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Sample records for lucidus hagenbach blattodea

  1. Collichthys lucidus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1. 4 polymorphic m icrosatellite loci in. Collichthys lucidus. Locus. P rimer sequence. (5. -3. ) .... 2000). All results for multiple tests were corrected using. Bonferroni ... 91 pairwise tests (P > 0.004, adjusted value), hence allelic variations at these ...

  2. [Assessment of resource situation of Collichthys lucidus in coastal waters of the Yangtze estuary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Gang; Zhao, Feng; Hou, Jun-li; Zhang, Long-zhen; Zhuang, Ping

    2015-09-01

    In order to assess the resource status of Collichthys lucidus in coastal waters of Yangtze estuary, the growth and population parameters were studied by the length frequency distribution method based on the bottom trawl investigation data from 2012 to 2013. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters were calculated by using the ELEFAN module in FiSAT II software while the natural mortality rate (M) was estimated via Pauly's empirical equation. Besides, the Beverton-Holt dynamic model was developed to predict the variation trend of C. lucidus resource in coastal waters of Yangtze estuary. The results showed that in 2012-2013, a total of 4201 samples of C. lucidus with body lengths ranging from 18 to 155 mm were collected from the coastal waters of Yangtze estuary. The growth parameter (K) and limit length (L.) were 1.1 and 162.75 mm while the total mortality rate (Z), the natural mortality rate (M) and the fishing mortality rate (F) were 4.040, 1.683 and 2.357, respectively. Moreover, the current exploitation (E) of C. lucidus in coastal waters of Yangtze estuary was 0.583 per year, which was larger than Fopt (0.5). Corresponding to the average stock of 576.02 t, the resource amount of C. lucidus reached up to 1.33 x 10(8) individuals. These indicated that C. lucidus has been overfished in Yangtze estuary area.

  3. Use of feces to attract insects by a Glittering-bellied Emerald, Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812 (Apodiformes: Trochilidae

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    Fábio André Facco Jacomassa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the occurrence of a female Glittering-bellied Emerald, Chlorostilbon lucidus, using feces to attract insects to the nesting site for predation. This is the first report of a hummingbird using feces to attract insects.

  4. Bioassay-directed fractionation of a blood coagulation factor Xa inhibitor, betulinic acid from Lycopus lucidus

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    Tan Yin-Feng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thrombosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular disorders, including acute coronary syndrome, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, peripheral arterial occlusion, ischemic stroke, deep-vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, and fibrinolytics can reduce the risks of these clinical events. Especially, the blood coagulation factor Xa (FXa inhibitor is a proven anticoagulant. Promoting blood circulation, using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, for the treatment of these diseases has been safely used for thousands of years in clinical practice. Therefore, highly safe and effective anticoagulant ingredients, including FXa inhibitors, could be found in TCM for activating the blood circulation. One FXa inhibitor, a pentacyclic triterpene (compound 1, betulinic acid characterized by IR, MS and NMR analyses, was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Lycopus lucidus by bioassay-directed fractionation. Compound 1 exhibited an inhibitory effect on FXa with IC50 25.05 μmol/L and reduced the thrombus weight in an animal model at 25-100 mg/kg. These results indicate that betulinic acid could be the potential for anticoagulant therapy.

  5. Phylogeny of cockroaches (Insecta, Dictyoptera, Blattodea), with placement of aberrant taxa and exploration of out-group sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djernæs, Marie; Klass, Klaus-Dieter; Picker, Mike D.

    2012-01-01

    hypotheses, we retain Lamproblattidae. S. montistabularis was consistently placed as sister to Ectobius sylvestris Poda (Blaberoidea: Ectobinae), indicating that the saltatorial hindlegs of this genus are a relatively recent adaptation. Isoptera was placed within Blattodea as sister to Cryptocercidae...

  6. Immunochemical detection of the crustacean cardioactive peptide in the cephalic ganglia cockroaches (Blattodea: Blattidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gladysz, M.; Guzik, J.; Sehadová, Hana; Baran, B.; Bembenek, J.; Dolezych, B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 2 (2015), s. 235-244 ISSN 1210-5759 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Blattodea * Periplaneta americana * Gromphadorhina portentosa Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2014 http://www.eje.cz/corproof.php?tartkey=eje-000000-0111#.VRVB0PmG8mM

  7. GTPase Ran strongly accumulates at the kinetochores of somatic chromosomes in the spermatogonial mitoses of Acricotopus lucidus (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiber, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    Unequal chromosome segregation and spindle formation occurs in the last gonial mitosis in the germ line of the chironomid Acricotopus lucidus. During this differential mitosis, all germ line-limited chromosomes (=Ks) migrate undivided to only one pole of the cell, while the somatic chromosomes (=Ss) first remain in the metaphase plane, and with the arrival of the Ks at the pole, they then separate equally. The evolutionarily conserved GTPase Ran plays a crucial role in many cellular processes. This includes the regulation of microtubule nucleation and stabilisation at kinetochores and of spindle assembly during mitosis, which is promoted by a RanGTP concentration gradient that forms around the mitotic chromosomes (Kalab et al. in Science 295:2452-2456, 2002, Nature 440:697-701, 2006). In the present study, a strong accumulation of Ran was detected by immunofluorescence at the kinetochores of the Ss in normal gonial and differential gonial mitoses of males of A. lucidus. In contrast, no Ran accumulation was observed at the kinetochores of the Ss in the metaphases of brain ganglia mitoses or of aberrant spermatocytes or in metaphases I and II of spermatocyte meiotic divisions. Likewise, there was no accumulation at the kinetochores of Drosophila melanogaster mitotic chromosomes from larval brains. The specific accumulation of Ran at the kinetochores of the Ss in differential gonial mitoses of A. lucidus strongly suggests that Ran is involved in a mechanism acting in this exceptional mitosis, which retains the Ss at the metaphase plane and prevents a premature separation and unequal segregation of the Ss during monopolar migration of the Ks.

  8. Kekerabatan rayap tanah Macrotermes gilvus Hagen (Blattodea: Termitidae dari dua habitat di Bogor

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    Nadzirum Mubin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Subterranean termites Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen (Blattodea: Termitidae belongs to the subfamily Macrotermitinae they are distributed widely in Southeast Asia such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Myanmar, Philippine, Vietnam, and Thailand. Many studies on these termites have been conducted, but the study of relatedness termites from different locations are barely done. The objective of this study was analyze the relatedness between subterranean termites M. gilvus in IPB Dramaga Campus and Yanlappa Nature Reserve, Jasinga-Bogor. The termite relatedness was analyzed with agonistic behavioral approach and molecularly, technique using mitochondrial COI gene. Termites from both locations showed identical molecular relatedness, however behavioral analysis show that they belong from different parental lineages. Agonistic assessment showed that individuals from different habitat showed aggressive behaviour, whereas those that originated from the same nest do not show any aggression. Molecular detection however have failed to show.

  9. A Laboratory Maintenance Regime for a Fungus-Growing Termite Macrotermes gilvus (Blattodea: Termitidae).

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    Lee, Ching-Chen; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2015-06-01

    The optimum maintenance conditions of the fungus-growing termite, Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen) (Blattodea: Termitidae), in the laboratory were studied. Termites were kept on a matrix of moist sand and with fungus comb as food. The survival of groups of termites was measured when maintained at different population densities by changing group size and container volume. Larger groups (≥0.6 g) were more vigorous and had significant higher survival rates than smaller groups (≤0.3 g). The population density for optimal survival of M. gilvus is 0.0025 g per container volume (ml) or 0.0169 g per matrix volume (cm(3)), i.e., 1.2 g of termites kept in a 480-ml container filled with 71 cm3 of sand. In termite groups of smaller size (i.e., 0.3 g) or groups maintained in smaller container (i.e., 100 ml) the fungus comb was overgrown with Xylaria spp., and subsequently all termites died within the study period. The insufficient number of workers for regulating the growth of unwanted fungi other than Termitomyces spp. in the fungus comb is the most likely reason. Unlike some other mound-building termite species, M. gilvus showed satisfactory survival when maintained in non-nutritious matrix (i.e., sand). There was no significant difference in the survival rate between different colonies of M. gilvus (n=5), with survival in the range of 78.5-84.4% after 4 wk. Advances in the maintenance of Macrotermes will enable researchers to study with more biological relevance many aspects of the biology, behavior, and management of this species. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Response of Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) Assemblages to Lower Subtropical Forest Succession: A Case Study in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China.

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    Li, Zhi-Qiang; Ke, Yun-Ling; Zeng, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Shi-Jun; Wu, Wen-Jing

    2016-02-01

    Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) assemblages have important ecological functions and vary in structure between habitats, but have not been studied in lower subtropical forests. To examine whether differences in the richness and relative abundance of termite species and functional groups occur in lower subtropical regions, termite assemblages were sampled in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China, among pine forest, pine and broad-leaved mixed forest (mixed forest), and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (monsoon forest). The dominant functional group was wood-feeding termites (family Termitidae), and the mixed forest hosted the greatest richness and relative abundance. Soil-feeding termites were absent from the lower subtropical system, while humus-feeding termites were sporadically distributed in mixed forest and monsoon forest. The species richness and functional group abundance of termites in our site may be linked to the forest succession. Altitude, soil temperature, air temperature, surface air relative humidity, and litter depth were significant influences on species and functional group diversity.

  11. Influência do meio bifásico na multiplicação de gemas e no alongamento de brotos in vitro de Ananas lucidus Miller.

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    Neiliane Santiago Sombra Borges

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado no Laboratório de Biotecnologia Vegetal da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, em Fortaleza (CE. Nele objetivou-se avaliar a influência do meio de cultura bifásico na multiplicação de gemas e no alongamento de brotos, in vitro, de abacaxi ornamental (Ananas lucidus Miller. Na multiplicação de gemas, utilizaram-se como explantes, brotos de cultura in vitro, com altura aproximada de 0,5 cm. Utilizou-se o meio MS, solidificado e líquido, suplementado com 1,0 mg.L-1 de 6- benzilaminopurina (BAP e 0,1 mg.L-1 de ácido naftaleno-acético (ANA. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com os seguintes tratamentos: acréscimos de 10 mL de meio líquido/frasco nos períodos de cultivo 0; 15; 30; 15 e 30; 30 e 60 e, a cada 15 dias durante 75 dias, com 14 repetições e 6 explantes/parcela. Avaliaram-se os pesos de matéria fresca e de matéria seca aos 90 dias de cultivo. No mesmo período, as culturas de cada tratamento foram transferidas para o meio de cultura de Murashige & Skoog (MS solidificado com 0,4% (p/v de ágar e suplementado com 0,01 mg.L-1 de ANA para o alongamento dos brotos, utilizando, como explante, aglomerado de gemas com aproximadamente 0,5 cm de diâmetro. Cada tratamento foi composto por 6 epetições e 6 explantes/parcela, dispostos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Realizaram-se três subcultivos sucessivos para o mesmo meio “novo” a cada 30 dias. Aos 90 dias de cultivo em meio de alongamento avaliaram-se o número de rotos/explante e as porcentagens de número de brotos e de brotos enraizados em quatro amplitudes de altura. Os maiores valores médios para pesos de matéria fresca (913,7 mg/explante e matéria seca (69,1 mg/explante foram obtidos com o acréscimo de 10 mL de meio líquido aos 30 dias de cultivo. Os acréscimos de meio líquido efetuados aos 15 e 30 dias de cultivo proporcionaram a maior média de número de brotos (32,6 brotos/explante aos 90

  12. Tomaculocystis corpulenta n. gen., n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinorida) parasitizing the little yellow cockroach, Cariblatta lutea (Blattodea: Ectobiidae), in Alabama and Florida with recognition of Tomaculocystis cylindrosa n. comb. and Tomaculocystis mukundai n. comb. parasitizing ectobiid cockroaches in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopton, Richard E

    2015-02-01

    Tomaculocystis corpulenta n. gen., n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinorida: Septatorina: Gregarinidae) is described from populations of the little yellow cockroach, Cariblatta lutea (Blattodea: Ectobiidae), established in laboratory culture from samples collected in Alabama and Florida. Tomaculocystis n. gen. are differentiated from other members of Gregarina by a markedly elliptoid gametocyst inside a persistent, lomentiform hyaline epicyst; developmental organization and growth of the spore tubes from gametocyst surface tumidi; and dehiscence by extrusion of non-chain forming oocysts through spore tubes that barely extend beyond the epicyst wall. Gregarina cylindrosa, Gregarina discocephala, and Gregarina mukundai are recognized as members of Tomaculocystis, and G. cylindrosa is recognized as the senior synonym of G. discocephala. Thus, Tomaculocystis cylindrosa n. comb. and Tomaculocystis mukundai n. comb. are formed. Species of Tomaculocystis are distinguished based on gamont deutomerite and oocyst shape and size. The oocysts of T. corpulenta are broadly dolioform, lack 4 polar knobs, and possess distinct, unique polar plates. Oocysts of all other known species in the genus are more oblong in shape, possess 4 polar knobs, and lack the distinct polar plates observed in the oocysts of T. corpulenta. Host utilization and geographic distribution among gregarine genera parasitizing the cockroach family Ectobiidae reveal a pattern of host-parasite specificity linking gregarine genera with ectobiidid subfamilies. Overall patterns suggest a hypothesis of European endemicy for Gamocystis, but hypotheses for the origin and radiation of Tomaculocystis or species of Gregarina infecting cockroaches are confounded by the cosmopolitan spread of pest cockroach species among humans.

  13. PROPAGAÇÃO "IN VITRO" DA CULTURA DO ABACAXIZEIRO ORNAMENTAL (ANANAS LUCIDUS MILLER

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    Mychelle Karla Teixeira de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    than in the 0,0 mg L-1 dosage, at a 5% probability level, and similar to the 1,0; 3,0 e 4,0 mg.L-1 dosages. It was observed that in the liquid media treatments there was a higher proliferation of sprouts than in the semi-solid media (11,3 and 9,0 respectively. The acclimatization survival index was of 96% for all treatments.

  14. Rediscovered and new perisphaerine cockroaches from SW China with a review of subfamilial diagnosis (Blattodea: Blaberidae).

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    Li, Xin-Ran; Wang, Li-Li; Wang, Zong-Qing

    2018-04-17

    The taxonomic records of Chinese perisphaerine cockroaches were scattered in literature, and therefore a dedicated study is desired to update our knowledge. This paper reviews the subfamilial diagnosis and Chinese species, mostly from southwestern China. We provide high-definition habitus photos and drawings, the latter emphasizes the genitalia of both sexes, which are generalized with diagrams, abstracted from specimens examined. A total of 18 species are recorded in four genera, including Perisphaerus, or pill cockroach, the type genus of the subfamily. Two new genera and three new species are proposed: Achatiblatta achates gen. sp. nov., Frumentiforma frumentiformis gen. sp. nov., and Pseudoglomeris montana sp. nov.. Pseudoglomeris has five new junior synonyms: Corydidarum, Trichoblatta, Kurokia, Glomerexis, and Glomeriblatta; the following combinations are thus revived or new: Ps. aerea comb. nov., Ps. angustifolia comb. nov., Ps. beybienkoi comb. nov., Ps. fallax comb. nov., Ps. magnifica comb. rev., Ps. montshadskii comb. nov., Ps. nigra comb. nov., Ps. sculpta comb. nov., Ps. semisulcata comb. rev., Ps. tibetana comb. nov., and Ps. valida moderata comb. nov.. The following species are revalidated and combinations revived: Pe. pygmaeus comb. rev., Ps. dubia comb. sp. rev., and Ps. planiuscla comb. sp. rev.

  15. Preferences of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae among Three Commercial Wood Species

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    Nirmala K. Hapukotuwa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, and the Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann, are both pests of wood in service in Hawaii and Florida. We conducted a laboratory study using method modified from those described in standard E1-09 of the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA 2009 to assess the termite resistance of three commercially available wood species used in regions of the USA where both termite species occur: Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziessii, southern yellow pine, Pinus spp. and redwood, Sequoia sempervirens. A multiple-choice (three-choice assay was used for four weeks (28 days in order to simulate field conditions of food choice and assess termite feeding preferences under 28 °C and 72–80% RH. 400 termites (360 workers: 40 soldiers were released into each test jar. Five replicates and two controls of each wood species were used with each termite species. Termite mortality was recorded at the end of the test; and wood wafers were oven-dried and weighed before and after termite exposure to determine the mass loss due to termite feeding, and rated visually on a 0 (failure to 10 (sound scale. There were significant differences in mean mass loss values among the three wood species and between two termite species. The mean mass loss value for redwood was significantly lower than Douglas fir and southern yellow pine with both termite species. However, C. formosanus showed increased feeding on Douglas fir and southern yellow pine compared to C. gestroi.

  16. Toxicity of Turmeric Extracts to the Termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raje, Kapil R; Hughes, Gabriel P; Gondhalekar, Ameya D; Ginzel, Matthew D; Scharf, Michael E

    2015-08-01

    Turmeric is an important spice crop with documented human health benefits associated with chemicals called curcuminoids. In this study, the termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) was exposed to different solvent extracts of turmeric to investigate potential termiticidal properties. Treating termites with hexane extracts of purified lab-grade curcuminoids had no effect on termites. However, in continuous exposure assays, the LC(50) for hexane extracts of crude turmeric powder was 9.6 mg, or 1.0 mg starting material per square centimeter of filter paper substrate. These active components were soluble in a range of polar and apolar solvents, but only hexane could selectively fractionate active components away from the inactive curcuminoids. The active constituents of turmeric separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) fluoresced in short-wave UV light but were not visible in long-wave UV light. By re-extracting TLC-separated bands in hexane and performing bioassays and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we demonstrated that termiticidal components of turmeric are extractable as a blend containing mainly ar-turmerone, turmerone, and curlone. This determination is consistent with findings of preceding work by other researchers that investigated insecticidal properties of turmeric in other pest insects. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Gas exchange patterns and water loss rates in the Table Mountain cockroach, Aptera fusca (Blattodea: Blaberidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewald, Berlizé; Bazelet, Corinna S; Potter, C Paige; Terblanche, John S

    2013-10-15

    The importance of metabolic rate and/or spiracle modulation for saving respiratory water is contentious. One major explanation for gas exchange pattern variation in terrestrial insects is to effect a respiratory water loss (RWL) saving. To test this, we measured the rates of CO2 and H2O release ( and , respectively) in a previously unstudied, mesic cockroach, Aptera fusca, and compared gas exchange and water loss parameters among the major gas exchange patterns (continuous, cyclic, discontinuous gas exchange) at a range of temperatures. Mean , and per unit did not differ among the gas exchange patterns at all temperatures (P>0.09). There was no significant association between temperature and gas exchange pattern type (P=0.63). Percentage of RWL (relative to total water loss) was typically low (9.79±1.84%) and did not differ significantly among gas exchange patterns at 15°C (P=0.26). The method of estimation had a large impact on the percentage of RWL, and of the three techniques investigated (traditional, regression and hyperoxic switch), the traditional method generally performed best. In many respects, A. fusca has typical gas exchange for what might be expected from other insects studied to date (e.g. , , RWL and cuticular water loss). However, we found for A. fusca that expressed as a function of metabolic rate was significantly higher than the expected consensus relationship for insects, suggesting it is under considerable pressure to save water. Despite this, we found no consistent evidence supporting the conclusion that transitions in pattern type yield reductions in RWL in this mesic cockroach.

  18. Karakteristik Populasi Rayap Tanah Coptotermes spp (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae dan Dampak Serangannya

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    Niken Subekti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Termite are known to infest building in the tropics, but in their quest for cellulose they may also cause signifi cant damage to crops and trees. They become pest only when their natural habitat is altered in some way by humans. Subterranean termite Coptotermes spp has been known as the most economically important structural pest in Indonesia. Due tomorphological ambiguity, traditional identifi cation of Coptotermes spp. has always been diffi cult and unreliable. In economic point of view, economic loss due to termite attack always increases every year, and in the year 2000 it is estimated to reach 373 million US$. Moreover, the social as well as ecological impact caused by termite attack should also be considered. In the capital city of Jakarta, the subterranean termite attack on home buildings reaches around 55%; while in Surabaya (East Java 36%; and in Semarang (Central Java 41%. Meanwhile, in some other cities, the subterranean termite attack on home buildings reaches on the average of 20%. The presence of termites in a region can depend on various factors, such as soil and vegetation type. Climatic features andwater avaibility play an important part in termite survival. Daily and seasonal changes in these factors also affect termite distribution.Keywords: characteristics, climatic, Coptotermes spp, attack impact.

  19. The impact of edge effect on termite community (Blattodea: Isoptera) in fragments of Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, C S; Cristaldo, P F; Florencio, D F; Ribeiro, E J M; Cruz, N G; Silva, E A; Costa, D A; Araújo, A P A

    2017-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is considered to be one of the biggest threats to tropical ecosystem functioning. In this region, termites perform an important ecological role as decomposers and ecosystem engineers. In the present study, we tested whether termite community is negatively affected by edge effects on three fragments of Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Termite abundance and vegetation structure were sampled in 10 transects (15 × 2 m), while termite richness, activity, and soil litter biomass were measured in 16 quadrants (5 × 2 m) at forest edge and interior of each fragment. Habitat structure (i.e. number of tree, diameter at breast height and soil litter biomass) did not differ between forest edge and interior of fragments. Termite richness, abundance and activity were not affected by edge effect. However, differences were observed in the β diversity between forest edge and interior as well as in the fragments sampled. The β diversity partitioning indicates that species turnover is the determinant process of termite community composition under edge effect. Our results suggest that conservation strategies should be based on the selection of several distinct sites instead of few rich sites (e.g. nesting).

  20. Escaping and repairing behaviors of the termite Odontotermes formosanus (Blattodea: Termitidae in response to disturbance

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    Hongpeng Xiong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The escaping behavior of termites has been documented under laboratory conditions; however, no study has been conducted in a field setting due to the difficulty of observing natural behaviors inside wood or structures (e.g., nests, tunnels, etc.. The black-winged termite, Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki, is a subterranean macrotermitine species which builds extensive mud tubes on tree trunks. In the present study, 41 videos (totaling ∼2,700 min were taken on 22 colonies/subcolonies of O. formosanus after their mud tubes were partially damaged by hand. In general, termites consistently demonstrated three phases of escape, including initiation (wandering near the mud-tube breach, individual escaping (single termites moving downward, and massive, unidirectional escaping flows (groups of termites moving downward. Downward moving and repairing were the dominant behavioral activities of individuals and were significantly more frequent than upward moving, turning/backward moving, or wandering. Interestingly, termites in escaping flows moved significantly faster than escaping individuals. Repairing behavior was observed shortly after the disturbance, and new mud tubes were preferentially constructed from the bottom up. When predators (i.e., ants were present, however, termites stopped moving and quickly sealed the mud-tube openings by capping the broken ends. Our study provides an interesting example that documents an animal (besides humans simultaneously carrying out pathway repairs and emergency evacuation without congestion.

  1. Escaping and repairing behaviors of the termite Odontotermes formosanus (Blattodea: Termitidae) in response to disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hongpeng; Chen, Xuan; Wen, Yuzhen; Layne, Michael; Sun, Zhaohui; Ma, Tao; Wen, Xiujun; Wang, Cai

    2018-01-01

    The escaping behavior of termites has been documented under laboratory conditions; however, no study has been conducted in a field setting due to the difficulty of observing natural behaviors inside wood or structures (e.g., nests, tunnels, etc.). The black-winged termite, Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki), is a subterranean macrotermitine species which builds extensive mud tubes on tree trunks. In the present study, 41 videos (totaling ∼2,700 min) were taken on 22 colonies/subcolonies of O. formosanus after their mud tubes were partially damaged by hand. In general, termites consistently demonstrated three phases of escape, including initiation (wandering near the mud-tube breach), individual escaping (single termites moving downward), and massive, unidirectional escaping flows (groups of termites moving downward). Downward moving and repairing were the dominant behavioral activities of individuals and were significantly more frequent than upward moving, turning/backward moving, or wandering. Interestingly, termites in escaping flows moved significantly faster than escaping individuals. Repairing behavior was observed shortly after the disturbance, and new mud tubes were preferentially constructed from the bottom up. When predators (i.e., ants) were present, however, termites stopped moving and quickly sealed the mud-tube openings by capping the broken ends. Our study provides an interesting example that documents an animal (besides humans) simultaneously carrying out pathway repairs and emergency evacuation without congestion.

  2. Insecticidal Properties of Essential Oils and Some of Their Constituents on the Turkestan Cockroach (Blattodea: Blattidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaire, Sudip; O'Connell, Mary; Holguin, Francisco O; Amatya, Anup; Bundy, Scott; Romero, Alvaro

    2017-04-01

    The Turkestan cockroach, Blatta lateralis (Walker), has become the most important peridomestic species in urban areas of the Southwestern United States. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of botanical compounds to control this urban pest. We tested the acute toxicity and repellency of six botanical constituents and three essential oils on Turkestan cockroach nymphs. Chemical composition of the essential oils was also determined. Topical and fumigant assays with nymphs showed that thymol was the most toxic essential oil constituent, with a LD50 of 0.34 mg/nymph and a LC50 of 27.6 mg/liter air, respectively. Contact toxicity was also observed in assays with trans-Cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, geraniol, methyl eugenol, and p-Cymene. Methyl eugenol and geraniol had limited fumigant toxicity. The essential oils from red thyme, clove bud, and Java citronella exhibited toxicity against nymphs. Cockroaches avoided fresh dry residues of thymol and essential oils. Chemical analysis of the essential oils confirmed high contents of effective essential oil constituents. Our results demonstrated that essential oils and some of their constituents have potential as eco-friendly insecticides for the management of Turkestan cockroaches. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Two new species of Tribonium Saussure, 1862 (Blattodea, Blaberidae, Zetoborinae), with a key to males of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Leonardo de Oliveira Cardoso; Lopes, Sonia Maria

    2015-01-01

    This contribution describes and illustrates the male genitalia of two new species of Blaberidae collected in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil: Triboniumcaldensis sp. n. resembles Triboniumneospectrum Lopes, 1978, differing in the coloration, size and genitalia; and Triboniummorroferrensis sp. n., which resembles Triboniumguttulosum (Walker, 1868) but also differs in the size and coloration of specimen and genital pieces morphology. The genital plates were removed after dissection of the posterior part of the abdomen, and were stored in microvials containing glycerin, attached to the respective exemplar in the collection of the Museu Nacional of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A key to males of the species of the genus is also presented. Illustrations of Triboniumneospectrum and Triboniumguttulosum are provided to clarify the comparisons with the new species described here.

  4. Revision of Eucorydia Hebard, 1929 from China, with notes on the genus and species worldwide (Blattodea, Corydioidea, Corydiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lu; Che, Yan-Li; Wang, Zong-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The cockroach genus Eucorydia from China is revised. Five new species are described and illustrated: Eucorydia linglong sp. n., Eucorydia pilosa sp. n., Eucorydia splendida sp. n., Eucorydia guilinensis sp. n., and Eucorydia tangi sp. n.. Corydia purpuralis Kirby, 1903 and Eucorydia paucipilosa Woo, Guo & Feng, 1986 are confirmed to be junior synonyms of Eucorydia dasytoides (Walker, 1868). Eucorydia hilaris (Kirby, 1903) is newly recorded from China. This genus and currently known species from around the world are discussed. The status of Eucorydia maxwelli (Hanitsch, 1915) is revived. Corydia plagiata Walker, 1868 is confirmed to be a junior synonym of Eucorydia ornata (Saussure, 1864). A checklist, key, and photographs of members of this genus are provided. PMID:29187785

  5. Three new species of cockroach genus Hemithyrsocera Saussure, 1893 (Blattodea: Ectobiidae: Blattellinae) with redescriptions of two known species from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongqing; Che, Yanli

    2017-05-10

    This paper deals with five species of the genus Hemithyrsocera Saussure, 1893, of which three new species, H. forcipata, H. spinibarbis and H. longiseta spp. nov., are described and illustrated, H. banvaneuensis (Roth, 1985) is reported for the first time from China, plus one little known species H. simulans (Bey-Bienko, 1969) are redescribed and illustrated. A key to all Chinese species of Hemithyrsocera is provided.

  6. First records of Rhicnoda natatrix and Rhicnoda rugosa (Blattodea: Blaberidae from Nepal and India (Maharashtra with notes on habitat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nesemann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two species of cockroaches were collected from aquatic habitats of undisturbed natural forest streams in Nepal and India (Maharashtra: Rhicnoda natatrix and Rhicnoda rugosa. Nymphs and adults are depicted and field observations of microhabitat and behavior described. Taxa lists of accompanying macroinvertebrate fauna are given, and water quality class is calculated using three biotic scoring systems. R. natatrix is a true aquatic species with amphibious lifestyle in the eulittoral of springs (Crenon and streams (Rhithron of excellent and good water quality classes I and II. R. rugosa is a predominantly terrestrial species that also colonizes the banks of water bodies and appears in between aquatic fauna. These species cannot be classified using the traditional habitat system.

  7. KANDUNGAN BAHAN ORGANIK DAN AKUMULASI MINERAL TANAH PADA BANGUNAN SARANG RAYAP TANAH Macrotermes gilvus Hagen (BLATTODEA: TERMITIDAE

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    Niken Subekti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Rayap Macrotermes gilvus Hagen mempunyai peranan ekologis rayap tanah M. gilvus sebagai degradator primer di dalam hutan, eksplorasi perananannya sebagai agen biologis dalam perbaikan vegetasi dan perbaikan kualitas tanah. Rayap dapat memodifikasi sifat fisik dan kimia tanah. Penelitian tentang kandungan bahan organik telah dilakukan dengan analisis proksimat (metode Weende, sementara akumulasi mineral tanah menggunakan metode X-Ray berdasarkan Analysis Program Cristallynity. Rayap M. gilvus Hagen merupakan komponen penting dalam memodifikasi beragam mineral dari tanah disekitarnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan nyata antara komposisi mineral tanah dalam sarang rayap M. gilvus Hagen dengan mineral tanah disekitar sarang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kandungan bahan organik dalam bangunan sarang menghasilkan sebesar 98.33% dan padatannya 1.67%. Padatan ini terdiri dari karbohidrat sebesar 3.16%, abu 4.19%, lemak 23.95%, protein sebesar 39.52%, dan sisanya 29.18% berupa mineral-mineral. Bangunan sarang rayap yaitu SiO2 dan Despujolsite yang dibawa dari lingkungan sekitar kedalan bangunan sarang. Unsur-unsur yang lain diperoleh dari sebagian material yang berasal dari saliva, humus dan tanah sekitar sarang. The termite Macrotermes gilvus Hagen plays an ecological role. Subterranean termites M. gilvus is considered as the primary degradator in the forest, and therefore the exploration of its role as the biological agent to recover the vegetation and soil quality might be useful. Termites could modify the physical and chemical nature of soil. M. gilvus Hagen was an important component in modifying various minerals of the surrounding soil.  Research on the content of the organic materials had been proximat analysis (Weende methode, and the accumulation of soil mineral structure in the mound with X-Ray Methode (Analysis Program Cristallynity 2006. The result of the research indicated that there was significant difference between the composition of soil minerals in the mound of M. gilvus Hagen and the soil minerals around the mound. Analysis of the organic material in the mound building showed that the water was 98.33% and the solidity level was 1.67%, this solidity consisted of carbohydrate as much as 3.16%, ash as much as 4.19%, fat as much as 23.95%, protein as much as 39.52% and other minerals as much as 29.18%. The mound building in the minerals namely, SiO2 and Despujolsite, seemed to be carried in from the surroundings into the mound building. The other elements were obtained partly from the saliva, the fertile soil and the soil around the mound.

  8. Colony Size Affects the Efficacy of Bait Containing Chlorfluazuron Against the Fungus-Growing Termite Macrotermes gilvus (Blattodea: Termitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Chen; Neoh, Kok-Boon; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy of chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) against fungus-growing termites is known to vary. In this study, 0.1% chlorfluazuron (CFZ) cellulose bait was tested against medium and large field colonies of Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen). The termite mounds were dissected to determine the health of the colony. Individual termites (i.e., workers and larvae) and fungus combs were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis to detect the presence of CFZ. In this study, 540.0 ± 25.8 g (or equivalent to 540.0 ± 25.8 mg active ingredient) and 680.0 ± 49.0 g (680.0 ± 49.0 mg active ingredient) of bait matrix were removed by the medium- and large-sized colonies, respectively, after baiting. All treated medium-sized colonies were moribund. The dead termites were scattered in the mound, larvae were absent, population size had decreased by 90%, and the queens appeared unhealthy. In contrast, no or limited effects were found in large-sized colonies. Only trace amounts of CFZ were detected in workers, larvae, and fungus combs, and the population of large-sized colonies had declined by only up to 40%. This might be owing to the presence of large amount of basidiomycete fungus and a drastic decrease of CFZ content per unit fungus comb (a main food source of larvae) in the large-sized colonies, and hence reduced the toxic effect and longer time is required to accumulate the lethal dose in larvae. Nevertheless, we do not deny the possibility of CSI bait eliminating or suppressing the higher termite if the test colonies could pick up adequate lethal dose by installing more bait stations and prolonging the baiting period. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  9. Elimination of Coptotermes lacteus (Froggatt (Blattodea: Rhinotemitidae Colonies Using Bistrifluron Bait Applied through In-Ground Bait Stations Surrounding Mounds

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    Garry Webb

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of bistrifluron termite bait was evaluated using in-ground bait stations placed around Coptotermes lacteus mounds in south-eastern Australia during late summer and autumn (late February to late May 2012. Four in-ground bait stations containing timber billets were placed around each of twenty mounds. Once sufficient numbers of in-ground stations were infested by termites, mounds were assigned to one of four groups (one, two, three or four 120 g bait canisters or 120 to 480 g bait in total per mound and bait canisters installed. One mound, nominally assigned treatment with two canisters ultimately had no termite interception in any of the four in-ground stations and not treated. Eighteen of the remaining 19 colonies were eliminated by 12 weeks after bait placement, irrespective of bait quantity removed (range 43 to 480 g. Measures of colony decline—mound repair capability and internal core temperature—did not accurately reflect the colony decline, as untreated colonies showed a similar pattern of decline in both repair capability and internal mound core temperature. However, during the ensuing spring–summer period, capacity to repair the mound was restored in untreated colonies and the internal core temperature profile was similar to the previous spring–summer period which indicated that these untreated colonies remained healthy.

  10. Elimination of Coptotermes lacteus (Froggatt) (Blattodea: Rhinotemitidae) Colonies Using Bistrifluron Bait Applied through In-Ground Bait Stations Surrounding Mounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Garry

    2017-09-12

    The efficacy of bistrifluron termite bait was evaluated using in-ground bait stations placed around Coptotermes lacteus mounds in south-eastern Australia during late summer and autumn (late February to late May 2012). Four in-ground bait stations containing timber billets were placed around each of twenty mounds. Once sufficient numbers of in-ground stations were infested by termites, mounds were assigned to one of four groups (one, two, three or four 120 g bait canisters or 120 to 480 g bait in total per mound) and bait canisters installed. One mound, nominally assigned treatment with two canisters ultimately had no termite interception in any of the four in-ground stations and not treated. Eighteen of the remaining 19 colonies were eliminated by 12 weeks after bait placement, irrespective of bait quantity removed (range 43 to 480 g). Measures of colony decline-mound repair capability and internal core temperature-did not accurately reflect the colony decline, as untreated colonies showed a similar pattern of decline in both repair capability and internal mound core temperature. However, during the ensuing spring-summer period, capacity to repair the mound was restored in untreated colonies and the internal core temperature profile was similar to the previous spring-summer period which indicated that these untreated colonies remained healthy.

  11. Susceptibility of hornbeam and Scots pine woods to destruction by the subterranean termite Reticulitermes lucifugus ROSSI, 1792 (Blattodea: Isoptera

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    Krajewski Adam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of tests of the degree of damage to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus woods by the termite Reticulitermes lucifugus. Both wood species are classified as “susceptible to destruction by termites” in the EN 350-2:2000 standard. The procedures described in the ASTM D 3345-08 standard (2009 were applied in the experiments. During laboratory coercion tests, wood samples from these two species were damaged to a degree between light attack and moderate attack with penetration. Recent Scots pine sapwood was damaged to a heavy degree. The results can be associated with the much higher density of hornbeam wood as compared to Scots pine sapwood. The mortality rate of the termites in the test containers with both wood species was similar and low, no greater than 10%. In the light of the results, the classification of the susceptibility of native wood species to termite feeding, as stated in the EN 350-2:2000 standard, appears to be oversimplified.

  12. The nature of alarm communication in Constrictotermes cyphergaster (Blattodea: Termitoidea: Termitidae: the integration of chemical and vibroacoustic signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo F. Cristaldo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alarm signalling is of paramount importance to communication in all social insects. In termites, vibroacoustic and chemical alarm signalling are bound to operate synergistically but have never been studied simultaneously in a single species. Here, we inspected the functional significance of both communication channels in Constrictotermes cyphergaster (Termitidae: Nasutitermitinae, confirming the hypothesis that these are not exclusive, but rather complementary processes. In natural situations, the alarm predominantly attracts soldiers, which actively search for the source of a disturbance. Laboratory testing revealed that the frontal gland of soldiers produces a rich mixture of terpenoid compounds including an alarm pheromone. Extensive testing led to identification of the alarm pheromone being composed of abundant monoterpene hydrocarbons (1S-α-pinene and myrcene, along with a minor component, (E-β-ocimene. The vibratory alarm signalling consists of vibratory movements evidenced as bursts; a series of beats produced predominantly by soldiers. Exposing termite groups to various mixtures containing the alarm pheromone (crushed soldier heads, frontal gland extracts, mixture of all monoterpenes, and the alarm pheromone mixture made of standards resulted in significantly higher activity in the tested groups and also increased intensity of the vibratory alarm communication, with the responses clearly dose-dependent. Lower doses of the pheromone provoked higher numbers of vibratory signals compared to higher doses. Higher doses induced long-term running of all termites without stops necessary to perform vibratory behaviour. Surprisingly, even crushed worker heads led to low (but significant increases in the alarm responses, suggesting that other unknown compound in the worker's head is perceived and answered by termites. Our results demonstrate the existence of different alarm levels in termites, with lower levels being communicated through vibratory signals, and higher levels causing general alarm or retreat being communicated through the alarm pheromone.

  13. Subterranean termite open-air foraging and tolerance to desiccation: Comparative water relation of two sympatric Macrotermes spp. (Blattodea: Termitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Neoh, Kok-Boon; Appel, Arthur G; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2012-02-01

    The foraging patterns of termites are strongly related to physiological limits in overcoming desiccation stress. In this study, we examined moisture preferences and physiological characteristics of Macrotermes carbonarius (Hagen) and M. gilvus (Hagen) as both exhibit conspicuous patterns of foraging activity. Despite both species showing no significant differences in calculated cuticular permeability, and percentage of total body water, they differed greatly in rate of water loss and surface area to volume ratio. For example, M. carbonarius which had a lower surface area to volume ratio (29.26-53.66) showed lower rate of water loss and percentage of total body water loss. This also resulted in higher LT(50) when exposed to extreme conditions (≈2% RH). However, contrasting observations were made in M. gilvus that has smaller size with higher surface area to volume ratio of 40.28-69.75. It is likely that the standard equation for calculating insect surface areas is inadequate for these termite species. The trend was further supported by the result of a moisture preference bioassay that indicated M. carbonarius had a broader range of moisture preference (between 5% and 20%) than M. gilvus which had a relatively narrow moisture preference (only 20%). These results explain why M. carbonarius can tolerate desiccation stress for a longer period foraging above-ground in the open air; while M. gilvus only forages below ground or concealed within foraging mud tubes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The nature of alarm communication in Constrictotermes cyphergaster (Blattodea: Termitoidea: Termitidae): the integration of chemical and vibroacoustic signals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cristaldo, P. F.; Jandák, V.; Kutalová, Kateřina; Rodrigues, V. B.; Brothánek, M.; Jiříček, O.; DeSouza, O.; Šobotník, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 12 (2015), s. 1649-1659 ISSN 2046-6390 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : alarm communication * alarm pheromone * defence * Isoptera * Nasutitermitinae * vibroacoustic communication Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.135, year: 2015 http://bio.biologists.org/content/biolopen/4/12/1649.full.pdf

  15. The cuticular hydrocarbons of the giant soil-burrowing cockroach Macropanesthia rhinoceros saussure (Blattodea: Blaberidae: Geoscapheinae): analysis with respect to age, sex and location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W V; Rose, H A; Lacey, M J; Wright, K

    2000-11-01

    The cuticular hydrocarbons of a widespread species of soil-burrowing cockroach, Macropanesthia rhinoceros, have been sampled from most of its known geographical locations. Analysis of extracts from individual insects has enabled a study of differences within a population as well as among geographical locations. In the case of M. rhinoceros, except for newly hatched first-instar nymphs, variations in hydrocarbon composition among individuals of different cohorts of M. rhinoceros, based on age and sex, are no greater than those among individuals of a single cohort. Geographical populations of this species are variable in hydrocarbon composition unless they occur within a few kilometres of each other. A few populations showed very different hydrocarbon patterns but, in the absence of any correlating biological differences, it is uncertain whether this signifies the presence of otherwise unrecognizable sibling species or just extreme examples of the geographical variation characteristic of this group of insects.

  16. A taxonomic study of the genus Panesthia (Blattodea, Blaberidae, Panesthiinae) from China with descriptions of one new species, one new subspecies and the male of Panesthia antennata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiudan; Wang, Zongqing; Che, Yanli

    2014-01-01

    Abstract One new species Panesthia guizhouensis sp. n. and one new subspecies Panesthia stellata concava ssp. n. are described and illustrated. The male of Panesthia antennata Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1893 and its brachypterous form are described and illustrated for the first time. Panesthia strelkovi Bey-Bienko, 1969 is redescribed and illustrated. Three known species, Panesthia birmanica Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1893, Panesthia sinuata Saussure, 1839 and Panesthia angustipennis cognata Bey-Bienko, 1969 are illustrated. In addition, a key to all species of the genus Panesthia from China is presented. PMID:25610336

  17. A taxonomic study of the beetle cockroaches (Diploptera Saussure) from China, with notes on the genus and species worldwide (Blattodea: Blaberidae: Diplopterinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinran; Wang, Zongqing

    2015-09-14

    Four taxa of beetle cockroaches (Diploptera Saussure, 1864) from South China are described and illustrated, viz., two new species D. elliptica sp. n. and D. naevus sp. n., one new subspecies D. nigrescens guani subsp. n. and one widespread known species D. punctata (Eschscholtz, 1822). The genus and known species from around the world are discussed based on types and other specimens. D. pulchra Anisyutkin, 2007 is now regarded as a junior synonym of D. bicolor Hanitsch, 1925. Whether the populations of D. punctata represent or not different species needs to be studied in the future. A key, a distribution map, and photos of species are provided.

  18. Prevalence of a koinobiont endoparasitoid Misotermes mindeni (Diptera: Phoridae) in colonies of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes gilvus (Blattodea: Termitidae) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Foong-Kuan; Singham, G Veera; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2011-10-01

    A survey of the infestation rate of colonies of Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen) (Termitidae: Macrotermitinae) with the koinobiont endoparasitoid Misotermes mindeni Disney & Neoh (Diptera: Phoridae) was conducted in Malaysia from September 2009 to January 2011 in the states of Kedah, Penang, Perak, Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, Johor, Terengganu, and Sarawak. Of the 1,125 M. gilvus mounds surveyed, 12.4% contained termites parasitized by M. mindeni and these mounds occurred only in the states of Penang and Perak. High frequencies of mounds containing parasitized termites were found at sites in Penang: Bayan Lepas (21.1%), Minden Campus of Universiti Sains Malaysia ([USM]; 24.5%), Teluk Bahang (28.0%), and Bukit Mertajam (35.0%); the lowest frequency (4.0%) was recorded from Gelugor. The parasitized colonies at all sites were classified as healthy, with exception of several from the Minden Campus of USM (96.4% healthy) and Ayer Itam (87.5% healthy). Most parasitized colonies (71.2%) had a low level of M. mindeni infestation. Only 16.7 and 12.1% of the infested colonies had moderate or high parasite infestation levels, respectively. The height of infected mounds was significantly higher than that of the healthy mounds, but there was no difference between the mound diameters of infested and uninfested mounds. Parasite infestation level was not significantly correlated with mound height or mound diameter. The ambient light intensity at sites with infested mounds was significantly lower than that of uninfested mounds. There was also a significant negative relationship between light intensity and degree of parasitism.

  19. Differential susceptibility of adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae) to infection by Metarhizium anisopliae and assessment of delivery strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, R.B.; Alves, S.B.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial insecticides for cockroach control, such as those containing entomopathogenic fungi, may be an alternative to reduce contamination by chemicals in housing and food storage environments. Virulence of isolate ESALQ1037 belonging to the Metarhizium anisopliae complex against nymphs and adults of Blattella germanica (L.), and its infectivity following exposure of insects to a contaminated surface or to M. anisopliae-bait were determined under laboratory conditions. Estimated LD50 15 d following topical inoculation was 2.69 x 105 conidia per adult, whereas for nymphs the maximum mortality was lower than 50%. Baits amended with M. anisopliae conidia had no repellent effect on targets; adult mortality was inferior to 25%, and nymphs were not susceptible. All conidia found in the digestive tract of M. anisopliae-bait fed cockroaches were unviable, and bait-treated insects that succumbed to fungal infection showed a typical mycelial growth on mouthparts and front legs, but not on the hind body parts. As opposed to baits, the use of a M. anisopliae powdery formulation for surface treatment was effective in attaining high mortality rates of B. germanica. Both nymphs and adults were infected when this delivery strategy was used, and mycelia growth occurred all over the body surface. Our results suggest that the development of powders or similar formulations of M. anisopliae to control B. germanica may provide faster and better results than some of the strategies based on baits currently available. (author)

  20. Differential susceptibility of adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae) to infection by Metarhizium anisopliae and assessment of delivery strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, R.B., E-mail: rblopes@cenargen.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Alves, S.B. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia e Acarologia

    2011-05-15

    Microbial insecticides for cockroach control, such as those containing entomopathogenic fungi, may be an alternative to reduce contamination by chemicals in housing and food storage environments. Virulence of isolate ESALQ1037 belonging to the Metarhizium anisopliae complex against nymphs and adults of Blattella germanica (L.), and its infectivity following exposure of insects to a contaminated surface or to M. anisopliae-bait were determined under laboratory conditions. Estimated LD50 15 d following topical inoculation was 2.69 x 105 conidia per adult, whereas for nymphs the maximum mortality was lower than 50%. Baits amended with M. anisopliae conidia had no repellent effect on targets; adult mortality was inferior to 25%, and nymphs were not susceptible. All conidia found in the digestive tract of M. anisopliae-bait fed cockroaches were unviable, and bait-treated insects that succumbed to fungal infection showed a typical mycelial growth on mouthparts and front legs, but not on the hind body parts. As opposed to baits, the use of a M. anisopliae powdery formulation for surface treatment was effective in attaining high mortality rates of B. germanica. Both nymphs and adults were infected when this delivery strategy was used, and mycelia growth occurred all over the body surface. Our results suggest that the development of powders or similar formulations of M. anisopliae to control B. germanica may provide faster and better results than some of the strategies based on baits currently available. (author)

  1. NEW APHODIINI SPECIES FOR RUSSIAN FAUNA FROM DAGESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Mirzabekova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Labarrus translucidus and Pseudesymus lucidus are recorded as new for the fauna of Dagestan, the Caucasus and Russia. Earlier these species were found in Central Asia. Labarrus translucidus and Pseudesymus lucidus are recorded for Island Chechen only. Labarrus lividus is similiar to Labarrus translucidus and it was recorded for other part of Dagestan. Species are reliably divided by a structure of genitals only. Photos of habitus and epipharinx of Labarrus translucidus and Pseudesymus lucidus, drawings of genitals of Labarrus translucidus and Labarrus lividus are given in the paper.

  2. Sex Attractant Pheromones of Virgin Queens of Sympatric Slave-Making Ant Species in the Genus Polyergus, and their Possible Roles in Reproductive Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Les; Johnson, Christine A; Trager, James C; McElfresh, J Steven; Rodstein, Joshua; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2018-06-01

    Species of the ant genus Polyergus are social parasites that steal brood from colonies of their hosts in the closely related genus Formica. Upon emergence as adults in a mixed population, host Formica workers carry out all the normal worker functions within the Polyergus colony, including foraging, feeding, grooming, and rearing brood of the parasitic Polyergus ants. Some unmated Polyergus gynes (queens) run in the raiding columns of their colonies and attract males by releasing a pheromone from their mandibular glands. There are two Polyergus species groups in North America: an eastern P. lucidus group and a western P. breviceps group. One species of each of these groups, P. lucidus Mayr and P. mexicanus Emery, are sympatric in Missouri. In this study, we characterized the sex pheromones of virgin queens of two species of the P. lucidus group (P. lucidus sensu stricto and P. sanwaldi) and one species of the P. breviceps group (P. mexicanus), and compared these with the previously identified sex pheromone of P. topoffi of the P. breviceps group. We then used sex pheromone blends reconstructed from synthesized components of the two groups to test their efficacy at reproductively isolating these species. We found that methyl 6-methylsalicylate is conserved as the major component of the pheromone blends for both Polyergus species groups; however, methyl (R)-3-ethyl-4-methylpentanoate is the species-specific minor component produced by P. lucidus group queens, and (R)-3-ethyl-4-methylpentan-1-ol is the crucial minor component for P. breviceps group queens. The optimal ratio of the major and minor components for P. lucidus group queens was about 100:1 salicylate to ester. In concurrent field trials in Missouri, males of P. lucidus sensu stricto and P. mexicanus (a member of the P. breviceps group) were attracted almost exclusively to their particular blends of sex pheromone components. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a possible sex

  3. Functional Anatomy of the Feeding Apparatus of Four South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The functional anatomy of the head and anterior neck region of the cormorants Phalacrocorax lucidus. P. neglectus, P. capensis and P. africanus was investigated. There are significant differences in absolute size of the muscle and bone elements between the four species. The relative proportions of these elements are, ...

  4. Proteinase, amylase, and proteinase-inhibitor activities in the gut of six cockroach species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinokurov, Konstantin; Taranushenko, Yuliya; Krishnan, Natraj; Sehnal, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 53, - (2007), s. 794-802 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA522/06/1591; GA MŠk 1M06030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : amylases * Blattodea * gut pH Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.294, year: 2007

  5. Termites and flooding affect microbial communities in decomposing wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Susan V. Diehl; Dragica Jeremic

    2016-01-01

    Wood properties and microbial community characteristics were compared between loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) logs protected or unprotected from termites (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae: Reticulitermes spp.) and other arthropods for two years in seasonally flooded and unflooded forests in the southeastern United States. Significant compositional differences were observed...

  6. Otolith shape analysis for stock discrimination of two Collichthys genus croaker (Pieces: Sciaenidae,) from the northern Chinese coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Liu, Jinhu; Song, Junjie; Cao, Liang; Dou, Shuozeng

    2017-08-01

    The otolith morphology of two croaker species (Collichthys lucidus and Collichthys niveatus) from three areas (Liaodong Bay, LD; Huanghe (Yellow) River estuary, HRE; Jiaozhou Bay, JZ) along the northern Chinese coast were investigated for species identification and stock discrimination. The otolith contour shape described by elliptic Fourier coefficients (EFC) were analysed using principal components analysis (PCA) and stepwise canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) to identify species and stocks. The two species were well differentiated, with an overall classification success rate of 97.8%. And variations in the otolith shapes were significant enough to discriminate among the three geographical samples of C. lucidus (67.7%) or C. niveatus (65.2%). Relatively high mis-assignment occurred between the geographically adjacent LD and HRE samples, which implied that individual mixing may exist between the two samples. This study yielded information complementary to that derived from genetic studies and provided information for assessing the stock structure of C. lucidus and C. niveatus in the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea.

  7. The community of hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae and the assemblage of flowers in a Caatinga vegetation

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    FMG Las-Casas

    Full Text Available We studied hummingbirds and their food plants in an area of caatinga vegetation. We specifically examined their seasonal use of this habitat, migratory and non-migratory status, their foraging strategies and community roles The study was conducted in an area of arboreal-shrub caatinga, located in the Serra do Pará, municipality of Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, state of Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. Field work was undertaken during 12 expeditions on a monthly basis between June, 2007 and May, 2008. Five species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers in the community studied. Three were considered residents: Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812, Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788, and Heliomaster squamosus (Temminck, 1823. Hummingbirds visited 31 species of plants, of which only five presented attributes related to ornithophily. C. lucidus visited 29 plant species, including all ornithophilous species, and it was the most aggressive, defending territories. Among hummingbirds, C. lucidus may be considered the principal pollinator. Hummingbirds may also be acting as pollen vectors for some of the plant species not identified as ornithophilous. The hummingbird guilds varied among the plant species used as floral resources, as well as in their frequency of visits. Differences in plant species abundance, hummingbird preference, competitive exclusion or flowering seasonality are factors likely to influence those variations.

  8. The community of hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae) and the assemblage of flowers in a Caatinga vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Las-Casas, F M G; Azevedo Júnior, S M; Dias Filho, M M

    2012-02-01

    We studied hummingbirds and their food plants in an area of caatinga vegetation. We specifically examined their seasonal use of this habitat, migratory and non-migratory status, their foraging strategies and community roles The study was conducted in an area of arboreal-shrub caatinga, located in the Serra do Pará, municipality of Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, state of Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. Field work was undertaken during 12 expeditions on a monthly basis between June, 2007 and May, 2008. Five species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers in the community studied. Three were considered residents: Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812), Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788), and Heliomaster squamosus (Temminck, 1823). Hummingbirds visited 31 species of plants, of which only five presented attributes related to ornithophily. C. lucidus visited 29 plant species, including all ornithophilous species, and it was the most aggressive, defending territories. Among hummingbirds, C. lucidus may be considered the principal pollinator. Hummingbirds may also be acting as pollen vectors for some of the plant species not identified as ornithophilous. The hummingbird guilds varied among the plant species used as floral resources, as well as in their frequency of visits. Differences in plant species abundance, hummingbird preference, competitive exclusion or flowering seasonality are factors likely to influence those variations.

  9. Cuticle Fatty Acid Composition and Differential Susceptibility of Three Species of Cockroaches to the Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota, Hypocreales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Alejandra C; Gołębiowski, Marek; Pennisi, Mariana; Peterson, Graciela; García, Juan J; Manfrino, Romina G; López Lastra, Claudia C

    2015-04-01

    Differences in free fatty acids (FFAs) chemical composition of insects may be responsible for susceptibility or resistance to fungal infection. Determination of FFAs found in cuticular lipids can effectively contribute to the knowledge concerning insect defense mechanisms. In this study, we have evaluated the susceptibility of three species of cockroaches to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin by topical application. Mortality due to M. anisopliae was highly significant on adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica L. (Blattodea: Blattellidae). However, mortality was faster in adults than in nymphs. Adults of Blatta orientalis L. (Blattodea: Blattidae) were not susceptible to the fungus, and nymphs of Blaptica dubia Serville (Blattodea: Blaberidae) were more susceptible to the fungus than adults. The composition of cuticular FFAs in the three species of cockroaches was also studied. The analysis indicated that all of the fatty acids were mostly straight-chain, long-chain, saturated or unsaturated. Cuticular lipids of three species of cockroaches contained 19 FFAs, ranging from C14:0 to C24:0. The predominant fatty acids found in the three studied species of cockroaches were oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. Only in adults of Bl. orientalis, myristoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidic acid, dihomolinoleic acid, and behenic acid were identified. Lignoceric acid was detected only in nymphs of Bl. orientalis. Heneicosylic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were identified in adults of Ba. dubia. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. New records of Lophoproctus coecus Pocock, 1894 (Diplopoda, Polyxenida, Lophoproctidae extend the range of the genus Lophoproctus

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    Megan Short

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of the genus Lophoproctus Pocock, 1894 has greatly expanded with new records of the species Lophoproctus coecus Pocock, 1894, together with the reassignment of a number of millipedes formerly identified as Lophoproctus lucidus (Chalande, 1888. L. coecus was found to be the sole representative of the family Lophoproctidae in collections examined from Crimea and the Caucasian region. The species was also identified from Iran and Kyrgyzstan. Lophoproctus specimens collected in Italy by Verhoeff were reassigned as L. coecus with the exception of one specimen of L. jeanneli (Brölemann, 1910 from Capri. These data were combined with all available information from the literature to look at the pattern of distribution of the four species in the genus. The range of the genus Lophoproctus extends from Portugal to Central Asia. Lophoproctus coecus is widespread from Italy eastward, while the morphologically very similar species L. lucidus is confined to France and northern Africa. The two species have a narrow overlap in the Alpes Maritimes region of France. L. jeanneli has a scattered coastal distribution around the Mediterranean Sea. The troglobitic species L. pagesi (Condé, 1982 has only been recorded from a cave on Majorca, Spain.

  11. The Election System of the Swiss Confederation: Counting of Votes and Establishment of Election Results

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    Magdalena A. Tarnavskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the following article the author covers the process of counting the votes and the disclosure rules of establishment the election results in the Swiss Confederation. Switzerland along with other EU member states pays special attention to the determination of the election results. According to Art. 149 para. 2 Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation the elections to the National Council, which is one of two chambers of the Federal Assembly, are held according to proportional representation system. The Hagenbach-Bischoff system is used for allocating seats in National Council of the Swiss Con federation. However the above mentioned system for determining the quota of votes per each mandate creates ambiguous opinions among Swiss scientists and legal experts, which frequently comes up in discussions whether to modify it or not. In this article, the author also gives a brief description of the main political parties in Switzerland and statistics of seats allocation in 49 legislature of National Council following the elections of October 23, 2011. As a result, the author provides the full information on the process of votes counting and establishment of election results in the Swiss Confederation. The material presented in this article is particularly interesting and relevant in terms of improving the electoral legislation in the Russian Federation. The information presented by the author will be useful to all parties interested in electoral law.

  12. Feeding behavior by hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae in artificial food patches in an Atlantic Forest remnant in southeastern Brazil

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    Lucas L. Lanna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT During flight, hummingbirds achieve the maximum aerobic metabolism rates within vertebrates. To meet such demands, these birds have to take in as much energy as possible, using strategies such as selecting the best food resources and adopting behaviors that allow the greatest energy gains. We tested whether hummingbirds choose sources that have higher sugar concentrations, and investigated their behaviors near and at food resources. The study was conducted at Atlantic forest remnant in Brazil, between June and December 2012. Four patches were provided with artificial feeders, containing sucrose solutions at concentrations of 5%, 15%, 25% and 35% weight/volume. Hummingbird behaviors were recorded using the ad libitum method with continuous recording of behaviors. The following species were observed: the Brazilian ruby Clytolaema rubricauda (Boddaert, 1783, Violet-capped woodnymph Thalurania glaucopis (Gmelin, 1788, Scale-throated hermit Phaethornis eurynome (Lesson, 1832, White-throated hummingbird Leucochloris albicollis (Vieillot, 1818, Versicoloured emerald Amazilia versicolor (Vieillot, 1818, Glittering-bellied emerald Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812 and other Phaethornis spp. C. rubricauda, P. eurynome and Phaethornis spp. visited the 35%-sucrose feeders more often, while the T. glaucopis visited the 25%-sucrose feeders more often. L. albicollis and A. versicolor visited more often solutions with sugar concentration of 15%. C. lucidus visited all patches equally. Three behavioral strategies were observed: 1 C. rubricauda and T. glaucopis exhibited interspecific and intraspecific dominance; 2 the remaining species exhibited subordinance to the dominant hummingbirds, and 3 P. eurynome and Phaethornis spp. adopted a hide-and-wait strategy to the dominant hummingbird species. The frequency of aggressive behaviors was correlated with the time the hummingbird spent feeding, and bird size. Our results showed that hummingbirds can adopt

  13. Cuphea melvilla Lindlay (Lythraceae: uma espécie do Cerrado polinizada por beija-flores Cuphea melvilla Lindlay (Lythraceae: a Cerrado species pollinated by hummingbirds

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    Ana Flávia de Oliveira Melazzo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuphea melvilla é uma espécie peculiar dentro de um gênero majoritariamente melitófilo. Dois agrupamentos de indivíduos, em bordas das matas de galeria do Córrego do Panga, Uberlândia, MG, foram estudados com o objetivo de investigar o sistema de polinização e sistema de reprodução da espécie na região. O estudo foi realizado de janeiro a junho de 1999. Cuphea melvilla é uma espécie arbustiva com características morfológicas e eventos florais que confirmam sua adaptação à polinização por beija-flores. A floração foi longa, com início em Janeiro, em plena estação chuvosa, e término em Julho, no início da seca. O tubo floral formado pelo hipanto é calcarado na base, onde se acumula o néctar produzido por nectário localizado na base do ovário. As flores são marcadamente protândricas, mas flores em diferentes fases podem ser encontradas nos racemos. Os dados mostraram que a espécie é autocompatível e não apomítica, mas devido à dicogamia marcada, necessita polinização ativa para formar frutos. Phaethornis pretrei, Amazilia fimbriata, Thalurania furcata, Eupetomena macroura e Chlorostilbon lucidus (fêmea foram as espécies de beija-flores observadas visitando e polinizando as flores de C. melvilla. Amazilia fimbriata e C. lucidus apresentaram ocasionalmente comportamento territorial, P. pretrei apresentou forrageamento em linhas de captura, e T. furcata e E. macroura apresentaram forrageamento do tipo oportunístico, visitando as populações estudadas esporadicamente. Amazilia fimbriata, C. lucidus e P. pretrei foram considerados os polinizadores mais importantes, dada a sua constância. As características morfológicas das flores de Cuphea melvilla relacionadas a adaptações aos beija-flores parecem ser derivadas no gênero, sendo que a polinização por beija-flores nas distintas seções indica adaptação convergente a este modo de polinização.Cuphea melvilla is a peculiar species of a mostly

  14. Does scavenging extend the host range of entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Steinernematidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Půza, Vladimír; Mrácek, Zdenĕk

    2010-05-01

    Living and freeze-killed natural and laboratory hosts, with different susceptibility to entomopathogenic nematodes, were exposed to the larvae of Steinernema affine and Steinernema kraussei in two different experimental arenas (Eppendorf tubes, Petri dishes), and the success of the colonisation and eventual progeny production were observed. Both nematodes were able to colonise both living and dead larvae of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera) and adult Blatella germanica (Blattodea) even though the progeny production in dead hosts was lower on average. Living carabid beetles, Poecilus cupreus, and elaterid larvae (Coleoptera) were resistant to the infection, however, both nematodes were able to colonise and multiply in several dead P. cupreus and in a majority of dead elaterid larvae. By scavenging, EPNs can utilise cadavers of insects that are naturally resistant to EPN infection, and so broaden their host range. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Concentración natural de compuestos antimaláricos en artrópodos tropicales (in vitro

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    Misael Chinchilla-Carmona

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Extractos alcohólicos, hexánicos y diclorometánicos de 751 muestras de artrópodos fueron estudiados por la presencia de actividad antimalárica. En este trabajo se empleó un modelo murino usando el Plasmodium berghei, modelo que es biológicamente similar a la malaria humana. El estudio fue realizado determinando el efecto del extracto sobre el parásito por la inclusión o no del colorante azul de cresil brillante. Estimando como positivos aquellos extractos cuya actividad antimalárica se mostró en concentraciones no mayores de 50 mg, se encontró que los órdenes más promisorios fueron Lepidoptera (24.1%, Polydesmida (81.3%, Blattodea (25% y Opiliones, entre otros. Las formas inmaduras de Lepidoptera fueron las más positivas, por lo que se analizaron las plantas hospederos de donde se alimentaban dichos organismos. Las familias de estas plantas eran Malvaceae, Acanthaceae, Rutaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Urticaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae y Caprifoliaceae. Especies de casi todas estas familias han sido reportadas con actividad antimalárica. En el caso de los órdenes Polydesmida, Opiliones y Blattodea, cuyas formas adultas presentaron alguna actividad contra P. berghei, encontramos que todos esos grupos se alimentan también de plantas. En el caso de Opiliones sus especies son predadores de lepidópteros, coleópteros, hemípteros fitófagos y otros artrópodos, además de que producen sustancias de defensas tales como alcoholes, cetonas y quinonas, entre otros, todo lo cual podría explicar la actividad encontrada. Algunas especies del Orden Polydesmida, también secretan ciertas sustancias químicas, las cuales podrían tener un efecto antiparasitario. Así, a través de este trabajo en artrópodos hemos llegado a identificar fuentes vegetales potenciales para componentes antimaláricos.Natural concentration of antimalaric components in Tropical arthropods (in vitro. Alcohol, hexane and

  16. Seasonality of insects in the semi-arid Caatinga of northeastern Brazil Sazonalidade de insetos na Caatinga do Nordeste Brasileiro

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    Alexandre Vasconcellos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects are essential to tropical ecosystems functioning. In semi-arid regions, the increase in abundance and/or activity (e.g. reproduction and foraging behavior of insects is usually associated with climatic variables. The present study investigates which climatic variables are best predictors of insect abundance in an area of Caatinga in northeastern Brazil. Individuals were sampled for 24 months using Malaise and pitfall traps, and beating trays. A total of 58925 individuals belonging to 20 insect orders were collected. The most abundant orders were Hymenoptera, Diptera, Collembola and Coleoptera. Most orders studied showed a clear maximum abundance in the rainy season. Rainfall and humidity were the best predictors of insect abundance in the Caatinga. However, no climatic variable could explain Psocoptera and Blattodea variance in abundance/activity. Our results suggest that climatic changes associated with rainfall patterns in the Caatinga may affect ecosystem processes and services that depend direct or indirectly on insect abundance/activity.Os insetos são abundantes e essenciais para o funcionamento dos ecossistemas terrestres tropicais. No entanto, a abundância e/ou atividade (e.g. reprodução ou forrageio destes organismos podem ser fortemente influenciadas pelas variáveis climáticas. Este estudo examina quais as variáveis climáticas podem atuar como preditoras da abundância e/ou atividade dos insetos em uma área de Caatinga do Nordeste brasileiro. Ao longo de 24 meses, os insetos foram coletados mensalmente utilizando armadilhas Malaise, armadilhas tipo "pitfall" e guarda-chuva entomológico. Um total de 58925 indivíduos de 20 ordens foi coletado. As ordens mais abundantes foram Hymenoptera, Diptera, Collembola e Coleoptera. Entre as doze ordens mais abundantes, dez apresentaram os seus maiores picos durante a estação chuvosa. A precipitação e a umidade relativa foram os principais preditores dos padrões de abund

  17. Revisão das espécies de Ceroplastinae Atkinson (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Revision of the species of Ceroplastinae Atkinson (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae from the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Ana Lúcia Benfatti Gonzalez Peronti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As espécies de Ceroplastinae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae que ocorrem no Estado de São Paulo são revisadas. São estudadas 36 espécies de Ceroplastinae, das quais 9 são sinonimizadas, 8 espécies novas são descritas e 19 são redescritas. Ceroplastes campinensis Hempel, 1901, C. bicolor Hempel, 1901, C. excaericae Hempel, 1912 e C. farmairii (Signoret, 1866, mencionadas para o Estado de São Paulo, não foram examinadas, devido a não localização do material tipo ou de outros exemplares. Nossos estudos indicaram que C. albolineatus Cockerell, 1894 e C. confluens Cockerell & Tinsley, 1898 foram erroneamente citadas por Hempel, 1900 para o estado de São Paulo. Coccus stellifer Westwood, 1871, atualmente Vinsonia stellifera (Westwood, 1871, é transferida para gênero Ceroplastes como Ceroplastes stellifer (Westwood, 1871 n. comb. C. flosculoides Matile-Ferrero, 1993 é registrada pela primeira vez para o país e C. cassiae (Chavannes, 1848, C. deodorensis Hempel, 1937, C. formosus Hempel, 1900 e C. quadratus Green, 1935 são registradas pela primeira vez no Estado de São Paulo. Ceroplastinae é agora representada por 31 espécies no Estado de São Paulo, todas incluídas no gênero Ceroplastes. Ilustrações e uma chave para espécies são incluídas. Novos sinônimos: C. formicarius Hempel = Ceroplastes communis Hempel, 1900 n. sin.; C. janeirensis Gray, 1828 = Ceroplastes psidii (Chavannes, 1848 n. sin. = C. simplex Hempel, 1900 n. sin.; C. cirripediformis Comstock, 1881 = C. cultus Hempel, 1900 n. sin. = C. cuneatus Hempel, 1900 n. sin. = C. rarus Hempel, 1900 n. sin e C. rotundus Hempel, 1900 n. sin.; C. lucidus Hempel, 1900 = C. novaesi Hempel, 1900 n. sin.; C. grandis Hempel, 1900 = C. rhizophorae Hempel, 1918 n. sin. Novas espécies descritas: C. acutus sp. nov.; C. bragai sp. nov.; C. coronatus sp. nov; C. glomeratus sp. nov; C. jordanensis sp. nov.; C. minimus sp. nov.; C. solanaceus sp. nov.; C. willinkae sp. nov. Esp

  18. Escalation of a coevolutionary arms race through host rejection of brood parasitic young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmore, Naomi E; Hunt, Sarah; Kilner, Rebecca M

    2003-03-13

    Cuckoo nestlings that evict all other young from the nest soon after hatching impose a high reproductive cost on their hosts. In defence, hosts have coevolved strategies to prevent brood parasitism. Puzzlingly, they do not extend beyond the egg stage. Thus, hosts adept at recognizing foreign eggs remain vulnerable to exploitation by cuckoo nestlings. Here we show that the breach of host egg defences by cuckoos creates a new stage in the coevolutionary cycle. We found that defences used during the egg-laying period by host superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) are easily evaded by the Horsfield's bronze-cuckoo (Chrysococcyx basalis), a specialist fairy-wren brood parasite. However, although hosts never deserted their own broods, they later abandoned 40% of nests containing a lone Horsfield's bronze-cuckoo nestling, and 100% of nests with a lone shining bronze-cuckoo nestling (Chrysococcyx lucidus), an occasional fairy-wren brood parasite. Our experiments demonstrate that host discrimination against evictor-cuckoo nestlings is possible, and suggest that it has selected for the evolution of nestling mimicry in bronze-cuckoos.

  19. The hummingbird community and their floral resources in an urban forest remnant in Brazil

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    LC. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available The temporal and spatial resource use among hummingbirds was studied over 13 months in an urban forest remnant (Prosa State Park: PSP in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Hummingbird visitation was recorded at three ornithophilous and eleven non-ornithophilous species. Flower density was roughly constant during the study period, with the density of non-ornithophilous flowers being higher than that of ornithophilous ones. Mean values of nectar volume and concentration were similar between ornithophilous and non-ornithophilous species. Eight hummingbird species were observed at PSP: Amazilia fimbriata, Anthracothorax nigricollis, Chlorostilbon lucidus, Eupetomena macroura, Hylocharis chrysura, Florisuga fusca, Thalurania furcata and an unidentified species. Hummingbird visit frequencies to ornithophilous and non-ornithophilous flowers were similar. However, some non-ornithophilous species received a higher number of visits, which seems to be related to their large number of open flowers per plant per day. The number of feedings bouts of hummingbirds increased with the total number of flowers observed per focal plant. All recorded species of hummingbirds visited non-ornithophilous flowers, predominantly melittophilous and generalised entomophilous flowers. Hummingbird species recorded at PSP may be viewed as generalists, visiting a large number of non-ornithophilous species. Despite being an urban forest, PSP is relatively rich in hummingbird species, suggesting that it provides important shelter and foraging sites for hummingbirds in such an environment.

  20. Beija-flores (Aves: Trochilidae e seus recursos florais em uma área de caatinga da Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brasil Hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae and their floral resources in an area of caatinga vegetation in the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Graco Machado

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the species of hummingbird occurring in an area of caatinga vegetation, examining their seasonal activities, the assemblages of plants that they used, as well as the floral characteristics and flowering phenology of that vegetation. These surveys were performed in an area of arboreal caatinga in Chapada Diamantina, municipality of Mucugê, state of Bahia, Brazil, during 12 expeditions undertaken on a bi-monthly basis between October, 2005 and August, 2007. Field activities included observations made of the visiting hummingbird species, their behavior, and the frequency of their visits; as well as the plant species visited, their floral attributes, size, and the flowering phenophase evident on the occasion of each expedition. Seven species of hummingbirds were registered, including five residents. Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & Delattre, 1839 acted as the organizer of this pollination guild. This species and Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812, these two species were considered the principal pollinators within the community. The hummingbirds visited a total of 29 plant species, of which only 12 are considered ornitophilous. The plant community presented a continuous flowering, with 19 species flowering in both the dry and the rainy season, permitting the year-round permanence of resident hummingbird species.

  1. The hummingbird community and their floral resources in an urban forest remnant in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, L C; Araujo, A C

    2011-08-01

    The temporal and spatial resource use among hummingbirds was studied over 13 months in an urban forest remnant (Prosa State Park: PSP) in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Hummingbird visitation was recorded at three ornithophilous and eleven non-ornithophilous species. Flower density was roughly constant during the study period, with the density of non-ornithophilous flowers being higher than that of ornithophilous ones. Mean values of nectar volume and concentration were similar between ornithophilous and non-ornithophilous species. Eight hummingbird species were observed at PSP: Amazilia fimbriata, Anthracothorax nigricollis, Chlorostilbon lucidus, Eupetomena macroura, Hylocharis chrysura, Florisuga fusca, Thalurania furcata and an unidentified species. Hummingbird visit frequencies to ornithophilous and non-ornithophilous flowers were similar. However, some non-ornithophilous species received a higher number of visits, which seems to be related to their large number of open flowers per plant per day. The number of feedings bouts of hummingbirds increased with the total number of flowers observed per focal plant. All recorded species of hummingbirds visited non-ornithophilous flowers, predominantly melittophilous and generalised entomophilous flowers. Hummingbird species recorded at PSP may be viewed as generalists, visiting a large number of non-ornithophilous species. Despite being an urban forest, PSP is relatively rich in hummingbird species, suggesting that it provides important shelter and foraging sites for hummingbirds in such an environment.

  2. Caracterización espeleológica e inventario biológico de la Caverna del Diablo en el municipio de Becerril, Departamento del Cesar, Colombia

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    Frederick Vides-Navarro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to characterize the most important aspects of the Devil´s cave, including biophysical, geological, speleological and morphological components. Methods: A descriptive research from observations in situ, specific technical work of topography, geology, speleology and biology, along with study of related literature has been conducted. Results: The methods used allowed us to learn about the natural richness inside the cave, with outstanding karst landforms (speleothems, presence of fish, crustaceans and other organisms that might be endemic. The information obtained indicates that the origin of the cavity is due to fluvial erosion processes and forced circulation of streams, evidenced in its shaped rosary surface on the interior walls of the structure. Landforms are mostly at the entrance of the cavity in varieties like Stalactites, Castings, Sandsicles and Gours. The biophysical component is the most distinctive aspect of the cave, consisting in a good dynamic of ventilation, permanent presence of water, high humidity and variety of wildlife, including taxa as Chiroptera, Araneae, Anura, Lepidoptera, Blattodea stand, Rodents, Oligochaeta, Dermaptera, siluriform and Decapods. Conclusions: Lithologically, the cavity is framed in limestone rocks rich in organic matter with variation in surface color belonging to the La Luna Formation, the low humidity of the cavity at its entrance and high carbonate content favored the formation of large numbers of speleothems. The inside observations and studies on the water stream showed that biophysical conditions of this place are suitable to house a rich diversity of wildlife.

  3. Chemical elements in invertebrate orders for environmental quality studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L.; Franca, Elvis J.; Paiva, Jose D.S.; Hazin, Clovis A.; Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio A.

    2013-01-01

    Among the biomonitors of environmental quality, there is a lack of studies on using invertebrates to evaluate quantitatively chemical elements in ecosystems. This group of animals is quite numerous, widely distributed and adaptable to the most diverse environmental conditions. These features are very useful for the environmental quality assessment, as well as the several occurring insect-plant interactions performing essential functions in ecosystems. The objective of this work is to study the variability of chemical composition of invertebrate orders for using in environmental quality monitoring studies. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA was applied to determine some nutrients and trace elements in invertebrate samples. Sampling by pitfall traps was carried out in riverine ecosystems from the urban area from the Piracicaba Municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Invertebrate and reference material samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN. Fragments of a Ni-Cr alloy were irradiated for monitoring the thermal neutron flux. Hymenoptera order was considered the most representative according to the total number of sampled species (about 60%). Significant amounts of Ba, Br, Fe and Sc were found in invertebrates of the order Opiliones. Potassium, rubidium and zinc were highly accumulated in species from Blattodea order, indicating a consistent pattern of accumulation for this invertebrate order. Taking into account the abundance of Hymenoptera order, the chemical composition of its species was significant different at the 95% confidence level for Br and Na in the sampled locals. (author)

  4. The occurrence of amphibians in bromeliads from a Southeastern Brazilian restinga habitat, with special reference to Aparasphenodon brunoi (Anura, Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEIXEIRA R. L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Five species of anuran amphibians, all belonging to the family Hylidae, were collected at Praia das Neves, municipality of Presidente Kennedy, southeastern Brazil,. The species were represented by four genera: Scinax, Hyla, Aparasphenodon, and Trachycephalus. Four species (A. brunoi, Hyla albomarginata, Scinax altera, and S. cuspidatus were found during the dry season (August 1999, and two (A. brunoi and Trachycephalus nigromaculatus in the rainy season (February 2000. Aparasphenodon brunoi was the most abundant species in Praia das Neves. Some reproductive aspects and feeding habits of this hylid were investigated. Aparasphenodon brunoi was found mainly inside the bromeliad Aechmea lingulata, the largest plant analyzed. Fifteen specimens were collected during the dry season (August 1999 (11 males and 4 females. During the rainy season (February 2000, we collected 14 specimens (3 males, 10 females, and 1 juvenile. Sex-ratio was 1:1. Frogs ranged in snout-vent length from 31.2 to 69.3 mm. Females were larger than males. One female had 1,451 fully developed oocytes in her ovaries. The major groups of prey found in the stomachs were: Insecta, Myriapoda, and Arachnida. Blattodea, Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera (only ants were the main food types in frequency, number, and weight. Aparasphenodon brunoi is a threatened species in many habitats of southeastern Brazil. Only natural vegetation protection may guarantee its survival during the immediate future.

  5. Feeding habits of the leaf litter frog Haddadus binotatus (Anura, Craugastoridae from two Atlantic Forest areas in southeastern Brazil

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    LÍVIA COCO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Haddadus binotatus is an endemic anuran of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and currently, there is no information about the diet of this species. We analyzed the diet of two populations of this anuran in two states in southeast Brazil. Samplings were carried out in 2004 in the state of Rio de Janeiro and in 2009 and 2010 in the state of Espírito Santo. Haddadus binotatus presented a rich diet composition, preying 19 prey types. Orthoptera, Coleoptera, and Blattodea were the most important preys in the Rio de Janeiro population, and Orthoptera, Araneae and Hemiptera were the most important in the Espírito Santo population. The diet composition differed numerically between the two localities, but not in terms of volume, which can reflect local differences in the prey availability in the two habitats. The jaw width limited the size of prey, which is expected for predators who swallow the preys without chewing. The proportion of individuals with empty stomachs was higher in the Rio de Janeiro population (39.2% than in the Espírito Santo population (17.9%, suggesting that the former could be in a lower energy balance. The females of the species were larger than the males, which may result from the production of larger eggs.

  6. LEVANTAMENTO DA ENTOMOFAUNA EM PLANTIOS DE Eucalyptus spp. POR MEIO DE ARMADILHA LUMINOSA EM SÃO FRANCISCO DE ASSIS - RS

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    Juliana Garlet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of eucalyptus has become an important economic activity in Brazil. However, with the increase of the plantation areas, some entomological problems tend to increase in the same proportion. The constant monitoring of the insects associated with homogeneous planting systems is very important in order to seek the development of programs for integrated pest management. Thus, the purpose of this study was to perform a survey on the insect populations associated with Eucalyptus spp., in São Francisco de Assis, RS. The collects were carried out by light traps from July 2008 to August 2009 in three-year-old stands with the species: Eucalyptus dunni, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla . The insects collected were analyzed using the faunistic indices, frequency, abundance, diversity, and constancy. The correlation between the pest species identified and the meteorological variables for the period were also performed. We collected 3623 individuals belonging to eight orders (Blattodea, Coleoptera, Dermaptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Mantodea and Odonata. Three species and three genus of lepidoptera defoliators considered of economic importance were identified: Automeris illustris, Eupseudosoma sp., Sabulodes sp., Sarsina sp., Thyrinteina arnobia and Agrotis ipsilon as well as the borer Phoracantha semipunctata . Our results show that there are important pest species of Eucalyptus already established in the region therefore some constant monitoring is required so that these species do not cause damage to plantations.

  7. The occurrence of amphibians in bromeliads from a southeastern Brazilian restinga habitat, with special reference to Aparasphenodon brunoi (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, R L; Schineider, J A P; Almeida, G I

    2002-05-01

    Five species of anuran amphibians, all belonging to the family Hylidae, were collected at Praia das Neves, municipality of President Kennedy, southeastern Brazil. The species were represented by four genera: Scinax, Hyla, Aparasphenodon, and Trachycephalus. Four species (A. brunoi, Hyla albomarginata, Scinax altera, and S. cuspidatus) were found during the dry season (August 1999), and two (A. brunoi and Trachycephalus nigromaculatus) in the rainy season (February 2000). Aparasphenodon brunoi was the most abundant species in Praia das Neves. Some reproductive aspects and feeding habits of this hylid were investigated. Aparasphenodon brunoi was found mainly inside the bromeliad Aechmea lingulata, the largest plant analyzed. Fifteen specimens were collected during the dry season (August 1999) (11 males and 4 females). During the rainy season (February 2000), we collected 14 specimens (3 males, 10 females, and 1 juvenile). Sex-ratio was 1:1. Frogs ranged in snout-vent length from 31.2 to 69.3 mm. Females were larger than males. One female had 1,451 fully developed oocytes in her ovaries. The major groups of prey found in the stomachs were: Insecta, Myriapoda, and Arachnida. Blattodea, Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera (only ants) were the main food types in frequency, number, and weight. Aparasphenodon brunoi is a threatened species in many habitats of southeastern Brazil. Only natural vegetation protection may guarantee its survival during the immediate future.

  8. Chemical elements in invertebrate orders for environmental quality studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L.; Franca, Elvis J.; Paiva, Jose D.S.; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: marcelo_rlm@hotmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: dan-paiva@hotmail.com, E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio A., E-mail: felipe-yamada@hotmail.com, E-mail: lis@cena.usp.br, E-mail: mabacchi@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Among the biomonitors of environmental quality, there is a lack of studies on using invertebrates to evaluate quantitatively chemical elements in ecosystems. This group of animals is quite numerous, widely distributed and adaptable to the most diverse environmental conditions. These features are very useful for the environmental quality assessment, as well as the several occurring insect-plant interactions performing essential functions in ecosystems. The objective of this work is to study the variability of chemical composition of invertebrate orders for using in environmental quality monitoring studies. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA was applied to determine some nutrients and trace elements in invertebrate samples. Sampling by pitfall traps was carried out in riverine ecosystems from the urban area from the Piracicaba Municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Invertebrate and reference material samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN. Fragments of a Ni-Cr alloy were irradiated for monitoring the thermal neutron flux. Hymenoptera order was considered the most representative according to the total number of sampled species (about 60%). Significant amounts of Ba, Br, Fe and Sc were found in invertebrates of the order Opiliones. Potassium, rubidium and zinc were highly accumulated in species from Blattodea order, indicating a consistent pattern of accumulation for this invertebrate order. Taking into account the abundance of Hymenoptera order, the chemical composition of its species was significant different at the 95% confidence level for Br and Na in the sampled locals. (author)

  9. Scheffersomyces cryptocercus: a new xylose-fermenting yeast associated with the gut of wood roaches and new combinations in the Sugiyamaella yeast clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Hector; Frank, Robert; Blackwell, Meredith

    2013-01-01

    The gut of wood-feeding insects is a microhabitat for a specialized community of microbes, including bacteria and several groups of eukaryotes such as nematodes, parabasalids and fungi. The characterization of gut yeast communities from a variety of insects has shown that certain yeasts often are associated with the insects. The gut of wood-feeding insects is rich in ascomycete yeasts and in particular xylose-fermenting (X-F) and assimilating yeasts have been consistently present in the gut of lignicolous insects. The objective of this study was the characterization of the yeast flora from the gut of the wood roach Cryptocercus sp. (Blattodea: Cryptocercidae). Five wood roaches were collected along the Appalachian Trail near the border between Tennessee and North Carolina, USA. We isolated 18 yeast strains from the wood roaches identified as Sugiyamaella paludigena and Sugiyamaella lignohabitans, xylose-assimilating yeasts, and Scheffersomyces cryptocercus (NRRL Y-48824(T) = CBS 12658) a new species of X-F yeast. The presence of X-F and certain non X-F yeasts in the gut of the subsocial wood roach Cryptocercus sp. extends the previous findings of associations between certain ascomycete yeasts and lignicolous insects. New combinations were made for 13 asexual members of the Sugiyamaella clade.

  10. Review of the effusus group of the Lanternfly genus Pyrops Spinola, 1839, with one new species and notes on trophobiosis (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae

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    Jérôme Constant

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The species group effusus of the genus Pyrops Spinola, 1839 is reviewed and the nomenclatural history of the genus Pyrops is briefly summarized. One new species from eastern Borneo, Pyrops synavei sp. nov., is described. P. gunjii (Satô & Nagai, 1994 stat. nov. is proposed as a valid species instead of a subspecies of P. whiteheadi (Distant, 1889. P. maquilinganus (Baker, 1925 is removed from the effusus group and placed back into the candelaria group. P. cyanirostris (Guérin-Méneville, 1845 is removed from the group and not attributed to any of the currently defined species groups. An illustrated key to the species of the group with the addition of P. intricatus (Walker, 1857 and a distribution map are given. The effusus group is restricted to Borneo and adjacent Laut Island and presently contains 4 species: P. effusus (Distant, 1891, P. gunjii (Satô & Nagai, 1994 stat.nov., P. synavei sp. nov. and P. whiteheadi (Distant, 1889. Trophobiosis observations with the gecko Gehyra mutilata (Wiegmann, 1835 (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae and two species of cockroaches (Insecta: Blattodea, one Dorylaea sp. and an unidentified species of Pseudophyllodromiinae, are reported and illustrated for P. whiteheadi; observation with a cockroach, Dorylaea sp., is reported for P. intricatus.

  11. Impacts of the Replacement of Native Woodland with Exotic Pine Plantations on Leaf-Litter Invertebrate Assemblages: A Test of a Novel Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, B.R.; Baker, A.C.; Robson, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    We present an empirical comparison of invertebrate community structure between areas of undisturbed native eucalypt woodland and areas that have been cleared and replaced with plantations of exotic radiata pine (Pinus radiata). Implementation of a novel conceptual framework revealed that both insect (in autumn) and arachnid (in winter) assemblages demonstrated inhibition in response to the pine plantations. Species richness declines occurred in several taxonomic Orders (e.g., Hymenoptera, Blattodea, Acari) without compensated increases in other Orders in plantations. This was, however, a seasonal response, with shifts between inhibition and equivalency observed in both insects and arachnids across autumn and winter sampling periods. Equivalency responses were characterized by relatively similar levels of species richness in plantation and native habitats for several Orders (e.g., Coleoptera, Collembola, Psocoptera, Araneae). We propose testable hypotheses for the observed seasonal shifts between inhibition and equivalency that focus on diminished resource availability and the damp, moist conditions found in the plantations. Given the compelling evidence for seasonal shifts between categories, we recommend that seasonal patterns should be considered a critical component of further assemblage-level investigations of this novel framework for invasion ecology.

  12. Entomofauna edáfica em diferentes ambientes no município de Ipu, estado do Ceará

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    Venância Antonia Nunes Azevedo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to map the soil entomofauna in two different environments, in the District of Recanto, Municipality of Ipu, in the northwest region of the state of Ceará, Brazil, using soil trap, with fortnightly collections in the period from November 2015 to March 2016. In order to characterize the insect fauna a distribution pattern was established, considering the rates of occurrence and dominance of specieswhich have been grouped by order, as an indicator of the frequency and the occurrence of the amount captured. Throughout the project, a total of 2.171 specimens of insects belonging to 8 orders: Blattodea, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera and Orthoptera have been collected and identified. According to the method used the order Hymenoptera was the one that stood out for having the largest number of individuals captured, due to the presence of a large amount of ants, it was considered common to the different environments studied in the caatinga biome.

  13. Biologia floral e visitantes de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae - uma espécie com anteras poricidas polinizada por beija-flores Floral biology and visitors of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae - a poricidal anther species pollinated by hummingbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle Paulina de Araújo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A biologia floral de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae foi estudada na borda de uma mata de galeria na reserva ecológica do Clube de Caça e Pesca Itororó de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. G. brasiliensis é um arbusto que pode alcançar de 0,3 a 3,0 m de altura e ocorre de forma isolada ou agregada. Apresenta floração contínua e possui inflorescências racemosas, axilares com flores pendentes. As flores são hermafroditas, vermelhas, de corola urceolada, apresentam antese diurna e ausência odor. O néctar apresentou volume de cerca de 3,0 μL e concentração de açúcares por volta de 13%. G. brasiliensis é autocompatível, não apresenta autopolinização espontânea e nem apomixia. Os polinizadores foram os beijaflores: Chlorostlibon lucidus (Shaw, Amazilia fimbirata (Gmelin, Hylocharis chrysura (Shaw (Throchilinae e Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & DeLattre (Phaethornithinae. G. brasiliensis apresenta anteras poricidas com poros amplos e os beija-flores, quando adejam com o bico inserido nas flores em busca de néctar, fornecem a vibração necessária para a liberação dos grãos de pólen. Apesar de apresentar volume e concentração de açúcar no néctar relativamente pequenos, os agrupamentos de indivíduos com muitas flores parecem atrair beija-flores com comportamento territorial.The floral biology of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae was studied on swampy edges of a gallery forest in Uberlandia, Minas Gerais. Gaylussacia brasiliensis is a shrub 0.3 to 3.0 m tall that occurs isolated or aggregated and has continuous flowering. The axillary racemose inflorescences produce four to dozens of pendulous flowers. The flowers are hermaphroditic, red, urceolate, odorless and have diurnal anthesis. Concentration of sugars in nectar was c. 13% and volume c. 3.0 μL. G. brasiliensis is a self-compatible, non apomictic species, which does not present spontaneous self-pollination. The pollinators of G

  14. Flowers visited by hummingbirds in the open habitats of the southeastern Brazilian mountaintops: species composition and seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, L C; Rodrigues, M

    2014-08-01

    The hummingbird-visited plant community located on the open-habitat mountaintop of the Espinhaço Range was studied for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009) in Serra do Cipó National Park, Southeastern Brazil (19° 15' S and 43° 31' W). The floral characteristics and flowering period of the hummingbird-visited plants was monthly recorded along trails located in three vegetation types: (1) typical campos rupestres (TCR), (2) open fields (OPF), and (3) capões de mata (CAM). Hummingbird visitation was observed in 51 plant species, 22 ornithophilous and 29 non-ornithophilous species. The TCR showed the greatest number of species visited (N = 38), followed by the OPF (N = 18) and CAM (N = 17). Six species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers: Augastes scutatus, Campylopterus largipennis, Colibri serrirostris, Chlorostilbon lucidus, Eupetomena macroura and Phaethornis pretrei. This study demonstrates that the species richness and the number of ornithophilous species visited by the hummingbirds at the study site are more similar to hummingbird-plant communities of the Atlantic Forest than to those of the Cerrado communities and other Brazilian highland open-habitat communities. The plant families most visited by hummingbirds were Bromeliaceae and Asteraceae. Although the Asteraceae family is rarely used as a food resource for hummingbirds in other high and lowland communities, in the study site this family is used mainly by the endemic hummingbird Augastes scutatus. We found a large overlap of flowering throughout the year among the species visited by the hummingbirds. Thus, the nectar availability supports these resident hummingbirds. The present study also showed that the studied hummingbird-plant community is composed of many species endemic to the campos rupestres of the Espinhaço Range, some of which are considered to be in danger of extinction, thus constituting a unique and threatened community. Thus, understanding hummingbird-plant pollination

  15. Chave de identificação e diagnose dos Histeridae (Insecta: Coleoptera de interesse forense do Brasil

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    Nathália G. R. Celli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO As espécies de Histeridae são quase que exclusivamente predadoras e podem ser encontradas em uma grande diversidade de ambientes. Dentre os grupos associados a carcaças, alguns são citados como relevantes na entomologia forense médico-legal. Entretanto, há pouca informação taxonômica para a família, principalmente na Região Neotropical. Desta forma, os objetivos do trabalho foram elaborar uma chave de identificação e caracterizar as espécies de Histeridae de interesse médico-legal no Brasil. Além disso, são apresentadas informações de distribuição geográfica e aspectos biológicos das espécies. As seguintes espécies são registradas como relevantes na entomologia forense no Brasil: Aeletes nicolasi Leivas, 2012; Euspilotus azureus (Sahlberg, 1823; Hister cavifronsMarseul, 1854; Omalodes bifoveolatus Marseul, 1853;Omalodes foveola Erichson, 1834; Omalodes lucidus Erichson, 1834, Operclipygus subterraneusCaterino & Tishechkin, 2013; Phelister sanguinipennisMarseul, 1853; e Scapomegas auritus Marseul, 1855. Esta contribuição representa a primeira ferramenta para uma melhor identificação dos Histeridae associados a carcaças no Brasil e pode servir como referência e aplicação na entomologia médico-legal.

  16. Malagasy Conostigmus (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronoidea and the secret of scutes

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    István Mikó

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We revise the genus Conostigmus Dahlbom 1858 occurring in Madagascar, based on data from more specimens than were examined for the latest world revision of the genus. Our results yield new information about intraspecific variability and the nature of the atypical latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG observed in Ceraphronoidea. We also investigate cellular processes that underlie body size polyphenism, by utilizing the correspondence between epidermal cells and scutes, polygonal units of leather-like microsculpture. Our results reveal that body size polyphenism in Megaspilidae is most likely related to cell number and not cell size variation, and that cell size differs between epithelial fields of the head and that of the mesosoma. Three species, Conostigmus ballescoracas Dessart, 1997, C. babaiax Dessart, 1996 and C. longulus Dessart, 1997, are redescribed. Females of C. longulus are described for the first time, as are nine new species: C. bucephalus Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. clavatus Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. fianarantsoaensis Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. lucidus Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. macrocupula, Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. madagascariensis Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. missyhazenae Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. pseudobabaiax Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., and C. toliaraensis Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov. A fully illustrated identification key for Malagasy Conostigmus species and a Web Ontology Language (OWL representation of the taxonomic treatment, including specimen data, nomenclature, and phenotype descriptions, in both natural and formal languages, are provided.

  17. [Niche and interspecific association of the dominant fish in the south coastal waters of Wenzhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing Rui; Shui, Bo Nian; Hu, Cheng Ye; Shui, Yu Yue; DU, Xiao; Tian, Kuo

    2017-05-18

    The studies about the niche and interspecific association in China were mainly focused on the plants, birds and marine animals, and seldom on fish. Based on the fishery resources survey in spring (May) and autumn (September) in 2015, the associations among major fish species in south coastal waters of Wenzhou were investigated. The methods including niche breadth, niche overlap, variance ratio (VR), Χ 2 -test, association coefficient (AC), percentage of co-occurrence (PC) and point correlation coefficients (Ф) were used. The results showed that 47 fish species were identified, including 9 orders, 27 families and 41 genera. Four species were dominant species and 9 were important species, which together accounted for 17%. The niche breadth cluster analysis demonstrated two clearly identifiable ecological niches. The first one referred to wide niche that included Harpodon nehereus, Collichthys lucidus, Engraulis japonicas, Pampus echinogaster, Argyrosomus argentatus, Polynemus sextarius, Decapterus maruadsi and Trichiurus haumela, and the second one was narrow niche that included Muraenesox cinereus, Amblychaeturichthys hexanema, Cunoglossus robustus, Pseudosciaena polyactis and Ilisha elongate. The niche overlap value of the main fish was 0-0.90, indicating that there was difference in the resource utilization among the species. The ecological niche widths of C. robustus and M. cinereus were narrow, and the overlap values were high. This indicated that there was competition between these two species. The VR analysis revealed significant positive correlation among the main fish species. In view of the advantages of Ф value, which could reduce the impact of the analysis results of Χ 2 -test, AC and PC to the interspecific association, the Ф value method was selected in this study, and the association of 63 couples were positive. Both the interspecific association and ecological niche had different degrees of correlation with the stability of community structure

  18. Birds as potential pollinators of the Spathodea nilotica (Bignoniaceae in the urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM. Previatto

    Full Text Available Birds play crucial role on the pollination of many plants. However, little is known about the interactions between nectarivorous neotropical birds and exotic Angiosperms. S. nilotica is an exotic African plant widely used in Brazilian urban landscaping. However, it has been poorly studied in relation to its interactions with Neotropical birds. In this way, we studied the feeding nectar strategies and the interspecific antagonistic behaviours among nectarivorous Neotropical birds to verify the bird contributions to the S. nilotica pollination. The study was conducted from May 2008 to April 2011, but only in months of S. nilotica flowering (April to May. From 148 hours of sampling we identified 16 species feeding nectar on S. nilotica: 13 hummingbirds (Trochilidae, Aratinga aurea (Psittacidae, Tangara palmarum (Thraupidae and Coereba flaveola (Coerebidae. Eupetomena macroura was the most frequent (96.88%, followed by Chlorostilbon lucidus (78.13% and Coereba flaveola (59.38%. Most birds obtained nectar by punching at the base of the corolla, except for A. aurea that obtained the nectar by the upper opening of the petals in 100% of its visits, Heliomaster furcifer (95.65%, F. fusca (95% and A. nigricollis (70.27%. Despite E. macroura also obtains nectar only by punching at the base of the corolla, it showed the highest level of legitimate visits. Antagonistic events were more frequent in E. macroura (58.65%, Florisuga fusca (11.04% and Amazilia fimbriata (10.87%, being E. macroura dominant in all events. These results showed E. macroura plays an important role on this plant being the most important bird as a potential pollinator. Moreover, other birds contribute partially to the S. nilotica pollination. Most probably it is a result of recent Neotropical bird interactions with this African plant.

  19. Flowers visited by hummingbirds in the open habitats of the southeastern brazilian mountaintops: species composition and seasonality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC Rodrigues

    Full Text Available The hummingbird-visited plant community located on the open-habitat mountaintop of the Espinhaço Range was studied for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009 in Serra do Cipó National Park, Southeastern Brazil (19° 15′ S and 43° 31′ W. The floral characteristics and flowering period of the hummingbird-visited plants was monthly recorded along trails located in three vegetation types: (1 typical campos rupestres (TCR, (2 open fields (OPF, and (3 capões de mata(CAM. Hummingbird visitation was observed in 51 plant species, 22 ornithophilous and 29 non-ornithophilous species. The TCR showed the greatest number of species visited (N = 38, followed by the OPF (N = 18 and CAM (N = 17. Six species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers: Augastes scutatus, Campylopterus largipennis, Colibri serrirostris, Chlorostilbon lucidus, Eupetomena macroura and Phaethornis pretrei. This study demonstrates that the species richness and the number of ornithophilous species visited by the hummingbirds at the study site are more similar to hummingbird-plant communities of the Atlantic Forest than to those of the Cerrado communities and other Brazilian highland open-habitat communities. The plant families most visited by hummingbirds were Bromeliaceae and Asteraceae. Although the Asteraceae family is rarely used as a food resource for hummingbirds in other high and lowland communities, in the study site this family is used mainly by the endemic hummingbird Augastes scutatus. We found a large overlap of flowering throughout the year among the species visited by the hummingbirds. Thus, the nectar availability supports these resident hummingbirds. The present study also showed that the studied hummingbird-plant community is composed of many species endemic to the campos rupestres of the Espinhaço Range, some of which are considered to be in danger of extinction, thus constituting a unique and threatened community. Thus, understanding hummingbird

  20. Soil macrofauna under integrated crop-livestock systems in a Brazilian Cerrado Ferralsol Macrofauna edáfica em sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária num Latossolo Vermelho do Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robélio Leandro Marchão

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the effects of integrated crop-livestock systems, associated with two tillage and two fertilization regimes, on the abundance and diversity of the soil macrofauna. Four different management systems were studied: continuous pasture (mixed grass; continuous crop; two crop-livestock rotations (crop/pasture and pasture/crop; and native Cerrado as a control. Macrofauna was sampled using a modified Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility method, and all individuals were counted and identified at the morphospecies level for each plot. A total of 194 morphospecies were found, distributed among 30 groups, and the most representative in decreasing order of density were: Isoptera, Coleoptera larvae, Formicidae, Oligochaeta, Coleoptera adult, Diplopoda, Hemiptera, Diptera larvae, Arachnida, Chilopoda, Lepidoptera, Gasteropoda, Blattodea and Orthoptera. Soil management systems and tillage regimes affected the structure of soil macrofauna, and integrated crop-livestock systems, associated with no-tillage, especially with grass/legume species associations, had more favorable conditions for the development of "soil engineers" compared with continuous pasture or arable crops. Soil macrofauna density and diversity, assessed at morphospecies level, are effective data to measure the impact of land use in Cerrado soils.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária, associados a dois tipos de preparo e de fertilização do solo, sobre a abundância e a diversidade da macrofauna edáfica. Quatro sistemas de manejo foram estudados: pastagem contínua de gramíneas; lavoura contínua de culturas anuais; dois sistemas integrados lavoura-pecuária (lavoura/pastagem e pastagem/lavoura; e Cerrado nativo (controle. A macrofauna foi avaliada pelo método "Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility" modificado e todos os indivíduos coletados nas parcelas foram contados e identificados ao nível de

  1. Evolution of DNA Methylation across Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewick, Adam J; Vogel, Kevin J; Moore, Allen J; Schmitz, Robert J

    2017-03-01

    DNA methylation contributes to gene and transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes, and therefore has been hypothesized to facilitate the evolution of plastic traits such as sociality in insects. However, DNA methylation is sparsely studied in insects. Therefore, we documented patterns of DNA methylation across a wide diversity of insects. We predicted that underlying enzymatic machinery is concordant with patterns of DNA methylation. Finally, given the suggestion that DNA methylation facilitated social evolution in Hymenoptera, we tested the hypothesis that the DNA methylation system will be associated with presence/absence of sociality among other insect orders. We found DNA methylation to be widespread, detected in all orders examined except Diptera (flies). Whole genome bisulfite sequencing showed that orders differed in levels of DNA methylation. Hymenopteran (ants, bees, wasps and sawflies) had some of the lowest levels, including several potential losses. Blattodea (cockroaches and termites) show all possible patterns, including a potential loss of DNA methylation in a eusocial species whereas solitary species had the highest levels. Species with DNA methylation do not always possess the typical enzymatic machinery. We identified a gene duplication event in the maintenance DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) that is shared by some Hymenoptera, and paralogs have experienced divergent, nonneutral evolution. This diversity and nonneutral evolution of underlying machinery suggests alternative DNA methylation pathways may exist. Phylogenetically corrected comparisons revealed no evidence that supports evolutionary association between sociality and DNA methylation. Future functional studies will be required to advance our understanding of DNA methylation in insects. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. Deltamethrin-resistant German Cockroaches Are Less Sensitive to the Insect Repellents DEET and IR3535 than Non-resistant Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengoni, Sofía L; Alzogaray, Raúl A

    2018-04-02

    The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae), is a serious worldwide pest with a considerable economical and sanitary impact. It is mainly controlled by the application of synthetic insecticides, but repeated use of these substances has promoted the appearance of resistance in cockroach populations throughout the world. The aim of this study was to compare the behavior of deltamethrin-susceptible (CIPEIN colony) and deltamethrin-resistant (JUBA and VGBA colonies) first instar nymphs exposed to the repellents N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) and ethyl 3-[acetyl(butyl)amino]propanoate (IR3535). Firstly, the behavior of the nymphs was assessed in an experimental arena in the absence of repellents. The parameters Distance Traveled, Velocity, Mobility Time, and Time Spent (in each half of the arena) were quantified using an image analyser, and showed that the behavior elicited by the three colonies was similar. After this, the behavior of the nymphs was quantified in an arena, half of which had been treated with repellent. The repellency of DEET increased as a linear function of log concentration for the three colonies. DEET elicited repellency as from a concentration of 97.49 µg/cm2 for the CIPEIN and JUBA colonies and 194.98 µg/cm2 for the VGBA colony. The repellency of IR3535 was weaker and started at a concentration of 389.96 µg/cm2 for the CIPEIN colony, 779.92 μg/cm2 for JUBA, and 1559.84 μg/cm2 for VGBA . Finally, nymphs were exposed to 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3 DEET:IR3535 mixtures, and a synergistic effect was observed only in the CIPEIN colony.

  3. Astakine 2--the dark knight linking melatonin to circadian regulation in crustaceans.

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    Apiruck Watthanasurorot

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Daily, circadian rhythms influence essentially all living organisms and affect many physiological processes from sleep and nutrition to immunity. This ability to respond to environmental daily rhythms has been conserved along evolution, and it is found among species from bacteria to mammals. The hematopoietic process of the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus is under circadian control and is tightly regulated by astakines, a new family of cytokines sharing a prokineticin (PROK domain. The expression of AST1 and AST2 are light-dependent, and this suggests an evolutionarily conserved function for PROK domain proteins in mediating circadian rhythms. Vertebrate PROKs are transmitters of circadian rhythms of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN in the brain of mammals, but the mechanism by which they function is unknown. Here we demonstrate that high AST2 expression is induced by melatonin in the brain. We identify RACK1 as a binding protein of AST2 and further provide evidence that a complex between AST2 and RACK1 functions as a negative-feedback regulator of the circadian clock. By DNA mobility shift assay, we showed that the AST2-RACK1 complex will interfere with the binding between BMAL1 and CLK and inhibit the E-box binding activity of the complex BMAL1-CLK. Finally, we demonstrate by gene knockdown that AST2 is necessary for melatonin-induced inhibition of the complex formation between BMAL1 and CLK during the dark period. In summary, we provide evidence that melatonin regulates AST2 expression and thereby affects the core clock of the crustacean brain. This process may be very important in all animals that have AST2 molecules, i.e. spiders, ticks, crustaceans, scorpions, several insect groups such as Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, and Blattodea, but not Diptera and Coleoptera. Our findings further reveal an ancient evolutionary role for the prokineticin superfamily protein that links melatonin to direct regulation of the core clock gene feedback loops.

  4. Morphophysiological study of digestive system litter-feeding termite Cornitermes cumulans (Kollar, 1832).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Géssica; Dos Santos, Vânia Cristina; de Figueiredo Gontijo, Nelder; Constantino, Reginaldo; de Oliveira Paiva E Silva, Gabriela; Bahia, Ana Cristina; Gomes, Fabio Mendonça; de Alcantara Machado, Ednildo

    2017-06-01

    Termites are the major decomposers of lignocellulosic biomass on Earth and are commonly considered as biological reactor models for lignocellulose degradation. Despite their biotechnological potential, few studies have focused on the morphophysiological aspects of the termite digestive system. We therefore analyze the morphology, ultrastructure and gut luminal pH of the digestive system in workers of the litter-feeding termite Cornitermes cumulans (Blattodea: Termitidae). Their digestive system is composed of salivary glands and an alimentary canal with a pH ranging from neutral to alkaline. The salivary glands have an acinar structure and present cells with secretory characteristics. The alimentary canal is differentiated into the foregut, midgut, mixed segment and hindgut, which comprises the ileum (p1), enteric valve (p2), paunch (p3), colon (p4) and rectum (p5) segments. The foregut has a well-developed chewing system. The midgut possesses a tubular peritrophic membrane and two cell types: digestive cells with secretory and absorptive features and several regenerative cells in mitosis, both cell types being organized into regenerative crypts. The mixed segment exhibits cells rich in glycogen granules. Hindgut p1, p4 and p5 segments have flattened cells with a few apical invaginations related to mitochondria and a thick cuticular lining. Conversely, the hindgut p3 segment contains large cuboid cells with extensive apical invaginations associated with numerous mitochondria. These new insights into the morphophysiology of the digestive system of C. cumulans reveal that it mobilizes lignocellulose components as a nutritional source by means of a highly compartmentalized organization with specialized segments and complex microenvironments.

  5. Pest Prevalence and Evaluation of Community-Wide Integrated Pest Management for Reducing Cockroach Infestations and Indoor Insecticide Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Chen; Wang, Changlu; Buckley, Brian; Yang, Ill; Wang, Desen; Eiden, Amanda L; Cooper, Richard

    2018-04-02

    Pest infestations in residential buildings are common, but community-wide pest survey data are lacking. Frequent insecticide applications for controlling indoor pests leave insecticide residues and pose potential health risks to residents. In this study, a community-wide pest survey was carried out in a housing complex consisting of 258 units in 40 buildings in New Brunswick, New Jersey. It was immediately followed by implementation of an integrated pest management (IPM) program in all the cockroach-infested apartments and two bed bug apartments with the goal of eliminating pest infestations, reducing pyrethroid residues, and increasing resident satisfaction with pest control services. The IPM-treated apartments were revisited and treated biweekly or monthly for 7 mo. Initial inspection found the top three pests and their infestation rates to be as follows: German cockroaches (Blattella germanica L. [Blattodea: Blattellidae]), 28%; rodents, 11%; and bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. [Hemiptera: Cimicidae]), 8%. Floor wipe samples were collected in the kitchens and bedrooms of 20 apartments for pyrethroid residue analysis before the IPM implementation; 17 of the 20 apartments were resampled again at 7 mo. The IPM program reduced cockroach counts per apartment by 88% at 7 wk after initial treatment. At 7 mo, 85% of the cockroach infestations found in the initial survey were eliminated. The average number of pyrethroids detected decreased significantly from 6 ± 1 (mean ± SEM) and 5 ± 1 to 2 ± 1 and 3 ± 1 in the kitchens and bedrooms, respectively. The average concentrations of targeted pyrethroids residue also decreased significantly in the kitchens and bedrooms.

  6. COMPARISON OF DIET AND USE OF BROMELIADS BETWEEN A BROMELICOLOUS AND A BROMELIGENOUS ANURAN AT AN INSELBERG IN THE SOUTHEASTERN OF BRAZIL

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    PERTEL WESLEI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Anurans from an inselberg in southeastern Brazil were studied using a sample ofsixty tank of bromeliads Alcantharea sp. We found 153 tadpoles of S. arduous, 21adults of S. arduous, 30 adults of T. miliaris, and two adults of Scinax x-signatus,which were not considered in our analyses. Tadpoles of S. arduous were present in35% of the analyzed plants. Adults of S. arduous (bromeligeneous occurred in 25%of analyzed plants, while adults of T. miliaris (bromelicolous occurred in 30%.Apparently the presence of toe pads in S. arduous allow them to occupy the centerportion of bromeliads, while T. miliaris, which lack pads on their toes, were foundon the base of the plant axils. The number of anuran species and the abundance ofindividuals found were low. This may be a result of the high altitude of our studiedsite or a restriction imposed by the saxicolous environment, such as high temperaturesand low humidity during the day. Both species can be considered generalist feedersdue to their wide variety of ingested prey. Formicidae was their main prey but wasabsent segregation in the bromeliads. Blattodea was very common inside the bromeliadaxils and represented the most signifi cant prey by weight in both frog species. Weconclude that both anurans forage inside and outside of bromeliads. Trophic nichebreadth in S. arduous was larger than in T. miliaris. Even both species being commoninhabitants of the same environment, they demonstrated a marked spatial segregationin the bromeliads. Based on their diet, however, there may be disputes for territoryoutside of the bromeliads.

  7. Are eavesdroppers multimodal? Sensory exploitation of flo-ral signals by a non-native cockroach Blatta orientalis

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    Rodrigo C. VERGARA, Alejandra TORRES-ARANEDA, Diego A. VILLAGRA, Robert A. RAGUSO, Mary T. K. ARROYO, Cristian A. VILLAGRA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of multi-modal communication has only recently been extended to innate and learned interactions between flowers and their animal visitors, and usually only to pollinators. Here we studied the relevance of floral scent and visual display of a night blooming, putatively hawkmoth-pollinated plant Oenothera acaulis (Onagraceae in the attraction of non-native cockroaches Blatta orientalis (Blattodea: Blattidae, which function as facultative floral larcenists in coastal habitats of central Chile. We experimentally decoupled visual (corolla and olfactory (fragrance stimuli by presenting paper corollas and green mesh bags, with or without a freshly-picked natural flower inside. We then contrasted the behavioral responses of roaches in these treatments with those to the natural combination of traits in actual flowers and their respective control treatments, measuring the roaches’ frequency of first visits, mean and total residence time spent in each treatment. The roaches primarily used olfactory cues when approaching O. acaulis flowers at two biologically relevant spatial scales. In addition, the presence of conspecific roaches had a strong influence on recruitment to the experimental arena, increasing the statistical differences among treatments. Our results suggest a primacy of floral fragrance over visual stimuli in the foraging responses of B. orientalis. Olfactory cues were necessary and sufficient to attract the roaches, and the visual cues presented in our manipulations only marginally increased their attraction within a 20 cm diameter of the stimulus. The full spectrum of floral visitation behavior was not elicited by the artificial flowers, suggesting the need for additional tactile or contact chemosensory stimuli not provided by paper. Although the nitrogenous scent compounds that we found in O. acaulis flowers are almost exclusively found in hawkmoth-pollinated flowers, the attractiveness of these compounds to a non

  8. Genetic insights into family group co-occurrence in Cryptocercus punctulatus, a sub-social woodroach from the southern Appalachian Mountains

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    Ryan C. Garrick

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The wood-feeding cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus Scudder (Blattodea: Cryptocercidae is an important member of the dead wood (saproxylic community in montane forests of the southeastern United States. However, its population biology remains poorly understood. Here, aspects of family group co-occurrence were characterized to provide basic information that can be extended by studies on the evolution and maintenance of sub-sociality. Broad sampling across the species’ range was coupled with molecular data (mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences. The primary questions were: (1 what proportion of rotting logs contain two or more different mtDNA haplotypes and how often can this be attributed to multiple families inhabiting the same log, (2 are multi-family logs spatially clustered, and (3 what levels of genetic differentiation among haplotypes exist within a log, and how genetically similar are matrilines of co-occurring family groups? Multi-family logs were identified on the premise that three different mtDNA haplotypes, or two different haplotypes among adult females, is inconsistent with a single family group founded by one male–female pair. Results showed that of the 88 rotting logs from which multiple adult C. punctulatus were sampled, 41 logs (47% contained two or more mtDNA haplotypes, and at least 19 of these logs (22% overall were inferred to be inhabited by multiple families. There was no strong evidence for spatial clustering of the latter class of logs. The frequency distribution of nucleotide differences between co-occurring haplotypes was strongly right-skewed, such that most haplotypes were only one or two mutations apart, but more substantial divergences (up to 18 mutations, or 1.6% uncorrected sequence divergence do occasionally occur within logs. This work represents the first explicit investigation of family group co-occurrence in C. punctulatus, providing a valuable baseline for follow-up studies.

  9. Advance in main functional ingredients and mechanism of anticancer plant essential oils%抗癌活性植物精油的主要功效成分及作用机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽云; 张春苗; 高永生; 宋林珍; 陈玮; 泮莞坤; Wang Sunan; 李素芳

    2017-01-01

    癌症是严重威胁人类健康的顽疾,致死率高.现代医学中常用的治疗癌症的放化疗方法毒副作用大,而抗癌植物精油具有多靶点、多效应、不良反应低、不易产生耐药性及提高机体免疫力等优势,在癌症治疗中得到高度重视.对植物精油的主要活性成分及其抗癌机制进行综述.已有研究报道中有抗癌活性的精油主要包括柠檬香茅、鼠尾草、泽兰蒿、薰衣草、野芹菜、橘皮、杨梅叶等19种植物精油,其中柠檬烯、β-榄香烯、薄荷醇、广藿香醇、百里酚、丁香酚、柠檬醛、β-石竹烯及其氧化物等成分可能是抗癌精油主要功效成分.%Cancer is a serious threat to human health with a high fatality rate.Modem anticancer methods,including surgery,radiotherapy,and chemotherapy,commonly have more serious side effects.Anticancer plant essential oils which now attach great importance to cancer treatment,have many advantages such as multi-target,multi-effect,low adverse reaction,improving the body immunity,not easy to produce drug resistance,etc.The main active ingredients and the anticancer mechanism of essential oils were reviewed in this paper.Nineteen kinds of plant essential oils,including Cymbopogon flexuosus,Salvia officinalis,Lycopus lucidus,Lavandula angustifolia,Smyrnium olusatrum,peel of Citrus reticulate,leaves of Myrica rubra,and so on,displayed their prominent anti-cancer activities.Specifically,limonene,β-elemene,menthol,patchouli alcohol,thymol,eugenol,citral,β-caryophyllene,and their oxide may be the main anticancer composition of plant essential oils.

  10. A synopsis of the tribe Micrutalini Haupt (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae

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    Albino M. Sakakibara

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Micrutalini and its two genera, Trachytalis Fowler and Micrutalis Fowler, are redescribed. The following species are treated and, in some cases, nomenclatura! changes introduced: Trachytalis isabellina Fowler, 1895; T. distinguenda Fowler, 1895; T. retrofasciata (Lethierry, 1890, comb.n.; Micrutalis alrovena Goding, 1930; M. balteata (Fairmaire, 1846 = Aculalis lucidus Buckton, 1902, syn.n.; M. bella Goding, 1929; M. biguttula (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.; M. binaria (Fairmaire, 1846 = Acutalis flavivenlris Lethierry, 1890, syn.n.; M. callan-gensis Goding, 1930; M. calva (Say, 1830; M. discalis (Walker, 1858; M. dorsalis (Fitch, 1851; M. dubia Fowler, 1895 = M. zeteki Goding, 1928, syn.n.; M. flava Goding, 1929; M. flavozonala (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n. = Acutalis geniculata Stál, 1862, syn.n. = Acutalis modesta Stál, 1862, syn.n.; M. godfreyi Sakakibara, 1976; M. incerla Sakakibara, 1976; M. lata Goding, 1930; M. litlerala (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.;M lugubrina(Stál, 1862;M malleiferaFovj]er, 1895 = M binariamutabilis Fowler, 1895, syn.n.; M. minutus Buckton, 1902; M. nigrolineata (Stál, 1864; M. nigromarginata Funkhouser, 1940; M. notalipennis Fowler, 1895; M. occidentalis (Goding, 1893; M. pollens Fowler, 1895; M. parva (Goding, 1893; M. plagíala (Stál, l&62 = AcutalisvariabiIisBerg, 1879,syn.n. =M. chapadensisGoding, 1930,syn.n.; M. punctifera (Walker, 1858; M. semialba (Stál, 1862; M. stipulipennis Buckton, 1902; M. tau Goding, 1930; M. trifurcala Goding, 1893; M. tripunctata (Fairmaire, 1846 = Acutalis moesta Stál, 1859, syn.n. = M. tartaredoides Goding, 1930, syn.n.. New species: Micrutalis diminuta sp.n. (Ecuador, Pichincha; Micrutalis divisa sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso; Micrutalis henki sp.n. (Panama, Canal Zone; Micrutalis infúscala sp.n. (Venezuela, Portuguesa; Micrutalis margínala sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso; Micrutalis meridana sp.n. (Venezuela, Mérida; Micrutalis mucuya sp.n. (Venezuela, Mérida; Micrutalis robustula

  11. Annotated type catalogue of the Bulimulidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea in the Natural History Museum, London

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    Abraham Breure

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The type status is described of 404 taxa classified within the family Bulimulidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea and kept in the London museum. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus aurifluus Pfeiffer, 1857; Otostomus bartletti H. Adams, 1867; Helix cactorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus caliginosus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus chemnitzioides Forbes, 1850; Bulimus cinereus Reeve, 1849; Helix cora d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus fallax Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus felix Pfeiffer, 1862; Bulimus fontainii d’Orbigny, 1838; Bulimus fourmiersi d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus (Mesembrinus gealei H. Adams, 1867; Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimus humboldtii Reeve, 1849; Helix hygrohylaea d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus jussieui Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895; Helix lichnorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus lucidus da Costa, 1898; Bulimus luridus Pfeiffer, 1863; Bulimus meleagris Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus monachus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimus montagnei d’Orbigny, 1837; Helix montivaga d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus muliebris Reeve, 1849; Bulimus nigrofasciatus Pfeiffer in Philippi 1846; Bulimus nitelinus Reeve, 1849; Helix oreades d’Orbigny, 1835; Helix polymorpha d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus praetextus Reeve, 1849; Bulinus proteus Broderip, 1832; Bulimus rusticellus Morelet, 1860; Helix sporadica d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus sulphureus Pfeiffer, 1857; Helix thamnoica var. marmorata d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus translucens Broderip in Broderip and Sowerby I 1832; Helix trichoda d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus ustulatus Sowerby I, 1833; Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847; Bulimus yungasensis d’Orbigny, 1837.The type status of the following taxa is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Bulimulus (Drymaeus caucaensis da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus exoticus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus (Drymaeus hidalgoi da Costa, 1898; Bulimulus (Drymaeus interruptus Preston, 1909; Bulimulus (Drymaeus inusitatus Fulton, 1900; Bulimulus latecolumellaris