria: a self-explicated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim; van Merode, Godefridus

    2003-01-01

    One approach to the problem of low patient satisfaction in Bulgaria is to identify attributes of health care services that the consumers value most and to focus on their improvement. Based on data from a household survey, this paper examines the importance that health care consumers attach to quality, access and price. The survey was conducted in 2000 among the population of the region of Varna (the third largest city in Bulgaria). The elicitation of attribute importance was based on a self-explicated method. To analyse the data, an ordered logit regression was performed. The analysis shows that clinical quality is the most valued characteristic by Bulgarian health care consumers compared with social quality, access and price. Given the poor quality of health care provision in Bulgaria, the allocation of revenues to its improvement appears to be essential in order to raise patient satisfaction and to enhance social efficiency.

  4. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL REGISTRY OF NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS IN BULGARIA--A PILOT SURVEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, R; Miteva-Katrandjieva, Ts; Iskrov, G; Damyanov, D; Korukov, B; Kermedchiev, M; Terziev, I; Madjov, R; Ivanov, K; Kolev, N; Chenopolski, P; Tsaneva, M; Dimitrova, V; Todorov, G; Hristova, S; Tosheva, E; Grozdev, K; Vladov, N; Mihova, A; Stoyanova, R; Cholakov, O; Haralanov, S; Draganov, K; Marinov, V; Radionov, M; Dimitrov, O; Kurtev, P; Angelova, E; Hadjiev, B; Murdjev, K; Dermendjieva, T; Deliisky, T; Valcheva-Petrova, G; Popovska, S; Julianov, A; Georgiev, I

    2014-01-01

    The National registry of patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET) in Bulgaria was established in 2013 as a joint initiative of the Bulgarian Surgical Society and the Institute for Rare Diseases. The register aims to explore the epidemiology of NET in Bulgaria, as well as the different diagnostic and treatment approaches for the disease throughout the country. This the first of its kind retrospective study of NET in the country is covering the period January 2012 - January 2013. A total of 127 patients with NET were identified. At the time of the survey the average age of patients with NET was 58.61 ± 15.59 years. The data show almost equal distribution between the genders with a slight predominance of women. The largest relative part of NET is those of NET located in the gastrointestinal tract (54.10 ± 4.51%), followed by those located in the pancreas (12.30 ± 2.97%) and in the lungs (10.66 ± 2.79%). In 72.44 ± 3.96% of the patients a immunohistochemical diagnosis was performed. The study confirmed the leading role of the surgery method of the NET management. In 65.83 ± 4.33% of the patients a radical removal of the tumor was conducted, while the relative part of the undertaken partial resection was 7.50 ± 2.40%. A statistically significant association between the type of surgical treatment and during the follow-up of patients was found. An update of the information in the register will allow a more precise determining of the distribution and management of NET in Bulgaria.

  5. Morphological and molecular characterization of Colletotrichum coccodes isolated from pepper cultivated in Bulgaria and Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanova Zornica B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum coccodes has been recognized as one of the causal agents of pepper fruit anthracnose in Bulgaria. Recently, this species has been recorded in pepper fruits in Macedonia. In Bulgaria, the fungus has also been isolated from roots of premature senescent pepper plants but in Macedonia it has not been isolated yet. The purpose of the investigation was to make comparative morphological, cultural and molecular characterization of C. coccodes isolates obtained from pepper fruits and roots in Bulgaria and Macedonia. Additionally, a technique was applied to differentiate among the C. coccodes isolates obtained from roots and other microsclerotia-producing fungi. On the host tissue, C. coccodes developed acervular conidiomata with cup-shaped fruiting bodies accompanied with dark-pigmented, unbranched, thick-walled sterile hyphae called setae. A slimy mass of hyaline, straight, unicellular, fusiform conidia appeared on nutrient media. In a short time, numerous small dark globose setose microsclerotia emerged in the colony starting from its centre and distributing proportionally throughout agar plates. Two PCR primer sets were used to sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS2 regions. Single products of ~450 bp and ~350 bp were amplified by the genus-specific (Cc1F1/Cc2R1 and the species-specific primers (Cc1NF1/Cc2NR1, respectively. Morphological, cultural and molecular characterization of the isolates from roots and fruits showed that root rot and fruit anthracnose of pepper were caused by one and the same causal agent determined as C. coccodes. The isolates from roots showed rapid mycelial growth, gave rise to numerous minute microsclerotia and produced conidia only on SSPA. SSPA supported significantly more mycelium growth and sporulation than all other media tested and could be recommended for production of large quantity of conidia. No pattern of genetic variation associated with the organ or geographic origin

  6. Observable Effects of Atmospheric Pollution on Outpatient and Inpatient Morbidity in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мagdalena PLATIKANOVA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of Europe’s most well-developed industrial regions is found in the Republic of Bulgaria. The industrialization of the region has a big impact on air pollution. Thermal power plant “Maritza East” (the largest of its kind in southeastern Europe, the army training range, machine manufacturers, household heating and high volume of automobile traffic are all major sources of pollution in the region.Methods: A five year study (2009-2013 followed yearly concentrations of principal atmospheric pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, dust, nitrogen dioxide, lead aerosols and hydrogen sulfide, and the way in which those levels had an effect on morbidity (outpatient and inpatient medical care in the area. Statistical processing of data has been completed to represent and analyze the collected data in nonparametric and alternative format.Results: Atmospheric pollution affects human health directly through pathological changes in the human organism. The registered outpatient care provided for the period 2009-2013 is highest for diseases of the cardiovascular system (11.85%, the respiratory system (17.34% and the genitourinary system (9.76%. The registered rate of hospitalization for the same period is for diseases of the digestive system (11.90%, the cardiovascular system (11.85%, respiratory system (10.86% and the genitourinary system (8.88%.Conclusion: The observed period shows a decrease in average yearly concentrations of the principal atmospheric pollutants in the industrial region (Bulgaria and reflects a decrease in morbidity based on outpatient care and an increase in morbidity by inpatient care (hospitalization. Our findings should be corroborated in future longitudinal studies. Keywords: Atmospheric pollution, Morbidity, Industrial region, Bulgaria

  7. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL DETERMINANTS OF COMMERCIAL BANKS PROFITABILITY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM BULGARIA AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIRTESCU BOGDAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study focuses on commercial banks which are operating in Bulgaria and Romania, two countries whose banking sectors have registered major structural changes in the transition to a market economy and which are showing some similarities. Similar to other EU countries, the financial system from Bulgaria and Romania is dominated by the banking sector, which holds the largest share of total assets. Thus, we can say that health, strength and performance of the banking sector are of major importance for the sustainable economic development of states, but also for efficient transmission of monetary policy decisions on the real economy. The paper aims to identify the key factors that affect bank profitability and to evaluate empirically their contribution to a sample of 29 commercial banks in Bulgaria and Romania, for the period 2003-2012. Our research is based on data from the Bureau Van Dijk database, the World Bank and the European Central Bank and uses panel data estimation techniques. The dependent variable used in our study is the bank profitability, which is measured by two representative indicators the Return on Average Assets (ROAA and Return on Average Equity (ROAE. Regarding the independent variables, our analysis includes capital adequacy, the loan loss reserve rate, cost to income ratio, the ratio of liquid assets to total assets, the interest expenses to deposits ratio, the non-interest income over total gross revenues, bank size, the GDP per capita growth, inflation rate, domestic bank credit to private sector and banking industry concentration. The results of our empirical study shows that among the variables considered, the loan loss reserve rate, the ratio of cost to income, GDP per capita growth and domestic bank credit to the private sector, have a significant impact on bank profitability, results in line with our expectations, but also with the results of other empirical studies.

  8. Opportunities of Establishment of Destination Management and Marketing Organizations in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venelin Terziev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines tourism sector development in the Republic of Bulgaria in the context of the country’s strategic priorities till 2020 of knowledge-based economy, sustainable growth and smart specialization, the opportunities for its integration with agri-food sector and potential contribution to balanced rural development. The principles and roles of destination management and marketing organizations are discussed and the opportunities for their application in the national conditions are explored. A framework for of establishment, management and functioning of such organizations is proposed based on integrated and participatory approaches, planning, coordination and communication activities, permanent monitoring and controlling.

  9. Social Costs of the Inefficient Management of the EU Funds for Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The study identifies and defines the social costs of the inefficient management of EU funds for Bulgaria. It is analyzed the last due programme period (2007-2015) and its prolongation. As methodology of the research the V4 BM model of Al-Debei and Avison (2010) which has not been used for analysis of EU funds management for cohesion policy in the public sector, is applied. In this way its potential for application in this field is tested. The concept of the study could be successfully used fo...

  10. RATIONAL PHARMACOTHERAPY BASED ON PHARMACOECONOMIC DATA AUDIT: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Vekov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical foundations of the application of pharmacoeconomic evaluations of pharmacotherapies in order to improve their economic efficiency and support the process of taking decisions on their payment from public funds are examined. An algorithm is presented for the pharmacoeconomic audit, which is applicable for assessing the objectivity and reliability of the proposed pharmacoeconomic data from pharmaceutical manufacturers in the application process for inclusion in the positive list of medicines in Bulgaria and the reimbursement of economically rational pharmacotherapies from the public health fund.

  11. Anti-Semitism and Islamofobia in Bulgaria. Actual legal and sociological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ilieva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the lecture held on 23rd September 2011 at the Law faculty of the University of Bologna.SOMMARIO: 1. Introduction – 2. Statistical data – 3. The Muslim community – 4. The Jewish community – 5. General overview of the relevant law provisions in Bulgaria – 6. Anti-Semitism and Islamophobia and the political rights according to the domestic legislation – 7. The Law on Protection against Discrimination, the concept of “positive” discrimination and some new case-laws - 8. Religious Rights and Freedoms – 9. Criminal Law – 10. Some conclusions.

  12. Agaricus chionodermus Pilát, a species new to Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nikolova Lacheva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first record of Agaricus chionoderma Pilát in Bulgaria. Basidiomata of the species were found on June 2004, September 2010, and September 2011 in the Thracian Lowland floristic region. The article brings closer taxonomic profile, ecological requirements and distribution pattern of the species. Differences from similar species are discussed. It also describes macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the discovered specimens and presents the specification of habitat the fungus concerned. The species are described and illustrated by photographs of macroscopic and microscopic features on the basis of Bulgarian specimens.

  13. Accounting interpretation of concession rights in the Republic of Bulgaria – topical issues  

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiana Pozharevska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper covers the topical problems for the Republic of Bulgaria on the recognition, presentation and disclosure of concession rights and transactions for accounting purposes. The issues identified by the authors have a regulatory, theoretical character and concern their practical application. The aspects studied within this paper are: recognition of concession rights as intangible assets and their positioning in the total amount of assets of concessionaire enterprises; requirement and readiness for disclosure of information relating to concession agreements. The authors seek to suggest solutions in the specified directions.

  14. Xiphinema pirinense n. sp. (Nematoda: Dorylaimida: Longidoridae), a new species from Bulgaria with a digitate tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincheva, Yordanka; Lazarova, Stela; Peneva, Vlada

    2008-07-01

    A description of Xipinema pirinense n. sp. is provided. This is a parthenogenetic nematode found associated with Fragaria sp. and Alchemilla sp. (Rosaceae) close to pine trees in the Pirin Mountains, Bulgaria. The species is characterised by its medium body length (3.2-3.9 mm), rounded head region slightly demarcated by a shallow depression, long odontostyle (116-134.5 microm), tripartite uterus with a Z-differentiation consisting of 4-7 irregular moderately refractive bodies with a clear central part, and a digitate tail with a ventral peg. The new species is most similar to X. index Thorne & Allen, 1950 and X. diversicaudatum (Micoletzky, 1927) Thorne, 1939.

  15. Education of logopedists or speech-language pathologists in Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Poland and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Dobrinka

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of student training programs in logopedics in Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Poland and the Russian Federation. The data were collected using a special questionnaire developed by Söderpalm in 2006 and supplemented by the author. Bachelor's, master's and PhD programs in the field of pure logopedics no longer exist in some countries. In other locations, logopedics is included as a part of special education student training. In all cases, student education in logopedics is centralized in the universities. Educational programs are accredited by national agencies for accreditation or evaluation or by the respective Ministries of Education.

  16. Accounting interpretation of concession rights in the Republic of Bulgaria – topical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiana Pozharevska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper covers the topical problems for the Republic of Bulgaria on the recognition, presentation and disclosure of concession rights and transactions for accounting purposes. The issuesidentified by the authors have a regulatory, theoretical character and concern their practical application. The aspects studied within this paper are: recognition of concession rights as intangible assets and their positioning in the total amount of assets of concessionaire enterprises; requirement and readiness for disclosure of information relating to concession agreements. The authors seek to suggest solutions in the specified directions.

  17. RATIONAL PHARMACOTHERAPY BASED ON PHARMACOECONOMIC DATA AUDIT: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Vekov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical foundations of the application of pharmacoeconomic evaluations of pharmacotherapies in order to improve their economic efficiency and support the process of taking decisions on their payment from public funds are examined. An algorithm is presented for the pharmacoeconomic audit, which is applicable for assessing the objectivity and reliability of the proposed pharmacoeconomic data from pharmaceutical manufacturers in the application process for inclusion in the positive list of medicines in Bulgaria and the reimbursement of economically rational pharmacotherapies from the public health fund.

  18. Journalists' Perceptions of Nomenklatura Networks and Media Ownership in Post-communist Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lada Trifonova Price

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role of the former communist party elite (the nomenklatura in the Bulgarian post-communist media landscape in relation to media ownership and the origin of media outlets’ capital. The spotlight is on Bulgarian journalists’ perceptions explored in semi-structured interviews with media professionals from the capital city, Sofia. The findings indicate that Bulgarian journalists are strongly interested in, and concerned with, the influence of members of the former nomenklatura and their informal networks on the Bulgarian media landscape and particularly on the way Bulgarian media in Bulgaria have been owned and financed since 1989.

  19. After Euro 620 m arbitration ruling. What next for Bulgaria's Belene nuclear project?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraev, Kamen [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-08-15

    Iran is considering Bulgaria's offer to sell it the Russian-made reactor equipment produced for the abandoned Belene nuclear project. The Belene project was initially planned and started in the 1980s, but was stopped in the early 1990s. In 2008 the project was formally given new life, but suspended again in 2010 and abandoned in 2012. The International Court of Arbitration (ICA) ordered the Bulgarian operator Natsionalna Elektricheska Kompania EAD to pay Euro 620 m in compensation to Russia's Atomstroyexport.

  20. TOURISM INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN THE EMERGING ECONOMIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE (HUNGARY, BULGARIA, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Petronela HALLER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Emerging Economies from Central and Eastern Europe take steps to ensure growth through tourism. Although they do not have the cultural, historical and artistic potential of the most famous tourist destinations, these economies promote forms of tourism for which they have suitable conditions. For example, Hungary is famous for health tourism, Bulgaria has made progress in terms of coastal tourism and Romania tries to make known the rural area although it has all conditions for practicing a wide diversified range of tourism forms. In this paper we present statistics showing how the tourism industry looks for three Central and Eastern European countries and we do a brief comparative analysis.

  1. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 2196, Bulgaria: Government Efforts to Expand Relations with Emigres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    7 September 1982 will be long remembered by our compatriots both as a holiday and a working day. What made it a holiday was a ceremonious meeting...song with lyrics by Ivan Vazov "Where Is Bulgaria?" ("Do they ask me where the dawn is ..."), which sounded like an anthem of unity between the...of the 3-day meeting. Tanya Lukash from Austria recited her poems on Bulgaria. Francoise Vampute from Belgium sang the beautiful song "The Falling

  2. An empirical investigation of economic crisis's impact on consumer behaviour in Bulgaria: Changes of spending, saving and bank credit taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrandjiev Hristo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results from a survey-based market research of Bulgarian households. The author of the study is trying to understand what changes of consumer behavior occur in times of economic crises in Bulgaria, do consumers change their buying patterns, how consumers attempt to avoid or diminish the negative results from economic crisis, etc. The research project is planned, organized and realized within the Scientific Research Program of The University of National and World Economy, Sofia, Bulgaria. This paper discusses only a part of the research results and analysis. The rest of the research results will be published in a separate paper.

  3. The role of family social capital in young people’s transition from school to work in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Large-scale surveys rate Bulgaria and the whole of South-East Europe as societies poor in both formal and informal social capital. At the same time studies show that families in the region remain closely knit and norms of reciprocity, empathy and support among members of extended families are valued highly. To throw light upon this contradiction the paper presents results from a qualitative research into family support for youth transitions from school to work in Bulgaria conducted in 2002-20...

  4. Observations of the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni in Bulgaria during the period of post-breeding dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daskalova Girgina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni was considered extinct as a breeding species in Bulgaria, but recently a small breeding colony was found again in the south-eastern part of the country. Seven recent observations of flocks or solitary birds of the species in Bulgaria during the post-breeding period are presented and commented here. It is shown that the territory of the country is a regular area for post-breeding dispersal and pre-migratory feeding of lesser kestrels. The origin of these is not known, but most probably birds from the populations of the European part of Turkey, Greece, Republic of Macedonia and Albania are involved.

  5. Polarised Black Holes in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Miguel S.; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global $AdS_{4}$ with conformal boundary $S^{2}\\times\\mathbb{R}_{t}$. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic $AdS$ behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an $AdS$ soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the $AdS$ geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both $AdS$ soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawkin...

  6. Constructing Lifshitz solutions from AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Cassani, Davide

    2011-01-01

    Under general assumptions, we show that a gravitational theory in d+1 dimensions admitting an AdS solution can be reduced to a d-dimensional theory containing a Lifshitz solution with dynamical exponent z=2. Working in a d=4, N=2 supergravity setup, we prove that if the AdS background is N=2 supersymmetric, then the Lifshitz geometry preserves 1/4 of the supercharges, and we construct the corresponding Killing spinors. We illustrate these results in examples from supersymmetric consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity, enhancing the class of known 4-dimensional Lifshitz solutions of string theory. As a byproduct, we find a new AdS4 x S1 x T(1,1) solution of type IIB.

  7. Ad Hoc网络%Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海涛

    2005-01-01

    首先介绍了Ad Hoc网络的基本概念、技术特点以及关键技术等,然后较为全面地归纳了Ad Hoc网络的典型应用,最后讨论了Ad Hoc网络的发展趋势和有待解决的问题.

  8. Clonal dissemination of multilocus sequence type ST15 KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovska, Rumyana; Stoeva, Temenuga; Schneider, Ines; Boyanova, Lyudmila; Popova, Valentina; Dacheva, Daniela; Kaneva, Radka; Bauernfeind, Adolf; Mitev, Vanyo; Mitov, Ivan

    2015-10-01

    A total of 36 consecutive clinical and two fecal-screening carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from two Bulgarian university hospitals (Varna and Pleven) were investigated. Susceptibility testing, conjugation experiments, and plasmid replicon typing were carried out. Beta-lactamases were characterized by isoelectric focusing, PCR, and sequencing. Clonal relatedness was investigated by RAPD and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Most of the isolates demonstrated multidrug resistance profile. Amikacin and tigecycline retained good activity with susceptibility rates of 95 and 87%, respectively. The resistance rate to colistin was 63%. Six RAPD- and MLST-types were identified: the dominating MLST-type was ST15 (27 isolates), followed by ST76 (six isolates), and ST1350 (two isolates). ST101, ST258, and ST151 were detected once. All except one of the K. pneumoniae produced KPC-2, mostly in combination with CTX-M-15, while for one isolate (ST101) the enzymes OXA-48 and CTX-M-14 were found. All KPC-2-producing transconjugants revealed the presence of IncFII plasmid. The OXA-48- and CTX-M-14-producing isolate showed the presence of L/M replicon type. The dissemination of KPC-2-producing K.pneumoniae in Bulgaria is mainly due to the sustained spread of successful ST15 clone and to a lesser extent of ST76 clone. This is the first report of OXA-48 producing ST101 K. pneumoniae in Bulgaria.

  9. Building of scientific information system for sustainable development of BNCT in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitev, M; Ilieva, K; Apostolov, T

    2009-07-01

    Building a boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility is foreseen within the reconstruction of the Research Reactor IRT (IRT) of the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy of the Bulgaria Academy of Sciences (INRNE). The development of BNCT at IRT plays a very significant role in the plan for sustainable application of the reactor. A centralized scientific information system on BNCT is being built at the INRNE with the purpose to collect and sort new information as knowledge accumulated during more than thirty years history of BNCT. This BNCT information system will help the creation and consolidation of a well informed and interconnected interdisciplinary team of physicists, chemists, biologists, and radio-oncologists for establishing BNCT cancer treatment in Bulgaria. It will strengthen more intensive development of the national network as well as its enlargement to the Balkan region countries. Furthermore, to acquaint the public at large with the opportunity for BNCT cancer treatment will be addressed. Human, social, and economics results due to BNCT for many patients from Balkan region are expected.

  10. A Politics of Space and the Historical Transformation of Individuals: A Case Study of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nikolov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on non-discursive practices connected to the transformation of individuals in the context of Bulgaria. It constitutes an attempt at presenting a decentred history of the present through the vantage point of the architecture of the panel block. Under totalitarianism, the panel block constitutes an institutionalization of a specific politics of space in Bulgaria through which it is shown that the ‘socialist citizen’ becomes an entity that can be constructed or made. During the last years of the regime and after the transition to democracy, the functioning of power relations within the pan-el block are significantly altered, yet not completely erased. The revolution of 1989 is a symbiosis between a certain discontinuity with the past and a contradiction of the old forms of subjectivities, and on the other, a silent continuity of the everyday lives of individuals. Today, the panel structures remain, in the peripheries of the cities, still reminiscent of a time passed, yet visually signifying a new representation, a façade of the contemporary Bulgarian reality. The panel block is a ‘microcosm’ of the Bulgarian society.

  11. LEVEL OF AWARENESS OF REPUBLIC BULGARIA'S POPULATION FOR TREATMENT OF ISCHEMIC STROKE VIA THROMBOLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRETA KOLEVA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The stroke is a socially significant disease that is characterized with high levels of morbidity and mortality, causing severe disability worldwide. It is the second most significant cause of death among the people in the western world, falling back only to the heart diseases and preceding the cancer, as it causes 10% of the mortal cases in the world. Since 2009 the Bulgarian association of neurosonology and cerebral hemodynamics(BANCH organizes different initiatives of training doctors to conduct a thrombolytic treatment to acute ischemic stroke(AIS. The intravenous thrombolysis has not been established as a leading differential treatment of AIS in Bulgaria, and the thrombolytic therapy is still not well developed in Bulgaria.The suport of national and local institutions is crucial for insuring and guarantee for a proper stroke treatment. Efforts are necessary for adequate financing of the health facilities, as well as professional preparation of the human resource, and training the population via creating an integrated national strategy for its application and control, which can underlie as a state politics in healthcare at optimal usage of public-private partnership.

  12. STATE AND EFFICIENCY OF MANAGEMENT OF AGROECOSYSTEM SERVICES – THE CASE OF BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HRABRIN BACHEV

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper incorporates New Institutional Economics and analyzes the state and efficiency of management of agro-ecosystem services in Bulgaria. Firstly, it presents framework of analyses of management of agro-ecosystem services including: definition of agroecosystem services and its management; specification of management needs and spectrum of governing modes (institutions, market, private, public, hybrid; assessment of efficiency of different form of management in terms of potential to protect eco-rights and investments, assure socially desirable level of agro-ecosystem services, minimize costs, coordinate and stimulate eco-activities, meet preferences and reconcile conflicts of related agents. Secondly, it identifies and assesses the management of agro-ecosystem services in Bulgaria. Transition and EU integration have brought about significant changes in the state and management of agroecosystems services in the country. Newly evolved market, private and public governance have led to a significant improvement of a part of agro-ecosystems services introducing modern ecostandards and public support, enhancing environmental stewardship, disintensifyingproduction, recovering landscape and traditional productions, diversifying quality, products,and services. At the same time, the novel eco-management is associated with new challenges such as unsustainable exploitation, lost biodiversity, land degradation, water and air contamination. Moreover, implementation of EU common policies would have no desired impact on agro-ecosystem services unless special measures are taken to improve management of public programs, and extend public support to dominating small-scale and subsistence farms.

  13. Demographic data on prostitutes from Bulgaria--a recruitment country for international (migratory) prostitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchoudomirova, K; Domeika, M; Mårdh, P A

    1997-03-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the conditions and circumstances for the recruitment of prostitutes, as well as their reproductive history, working conditions, knowledge of and attitudes to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and use of prophylactic antibiotic therapy of these diseases. Two hundred prostitutes were investigated by in-depth interviews at STD clinics, private practices and hotels. Of the 200 prostitutes, 8 (4%) were less than 15 years old and 32 (16%) more than 25 years old. Most of the women came from rural villages. Half of them were gypsies. Most had a boyfriend (often the pimp). One-quarter had been or were on their way abroad to prostitute. Half were migrating within Bulgaria to prostitute. They claimed a high rate of condom use with customers, but seldom with their pimps or boyfriends. About one-tenth used antibiotics prophylactically. They had knowledge of classical STDs and HIV/AIDS but only in exceptional cases had they heard about chlamydial and human papillomavirus infections. They often cohabited with a female friend also often practising prostitution. It was concluded that recruitment is often easy as the prostitute can earn more from only one contact with a customer than their parents earn from work in a month. Symptoms suggestive of STD were very common in the prostitutes, i.e. in 43%. Bulgaria is a recruitment area for international prostitutes.

  14. Diversity and biosynthetic potential of culturable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria isolated from Magura Cave, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomova Iva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocapacity of bacteria inhabiting karstic caves to produce valuable biologically active compounds is still slightly investigated. A total of 46 culturable heterotrophic bacteria were isolated under aerobic conditions from the Gallery with pre-historical drawings in Magura Cave, Bulgaria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of bacterial isolates aff iliated with Proteobacteria (63%, followed by Actinobacteria (10.9%, Bacteroidetes (10.9%, and Firmicutes (6.5%. A strong domination of Gram-negative bacteria (total 81% belonging to nine genera: Serratia, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Sphingobacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Commamonas, Acinetobacter, Obesumbacterium, and Myroides, was observed. Gram-positive isolates were represented by the genera Bacillus, Arthrobacter, and Micrococcus. One isolate showed a signif icant phylogenetic distance to the closest neighbor and could represent а novel species. Heterotrophic bacterial isolates from Magura Cave were investigated for hydrolytic enzymes production, antimicrobial and hemolytic activity. Predominance of producers of protease (87%, followed by xanthan lyase (64%, lipase (40%, β-glycosidase (40%, and phytase (21% was observed. Over 75% of the isolates demonstrated antimicrobial and hemolytic activity. The results suggest that heterotrophic bacteria isolated from Magura Cave could be a valuable source of industrially relevant psychrotolerant enzymes and bioactive metabolites. This study is a f irst report on the taxonomic composition and biological activity of culturable bacteria inhabiting a cave in Bulgaria.

  15. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investments in Bulgaria and Romania in the Context of Recent Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirel-Daniel Simionescu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to select some relevant macroeconomic determinants for foreign direct investment (FDI in Bulgaria and Romania since the start of the recent economic crisis (2008-2015. Even if the economic recession installed in 2009 in Romania, the foreign investors’ decisions were influenced by the moment of global recession from 2008. A Bayesian approach was proposed, because of the small sample for the variables in analyzed period: FDI as percent of GDP, real GDP rate, unemployment rate, inflation rate, real interest rate, real effective exchange rate index (2010=100 and money demand (M2 as percent of GDP. The estimation results reflected that foreign investors in both countries were attracted by the increase in GDP from a year to another. On the other hand, for Bulgaria the inflation rate was the strongest determinant, indicating the economic stability of the country that made huge efforts in getting one digit inflation rate. In Romania, as expected, the foreign investors were searching for cheap labour force and the increase in unemployment rate attracted more FDI during the crisis period.

  16. Food safety knowledge and hygiene practices among veterinary medicine students at Trakia University, Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratev, Deyan; Odeyemi, Olumide A; Pavlov, Alexander; Kyuchukova, Ralica; Fatehi, Foad; Bamidele, Florence A

    2017-02-07

    The results from the first survey on food safety knowledge, attitudes and hygiene practices (KAP) among veterinary medicine students in Bulgaria are reported in this study. It was designed and conducted from September to December 2015 using structured questionnaires on food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices. Data were collected from 100 undergraduate veterinary medicine students from the Trakia University, Bulgaria. It was observed that the age and the gender did not affect food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) on food safety knowledge and practices among students based on the years of study. A high level of food safety knowledge was observed among the participants (85.06%), however, the practice of food safety was above average (65.28%) while attitude toward food safety was high (70%). Although there was a significant awareness of food safety knowledge among respondents, there is a need for improvement on food safety practices, interventions on food safety and foodborne diseases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. CLASSIFICATION OF SEMI-NATURAL GRASSLANDS IN NORTH-EASTERN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVA APOSTOLOVA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the syntaxonomic diversity of the semi-natural grasslands in NorthEastern Bulgaria following the principles of the Ziirich-Montpellier School. A total number of 172 releves, collected during 2002-2004, is used. TWINSPAN clustering is applied for determination vegetation types. The diagnostic species groups for the associations and subassociations are created by Cocktail method using the phi-coefficient with values above 0.3 within the JUICE software. As a result class Fesluco-Brometea is established with the alliances Festucion valesiacae, Pimpinello-Thymion and Chrysopogoni-Danthonion. The originally described Botriochloetum ischaemi Pop 1977 association is considered as typical on the subassociation level and a part of our releves are referred to it. Following the nomenclature rules we determined the subassotiation typicum. One new subassociation named Thymefosum pannonici of more xerophytic character, as compared to typical one, and well represented by differential species is established. The geographical distribution of Agropyro-Thymetum zygoidi and Agrostideto-Chrysopogonetum grylli associations is extended to the territory of Bulgaria. Class Molinio-Arrhenalherefea is represented by Cynosurion alliance and Festuco-Agrostidetum association is established by its probably most eastern area of distribution.

  18. RATE OF RETURN ON INVESTMENT IN A DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING FARM IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetana HARIZANOVA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the rate of return on investment in a dairy cattle breeding farm in Bulgaria. To achieve the aim, it was investigated a dairy cattle breeding farm in Bulgaria first category with average number of 83 cows in the main herd. Based on information collected from the farm in 2012 and on own calculations it was defined the different types of investments necessary to create a farm. It was calculated also the rate of return of cash inflows, rate of return of cash outflows and investments per cow. It was found that the analyzed farm has implemented 12.5% rate of return on investment in 2012. Investments per cow are 4422 euros. The largest share of investments has the investments in productive animals (43.6%. 64.6% of the revenues are from the sale of milk. The largest share of the cash outflows have the purchase of feed and forage production - 58.3%. Subsidies play an important role for profitable operation of the analyzed farm.

  19. AdS orbifolds and Penrose limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Sheikh-Jabbari, Mohammad M.; Tatar, Radu

    2002-12-09

    In this paper we study the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} orbifolds. The orbifold can be either in the pure spatial directions or space and time directions. For the AdS{sub 5}/{Lambda} x S{sup 5} spatial orbifold we observe that after the Penrose limit we obtain the same result as the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5}/{Lambda}. We identify the corresponding BMN operators in terms of operators of the gauge theory on R x S{sup 3}/{Lambda}. The semi-classical description of rotating strings in these backgrounds have also been studied. For the spatial AdS orbifold we show that in the quadratic order the obtained action for the fluctuations is the same as that in S{sup 5} orbifold, however, the higher loop correction can distinguish between two cases.

  20. Tooth replacement related to number of natural teeth in a dentate adult population in Bulgaria: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damyanov, N.D.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the relationships among tooth replacement, number of present natural teeth, and sociodemographic and behavioral factors in an adult population in Bulgaria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quota sampling was used to recruit 2,531 dentate subjects aged 20 years and over fro

  1. Views and beliefs of social studies teachers on citizenship education: a comparative study of the Netherlands, Bulgaria and Croatia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeliazkova, Margarita I.; Cunningham, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a comparative study of high school social science teachers in three European countries: the Netherlands, Bulgaria, and Croatia, and presents data from teacher interviews using Q methodology. An aim of the study is to make explicit the link between teachers’ views on citizenship

  2. Current Situation and Reforms Making Way for Future Positive Developments in the National Education System of Bulgaria: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Teodora

    2015-01-01

    This paper on the education system of Bulgaria is aimed at presenting its structure, current situation, problems and challenges that it faces, and on-going reforms leading to some positive trends in the development of the national education sector. At the moment of writing this paper in the year 2015, we will mark the 1160th anniversary of the…

  3. The importance of quality, access and price to health care consumers in Bulgaria: A self-explicated approach'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlova, M.; Groot, W.J.N.; van Merode, F.

    2003-01-01

    One approach to the problem of low patient satisfaction in Bulgaria is to identify attributes of health care services that the consumers value most and to focus on their improvement. Based on data from a household survey, this paper examines the importance that health care consumers attach to qualit

  4. The importance of quality, access and price to health care consumers in Bulgaria: A self-explicated approach'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlova, M.; Groot, W.J.N.; van Merode, F.

    2003-01-01

    One approach to the problem of low patient satisfaction in Bulgaria is to identify attributes of health care services that the consumers value most and to focus on their improvement. Based on data from a household survey, this paper examines the importance that health care consumers attach to

  5. Foreign Product Perceptions and Country of Origin Analysis across Black Sea:Studies on Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Russia and Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ali R; za Apil

    2006-01-01

    ...) as the most important cue to assess the quality. This study analyses approaches toward foreign products, country of origin effect and the ethnocentric behavior of consumers of the selected countries. The study is a literature review of related studies in Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Russia and Turkey.

  6. Views and beliefs of social studies teachers on citizenship education: a comparative study of the Netherlands, Bulgaria and Croatia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeliazkova, Margarita; Cunningham, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a comparative study of high school social science teachers in three European countries: the Netherlands, Bulgaria, and Croatia, and presents data from teacher interviews using Q methodology. An aim of the study is to make explicit the link between teachers’ views on citizenship

  7. Superradiant instability in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Ganchev, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of superradiance in the context of asymptotically global AdS spacetimes is investigated with particular accent on its effect on the stability of the systems under consideration. To this end, the concept of an asymptotically AdS spacetime is explained, together with its implications on the boundary conditions at $\\mathcal{I}$, as well as the Newman-Penrose-Teukolsky formalism, whereby the Teukolsky master equation in a most general form for Kerr-AdS is given. Furthermore, work done in the cases of RN-AdS and Kerr-AdS is laid out in a concise manner, putting emphasis on the important steps taken in determining the endpoint of the superradiant instability in the two configurations. For the former this turns out to be a black hole with reduced charge and a static charged scalar condensate around it, whereas for the latter two of the more probable outcomes are presented, both of which imply a violation of one of the cosmic censorships.

  8. Lorentzian AdS, Wormholes and Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Raul E; Silva, Guillermo A

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the structure of two point functions for the QFT dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian AdS-wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of 5-dimensional second order Einstein Gauss Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS space times. We revisit the GKPW prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual QFT operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values phi_0^\\pm at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions, along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O^\\pm and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom leaving at each boundary. The AdS_(1+1) geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a ...

  9. Modelling of accidental released toxic gases for emergency responders in Austria, Kosovo and Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Sirma; Baumann-Stanzer, Kathrin; Gashi, Salih; Thaci, Bashkim; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Spassova, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. A number of models for the prediction and simulation of hazard areas affected by accidental releases of toxic gases are available worldwide. Modelling accidental releases may be required for a variety of reasons: for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), for preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management (e.g. in the frame of the SEVESO directive). Depending on the demand and the particular purposes, the choice of the appropriate model is up to the authorities. The one year project was funded by the Austrian Science and research liaison Office (ASO, www.aso.zsi.at) as a part of the program: Research Cooperation and Networking between Austria, the public higher education institutions in Kosovo and South Eastern Europe. The project was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG, http://www.zamg.ac.at) in cooperation with the University of Prishtina (Kosovo, www.uni-pr.edu and the National Institute of meteorology and Hydrology (NIHM Bulgaria, www.meteo.bg). One of the main purposes of the project was to provide the both partners with basic knowledge in modelling with accidental release of toxic gases, based on the practical experience of the meteorologists from the ZAMG in the area. This knowledge can be used as scientific response to society driven current or upcoming problems especially in Kosovo. The activities involved know-how transfer on European standards and practice among the project partners, as well as joint efforts to adapt and disseminate the scientific methods and results in Kosovo. Within the project, the partners from Kosovo and Bulgaria were introduced to the atmospheric dispersion model (ALOHA - Areal

  10. Boson Stars in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Buchel, Alex; Lehner, Luis

    2013-01-01

    We construct boson stars in global Anti de Sitter (AdS) space and study their stability. Linear perturbation results suggest that the ground state along with the first three excited state boson stars are stable. We evolve some of these solutions and study their nonlinear stability in light of recent work \\cite{Bizon:2011gg} arguing that a weakly turbulent instability drives scalar perturbations of AdS to black hole formation. However evolutions suggest that boson stars are nonlinearly stable and immune to the instability for sufficiently small perturbation. Furthermore, these studies find other families of initial data which similarly avoid the instability for sufficiently weak parameters. Heuristically, we argue that initial data families with widely distributed mass-energy distort the spacetime sufficiently to oppose the coherent amplification favored by the instability. From the dual CFT perspective our findings suggest that there exist families of rather generic initial conditions in strongly coupled CFT ...

  11. AdS solutions through transgression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Gauntlett, J.P. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.]|[Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). The Institute for Mathematical Sciences; Kim, Nakwoo [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea). Dept. of Physics and Research Inst. of Basic Science

    2008-07-15

    We present new classes of explicit supersymmetric AdS{sub 3} solutions of type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux and AdS{sub 2} solutions of D=11 supergravity with electric four-form flux. The former are dual to two-dimensional SCFTs with (0,2) supersymmetry and the latter to supersymmetric quantum mechanics with two supercharges. We also investigate more general classes of AdS{sub 3} solutions of type IIB supergravity and AdS{sub 2} solutions of D=11 supergravity which in addition have non-vanishing three-form flux and magnetic four-form flux, respectively. The construction of these more general solutions makes essential use of the Chern-Simons or ''transgression'' terms in the Bianchi identity or the equation of motion of the field strengths in the supergravity theories. We construct infinite new classes of explicit examples and for some of the type IIB solutions determine the central charge of the dual SCFTs. The type IIB solutions with non-vanishing three-form flux that we construct include a two-torus, and after two T-dualities and an S-duality, we obtain new AdS3 solutions with only the NS fields being non-trivial. (orig.)

  12. Study of anthropogenic and natural impacts on archaeological sites of the Volga Bulgaria period (Republic of Tatarstan) using remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainullin, I. I.; Khomyakov, P. V.; Sitdikov, A. G.; Usmanov, B. M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we consider the possibility of using remote sensing data for determining various negative factors affecting archaeological objects condition on the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan. Fortified settlements, with the system of defensive fortifications, were selected as the objects of study, as they are easily identified by remote sensing data. In our view, the analysis of medieval Volga Bulgars (X-XIII centuries A.D.), the most common in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan, has the highest priority. The first task by using remote sensing was to obtain actual data on the current condition of archaeological monuments located on the Kuibyshev reservoir shore, where the threat of destruction is maximized. Due to the fact, that most of the Volga-Bulgaria settlements, is located on the small rivers banks, the second task was geomorphological description of monuments placement in order to assess the risk of their destruction by natural processes. Third objective was to evaluate the role of the human factor in archaeological sites destruction. Ancient settlements under different types of negative impact were selected for the study. Deciphering of multitemporal remote sensing data allowed to assess the objects condition and to predict the risk of further damage. Additionally, it made able to correct the form of the Bulgars hillforts in comparison with existing plans, as well their size and location in the landscape, to restore the original appearance of destroyed fortified settlements, to determine precise coordinates for the further use of these data in the archaeological geographic information systems.

  13. THE SOCIAL ORIENTATION OF THE ACTIVITY OF THE LABOUR WORKING COOPERATIVES FOR DISABLED PEOPLE IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albena MITEVA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bulgaria's membership in the European Union defines the orientation of our country in line with the key strategic priorities of Europe 2020, which aims to achieve smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The role of the cooperative system becomes especially important at this time when the EU itself is constructed as a union of equal socially oriented states. In the paper is depicted the role of the labour working producer cooperatives for disabled people as one of the main actors of the social economy in the EU which contribute to solving many economic and social problems of a substantial part of the Bulgarian population and to implement the priorities of the strategy "Europe 2020". In line with this aim, are given suggestion for the trends in improving their activity. So that they could provide better labour rehabilitation, strengthen the social integration of their members, promotion of production, improvement of working conditions, proposals for changes in legislation.

  14. South-East Region in Bulgaria: Economic Performance and Key Sectors Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoaneta GOLEMANOVA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper attempts to provide insight into the economicperformance of the South-east region (SER of Bulgaria by presenting quantitativerelationships between sectors in the regional economy. Methodologically it is basedon the construction of the regional Input–Output model. It was carried out troughapplying the non-servey GRIT technique, based on Flegg & Webber locationquotient (2000. The dirived Rasmussen & Hirschman backward linkages andMattas & Shrestha input-output elasticities from the model enable to identify thekey economic sectors within the region. This could be considered as a starting pointfor the future impact assesment of different EU policies, as well as designing ofbetter regional development strategies, assuring better economic performance.

  15. Envenoming following bites by the Balkan adder Vipera berus bosniensis - first documented case series from Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerström, Alexander; Petrov, Boyan; Tzankov, Nikolay

    2010-12-01

    We report the first detailed accounts of bites by the Balkan adder, Vipera berus bosniensis from Bulgaria. Documentation of bites by this subspecies is very rare in the literature and most available accounts are from the northern limit of its distribution. V. berus bosniensis is considered to possess neurotoxic venom but little evidence has hitherto been available to support this supposition. In this case series symptoms typical of adder bites developed including oedema, nausea, dizziness, lymphangitis, vomiting, and diarrhoea together with aberrant symptoms such as diplopia and ptosis that confirm the presence of neurotoxic venom in Balkan adders. In addition, unusual and atypical symptoms of adder bites such as painless bites and muscle cramps appeared. The inadequate treatment in hospital and the remote habitats in which this species is encountered are potential sources of complication.

  16. Institutionalizing Local Government as an Instrument of Democratic Consolidation: The Cases of Bulgaria and Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsamunska Polya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-level governance is widely used throughout the world, especially in more economically developed countries. In part, this is due to the presumed benefits of decentralization in terms of public-service delivery, and in part, it is due to a desire to disperse political power and governmental authority. Thus, 25 years ago, when major governmental reform initiatives were begun in many countries around the world, especially in Central and Eastern Europe and Latin America, much attention was devoted to establishing and / or strengthening local governments. This was the case in Bulgaria and Paraguay, two countries from different parts of the world, but similar in size, economic development and a history of highly centralized and authoritarian regimes. The purpose of this paper is to examine and better understand the processes of decentralization as they took place in those two countries and those factors which facilitated and / or hindered efforts to initiate effective local government.

  17. THE ECONOMICS OF PEANUT PRODUCTION IN BULGARIA DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly BENCHEVA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined peanut production systems and selected factors affecting the development of commercial peanut enterprises in Bulgaria. A survey of 220 individual farms and farm cooperatives engaged in the cultivation of peanuts was conducted during 2000 and 2002. Poor farm structure, low level of technology, and nonconformity to farm decision making impede the financial and economic development of Bulgarian peanut production and farm growth, thus limiting farm enterprises emergence into competitive economic units financially operative in a freemarket economy. The underlying cost structure, couple with small farms, averaging 0.8 ha in size, prevent farmers from capturing economies of scale, limit farm profitability and hence farm modernization. The lack of owned farm machinery, equipment and storage facilities renders the restructuring and specialization extremely difficult. However, peanut production is still a viable farm enterprise for Bulgarian farmers.

  18. New expected loss impairment model – a challenge for the banks in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Popova-Yosifova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces some of the leading works on loan impairment published by supervisory authorities, auditing companies and researchers. It makes analysis of the impairment model on the basis of the expected credit losses introduced with the requirements of International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS 9 Financial Instruments effective for periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018. There are a number of research works which show that the senior bankers may in some ways manage the financial result through the impairment, where it is assumed that the new impairment model will bring higher recognized losses. It also makes a comparative analysis of the announced information on the loan impairment and the preparation for the introduction of the IFRS 9 Financial Instruments requirements into the annual financial statements of the public banks in Bulgaria for the period 2013 – 2016.

  19. Current healthcare in Bulgaria: time for predictive diagnostics and preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Dimiter V

    2010-12-01

    Since 1990 Bulgaria gradually moved from monopolistic to market regulated economy and healthcare. In 2007 the country became member of the European Union and started to adopt EU legislations. However, significant gaps between the average European and Bulgarian level of social, health and economic efficiency remain to be narrowed. The major challenge is the demographic situation, where recent trends give alarming signals. Plans for reformation include transition towards out-patient palliative healthcare centers for the aging population as well as reduction of the costs with new electronic system of health insurance. The favorable location of the country at the Black Sea coast gives opportunities for medical tourism, which can provide quality health service for foreign customers. Finally, national platforms on prevention of major non-communicable diseases, such as obesity, cancer and diabetes, must be established as coordinated actions for the health and wellness of next generations.

  20. Alkaloid profiles and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of Fumaria species from Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancheva, Radka Z; Ivanov, Ivan G; Aneva, Ina Y; Dincheva, Ivayla N; Badjakov, Ilian K; Pavlov, Atanas I

    2016-01-01

    GC-MS analysis of alkaloid profiles of five Fumaria species, naturally grown in Bulgaria (F. officinalis, F. thuretii, F. kralikii, F. rostellata and F. schrammii) and analysis of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of alkaloid extracts were performed. Fourteen isoquinoline alkaloids were identified, with the principle ones being protopine, cryptopine, sinactine, parfumine, fumariline, fumarophycine, and fumaritine. Protopine contents, defined by HPLC analysis varied between 210.6 ± 8.8 μg/g DW (F. schrammii) and 334.5 ± 7.1 μg/g DW. (F. rostellata). While all of the investigated alkaloid extracts significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity, the F. kralikii demonstrated the highest level of inhibition (IC(50) 0.13 ± 0.01 mg extract/mL).

  1. Does management improve the state of chestnut (Castanea sativa L. on Belasitsa Mountain, southwest Bulgaria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatanov T

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut forests in the Belasitsa Mountain region of southwest Bulgaria were traditionally intensively managed as orchard-like stands for nut production. More recently, management intensity has been sharply reduced as a result of rural abandonment, which combined with the effects of chestnut blight has led to marked structural changes in these forests. The focus of this paper is on the seed-based regeneration potential and seedling survival of chestnut in mixed stands managed over the past 15 years. Results suggest that management of stands under a high-forest system is appropriate, and regeneration from seed has advantages over coppicing if competing species can be controlled. An investigation into “sanitation cutting” performed since the 1990s shows that this had not a successful response to blight infestations.

  2. A hominid tooth from Bulgaria: the last pre-human hominid of continental Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spassov, N; Geraads, D; Hristova, L; Markov, G N; Merceron, G; Tzankov, T; Stoyanov, K; Böhme, M; Dimitrova, A

    2012-01-01

    A hominid upper premolar was discovered in the Azmaka quarry, near Chirpan (Bulgaria). The associated fauna, especially the co-occurrence of Choerolophodon and Anancus among the proboscideans, and Cremohipparion matthewi and Hippotherium brachypus among the hipparions, constrains the age of the locality to the second half of the middle Turolian (ca. 7 Ma), making it the latest pre-human hominid of continental Europe and Asia Minor. The available morphological and metric data are more similar to those of Ouranopithecus from the Vallesian of Greece than to those of the early to middle Turolian hominids of Turkey and Georgia, but the time gap speaks against a direct phyletic link, and Turolian migration from the east cannot be rejected. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On the structural value of children and its implication on intended fertility in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bühler

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Personal networks are receiving increasing recognition as structural determinants of fertility. However, the network perspective also helps to explain personal motivations for having children. Using theories of interpersonal exchange, social capital, and the value of children, it is argued in this article that children can substantively improve their parents' social networks. Individuals perceive this potential advantageous development as a structural benefit and consider this value in their reproductive decisions. This argument is empirically explored with data from Bulgaria, collected in 2002. The results document the presence of structural evaluations among subjectively perceived child-related benefits. Moreover, structural evaluations matter for the reproductive decision-making of Bulgarian citizens. Women's fertility intentions are supported by the prospect that a child will bring their parents and relatives closer or will improve their security at old age. Males' intentions are closely associated with the expectation that a child will provide support when they are old.

  4. A contibution to the knowledge of the trophic spectrum of three lacertid lizards from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelin Mollov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the trophic spectrum of three species of lacertid lizards (Lacerta agilis, Lacerta trilineata and Podarcis muralis was carried out, based on 20 specimens collected in the period 1967-1973 in various localities in Bulgaria. The analyzed data showed that the insects (Insecta are the most numerous and the most frequently met among the alimentary components of the total amount of food of the studied stomachs (except for Lacerta agilis, where spiders are slightly predominating. The non-insect components consisted spiders and isopods. The largest niche breadth was recorded in Lacerta trilineata (8.25, followed by Podarcis muralis (5.20 and Lacerta agilis (3.44. The niche overlap between the three species (pair-wise comparison showed medium values and in our opinion there should not be any serious competition for food resources at the places withsympatric distribution.

  5. Adverse effects of maternal age, weight and smoking during pregnancy in Pleven, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Stefanova Kamburova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This paper aims to study the relationship between mothers’ age, body mass index (BMI, gestational weight gain (GWG and smoking and the risk for premature birth in Pleven, Bulgaria. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Pleven in 2007. The study was comprehensive for all premature children (N=58 and representative for full-term infants (N=192, or 10.4% of all of the 1827 full-term children born in 2007 at the University Hospital of Pleven and resident in the city of Pleven. Retrospective data on determinants under study were collected from all the mothers included in this study (N=250. Results: Mothers of premature children were more likely to be above 35 years old (27.6%, with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (23.1%, GWG below the recommended value (38.5% and to smoke during pregnancy (37.9%. The odds of being a smoker during pregnancy were five times higher among mothers with low birth weight (LBW newborns compared with their counterparts with normal birth weight newborns (OR=5.1, 95%CI=2.4-10.6. There was a positive association between BMI and LBW in infants whose mothers were overweight (OR=2.1, 95%CI=1.0-4.0. The risk of LBW increased when GWG was less than recommended (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.0-3.1. Conclusion: Our results indicate that pre-pregnancy BMI ≥25 kg/m2, less than recommended GWG and smoking during pregnancy are risk factors for premature birth in Pleven region. Findings from this study suggest the need for active health and educational actions by health professionals in order to avoid premature births in Bulgaria.

  6. Early Neolithic settlement Yabalkovo (Maritsa valley, Bulgaria in the context of archaeomagnetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kostadinova-Avramova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Five fired clay structures from the Northeast sector of the Early Neolithic settlement of Yabalkovo in the Maritsa valley, Bulgaria were a subject of an archaeomagnetic investigation. The results of the detailed rock-magnetic experiments carried out show that the collected materials are suitable for archaeomagnetic study and reliable determinations for past geomagnetic field elements can be obtained. According to the mean values calculated for the ancient geomagnetic field direction and intensity, two different periods of time can be undoubtedly distinguished for the investigated structures. This coincides exactly with the two chronological horizons suggested by the excavators. The archaeological observations point that the oven in sq. K36, the hearth in sq. F16 and the hearth in sq. H31 are related to Horizon II, while the hearths in sq. I31 and sq. F18 are connected with Horizon I. Based on the Bulgarian reference curves (latest version, the following archaeomagnetic dating intervals are received: Yabalkovo – Horizon II – (5685–5489 BC and Yabalkovo – Horizon I – (5472–5427 BC. These results agree well with the archaeological data that structures from Horizon II are older than structures from Horizon I. The existing 14C dates (for materials taken mainly from the Southwest sector of the settlement show considerably older dating intervals but they are not able to differentiate chronologically the different structures. The obtained archaeomagnetic determinations for Yabalkovo are compared with these available for other archaeomagnetically studied Early Neolithic sites from Bulgaria and Northern Greece. This comparison indicates that Horizon II of Yabalkovo can be synchronised with the younger layers of Kovatchevo (Karanovo I, Stara Zagora (Karanovo II and Dobriniste. Horizon I of Yabalkovo is chronologically comparable with Horizons VII+VIII of Samovodene and Avgi (Nortern Greece.

  7. Refined Holographic Entanglement Entropy for the AdS Solitons and AdS black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Masafumi; Ning, Bo

    2012-01-01

    We consider the refinement of the holographic entanglement entropy on a disk region for the holographic dual theories to the AdS solitons and AdS black holes, including the corrected ones by the Gauss-Bonnet term. The AdS soliton is dual to a gapped system with an IR fixed-point. The refinement is obtained by extracting the UV-independent piece of the holographic entanglement entropy. We then study the renormalization group (RG) flow of the refinement by tuning the linear size of the chosen disk region. Our main results are (i) the RG flow of the refinement decreases monotonically for most of the cases; (ii) there is no topological entanglement entropy for AdS$_5$ soliton even with Gauss-Bonnet correction; (iii) for the AdS black holes, the refinement obeys the volume law at IR regime, and the transition between UV and IR regimes is a smooth crossover; however, the crossover will turn into phase transition by the Gauss-Bonnet correction; (iv) for the AdS solitons, there are discontinuous phase transitions bet...

  8. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  9. An AdS Crunch in Supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertog, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    We review some properties of N=8 gauged supergravity in four dimensions with modified, but AdS invariant boundary conditions on the m2 = -2 scalars. There is a one-parameter class of asymptotic conditions on these fields and the metric components, for which the full AdS symmetry group is preserved. The generators of the asymptotic symmetries are finite, but acquire a contribution from the scalar fields. For a large class of such boundary conditions, we find there exist black holes with scalar hair that are specified by a single conserved charge. Since Schwarschild-AdS is a solution too for all boundary conditions, this provides an example of black hole non-uniqueness. We also show there exist solutions where smooth initial data evolve to a big crunch singularity. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity, and we report on a preliminary study of this.

  10. PRODUCT AND MARKET ORIENTATION OF HORTICULTURAL FARMS IN BULGARIA DURING THE YEARS LEADING TO EU ACCESSION – STUDIES IN THE PLOVDIV REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Garnevska; Roger Vaughan; Jonathan Edwards

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture/horticulture has traditionally been an important sector in the economy of Bulgaria. The paper outlines the structural changes in Bulgarian agriculture since 1989 and discusses the product and market orientation of the horticultural farms in the Plovdiv region of Bulgaria. This paper analyses how farm owners / managers with different sized farms evaluated 5 product/market strategic options: ‘doing what you currently do but better’, ‘developing new horticultural products’, ‘developi...

  11. Adding more value to added-value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marian, Livia

    regulation. The results of a qualitative concept test reveal positive attitudes towards the proposed production process. The discussions about fewer standards being sufficient or about options “in-between” conventional and organic standards indicate that the difference in production processes is noticed, yet...... it is probably valued less than expected. The added attributes need to be thoroughly considered when developing and marketing “organic plus” products, as their effect on other product characteristics (e.g. high prices) can detract from their added value....

  12. Probing crunching AdS cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Prem; Vaganov, Vladislav

    2016-02-01

    Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of {N}=8 supergravity on AdS4, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor ã max. Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy Ɛ ≲ ã max, while geodesics with Ɛ > ã max terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved "outward" in the Penrose diagram for the deformed AdS backgrounds, and thus geodesic limits of the antipodal correlators do not directly probe the crunch. Beyond the geodesic limit, we point out that the scalar wave equation, analytically continued into the FRW patch, has a potential which is singular at the crunch along with complex WKB turning points in the vicinity of the FRW crunch. We then argue that the frequency space Green's function has a branch point determined by ã max which corresponds to the lowest quasinormal frequency.

  13. Adaptation and Validation of a Burnout Inventory in a Survey of the Staff of a Correctional Institution in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harizanova Stanislava N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burnout syndrome is a phenomenon that seems to be studied globally in relation to all types of populations. The staff in the system of correctional institutions in Bulgaria, however, is oddly left out of this tendency. There is no standardized model in Bulgaria that can be used to detect possible susceptibility to professional burnout. The methods available at present only register the irreversible changes that have already set in the functioning of the individual. V. Boyko’s method for burnout assessment allows clinicians to use individual approach to patients and affords easy comparability of results with data from other psychodiagnostic instruments. Adaptation of the assessment instruments to fit the specificities of a study population (linguistic, ethno-cultural, etc. is obligatory so that the instrument could be correctly used and yield valid results. Validation is one of the most frequently used technique to achieve this.

  14. Success as a Cultural Value: a Comparison Between the Notions of Success and Well-being in Bulgaria and Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Sokolova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to compare the notions of personal well-being and individual success in Bulgaria and Hungary. Such comparison has not been studied yet in social and cultural sciences. The analysis is based on the results from the 3rd, 4th and 5th Round of the European Social Survey, the 2011řs Eurobarometer Qualitative Survey on attitudes to well-being and a small survey on the notions of individual success conducted by the author of this paper in Bulgaria and Hungary in January 2012. Results of this paper shed light on the most important motivating force of oneřs existence and could be used as guidance for creating problem-solving practices in business and entrepreneurship, based on cultural values.

  15. Crop Monitoring Using SPOT-VGT NDVIs S10 Time-Series Product for the Arable Land of Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, Vassil

    2013-12-01

    The objects of investigation are the major crops in Bulgaria (winter wheat, winter barley, sunflower and maize). The purpose of this paper is to 1) identify major crops using satellite data with low spatial resolution of 1000 m using agro-phenological information; 2) monitoring based on NDVI time-series values for the years 2007, 2008 and 2010, where anomaly events occur based on the information in the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (NIMH-BAS) agrometeorological monthly bulletins. The current paper shows the massive potential of using low spatial resolution satellite data in identfying crops and monitoring the development anomalies on crops. This research will contribute in applying and elaborating JRC MARS methodology in Bulgaria by using low resolution SPOT-VGT NDVIs S10 satellite product.

  16. Soon, later, or ever? The impact of anomie and social capital on fertility intentions in Bulgaria (2002) and Hungary (2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipov, Dimiter; Spéder, Zsolt; Billari, Francesco C

    2006-11-01

    We use survey data from Bulgaria and Hungary to investigate the determinants of whether women intend to have a first or a second child and, if so, whether they intend to have the child within the ensuing 2 years or later. These determinants differ significantly by the order and timing of the intended birth. The variables used include measures of anomie and social capital and these appear to be among the factors that determine both whether to have a child and when. There is some evidence that these measures and economic factors are relatively more important in Bulgaria than in Hungary, and that ideational factors are more important in Hungary, particularly in the case of voluntary childlessness.

  17. Notes on autumn-winter stomach contents of the Stone Marten (Martes foina in the Balkan Mountains, Central Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumi Hisano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied autumn-winter food (November-February, 1997-2003 of the Stone Marten in the Balkan Mountains, Central Bulgaria. A total of 26 stomachs (18 of males and eight of females were examined, of which contents was expressed as the number of occurrence and relative frequency of occurrence. The result clearly showed that rodents are primary prey for the Stone Marten. Birds and insects were the following categories consumed. The edible dormouse was detected as a prey for the first time in Bulgaria. Besides, wild ungulates and domestic animals were occasionally scavenged, while neither fruits nor artificial materials were detected in the marten stomachs. Thus, our study showed that the Stone Marten in the Balkan Mountains tended to be more carnivorous in winter.

  18. Question mark shaped earrings from Danube Bulgaria(the XIII–XIV cc.: origin and area of spread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimirov Georgi V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A special type of jewelry, earrings shaped as question mark from Bulgaria, is considered. Their spreading area and possible sources of their emergence in the culture of 13-14th-century Danube Bulgaria are made clear. Two stylistic groups are distinguished: those with a simple stylized pattern and those with an intricate pattern. The second group, a more numerous one, finds an analogy in the territory of the Golden Horde. According to the author, it can be argued that the emergence and spread of this type of earrings in the Bulgarian environment is the result of the influence of a "supraethnic" culture of the steppe peoples. These peoples (mainly the Cumans were in the orbit of the Golden Horde.

  19. The town in Serbia and Bulgaria: A comparative reading of current processes. Introduction

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    Zlatanović Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this volume is a result from The Contemporary City in Serbia and Bulgaria: Processes and Changes, a bilateral project of the Institute of Ethnography of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts and the Institute of Ethnology and Folklore Studies with Ethnographic Museum of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (2014-2016. The six papers offer a comparative view of current social processes in two neighbouring Balkan countries, linked by numerous historical and political experiences. Comparative research into societal trends enables a more thorough understanding and monitoring of global processes. In today’s increasingly globalised and glocalised world, towns experience sudden changes and it is in the towns that these changes are most vividly to be seen. The focus of our research is on the dynamism of the contemporary town, on processuality and changes in societal practices. Ana Luleva examines life in the small town of Nessebar in southeast Bulgaria, which has been on the UNESCO World Heritage list since 1983. The protection, management and presentation of Nessebar’s cultural heritage are highly complex issues, further complicated by the problem of collision with the interests of the inhabitants. The author analyses the relations between the various factors - the state administration, municipal authorities and the local population. Here the tourist industry, investment interests, corrupt institutions and civil society all play their part. Ivanka Petrova chose to research Belogradchik, a small town in northwest Bulgaria. Petrova investigates how local social and cultural resources are used in the work of a family tourist enterprise. The author looks for answers to questions such as: how its members identify with the town and its culture and how the work of the enterprise fits into the Belogradchik local context. At the focus of her paper are current societal practices: the local urban economy and the production of images and symbols

  20. The political attack ad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During election campaigns the political spot has a clear objective: to win votes. This message is communicated to the electorate through television and Internet, and usually presents a negative approach, which includes a direct critical message against the opponent, rather than an exposition of proposals. This article is focused on the analysis of the campaign attack video ad purposely created to encourage the disapproval of the political opponent among voters. These ads focus on discrediting the opponent, many times, through the transmission of ad hominem messages, instead of disseminating the potential of the political party and the virtues and manifesto of its candidate. The article reviews the development of the attack ad since its first appearance, which in Spain dates back to 1996, when the famous Doberman ad was broadcast, and examines the most memorable campaign attack ads.

  1. Knut Hamsun og Bulgaria: Om den tidlige Hamsun-resepsjonen i et land på Balkan

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    Evgenia Tetimova

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the main problems of Knut Hamsun's reception in Bulgaria. It is an attempt to classify the language peculiarities in the works of the Norwegian writer and their delivering by translation into Bulgarian, which was made in the context of the culture transfer. Materials of the research are the original texts and all accessible translations to Bulgarian: works of art analyzed here from linguistic point of view by a linguostylistic analyze.

  2. Probing crunching AdS cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, S Prem

    2015-01-01

    Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of N=8 supergravity on AdS_4, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor a_{max} . Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy E \\leq a_{max}, while geodesics with E > a_{max} terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved "outw...

  3. Holography of AdS vacuum bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbon, J.L.F. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica IFT UAM/CSIC, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Rabinovici, E. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2011-07-15

    We consider the fate of AdS vacua connected by tunneling events. A precise holographic dual of thin-walled Coleman-de Luccia bounces is proposed in terms of Fubini instantons in an unstable CFT. This proposal is backed by several qualitative and quantitative checks, including the precise calculation of the instanton action appearing in evaluating the decay rate. Big crunches manifest themselves as time dependent processes which reach the boundary of field space in a finite time. The infinite energy difference involved is identified on the boundary and highlights the ill-defined nature of the bulk setup. We propose a qualitative scenario in which the crunch is resolved by stabilizing the CFT, so that all attempts at crunching always end up shielded from the boundary by the formation of black hole horizons. In all these well defined bulk processes the configurations have the same asymptotics and are finite energy excitations.

  4. Twistor methods for AdS$_5$

    CERN Document Server

    Adamo, Tim; Williams, Jack

    2016-01-01

    We consider the application of twistor theory to five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. The twistor space of AdS$_5$ is the same as the ambitwistor space of the four-dimensional conformal boundary; the geometry of this correspondence is reviewed for both the bulk and boundary. A Penrose transform allows us to describe free bulk fields, with or without mass, in terms of data on twistor space. Explicit representatives for the bulk-to-boundary propagators of scalars and spinors are constructed, along with twistor action functionals for the free theories. Evaluating these twistor actions on bulk-to-boundary propagators is shown to produce the correct two-point functions.

  5. Height-diameter relationships for Scots pine plantations in Bulgaria: optimal combination of model type and application

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    Tatiana Vassileva Stankova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The height-diameter relationship is an important and extensivelyinvestigated forest model, but generalized and mixed-effects models of wider applicability are currently lacking in the forest modeling literature for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. plantations in Bulgaria. Considering the practical advantages of deterministic and mixed-effects models, the present study aims to derive a generalized deterministic height-diameter relationship and a simple mixed-effects model for plantation-grown Scots pine in Bulgaria. Ten generalized and six local models of adequate mathematical properties were selected and examined in several subsequent steps with a representative data set.A deterministic model was derived for tree height reconstruction fromthe individual tree diameters, stand dominant height and diameter,number of trees per hectare and stand age. Mixed-effects models weredeveloped from the individual-tree and stand diameters and heights applicable to determine the height-diameter relationship in field surveys. Both types of models can be applied with confidence, according to their advantages and specifications, for estimating the height-diameter relationship of Scots pine plantations in Bulgaria, presenting a unique contribution for the particular species, study area and type of model. The choice of the tested models is relevant to the height-diameter relationship investigation of biologically related and geographically close species and types of stands and the study procedure allows repetition of the work to provide reliable solutions of the problem where information on such type of model is deficient or incomplete.

  6. Problems and tendencies in management optimisation of hospital sector within health care system of Republic of Bulgaria

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    M.G. Stoycheva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The purpose of this article is to analyze the specifics, priorities and tendencies of the reforms in hospital sector management within the health care system of Republic of Bulgaria, the hospital care organization practices in relation to the National discussions on issues of hospital sector of the health care system.The results of the analysis. The accession of Republic of Bulgaria to the EU has created new conditions in defining the priorities in the area of public health care, including hospital medical aid. Summarizing, accumulation and transfer of experience in reforming of health care systems of the European Union member states, development of unified requirements, harmonization of legislation, financing, structure of functioning and management of hospital care within the health care system, lead to the need of deep analysis of situation, strategic priorities renewal, management optimization of whole health care system, and in particular the hospital care system in Republic of Bulgaria.In the article the author analyses the research and publications of some major materials, regulations and documents, which provided the basis for the reforms in the health care management system in Republic of Bulgaria in its continuing integration into the pan-European system. Illustrating current situation analysis, the author shares the opinion that the most important part in the organization of common management system in health care is the sector responsible for the development of hospital financing.The author pays special attention to the issues of economic activity of health care institutions.The author cites a number of documents of the National Centre for Medical Information (NCMI noting that leading specialists of the Centre: .Dikov, R.Kolarova, T.Hundurzhievhave prepared detailed reports on economics 2001-2008 and comparative analysis of the medical institutions operation as well as those for outpatient care in Republic of

  7. TECHNOLOGICAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP OF SMALL AND MEDIUM BUSINESS IN THE REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA AS A FACTOR FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

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    Angel Mirchev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of deepening economic and social crisis the importance of small and medium enterprises in the Republic of Bulgaria is steadily increasing. They have provided significant number of jobs on the labour market and have created much of the gross domestic product of Bulgaria. Our thesis is that technological entrepreneurship is a factor for the sustainable development of small and medium business in the country as a whole and stimulates overcoming the crisis in the country. This research paper reviews the results of a study of the conceptual apparatus of technological entrepreneurship. Based on the results, the relationship of technological entrepreneurship with sustainable development of Small and Medium Enterprises in Bulgaria is determined. The author's conclusions and definition of technological entrepreneurship as a factor for sustainable development are made on the basis of the analysis of the development of Small and Medium Enterprises in key sectors of Bulgarian economy such as tourism, power engineering, transport and industry. An attempt has been made for taking defining measures for development stimulating the technological entrepreneurship in these sectors of the national economy.

  8. AdS2 holographic dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Papadimitriou, Ioannis

    2016-12-01

    We construct the holographic dictionary for both running and constant dilaton solutions of the two dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory that is obtained by a circle reduction from Einstein-Hilbert gravity with negative cosmological constant in three dimensions. This specific model ensures that the dual theory has a well defined ultraviolet completion in terms of a two dimensional conformal field theory, but our results apply qualitatively to a wider class of two dimensional dilaton gravity theories. For each type of solutions we perform holographic renormalization, compute the exact renormalized one-point functions in the presence of arbitrary sources, and derive the asymptotic symmetries and the corresponding conserved charges. In both cases we find that the scalar operator dual to the dilaton plays a crucial role in the description of the dynamics. Its source gives rise to a matter conformal anomaly for the running dilaton solutions, while its expectation value is the only non trivial observable for constant dilaton solutions. The role of this operator has been largely overlooked in the literature. We further show that the only non trivial conserved charges for running dilaton solutions are the mass and the electric charge, while for constant dilaton solutions only the electric charge is non zero. However, by uplifting the solutions to three dimensions we show that constant dilaton solutions can support non trivial extended symmetry algebras, including the one found by Compère, Song and Strominger [1], in agreement with the results of Castro and Song [2]. Finally, we demonstrate that any solution of this specific dilaton gravity model can be uplifted to a family of asymptotically AdS2 × S 2 or conformally AdS2 × S 2 solutions of the STU model in four dimensions, including non extremal black holes. The four dimensional solutions obtained by uplifting the running dilaton solutions coincide with the so called `subtracted geometries', while those obtained

  9. Future state of the climate change, mitigation and development of sustainable agriculture in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazandjiev, V.; Georgieva, V.; Moteva, M.; Marinova, T.; Dimitrov, P.

    2010-09-01

    The farming is one of the most important branches that bring the increase to the gross internal production in Bulgaria. At the same time, the agriculture is the only branch, as in home, so in world scale in which the made as well direct production spending and investing regenerating (or not) only in the frameworks to one vegetative season. In addition on this, development of the intensive farming without using the most advanced technologies such as irrigation, automation, selection - for obtaining stable cultivars and hybrids, permanent weather monitoring and agroclimatic zoning and integrated and biochemical protection to the cultures and plantations had not possible. Analysis of long-term meteorological data from different regions shows clear tendencies to warming and drying for the period of contemporary climate (1971-2000) as well in Bulgaria. Hydro-meteorological conditions in the country are worsened. The most entire estimate is made from the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) 2007. Most of authors proven that the last decades are really warmest for last century, even for the entire period of the most instrumental observations. The causes for global warming was long time debatable, but the last investigations prove it anthropogenetic derive. The main goal of the paper is framing in conditions of the expected climate changes in our country for period 2020-2050-2070 and the most likely impacts on the agriculture with inspection padding to the consequences in them and making physical conditions for development of proof farming in production regions of the country. By the means of the systematized database of meteorological and agrometeorological data which we have at disposition for the period of this survey (1971-2000); Provide assignment of the expected climatic changes according to the scenarios in the centers for observing and investigations of climatic changes in Europe, US., Canada and Australia (ECHAM 4, HadCM 2, CGCM 1, CSIRO-MK2 Bs and

  10. Skil problemerne ad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    På grundlag af evalueringer og forskning i gymnasiereformen 2005 foreslås det at skille problemerne ad i forskellige niveauer. Herved kan der arbejdes med niveaudelte løsninger.......På grundlag af evalueringer og forskning i gymnasiereformen 2005 foreslås det at skille problemerne ad i forskellige niveauer. Herved kan der arbejdes med niveaudelte løsninger....

  11. Probing crunching AdS cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. Prem; Vaganov, Vladislav [Department of Physics, Swansea University,Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-03

    Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of N=8 supergravity on AdS{sub 4}, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor ã{sub max}. Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy E≲ã{sub max}, while geodesics with E>ã{sub max} terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved “outward” in the Penrose diagram for the deformed AdS backgrounds, and thus geodesic limits of the antipodal correlators do not directly probe the crunch. Beyond the geodesic limit, we point out that the scalar wave equation, analytically continued into the FRW patch, has a potential which is singular at the crunch along with complex WKB turning points in the vicinity of the FRW crunch. We then argue that the frequency space Green’s function has a branch point determined by ã{sub max} which corresponds to the lowest quasinormal frequency.

  12. Soil tillage erosion estimated by using magnetism of soils--a case study from Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Diana; Jordanova, Neli; Atanasova, Anna; Tsacheva, Tsenka; Petrov, Petar

    2011-12-01

    A detailed field and laboratory study on small 0.84-ha test site of agricultural land near Sofia (Bulgaria) has been carried out in order to test the applicability of magnetic methods in soil erosion estimation in the particular case of strongly magnetic parent material. Field measurements of magnetic susceptibility were carried out with grid size of 6 m, resulting in 258 data points. Bulk soil material was gathered from 78 grid points. Natural, non-disturbed soil section was sampled near the agricultural field for reference profile of complete undisturbed soil. Surface susceptibility measurements reveal well-defined maxima down slope which, however, cannot be assigned directly to a certain depth interval, corresponding with susceptibilities along the non-disturbed soil profile. This is caused by the high magnetic susceptibility of the lithogenic coarse-grained magnetic fraction. Non-uniqueness is resolved by using magnetic susceptibility of coarse (1 mm > d > 63 μm) and fine (d soil profile, which corresponds to a certain part of the studied area. After the application of an empirical model to predict the values of magnetic parameter after tillage homogenization and removal of soil material from the surface, the amount of soil loss is estimated.

  13. PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS - PCBs AND DDTs IN FISH FROM DANUBE RIVER AND FROM BLACK SEA, BULGARIA

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    Mona Stancheva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and DDT residues (DDTs can still be a problem for the aquatic environment and the human health. PCBs and DDTs were determined in three freshwater fish species: common carp (Cyprinus carpio, catfish (Silurus glanis, pike-perch (Sander lucioperca and two marine fish: shad (Alosa pontica pontica and grey mullet (Mugil cephalus. The freshwater fish samples were collected from the Danube River and from Black Sea, Bulgaria in 2010. The POPs were analyzed in order to investigate the presence of PCBs and DDTs in fish species from Danube River and compared the results to the levels in marine fish species from Black Sea. The fifteen congeners of PCBs, p,p’-DDT and its two main metabolites p,p’-DDE and p,p’-DDD were determined by capillary gas chromatography system with mass spectrometry detection. DDTs were the predominant contaminants in investigated species, with the p,p’- DDE contributing to more than 67% to the total DDTs. In freshwater fish concentrations of DDTs were found from 19.2 to 30.3 ng/g ww and PCBs concentrations - from 6.2 to 12.6 ng/g ww. The highest levels of PCBs and DDTs were determined in shad. The levels of DDTs and PCBs were determined lower than those found in similar fish species from other aquatic ecosystems.

  14. SOLUTIONS FOR INCREASING PUBLIC BUDGET REVENUE IN BULGARIA, CROATIA, CZECH REPUBLIC, POLAND AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcisa Roxana MOSTEANU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The research paper is a comparative analysis of the budget revenue in Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Poland and Romania, taking into account the main features in light of the contribution of indirect and direct taxes and social contributions to the achievement of public revenues. Theme presents a topic of great interest, both theoretically and practically, given possible solution to increase public budget revenue in these countries, most of them being new member stated of European Union and who wants to catch up all the lost period within socialism time. As a common conclusion it can be seen that all countries need to improve their judicial system and combating crime and tax evasion. It is necessary to increase the independence of the judiciary, reducing bribery, reducing undeclared work and the establishment of independent anti-corruption institutions. Also the analyzed countries must improve public expenditure system, reducing bureaucracy and pay attention on profitable investments in order to increase budget revenues and encourage employment and unemployed university graduates, this is possible also by improving the mechanism of attraction and use of EU funds for investment within public and private sector.

  15. Characteristics of Honey from Serpentine Area in the Eastern Rhodopes Mt., Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, Juliana; Pavlova, Dolja; Lazarova, Maria; Yurukova, Lilyana

    2016-09-01

    Honey samples collected during 2007-2010 from serpentine and non-serpentine localities in the Eastern Rhodopes Mt. (Bulgaria) were characterized on the basis of their pollen content by qualitative melissopalynological analysis and physicochemical composition. Water content, pH, electrical conductivity, macroelements-K, Ca, Mg, P, and microelements-As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined after the Harmonised Methods of the International Honey Commission and ICP-AES method. The results from serpentine honey samples were compared with data from bee pollen collected from the same serpentine area. Different elements have different concentrations in honey from the same botanical type even collected from the same geographical region, same locality, and same beehive but in different vegetation season. The elements Mg, Mn, Ni, and P contribute mostly for separation of the serpentine honey samples based on measured elemental concentrations and performed principal component analysis. The element concentrations were higher in bee pollen and above the permissible limits for the toxic metals Cd and Pb. No specific indicator plant species was found for identification of the geographical origin of serpentine honey in relation to the forage of bees.

  16. ‘Balkan Flint’ – fiction and/or trajectory to Neolithization: Evidence from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gurova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the current state of research and knowledge about ‘Balkan flint’ (hereinafter BF and trajectories flowing from the BF problem to the bigger and increasingly complex problem of the Neolithization of the eastern Balkans. The emergence and consolidation of the BF problem within the research agenda of specialists working on Balkan prehistory is briefly traced, as well as the confusing and inconsistently repetitive use of the term BF leading to some ‘mythologisation’ of the topic.A particular section of the paper represents the thoughts of the author on the conceptual meaning of BF in the context of the Balkan Neolithization debate, because until now its role has not been fully appreciated and recognized. Several theories and scenarios of the emergence and spread of the Neolithic in present-day Bulgaria are reviewed through the evidence of the particular Early Neolithic flint toolkits consisting in representative (retouched blades made from BF and attributed to the diagnostic features of the Early Neolithic package/culture.

  17. Content of Phenolic Compounds in the Genus Carduus L. from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliya Zhelev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical screening of the content of total polyphenols, flavonoids, phenolic acids and anthocyanins in Bulgarian Carduus L. species was carried out. The plant materials (inflorescences from all of the 14 species found in Bulgaria has been collected from natural habitats from different floristic regions, during the period 2011-2013. Chemical analysis of the specimens was carried out in accordance with 11 Russian and 7 European Pharmacopoeia. For some of the plant species the obtained results are the first published data about content of phenolic compounds. The content of flavonoids (1,8-3,2% and total phenols(1,7-2,3% was higher in comparison with this of phenolic acids (0,6-2,4% and anthocyanins (0,5-1,5%. The highest content of total phenols and antocyanins was determined in the Carduus thracicus. The three species Carduus thoermeri, Carduus nutans and Carduus candicans ssp. globifer were characterized with the highest content of flavonoids. The highest content of phenolic acids was determined in the Carduus armatus.

  18. Water quality assessment of aquatic ecosystems using ecological criteria - case study in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damyanova, Sonya; Ivanova, Iliana; Ignatova, Nadka

    2014-11-02

    Four aquatic ecosystems (two rivers and two dams) situated in the western part of Bulgaria were investigated over a three years' period. The River Egulya and Petrohan dam are situated in mountainous regions at about 1000 m altitude, and are not influenced by any anthropogenic sources. Petrohan dam is a site for long-term ecosystem research as a part of Bulgarian long-term ecological research network. The other two systems belong to populated industrial areas. The River Martinovska flows through a region with former long-term mining activity, while Ogosta dam is near a battery production factory. Both the geochemical and geographical ecosystems' conditions are different, and their social usage as well. Ogosta dam water is used for irrigation and Petrohan dam for electric supply. The ecosystem sensitivity to heavy metals was evaluated by a critical load approach. Two criteria were used for risk assessment: critical load exceedance and microbial toxicity test. All studied ecosystems were more sensitive to cadmium than to lead deposition. The potential risk of Cd damage is higher for Petrohan dam and the River Egulya, where critical load exceedance was calculated for two years. Pseudomonas putida growth inhibition test detected a lack of toxicity for all studied ecosystems at the time of investigation with the exception of the low water September sample of the River Martinovska. The fast bacterial test is very suitable for a regular measurement of water toxicity because of its simplicity, lack of sophisticated equipment and clear results.

  19. Water quality assessment of aquatic ecosystems using ecological criteria – case study in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damyanova, Sonya; Ivanova, Iliana; Ignatova, Nadka

    2014-01-01

    Four aquatic ecosystems (two rivers and two dams) situated in the western part of Bulgaria were investigated over a three years’ period. The River Egulya and Petrohan dam are situated in mountainous regions at about 1000 m altitude, and are not influenced by any anthropogenic sources. Petrohan dam is a site for long-term ecosystem research as a part of Bulgarian long-term ecological research network. The other two systems belong to populated industrial areas. The River Martinovska flows through a region with former long-term mining activity, while Ogosta dam is near a battery production factory. Both the geochemical and geographical ecosystems’ conditions are different, and their social usage as well. Ogosta dam water is used for irrigation and Petrohan dam for electric supply. The ecosystem sensitivity to heavy metals was evaluated by a critical load approach. Two criteria were used for risk assessment: critical load exceedance and microbial toxicity test. All studied ecosystems were more sensitive to cadmium than to lead deposition. The potential risk of Cd damage is higher for Petrohan dam and the River Egulya, where critical load exceedance was calculated for two years. Pseudomonas putida growth inhibition test detected a lack of toxicity for all studied ecosystems at the time of investigation with the exception of the low water September sample of the River Martinovska. The fast bacterial test is very suitable for a regular measurement of water toxicity because of its simplicity, lack of sophisticated equipment and clear results. PMID:26019591

  20. Risk of flooding: Activities, parameters and regional peculiarities, Case study: Varbitsa watershed basin, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubenov Todor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the activities overtaken during risk of flooding situations, in one of the more often flooding region - the watershed of Varbitsa river (Southeastern part of Bulgaria - has been performed. The main cognitive parameters for risk perception and risk definition, depending on regional, social and historical factors have been examined. The existing information and instructions for mass media communication in relation to the process of interaction in a disaster situation have been discussed. In connection to determination of the risky segments in the basin and plans for announcement, the prevention communication measures have been outlined. On the basis of the Bulgarian normative legislation, the activities concerning organization of communications in a risk-of-disaster situation and mutual aid between authorities, which are part of the Integrated Help System have been indicated. It has been accented on the necessity of a more effective realization of the action plans during natural disasters and especially flooding, in order to improve the partnership between authorities and participants in the communication process during risk-of-flooding situations.

  1. Fluctuating asymmetry in Pelophylax ridibundus (Amphibia: Ranidae as a response to anthropogenic pollution in south Bulgaria

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    Zhelev Zhivko M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the integral indicator for developmental stability, the fluctuating asymmetry (FA, in the marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus populations that inhabit biotopes of different types (running rivers and still, dam lakes, when exposed to different types of anthropogenic pollution (domestic sewage pollution and heavy metal pollution in south Bulgaria. A total of 920 P. ridibundus individuals were used for FA analyses over three years (2009-2011. Fluctuating asymmetry was defined by 10 morphological traits, using the index frequency of asymmetric manifestation of an individual (FAMI. In closed water basins, regardless of the nature of toxicants, the FA values in P. ridibundus populations were statistically lower than those in river populations. The FA values were constantly the highest under conditions of sustained anthropogenic pollution, with high concentrations of toxicants in rivers with domestic sewage pollution and heavy-metal pollution. The results provide better opportunities to use FA in P. ridibundus populations for bioindication and biomonitoring, and for parallel and independent analyses of the physicochemical assessment of the environmental condition.

  2. Subaqueous environment and volcanic evolution of the Late Cretaceous Chelopech Au-Cu epithermal deposit, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambefort, Isabelle; Moritz, Robert

    2014-12-01

    A detailed field and petrographic study constrains the volcanic evolution and environment setting of the volcano-sedimentary-hosted Chelopech Cu-Au epithermal deposit, Bulgaria. Magmatic activity and associated high-sulfidation epithermal mineralization occurred at about 91 Ma in the Panagyurishte ore district of the Eastern European Banat-Timok-Srednogorie metallogenic belt. Volcanic and hydrothermal activity took place in a complex subaqueous setting, resulting in the intercalation of quartz sandstone with andesitic volcanic and volcaniclastic breccia. There are also hypabyssal andesite intrusion, phreatomagmatic breccia and interbeds of pyroclastic, oolithic and bioclastic rocks. The presence of altered cerebroid ooid-bearing sedimentary units characteristic of salty environment is in accordance with a lagoon environment predating the mineralization at Chelopech. Four principal stages of evolution for the Chelopech district are proposed based on field and petrographic observations. Initial volcanism occurred in a lake or in a coastal, shallow lagoon environment above crystalline basement. The Chelopech "phreatomagmatic" breccia and subsurface andesites were emplaced at this time. Subsequent hydrothermal activity produced the different hydrothermal breccia types, advanced argillic and quartz-phyllic alteration, and Au-Cu vein and replacement mineralization. The end of volcanism and hydrothermal activity was associated with opening of a pull-apart basin that covered the Chelopech environment with a sedimentary flysch. Tertiary compression faulting juxtaposed various rocks and tilted the ore deposit during the Alpine orogeny.

  3. On Mesopithecus habitat: Insights from late Miocene fossil vertebrate localities of Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Julien; Merceron, Gildas; Hristova, Latinka; Spassov, Nikolaï; Kovachev, Dimitar; Escarguel, Gilles

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the environments where the cercopithecid Mesopithecus was found during latest Miocene in Europe. For this purpose, we investigate the paleoecology of the herbivorous ungulate mesofauna of three very rich late Miocene fossil localities from southwestern Bulgaria: Hadjidimovo, Kalimantsi and Strumyani. While Mesopithecus has been found in the two first localities, no primate remains have yet been identified in Strumyani. Comparison between localities with and without primates using the herbivore mesofauna allows the cross-corroboration of paleoenvironmental conditions where this primate did and did not live. A multi-parameter statistical approach involving 117 equid and 345 bovid fossil dental and postcranial (phalanges, metapodia, astragali) remains from these three localities provides species to generic-level diet and locomotor habit information in order to characterize the environment in which Mesopithecus evolved. The analysis of dental mesowear indicates that the bovids were mainly mixed feeders, while coeval equids were more engaged in grazing. Meanwhile, postcranial remains show that the ungulate species from Hadjidimovo and Kalimantsi evolved in dry environments with a continuum of habitats ranging from slightly wooded areas to relatively open landscapes, whereas the Mesopithecus-free Strumyani locality was in comparison reflecting a rather contrasted mosaic of environments with predominant open and some more closed and wet areas. Environments in which Mesopithecus is known during the late Miocene were not contrasted landscapes combining open grassy areas and dense forested patches, but instead rather restricted to slightly wooded and homogeneous landscapes including a developed grassy herbaceous layer.

  4. Integrated Diabetes Care Delivered by Patients – A Case Study from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Struckmann

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increasing numbers of persons are living with multiple chronic diseases and unmet medical needs in Bulgaria. The Bulgarian ‘Diabetic care’ non-profit (DCNPO programme aims to provide comprehensive integrated care focusing on people with diabetes and their co-morbidities. Methods: The DCNPO programme was selected as one of eight ‘high potential’ programmes in the Innovating Care for People with Multiple Chronic Conditions (ICARE4EU project, covering 31 European countries. Data was first gathered with a questionnaire after which semi-structured interviews with project staff and participants were conducted during a site visit. Results: The programme trains diabetic patients to act as carers, case managers, self-management trainers and health system navigators for diabetic patients and their family. The programme improved care coordination and patient-centered care by offering free care delivered by a multidisciplinary team. It facilitates the collaboration between patients, volunteers, health providers and the community. Internal evaluations demonstrate reduced hospital admissions and avoidable amputations, with consequent cost savings for the health care system. Conclusion: Integrated care provided by volunteering patients can empower people suffering from diabetes and their co-morbidities and address health and social inequalities in resource-poor settings. It can also contribute to an increased trust and improved satisfaction among vulnerable patients with complex care needs.

  5. Characterization of Erwinia amylovora strains from Bulgaria by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova, Iliana; Urshev, Zoltan; Hristova, Petya; Bogatzevska, Nevena; Moncheva, Penka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize genetically Bulgarian Erwinia amylovora strains using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. Fifty E. amylovora strains isolated from different hosts, locations, as well as in different years were analysed by PFGE after XbaI, SpeI, and XhoI digestion of the genomic DNA. The strains were distributed into four groups according to their XbaI-generated profile. About 82% of the strains displayed a PFGE profile identical to that of type Pt2. Three strains belonged to the Central Europe Pt1 type. Two new PFGE profiles, not reported so far, were established--one for a strain isolated from Malus domestica and another for all Fragaria spp. strains. The same grouping of the strains was obtained after analysis of the SpeI digestion patterns. On the basis of PFGE profiles, after XbaI and SpeI digestion, a genetic differentiation between the strains associated with subfamily Maloideae and subfamily Rosoideae was revealed. The presence of more than one PFGE profile in the population of E. amylovora in Bulgaria suggests a multiple source of inoculum.

  6. Eurasian Otters in Micro Dams of Southern Bulgaria: Where to Place the Monitoring Zones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilian Georgiev

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ten micro dam sites were studied in Southern Bulgaria between 2005 and 2007. They were situated below 700 metres above sea level in the Upper Thracian Valley and the Sredna Gora mountain. All the bank perimeters, totaling 24.72 kilometres, were walked searching for otter spraint sites. Most of them were found in the area around the river inflow (n=53, 40.5% followed by those near the wall of the dam (n=39, 29.8%. The other spraint sites were found in the two other zones of equal length in the middle part of the basins. The average levels of preference index showed the highest levels in the river inlet and dam wall zones. They were highest at the river inflow end, 1.6 (min-max=0.7–4.0 and a little lower near the wall, 1.2 (min-max=0.0–3.0. The middle zones of the basin were not so preferentially selected as spraint sites by otters, having index values about three times lower. We recommend otter monitoring at such basins to be focused on the areas close to the main river filling them.

  7. MUSICAL INTERESTS AND ACTIVITIES IN CHILDREN’S LEISURE TIME IN HUNGARY AND BULGARIA

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    MILENA STEFANOWA VELIKOVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial use of leisure time is extremely important as it helps to expand the horizons for intellectual growth, emotional experiences, and personal enrichment. The aim of this study is to establish the interests and needs for music in children’s leisure time. Music is very close to the emotional nature of children and therefore could stimulate and develop their mental and physical abilities. This report focuses on the place of music and art in students’ life and discusses how much of their free time is taken up with these pursuits. It also analyses the needs of such activities. Here the results from a study in which children between 9 to 17 years of age from Bulgaria and Hungary took part are presented. The type of musical activities preferred by the children in their leisure time and the correlation between the activities of choice and cultural differences are also studied. Understanding what music activities children favour in their leisure time is important because learning combined with the arts builds long lasting social skills and educates on tolerance, creativity and discipline. This combination when used in work with children, helps children to develop ability for better self-expression, building up confidence, concentration, integration in the group, developing imagination, recognizing the good and beautiful, and increases their chances for success in life.

  8. ANALYSIS OF INTENSITY OF COMPETITION IN MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS SECTOR IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radko RADEV

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The following paper presents the results of an analysis of the intensity of competition in the milk and milk products sector in Bulgaria. The analysis is performed by adapting the Porter’s five forces model and based on the specific features of the sector concerned. For this purpose the author accepts the industrial concept of interpretation of competition: two levels of consideration of the competition intensity are differentiated - product class as a whole and separate product categories. Although not going into greater depth, the study reports the need of deepening the analysis by individual product groups, price levels and specific segments. The author proposes a methodological framework by which an analysis of the intensity of competition is conducted. Due to volume limitations of the publication, the emphasis of the paper is on the intensity of competition between existing companies; the barriers to enter and exit the sector are also presented; substitute products are marked briefly. The remaining forces from the five forces model are marked without going into details.

  9. Negative Impacts of the Neo-liberal Policies on the Banking Sector in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossitsa Rangelova Pavlova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of the 1970s until the last global financial and economic crisis in 2008-2009, neo-liberal ideas guided economic policy development. It is worth noting that the Central and Eastern European countries transformed their economies from centrally planned to а market type at the peak of the liberal policies. Bulgaria offers a particularly interesting example because the country encountered a very difficult transition from one extreme of an economic system organization to another. The paper considers the reforms in the Bulgarian banking sector during the transition period from a centrally planned to a market type economy (from 1989 onward through the implementation of neo-liberal policies. The development of the banking sector and its transformation is analyzed throughout the two main periods: before and after the transition. The latter is divided into two sub-periods (phases beginning with the early 1990s, followed by the financial and bank crisis in the country, the introduction of a currency board regime in 1997, and stabilization, and ending with the global crisis in 2008-2009. This article summarizes that during the transition period, a modern banking system was established to accumulate profit rather than to promote economic growth. Following a chronological order, the negative effects of the liberalization of the Bulgarian banking sector are specified: the exportation of ownership (and control upon banking system assets, unfair asset redistribution, the emergence of the local oligarchy, the weak protection of the taxpayers and others.

  10. Determination of amino acids and protein content in fresh and commercial royal jelly from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balkanska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly (RJ is popular among consumers around the world due to its perceived health benefits. The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of free and total amino acid profile as well as protein content in order to characterize Bulgarian RJ samples. A total of 17 fresh and commercial RJ samples from different regions of Bulgaria were analyzed. The results obtained show that proline (Pro, lysine (Lys, methionine (Met, aspartic acid (Asp, cysteine (Cys, histidine (His were major free amino acids (FAAs in RJ. The average content of Pro was 2.3 mg/g. The FAA content ranged from 5.5 to 6.2 mg/g of RJ. The most abundant total amino acids (TAAs were aspartic acid (Asp, glutamic acid (Glu, lysine (Lys, leucine (Leu, serine (Ser and proline (Pro. The average TAA content in fresh and commercial RJ were 129±10 and 114±8 mg/g, respectively. The results obtained for TAA content were used to establish a range for amino acid composition of Bulgarian RJ. The content of proteins was higher in fresh RJ than in commercial samples and this difference was significant (p<0.05. The following ranges were observed for fresh and commercial samples 14.7–17.3 and 12.5–14.9 mg/g, respectively. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v29i3.16

  11. Chemical composition and technological characteristics of wines from red grape varieties, selected in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haygarov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Chemical analysis of grapes and technological characterization of wines from red varieties Storgoziya, Kaylashky rubin, Trapezitza, Rubin and Bouquet, created by the method of intraspecific and interspecific hybridization at the Institute of Viticulture and Enology – Pleven, Bulgaria were made. The technological maturity of the grapes as raw material for producing quality red wines was determined. Rubin variety was with the highest sugar content - 3 23.10±0.73 %, titratable acids - 6.18±0.34 g/dm and pH 3.40±0.71. The other varieties were with optimal condition for the production of red wines in terms of sugars and titratable acids. The chemical composition and organoleptic characteristics of the experimental wine samples were established. The ethyl alcohol content in the produced wines was in the range from 12.33±0.23 vol. % (Bouquet to 13.31±0.34 vol. % (Kaylashky rubin. The content of titratable acids was in 3 3 the range of 5.33±0.43 g/dm (Trapezitza up to 6.88±0.21 g/dm (Kaylashky rubin. There were no significant differences in the analyzed indicators and taste evaluation between experimental wines and wine of Vitis vinifera – Pinot noir grape variety used as control sample

  12. Phytoplankton abundance and structural parameters of the critically endangered protected area Vaya Lake (Bulgaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Ralits; Nenova, Elena; Uzunov, Blagoy; Shishiniova, Maria; Stoyneva, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Vaya (Ramsar site, protected area and Natura 2000 site) is the biggest natural lake in Bulgaria and the shallowest Black Sea coastal lake, which during the last decades has undergone significant changes and was included as critically endangered in the Red List of Bulgarian Wetlands. Our studies were conducted during the summer and autumn months of three years – 2004–2006. The paper presents results on the phytoplankton abundance (numbers, biomass and carbon content) in combination with the indices of species diversity, evenness and dominance. Phytoplankton abundance was extremely high (average values of 1135 × 106 cells/L for the quantity and of 46 mg/L for the biomass) and increased in the end of the studied period (years 2005–2006), when decrease of species diversity and increase of the dominance index values were detected. The carbon content of the phytoplankton was at an average value of 9.7 mg/L and also increased from 2004 to 2006. Cyanoprokaryota dominated in the formation of the total carbon content of the phytoplankton, in its numbers (88%–97.8%), and in the biomass (62%–87.9%). All data on phytoplankton abundance and structural parameters in Vaya confirm the hypertrophic status of the lake and reflect the general negative trend in its development. PMID:26019571

  13. Clinical and pathological characteristics, and prognostic factors for gastric cancer survival in 155 patients in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelov, Kostadin Georgiev; Vasileva, Mariela Borisova; Grozdev, Konstantin Savov; Sokolov, Manol Bonev; Todorov, Georgi

    2014-01-01

    Almost one million new cases of gastric cancer were estimated to have occurred in 2012, making it the fifth most common malignancy in the world. It is also the third leading cause of cancer death of people of both genders worldwide. The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of some prognostic factors for gastric cancer survival in 155 patients treated at Aleksandrovska University Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria. This retrospective study includes patients diagnosed and treated at Department of Surgery of Aleksandrovska University Hospital for the 9-years period of time between January 2005 and December 2013. We classified the prognostic factors as patient-related (age at diagnosis specification, gender, and blood type), tumor-related (N-stage, tumor differentiation, process localization), and treatment related (patients who had radical surgery and adjuvant therapy). We found that blood type is the only statistically significant prognostic factor for overall survival from the patients-related group of factors (p = 0.030). The only prognostic factor from the ones in the tumor related group remains the N-stage according to the TNM classification (p = 0.003). Adjuvant could not prove its value for overall survival (p = 0.675).

  14. Institutional capacity and climate actions. Case studies on Mexico, India and Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudela, F. [El Colegio de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Gupta, S. [Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi, Delhi (India); Peeva, V. [Eneffect, Center for Energy Efficiency, Sofia (Bulgaria); Willems, S. [Global and Structural Policies Division, OECD Environment Directorate, Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    Institutional capacity is increasingly considered as a key factor in implementing current climate actions in different parts of the world as well as in preparing for future actions in the medium term. The companion paper to this document, 'Institutional Capacity and Climate Actions' attempts to provide a general assessment of the institutional challenges to climate mitigation (and, to a lesser extent, adaptation). However, institutional capacity assessments are essentially country-specific. The case studies included in this document present initial capacity assessments for three different countries, namely Mexico, India and Bulgaria. These country-specific capacity assessments provide useful insights on each country's institutional challenges and how they might affect the development of current and future actions. These three case studies also represent different ways to analyse the links between institutional capacity and climate actions. The Mexican case study analyses the recent evolution in the development of capacity for climate change mitigation in Mexico. First, capacity is analyzed in terms of seven clusters of functions, each one with different levels of performance. The document also provides a background of national circumstances that frame the capacity building process in the case of Mexico. A description follows of the recent evolution of the performance of each one of the seven identified functional clusters in Mexico. Both progress and regressions are shown. One of the salient features is the recently acquired capacity to develop in an autonomous way regular inventories of greenhouse gases, particularly in the energy-related sectors. The document also identifies some institutional or political bottlenecks or obstacles that should be overcome if the country is to proceed at a faster pace toward the adoption of quantifiable targets. Finally, the Mexican case study presents some ideas on the relationships between changes in the

  15. Impact of Climate Change on Water Supply of Winter Wheat in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kazandjiev

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available From an agricultural point of view Bulgaria has insuffi cient and uncertain water resources. For the last decades, the potential vegetation period temperature sums submit to a positive tendency and the rainfall sums – to a negative one almost all over the country. This is evidence for the current drought processes determined by the global climate change. The increasing atmospheric drought impacts negatively water content in soil, especially that one available for plants. The paper deals with the impact of the contemporary climate changes upon the available soil water under winter wheat - one of the most important of our country crops for the food balance. The data processed have been gathered from 24 sites and refer to six soil types all over the agricultural territory. They cover the period of the “contemporary climate” (1961-2000. Actualized zoning of the soil water resources and maps of the changes in the availability of soil water have been elaborated. The results obtained allow development of adaptation farming strategies for management of the irrigation scheduling and maintaining of the other agricultural practices according to the climate changes. They will also be used for working out new standards for irrigation network design.

  16. The measles outbreak in Bulgaria, 2009-2011: An epidemiological assessment and lessons learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, Mark; Marinova, Lili; Mankertz, Annette; Gatcheva, Nina; Mihneva, Zafira; Santibanez, Sabine; Kunchev, Angel; Filipova, Radosveta; Kojouharova, Mira

    2016-01-01

    Measles re-emerged in a nationwide outbreak in Bulgaria from 2009 to 2011 despite reported high vaccination coverage at national level. This followed an eight-year period since the last indigenous cases of measles were detected. The Bulgarian National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases collated measles surveillance data for 2009-2011. We analysed data for age group, sex, ethnicity, diagnosis confirmation, vaccination, hospitalisation, disease complications, and death and describe the outbreak control measures taken. The outbreak started in April 2009 following an importation of measles virus and affected 24,364 persons, predominantly Roma. Most cases (73%) were among children measles-containing vaccine. Twenty-four measles-related deaths were reported. The Roma ethnic group was particularly susceptible to measles. The magnitude of the outbreak resulted primarily from the accumulation of susceptible children over time. This outbreak serves as a reminder that both high vaccination coverage and closing of immunity gaps across all sections of the population are crucial to reach the goal of measles elimination.

  17. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MALOCCLUSIONS OF 5 AND 6 YEARS OLD CHILDREN FROM NORTHEASTERN REGION OF BULGARIA

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    Radosveta S. Andreeva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A malocclusion is a misalignment of teeth or incorrect relation between the teeth of the two dental arches. The aim of this presentation is to show the percentage of the children with malocclusions and comparison between children with mild and severe malocclusions from rural and urban regions Materials and methods: 1200 children between 5 and 6 years old from North-eastern Bulgaria (600 urban and 600 rural were examined. WHO standards were applied and the data was collected in WHO statistic forms, which were modified accordingly. The children were divided in 3 groups-healthy, with mild and with severe malocclusions according to Angles classification. Results: More than a half of the urban children are healthy – 51,5% and the biggest percentage of the malocclusions are mild – 31,3%, only 17,2% have severe malocclusions. The rural children are without malocclusions – 23,8% and – 39,2% of them are with severe orthodontic deformations. Relative shares of children with malocclusions from the urban – 48,5% and rural regions – 76,2% The relative share of the healthy children from both urban and rural regions is 37,7%. The relative share of the children with malocclusions from urban and rural regions is 62,3%. Conclusion: A little percent of the rural children are without malocclusions and more of them are with severe ones. We suggest that specialist have to work on better prevention in these regions.

  18. Application of GNSS meteorology for intense precipitation case studies in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanova, Nadezhda; Guerova, Guergana; Stoycheva, Anastasiya

    2014-05-01

    One of the applications of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Meteorology is to study intense precipitation events. Development of these applications is one of the tasks of working group two of the COST Action ES1206 Advanced Global Navigation Satellite Systems tropospheric products for monitoring severe weather events and climate (GNSS4SWEC). This work is a contribution to the COST Action ES1206 and targets the use of Integrated Water Vapour (IWV), derived with the GNSS Meteorology method, during convective events with heavy precipitation in Bulgaria. Twenty-two case studies were selected for 2012. For the analysis two-dimensional maps of the IWV distribution from GNSS and Meteosat are used. A case study on the 27 June 2012 shows a strong south north gradient of the water vapour on the Balkan Peninsula before the intrusion of cold and dry air. By using these techniques the passage of a cold front is timed on the 25 May 2012. The IWV peak is between 06:00 UTC and 12:00 UTC before the passage of the cold front at 18:00 UTC. Future work will be the use of NWP model (WRF)simulations and evaluate the model performance for the selected case studies for 2012.

  19. Naturally-Occurring Entomopathogenic Fungi on Three Bark Beetle Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavimira A. Draganova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae belong to one of the most damaging groups of forest insects and the activity of their natural enemies –pathogens, parasitoids,parasites or predators suppressing their population density,is of great importance. Biodiversity of entomopathogenic fungi on bark beetles in Bulgaria has been investigated sporadically. The aim of this preliminary study was to find, identify and study morphological characteristics of fungal entomopathogens naturally-occurring in populations of three curculionid species – Ips sexdentatus Boern, Ips typographus (L. and Dryocoetes autographus (Ratz.. Dead pest adults were found under the bark of Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies trees collectedfrom forests in the Maleshevska and Vitosha Mountains. Fungal pathogens were isolated into pure cultures on SDAY (Sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast extract and were identified based on morphological characteristics both on the host and in a culture.Morphological characteristics of the isolates were studied by phenotypic methods. The fungal isolates obtained from dead adults of Ips sexdentatus, Ips typographus and D. autographus were found to belong to the species Beauveria bassiana (Bals. – Criv. Vuillemin,Beauveria brongniartii (Saccardo Petch and Isaria farinosa (Holmsk. Fries (anamorph Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes: Hypocreales, Cordycipitaceae. Morphological traits of the isolates are described.

  20. Information technologies in radioactive waste management, applied in NPP-Kozloduy, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeliazkov, J.; Jeliazkova, L.; Atanasov, Sv. [BALBOK Co., Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1994-12-31

    Radioactive waste (RAW) management in NPP is a complex problem, that can be considered as a combination of sub problems, for example scientific, administrative, social, economical, etc. The separate examination of these sub problems does not lead to creation of overall system for optimal RAW management. There`s no doubt that such an administrative system, supported by information technologies, should present in every one existing and planned nuclear power plant to optimize its operation as a whole, not only separate elements. The aim is to avoid the fallacy of the single and the complex. This paper presents a basic part of the whole information management system as defined above that concerns RAW management. The information management system is prepared for NPP-Kozloduy, Bulgaria by means of modern concepts and technological schemes and is aimed to help the administrative personnel in this very important activity - RAW management. On the base of objective data about the available waste and prognoses about arisings in the future, on the base of chosen technologies and equipment the system gives multi-variant plan for treatment, processing and disposal of waste, after the choice of a variant it monitors its application in the practice.

  1. European Citizenship and Youth in Bulgaria: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis between Bulgarians and Bulgarian Turks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Brusaporci

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available European citizenship is a new concept, which has evolved with the process of European integration. Starting from the younger generations, the EU seeks to establish a modern and innovative view of citizenship through three fundamental elements - rights, identity and participation - that could lead to new ways of conceiving the relationship of institutions-citizens and citizenscitizens. The idea of European citizenship tends to overcome the historical idea of national states and national identity. It does this by reinforcing its supranational nature and developing an attitude of tolerance towards diversity and human/minority rights. Thus, to verify the impact European citizenship has on the younger generation in Bulgaria, this research is based on an inter-ethnic sample of 30 interviews (16 Bulgarians, 14 Bulgarian Turks and applies a qualitative comparative analysis method. This research seeks to answer these two main questions: 1 How do young Bulgarians perceive the concept of EU citizenship? 2 How do young Bulgarians perceive the new European citizenship in regard to the inter-ethnic relations in their own country? The study suggests that the EU’s attempt to promote European citizenship is underachieving. On the one hand, young Bulgarian people tend to be well exposed to European citizenship, irrespective of their ethnic belonging. On the other hand, the majority of them are sceptical of the tangible value of European citizenship for the reinforcement of a more encompassing and shared notion of diversity and minority rights.

  2. Comparative Analysis of the Evolution of Business Travel Romania – Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors aim to analyze the evolution of the main tourism indicators in the two neighboringcountries Romania and Bulgaria. Current development of tourism is characterized by a profound renewal ofthe world tourism offer, in particular by developing a range of new tourism products, superior bothqualitatively and quantitatively. Romanian tourism revival will involve reshaping the development of tourismproducts based incentives at national and international tourism. Currently, the Romanian tourism, asotherwise the world is characterized by fierce competition between destinations. Tourist destinations, be theystate or country itself, are becoming increasingly need a new model of tourism policy which influence theircompetitive position in the current competition. A special role in perception destination in the competition ofsimilar offers in the country is playing tourist brand or regional. Tourists and demanding consumers are animportant factor for competitive advantage of a destination. Adapt to offer the consumer needs to be spottednew trends and new opportunities to the tourism product. In the spatial extent of tourism development policy,most have a national or regional scope (in that country. Outside Europe, where international cooperation intourism development is emphasized through the integration of countries within the EU, internationalcooperation is early, sometimes reduced to statements of intent. The competitive position of a destinationdepends on the type thereof, namely the socio-economic development, landscape features, climate, culture,political factors etc. The success of tourist destinations is determined by how it manages to ensure at the sametime to ensure visitors throughout its entire offer experience to match or exceed many alternative destinations.

  3. Mobile ad hoc networking

    CERN Document Server

    John Wiley & Sons

    2004-01-01

    "Assimilating the most up-to-date information on research and development activities in this rapidly growing area, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking covers physical, data link, network, and transport layers, as well as application, security, simulation, and power management issues in sensor, local area, personal, and mobile ad hoc networks. Each of the book's sixteen chapters has been written by a top expert and discusses in-depth the most important topics in the field. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking is an excellent reference and guide for professionals seeking an in-depth examination of topics that also provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art."--Jacket.

  4. Antiproton-Decelerator (AD)

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    When the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) was stopped in 1996, because of its costly operation, a cheaper way of continuing low-energy antiproton physics was sought. The Antiproton-Collector (AC), added in 1987 to the Antiproton Accumulator (AA) to provide a tenfold intensity increase, was converted into the Antiproton-Decelerator (AD). Antiprotons from the target at 3.5 GeV/c are decelerated to 100 MeV/c, and fast-ejected to the experiments. Major changes were necessary. Above all, the conversion from a constant-field machine to one with a magnetic cycle, modulating the field by an impressive factor 35. New systems for stochastic and electron cooling had to be added. Beam diagnostics at an intensity of only 2E7 antiprotons was a challenge. In 2000, the AD began delivery of antiprotons to the experiments.

  5. Value Adding Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Katchamart, Akarapong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how Facilities Management (FM) can add value and develop a management concept that can assist facilities managers in implementing value adding strategies and practices. Theory: The study is based on the management model for FM included in the European FM standards, recent...... theories on added value of FM and real estate and the related concept of Value Management from building projects. The study is related to the EuroFM research group on The Added Value of FM. Design/methodology/approach: The study outlines a preliminary theoretical based management concept, which...... is investigated, tested and discussed based on a case study of an international corporation. Findings: The study shows that the management model for FM creates a relevant starting point but also that stakeholder and relationship management is an essential aspect of Value Adding Management. The case study confirms...

  6. AdS_3: the NHEK generation

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif; Puhm, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    It was argued in arXiv:1203.4227 that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically-AdS_3 x S^3/Z_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  7. The Notions of "A Border", "A Foreign Country (Abroad" and "A Foreigner": In the Relations between the USSR (Russia and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sedakova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A border and related concepts of “abroad” and “a foreigner” are analyzed from the linguistic, semiotic and socio-cultural points of view with regard to the USSR (Russia –Bulgaria relations. In spite of being very close to, even regarded as the 16th republic of the USSR and imitating many Soviet ideas, Bulgaria was a foreign country. The reasons for that on the lingua-cultural data partly of biographical character are discussed in the paper. The border can be a synonym to the language barrier, which exists or does not exist between native speakers of Bulgarian and Russian. The new developments of mutual Russian-Bulgarian language communication on the Bulgaria seashore provide us new data of the symbolism of temporal and spatial borders.

  8. Climate change, agroclimatic resources and agroclimatic zoning of agriculture in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazandjiev, V.; Moteva, M.; Georgieva, V.

    2009-09-01

    The important factors for the agrarian output in Bulgaria are only thermal and water probability. From the two factors the component related to soil moisture is more limited. As well water and temperatures probabilities in the agrarian output are estimated trough sums of temperatures and rainfalls or by derivatives indicators (most frequently named as coefficients or indices). The heat conditions and the heat resources are specified by the continuousness of the vegetative period. Duration of vegetative season is limited for each type of plant, between the spring and autumn steady pass of air temperature across the biological minimum. For the agricultural crops in Bulgaria the three biological minimums: in 5°C are taken for wheat and barley, oat, pea, lentil and sunflower; 10°C for corn, haricot, and soybean and in 15°C for the cotton, vegetables and other spring cultures). The cold and warm period duration are mutually related characteristics. The first period define number of days with the snow fall and days with the snow cover, that are in the basis in the formation of soil moisture reserves after the spring snow melt. Definition of the regions with temperature stress conditions during vegetative season is one of the most important parameters of agroclimatic conditions. The values indicating for the limitations are one or more periods from at least 10 consecutive days with maximal air temperature over 35 °С. More from the agricultures, character for the moderate continental climatic zone are developed normally under temperatures 25-28°С. Temperatures over 28°C are ballast slowing the growth and destroying plants due to the heat tension. The component, limiting in greatest degree growth, development and formation of yields from the agricultural crops are the conditions of moisturizing, present trough atmospheric and soil moisture. The most apparent indicator is the year sum of the rains or their sum by the periods with the average daily temperatures of

  9. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria

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    Angel M Dzhambov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to L den 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.38, 14.68, fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m 3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24, benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m 3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98 and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07. L den remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria.

  10. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to L(den) 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM) 2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m 3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m 3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). L(den) remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria.

  11. Cultural cross-border co-operation among Balkan's countries with the case of Serbia and Bulgaria

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    Stojkov Borislav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural cross-border cooperation includes all fields of cross-border cooperation and gives base for main connections and interactions. Without strengthening cultural cross-border cooperation, it is impossible to build significant relations between neighbors. Culture, as a foundation, an activator and a purpose of development in cross-border regions, represents a cardinal and conditional factor of cross-border cooperation. Today's situation in the Balkans reveals ethnic diversity of this region and territorial dispersion of ethnic groups. This implies at the same time great cultural diversity as well as dispersal of various national cultures over the Balkan's states. During the 20th century Serbia and Bulgaria have very complex political and intrastate relations. But in the last 10 years there have been significant improvements in the cross-border cooperation between Serbia and Bulgaria. The results of these improvements are established Euro-regions and implemented cross-border projects between these two countries. Existing Euro-regions between Serbia and Bulgaria created links between various local authorities and made excellent basis for cross-border initiatives and joint projects to promote common interests across the border and cooperation for the common good of the border areas populations. The well managed cultural cross-border cooperation between these two countries will provide a clear view of common features and raise common identity for the region, contribute to tolerance and understanding between people in this area and enable them to overcome the peripheral status of the border region in their countries and improve the living conditions of the population.

  12. Height-diameter relationships for Scots pine plantations in Bulgaria: optimal combination of model type and application

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    Tatiana Vassileva Stankova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The height-diameter relationship is an important and extensively investigated forest model, but generalized and mixed-effects models of wider applicability are currently lacking in the forest modeling literature for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. plantations in Bulgaria. Considering the practical advantages of deterministic and mixed-effects models, the present study aims to derive a generalized deterministic height-diameter relationship and a simple mixed-effects model for plantation-grown Scots pine in Bulgaria. Ten generalized and six local models of adequate mathematical properties were selected and examined in several subsequent steps with a representative data set. A deterministic model was derived for tree height reconstruction from the individual tree diameters, stand dominant height and diameter, number of trees per hectare and stand age. Mixed-effects models were developed from the individual-tree and stand diameters and heights applicable to determine the height-diameter relationship in field surveys. Both types of models can be applied with confidence, according to their advantages and specifications, for estimating the height-diameter relationship of Scots pine plantations in Bulgaria, presenting a unique contribution for the particular species, study area and type of model. The choice of the tested models is relevant to the height-diameter relationship investigation of biologically related and geographically close species and types of stands and the study procedure allows repetition of the work to provide reliable solutions of the problem where information on such type of model is deficient or incomplete. 

  13. Trans-border (north-east Serbia/north-west Bulgaria correlations of the Jurassic lithostratigraphic units

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    Tchoumatchenco Platon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, correlations of the Jurassic sediments from NE Serbia with those of NW Bulgaria are made. The following Jurassic palaeogeographic units: the Eastern Getic, the Infra-Getic and the Moesian Platform are included in the study. The East Getic was studied in the outcrops near Rgotina, where the sedimentation started in the Hettangian and continued during the Callovian-Late Jurassic and is represented by platform carbonates. The Infra-Getic is documented by the sections of Dobra (Pesača and the allochtonous sediments near the Štubik. Very important for the Infra-Getic are the Late Jurassic volcano-sedimentary deposits of the Vratarnica Series, which crop out near Vratarnica Village. The Jurassic Moesian platform was studied in the sections near D. Milanovac and Novo Korito (Serbia and in their prolongation in NW Bulgaria into the Gornobelotintsi palaeograben. Very important are the correlation in the region of Vrška Čuka (Serbia and Vrashka Chuka (Bulgaria - Rabisha Village (Magura Cave. A revision of the Jurassic sediments on the Vidin palaeohorst, which were studied in the Belogradchik palaeohorst, Gorno-Belotintsi palaeograben, Belimel palaeohorst and the Mihaylovgrad palaeograben, is made. The sedimentation on the Vidin palaeohorst started during different parts of the Middle Jurassic, and in the Mihaylovgrad palaeograben during the Hettangian (Lower Jurassic where the sediments were deposited in relatively deeper water conditions. To south, the relatively shallow water sediments deposited on the Jurassic Vratsa palaeohorst on the southern board of the Mihaylovgrad palaeograben are described.

  14. Proximate composition of seeds and seed oils from melon (Cucumis melo L. cultivated in Bulgaria

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    Zhana Petkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of three varieties of melon (Cucumis melo L. from Bulgaria were analyzed for their chemical composition and a detailed study of their lipids was carried out. Chemical composition values were as follows: fat content ranged from 41.6 to 44.5%, protein 34.4 to 39.8%, crude fiber 4.5 to 8.5%, carbohydrates 8.2 to 12.7%, soluble sugars 3.7 to 4.2%, and minerals 4.6 to 5.1%. The content of sterols, phospholipids, and tocopherols in the oils was 0.6, 0.7–1.7%, and 435–828 mg/kg, respectively. The major fatty acid in lipids was linoleic (51.1–58.5%, followed by oleic acid (24.8–25.6%. The trilinolein (31.3–32.2%, oleo dilinolein (31.0–34.0%, and palmitoyl dilinolein (14.9–22.3% have represented 80.0% from the total triglyceride composition of the melon seeds oil. β-Sitosterol predominated in both free and esterified sterols, being, respectively, 52.9–70.8 and 50.4–58.4%. Phosphatidylinositol (24.4–33.9%, phosphatidylcholine (23.0–33.1%, and phosphatidylethanolamine (8.4–17.1% were the main phospholipids. Palmitic acid (34.4–61.7% was the major fatty acid of the phospholipids, followed by oleic acid (8.9–27.2%. Linoleic acid (32.7–39.1% was the main component among the fatty acids of the sterol esters, followed by oleic acid (25.1–30.7%. In the tocopherol fraction of melon seed oils, the main component γ-tocopherol varied from 71.4 to 91.5%.

  15. ETHICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF FUNCTIONING OF ETHIC COMMITTEES IN BULGARIA

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    Mariela Deliverska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research has to be based on ethical standards that promote the protection of human rights. On a national level, the domestic legislation of the Republic of Bulgaria foresees a procedure for obtaining an opinion from the Ethics Committee for Multicentre Trials in order to introduce a substantial change in a clinical trial and non-interventional study. The procedure aims to evaluate the compliance of the planned clinical trial with the norms of good clinical practice, the requirements of the Medicinal Products in Human Medicine Act. On European Union level, standards have been set down in Regulation (EC No. 1901/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 December 2006 on medicinal products for paediatric use. The licensing regime that has been introduced on a national level requires the performance of documentation evaluation that addresses a major change in a clinical trial and non-interventional research. Legal definitions of the terms "principal investigator" and "coordinating investigator" have been introduced. The "principal investigator" is the medical doctor or the dentist, designated by the sponsor, who leads the overall execution of the clinical trial in accordance with the approved protocol and good clinical practice guidelines and is responsible for the researchers. The "coordinating researcher" is a researcher appointed to coordinate researchers from different centres participating in a multicentre trial. Ethic committees performing review have to provide independent advice on the extent to which a biomedical research proposal complies with recognized ethical standards. Scientific research must necessarily conform to commonly accepted scientific principles and be based on thorough knowledge of scientific literature and other relevant sources of information.

  16. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF RESEARCH PROJECT ACTIVITIES PERFORMED AT MEDICAL UNIVERSITIES IN BULGARIA.

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    Svetoslav Garov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are five Bulgarian medical universities in the cities of Sofia, Plovdiv, Varna, Pleven and Stara Zagora. A major priority of medical universities is to encourage research activities mainly aimed at preparation and implementation of research projects. Projects are managed by the participating organizations called “beneficiaries”. Beneficiaries develop projects, apply for finances and if approved they implement those projects.Aim: The purpose of our study is to examine the organizational structure of research project activities on the macro level and on the micro level in Bulgarian medical universities.Material and methods: In order to define the separate elements of the organizational structure and to analyze the relations and interaction between them we have applied a documentary and sociological approach. Results: During the last six years there was a significant increase in the number and the overall annual financial value of the projects performed at medical universities in Bulgaria. The reasons for such increase are: managers realizing the advantages of and benefits from the implementation of research projects ensuring high quality modernization of research units’ equipment and facilities; access to innovative technologies; development of interdisciplinary relations, etc. Benefits arising from improved results motivate us to consider as appropriate some additional investments aimed at increasing the number of team members and further optimization of the currently existing structures (research centers in charge of research with the purpose of achieving even better results in this particular field. Conclusion: The role of research project activities in medical universities’ research field is of vital importance for the educational institutions’ success. Taking into consideration the changed conditions, European possibilities and the highly competitive environment, realizing this aspect will be essential for the

  17. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Activating Mutations in Squamous Histology of Lung Cancer Patients of Southern Bulgaria

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    Genova Silvia N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is only limited data on the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR activating mutations in squamous cell carcinomas and adenosquamous carcinomas of the lung in patients of the Southern Bulgarian region and the efficacy of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. AIM: Previous reports for Bulgarian population showed high incidence of EGFR mutations in the squamous cell carcinomas, so we set the goal to investigate their frequency in Southern Bulgaria, after precise immunohistochemical verification of lung cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-six lung carcinomas were included in this prospective study. All biopsies were initially analysed with p63, TTF1, Napsin A, CK7, CK34βE12, synaptophysin, CK20 and CDX2. Two hundred and twenty-five non-small cell lung carcinomas were studied with real-time PCR technology to assess the status of the EGFR gene. RESULTS: We detected 132 adenocarcinomas (58.7%, 89 squamous cell carcinomas (39.2%, 4 adenosquamous carcinomas (1.8%, 9 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (3.8% and 2 metastatic colorectal adenocarcinomas (0.8%. Activating mutations in the EGF receptor had 3 out of 89 squamous cell carcinomas (3.37%. We have established mutations in L858R, deletion in exon 19 and rare mutation in S7681. One out of four adenosquamous carcinomas had a point mutation in the L858R (25%. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of EGFR mutations we found in lung squamous cell carcinomas in a Southern Bulgarian region is lower than that in European countries. Ethnic diversity in the region does not play role of an independent predictive factor in terms of mutation frequency.

  18. Palynological evidence for late Westphalian-early Stephanian vegetation change in the Dobrudzha Coalfield, NE Bulgaria

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    Dimitrova, T.K.H.; Cleal, C.J. [National Museum of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    The Dobrudzha Coalfield in northeast Bulgaria has coal-bearing deposits ranging from latest Namurian to early Stephanian age (late Bashkirian to Moscovian age). Palynology of the coals in the upper Makedonka, Krupen and Gurkovo formations has been used to identify major changes in the vegetation during late Westphalian and early Stephanian times. The palynomorphs were grouped in two different ways (according to general morphotype and according to parent plant group) and stratigraphical trends in the two sets of groups used to identify vegetation change through the succession. Detrended Correspondence Analysis was also used to identify ecological relationships between the palynofloras. In the upper Makedonka and Krupen formations, lycophyte spores mostly comprise 15-25 % of the palynofloras in the thicker seams, but in the thinner coals they can represent up to 55 %. Of the other plant groups, ferns are the most abundant, representing 31-69 % in the thicker seams, 12-41 % in the thinner seams. In the Gurkovo Formation coals, lycophytes form an even smaller part of the palynological spectra, usually less than 10 % and in only one sample just over 25 %; fern spores make up 43-57 % of the palynofloras. This is in contrast to the palynofloras reported from contemporaneous elastic deposits in South Wales, most of which consist mostly of 34-60 % lycophyte spores and 14-34 % fern spores. Even more marked is the difference from the contemporancous coals formed in lowland settings in the USA, which have mostly {gt} 50 % lycophyte spores. This evidence suggests that the timing of the decline in abundance of arborescent lycophytes varied according to elevation above sea-level. In lowland coastal settings, the lycophytes remained dominant until middle-late Cantabrian times, but in more inland areas they were progressively replaced mainly by arborescent ferns during late Westphalian times.

  19. Dermatologic Surgery and Dermatologic Oncology as an Essential Part of the Modern Dermatology in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernev, Georgi; Lozev, Ilia; Lotti, Torello; Wollina, Uwe; Gianfaldoni, Serena; Guarneri, Claudio; Lotti, Jacopo; França, Katlein; Batashki, Atanas; Chokoeva, Anastasiya

    2017-07-25

    Dermatosurgery and dermatooncology are an integral part of dermatology as a speciality, and this postulate is strictly respected in a high percentage of European dermatological units. Due to the fact that a number of other specialties interweave with the subject of therapy - the surgical treatment of the patient with skin tumors, the positioning of dermatosurgery as part of dermatology is generally controversial (according to some), and at the same time is often the subject of a number of debates and conflicts. These include maxillofacial surgeons, plastic surgeons, regenerative and reconstructive surgeons, surgical and medical oncologist, etc. The advantages of these specialities are mainly based on good medical practice and good surgical techniques that are applied. In contrast, their disadvantages are based on the lack of good awareness of the initial surgical approach as well as the need for time-adjusted and accurately performed additional surgical interventions which should befurthermore careful scheduled with the relevant oncology units. Losing this thread, in practice, it turns out that we are losing the patients themselves or, looking laconically, we are working with reduced efficiency and effectiveness. Although for the last 15 years the positions of these sub-sectors in Bulgaria had been underdeveloped, a certain ascent has been observed nowadays or from a couple of years ago. This advance is undoubtedly due to the influence of the German Dermatological School, presented by Prof. Dr. Uwe Wollina, Head of Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology in Dresden, Germany, as well as due to other respected representative of the Italian Dermatological School - in the face of Prof. Dr. Torello Lotti, Head of the Dermatology Unit at G Marconi University of Rome, Italy.

  20. QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY ON CRANIOMANDIBULAR DISORDER ISSUES IN STUDENTS' AND POST-GRADUATE TRAINING IN BULGARIA.

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    Mariana Dimova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of craniomandibular disorders (CMD among the Bulgarian population as well as the risk factors for unlocking bruxism and bruxomania mechanisms pose a demand for education on these issues reflecting modern science. The authors' aim is to examine the subjective assessment of participants in “DAYS OF PROSTHETICS, Sofia, 15 -16 March 2014”, regarding: 1.Prevelance of CMD in the country; 2. Education and training of students and post-graduates in the issues related to diagnostics and treatment of craniomandibular disorders; 3. Theoretical background for successful treatment of patients with bruxism and bruxomania. Materials and methods: For the purpose of the present research 192 participants have been surveyed - among them 163 are dentists and 29 are students in the 4th and 5th year of study. The survey feedback has been obtained via an anonymous questionnaire consisting of 8 questions targeted at dentists' assessment of CMD prevalence and distribution, training in CMD issues in Bulgaria and the treatment of patients with bruxism and bruxomania. The results obtained indicate that 84.0% - 93.1% (95% CI of respondents, working as dentists in the country, expressed the view that students' curriculum lacks an overall concept for training them in the diagnostics and treatment of CMD. 79.6% - 90.2% (95% CI of participants, dentists in the country, define post-graduate training in CMD as insufficient or lacking. Conclusion: The development and promotion of a working platform for early screening, diagnostics and treatment of CMD for timely referral to a specialized treatment is necessary and expected by the professional community in our country.

  1. Genome Instability of Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera, Chironomidae from Polluted Water Basins in Bulgaria

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    Julia Ilkova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of Chironomus riparius Mg. (Chironomidae, Diptera collected from two polluted water basins in Bulgaria, the Maritsa and Chaya Rivers (adjacent to Plovdiv and Asenovgrad respectively, a small pool (near Plovdiv plus controls reared in the laboratory were studied. High concentrations of the heavy metals Pb, Cu and Cd were recorded in the sediments of the polluted stations. Marked somatic structural chromosome aberrations were found in C. riparius salivary polytene chromosomes from the field stations and their frequency was significantly higher (p<0.01 compared to the control. The observed somatic chromosome changes are discussed as a response of the chironomid genome to aquatic pollution. A new cytogenetic index based on the number of aberrations found in larvae from polluted regions in comparison with the control was applied to the data to more easily evaluate the degree of heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Our study of a polluted site near the River Chaya showed that the somatic index was very high at 3.35 for 2010 and 11.66 for 2013 compared to 0.5 in the control. The cytogenetic index was effective in showing that all studied sites were highly polluted in comparison with the control. To determine the mechanism involved in the concentration of aberration breakpoints within specific regions of the chironomid polytene chromosome the FISH method was applied. The localization of a transposable element TFB1 along the polytene chromosomes of C. riparius was analyzed and the sites of localization were compared with breakpoints of chromosome aberrations. A significant correlation (p<0.05 was found which shows that most of the aberrations do not appear randomly but are concentrated in sites rich in transposable elements.

  2. Study Protocol on Cognitive Performance in Bulgaria, Croatia, and the Netherlands: The Normacog Brief Battery

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    Lea Jakob

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Normacog Brief Battery (NBB provides a comprehensive overview of an individual’s cognitive functioning within a short amount of time. It was originally developed for the Spanish population in Spain. However, there is a considerable need for brief batteries in clinical neuropsychological assessment, especially in eastern European countries. Cultural background and other individual characteristics—such as age, level of education, and sex—are shown to influence both cognition and patients’ performance on neuropsychological tests. Therefore, it is important to develop understanding of how and why culture impacts on cognitive testing and determine which sociodemographic variables affect cognitive performance. The current study aims to translate, adapt, and standardize the NBB in Bulgaria, Croatia, and the Netherlands, and to analyze the effect of sex, age, and education level on cognitive performance between these three countries. This brief battery assesses eleven cognitive domains, including those most currently relevant in cognition such as premorbid intelligence, attention, executive function, processing speed, and memory. The translation and adaptation of the battery for different cultures will be done using the back-translation process. After exclusion criteria, the current study will include a total sample of three hundred participants (≥18 years old. The samples of 100 participants per country will be balanced through the consideration of their age and level of education. Effects of the sociodemographic variables (age, level of education, and sex on cognitive performance are expected. Furthermore, this relationship is expected to differ across countries. A multivariate hierarchical linear regression will be used and exploratory analysis will be carried out to investigate further effects. The results will be particularly valuable for future research and assessment in cognitive performance. The growing demand for accurate and fast

  3. Spectroscopic study of barite from the Kremikovtsi Deposit (Bulgaria with implication for its origin

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    Dimova Maya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Different genetic types (endogene and supergene of barite from the Kremikovtsi deposit (Bulgaria were studied by Laser-induced time-resolved luminescence (LITRL, Infrared (IR and Raman spectroscopy. The IR spectra of the endogene barites are quite similar to those reported in the literature and do not show appreciable differences among them. The IR spectra of the supergene barites are almost identical to those of the endogene ones in respect to the positions of the vibrational modes ν1, ν2 and ν4 of SO4 2 except for a shift of 3 cm-1 for the ν 3 band. They displayed a presence of additional bands, which are close to the ν3 and ν1 modes of CO3 2- in calcite. The Raman studies support the suggestion that the supergene barite contains traces of calcite. The modern LITRL technique allowed the detection of several luminescent centers in the endogene barite. Eu3+ luminescence was identified for the first time in barite. The different emission spectra at 266 and 532 nm excitations suggest there are at least 2 structural positions for Eu3+ in the barite crystal lattice. The luminescent spectra also revealed a rather unusual violet-blue Nd3+ emission, which usually occurs in the IR spectral range, as well as emissions of Ce3+, Eu2+, Tb3+, Ag+, Sn2+(? and UO2 2+. The oxidation state of cations isomorphically present in the barite crystal lattice suggests the endogene barite in the Kremikovtsi deposit precipitated from reduced fluids supposedly subjected to cooling (conductive/convective and oxidation (mixing with seawater.

  4. Dynamic ad hoc networks

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    Rashvand, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the exciting new application paradigm of using amalgamated technologies of the Internet and wireless, the next generation communication networks (also called 'ubiquitous', 'complex' and 'unstructured' networking) are changing the way we develop and apply our future systems and services at home and on local, national and global scales. Whatever the interconnection - a WiMAX enabled networked mobile vehicle, MEMS or nanotechnology enabled distributed sensor systems, Vehicular Ad hoc Networking (VANET) or Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) - all can be classified under new networking s

  5. An Examination of Teacher's Pedagogical Philosophical Beliefs of Secondary Science Teachers in Sofia Public Schools, Sofia, Bulgaria

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    E. Boiadjieva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation sought understand of the pedagogical philosophies of Bulgarian secondary science teachers in public schools in Sofia, Bulgaria, using the instrument that derived information for this study was an interview protocol consisting of six open-ended questions, with a numerical scoring analysis: the Teachers Pedagogical Philosophy Interview (TPPI. A review of literature shows there is no research on the pedagogical philosophical basis of teacher’s beliefs on teaching or on the effect of integrating constructivist teaching methodology in Bulgarian secondary science classrooms.

  6. An Analysis of Some Highly-Structured Networks of Human Smuggling and Trafficking from Albania and Bulgaria to Belgium

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    Johan Leman

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors examine the logistic ecology of 30 large-scale networks that were active in human smuggling and trafficking from Albania and Bulgaria to Belgium (1995–2003. Ten networks were studied in greater detail in order to determine three final profiles of networks, based on their use of structural and operational intermediary structures. They are called the “individual infiltration” and the “structural infiltration” human smuggling patterns, and the “violent-control prostitution” trafficking pattern. It should be noted that the business is organized in such a way that the organizers of the logistical support are never inculpated.

  7. Species Diversity and Distribution of Amphibians and Reptiles in Nature Park "Sinite Kamani" in Stara Planina Mt. (Bulgaria

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    Stanimira R. Deleva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents briefly the species composition and distribution of the amphibians and reptiles in the Nature Park "Sinite Kamani" in Stara Planina Mnt. Bulgaria, based on a 2×2 km UTM grid. Between 2012 and 2014, we identified total 20 species (7 amphibians and 13 reptiles. We documented three new amphibian species for the region (Hyla arborea, Rana dalmatina and Rana graeca, which is discovered for the area for the first time and three species of reptiles (Testudo hermanni, Ablepharus kitaibelii and Lacerta trilienata. The contemporary conservation status for each species is presented and conservation threats and problems, specific for the park are discussed.

  8. Electrical fields in the region of the main ionospheric trough according to data from the Intercosmos-Bulgaria-1300 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanev, G.; Teodosiev, D.; Doncheva, N.; Danov, D.; Kraleva, L.; Chmirev, V.; Isaev, N.; Pushchaev, P.

    Measurements of the constant electric field vector in the region of the midlatitude ionospheric trough have been obtained using the IESP-IPMP electromagnetic instrument complex on board the Intercosmos-Bulgaria 1300 satellite. Electromagnetic field data for the nighttime four-hour period of quiet geomagnetic conditions are analyzed, and the results are discussed. It is shown that the midlatitude plasma-density trough is due less to local electric field conditions than to plasma temperature variations and charged particle flows in other parts of the ionosphere.

  9. Description of Diorchis thracica n. sp. (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae) from the ruddy shelduck Tadorna ferruginea (Pallas) (Anseriformes, Anatidae) in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Margarita H; Georgiev, Boyko B; Vasileva, Gergana P

    2015-07-01

    Diorchis thracica n. sp. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Hymenolepididae) is described from the ruddy shelduck Tadorna ferruginea (Pallas) (Aves, Anseriformes, Anatidae), collected in the vicinities of Radnevo, Stara Zagora Region, Bulgaria. The new species is differentiated from other members of Diorchis Clerc, 1903 by possessing rostellar hooks with length of 36 µm, a thick-walled cirrus-sac with strong longitudinal muscular fibres in its middle part and a copulatory vagina with two sphincters. Main morphological criteria for distinguishing species of the genus Diorchis are discussed.

  10. THE ELECTRONIC COMMERCE IN THE TRAVEL AGENCIES’ ACTIVITIES IN BULGARIA AND TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR ITS ELABORATION

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    Velina Kazandzhieva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The data used in the paper and the sources of information studied, show regaining of the positions and the role of travel agencies in the distribution system of tourism. The main trends and special features of the European on-line tourist market have been analyzed, as well as the state of the electronic commerce in travel agencies in Bulgaria. Alternatives and values-generating strategies for the intermediary business through efficient use of the advantages of е-commerce have been pointed out.

  11. [The quantities of dried venom collected from specimens of Vipera ammodytes L., 1758 (Reptilia, Viperidae) in captivity in Bulgaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavtchev, R S

    1985-12-01

    Some researches have been made to obtain more data about quantities of dried venom collected from Vipera ammodytes L., 1758 in captivity. The minimal quantity of dried venom collected by exemplar is 9.7 mg to 36.4 mg and the maximal quantity is 49.0 mg to 90.3 mg. From 810 exemplars of V. ammodytes of Bulgaria and 9 months of investigations, 10597 samples were made, with a total of 298.164 g of dried venom (average for animal: 28.14 mg).

  12. Influence of floral assemblage, facies and diagenesis on petrography and organic geochemistry of the Eocene Bourgas coal and the Miocene Maritza-East lignite (Bulgaria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel, A.; Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Zdravkov, A.; Kostova, I.; Gratzer, R. [University of Leoben, Leoben (Austria)

    2005-07-01

    Numerous differences in the petrography and organic geochemistry of two Tertiary, low rank coal deposits of Bulgaria, formed within comparable depositional environments, are outlined. Different floral assemblages are indicated as the main sources of organic matter. For the Eocene Bourgas sub-bituminous coals a warm climate plant community dominated by angiosperms is reflected in the biomarker composition, whereas a coniferous flora was the main source of the resinous organic matter of the Miocene Maritza-East lignite. The results are in agreement with palaeobotanical data. These differences in the peat forming vegetation of the Paleogene compared to the Neogene of Bulgaria are attributed to decreasing temperature during the Tertiary.

  13. D-branes in Lorentzian AdS(3)

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, D

    2005-01-01

    We study the exact construction of D-branes in Lorentzian AdS(3). We start by defining a family of conformal field theories that gives a natural Euclidean version of the SL(2,R) CFT and does not correspond to H(3)+, the analytic continuation of AdS(3). We argue that one can recuperate the exact CFT results of Lorentzian AdS(3), upon an analytic continuation in the moduli space of these conformal field theories. Then we construct exact boundary states for various symmetric and symmetry-breaking D-branes in AdS(3).

  14. Localization on $AdS_2\\times S^1$

    CERN Document Server

    David, Justin R; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Narain, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Conformal symmetry relates the metric on $AdS_2 \\times S^{1}$ to that of $S^3$. This implies that under a suitable choice of boundary conditions for fields on $AdS_2$ the partition function of conformal field theories on these spaces must agree which makes $AdS_2 \\times S^{1}$ a good testing ground to study localization on non-compact spaces. We study supersymmetry on $AdS_2\\times S^1$ and determine the localizing Lagrangian for ${\\cal N}=2$ supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory on $AdS_2\\times S^1$. We evaluate the partition function of ${\\cal N}=2$ supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory on $AdS_2 \\times S^1$ using localization, where the radius of $S^1$ is $q$ times that of $AdS_2$. With boundary conditions on $AdS_2\\times S^1$ which ensure that all the physical fields are normalizable and lie in the space of square integrable wave functions in $AdS_2$, the result for the partition function precisely agrees with that of the theory on the $q$-fold covering of $S^3$.

  15. Evaluation of the hexagonal and spherical model of vocational interests in the young people in Serbia and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedrih Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to validate Holland’s hexagonal and Tracey’s spherical model of vocational interests in young adults in Serbia and Bulgaria. To this end, 1250 participants, 560 from Serbia and 690 from Bulgaria, filled in Serbian and Bulgarian versions of the Personal Globe Inventory (PGI, Tracey, 2002. Hubert and Arabie’s randomization test of hypothetical orders, multidimensional scaling with fixed coordinates, Myors test and exploratory factor analysis were used. The results showed that the hexagonal and spherical models well explained the structure of vocational interests in both samples. The level of fit of the hexagonal model to the data obtained by using the PGI was generally higher than those established in the studies that used other Holland-based instruments. Furthermore, the levels of fit of both hexagonal and spherical model were in the same range like those obtained in previous studies in other countries. The results also pointed out a remarkable similarity in the structure of vocational interests in the Bulgarian and Serbian samples. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179002

  16. Organisation and financing of the health care systems of Bulgaria and Greece – what are the parallels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Exadaktylos Nikolaos M

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bulgarian and Greek Medical Care systems have been reformated the last fifteen years. The aim of this study was an examination and comparison of the Bulgarian and Greek Medical Care Systems. Methods This study was prepared by using all the published data related to both Bulgarian and Greek Medical Care systems. Besides, personal communications with related offices such as administration offices of hospitals and Ministries of Health were made. Results In both countries, besides the compulsory insurance there is also additional voluntary insurance which is provided by private companies. The most important difference is the family doctor (specialist in general medicine existing in Bulgaria. Every insured person needs a 'referral form' completed by the family doctor before visiting a hospital for medical attention (except emergencies. In contrast, in Greece an insured person can directly visit any hospital without needing any forms and independent of the severity of their health problem. An important disadvantage of the Greek health system is the low number of hospitals (139, in relation to population. In contrast, there are 211 hospitals in Bulgaria, although its population is lower than in Greece. Conclusion In both Greek and Bulgarian health systems changes must be done to solve the problems related to informal payments, limited financing, large debts, lack of appropriate investment policy, lack of an objective method for the costing of medical activities and inefficient management.

  17. Isotopic characterisation of lead in contaminated soils from the vicinity of a non-ferrous metal smelter near Plovdiv, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, Jeffrey R. [Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.bacon@macaulay.ac.uk; Dinev, Nikolai S. [N Poushkarov Institute of Soil Science and Agroecology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2005-03-01

    Soil samples from the vicinity of a non-ferrous metal smelter near Plovdiv, Bulgaria contained very high concentrations of cadmium, lead and zinc (up to 140, 4900 and 5900 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively). A roadside soil in a relatively uncontaminated area also contained high concentrations of the same metals (24, 1550 and 1870 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively) indicating that the transport of ores could be a source of contamination. Even though the lead isotope ratios in all the samples fell within a very narrow range (for example, 1.186-1.195 for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb), the samples could be differentiated into three distinct groups: ores ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios of 1.1874-1.1884 and 2.4755-2.4807, respectively), current deposition (1.1864 and 2.4704-2.4711, respectively) and local background (1.1927-1.1951 and 2.4772-2.4809, respectively). Although most of the current deposition has its origin in the ores used at the smelter, up to 12% could be from other sources such as petrol lead. - Although soils in the vicinity of a non-ferrous metal smelter near Plovdiv, Bulgaria, have become highly contaminated with the ores used, lead isotope analysis has revealed that up to 12% of current deposition could be from other sources such as petrol lead.

  18. POLLUTION OF SHOKARSKI STORMWATER CANAL AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE QUALITY OF THE VARNA BLACK SEA COASTAL AREA, BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Simeonova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of Shokarski stormwater canal and its influence on the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria. In the present study was investigated the pollution of Shokаrski stormwater canal, discharging its water into the Varna Black Sea coastal area. Monitoring was carried out during 2011 year at 5 sites along the canal water flow. The pollution was determined by organoleptic and physico- chemical characteristics, nutrients concentrations and the organic load. Critical levels of dissolved oxygen were measured at some of the monitoring sites ranging from 0,65 to 2,79 mg/dm3. Ammonium and nitrite concentrations were above the threshold limits at all sites. The phosphates’ concentrations varied very dynamically ranging from 0,18 to 11,8 mg/dm3 and in most of the cases exceeded the threshold limit. Very high levels of biochemically degradable organic pollutants were determined with biochemical oxygen demand values reaching- 68,96 mg/dm3. The Shokarski canal pollution could be considered as a tremendous thread for the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria.

  19. THE EFFECT OF STRUCTURAL FUNDS ON REGIONAL COMPETITIVENESS IN THE NEW EU COUNTRIES: THE CASE OF ROMANIA AND BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GLIGOR DELIA ANCA GABRIELA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of internationalization and globalization of the world economy, regional competitiveness is thoroughly debated by politicians and policy makers, emphasizing measurable differences between development regions, without any clear political or conceptual framework. The process of European Union integration is a main driving force of change, aiming to increase the efficiency and competitiveness of the fragmented European economy in the face of increasing internationalization. This often exposes countries and regions with unequal resources and technology and different economic structures to international competition. Such is the case of Romania and Bulgaria, countries that after joining the European Union in 2007 were given an opportunity to recover in terms of regional competitiveness and economic growth, namely structural funds as a form of nonrefundable European financial help to disadvantaged regions of member states. This research is thus focused on underlining and analyzing the relation between structural funds’ absorption and the degree of regional competitiveness for the development regions of Romania and Bulgaria, during their first programming period, through identifying and analyzing the factors that influence regional competitiveness and the amount of structural funds absorbed. First, two competitiveness country profiles are created based on data provided by relevant international organisms and second, an impact analysis is developed using six regional competitiveness indicators, grouped into three categories (economic, social and technological. Results show that EU funds critically influence the competitiveness of Romanian and Bulgarian regions, providing reliable data for policy decision makers

  20. Ads in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulan Roro Retno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetics industry created the beauty myth for women through advertising. A cosmetic ad in Indonesia has spread a new concept of white skin: East Asia beauty myth. The white concept of Asia white skin basically derived from colonial legacy. The purpose of the research was analyzing the beauty myth in Indonesia ads using postcolonial perspective. The principal result brought the discourse analysis and postcolonial perspective a new insight in communication research. Particularly on media and cultural studies. Major conclusions showed that the beauty myth since the Dutch colonial period never been change. The main concept is always in colonialism’s idea: “white is better”. The West is better than the East.

  1. Adding linear orders

    CERN Document Server

    Shelah, Saharon

    2011-01-01

    We address the following question: Can we expand an NIP theory by adding a linear order such that the expansion is still NIP? Easily, if acl(A)=A for all A, then this is true. Otherwise, we give counterexamples. More precisely, there is a totally categorical theory for which every expansion by a linear order has IP. There is also an \\omega-stable NDOP theory for which every expansion by a linear order interprets bounded arithmetic.

  2. A study on early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal infection, Bulgaria, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova-Christova, M; Vacheva, R; Decheva, A; Nikolov, A; Slancheva, B; Stoichkova, D; Christova, E; Shopova, E; Hitrova, S; Masseva, A; Yarakova, N; Kraleva, I; Takova, T S; Dimitrova, N; Dobreva, A

    2014-09-01

    This study examines neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) colonization and its relation to early-onset GBS disease (EOGBSD), based upon the experience of leading obstetrics and gynecology centers in Bulgaria. The objectives of the study were to update neonatal colonization rates and to assess relationships between clinically differentiated cases (culture-proven GBS newborns) and risk factors inherent to the infant and mother, using a computerized file. The neonatal GBS colonization rate ranged from 5.48 to 12.19 per 1000 live births. Maternal-fetal infection (MFI, a provisional clinical diagnosis in culture-proven colonized infants with initial signs of infection that is usually overcome with antibiotic treatment) and/or intrapartum asphyxia (IA) have been demonstrated as the most frequent clinical manifestations, with significant correlations for the primary diagnosis, but not affirmative for the final diagnosis at discharge, resulting from adequate treatment of neonates. MFI and IA were significantly related to prematurity, and reciprocally, prematurity was associated with the risk of MFI, indirectly suggesting that preterm birth or PPROM (preterm premature rupture of membranes, an obstetric indication associated with early labor and delivery, one of the major causes of preterm birth) is a substantial risk factor for EOGBSD. The regression analysis indicated that in the case of a newborn with MFI, a birth weight 593.58 g lower than the birth weight of an infant without this diagnosis might be expected. Testing the inverse relationship, i.e., the way birth weight influences a certain diagnosis (logistic regression) established the presence of a relationship between birth weight categories (degree of prematurity) and the diagnosis of MFI. The proportions and odds ratios, converted into probabilities that a baby would develop MFI, indicate the particularly high risk for newborns with extremely low and very low birth weight: extremely low birth weight (≤1000 g), the

  3. THE HIDDEN PICTURE: UNHEALTHY EATING ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS IN A NON-CLINICAL POPULATION FROM BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Massaldjieva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Eating disorders have been intensively researched over recent decades. However, there has been insufficient research into the early assessments for detecting the risk of developing disordered eating. We report preliminary results from a project aiming to assess the prevalence of eating attitudes and behaviors that heighten the risk of eating disorders. The study examines a non-clinical sample of adolescents and adults from two cities of South Bulgaria.METHODS: In this cross-sectional epidemiological study, a total of 1285 volunteers of 828 females and 453 males, aged 14 to 59 years, were surveyed to assess disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. For this purpose, the study used the ‘SCOFF’ questionnaire, the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS, and the Eating Attitudes and Behaviors Questionnaire (EABQ, which was developed for this study.RESULTS: The proportion of these volunteers underweight (body mass index below 17.5 was 9.8%. Of the total subject, 34.7% provided two or more positive answers for the SCOFF questionnaire (two being the upper threshold for indicating 100% sensitivity to anorexia and bulimia. The results differed between males and females: 21.6% and 42.1%, respectively, in this regard. A factor analysis (oblimin rotation of EABQ items revealed four main factors: body shape and weight concerns, personal control over eating and calorie intake, dieting, and preoccupation with food and binge eating. A Spearman’s correlation analysis showed moderately significant correlations (p < 0.001 between the total scores of the SCOFF questionnaire, EABQ, and the scores for three groups of items in the EDDS for assessing eating attitudes and behaviors.CONCLUSION: We found a greater ED risk in adolescents compared with the older groups and in females compared with males. One fifth of males studied were at high risk of ED and ages between 19 and 39 years also appeared at risk. The EABQ was validated as a sensitive and

  4. AdS 3-manifolds and Higgs bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alessandrini, Daniele; Li, Qiongling

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationships between closed AdS 3-manifolds and Higgs bundles. We have a new way to construct AdS structures that allows us to see many of their properties explicitly, for example we can recover the very recent formula by Tholozan for the volumes. We also find...

  5. Patterns of genetic diversity resulting from bottlenecks in European black pine, with implications on local genetic conservation and management practices in Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naydenov, Krassimir D.; Mladenov, Ivica; Alexandrov, Alexander; Naydenov, Michel K.; Gyuleva, Veselka; Goudiaby, Venceslas; Nikolić, Biljana; Kamary, Salim

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the genetic structure and diversity of P.nigra populations in Bulgaria, using simple sequence nuclear repeats. Among-population structure was studied with distance and Bayesian frequency methods, assuming geometric distance and a “non-admixture” model. The “N

  6. Repeated isolation of virulent Newcastle disease viruses of sub-genotype VIId from backyard chickens in Bulgaria and Ukraine between 2002 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here, we report the circulation of highly related virulent Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) in Bulgaria and Ukraine from 2002 until 2013. All of these NDV isolates have the same virulence-associated cleavage site (‘‘113RQKR;F117’’), and selected ones have intracerebral pathogenicity index values rang...

  7. Distribution of lanthanoids, Be, Bi, Ga, Te, Tl, Th and U on the territory of Bulgaria using Populus nigra 'Italica' as an indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djingova, R.; Ivanova, Ju. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Sofia, 1, J. Bouchier Blvd, 1126 Sofia (Bulgaria); Wagner, G. [University of Saarland, Center of Environmental Research, Institute of Biogeography, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Korhammer, S.; Markert, B. [International Graduate school IHI-Zittau, Chair of Environmental High Technology, Markt 23, D-02763 Zittau (Germany)

    2001-12-03

    The concentrations of lanthanoids, Be, Bi, Ga, Te, Tl, Th and U have been determined using ICP-MS for 100 standardized samples of poplar leaves collected from the territory of Bulgaria. The investigated elements are log-normally distributed on the territory. Using cluster analysis of the analytical data the samples were grouped according soil type on which the plants are growing.

  8. Bulgarian Modern Poetry [and] Dracula - Fact and Fiction, for a Western World Literature Class. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997. (Romania and Bulgaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rang, Barbara L.

    This project developed two units for secondary students, one dealing with the modern poetry of Bulgaria and one with the legend of Dracula. The first unit includes poems, discussion questions, and a background essay. The second unit includes discussion materials largely based on Brian Stoker's novel "Dracula," and an historical essay on…

  9. Pathologies in Lovelock AdS Black Branes and AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Tomohiro

    2011-01-01

    We study the pathologies in AdS black branes in Lovelock theory. More precisely, we examine the conditions that AdS black branes have the naked singularity, the ghost instability and the dynamical instability. From the point of view of the AdS/CFT correspondence, the pathologies in AdS black branes indicate the pathologies in the corresponding CFT. Hence, we need to be careful when we apply AdS/CFT in Lovelock theory to various phenomena such as the shear viscosity to entropy ratio in strongly coupled quantum filed theory.

  10. The effect of Ad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小艳

    2010-01-01

    There is the trend that now people appreciate those who are slim and regard slim even thin people beautiful. The thinner a person is, the more beautiful. Women, born to pursuit beauty, try various means to follow the trend. We all watch TV, and find a lot of advertisements on diet. The effect of them is tremendous. We all know the fact that it is not at all the better mouse trap will catch mouse. The sales methods are more important. If an advertisement is very interesting and seemingly effective, people will be lured by the ad and then try some of the products.

  11. Management job ads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The article asks whether it is not the responsibility of corporations to address the issue of women being underrepresented in Danish management jobs. In other words, it is argued that corporations should be encouraged to engage more actively in the recruitment of both men and women for management...... that this agreement reflects a high degree of conservatism in the system where men enjoy a considerable advantage and where procedures that ensure male dominance are perpetuated even in the linguistic and discursive construction of job ads....

  12. Eating ad Libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillersdal, Line

    ask what make up food stuff and eaters in the meal tests? More specifically I explore a scientific testing of changes in taste preferences before and after weight-loss surgery using an ad libitum buffet with a selection of different foods and another testing the effect of exercise on appetite also...... an eater who: ”shouldn't restrain herself”. Practices of food and eating in the test meal I suggest, will allow us to tackle reductionism by showing the complex cultural context shaping clinical intervention....

  13. New Information on the Malacofauna of the Catchment Area of Rusenski Lom River (North Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iltcho Kolev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available After this short note adding 8 species to the faunal list of the area, a total of 130 mollusk species are known from the catchment area of Rusenski Lom River both aquatic and terrestrial.

  14. Value-Added Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolfs Bems; Robert C. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    This paper updates the conceptual foundations for measuring real effective exchange rates (REERs) to allow for vertical specialization in trade. We derive a value-added REER describing how demand for the value added that a country produces changes as the price of its value added changes relative to competitors. We then compute this index for 42 countries from 1970-2009 using trade measured in value added terms and GDP deflators. There are substantial differences between value-added and conven...

  15. Systemic and extraintestinal forms of human infection due to non-typhoid salmonellae in Bulgaria, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseva, G; Petrov, P; Ivanova, K; Kantardjiev, T

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to review the clinical cases diagnosed as systemic or extraintestinal salmonellosis between 2005 and 2010 in Bulgaria, to determine the antimicrobial resistance of the causative salmonellae, and to analyze the pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles of extraintestinal Salmonella Corvallis isolates. Culture, biochemical tests, and serotyping were performed. Resistance to 12 antimicrobial agents was studied with the Bauer-Kirby disk diffusion method. The double-disk synergy method was used for the screening of the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). PFGE typing and analysis of the dendrogram was performed for the comparative investigation of Salmonella Corvallis isolates. Between 2005 and 2010, 2,227 human non-typhoid Salmonella isolates were investigated at the National Reference Laboratory of Enteric Pathogens, Sofia, Bulgaria. Thirty-three strains (1.48 %) from nine national regions were isolated from patients with systemic and extraintestinal forms of salmonellosis. The serotype distribution was as follows: S. enteritidis (n = 21), S. choleraesuis (diphasic n = 3; monophasic n = 3), S. typhimurium (n = 2), Salmonella Corvallis (n = 2), Salmonella Montevideo (n = 1), and S. javiana (n = 1). Eight patients developed severe forms of infections: sepsis (n = 2), septic shock (n = 1 with fatal outcome), meningitis (n = 3), and acute renal failure (n = 2). Twenty-two percent of isolates were resistant to ampicillin and gentamicin, 17.64 % to tetracycline, 14.28 % to nalidixic acid, and 10 % to chloramphenicol. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. One Salmonella Corvallis isolate recovered from a patient with chronic hemolytic anemia produced an ESBL and its PFGE profile demonstrated less than 96 % similarity to fecal and wound Salmonella Corvallis with susceptible phenotypes. S. enteritidis was the most common cause of systemic and

  16. Изображения на храмове по реверсите на монетите от автономното бронзово монетосечене по Българските земли в периода І—ІІІ век от Новата Ера / Images of temples on coin reversals from autonomous bronze coinage in Bulgaria in the period I—III century AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Деспотов П. / Despotov P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Целта на настоящата работа е да изследва монетите, сечени през периода І—ІІІ век — от времето на Домициан до управлението на Гордиан ІІІ в античните градове на територията на днешна България, на чиито реверси са изобразени храмове. Да извлече информация както за конкретни паметници, в основната си част непроучени чрез археологически разкопки, така и за историята на развитието на различните култове по днешните български земи през периода І—ІІІ век. / The study survey the roman coins during the period I—III century — from Domitian to Gordian III in ancient towns in Bulgaria at whitch reverses are depicted temples. Retrieves information for specific monuments for the most part unexplored by archaeological excavations and the history of the development of various cults in the Roman provinces in Bulgaria during the period I—III century.

  17. An $xp$ model on $AdS_2$ spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Molina-Vilaplana, Javier

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we formulate the $xp$ model on the AdS$_2$ spacetime. We find that the spectrum of the Hamiltonian has positive and negative eigenvalues, equal in magnitude, given by a harmonic oscillator with a zero point energy parameterized by the AdS radius, measured in units of a fundamental length of the model. We also construct the generators of the isometry group SO(2,1) of the AdS$_2$ spacetime, and discuss the relation with conformal quantum mechanics.

  18. Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chuan Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy-efficient configuration of multihop paths with automatic repeat request (ARQ mechanism in wireless ad hoc networks. We adopt a cross-layer design approach and take both the quality of each radio hop and the battery capacity of each transmitting node into consideration. Under certain constraints on the maximum tolerable transmission delay and the required packet delivery ratio, we solve optimization problems to jointly schedule the transmitting power of each transmitting node and the retransmission limit over each hop. Numerical results demonstrate that the path configuration methods can either significantly reduce the average energy consumption per packet delivery or considerably extend the average lifetime of the multihop route.

  19. Natural and human land-sea interactions: Burgas Case Study, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Palazov, Atanas; Krastev, Anton

    2017-04-01

    : those are in close proximity of the large city and the existence of various coastal and maritime activities that inevitably have an impact on the environment. The results are related to identified land-sea interactions in the Burgas case study area with a focus on biodiversity; identified impact of land infrastructure on the wetlands and maritime space; promoted participation of key stakeholders in the process; mapping the main land and sea uses and of natural values; identified, mapped and analysed users-users conflicts and users-environment conflicts; proposed planning solutions and recommendations. The present study was supported by MARSPLAN-BS Project (Cross-Border Maritime Spatial Plan for the Black Sea - Romania, Bulgaria), funded by the European Commission, Grant Agreement no EASME/EMFF/2014/1.2.1.5/2/SI2.707672 MSP LOT1 Black Sea/ MARSPLAN-BS.

  20. Dressing phases of AdS3/CFT2

    CERN Document Server

    Borsato, Riccardo; Sfondrini, Alessandro; Stefanski, Bogdan; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We determine the all-loop dressing phases of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable system related to type IIB string theory on AdS3 x S3 x T4 by solving the recently found crossing relations and studying their singularity structure. The two resulting phases present a novel structure with respect to the ones appearing in AdS5/CFT4 and AdS4/CFT3. In the strongly-coupled regime, their leading order reduces to the universal Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase as expected. We also compute their sub-leading order and compare it with recent one-loop perturbative results, and co

  1. Dressing phases of AdS3/CFT2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsato, Riccardo; Ohlsson Sax, Olof; Sfondrini, Alessandro; Stefański, Bogdan, Jr.; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2013-09-01

    We determine the all-loop dressing phases of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable system related to type IIB string theory on AdS3×S3×T4 by solving the recently found crossing relations and studying their singularity structure. The two resulting phases present a novel structure with respect to the ones appearing in AdS5/CFT4 and AdS4/CFT3. In the strongly coupled regime, their leading order reduces to the universal Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase as expected. We also compute their subleading order and compare it with recent one-loop perturbative results and comment on their weak-coupling expansion.

  2. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil of Salvia sclarea L. from Bulgaria against isolates of Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Hristova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Salvia sclarea L., growing in Bulgaria, was analyzed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry. A total of 52 different compounds were identified, representing 98.25% of total oil content. Linalyl acetate (56.88% and linalool (20.75% were determined as major essential oil constituents, followed by germacrene D (5.08% and β-cariophyllene (3.41%. Antifungal activities of clary sage essential oil and major compounds linalyl acetate and linalool against 30 clinical isolates, belonging to species Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis were evaluated. Essential oil characterized with stronger anticandidial activity in comparison with pure compounds.

  3. THE IMPACT OF EU CONDITIONALITY IN THE WESTERN BALKANS. A COMPARATIVE APPROACH: BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA – BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavia MOISE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyse the security environment at the beginning of the XXIst century and to assess the impact of EU conditionality in the Western Balkans. The paper will analyse the redistribution of power and the new challenges that send the European Union at a crossroad. To explain such complex phenomena, we will use a comprehensive framework based on realism, liberal institutionalism, and constructivism. The central part of the paper will analyse EU conditionality in the Western Balkans – along with its characteristics, particularities, difficulties – and the impact of the degree of sovereignty. The case-study will provide a comparative analysis between EU conditionality in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Bulgaria proving that sovereignty matters for the conditionality-compliance relationship.

  4. Development of Diversified Tourism Destination Products – A Case Study of Tourism Destination, Municipality of Sofia, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena PETKOVA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is argued that there is a variety of products and accordingly a diversity of types of tourism in the municipality of Sofia, Bulgaria: urban and "non-urban", mass and specialized, tourism based on natural and anthropogenic, on tangible and intangible resources. In this regard, diverse tourism products of the destination may be offered to its visitors, which to a greater extent meets their various needs and contributes to the sustainable tourism development. Thus, the aim of the paper is to reveal whether tourism professionals in Sofia are aware of the possibilities for combining various types of tourism and promoting the diversified destination tourism product among local and foreign visitors.

  5. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS AND THEIR NON-TRADITIONAL QUALITY FACTORS. A VAR ANALYSIS IN ROMANIA AND BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena RADULESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an econometric analysis using VAR techniques for emphasizing the political institutional factors, economic freedom factors and the quality of labor force factors impacting on FDIs attracted in Bulgaria and Romania. We used yearly data series between 2000 and 2014, provided by the World Bank. These two countries display a very friendly climate (law income corporate tax, but they attracted large amounts of FDIs only for a short period of time at mid-2000s’. The foreign investments sharply dropped during the crisis, and the perspectives are not so good. The foreign investors claim that high corruption and bureaucracy greatly diminish the advantages of an attractive fiscal environment in these two specific countries.

  6. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS AND THEIR NON-TRADITIONAL QUALITY FACTORS. A VAR ANALYSIS IN ROMANIA AND BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena RADULESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an econometric analysis using VAR techniques for emphasizing the political institutional factors, economic freedom factors and the quality of labor force factors impacting on FDIs attracted in Bulgaria and Romania. We used yearly data series between 2000 and 2014, provided by the World Bank. These two countries display a very friendly climate (law income corporate tax, but they attracted large amounts of FDIs only for a short period of time at mid-2000s’. The foreign investments sharply dropped during the crisis, and the perspectives are not so good. The foreign investors claim that high corruption and bureaucracy greatly diminish the advantages of an attractive fiscal environment in these two specific countries.

  7. Electrification of the Dupnitza-Kulata line in Bulgaria; Elektrifizierung der Strecke Dupnitza-Kulata in Bulgarien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loenard, D.; Tessun, H. [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH Power Systems (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    As part of the PHARE project the 120 km long single track main line in Bulgaria between Dupnitza and Kulata at the Greek border and a short secondary line have been electrified with 1 AC 25 kV 50 Hz traction power supply. The project comprised the turn-key delivery of the catenary, two traction power substations with gas-isolated 25 kV switchgear and a new high reliable control system LTS2000, as well as the other electrification and infrastructure works. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des PHARE-Projektes wurden in Bulgarien die rund 120 km lange eingleisige Hauptstrecke zwischen Dupnitza und Kulata an der griechischen Grenze und eine kurze Nebenstrecke mit 1 AC 25 kV 50 Hz elektrifiziert. Das Projekt umfasste die schluesselfertige Errichtung der Fahrleitungsanlagen, zweier Unterwerke mit gasisolierter 25-kV-Schaltanlage und einer neuen hochverfuegbaren Leittechnik LTS2000 sowie die sonstigen Elektrifizierungs- und Infrastrukturarbeiten. (orig.)

  8. Mutation analysis in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients from Bulgaria shows a peculiar distribution of breakpoints by intron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorova, A.; Bronzova, J.; Kremensky, I. [Univ. Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sofia (Bulgaria)] [and others

    1996-10-02

    For the first time in Bulgaria, a deletion/duplication screening was performed on a group of 84 unrelated Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy patients, and the breakpoint distribution in the dystrophin gene was analyzed. Intragenic deletions were detected in 67.8% of patients, and intragenic duplications in 2.4%. A peculiar distribution of deletion breakpoints was found. Only 13.2% of the deletion breakpoints fell in the {open_quotes}classical{close_quotes} hot spot in intron 44, whereas the majority (> 54%) were located within the segment encompassing introns 45-51, which includes intron 50, the richest in breakpoints (16%) in the Bulgarian sample. Comparison with data from Greece and Turkey points at the probable existence of a deletion hot spot within intron 50, which might be a characteristic of populations of the Balkan region. 17 refs., 2 figs.

  9. First cases of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy in Bulgaria: novel mutation in the ALDH7A1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincheva, Savina; Todorov, Tihomir; Todorova, Albena; Georgieva, Ralica; Stamatov, Dimitar; Yordanova, Iglika; Kadiyska, Tanya; Georgieva, Bilyana; Bojidarova, Maria; Tacheva, Genoveva; Litvinenko, Ivan; Mitev, Vanyo

    2015-12-01

    Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intractable seizures in neonates and infants. The seizures cannot be controlled with antiepileptic medications but respond both clinically and electrographically to large daily supplements of pyridoxine (vitamin B6). PDE is caused by mutations in the ALDH7A1 gene. Molecular genetic analysis of the ALDH7A1 gene was performed in seven patients, referred with clinical diagnosis of PDE. Mutations were detected in a dizygotic twin pair and a non-related boy with classical form of PDE. Direct sequencing of the ALDH7A1 gene revealed one novel (c.297delG, p.Trp99*) and two already reported (c.328C>T, p.Arg110*; c.584A>G, p.Asn195Ser) mutations. Here, we report the first genetically proven cases of PDE in Bulgaria.

  10. Quantum Field Theory and Unification in AdS5

    CERN Document Server

    Randall, Lisa; Randall, Lisa; Schwartz, Matthew D.

    2001-01-01

    We consider gauge bosons in the bulk of AdS5 in a two-brane theory that addresses the hierarchy problem. We show such a theory can be consistent with gauge coupling unification at a high scale. We discuss subtleties in this calculation and show how to regulate consistently in a bounded AdS5 background. Our regularization is guided by the holographic dual of the calculation.

  11. Chaos and hydrodynamics near AdS$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kristan

    2016-01-01

    We revisit AdS$_2$ holography with the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev models in mind. Our main result is to rewrite a generic theory of gravity near an AdS$_2$ throat as a novel hydrodynamics coupled to the correlation functions of a conformal quantum mechanics. This gives a prescription for the computation of $n$-point functions in the dual quantum mechanics. We thereby find that the dual is maximally chaotic.

  12. A Comparative Study on Changes in the Spatial Industry Agglomeration in Eastern EU Developing Countries: Romania vs. Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina-Stefania Dirzu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Taking a closer look at the spatial distribution of industrial sectors, it becomes quite obvious that there is an increasing disposition for industries to concentrate in certain regions in order to benefit of agglomeration assets. In this context, we consider necessary to analyze how industrial agglomerations have evolved over time and to what extent major transformations have affected agglomeration phenomenon in lagging regions of Eastern countries, finally our paper bringing supportive evidence from Romania and Bulgaria. To what extent, have patterns of industrial agglomeration modified during the transition period? Has relocation of economic activities taken place? What are the main determinants of industrial concentration patterns? These are some crucial questions that we try to find a realistic response through the present paper. Eastern economies are notably challenging from this point of view because they experienced several decades long economic development period which was earmarked by socialist industrialization. Under the planned economy, these countries have faced more barriers to an efficient geographical allocation of economic activities across regions than their peers in the Western Europe especially because they faced the legacy of a planned economy system that determined locations for economic activities based on political decisions, not based on economic efficiency. Thus, our effort can be seen as a contribution to knowledge about agglomeration in the non-Western countries in general, and in developing regions in particular. Focusing our study on two-digit industrial sectors of 14 regions at NUTS2 level, this paper aims to identify and explain the changes regarding the evolution of industrial agglomerations in the last years across Romania compared to Bulgaria. In the end, our analysis will be able to conclude in what manner the effects of transition period influenced the patterns of industrial agglomeration in these two

  13. Genetic analysis of Apis mellifera macedonica (type rodopica populations selectively reared for purposive production of honey bee queens in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIDA H. GEORGIEVA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The genetic polymorphism in selectively reared in Bulgaria, local honey bee populations of Apis mellifera macedonica subspecies (type rodopica, has been studied, using analysis of six enzyme systems (MDH-1, ME, EST-3, ALP, PGM and HK corresponding to 6 loci. Totally 458 worker bees from 12 bee breeding bases for artificially inseminated queens were used for this study. All these stations are part of the National Bee Breeding Association which officially implements a National Program for sustainable beekeeping in Bulgaria. All of the six loci were found to be polymorphic. Only EST-3 locus was established as fixed in one of the investigated populations. Polymorphism with three alleles was ascertained for MDH, ME, ALP, PGM and HK loci and with five alleles for EST-3 locus. The most common alleles in almost all of the populations were MDH-1 100, ME 100, EST-3 100, PGM 100 and HK 100. Two private alleles (frequency < 0.05 were found for two of the populations. The calculated level of polymorphism was 88.33% in only one of the populations and 100% - in all others. The observed and expected heterozygosities (Ho and He ranged from 0.157 to 0.250 and from 0.206 to 0.272, respectively. The estimated mean FST value from allozyme data was 0.035. On the bases of the allele frequencies of the studied allozyme loci the Nei's (1972 genetic distance was estimated. It ranged between 0.002 and 0.060 among the populations studied.

  14. Epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations of hepatitis E virus infection in Bulgaria: A report on 20 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baymakova Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hepatitis E is one of the leading clinical manifestations of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries. In industrialized countries, during the past several years, sporadic “autochthonous” cases of HEV infection have been increased. Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features of HEV infection among patients hospitalized at the Department of Infectious Diseases in Military Medical Academy, Sofia, Bulgaria. Methods. A retrospective study of 806 cases of acute viral hepatitis was performed at the Department of Infectious Diseases in Military Medical Academy, Sofia, Bulgaria, between December 2004 and September 2012. The etiological diagnosis was established by ELISA. The statistical analysis was performed using Excel 2007 (Microsoft, Redmond, Washington, USA and SPSS Statistics 19.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, New York, USA. Results. Specific reaction to anti-HEV-IgM and anti-HEV-IgG antibodies were detected in 20 (2.48% of 806 patients. The most observed clinical presentations were jaundice (85%, fatigue (85%, anorexia (65%, abdominal discomfort (55% and fever (40%. The mean values of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase were 521 IU/l and 881 IU/l, respectively. The cholestasis was slight, marked with mean values of gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase, respectively 418 IU/l and 486 IU/l. Conclusion. We report twenty autochthonous sporadic cases of acute infection with HEV. The zoonotic etiology of the virus as well as the foodborne transmission of the infection is discussed. We found that aging and pre-existing underlying diseases are risk factors for a severe course of the HEV infection.

  15. Supersymmetry of AdS and flat IIB backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2015-02-01

    We present a systematic description of all warped AdS n × w M 10- n and IIB backgrounds and identify the a priori number of supersymmetries N preserved by these solutions. In particular, we find that the AdS n backgrounds preserve for n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 6 supersymmetries and for suitably restricted. In addition under some assumptions required for the applicability of the maximum principle, we demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n backgrounds can be identified with the zero modes of Dirac-like operators on M 10- n establishing a new class of Lichnerowicz type theorems. Furthermore, we adapt some of these results to backgrounds with fluxes by taking the AdS radius to infinity. We find that these backgrounds preserve for 2 < n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 7 supersymmetries. We also demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n × w M 10- n do not factorize into Killing spinors on AdS n and Killing spinors on M 10- n .

  16. ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Alicia Correa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los métodos de agrupamiento permiten que las MANET (redes móviles ad hoc presenten un mejor desempeño en cuanto a la rapidez de conexión, el enrutamiento y el manejo de la topología. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión sobre las técnicas de agrupamiento para MANET. Se introducen algunos temas preliminares que forman la base para el desarrollo de los algoritmos de agrupamiento, tales como: la topología de la red, el enrutamiento, la teoría de grafos y los algoritmos de movilidad. Adicionalmente, se describen algunas de las técnicas de agrupamiento más conocidas como Lowest-ID heuristic, Highest degree heuristic, DMAC (distributed mobility-adaptive clustering, WCA (weighted clustering algorithm, entre otros. El propósito central es ilustrar los conceptos principales respecto a las técnicas de agrupamiento en MANET.

  17. Trans-border (South-Eastern Serbia/South-Western Bulgaria correlations of the Jurassic sediments: The Getic and Supra-Getic units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchoumatchenco Platon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Getic and Supra-Getic are palaeogeographic units in SE Serbia and SW Bulgaria. Based on the presence (in Eastern or absence (in Western of Lower Jurassic marine deposits, the Getic is divided into Eastern and Western. In the Eastern Getic, the Lower Jurassic sedimentation in SE Serbia is represented by the Vidlič Clastites covered by the Lukanja Coal Beds, Lukanja Quartz Sandstones, Lukanja Brachiopods Beds, Lukanja Marlstones, Lukanja Belemnitic-Gryphaean Beds and Lukanja Cephalopod Limestones; in SW Bulgaria, the sedimentation commenced with the Tuden Formation, followed by the Kostina Formation and the Ozirovo Formation with a few members. The Middle Jurassic in SE Serbia commenced with the Senokos Siltstones and Shales and the Gulenovci Beds, while in SW Bulgaria with black shales (the Etropole Formation, followed by marls and clayey limestones of the Bov Formation. The Middle Jurassic sediments are represented in the Western Getic of SE Serbia by the Kurilovo Clastites and the Kurilovo Limestones (synonym to Gumpina Limestones of KRAÜTNER & KRSTIĆ 2003; in the Supra-Getic of SE Serbia they are formed by the Jerma Clastites and Jerma Limestones (synonym of the Gumpina Limestones. In SW Bulgaria the Middle Jurassic sediments are represented by the sandstones of the Gradets Formation and by the bioclastic limestones of the Polaten Formation. During the Callovian (Middle? started the formation of a carbonate platform with micritic limestones. In SE Serbia, it is Basara Limestones, Vidlič Limestones, Beljanica and Ždrelo Limestones, and in SW Bulgarian, the Belediehan Formation of Callovian-Kimmeridgian p.p. age. Characteristic for the Supra- Getic is the formation of a few grabens with specific sedimentation: the Svetlya Graben (the Zhablyano and Ozirovo Formations and the Lobosh Formation; the Treklyano Graben (the Dobridol and Sredorek Formations, and out of it - the Methohya and Sredorek Formation. During the Callovian

  18. RPROJECT5- Technical design and intermediate safety assessment report for the Bulgarian National Disposal Facility; RPROJECT5-Diseno Tecnico y Informe Intermedio de Seguridad para la Instalacion Nacional de Almacenamiento de Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanova, I.; Gonzalez, E.; Biurrun, E.; Navarro, M.

    2013-07-01

    In October 2011 SERAW, the national company for the management of radioactive waste from Bulgaria, assigned to the consortium consisting of Westinghouse Electric Spain S.A.U., the German company DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH and the company national radioactive waste ENRESA the realization of design management Conceptual, technical design and the intermediate report of safety assessment for installation of storage for radioactive waste from low to medium activity in Bulgaria.

  19. Action growth for AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Ruan, Shan-Ming; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui

    2016-09-01

    Recently a Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture has been proposed, which relates the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state to the action of a Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) bulk. In this paper we further investigate the duality conjecture for stationary AdS black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within the Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is supposed to be dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general D-dimensional Reissner-Nordström (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a universal formula for the action growth expressed in terms of some thermodynamical quantities associated with the outer and inner horizons of the AdS black holes. And we leave the conjecture unchanged that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.

  20. AdS_5 Black Holes with Fermionic Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Burrington, B A; Sabra, W A; Burrington, Benjamin A.; Liu, James T.

    2004-01-01

    The study of new BPS objects in AdS_5 has led to a deeper understanding of AdS/CFT. To help complete this picture, and to fully explore the consequences of the supersymmetry algebra, it is also important to obtain new solutions with bulk fermions turned on. In this paper we construct superpartners of the 1/2 BPS black hole in AdS_5 using a natural set of fermion zero modes. We demonstrate that these superpartners, carrying fermionic hair, have conserved charges differing from the original bosonic counterpart. To do so, we find the R-charge and dipole moment of the new system, as well as the mass and angular momentum, defined through the boundary stress tensor. The complete set of superpartners fits nicely into a chiral representation of AdS_5 supersymmetry, and the spinning solutions have the expected gyromagnetic ratio, g=1.

  1. Complexity Growth for AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui

    2016-01-01

    We further investigate the Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture for stationary anti de-Sitter (AdS) black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general $D$-dimensional Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Ba\\~{n}ados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a new complexity bound but leave unchanged the conjecture that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.

  2. Constructing the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid: AdS Black holes with Dirac hair

    CERN Document Server

    \\vCubrović, Mihailo; Schalm, Koenraad

    2010-01-01

    We provide new evidence that the holographic dual to a strongly coupled charged Fermi Liquid has a non-zero fermion density in the bulk. We show that the pole-strength of the stable quasiparticle characterizing the Fermi surface is encoded in the spatially averaged AdS probability density of a single normalizable fermion wavefunction in AdS. Recalling Migdal's theorem which relates the pole strength to the Fermi-Dirac characteristic discontinuity in the number density at $\\ome_F$, we conclude that the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid is described by occupied on-shell fermionic modes in AdS. Encoding the occupied levels in the total probability density of the fermion field directly, we show that an AdS Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole in a theory with charged fermions has a critical temperature, at which the system undergoes a first-order transition to a black hole with a non-vanishing profile for the bulk fermion field. Thermodynamics and spectral analysis confirm that the solution with non-zero AdS fermion-profil...

  3. Global geometric properties of AdS space and the AdS/CFT correspondence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Poisson kernels and relations between them for a massive scalar field in a unit ball Bn with Hua's metric and conformal flat metric are obtained by describing the Bn as a submanifold of an (n+1)-dimensional embedding space. Global geometric properties of the AdS space are discussed. We show that the(n+1)-dimensional AdS space AdSn+1 is isomorphic to RP1×Bn and boundary of the AdS is isomorphic to RP1×Sn-1. Bulk-boundary propagator and the AdS/CFT like correspondence are demonstrated based on these global geometric properties of the RP1×Bn.

  4. Different views of AEGIS / AD-6 Experiment (AD facility) AD-6

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    Different views of AEGIS / AD-6 Experiment (AD facility) in July of 2012. The visible parts are the positron accumulator (blue structures on top of of the antiproton extraction line) and the 5T magnet which traps the antiprotons.

  5. AdS-Carroll Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, T E

    2016-01-01

    Coset methods are used to determine the action of a co-dimension one brane (domain wall) embedded in (d+1)-dimensional AdS space in the Carroll limit in which the speed of light goes to zero. The action is invariant under the non-linearly realized symmetries of the AdS-Carroll spacetime. The Nambu-Goldstone field exhibits a static spatial distribution for the brane with a time varying momentum density related to the brane's spatial shape as well as the AdS-C geometry. The AdS-C vector field dual theory is obtained.

  6. Ethnic, Familial, and Religious Identity of Roma Adolescents in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Kosovo, and Romania in Relation to Their Level of Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Radosveta; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Taušová, Jitka; Chasiotis, Athanasios; Bender, Michael; Buzea, Carmen; Uka, Fitim; Tair, Ergyul

    2017-05-01

    This study examines ethnic, national, familial, and religious identity and well-being of 632 Roma minority and 589 majority adolescents (age: M = 15.98 years, SD = 1.34) in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Kosovo, and Romania. Results indicated that Roma showed lower endorsement of national identity but stronger religious identity than their majority counterparts. Path models showed positive associations of familial and religious identities with well-being, whereas Roma identity was negatively associated with well-being, particularly for Roma in Bulgaria and Kosovo (countries with a less active policy toward improving conditions of Roma). In the latter countries, Roma ethnic identity is less relevant and weakly associated with psychological well-being of youth. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Entanglement entropy for free scalar fields in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Sugishita, Sotaro

    2016-01-01

    We compute entanglement entropy for free massive scalar fields in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The entangling surface is a minimal surface whose boundary is a sphere at the boundary of AdS. The entropy can be evaluated from the thermal free energy of the fields on a topological black hole by using the replica method. In odd-dimensional AdS, exact expressions of the Renyi entropy S_n are obtained for arbitrary n. We also evaluate 1-loop corrections coming from the scalar fields to holographic entanglement entropy. Applying the results, we compute the leading difference of entanglement entropy between two holographic CFTs related by a renormalization group flow triggered by a double trace deformation. The difference is proportional to the shift of a central charge under the flow.

  8. Microstates at the boundary of AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, Samir D

    2011-01-01

    The bound states of the D1D5 brane system have a known gravitational description: flat asymptotics, an anti-de Sitter region, and a 'cap' ending the AdS region. We construct perturbations that correspond to the action of chiral algebra generators on Ramond ground states of D1D5 branes. Abstract arguments in the literature suggest that the perturbation should be pure gauge in the AdS region; our perturbation indeed has this structure, with the nontrivial deformation of the geometry occurring at the 'neck' between the AdS region and asymptotic infinity. This 'non-gauge' deformation is needed to provide the nonzero energy and momentum carried by the perturbation. We also suggest implications this structure may have for the majority of microstates which live at the cap.

  9. Detailed ultraviolet asymptotics for AdS scalar field perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Evnin, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    We present a range of methods suitable for accurate evaluation of the leading asymptotics for integrals of products of Jacobi polynomials in limits when the degrees of some or all polynomials inside the integral become large. The structures in question have recently emerged in the context of effective descriptions of small amplitude perturbations in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The limit of high degree polynomials corresponds in this situation to effective interactions involving extreme short-wavelength modes, whose dynamics is crucial for the turbulent instabilities that determine the ultimate fate of small AdS perturbations. We explicitly apply the relevant asymptotic techniques to the case of a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS and extract a detailed form of the leading large degree behavior, including closed form analytic expressions for the numerical coefficients appearing in the asymptotics.

  10. Detailed ultraviolet asymptotics for AdS scalar field perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evnin, Oleg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University,Thanon Phayathai, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and The International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Jai-akson, Puttarak [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University,Thanon Phayathai, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2016-04-11

    We present a range of methods suitable for accurate evaluation of the leading asymptotics for integrals of products of Jacobi polynomials in limits when the degrees of some or all polynomials inside the integral become large. The structures in question have recently emerged in the context of effective descriptions of small amplitude perturbations in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The limit of high degree polynomials corresponds in this situation to effective interactions involving extreme short-wavelength modes, whose dynamics is crucial for the turbulent instabilities that determine the ultimate fate of small AdS perturbations. We explicitly apply the relevant asymptotic techniques to the case of a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS and extract a detailed form of the leading large degree behavior, including closed form analytic expressions for the numerical coefficients appearing in the asymptotics.

  11. Asymptotically AdS spacetimes with a timelike Kasner singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Jie [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2016-07-21

    Exact solutions to Einstein’s equations for holographic models are presented and studied. The IR geometry has a timelike cousin of the Kasner singularity, which is the less generic case of the BKL (Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) singularity, and the UV is asymptotically AdS. This solution describes a holographic RG flow between them. The solution’s appearance is an interpolation between the planar AdS black hole and the AdS soliton. The causality constraint is always satisfied. The entanglement entropy and Wilson loops are discussed. The boundary condition for the current-current correlation function and the Laplacian in the IR is examined. There is no infalling wave in the IR, but instead, there is a normalizable solution in the IR. In a special case, a hyperscaling-violating geometry is obtained after a dimensional reduction.

  12. Asymptotically AdS spacetimes with a timelike Kasner singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Exact solutions to Einstein's equations for holographic models are presented and studied. The IR geometry has a timelike cousin of the Kasner singularity, which is the less generic case of the BKL (Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) singularity, and the UV is asymptotically AdS. This solution describes a holographic RG flow between them. The solution's appearance is an interpolation between the planar AdS black hole and the AdS soliton. The causality constraint is always satisfied. The entanglement entropy and Wilson loops are discussed. The boundary condition for the current-current correlation function and the Laplacian in the IR is examined. There is no infalling wave in the IR, but instead, there is a normalizable solution in the IR. In a special case, a hyperscaling-violating geometry is obtained after a dimensional reduction.

  13. Revisiting the thermodynamic relations in AdS /CMT models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2017-03-01

    Motivated by the recent unified approach to the Smarr-like relation of anti-de Sitter (AdS) planar black holes in conjunction with the quasilocal formalism on conserved charges, we revisit the quantum statistical and thermodynamic relations of hairy AdS planar black holes. By extending the previous results, we identify the hairy contribution in the bulk and show that the holographic computation can be improved so that it is consistent with the bulk computation. We argue that the first law can be retained in its universal form and that the relation between the on-shell renormalized Euclidean action and its free energy interpretation in gravity may also be undeformed even with the hairy contribution in hairy AdS black holes.

  14. Diagnosis of the socionic temperament of personality and creating a psychological portrait of the Western European SPA and wellness tourists in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova, Milena

    2017-03-01

    Human personality is a set of psychological characteristics that distinguishes it from others. However people can be classified as congenital personality types, interactions that are precisely defined. The aim of this article is to characterize the socionic temperament and psychological profile of the spa and wellness tourists in Bulgaria. The study is based on a survey of 460 tourists who visited Bulgarian spa centers in the summer and autumn of 2015.

  15. Diagnosis of the socionic temperament of personality and creating a psychological portrait of the Western European SPA and wellness tourists in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyanova Milena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Human personality is a set of psychological characteristics that distinguishes it from others. However people can be classified as congenital personality types, interactions that are precisely defined. The aim of this article is to characterize the socionic temperament and psychological profile of the spa and wellness tourists in Bulgaria. The study is based on a survey of 460 tourists who visited Bulgarian spa centers in the summer and autumn of 2015.

  16. Mapping AdS to dS and back

    CERN Document Server

    Di Dato, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    We derive a map between Einstein spaces of positive and negative curvature. Starting from a space of positive curvature with some dimensions compactified on a sphere and analytically continuing the number of compact dimensions, we obtain a space of negative curvature with a compact hyperbolic subspace, and vice versa. Prime examples of such spaces are de Sitter and Anti-de Sitter space, as well as black hole spacetimes with (A)dS asymptotics and perturbed versions thereof, which play an important role in holography. This map extends work done by Caldarelli et.al., who map asymptotically AdS spaces to Ricci-flat ones. A remarkable result is that the boundary of asymptotically AdS spaces is mapped to a brane in the bulk of de Sitter, and perturbations near the AdS boundary are sourced by a stress tensor confined to this brane. We also calculate the Brown-York stress tensor for the perturbed AdS metric, which turns out to be the negative of the stress tensor on the de Sitter brane.

  17. An $xp$ model on $AdS_2$ spacetime

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we formulate the $xp$ model on the AdS$_2$ spacetime. We find that the spectrum of the Hamiltonian has positive and negative eigenvalues, whose absolute values are given by a harmonic oscillator spectrum, which in turn coincides with that of a massive Dirac fermion in AdS$_2$. We extend this result to generic $xp$ models which are shown to be equivalent to a massive Dirac fermion on spacetimes whose metric depend of the $xp$ Hamiltonian. Finally, we construct the generators of t...

  18. AdS5 magnetized solutions in minimal gauged supergravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Blázquez-Salcedo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We construct a generalization of the AdS charged rotating black holes with two equal magnitude angular momenta in five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity. In addition to the mass, electric charge and angular momentum, the new solutions possess an extra-parameter associated with a non-zero magnitude of the magnetic potential at infinity. In contrast with the known cases, these new black holes possess a non-trivial zero-horizon size limit which describes a one parameter family of spinning charged solitons. All configurations reported in this work approach asymptotically an AdS5 spacetime in global coordinates and are free of pathologies.

  19. Diffusion and Chaos from near AdS$_2$ horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Blake, Mike

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the thermal diffusivity $D = \\kappa/c_{\\rho}$ and butterfly velocity $v_B$ in holographic models that flow to AdS$_2 \\times R^{d}$ fixed points in the infra-red. We show that both these quantities are governed by the same irrelevant deformation of AdS$_2$ and hence establish a simple relationship between them. When this deformation corresponds to a universal dilaton mode of dimension $\\Delta = 2$ then this relationship is always given by $D = v_B^2/(2 \\pi T)$.

  20. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MEDICAL EQUIPMENT USED IN DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING IN BULGARIA AND COUNTRIES WORLDWIDE AND OPTIMIZATION AIMED AT IMPROVING THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Garov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to reveal the current condition of medical equipment in Bulgaria related to those major groups of socially significant diseases and to make an attempt to define guidelines for its optimization in view of improving the functioning and management of the healthcare system in this field. Material and methods: The following research methods have been applied: 1. Document review method – research, processing and analysis of medical statistical information taken from data from WHO and annual reports of NRA. The study includes data from 2009 - 2015. 2. Graphical method – summarizing data in relevant tables and diagram presentations. Results: The article analyzes the condition of medical equipment in the field of oncologic and cardiologic medical aid in Bulgaria based on data taken from WHO (World Health Organization and annual reports of NRA (Nuclear Regulatory Agency. Six types of diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy devices have been studied: Magnetic Resonance Imaging units (MRI; Computed Tomography Scanners (CT, Positron Emission Tomography Scanners, Mammographs, Linear accelerators and Telecobalt units (Cobalt-60. The condition of medical equipment since 2009 has been analyzed, results have been reported and trends - studied. Conclusion: The oncologic and cardiologic medical equipment in Bulgaria has been gradually improving in the last seven years, but quantitative indicators regarding the devices studied are still far away from the figures recommended by WHO with one single exception, i.e. Computed Tomography Scanners.

  1. PRODUCT AND MARKET ORIENTATION OF HORTICULTURAL FARMS IN BULGARIA DURING THE YEARS LEADING TO EU ACCESSION – STUDIES IN THE PLOVDIV REGION

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    Elena Garnevska

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture/horticulture has traditionally been an important sector in the economy of Bulgaria. The paper outlines the structural changes in Bulgarian agriculture since 1989 and discusses the product and market orientation of the horticultural farms in the Plovdiv region of Bulgaria. This paper analyses how farm owners / managers with different sized farms evaluated 5 product/market strategic options: ‘doing what you currently do but better’, ‘developing new horticultural products’, ‘developing new markets’, ‘developing new agricultural activities’ and ‘developing new nonagricultural activities’. The owners / managers identifi ed; whether they perceived these options as feasible for their future development, the encouraging/discouraging factors and the outcomes they expected from their implementation. The small-scale farms (less than 2 ha were mainly subsistence farms that were relying upon the farmer’s experience to survive during the transition period. The second type of farm (2-10 ha was ‘transitional’ farms and were working under pressure either for survival or expansion under the new EU related conditions. The third type of farm (over 10 ha was more business orientated, aiming at business viability and trying to respond to the rapidly changing business environment in Bulgaria as they recognised that the EU accession would present new challenges and opportunities for the successful future development of their farm businesses.

  2. THE ETHNO-CULTURAL BELONGINGNESS OF AROMANIANS, VLACHS, CATHOLICS, AND LIPOVANS/OLD BELIEVERS IN ROMANIA AND BULGARIA (1990–2012

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    MARIN CONSTANTIN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is conceived as a historical and ethnographic contextualization of ethno-linguistic groups in contemporary Southeastern Europe, with a comparative approach of several transborder communities from Romania and Bulgaria (Aromanians, Catholics, Lipovans/Old Believers, and Vlachs, between 1990 and 2012. I am mainly interested in (1 presenting the ethno-demographic situation and geographic distribution of ethnic groups in Romania and Bulgaria, (2 repertorying the cultural traits characteristic for homonymous ethnic groups in the two countries, and (3 synthesizing the theoretical data of current anthropological literature on the ethno-cultural variability in Southeastern Europe. In essence, my methodology compares the ethno-demographic evolution in Romania and Bulgaria (192–2011, within the legislative framework of the two countries, to map afterward the distribution of ethnic groups across Romanian and Bulgarian regions. It is on such a ground that the ethnic characters will next be interpreted as either homologous between ethno-linguistic communities bearing identical or similar ethnonyms in both countries, or as interethnic analogies due to migration, coexistence, and acculturation among the same groups, while living in common or neighboring geographical areas

  3. Penrose inequality for asymptotically AdS spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itkin, Igor [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Oz, Yaron, E-mail: yaronoz@post.tau.ac.il [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2012-02-28

    In general relativity, the Penrose inequality relates the mass and the entropy associated with a gravitational background. If the inequality is violated by an initial Cauchy data, it suggests a creation of a naked singularity, thus providing means to consider the cosmic censorship hypothesis. We propose a general form of Penrose inequality for asymptotically locally AdS spaces.

  4. Internet Advertising. Google AdWords versus Facebook Ads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul PAŞCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how to use the applications for Internet advertising, Google AdWords and Facebook Ads. Our attempt is to present the advantages and disadvantages of each of them, the costs and benefits, a useful aspect for companies that plan to start advertising campaigns on the Internet.

  5. Finding palaeowaters in a multi-layered aquifer system in the Lom depression of Danubian Plain in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Túri, Marianna; Palcsu, László; Molnár, Mihály; Futó, István; Orehova, Tatiana; Toteva, Aglaida; Hristov, Vladimir; Benderev, Aleksey

    2017-04-01

    This work is an environmental isotope investigation of groundwater samples from a multi-layered aquifer system in the Lom depression of Danubian Plain in Bulgaria. Our previous studies in the Carpathian-Pannonian Region had been convinced through groundwater researches using noble gas temperatures that the recharge temperature difference between the Holocene and the late Pleistocene recharged waters is 9.13±0.89°C. The aim of this research in Bulgaria is to observe this phenomenon at the outside of the Carpathian-Pannonian Region. The purpose of the sampling campaign was to find out that one of the aquifers of the Lom depression could be a potential site for late Pleistocene, and Holocene paleoclimate reconstruction. There are water samples from the Dacian-Romanian complex, Upper-Pontian aquifer, Meotian-Lower Pontian aquitard and the Sarmatian aquifer as well. The collected water samples were examined for water chemistry, stable carbon, oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, and for noble gas concentrations, and besides them for radiocarbon and tritium. The radiocarbon content of the water samples are in the range from 15.9 pMC to 98.6 pMC. Based on the obtained radiocarbon values it can be stated that tree aquifers of four could be contain such waters which recharged during the early Holocene late Pleistocene (Pontian, Dacian, Sarmatian). There are two wells in the Pontian aquifer (Dolni Tsibar, 20.8 pMC; Agroinvest, 23.8 pMC) with lower radiocarbon content. Based on the stable oxygen composition of the Agroinvest well, which is with -14.2 ‰ more negative than the others so it can be late Pleistocene recharged water. In the Dacian aquifer might be one well, the Valchedram which can be late Pleistocene recharged with 23.7 pMC. In the Sarmatian aquifer can be find the oldest water sample from all with 15.9 pMC of Smirnenski. The obtained noble gas temperatures and tritium values might be stated this hypothesis as well. All measurements were carried out in Hertelendi

  6. Adapting to Sea Level Rise and Storms: Missed Opportunities and Continuing Development (case studies from USA and Bulgaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Palazov, Atanas; Peek, Katie; Coburn, Andrew; Griffith, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Over the last several years, there have been significant discussions within the global scientific and coastal zone management communities about the need to adapt to the realities of long-term sea level rise and to make coastal development more "resilient" to hazards and climate change. With all of the talk, publications, and recognition of the problem, you would think that we had made significant progress, but this is not the case. Once again, the USA has experienced the impact of a significant coastal storm, Hurricane Sandy. There were initially some serious post-Sandy discussions regarding the need to ensure that we simply don't "just put everything back were it was." Almost a year later, there have been few substantive moves to relocate property away from coastal hazards or to change the footprint of vulnerable coastal communities. This is particularly true of coastal resort communities in New York and New Jersey. Some communities have initiated large-scale efforts to elevate (in situ) infrastructure and private property. Raising buildings is only a workable solution if you also commit to holding all the beaches in place . . . forever. This is what the federal government has done for New Jersey and New York. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers will be spending upward of US5 billion on shore protection projects following Hurricane Sandy. The vast majority of these funds will be spent pumping sand onto beaches from Delaware to Connecticut. The amount of sand they will move is staggering, approaching 25 to 35 million cubic meters. This is an adaptation model that cannot be exported to the rest of the USA. Nor can it be maintained for an extended period of time. Along the Black Sea Coast of Bulgaria the risk of storms is not as great as that of the US East Coast, but long-term sea level rise is still a threat. In Bulgaria, most coastal development problems occur simply because people continue to build in areas that are too close to the coast or in very high hazard

  7. Predicting AD conversion: comparison between prodromal AD guidelines and computer assisted PredictAD tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawu Liu

    Full Text Available To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA on MRI and CSF biomarkers.Altogether 391 MCI cases (158 AD converters were selected from the ADNI cohort. All the cases had baseline cognitive tests, MRI and/or CSF levels of Aβ1-42 and Tau. Using baseline data, the status of MCI patients (AD or MCI three years later was predicted using current diagnostic research guidelines and the PredictAD software tool designed for supporting clinical diagnostics. The data used were 1 clinical criteria for episodic memory loss of the hippocampal type, 2 visual MTA, 3 positive CSF markers, 4 their combinations, and 5 when the PredictAD tool was applied, automatically computed MRI measures were used instead of the visual MTA results. The accuracies of diagnosis were evaluated with the diagnosis made 3 years later.The PredictAD tool achieved the overall accuracy of 72% (sensitivity 73%, specificity 71% in predicting the AD diagnosis. The corresponding number for a clinician's prediction with the assistance of the PredictAD tool was 71% (sensitivity 75%, specificity 68%. Diagnosis with the PredictAD tool was significantly better than diagnosis by biomarkers alone or the combinations of clinical diagnosis of hippocampal pattern for the memory loss and biomarkers (p≤0.037.With the assistance of PredictAD tool, the clinician can predict AD conversion more accurately than the current diagnostic criteria.

  8. AdS5 backgrounds with 24 supersymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2016-06-01

    We prove a non-existence theorem for smooth AdS 5 solutions with connected, compact without boundary internal space that preserve strictly 24 supersymmetries. In particular, we show that D = 11 supergravity does not admit such solutions, and that all such solutions of IIB supergravity are locally isometric to the AdS 5 × S 5 maximally supersymmetric background. Furthermore, we prove that (massive) IIA supergravity also does not admit such solutions, provided that the homogeneity conjecture for massive IIA supergravity is valid. In the context of AdS/CFT these results imply that if gravitational duals for strictly mathcal{N}=3 superconformal theories in 4-dimensions exist, they are either singular or their internal spaces are not compact.

  9. Coset construction of AdS particle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Heinze, Martin; Megrelidze, Luka

    2016-01-01

    We analyze dynamics of the AdS$_{N+1}$ particle realized on the coset SO$(2,N)/$SO$(1,N)$. Hamiltonian reduction provides the physical phase space in terms of the coadjoint orbit obtained by boosting a timelike element of ${\\frak so}(2,N)$. We show equivalence of this approach to geometric quantization and to the SO$(N)$ covariant oscillator description, for which the boost generators entail a complicated operator ordering. As an alternative scheme, we introduce dual oscillator variables and derive their algebra at the classical and the quantum level. This simplifies the calculations of the commutators for the boost generators and leads to unitary irreducible representations of ${\\frak so}(2,N)$ for all admissible values of the mass parameter. We furthermore discuss a SO$(N)$ covariant supersymmetric extensions of the oscillator quantization, with its realization for superparticles in AdS$_2$ and AdS$_3$ given by recent works.

  10. Comparative Analysis and Tendencies in the Development of the Cattle Market in the Conditions of the Quota System in the EU Countries and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Georgiev

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of recreating of the basic herds of the farm animals and the improvement of their breedconstitution, which has already begun in Bulgaria, is a prerequisite for the providing of more, and of betterquality, meat and milk for the needs of the domestic market, as well as for making the sector morecompetitive on the international markets. The purpose of the research concerned comparative analysis andtendencies in the development of the cattle market in the conditions of the quota system in the EU countriesand Bulgaria.One of the reasons for the decrease of the quantity of exported cattle and veal meat is that there isshortage of resources in the manufacturing industry, which to a great extent limits the export with thepurpose of satisfying the needs of the inner market.This quota will give Bulgaria the chance to export for the EU 2000 t. with zero customs tax.Although Bulgaria cannot make use of this opportunity for the moment, as there is not approved factory forproduction of meat to be exported to EU, we think that it as a good opportunity. It could be stimulating or thecompanies to take a step in this direction.The calculations show that after the countries of Central and Eastern Europe join the EU, theproduction of meat in the EU will increase by 20%. This however, will not lead to flooding of the marketbecause an increase of the income of the joining countries is expected, with a resulting increase ofconsumption. On the other hand, an increase of the export of meat and meat products is expected for thetraditional markets in Russia.The advantages of the quota system which is being introduced in Bulgaria, as part of the agrarianpolicy of the EU, directed at preventing of overproduction at the market, can be structured as follows:Providing guaranteed prices for the cattle products; Imposing financial sanctioned at exceeding theproduction quota; Opportunity for introducing two-stage quotas – a high price for the production for the

  11. Sub-AdS Scale Locality in AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Belin, Alexandre; Jefferson, Robert A; Kabir, Laurens

    2016-01-01

    We investigate sub-AdS scale locality in a weakly coupled toy model of the AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$ correspondence. We find that this simple model has the correct density of states at low and high energies to be dual to Einstein gravity coupled to matter in AdS$_3$. Bulk correlation functions also have the correct behavior at leading order in the large $N$ expansion, but non-local effects emerge at order $1/N$. Our analysis leads to the conjecture that any large $N$ CFT$_2$ that is modular invariant and has the right low-energy density of states is dual to a gravitational theory with sub-AdS scale locality.

  12. Ultraviolet asymptotics for quasiperiodic AdS_4 perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Craps, Ben; Jai-akson, Puttarak; Vanhoof, Joris

    2015-01-01

    Spherically symmetric perturbations in AdS-scalar field systems of small amplitude epsilon approximately periodic on time scales of order 1/epsilon^2 (in the sense that no significant transfer of energy between the AdS normal modes occurs) have played an important role in considerations of AdS stability. They are seen as anchors of stability islands where collapse of small perturbations to black holes does not occur. (This collapse, if it happens, typically develops on time scales of the order 1/epsilon^2.) We construct an analytic treatment of the frequency spectra of such quasiperiodic perturbations, paying special attention to the large frequency asymptotics. For the case of a self-interacting phi^4 scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, we arrive at a fairly complete analytic picture involving quasiperiodic spectra with an exponential suppression modulated by a power law at large mode numbers. For the case of dynamical gravity, the structure of the large frequency asymptotics is more complicated....

  13. Trapping as an alternative method of eradicating classical swine fever in a wild boar population in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, T; Kamenov, P; Stefanov, D; Depner, K

    2011-12-01

    Between August and November 2009, eight cases of classical swine fever (CSF) occurred in young wild boar in a 25-km2 oak forest3 km south of the river Danube in the north-eastern part of Bulgaria. The wild boar population within the affected area was estimated to be 156 animals, or approximately six boar per km2. To control and eradicate the disease, and in addition to vaccination and hunting, trapping was used to reduce the boar population to below two animals per km2. In total, 124 wild boar were removed from the infected area within three months. Of these, 119 were trapped. In this paper, the authors present trapping as a successful tool to eradicate CSF from an area where hunting and vaccination alone might not be sufficient. Up to seven wild boar could be trapped in a single trap. Furthermore, the spread of CSF virus to the local domestic pig population and to wild boar in neighbouring areas was prevented. By decreasing the wild boar population to fewer than two animals per km2, it was assumed that the virus would no longer circulate and the disease would fade out. In fact, no further CSF cases were diagnosed afterwards. Under Bulgarian and similar conditions, trapping seems to be a more reliable method than hunting for reducing a wild boar population within a short period of time. Furthermore, trapping may be used alone or in combination with hunting, depending on the situation.

  14. Application of New Instruments to Increase Effectiveness of Implementation of Social Policies on Labour Market in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venelin Terziev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, public employment services face a number of urgent tasks as raising the employment rate and reducing the number of vacant jobs for which is difficult to find enough qualified workers. New realities on labour market and dynamic environment require adequate actions, rational and timely decision making and optimization of work. Dynamic changes in social environment impacting labour markets and activities of public employment services impose various tasks which implementation should be carefully planned, organized and controlled. To achieve that public employment services should take a more comprehensive look at the demand and supply of labour, considering the numerous transitions taking place constantly on the labour market and people's personal development. Improving processes and the quality of the administrative services in the Bulgarian employment agency is seen as a prerequisite for effective implementation of employment policies. The study presents opportunities for improving the quality of services offered in the Directorates "Labour Office" in the Republic of Bulgaria by introducing a process model and improvements in the capacity and efficiency of work in the field of labour mediation.

  15. Challenges of science-society interactions in the frame of sustainable development: A case-study of contemporary Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paneva Aneliya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effectively tackling problems of sustainable development such as climate change, poverty, and biodiversity loss requires a different perspective on the role of science in society. Building on the understanding that knowledge production processes shall go hand in hand with governance processes, sustainability science and ecological economics promote transdisciplinarity and participatory procedures as a key requirement for scientific work on nature-society interactions. Involving non-academic actors such as local lay persons, civil society representatives, businesses, and decision makers in the research process promises the discovery of practical solutions to related problems and empowerment of communities. While this novel research approach has been increasingly applied in Western societies, its adoption by scientific actors in the context of Central and Eastern Europe, however, remains relatively low. Employing Bulgaria as a case study, this investigation examined the inter-actions between academia and practice through a series of expert interviews and a review of policy documents, thus offering insights into the specific conditions of implementing science for sustainable development. It emerges that knowledge transfer and experience exchange in the field are needed. Promoting social learning in this domain requires clarification of the roles of actors and institutions for sustainable development. Finally, recommendations for science related policies and scientific work are given.

  16. The Otter (Lutra lutra L. Signs and the Banks Tree Cover: A Survey in Central and Eastern Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radostina Dimitrova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out during 2011 – 2012 at different water basins (rivers and micro dams situated in Central and Eastern Bulgaria. Transects with 600 m length were walked along the banks in otter signs search. The search was stopped when the first otter signs were registered. As a whole we found domination of the very good or excellent bank tree cover. A total of 61% of transects were with tree cover between 50% and 100%. Almost equal were the stretches without or with little tree vegetation. At all transects surveyed the spraints dominated with 61%. All other otter signs were with low percentage. The otter tracks (foot prints were on second place with 20% of occurrence, followed by the food remains with 7%. At 12% of transects we did not find any otter signs. As a whole the otter was registered in 88% of transects, a sign for a good population. Highest preference we registered for walking or feeding of the otter at the open banks with no or with weak tree cover.

  17. Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria

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    Briestenský Miloš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The EU-TecNet monitoring network uses customized three-dimensional extensometers to record transient deformations across individual faults. This paper presents the first results from two newly established monitoring points in the Balkan Mountains in Bulgaria. The data from Saeva Dupka, recorded across an EEN-WWS striking fault, show sinistral strike-slip along the fault and subsidence of the southern block. Much of the subsidence occurred around the time of the distal MW = 5.6 Pernik Earthquake. An important transient deformation event, which began in autumn 2012, was reflected by significant compression and following extension, across the monitored fault. The data from Bacho Kiro, recorded across a NE–SW striking fault, show sinistral strike-slip along the fault and subsidence of the north-western block. The same important deformation event was reflected by changes in the strike-slip, dip-slip, and horizontal opening/closing trends. These results have been compared to data from other monitoring points in the Western Carpathians, External Dinarides, and Tian Shan. Many of the sites show evidence of simultaneous displacement anomalies and this observation is interpreted as a reflection of the plate-wide propagation of a tectonic pressure pulse towards the end of 2012.

  18. Access to health care for Roma children in Central and Eastern Europe: findings from a qualitative study in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Nick J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the attention the situation of the Roma in Central and Eastern Europe has received in the context of European Union enlargement, research on their access to health services is very limited, in particular with regard to child health services. Methods 50 qualitative in-depth interviews with users, providers and policy-makers concerned with child health services in Bulgaria, conducted in two villages, one town of 70,000 inhabitants, and the capital Sofia. Results Our findings provide important empirical evidence on the range of barriers Roma children face when accessing health services. Among the most important barriers are poverty, administrative and geographical obstacles, low levels of parental education, and lack of ways to accommodate the cultural, linguistic and religious specifics of this population group. Conclusion Our research illustrates the complexity of the problems the Roma face. Access to health care cannot be discussed in isolation from other problems this population group experiences, such as poverty, restricted access to education, and social exclusion.

  19. The Genetic Structure of Wild Orobanche cumana Wallr. (Orobanchaceae Populations in Eastern Bulgaria Reflects Introgressions from Weedy Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Pineda-Martos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche cumana is a holoparasitic plant naturally distributed from central Asia to south-eastern Europe, where it parasitizes wild Asteraceae species. It is also an important parasitic weed of sunflower crops. The objective of this research was to investigate genetic diversity, population structure, and virulence on sunflower of O. cumana populations parasitizing wild plants in eastern Bulgaria. Fresh tissue of eight O. cumana populations and mature seeds of four of them were collected in situ on wild hosts. Genetic diversity and population structure were studied with SSR markers and compared to weedy populations. Two main gene pools were identified in Bulgarian populations, with most of the populations having intermediate characteristics. Cross-inoculation experiments revealed that O. cumana populations collected on wild species possessed similar ability to parasitize sunflower to those collected on sunflower. The results were explained on the basis of an effective genetic exchange between populations parasitizing sunflower crops and those parasitizing wild species. The occurrence of bidirectional gene flow may have an impact on wild populations, as new physiological races continuously emerge in weedy populations. Also, genetic variability of wild populations may favour the ability of weedy populations to overcome sunflower resistance mechanisms.

  20. EFFECTS AND PERSPECTIVES OF THE IMPACT OF COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY/CAP/ ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF FARMS IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliya RANCHEVA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make an expert evaluation of the effects and perspectives of the impact of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP on the development of the agricultural sector in Bulgaria, based on the empiric survey, as well as analyzing the measures for improving its influence over the economic, financial, marketing and manufacturing aspects of the development of farms. The method of expert evaluation has been used ranked depending on specific criteria. The required assessment information is achieved with the help of expert evaluations, presented on ranking scale, based on the personal preference to a specific variable of the people that participated in the inquiry. As the main characteristics of the expert evaluation, in the following study, a summarized evaluation is used of the aggregate view, as well as evaluation of the agreement of the experts who took part in the enquiry. Expert’s evaluations regarding the relative importance of the measures of the impact of the CAP for developing the farms show that the most significant influence is the manufacturing and managerial efficiency of the farms and their competitiveness. The expert evaluation shows that the improvement in the market infrastructure, the simplification of the procedures and the increase in the national additional payments are of strategic importance for the future development of the farms in the country

  1. Current challenges and innovative approaches in the development of peripheral regions in Bulgaria: The case of Ivaylovgrad municipality

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    Dimitrova Elena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches territorial cohesion in SEE from the perspective of social equity with regard to the opportunity to choose to live in one’s native place without compromising the quality of life. It is interested in border areas - both physical and virtual; in real life situations as meeting points of theories and policies influencing human lives; and in the emerging challenges there that often make us question once and again our concepts and actions as experts. Based on the Bulgarian case-study analysis, the authors discuss the effectiveness and current challenges of real-life implementation of EU and national policies aimed at sustainable development of peripheral regions. The rural peripheral municipality of Ivaylovgrad is an indicative case study for the ongoing processes in the peripheral regions of Bulgaria and the efforts to overcome a continuing loss of working places, services, markets and further isolation from the rest of the country since the early 1990s. The paper presents a critical view of initiatives and projects undertaken by interest and local groups in the period 2006-2010. Possible innovative approaches for regional revival are considered and conclusions are drawn about the importance of creating development strategies sensitive to the existing and emerging socio-cultural patterns.

  2. Mountain Water Tower and Ecological Risk Estimation of the Mesta-Nestos Transboundary River Basin (Bulgaria-Greece)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Mesta-Nestos river basin in Bulgaria and Greece is a case study for transboundary decision-making support in south-eastern Europe and a show-case for the development of methodologies and information-gathering for the integrated regional planning of water resources. Land-use conflicts in this water-scarce region cover a wide spectrum of activities like agricultural irrigation, drinking water production, diversions for industrial water, and risk of pollution from mining, to name a few examples.Measurements of the water quality were carried out in the upper basin. Results will be illustrated by the example of the environmental situation in the alpine region of the Pirin National Park as well as in the Razlog Basin with a stronger anthropogenic impact and pollution around a former uranium mine near the village of Ele(s)nica. The social and economic development of this transboundary region is a recently established priority for the future. It will mean an increase in water usage and more stress for the water resources if regional impacts of global climate change are verified. Problem-focused management of the catchment area as a whole on the basis of proved geo-data sets is needed for the future.

  3. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among 4- to 14-year-old children from the town of Dimitrovgrad (Bulgaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukleva, Maria P; Isheva, Alexandra V; Kondeva, Veselina K; Dimitrova, Mariana M; Petrova, Svetla G

    2007-01-01

    There has been no study on the prevalence of dental fluorosis in Bulgaria of today where people have free access to some fluoride-containing products. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis among children 4 to 14 years old from the town of Dimitrovgrad, where due to unsatisfactory qualities of tap water people consume bottled water including such with fluoride levels higher than 1.5 mg/l. The study included 1504 randomly selected children. We analysed subjects with dental fluorosis according to Dean's modified criteria. The following severity levels were defined: 0 - normal; 0.5 - suspicious; 1 - very mild; 2 - mild; 3 - moderate; 4 - severe. Data were analyzed separately for the different types of dentitions. Results showed that 54.52% of all children included in the study had dental fluorosis in different degrees. Primary teeth were affected by dental fluorosis less frequently than permanent teeth (P children had fluorosis of permanent teeth only, 1.64% had dental fluorosis of primary teeth only and 12.50% had both their primary and permanent teeth affected. The proportion of individuals with the lowest degree of severity - 0.5, was the greatest both for the primary and permanent teeth. Comparison with the proportions of children with more severe degrees of fluorosis revealed significant differences (P < 0.001). The results of the study showed excessive fluoride intake during tooth development and suggested a need for further research of risk factors.

  4. Efficacy and Safety of PAIR for Cystic Echinococcosis: Experience on a Large Series of Patients from Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golemanov, Branimir; Grigorov, Nikola; Mitova, Rumiana; Genov, Jordan; Vuchev, Dimitar; Tamarozzi, Francesca; Brunetti, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    We report our experience with puncture, aspiration, injection, and reaspiration (PAIR) for the treatment of cystic echinococcosis in Bulgaria. PAIR was performed in 230 patients with 348 echinococcal cysts. At 12-month follow-up, 77.6% of the cysts, all cystic echinococcosis (CE) 1 and CE3a cysts according to the World Health Organization Informal Working Group classification, showed various degrees of obliteration. In 11.5% of cysts, all of which were > 10 cm-type CE1, a significant amount of fluid persisted, and they were punctured again. Of those, 16 (4.6%) contained protoscolices and were treated by a second PAIR. The remaining 24 (6.9%) cysts were treated by simple aspiration or drainage. No significant reduction in size and no changes in the structure were observed in 10.9% of cysts, all of which were classified as CE2 or CE3b. Complications developed in 25.2% of patients, including severe anaphylactic reaction in two (0.9%) patients. Our experience confirms that PAIR is a successful first-choice treatment when a stage-specific approach is taken. PMID:21212200

  5. CADMIUM, COPPER, LEAD AND ZINC CONCENTRATIONS IN LOW QUALITY WINES AND ALCOHOL CONTAINING DRINKS FROM ITALY, BULGARIA AND POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Muchacka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in low quality wines produced in Bulgaria and Italy and in alcohol containing multi-fruit drinks produced in Poland. All the metals were present in tested products. Cadmium was not detected in Italian and Polish products. In one of the Bulgarian wines cadmium was detected in concentration of 0.004 mg•l-1. Italian wines were not contaminated with Pb. Its concentration was the highest in Polish drinks (0.88±0.52 mg•l-1. The largest and statistically significant differences occurred between Cu and Zn contents. Both metals had the highest concetrations in Italian wines (Cu - 0.13±0.05 mg•l-1; Zn - 0.83±0.56 mg•l-1, and the lowest in Polish products (Cu - 0.04±0.001 mg•l-1; Zn -0.18±0.16 mg•l-1.

  6. Grasping physical exercise through recreational running and non-representational theory: a case study from Sofia, Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnfield, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    To become and maintain being physically active encompasses more than purely mindful and rational decision-making. Physical activity requires theoretical-methodological approaches that provide more subtle understandings of the variety of contextual factors. Nettleton and Green have recently argued persuasively for the need for the sociology of public health to embrace social practices. It is also necessary to think about the spaces, affects and technologies of engagement in physical exercise. This article examines the practices of recreational runners in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. The article has three aims; (i) to draw attention to the promise of non-representational theory as an additive for health research and the contextual factors of health practices, (ii) to examine recreational runner's practices and techniques of engagement in light of non-representational theory, and (iii) to highlight how interventions in Sofia and beyond can incorporate elements of non-representational theory into their strategies for improved public health. In drawing attention to the promise of non-representational theory and social practices this article concludes by emphasising their importance for public health interventions in physical activity strategies.

  7. AdS nonlinear instability: moving beyond spherical symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Oscar J C

    2016-01-01

    Anti-de Sitter (AdS) is conjectured to be nonlinear unstable to a weakly turbulent mechanism that develops a cascade towards high frequencies, leading to black hole formation [1,2]. We give evidence that the gravitational sector of perturbations behaves differently from the scalar one studied in [2]. In contrast with [2], we find that not all gravitational normal modes of AdS can be nonlinearly extended into periodic horizonless smooth solutions of the Einstein equation. In particular, we show that even seeds with a single normal mode can develop secular resonances, unlike the spherically symmetric scalar field collapse studied in [2]. Moreover, if the seed has two normal modes, more than one resonance can be generated at third order, unlike the spherical collapse of [2]. We also show that weak turbulent perturbative theory predicts the existence of direct and inverse cascades, with the former dominating the latter for equal energy two-mode seeds.

  8. Universal isolation in the AdS landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, U. H.; Dibitetto, G.; Vargas, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    We study the universal conditions for quantum nonperturbative stability against bubble nucleation for pertubatively stable AdS vacua based on positive energy theorems. We also compare our analysis with the preexisting ones in the literature carried out within the thin-wall approximation. The aforementioned criterion is then tested in two explicit examples describing massive type IIA string theory compactified on S3 and S3×S3, respectively. The AdS landscape of both classes of compactifications is known to consist of a set of isolated points. The main result is that all critical points respecting the Breitenlohner-Freedman (BF) bound also turn out be stable at a nonperturbative level. Finally, we speculate on the possible universal features that may be extracted from the above specific examples.

  9. The Mixed Phase of Charged AdS Black Holes

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    Piyabut Burikham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the mixed phase of charged AdS black hole and radiation when the total energy is fixed below the threshold to produce a stable charged black hole branch. The coexistence conditions for the charged AdS black hole and radiation are derived for the generic case when radiation particles carry charge. The phase diagram of the mixed phase is demonstrated for both fixed potential and charge ensemble. In the dual gauge picture, they correspond to the mixed phase of quark-gluon plasma (QGP and hadron gas in the fixed chemical potential and density ensemble, respectively. In the nuclei and heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies, the mixed phase of exotic QGP and hadron gas could be produced. The mixed phase will condense and evaporate into the hadron gas as the fireball expands.

  10. Smoothed Transitions in Higher Spin AdS Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Shamik; Hellerman, Simeon; Hijano, Eliot; Lepage-Jutier, Arnaud; Maloney, Alexander; Shenker, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We consider CFTs conjectured to be dual to higher spin theories of gravity in AdS_3 and AdS_4. Two dimensional CFTs with W_N symmetry are considered in the lambda=0 (k --> infinity) limit, where they are conjectured to be described by continuous orbifolds. The torus partition function is computed, using reasonable assumptions, and equals that of a free field theory. We find no phase transition at temperatures of order one; the usual Hawking-Page phase transition is removed by the highly degenerate light states associated with conical defect states in the bulk. Three dimensional Chern-Simons-matter CFTs with vector-like matter are considered on T^3, where the dynamics is described by an effective theory for the eigenvalues of the holonomies. Likewise, we find no evidence for a Hawking-Page phase transition at large level k.

  11. Perturbative entanglement thermodynamics for AdS spacetime: Renormalization

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of charged excitations in the AdS spacetime on the first law of entanglement thermodynamics. It is found that `boosted' AdS black holes give rise to a more general form of first law which includes chemical potential and charge density. To obtain this result we have to resort to a second order perturbative calculation of entanglement entropy for small size subsystems. At first order the form of entanglement law remains unchanged even in the presence of charged excitations. But the thermodynamic quantities have to be appropriately `renormalized' at the second order due to the corrections. We work in the perturbative regime where $T_{thermal}\\ll T_E$.

  12. Thermodynamics of Einstein-Proca AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hai-Shan; Pope, C N

    2014-01-01

    We study static spherically-symmetric solutions of the Einstein-Proca equations in the presence of a negative cosmological constant. We show that the theory admits solutions describing both black holes and also solitons in an asymptotically AdS background. Interesting subtleties can arise in the computation of the mass of the solutions and also in the derivation of the first law of thermodynamics. We make use of holographic renormalisation in order to calculate the mass, even in cases where the solutions have a rather slow approach to the asymptotic AdS geometry. By using the procedure developed by Wald, we derive the first law of thermodynamics for the black hole and soliton solutions. This includes a non-trivial contribution associated with the Proca "charge." The solutions cannot be found analytically, and so we make use of numerical integration techniques to demonstrate their existence.

  13. Note on classical string dynamics on AdS3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañados, Máximo; Ritz, Adam

    1999-12-01

    We consider bosonic strings propagating on Euclidean anti-de Sitter space (AdS3), and study in particular the realization of various worldsheet symmetries. We give a proper definition for the Brown-Henneaux asymptotic target space symmetry, when acting on the string action, and derive the Giveon-Kutasov-Seiberg worldsheet contour integral representation simply by using Noether's theorem. We show that making identifications in the target space is equivalent to the insertion of an (exponentiated) graviton vertex operator carrying the corresponding charge. Finally, we point out an interesting relation between 3D gravity and the dynamics of the worldsheet on AdS3. Both theories are described by an SL(2,C)/SU(2) Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) model, and we prove that the reduction conditions determined on one hand by worldsheet diffeomorphism invariance, and on the other by the Brown-Henneaux boundary conditions, are the same.

  14. Observing quantum gravity in asymptotically AdS space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanov, Slava

    2015-12-01

    The question is studied of whether an observer can discover quantum gravity in the semiclassical regime. It is shown that it is indeed possible to probe a certain quantum gravity effect by employing an appropriately designed detector. The effect is related to the possibility of having topologically inequivalent geometries in the path-integral approach at the same time. A conformal field theory (CFT) state which is expected to describe the eternal anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole in the large-N limit is discussed. It is argued under certain assumptions that the black hole boundary should be merely a patch of the entire AdS boundary. This leads then to a conclusion that that CFT state is the ordinary CFT vacuum restricted to that patch. If existent, the bulk CFT operators can behave as the ordinary semiclassical quantum field theory in the large-N limit in the weak sense.

  15. Semiclassical Virasoro Blocks from AdS$_3$ Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Hijano, Eliot; Perlmutter, Eric; Snively, River

    2015-01-01

    We present a unified framework for the holographic computation of Virasoro conformal blocks at large central charge. In particular, we provide bulk constructions that correctly reproduce all semiclassical Virasoro blocks that are known explicitly from conformal field theory computations. The results revolve around the use of geodesic Witten diagrams, recently introduced in arXiv:1508.00501, evaluated in locally AdS$_3$ geometries generated by backreaction of heavy operators. We also provide an alternative computation of the heavy-light semiclassical block -- in which two external operators become parametrically heavy -- as a certain scattering process involving higher spin gauge fields in AdS$_3$; this approach highlights the chiral nature of Virasoro blocks. These techniques may be systematically extended to compute corrections to these blocks and to interpolate amongst the different semiclassical regimes.

  16. AdS plane waves, entanglement and mutual information

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Debangshu

    2014-01-01

    $AdS$ plane wave backgrounds are dual to CFT excited states with energy momentum density $T_{++}=Q$. Building on previous work on entanglement entropy in these and nonconformal brane plane wave backgrounds, we first describe a phenomenological scaling picture for entanglement in terms of "entangling partons". We then study aspects of holographic mutual information in these backgrounds for two strip shaped subsystems, aligned parallel or orthogonal to the flux. We focus on the wide ($Ql^d\\gg 1$) and narrow ($Ql^d\\ll 1$) strip regimes. In the wide strip regime, mutual information exhibits growth with the individual strip sizes and a disentangling transition as the separation between the strips increases, whose behaviour is distinct from the ground and thermal states. In the narrow strip case, our calculations have parallels with "entanglement thermodynamics" for these $AdS$ plane wave deformations. We also discuss some numerical analysis.

  17. N=2 supersymmetric sigma-models in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Butter, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We construct the most general N=2 supersymmetric nonlinear sigma-model in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space in terms of N=1 chiral superfields. The target space is shown to be a non-compact hyperkahler manifold restricted to possess a special Killing vector field. A remarkable property of the sigma-model constructed is that the algebra of OSp(2|4) transformations is closed off the mass shell.

  18. Generalised structures for N=1 AdS backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coimbra, André [Institut für Theoretische Physik & Center for Quantum Engineering and Spacetime Research,Leibniz Universität Hannover,Appelstraße 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Strickland-Constable, Charles [Institut de physique théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-11-16

    We expand upon a claim made in a recent paper [http://arxiv.org/abs/1411.5721] that generic minimally supersymmetric AdS backgrounds of warped flux compactifications of Type II and M theory can be understood as satisfying a straightforward weak integrability condition in the language of E{sub d(d)}×ℝ{sup +} generalised geometry. Namely, they are spaces admitting a generalised G-structure set by the Killing spinor and with constant singlet generalised intrinsic torsion.

  19. SUSY properties of warped AdS3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jaehoon; Colgáin, Eoin Ó.; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2014-06-01

    We examine supersymmetric properties of null-warped AdS3, or alternatively Schrödinger geometries, dual to putative warped CFTs in two dimensions. We classify super Schrödinger subalgebras of the superalgebra psu(1, 1|2) ⊕ psu(1, 1|2), corresponding to the superconformal algebra of the AdS3 × S3 geometry. We comment on geometric realisations and provide a string theory description with enhanced supersymmetry in terms of intersecting D3-branes. For type IIB supergravity solutions based on T 1,1, we consider the relationship between five-dimensional Schrödinger solutions and their three-dimensional null-warped counterparts, corresponding to R symmetry twists. Finally, we study a family of null-warped AdS3 solutions in a setting where there is an ambiguity over the R symmetry and confirm that, for examples admitting a Kaluza-Klein (KK) reduction to three dimensions, the minimisation of a real superpotential of the three-dimensional gauged supergravity captures the central charge and R symmetry.

  20. N=2 AdS supergravity and supercurrents

    CERN Document Server

    Butter, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We consider the minimal off-shell formulation for four-dimensional N=2 supergravity with a cosmological term, in which the second compensator is an improved tensor multiplet. We use it to derive a linearized supergravity action (and its dual versions) around the anti-de Sitter (AdS) background in terms of three N=2 off-shell multiplets: an unconstrained scalar superfield, vector and tensor multiplets. This allows us to deduce the structure of the supercurrent multiplet associated with those supersymmetric theories which naturally couple to the supergravity formulation chosen, with or without a cosmological term. Finally, our linearized N=2 AdS supergravity action is reduced to N=1 superspace. The result is a sum of two N=1 linearized actions describing (i) old minimal supergravity; and (ii) an off-shell massless gravitino multiplet. We also derive dual formulations for the massless N=1 gravitino multiplet in AdS. As a by-product of our consideration, we derive the consistent supergravity extension of the N=1 ...

  1. Intellectual mobile Ad Hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sova, Oleg; Romanjuk, Valeriy; Bunin, Sergey; Zhuk, Pavlo

    2012-01-01

    In this article intellectualization of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks resources management is offered. It was proposed decomposition of the primary goal of MANET functioning into easy subgoals, and fragment of the MANET node target structure is presented.

  2. Supergravity one-loop corrections on AdS7 and AdS3, higher spins and AdS/CFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Beccaria

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As was shown earlier, the one-loop correction in 10d supergravity on AdS5×S5 corresponds to the contributions to the vacuum energy and 4d boundary conformal anomaly which are minus the values for one N=4 Maxwell supermultiplet, thus reproducing the subleading term in the N2−1 coefficient in the dual SU(N SYM theory. We perform similar one-loop computations in 11d supergravity on AdS7×S4 and 10d supergravity on AdS3×S3×T4. In the AdS7 case we find that the corrections to the 6d conformal anomaly a-coefficient and the vacuum energy are again minus the ones for one (2,0 tensor multiplet, suggesting that the total a-anomaly coefficient for the dual (2,0 theory is 4N3−9/4N−7/4 and thus vanishes for N=1. In the AdS3 case the one-loop correction to the vacuum energy or 2d central charge turns out to be equal to that of one free (4,4 scalar multiplet, i.e. is c=+6. This reproduces the subleading term in the central charge c=6(Q1Q5+1 of the dual 2d CFT describing decoupling limit of D5–D1 system. We also present the expressions for the 6d a-anomaly coefficient and vacuum energy contributions of general-symmetry higher spin field in AdS7 and consider their application to tests of vectorial AdS/CFT with the boundary conformal 6d theory represented by free scalars, spinors or rank-2 antisymmetric tensors.

  3. Entanglement Temperature and Perturbed AdS$_3$ Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Levine, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    In analogy to the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entanglement entropy $\\delta S$ of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy, $\\delta E$, of the subsystem divided by an effective entanglement temperature, $T_E$. Extending this analogy, we study entanglement entropy when the subsystem is perturbed by applying an external field, expressed as a coupling to a local marginal operator in the CFT. We show that the resulting entropy change is associated with a change in the entanglement temperature itself, leading to an equation analogous to the Clausius relation. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature, $\\delta T_E(x)$ of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. Using the AdS$_3$ minimal surface as a probe, we can construct bulk metric perturbations from an exact numerical computation of the entanglement temperature in a two dimensional $c=1$ boundary theory deformed by a marginal perturbati...

  4. Ultraviolet asymptotics and singular dynamics of AdS perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, Ben [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, and The International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Evnin, Oleg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Thanon Phayathai, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, and The International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Vanhoof, Joris [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, and The International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-10-12

    Important insights into the dynamics of spherically symmetric AdS-scalar field perturbations can be obtained by considering a simplified time-averaged theory accurately describing perturbations of amplitude ε on time-scales of order 1/ε{sup 2}. The coefficients of the time-averaged equations are complicated expressions in terms of the AdS scalar field mode functions, which are in turn related to the Jacobi polynomials. We analyze the behavior of these coefficients for high frequency modes. The resulting asymptotics can be useful for understanding the properties of the finite-time singularity in solutions of the time-averaged theory recently reported in the literature. We highlight, in particular, the gauge dependence of this asymptotics, with respect to the two most commonly used gauges. The harsher growth of the coefficients at large frequencies in higher-dimensional AdS suggests strengthening of turbulent instabilities in higher dimensions. In the course of our derivations, we arrive at recursive relations for the coefficients of the time-averaged theory that are likely to be useful for evaluating them more efficiently in numerical simulations.

  5. Reconstruction of the transmission history of RNA virus outbreaks using full genome sequences: foot-and-mouth disease virus in Bulgaria in 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Valdazo-González

    Full Text Available Improvements to sequencing protocols and the development of computational phylogenetics have opened up opportunities to study the rapid evolution of RNA viruses in real time. In practical terms, these results can be combined with field data in order to reconstruct spatiotemporal scenarios that describe the origin and transmission pathways of viruses during an epidemic. In the case of notifiable diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD, these analyses provide important insights into the epidemiology of field outbreaks that can support disease control programmes. This study reconstructs the origin and transmission history of the FMD outbreaks which occurred during 2011 in Burgas Province, Bulgaria, a country that had been previously FMD-free-without-vaccination since 1996. Nineteen full genome sequences (FGS of FMD virus (FMDV were generated and analysed, including eight representative viruses from all of the virus-positive outbreaks of the disease in the country and 11 closely-related contemporary viruses from countries in the region where FMD is endemic (Turkey and Israel. All Bulgarian sequences shared a single putative common ancestor which was closely related to the index case identified in wild boar. The closest relative from outside of Bulgaria was a FMDV collected during 2010 in Bursa (Anatolia, Turkey. Within Bulgaria, two discrete genetic clusters were detected that corresponded to two episodes of outbreaks that occurred during January and March-April 2011. The number of nucleotide substitutions that were present between, and within, these separate clusters provided evidence that undetected FMDV infection had occurred. These conclusions are supported by laboratory data that subsequently identified three additional FMDV-infected livestock premises by serosurveillance, as well as a number of antibody positive wild boar on both sides of the border with Turkish Thrace. This study highlights how FGS analysis can be used as an effective

  6. Assessment of cyanoprokaryote blooms and of cyanotoxins in Bulgaria in a 15-years period (2000-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya P. Stoyneva-Gärtner

    2017-05-01

    human health and health of aquatic ecosystems in Bulgaria.

  7. Histological alterations under metal exposure in gills of European perch (Perca fluviatilis L. from Topolnitsa Reservoir (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Еlenka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Topolnitsa Reservoir is located in a region of Bulgaria rich in copper mines where intensive mining has been ongoing for several decades. General data on the ecological status of the reservoir and the effects of metal on fish is relatively scarce. The first aim of the study was to measure the concentrations of six metals (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in water samples and in the gills of European perch (Perca fluviatilis L.. The second objective was to examine gill structure and determine the severity of histological alteration as a result of metal exposure. Surface water and fish gill samples were collected in spring, summer and autumn in 2012 and metal and histological analyses were performed. Metal concentrations in the water samples varied, but only Cu concentrations were determined in all three seasons and they were higher than the maximum permissible levels. The gill metal concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.05 than in the water. Examination of gill structure revealed the presence of proliferative and degenerative changes, as well as changes in the blood vessels. Histological lesions were similar in their severity in all three seasons. This study provides the first information about metal effects on the morphology of European perch gills from Topolnitsa Reservoir. It can be concluded that the metal contamination of the Topolnitsa Reservoir and fish is chronic and that it can negatively affect the structure and function of fish gills. As metals display a tendency to accumulate in fish gills, their effects are expected to become more severe with time, as they affect gill functions.

  8. Wavelet analysis on transient behaviour of tidal amplitude fluctuations observed by meteor radar in the lower thermosphere above Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pancheva

    Full Text Available On the basis of bispectral analysis applied to the hourly data set of neutral wind measured by meteor radar in the MLT region above Bulgaria it was demonstrated that nonlinear processes are frequently and regularly acting in the mesopause region. They contribute significantly to the short-term tidal variability and are apparently responsible for the observed complicated behavior of the tidal characteristics. A Morlet wavelet transform is proposed as a technique for studying nonstationary signals. By simulated data it was revealed that the Morlet wavelet transform is especially convenient for analyzing signals with: (1 a wide range of dominant frequencies which are localized in different time intervals; (2 amplitude and frequency modulated spectral components, and (3 singular, wave-like events, observed in the neutral wind of the MLT region and connected mainly with large-scale disturbances propagated from below. By applying a Morlet wavelet transform to the hourly values of the amplitudes of diurnal and semidiurnal tides the basic oscillations with periods of planetary waves (1.5-20 days, as well as their development in time, are obtained. A cross-wavelet analysis is used to clarify the relation between the tidal and mean neutral wind variability. The results of bispectral analysis indicate which planetary waves participated in the nonlinear coupling with the atmospheric tides, while the results of cross-wavelet analysis outline their time intervals if these interactions are local.

    Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides - Radio science (nonlinear phenomena

  9. Mountain Water as Main Longevity Factor in Research of Phenomenon of Longevity in Mountain Areas of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Ignatov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are submitted data on longevity factors and mountain water in factorial research of phenomenon of longevity in mountainious and field areas of Bulgaria. The dependence was established among various internal and external factors on a phenomenon of longevity – residence area, health status, gender and heredity. It was shown that water is among the most important factors for longevity. Natural waters derived from various Bulgarian water springs were investigated by non-equilibrium energy (NES and differential non-equilibrium energy spectrum of water (DNES method. The biological effects of water with varrying content of deuterium are also discussed. It was shown, that the increased content of deuterium leads to physiological, morphological and cytology alterations of the cell, and also renders negative influence on cellular metabolism, while deuterium depleted water with reduced deuterium content on 20–30 % has beneficial effects on health. By using IR-spectroscopy were investigated various samples of water with varying contents of deuterium, received from Bulgarian water springs and blood serum of cancer patients as well. As estimation factor was measured the values of the average energy of hydrogen bonds (∆EH...O among H2O molecules, as well as local maxima in the IR-spectra of various samples of water and human blood serum at -0,1387 eV and wavelength 8,95 μm. For a group of people in critical condition of life and patients with malignant tumors the greatest values of local maxima in IR-spectra are shifted to lower energies relative to the control group. This testifies to the structural changes of water. The obtained results testify to necessity of consumption of clean natural water which quality satisfies mountain water from Bulgarian water springs.

  10. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHERS IN THE FIELD OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN SCHOOL (THE EXPERIENCE OF RUSSIA AND BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglika A. Angelova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to discuss the problems connected with a current state of inclusive education in Russia and Bulgaria.Methods. Experience, positive and negative tendencies in the field of inclusive education of the Russian and Bulgarian systems of training and education are analysed and generalized.Results and scientific novelty. Creating conditions for quality education for all children regardless of the characteristics of their health is a social guarantee of any post-industrial country. Access to quality education for children with disabilities is a target of nowadays reforms of the Russian and Bulgarian education in the context of globalization: Bulgaria’s accession to the European Union and activity of Russia as an independent state on the international education arena.Adverse conditions of inclusive education in the two countries complicate establishing and implementation of public policies for the development of inclusive education. However, objective data about teachers’ readiness for the implementation of inclusive education and public debate around this issue stimulates a better understanding of the principles on which the activities of the teacher, directed at the education of children with disabilities.The principles providing a basis for developing professional teacher competencies in the field of inclusive education are presented in the article. The importance of complex solution to the problem is highlighted: involvement of an administrative resource, realization of the social mechanism of a special type of mutual aid (tutoring, formation in the organization and society of culture of the attitude towards people with peculiarities of health. Everything listed has to be supported by the state measures, including the motivation of teachers to development in a profession and obtaining special professional competences.Practical significance. The research findings can be useful for correction of pedagogical activity

  11. The Longevity of Crop Seeds Stored Under Long-term Condition in the National Gene Bank of Bulgaria

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    Desheva Gergana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Seed accessions from 7 plant families and 28 species stored for above 20 years in the National gene bank of Bulgaria were evaluated. All seed accessions were maintained as base collection under long-term storage conditions with low moisture contents (5±2% in hermetically closed containers at −18°C. On the basis of experimental data, the seed storage characters σ (standard deviation of seed death in storage, P50% (the time for viability to fall to 50% and P10% (the time for viability reduction of 10% were determined allowing the prediction of seed storage life and the regeneration needs. The results showed significant differences in loss of seed viability among species and within the species. After 20–24 years of storage, eleven crops showed minimal viability decline under 5% as compared to the initial viability (oats, barley, maize, bread wheat, durum wheat, smooth brome grass, faba bean, chickpea, sunflower, cucumber and pepper. For the same storage time, another group of crops (sorghum, triticale, orchard grass, tall fescue, common vetch, grass pea, lentil, common bean, rapeseed, tobacco, flax, cabbage and tomatoes presented 5–10% reduction of seed viability. More significant changes in seed viability – above 10% – were detected for peanuts, lettuce, soybean and rye. The σ values varied from 20.41 years (Arachis hypogaea L. to 500 years (for Avena sativa L. and Triticum aestivum L. There was wide variation across species, both in time taken for the viability to fall to 50% and in time taken for the seed viability reduction of 10%. The study illustrates the positive effect of both seed storability early monitoring and prediction of regeneration needs as a tool for limiting undesired losses.

  12. Description of Longidorus cholevae sp. n. (Nematoda, Dorylaimida from a riparian habitat in the Rila Mountains, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlada Peneva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A description is provided of Longidorus cholevae sp. n., a bisexual species associated with wild cherry (Prunus avium L. from the Rila Mountains, Bulgaria. The position of L. cholevae sp. n. among other species of the genus was elucidated by using morphological and molecular data. Phylogenetic analyses were performed of D2-D3 expansion domains of the 28S rRNA and the partial ITS1 containing regions by Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods. The species is characterised by a female body length of 6.1–8.1 mm; long odontostyle (106–129 µm; lip region wide (21.5–24 µm rounded and continuous with the body profile; amphidial pouches short and wide, funnel-shaped; a posteriorly situated guide ring (30-37 µm; normal arrangement of pharyngeal glands, and short bluntly rounded to hemispherical tail. Four juvenile stages indentified, first stage with elongate conoid tail. Males with 2–4 adanal pairs and a row of 11–13 single ventromedian supplements, spicules 96-120 µm long. Based both on morphological and molecular data the new species appearred to be the most similar with a group of species distributed in Europe sharing common charcters such as amphidial fovea, lip region and tail shapes, andsimilar odontostyle and body length: L. poessneckensis, L. caespiticola, L. macrososma, L. helveticus, L. carniolensis and L. pius. An updated list of Longidorus species and a partial polytomous keys to the Longidorus species with long odontostyle (codeA45 and short tail (codeH1 are provided.

  13. Coherent Cascade: Collapsing Solutions in Global AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Freivogel, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the gravitational dynamics of a classical scalar field that sometimes leads to blackhole formation in asymptotically AdS spacetime at the shortest nonlinear time scale. We present strong evidence that the dynamics is governed by a "coherent cascade", with all modes remaining in phase as the energy flows to higher frequencies into a power-law spectrum. Using a coherent phase ansatz, we analytically find these power-law solutions. We show how the particular power is determined by the scaling properties of the interaction coefficients. Our result agrees with existing numerical results in 4+1 dimensions, and makes predictions in higher dimensions.

  14. Configurational entropy of charged AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chong Oh

    2017-09-01

    When we consider charged AdS black holes in higher dimensional spacetime and a molecule number density along coexistence curves is numerically extended to higher dimensional cases. It is found that a number density difference of a small and large black holes decrease as a total dimension grows up. In particular, we find that a configurational entropy is a concave function of a reduced temperature and reaches a maximum value at a critical (second-order phase transition) point. Furthermore, the bigger a total dimension becomes, the more concave function in a configurational entropy while the more convex function in a reduced pressure.

  15. Internal Structure of Charged AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-01-01

    When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.

  16. Duality invariance of s≥32 fermions in AdS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Deser

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We show that in D=4 AdS, s≥3/2 partially massless (PM fermions retain the duality invariances of their flat space massless counterparts. They have tuned ratios m2/M2≠0 that turn them into sums of effectively massless unconstrained helicity ±(s,⋯,32 excitations, shorn of the lowest (non-dual helicity ±12-rung and — more generally — of succeeding higher rung as well. Each helicity mode is separately duality invariant, like its flat space counterpart.

  17. Reentrant Phase Transitions in Rotating AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Altamirano, Natacha; Mann, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics of higher-dimensional singly spinning asymptotically AdS black holes in the canonical (fixed J) ensemble of extended phase space, where the cosmological constant is treated as pressure and the corresponding conjugate quantity is interpreted as thermodynamic volume. Along with the usual small/large black hole phase transition, we find a new phenomenon of reentrant phase transitions for all d>5 dimensions, in which a monotonic variation of the temperature yields two phase transitions from large to small and back to large black holes. This situation is similar to that seen in multicomponent liquids.

  18. Entanglement entropy and duality in AdS4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Bakas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Small variations of the entanglement entropy δS and the expectation value of the modular Hamiltonian δE are computed holographically for circular entangling curves in the boundary of AdS4, using gravitational perturbations with general boundary conditions in spherical coordinates. Agreement with the first law of thermodynamics, δS=δE, requires that the line element of the entangling curve remains constant. In this context, we also find a manifestation of electric–magnetic duality for the entanglement entropy and the corresponding modular Hamiltonian, following from the holographic energy–momentum/Cotton tensor duality.

  19. Most general AdS_3 boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Grumiller, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We consider the most general asymptotically anti-de Sitter boundary conditions in three-dimensional Einstein gravity with negative cosmological constant. The metric contains in total twelve independent functions, six of which are interpreted as chemical potentials (or non-normalizable fluctuations) and the other half as canonical boundary charges (or normalizable fluctuations). Their presence modifies the usual Fefferman-Graham expansion. The asymptotic symmetry algebra consists of two sl(2)_k current algebras, the levels of which are given by k=l/(4G_N), where l is the AdS radius and G_N the three-dimensional Newton constant.

  20. M-Theory solutions with AdS factors

    CERN Document Server

    Gauntlett, J P; Pakis, S; Waldram, D; Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Kim, Nakwoo; Pakis, Stathis; Waldram, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Solutions of D=7 maximal gauged supergravity are constructed with metrics that are a product of a n-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, with n=2,3,4,5, and certain Einstein manifolds. The gauge fields have the same form as in the recently constructed solutions describing the near-horizon limits of M5-branes wrapping supersymmetric cycles. The new solutions do not preserve any supersymmetry and can be uplifted to obtain new solutions of D=11 supergravity, which are warped and twisted products of the D=7 metric with a squashed four-sphere. Some aspects of the stability of the solutions are discussed.

  1. M-theory solutions with AdS factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Kim, Nakwoo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Pakis, Stathis [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Waldram, Daniel [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2002-08-07

    Solutions of D=7 maximal gauged supergravity are constructed with metrics that are a product of an n-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, with n=2, 3, 4, 5, and certain Einstein manifolds. The gauge fields have the same form as in the recently constructed solutions describing the near-horizon limits of M5-branes wrapping supersymmetric cycles. The new solutions do not preserve any supersymmetry and can be uplifted to obtain new solutions of D=11 supergravity, which are warped and twisted products of the D=7 metric with a squashed four-sphere. Some aspects of the stability of the solutions are discussed.

  2. Heavy quark potential from deformed AdS5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-qiang; Hou, De-fu; Chen, Gang

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the heavy quark potential in some holographic QCD models. The calculation relies on a modified renormalization scheme mentioned in a previous work of Albacete et al. After studying the heavy quark potential in Pirner-Galow model and Andreev-Zakharov model, we extend the discussion to a general deformed AdS5 case. It is shown that the obtained potential is negative definite for all quark-antiquark separations, differs from that using the usual renormalization scheme.

  3. AdS Chern-Simons Gravity induces Conformal Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Aros, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    The leitmotif of this paper is the question of whether four- and higher even-dimensional Conformal Gravities do have a Chern-Simons pedigree. We show that Weyl gravity can be obtained as dimensional reduction of a five-dimensional Chern-Simons action for a suitable (gauged-fixed, tractor-like) five-dimensional AdS connection. The gauge-fixing and dimensional reduction program admits a readily generalization to higher dimensions for the case of certain conformal gravities obtained by contractions of the Weyl tensor.

  4. Gastropod Shells from Excavations of the “Antic Forum” Complex in the City Of Plovdiv (Bulgaria: IV-VI Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Ivanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total of 35 shells were found and identified during the archeological excavations 2012-2014, studied Slavic dwellings-dugouts which reuse earlier structures of the roman forum inPlovdiv, Bulgaria. From both localities shells from 7 species of snails were found. Most of the shellswere from two species: Zebrina detrita and Helix philibinensis – total of 28 shells, other wererepresented by 1-3 specimens per species. The lack of shell materials from Eobania vermiculatasupports the theory of later introduction of this species in the city of Plovdiv.

  5. First record of tail bifurcations in the snake-eyed skink (Ablepharus kitaibelii Bibron & Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1833 from Pastrina hill (northwestern Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergilov, V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We report for the first time on the occurrence of tail bifurcations in the snake-eyed skink (A. kitaibelii. This morphological anomaly was identified during a four-year monitoring program conducted in a herpetological hot-spot at Pastrina hill (northwestern Bulgaria. From a total of 415 captured specimens, four animals (0.96% showed symmetrical or asymmetrical lateral duplication of the tail. Only bifurcations of the distal-most caudal section were detected in contrast to some other lizards (e.g. Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, Teiidae that are reported to survive with bifurcations at more proximal tail sections.

  6. Failures in the energy policy result in electricity revolts. Bulgaria - energy crisis and government crisis; Versaeumnisse in der Energiepolitik fuehren zu Stromrevolten. Bulgarien - Energie- und Regierungskrise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stier, Frank

    2013-03-25

    Electricity bills may oust the government from power as it has happened in Bulgaria: Since the beginning of February 2013, the citizens of the capital city Sofia and from other cities of the Balkan Country demonstrated against the electricity bills being excessive in their opinion. Once it came to a bloody confrontation between the demonstrators and the police at the Eagle's Bridge in Sofia at 19th February, 2013, the Prime Minister Boiko Borissov and his right-wing cabinet had decided to resign. Thus, Borissov led his country into a political instability and the Bulgarian energy industry into an uncertainty on its future development.

  7. Reconstruction of the Transmission History of RNA Virus Outbreaks Using Full Genome Sequences: Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Bulgaria in 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valdazo-González, Begoña; Polihronova, Lilyana; Alexandrov, Tsviatko

    2012-01-01

    Improvements to sequencing protocols and the development of computational phylogenetics have opened up opportunities to study the rapid evolution of RNA viruses in real time. In practical terms, these results can be combined with field data in order to reconstruct spatiotemporal scenarios...... the origin and transmission history of the FMD outbreaks which occurred during 2011 in Burgas Province, Bulgaria, a country that had been previously FMD-free-without-vaccination since 1996. Nineteen full genome sequences (FGS) of FMD virus (FMDV) were generated and analysed, including eight representative...

  8. Introducing ADS 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

  9. Rindler-AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Parikh, Maulik

    2012-01-01

    In anti-de Sitter space a highly accelerating observer perceives a Rindler horizon. The two Rindler wedges in AdS_{d+1} are holographically dual to an entangled conformal field theory that lives on two boundaries with geometry R x H_{d-1}. For AdS_3, the holographic duality is especially tractable, allowing quantum-gravitational aspects of Rindler horizons to be probed. We recover the thermodynamics of Rindler-AdS space directly from the boundary conformal field theory. We derive the temperature from the two-point function and obtain the Rindler entropy density precisely, including numerical factors, using the Cardy formula. We also probe the causal structure of the spacetime, and find from the behavior of the one-point function that the CFT "knows" when a source has fallen across the Rindler horizon. This is so even though, from the bulk point of view, there are no local signifiers of the presence of the horizon. Finally, we discuss an alternate foliation of Rindler-AdS which is dual to a CFT living in de Si...

  10. The CFT dual of AdS gravity with torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Klemm, Dietmar

    2007-01-01

    We consider the Mielke-Baekler model of three-dimensional AdS gravity with torsion, which has gravitational and translational Chern-Simons terms in addition to the usual Einstein-Hilbert action with cosmological constant. It is shown that the topological nature of the model leads to a finite Fefferman-Graham expansion. We derive the holographic stress tensor and the associated Ward identities and show that, due to the asymmetry of the left- and right-moving central charges, a Lorentz anomaly appears in the dual conformal field theory. Both the consistent and the covariant Weyl and Lorentz anomaly are determined, and the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions for the former are verified. Moreover we consider the most general solution with flat boundary geometry, which describes left-and right-moving gravitational waves on AdS_3 with torsion, and shew that in this case the holographic energy-momentum tensor is given by the wave profiles. The anomalous transformation laws of the wave profiles under diffeomorphisms p...

  11. AdS nonlinear instability: moving beyond spherical symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Óscar J. C.; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-12-01

    Anti-de Sitter (AdS) is conjectured to be nonlinear unstable to a weakly turbulent mechanism that develops a cascade towards high frequencies, leading to black hole formation (Dafermos and Holzegel 2006 Seminar at DAMTP (University of Cambridge) available at https://dpmms.cam.ac.uk/~md384/ADSinstability.pdf, Bizon and Rostworowski 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 031102). We give evidence that the gravitational sector of perturbations behaves differently from the scalar one studied by Bizon and Rostworowski. In contrast with Bizon and Rostworowski, we find that not all gravitational normal modes of AdS can be nonlinearly extended into periodic horizonless smooth solutions of the Einstein equation. In particular, we show that even seeds with a single normal mode can develop secular resonances, unlike the spherically symmetric scalar field collapse studied by Bizon and Rostworowski. Moreover, if the seed has two normal modes, more than one resonance can be generated at third order, unlike the spherical collapse of Bizon and Rostworowski. We also show that weak turbulent perturbative theory predicts the existence of direct and inverse cascades, with the former dominating the latter for equal energy two-mode seeds.

  12. AdS pure spinor superstring in constant backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandia, Osvaldo [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Diagonal Las Torres 2640, Peñalolén, Santiago (Chile); Bevilaqua, L. Ibiapina [Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte,Caixa Postal 1524, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Vallilo, Brenno Carlini [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-06-05

    In this paper we study the pure spinor formulation of the superstring in AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} around point particle solutions of the classical equations of motion. As a particular example we quantize the pure spinor string in the BMN background.

  13. A special road to AdS vacua

    CERN Document Server

    Cassani, Davide; Marrani, Alessio; Morales, Jose F; Samtleben, Henning

    2010-01-01

    We apply the techniques of special Kaehler geometry to investigate AdS_4 vacua of general N=2 gauged supergravities underlying flux compactifications of type II theories. We formulate the scalar potential and its extremization conditions in terms of a triplet of prepotentials P_x and their special Kaehler covariant derivatives only, in a form that recalls the potential and the attractor equations of N=2 black holes. We propose a system of first order equations for the P_x which generalize the supersymmetry conditions and yield non-supersymmetric vacua. Special geometry allows us to recast these equations in algebraic form, and we find an infinite class of new N=0 and N=1 AdS_4 solutions, displaying a rich pattern of non-trivial charges associated with NSNS and RR fluxes. Finally, by explicit evaluation of the entropy function on the solutions, we derive a U-duality invariant expression for the cosmological constant and the central charges of the dual CFT's.

  14. AdS twistors for higher spin theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cederwall, M

    2004-01-01

    We construct spectra of supersymmetric higher spin theories in D=4, 5 and 7 from twistors describing massless (super-)particles on AdS spaces. A massless twistor transform is derived in a geometric way from classical kinematics. Relaxing the spin-shell constraints on twistor space gives an infinite tower of massless states of a ``higher spin particle'', generalising previous work of Bandos et al. This can generically be done in a number of ways, each defining the states of a distinct higher spin theory, and the method provides a systematic way of finding these. We reproduce known results in D=4, minimal supersymmetric 5- and 7-dimensional models, as well as supersymmetrisations of Vasiliev's Sp-models as special cases. In the latter models a dimensional enhancement takes place, meaning that the theory lives on a space of higher dimension than the original AdS space, and becomes a theory of doubletons. This talk was presented at the XIXth Max Born Symposium ``Fundamental Interactions and Twistor-Like Methods''...

  15. Enthalpy and the Mechanics of AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kastor, David; Traschen, Jennie

    2009-01-01

    We present geometric derivations of the Smarr formula for static AdS black holes and an expanded first law that includes variations in the cosmological constant. These two results are further related by a scaling argument based on Euler's theorem. The key new ingredient in the constructions is a two-form potential for the static Killing field. Surface integrals of the Killing potential determine the coefficient of the variation of the cosmological constant in the first law. This coefficient is proportional to a finite, effective volume for the region outside the AdS black hole horizon, which can also be interpreted as minus the volume excluded from a spatial slice by the black hole horizon. This effective volume also contributes to the Smarr formula. Since the cosmological constant is naturally thought of as a pressure, the new term in the first law has the form of effective volume times change in pressure that arises in the variation of the enthalpy in classical thermodynamics. This and related arguments sug...

  16. Quantum cat map dynamics on AdS$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Axenides, Minos; Nicolis, Stam

    2016-01-01

    We present a toy model for the chaotic unitary scattering of single particle wave packets on the radial AdS$_2$ geometry of extremal BH horizons. Based on our recent work for the discretization of the AdS$_2$ space-time, which describes a finite and random geometry, by modular arithmetic, we investigate the validity of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH), as well as that of the fast scrambling time bound conjecture (STB), for an observer with time evolution operator the quantum Arnol'd cat map (QACM). We find that the QACM, while possessing a linear spectrum, has eigenstates, which can be expressed in closed form, are found to be random and to satisfy the assumptions of the ETH.The implications are that the dynamics is described by a chaotic, unitary, single particle S-matrix, which completely delocalizes and randomizes initial gaussian wave packets . Applying results obtained by Dyson and Falk for the periods of the Arnol'd Cat Map(ACM),which are related to its mixing time, we also find that the t...

  17. Smooth Causal Patches for AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Raju, Suvrat

    2016-01-01

    We review the paradox of low energy excitations about an AdS black hole. An appropriately chosen unitary operator in the boundary theory can create a locally strong excitation near the black hole horizon, whose global energy is small as a result of the gravitational redshift. The paradox is that this seems to violate a general rule of statistical mechanics, which states that an operator with energy parametrically smaller than $k T$ cannot create a significant excitation in a thermal system. When we carefully examine the position dependence of the boundary unitary operator that produces the excitation and the bulk observable necessary to detect the anomalously large effect, we find that they do not both fit in a single causal patch. This follows from a remarkable property of position space AdS correlators that we establish explicitly, and resolves the paradox in a generic state of the system, since no combination of observers can both create the excitation and observe its effect. As a special case of our analy...

  18. AdCell: Ad Allocation in Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Alaei, Saeed; Liaghat, Vahid; Pei, Dan; Saha, Barna

    2011-01-01

    With more than four billion usage of cellular phones worldwide, mobile advertising has become an attractive alternative to online advertisements. In this paper, we propose a new targeted advertising policy for Wireless Service Providers (WSPs) via SMS or MMS- namely {\\em AdCell}. In our model, a WSP charges the advertisers for showing their ads. Each advertiser has a valuation for specific types of customers in various times and locations and has a limit on the maximum available budget. Each query is in the form of time and location and is associated with one individual customer. In order to achieve a non-intrusive delivery, only a limited number of ads can be sent to each customer. Recently, new services have been introduced that offer location-based advertising over cellular network that fit in our model (e.g., ShopAlerts by AT&T) . We consider both online and offline version of the AdCell problem and develop approximation algorithms with constant competitive ratio. For the online version, we assume tha...

  19. Online Ad Slotting With Cancellations

    CERN Document Server

    Constantin, Florin; Muthukrishnan, S; Pal, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Many advertisers buy advertisements (ads) on the Internet or on traditional media and seek simple, online mechanisms to reserve ad slots in advance. Media publishers represent a vast and varying inventory, and they too seek automatic, online mechanisms for pricing and allocating such reservations. In this paper, we present and study a simple model for auctioning such ad slots in advance. Bidders arrive sequentially and report which slots they are interested in. The seller must decide immediately whether or not to grant a reservation. Our model allows a seller to accept reservations, but possibly cancel the allocations later and pay the bidder a cancellation compensation (bump payment). Our main result is an online mechanism to derive prices and bump payments that is efficient to implement. This mechanism has many desirable properties. It is individually rational; winners have an incentive to be honest and bidding one's true value dominates any lower bid. Our mechanism's efficiency is within a constant fractio...

  20. Adding momentum to supersymmetric geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunin, Oleg, E-mail: olunin@albany.edu [Department of Physics, University at Albany (SUNY), Albany, NY 12222 (United States); Mathur, Samir D., E-mail: mathur.16@osu.edu [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Turton, David, E-mail: turton.7@osu.edu [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-03-11

    We consider general supersymmetric solutions to minimal supergravity in six dimensions, trivially lifted to IIB supergravity. To any such solution we add a traveling wave deformation involving the additional directions. The deformed solution is given in terms of a function which is harmonic in the background geometry. We also present a family of explicit examples describing microstates of the D1-D5 system on T{sup 4}. In the case where the background contains a large AdS region, the deformation is identified as corresponding to an action of a U(1) current of the D1-D5 orbifold CFT on a given state.

  1. Adding momentum to supersymmetric geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Lunin, Oleg; Turton, David

    2012-01-01

    We consider general supersymmetric solutions to minimal supergravity in six dimensions, trivially lifted to IIB supergravity. To any such solution we add a travelling-wave deformation involving the additional directions. The deformed solution is given in terms of a function which is harmonic in the background geometry. We also present a family of explicit examples describing microstates of the D1-D5 system on T^4. In the case where the background contains a large AdS region, the deformation is identified as corresponding to an action of a U(1) current of the D1-D5 orbifold CFT on a given state.

  2. Ad valorem versus unit taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Sørensen, Allan

    2010-01-01

    a general equilibrium monopolistic competition model with heterogeneous firms and intra-industry reallocations. We show that the welfare superiority of ad valorem over unit taxes under imperfect competition is not only preserved but amplified. The additional difference between the tools arises because unit...

  3. Added Value via SPI supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supplement that indicates where to find the source data sets on the EPA system.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Bowden, J., K.D. Talgo, T. Spero , and C. Nolte. Assessing the Added Value of Dynamical Downscaling Using the Standardized Precipitation Index. ADVANCES IN METEOROLOGY. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, New York, NY, USA, 2016(8432064): 14 pages, (2016).

  4. Holographic properties in three-dimensional AdS soliton using $AdS_3/CFT_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Yan

    2016-01-01

    We study the holographic description of a superconductor by the $AdS_{3}/CFT_{2}$ correspondence. The system is constructed with a Maxwell field and a charged scalar field coupled in the (2+1)-dimensional AdS soliton background. With analytical methods, we obtain the exact expression for the critical chemical potential as $\\mu_{c} = 1 + \\sqrt{1+m^2}$, which has also been generalized to higher dimensions as $\\mu_c \\thickapprox a + \\sqrt{m^2-m_{BF}^2}$ in this work. Around the phase transition points, we find a correspondence between the value of the scalar field at the tip and the scalar operator at infinity. We also arrive at the classical second order phase transition threshold exponent $\\beta=\\frac{1}{2}$ as the same as the mean field theory near the critical chemical potential. As the condensation becomes heavier, we show surprisingly that superconducting phases exist only in a certain range of the chemical potential, which is very different from higher-dimensional cases. And for the small enough negative ...

  5. Brownian motion in AdS/CFT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Hubeny, V.E.; Rangamani, M.; Shigemori, M.

    2009-01-01

    We study Brownian motion and the associated Langevin equation in AdS/CFT. The Brownian particle is realized in the bulk spacetime as a probe fundamental string in an asymptotically AdS black hole background, stretching between the AdS boundary and the horizon. The modes on the string are excited by

  6. Colliding waves on a string in AdS$_3$

    CERN Document Server

    Vegh, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the classical motion of a string in global AdS$_3$. The initially static string stretches between two antipodal points on the boundary circle. Both endpoints are perturbed which creates cusps at a steady rate. The cusps propagate towards the interior where they collide. The behavior of the string depends on the strength of forcing. Three qualitatively different phases can be distinguished: transparent, gray, and black. The transparent region is analogous to a standing wave. In the black phase, there is a horizon on the worldsheet and cusps never reach the other endpoint. The string keeps folding and its length grows linearly over time. In the gray phase, the string still grows linearly. However, cusps do cross to the other side. The transparent and gray regions are separated by a transition point where a logarithmic accumulation of cusps is numerically observed. A simple model reproduces the qualitative behavior of the string in the three phases.

  7. Bootstrapping Pure Quantum Gravity in AdS3

    CERN Document Server

    Bae, Jin-Beom; Lee, Sungjay

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional pure quantum gravity with negative cosmological constant is supposed to be dual to the extremal conformal field theory of central charge $c=24k$ in two dimensions. We employ the conformal bootstrap method to analyze the extremal CFTs, and find numerical evidence for the non-existence of the extremal CFTs for sufficiently large central charge ($k \\ge 20$). We also explore near-extremal CFTs, a small modification of extremal ones, and find similar evidence for their non-existence for large central charge. This indicates, under the assumption of holomorphic factorization, the pure gravity in the weakly curved AdS$_3$ do not exist as a consistent quantum theory.

  8. On jordanian deformations of AdS5 and supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Ben; van Tongeren, Stijn J.

    2016-10-01

    We consider various homogeneous Yang-Baxter deformations of the {{AdS}}5× {{{S}}}5 superstring that can be obtained from the η-deformed superstring and related models by singular boosts. The jordanian deformations we obtain in this way behave similarly to the η-deformed model with regard to supergravity: T dualizing the classical sigma model it is possible to find corresponding solutions of supergravity, which, however, have dilatons that prevent T dualizing back. Hence the backgrounds of these jordanian deformations are not solutions of supergravity. Still, they do satisfy a set of recently found modified supergravity equations which implies that the corresponding sigma models are scale invariant. The abelian models that we obtain by singular boosts do directly correspond to solutions of supergravity. In addition to our main results we consider contraction limits of our main example, which do correspond to supergravity solutions.

  9. On jordanian deformations of AdS_5 and supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Hoare, Ben

    2016-01-01

    We consider various homogeneous Yang-Baxter deformations of the AdS_5 x S^5 superstring that can be obtained from the eta-deformed superstring and related models by singular boosts. The jordanian deformations we obtain in this way behave similarly to the eta-deformed model with regard to supergravity: T dualizing the classical sigma model it is possible to find corresponding solutions of supergravity, which, however, have dilatons that prevent T dualizing back. Hence the backgrounds of these jordanian deformations are not solutions of supergravity. Still, they do satisfy a set of recently found modified supergravity equations which should imply that the corresponding sigma models are scale invariant. The abelian models that we obtain by singular boosts do directly correspond to solutions of supergravity. In addition to our main results we consider contraction limits of our main example, which also do not correspond to supergravity solutions.

  10. Higher spins on AdS3 from the worldsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Kevin; Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Jottar, Juan I.

    2017-07-01

    It was recently shown that the CFT dual of string theory on AdS3 × S3 × T 4, the symmetric orbifold of T 4, contains a closed higher spin subsector. Via holography, this makes precise the sense in which tensionless string theory on this background contains a Vasiliev higher spin theory. In this paper we study this phenomenon directly from the worldsheet. Using the WZW description of the background with pure NS-NS flux, we identify the states that make up the leading Regge trajectory and show that they fit into the even spin N=4 Vasiliev higher spin theory. We also show that these higher spin states do not become massless, except for the somewhat singular case of level k = 1 where the theory contains a stringy tower of massless higher spin fields coming from the long string sector.

  11. Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasobh, C. B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V. C.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime.

  12. Jet physics from static charges in AdS space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yang-Ting; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Stewart, Iain W.

    2012-02-01

    Soft interactions with high-energy jets are explored in radial coordinates which exploit the approximately conformal behavior of perturbative gauge theories. In these coordinates, the jets, approximated by Wilson lines, become static charges in Euclidean AdS. The anomalous dimension of the corresponding Wilson line operator is then determined by the potential energy of the charges. To study these Wilson lines we introduce a “conformal gauge” which does not have kinetic mixing between radial and angular directions, and show that a number of properties of Wilson lines are reproduced through relatively simple calculations. For example, certain nonplanar graphs involving multiple Wilson lines automatically vanish. We also discuss the linear growth of the charges’ imaginary potential energy with separation, and a relationship between Wilson line diagrams and Witten diagrams.

  13. Jet Physics from Static Charges in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Chien, Yang-Ting; Simmons-Duffin, David; Stewart, Iain W

    2011-01-01

    Soft interactions with high-energy jets are explored in radial coordinates which exploit the approximately conformal behavior of perturbative gauge theories. In these coordinates, the jets, approximated by Wilson lines, become static charges in Euclidean AdS. The anomalous dimension of the corresponding Wilson line operator is then determined by the potential energy of the charges. To study these Wilson lines we introduce a "conformal gauge" which does not have kinetic mixing between radial and angular directions, and show that a number of properties of Wilson lines are reproduced through relatively simple calculations. For example, certain non-planar graphs involving multiple Wilson lines automatically vanish. We also discuss the linear growth of the charges' imaginary potential energy with separation, and a relationship between Wilson line diagrams and Witten diagrams.

  14. An Investigation of AdS2 Backreaction and Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Engelsöy, Julius; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski and develop an 1D effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1D version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.

  15. On Information Loss in AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, A Liam; Li, Daliang; Wang, Junpu

    2016-01-01

    We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS$_3$, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT$_2$ correlators at large central charge $c$: 'forbidden singularities' arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We study an infinite class of examples where forbidden singularities can be resolved by non-perturbative effects at finite $c$, and we show that the resolution has certain universal features that also apply in the general case. Analytically continuing to the Lorentzian regime, we find that the non-perturbative effects that resolve forbidden singularities qualitatively change the behavior of correlators at times $t \\sim S_{BH}$, the black hole entropy. This may resolve the exponential decay of correlators at late times in black hole backgrounds. By Borel resumming the $1/c$ expansion of exact examples, we explicitly identify 'information-restoring' effects from heavy states that should correspo...

  16. Supersymmetry Properties of AdS Supergravity Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Samuel; Gutowski, Jan; Papadopoulos, George

    2017-01-01

    Anti-de Sitter supergravity backgrounds are of particular interest in light of the AdS/CFT correspondence, which relates them to dual conformal field theories on the boundary of the anti-de Sitter space. We have investigated the forms of the supersymmetries these backgrounds preserve by solving the Killing spinor equations on the anti-de Sitter components of these spaces. We have found that a supersymmetric AdSn background necessarily preserves 2⌊n/2⌋ k supersymmetries for n 0 . Additionally, we have found that the Killing spinors of each background are exactly the zeroes of a Dirac-like operator constructed from the Killing spinor equations.

  17. Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasobh, C.B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V.C. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Cochin (India)

    2016-04-15

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime. (orig.)

  18. Adiabatic pumping solutions in global AdS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carracedo, Pablo; Mas, Javier; Musso, Daniele; Serantes, Alexandre

    2017-05-01

    We construct a family of very simple stationary solutions to gravity coupled to a massless scalar field in global AdS. They involve a constantly rising source for the scalar field at the boundary and thereby we name them pumping solutions. We construct them numerically in D = 4. They are regular and, generically, have negative mass. We perform a study of linear and nonlinear stability and find both stable and unstable branches. In the latter case, solutions belonging to different sub-branches can either decay to black holes or to limiting cycles. This observation motivates the search for non-stationary exactly timeperiodic solutions which we actually construct. We clarify the role of pumping solutions in the context of quasistatic adiabatic quenches. In D = 3 the pumping solutions can be related to other previously known solutions, like magnetic or translationally-breaking backgrounds. From this we derive an analytic expression.

  19. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS FROM FACULTIES OF DENTAL MEDICINE IN BULGARIA REGARDING THEIR MOTIVATION FOR PARTICIPATION IN AND THE WAY THEY ARE FAMILIAR WITH RESEARCH PROJECTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Garov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years there has been a significant increase in the number and value of projects implemented by medical universities in Bulgaria. The involvement of representatives of the student community in the research teams increases their knowledge and skills and in this way they also gain experience in team work and become motivated to further develop their science careers. Aim: The purpose of our study is by analyzing data from our questionnaire to examine the level of students’ willingness to participate in research project activities performed by Bulgarian faculties of Dental Medicine. Material and methods: The written examination technique has been applied as a primary empirical sociological information registration method. For that purpose a 13-question survey (questionnaire has been prepared. The survey is anonymous and it has been completed by 190 students in their 4th and 5th year of studying in medical universities in Sofia, Plovdiv and Varna. Data was collected during the period from January to May 2013. Results: In order for us to achieve the goal of this study we focused on the questions from the questionnaire.Conclusion: The role that research projects play in medical universities and in particular in the faculties of dental medicine in Bulgaria is of key importance for their accreditation. The scientific cooperation between lecturers and students is a prerequisite for developing a competitive environment that defines the future scientific achievements in the relevant research institution.

  20. Clinical Evaluation of Rapid Diagnostic Test Kit Using the Polysaccharide as a Genus-Specific Diagnostic Antigen for Leptospirosis in Korea, Bulgaria, and Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Woo; Park, Sungman; Kim, Seung Han; Christova, Iva; Jacob, Paulina; Vanasco, Norma B; Kang, Yeon-Mi; Woo, Ye-Ju; Kim, Min Soo; Kim, Young-Jin; Cho, Min-Kee; Kim, Yoon-Won

    2016-02-01

    Leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease that is caused by many serovars which are more than 200 in the world, is an emerging worldwide disease. Accurate and rapid diagnostic tests for leptospirosis are a critical step to diagnose the disease. There are some commercial kits available for diagnosis of leptospirosis, but the obscurity of a species- or genus-specific antigen of pathogenic Leptospira interrogans causes the reduced sensitivity and specificity. In this study, the polysaccharide derived from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of nonpathogenic Leptospira biflexa serovar patoc was prepared, and the antigenicity was confirmed by immunoblot and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The performance of the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kit using the polysaccharide as a diagnostic antigen was evaluated in Korea, Bulgaria and Argentina. The sensitivity was 93.9%, 100%, and 81.0% and the specificity was 97.9%, 100%, and 95.4% in Korea (which is a rare region occurring with 2 serovars mostly), Bulgaria (epidemic region with 3 serovars chiefly) and Argentina (endemic region with 19 serovars mainly) respectively. These results indicate that this RDT is applicable for global diagnosis of leptospirosis. This rapid and effective diagnosis will be helpful for diagnosis and manage of leptospirosis to use and the polysaccharide of Leptospira may be called as genus specific antigen for diagnosis.