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Sample records for lucas heights science

  1. Lucas Heights technology park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The proposed Lucas Heights Technology Park will pound together the applied research programs of Government, tertiary and industry sectors, aiming to foster technology transfer particularly to the high-technology manufacturing industry. A description of the site is given along with an outline of the envisaged development, existing facilities and expertise. ills

  2. APTCARE - Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    This plan details command co-ordination and support responses of Commonwealth and State Authorities in the event of an accident with offsite consequences at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. The plan has been prepared by the AAEC Local Liaison Working Party, comprising representatives of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission, NSW Police Department, NSW Board of Fire Commissioners, NSW State Emergency Services and Civil Defence Organisation, NSW Department of Health, NSW Department of Environment and Planning and Sutherland Shire Council

  3. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E L; Loosz, T; Farrar, Y

    1998-11-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) during 1997. All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorizations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges from HIFAR were estimated utilising the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective dose to the public was estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around the HIFAR research reactor. This value represents 1% of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 10% of the HIFAR dose constraint of 0.1 mSv/year 24 tabs., 7 figs.; Glossary; Appendices

  4. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Loosz, T.; Farrar, Y.

    1997-06-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre during 1996. All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorizations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges during this period, were estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around HIFAR. This value represents 1% of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by thr National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the site dose constraint of 0.3mSv/year adopted by ANSTO. Details of the environmental sample collection and analytical procedures are given in the appendices. (authors). 29 refs., 26 tabs., 6 figs.

  5. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Loosz, T.; Farrar, Y.

    1997-06-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre during 1996. All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorizations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges during this period, were estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around HIFAR. This value represents 1% of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by thr National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the site dose constraint of 0.3mSv/year adopted by ANSTO. Details of the environmental sample collection and analytical procedures are given in the appendices. (authors)

  6. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Loosz, T.; Farrar, Y

    1998-11-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) during 1997. All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorizations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges from HIFAR were estimated utilising the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective dose to the public was estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around the HIFAR research reactor. This value represents 1% of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 10% of the HIFAR dose constraint of 0.1 mSv/year

  7. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Loosz, T.; Farrar, Y.; Mokhber-Shahin, L.

    1999-01-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) during 1998. All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorizations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges from HIFAR were estimated utilising the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective dose to the public was estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around the HIFAR research reactor. This value represents 1% of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year approved by the Nuclear Safety Bureau. It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community, staff or the environment as a consequence of operations at the LHSTC

  8. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E L; Loosz, T; Farrar, Y; Mokhber-Shahin, L

    1999-07-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) during 1998. All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorizations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges from HIFAR were estimated utilising the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective dose to the public was estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around the HIFAR research reactor. This value represents 1% of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year approved by the Nuclear Safety Bureau. It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community, staff or the environment as a consequence of operations at the LHSTC.

  9. The taking of Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandilands, B.

    1993-01-01

    Plans for a new research reactor at Lucas Heights have sparked a 'civil war' in New South Wales. The author considers the arguments. The leading antagonists are the local government body - The Sutherland Shire Council, Greenpeace, and the Sutherland Shire Environment Centre. Many of the economic benefits claimed for the existing and proposed replacement reactor have been tagged with question marks. However, ANSTO is confident of refuting claims that the money could be better spent on alternative methods of producing medical isotopes and neutron streams for industry or research, such as particle accelerators. If ANSTO's critics have their way, non-reactor-dependent work like the laser enrichment project could continue without the alleged hazards of sustained nuclear fission. If ANSTO wins the day, a far more efficient reactor will be built which is capable of keeping pace with the emerging nuclear industries of Asia. ills

  10. A plan to cope with accidents at the research establishment of the Australian Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, NSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    This plan details command, coordination and support responses of Commonwealth and NSW Government in the event of an accident with off-site consequences at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. 7 tabs., map

  11. Lucas Heights buffer zone: plan of management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This plan is being used by the Commission as a guide for its management of the Lucas Heights buffer zone, which is essentially a circular area having a 1-6 km radius around the HIFAR reactor. Aspects covered by this plan include past uses, current use, objectives for buffer zone land management, emergency evacuation, resource conservation, archaeology, fire, access, rehabilitation of disturbed areas, resource management and plan implementation

  12. Final guidelines for an Environmental Impact Statement on the proposed construction and operation of a replacement nuclear research reactor at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    These guidelines are based on the requirements of paragraphs 4.1 and 4.3 of the Administrative Procedures under the Commonwealth Environment Protection (Impact of Proposals) Act 1974 (EPIP Act).The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has been designated as proponent under the EPIP Act in relation to the proposed replacement nuclear research reactor at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC). The term 'environment' refers to all aspects of the surroundings of human beings, whether affecting human beings as individuals or in social groupings. It includes the natural environment, the built environment, and social aspects of our surroundings. The definition covers such factors as air, water, soils, flora,fauna, buildings, roads, employment, hazards and risks, and safety. As set out in the guidelines, the scope of this assessment shall encompass those issues and alternatives directly related to the construction and operation of a replacement nuclear research reactor at the LHSTC. The EIS will need to make clear the site selection criteria used, and the basis, in assessing Lucas Heights as being suitable for a new reactor. While the EIS will address all aspects of the construction and operation of a replacement nuclear research reactor, it will not address issues associated with the treatment of spent nuclear fuel rods from the existing High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR facility). The EIS will also address issues associated with the eventual decommissioning of the proposed replacement reactor, and eventual decommissioning of the existing HIFAR facility

  13. Proposed replacement nuclear research reactor, Lucas Heights, NSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-12

    all radioactive waste from Lucas Heights for disposal or storage at a National Repository must be a high priority and is dependent on the timely provision of the Repository and Store. The Committee also recommends that provision of the reactor, at an estimated cost of $286.4 million (at 1997 prices) should not be at the expense of other Government science funding. It is also stressed out that there is an urgent need for an agreement on the Community Right to Know Charter. Steps toward its development identified in the Environment Assessment Report should be undertaken as soon as possible to enable the public to be better informed about the further development of the project.

  14. Proposed replacement nuclear research reactor, Lucas Heights, NSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    all radioactive waste from Lucas Heights for disposal or storage at a National Repository must be a high priority and is dependent on the timely provision of the Repository and Store. The Committee also recommends that provision of the reactor, at an estimated cost of $286.4 million (at 1997 prices) should not be at the expense of other Government science funding. It is also stressed out that there is an urgent need for an agreement on the Community Right to Know Charter. Steps toward its development identified in the Environment Assessment Report should be undertaken as soon as possible to enable the public to be better informed about the further development of the project

  15. An epidemiological study of cancer incidence and mortality among nuclear industry workers at Lucas Heights Science and Technology centre in collaboration with IARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, R.R.; Kaldor, J.

    1999-01-01

    An epidemiological study is being undertaken at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) where the only nuclear reactor in Australia has been in operation since 1958. The study is part of an international collaborative study coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and has dual objectives, first to assess whether workers at LHSTC have had different levels of mortality or cancer incidence from the New South Wales and the Australian populations, and second, as part of the IARC study, to estimate as precisely as possible, through collaboration with IARC, the risk of contracting cancer from low-level, long-term exposure to ionising radiation. The research project is a retrospective cohort study based on records of employment and exposure to radiation kept at LHSTC since 1957. Electronic linkage of all the available dosimetry and employment information with national registers of cancer incidence and mortality is being undertaken for the cohort of LHSTC workers, to allow for a passive follow-up of more than 7000 workers employed from 1957 onwards

  16. An updated analysis of the Lucas Heights climatology 1991-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.H.

    2003-12-01

    Meteorological data collected from 1991 to 2003 in the Lucas Heights region have been summarised to provide an update on the climatology. This report represents analysis of data collected at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre since 1991 when an advanced digital recording system was installed. The small network of meteorological stations installed in the surrounding region since 1993 has allowed an investigation of the influence of complex terrain on wind flow and atmospheric dispersion patterns. For a period between 1999 and 2001 a Bureau of Meteorology disdrometer was installed at Lucas Heights to investigate raindrop size distributions. A large number of statistical summaries for all meteorological data are presented in in two appendices at the end of the report as a resource for reference purposes

  17. Future directions of the AMS program at Lucas Heights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuniz, C. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    The research program based on the ANTARES AMS spectrometer involves applications of the long-lived radionuclides {sup 14}C, {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 129}I in earth sciences and archaeology. Examples of environmental applications of AMS at Lucas Heights include: use of the {sup 14}C bomb pulse to determine the age and age-spread of air trapped in Antarctic ice bubbles, key parameters to study the variability of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases in the past; analyses of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse curves in tree rings from tropical regions and the southern hemisphere to improve our understanding of the carbon cycle and air-sea interactions, important processes for the global climate; analyses of {sup 10}Be and {sup 36}Cl produced in-situ in polished glacial bedrock and moraine boulders from Tasmania, New Zealand and Antarctica, as part of a major national project to unravel the timing of glacial cycles in the southern hemisphere. A recent archaeological application has been the radiocarbon dating of charcoal fragments from the rock shelter at Jinmium in the Northern Territory demonstrating that this site was occupied by Aboriginal people only during the late Holocene. In environmental monitoring, the analysis of {sup 129}I, {sup 14}C and {sup 36}Cl in water specimens from Mururoa and Fangatauga contributed to an IAEA study regarding residual radioactivity in the Pacific after the French nuclear program Extended abstract. 5 refs.

  18. Future directions of the AMS program at Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuniz, C.

    1998-01-01

    The research program based on the ANTARES AMS spectrometer involves applications of the long-lived radionuclides 14 C, 10 Be, 26 Al, 36 Cl and 129 I in earth sciences and archaeology. Examples of environmental applications of AMS at Lucas Heights include: use of the 14 C bomb pulse to determine the age and age-spread of air trapped in Antarctic ice bubbles, key parameters to study the variability of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases in the past; analyses of 14 C bomb-pulse curves in tree rings from tropical regions and the southern hemisphere to improve our understanding of the carbon cycle and air-sea interactions, important processes for the global climate; analyses of 10 Be and 36 Cl produced in-situ in polished glacial bedrock and moraine boulders from Tasmania, New Zealand and Antarctica, as part of a major national project to unravel the timing of glacial cycles in the southern hemisphere. A recent archaeological application has been the radiocarbon dating of charcoal fragments from the rock shelter at Jinmium in the Northern Territory demonstrating that this site was occupied by Aboriginal people only during the late Holocene. In environmental monitoring, the analysis of 129 I, 14 C and 36 Cl in water specimens from Mururoa and Fangatauga contributed to an IAEA study regarding residual radioactivity in the Pacific after the French nuclear program

  19. Welfare and evacuation sub-plan: APTCARE - Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This Sub-plan has been prepared as a contingency plan to the APTCARE document - A plan to cope with an accident at the Australian Atomic Energy Commission's Research Establishment at Lucas Heights. It details procedures to be followed for the evacuation and welfare of citizens residing in areas outside the Commission's establishment in the event that their health or safety is threatened by reason of an accident at the nuclear reactor facility which could have off-site implications. Additionally, it lists roles and tasking assignments of various counter-disaster response and support agencies in such an occurrence

  20. Environmental survey at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.L.; Arthur, J.

    1990-09-01

    Results are presented of an environmental survey conducted in the neighbourhood of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories during 1989. No radioactivity which could have originated from these laboratories was found in samples collected from possible human food chains. All low-level liquid and gaseous waste discharges were within authorised limits. The maximum possible annual dose to the general public from airborne waste during this period is estimated to be less than 0.01 millisieverts, which is one per cent of the limit for long-term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council. 9 refs., 17 tabs., 2 figs

  1. Environmental survey at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.L.

    1991-10-01

    Results are presented of an environmental survey conducted in the neighbourhood of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories during 1990. No radioactivity which could have originated from these laboratories was found in samples collected from possible human food chains. All low-level liquid and gaseous waste discharges were within authorised limits. The maximum possible annual dose to the general public from airborne waste during this period is estimated to be less than 0.01 millisieverts, which is one per cent of the limit for long-term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council. 11 refs., 16 tabs., 2 figs

  2. Environmental survey at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giles, M.S.; Foy, J.J.; Hoffmann, E.L.

    1989-12-01

    Results are presented of an environmental survey conducted in the neighbourhood of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories during 1987. No radioactivity which could have originated from these laboratories was found in samples collected from possible human food chains. All low-level liquid and gaseous waste discharges were within authorized limits. The maximum possible annual dose to the general public from airborne waste during this period is estimated to be less than 0.01 millisieverts, which is one per cent of the limit for long-term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council. 9 refs., 18 tabs., 2 figs

  3. Environmental survey at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giles, M.S.; Dudaitis, A.

    1986-12-01

    Results are presented of the environmental survey conducted in the neighbourhood of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories during 1984. These results are satisfactory. No radioactivity which could have originated from these laboratories was found in samples collected from possible human food chains. All low-level liquid and gaseous waste discharges were within authorised limits. The maximum possible annual dose to the general public from airborne waste discharges during this period is estimated to be less than 0.01 millisieverts, which is one per cent of the limit for long-term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council

  4. Environmental survey at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giles, M.S.; Dudaitis, A.

    1985-12-01

    Results are presented of the environmental survey conducted in the neighbourhood of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories during 1983. These results are satisfactory. No radioactivity which could have originated from these laboratories was found in samples collected from possible human food chains. All low-level liquid and gaseous waste discharges were within authorised limits. The maximum possible annual dose to the general public from airborne waste discharges during this period is estimated to be less than 0.01 millisieverts, which is 1 per cent of the limit for long-term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council

  5. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Camilleri, A.; Loosz, T.; Farrar, Y.

    1995-12-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories (LHRL) during 1994. All low level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges during this period, were estimated to be less than 0.015 mSv/year for receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around HIFAR. This value represents 1.5 % of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council, and 5 % of the site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year adopted by ANSTO. 27 refs., 22 tabs., 6 figs

  6. Environmental survey at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Looz, T.

    1995-04-01

    Results are presented of the environmental survey conducted in the neighbourhood of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories during 1993. No activity which could have originated from these laboratories was found in samples collected from possible human food chains. All low-level liquid and gaseous waste discharges were within authorised limits. The maximum possible annual dose to the general public from airborne discharges during this period is estimated to be less than 0.01 mSv, which is one per cent of the dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council. A list of previous environmental survey reports is attached. 22 refs., 21 tabs., 4 figs

  7. PIXAN: the Lucas Heights PIXE analysis computer package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.

    1986-11-01

    To fully utilise the multielement capability and short measurement time of PIXE it is desirable to have an automated computer evaluation of the measured spectra. Because of the complex nature of PIXE spectra, a critical step in the analysis is the data reduction, in which the areas of characteristic peaks in the spectrum are evaluated. In this package the computer program BATTY is presented for such an analysis. The second step is to determine element concentrations, knowing the characteristic peak areas in the spectrum. This requires a knowledge of the expected X-ray yield for that element in the sample. The computer program THICK provides that information for both thick and thin PIXE samples. Together, these programs form the package PIXAN used at Lucas Heights for PIXE analysis

  8. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E L; Camilleri, A; Loosz, T; Farrar, Y

    1995-12-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories (LHRL) during 1994. All low level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges during this period, were estimated to be less than 0.015 mSv/year for receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around HIFAR. This value represents 1.5 % of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council, and 5 % of the site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year adopted by ANSTO. 27 refs., 22 tabs., 6 figs.

  9. Environmental survey at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.L.; Loosz, T.

    1994-07-01

    This report summarises the results from the environmental survey during 1992 and assesses the effects of radioactive discharges on both local population and the environment. None of the samples taken from possible human food chains in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories contained radioactivity which could be attributed to the operation of the site. The data presented din this report clearly shows that the environmental impact of operations at LHRL has been very low. The effective dose to residents living in the immediate neighbourhood of the reactor are very difficult to measure directly but calculated dose estimates are far lower than those due to natural background radiation and medical exposures. Discharges of airborne radioactive gases were within authorised limits when averaged over the year. The dose to the most sensitive members of the public from iodine-131 releases, was -2 mSv/year and the calculated dose from released noble gases to the most exposed individuals was less than 0.01 mSv/year. These figures represent less than one per cent of the limits recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia. The monthly average liquid effluent discharge to the Water Board Sewer during 1992 was less than 30 per cent of the permitted level for all periods except May which rose to 62 per cent. For tritium, the concentration was less than 2 per cent of the specified limit. 23 refs., 19 tabs., 5 tabs

  10. Environmental survey at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Looz, T.

    1994-05-01

    In common with many other nuclear facilities, ANSTO undertakes an extensive program of meteorological measurements. The prime reason for such a program is to allow estimates to be made of the downwind concentration of any airborne pollutants, particularly radionuclides, released from the site through routine operations or under accident conditions. The data collection from this program provide the necessary input to the atmospheric dispersion model called ADDCOR (ANSTO 1989) which can be used to compute the effective dose to an individual due to the routine airborne or accidental release of radionuclides from the LHRL. None of the samples taken from possible human food chains in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories contained radioactivity which could be attributed to the operation of the site. Discharges of airborne radioactive gases were within authorised limits when averaged over the year. The dose to the most sensitive members of the public from iodine-131 release, was -3 mSv/year and the calculated dose from released noble gases to the most exposed individuals was less than 0.01 mSv/year. These figures represent less than one per cent of the most restrictive limits recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia. The annual average liquid effluent discharge to the Water Board Sewer during 1991 was less than 29 per cent of the permitted level. For tritium, the concentration was less than 2 per cent of the specified limit. The data presented in this report clearly shows that the environmental impact of operations at LHRL has been very low. The effective dose to residents living in the immediate neighbourhood of the reactor are very difficult to measure directly but calculated dose estimates are far lower than those due to natural background radiation and medical exposures. 24 refs., 19 tabs., 4 figs

  11. Data volume of atmospheric tracer studies at Lucas Heights, NSW, Australia -1996-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.H.; Stone, D.J.M.; Pascoe, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    A perfluorocarbon atmospheric tracer system has been used to investigate atmospheric dispersion processes in the region surrounding the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre. Tracers have been released from two locations: a laboratory vent near the ridge of the Woronora river valley and from the HIFAR research reactor ventilation system. Most studies have been conducted during the early to late morning periods when valley influences might be expected on dispersion of the tracer plume. This report summarises the meteorological and tracer air concentration data and makes comparisons with estimates from a simple gaussian dispersion model. It is intended that the data will also be used for evaluation of more elaborate wind field and atmospheric models

  12. An updated analysis of the Lucas Heights Climatology - 1975 to 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.H

    1997-06-01

    Meteorological data collected from 1975 to 1996 in the Lucas Heights region have been summarised to provide an update on the climatology. Initially data were recorded in analogue form but since 1991 advanced digital recording systems have allowed more accurate and extensive statistics to be analysed. Since 1993 a network of meteorological stations has been installed through the surrounding area to investigate the influence of complex terrain on wind flow and atmospheric dispersion patterns. A large data volumes is presented together with some initial interpretation of these complex terrain influences on the Lucas Heights region climatolology. 33 refs., 25 tabs., 45 figs.

  13. Description of and operating instructions for the Lucas Heights Gamma Technology Research Irradiator (GATRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izard, M.E.

    1985-12-01

    This manual describes the gamma technology research irradiator (GATRI) located at Lucas Heights and the procedures necessary for its operation and maintenance. It supersedes a previous operating manual (AAEC/M88) as a result of the introduction of AAEC type 560 safety and control equipment into GATRI

  14. Australian Atomic Energy Commission: A new energy research establishment at Lucas Heights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyal, A [Sydney Univ. (Australia). Dept. of Government and Public Administration

    1980-02-01

    A review of the role of the Atomic Energy Commission has recommended that the Lucas Heights establishment should engage in research on energy sources in general, rather than nuclear only as at present, and that certain of its present functions (regulatory and manufacturing) should be handled by other organisations.

  15. Environmental survey at the AAEC Research Establishment, Lucas Heights - results for 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giles, M.S.; Dudaitis, A.

    1980-09-01

    This report presents the results of the environmental survey at the AAEC Research Establishment, Lucas Heights, during 1979. They show that the only radioactivity detected which could be of AAECRE origin and which could also be ingested by humans was due to tritium. The maximum credible dose which a member of the public could receive from this radioactivity is calculated to be one ten thousandth of the derived working limit consistent with the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  16. Recent applications of neutron activation analysis at Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardy, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    The use of neutron activation analysis to determine key elemental distribution patterns in samples from both the energy industry and health science field is summarised. Instrumental neutron activation analysis has successfully measured simultaneously more than twenty elements in a sample of brown coal from Victoria, black coal from New South Wales and samples from the product stream of ACIRL's batch autoclave, solvent-refined, coal hydrogenation process. Four gallstones removed from the same gallbladder have been examined instrumentally by neutron activation analysis. A total of sixteen trace elements were detected with concentrations in the range 0.8 ng g -1 for gold to 7,800 μg g -1 for calcium

  17. Australia's nuclear reactor: how safe is the old lady of Lucas Heights?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darroch, R.

    1990-01-01

    Safety procedures at the Lucas Heights reactor are discussed based on concerns voiced by a group of senior engineers working at the site. An account is also given of the responses to this claims of the authorities, the courts as well as some of the safety considerations outlined in a recent review of HIFAR management, recently completed by a team of nuclear experts from the Atomic Energy of Canada. It is argued that sufficient doubts have been raised to warrant an independent inquiry on the safety and future of the aging reactor. ills

  18. Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis at Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, D.; Duerden, P.

    1979-02-01

    The state of the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) work at Lucas Heights is reported together with a full description of the experimental arrangement and its use for analysis of trace elements (Z >or= 14). The fundamentals of PIXE are examined in detail with a view to understanding not only the background continuum but also the X-ray production mechanisms. Quantitative predictions for the number of X-rays detected after proton bombardment of the target have been made and these compare well with experiments

  19. Recent applications of neutron activation analysis in geoscience at Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardy, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    In spite of developments in instrumental techniques of analysis over the last decade, neutron activation analysis has maintained its importance as a multielemental technique for analysing a wide range of geological materials. Some of its applications in geoscience at Lucas Heights over the last two years are discussed. These include hydrogeochemical and geological prospecting for gold in geothermal and bore water systems and ores, rare earth characterisation of shoshonitic lavas, altered basalts and dacites, and trace element studies of Australian oil shales and coals

  20. Review of the ANSTO submission on the site geological investigations for the RRR at Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) and ANSTO's Consolidated Seismic Report were reviewed by ARPANSA's Regulatory Branch, and by an IAEA consultant to ARPANSA. It included a recommendation by the IAEA Peer Review Team (June 2001) that an additional study be undertaken for the Lucas Heights site in accordance with IAEA Safety Guide 50-SG-S1. In particular this related to regional and local investigations to determine whether there exists a potential for surface faulting at the site area, to formulate the investigations that should be used to determine whether or not any faults in the area should be considered capable. The CEO of ARPANSA requested ANSTO to undertake such a task. The reviews that have been undertaken by experts from Geoscience Australia and the IAEA expert contracted by ARPANSA give confidence that the seismic design of the reactor structures, systems, and components important for safety should not be affected by the fault through the excavations for the foundations of the reactor building. The basis is the conclusions reached by these experts that the fault discovered is very old and not capable under either the USNRC Criteria or the IAEA Criteria. It is not now active, has not been active in the geologically recent past and is unlikely to re-activate within the foreseeable lifespan of the proposed facility. Consequently, this pre-existing fault presents no greater risk than the surrounding unfaulted material. Thus, the replacement reactor need not be designed for such displacement. The existence of this 'incapable' fault does not impact on the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment from which the seismic design basis for the reactor was derived. Therefore, the existing design response spectrum accepted in the Regulatory Assessment Report as the basis for seismic design of structures, systems and components, and approved in the Construction Licence, has not changed and remains adequately conservative with regard to vibratory motion at the site

  1. Transport of HIFAR spent fuel from Lucas Heights Research Establishment to the United Kingdom for reprocessing. Public Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-27

    The normal operations of HIFAR produce thirty-eight spent fuel elements annually. Since 1958, when operations began, 1,660 spent fuel elements have been accumulated and are stored in ANSTO`s engineered interim storage facilities at Lucas Heights. In the light of the limited size of these storage facilities and following the Research Reactor Review (1993) and an Inter-Agency Review, the Commonwealth Government announced its decision to reduce the number of spent fuel elements stored at the site. Therefore, ANSTO has been authorised to negotiate the terms for shipment of spent fuel elements of United Kingdom (UK) origin to the Dounreay reprocessing plant in Scotland. This Public Environment Report, prepared under the Environment Protection (Impact of Proposals) Act 1974, describes the potential impacts and risks of a proposed initial shipment of 120 spent fuel elements to the Dounreay reprocessing plant. It describes the intended packaging and transport procedures and considers possible alternative methods of dealing with the continued production of spent fuel rods and the limited storage capacity at LHRL. The exhaustive analysis of every phase of operations involved in the shipping of a cask of spent HIFAR fuel elements from Lucas Heights to Dounreay, for reprocessing, has shown that there are no significant environmental or public health impacts from such a shipment conducted in accordance with standard, internationally established procedures. 18 refs., 12 tabs., 2 figs.

  2. Transport of HIFAR spent fuel from Lucas Heights Research Establishment to the United Kingdom for reprocessing. Public Environmental Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The normal operations of HIFAR produce thirty-eight spent fuel elements annually. Since 1958, when operations began, 1,660 spent fuel elements have been accumulated and are stored in ANSTO's engineered interim storage facilities at Lucas Heights. In the light of the limited size of these storage facilities and following the Research Reactor Review (1993) and an Inter-Agency Review, the Commonwealth Government announced its decision to reduce the number of spent fuel elements stored at the site. Therefore, ANSTO has been authorised to negotiate the terms for shipment of spent fuel elements of United Kingdom (UK) origin to the Dounreay reprocessing plant in Scotland. This Public Environment Report, prepared under the Environment Protection (Impact of Proposals) Act 1974, describes the potential impacts and risks of a proposed initial shipment of 120 spent fuel elements to the Dounreay reprocessing plant. It describes the intended packaging and transport procedures and considers possible alternative methods of dealing with the continued production of spent fuel rods and the limited storage capacity at LHRL. The exhaustive analysis of every phase of operations involved in the shipping of a cask of spent HIFAR fuel elements from Lucas Heights to Dounreay, for reprocessing, has shown that there are no significant environmental or public health impacts from such a shipment conducted in accordance with standard, internationally established procedures. 18 refs., 12 tabs., 2 figs

  3. Fourth Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis: AINSE, Lucas Heights, N.S.W. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    Conference sessions covered the areas of materials science, semiconductors, ceramics and metals, archaeometry, industrial applications, environmental applications, bioscience, instrumentation, surfaces and geoscience

  4. A new research reactor? Report by the Select Committee for an inquiry into the contract for a new reactor at Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    On 15 August 2000, the Senate resolved to establish the Select Committee for an Inquiry into the Contract for a New Reactor at Lucas Heights and report to the Parliament. The Select committee majority report is divided into three parts: the need for a new reactor; the tendering process and the nature of the contract; and Australia's nuclear waste management strategy and public health and safety. There is a final chapter which brings together the major issues examined in the report. Based on the evidence presented to it, the Committee notes that some Australian scientists and engineers present a strong case for the new reactor. While the Committee is of the view that nuclear science and technology is not backward looking and does offer opportunities for researchers to keep at the forefront of important areas in scientific research and development it does not automatically follow that the best way to promote scientific and medical research in this country is by spending substantial amounts of public funds for the next forty years on a single research reactor. Nevertheless, the Committee recommends that before the Government proceeds any further with the proposed reactor, it undertake a thorough and comprehensive public review of funding for medical and scientific research in Australia with a view to assessing priorities including the role, if any, a research reactor would have in contributing to Australia's scientific, medical and industrial interests. The Committee also requested that the Australian National Audit Office consider examining the tender and contract documents for the new reactor at Lucas Heights with a view to determining: whether further investigation of the tendering process and the contract is warranted; whether, during the tendering process, ANSTO ensured that there was adequate and appropriate independent verification and validation of the tenderers claims. Two supplementary report are included: one from the Liberal and National members (minority

  5. Report of the Committee of inquiry into a fire which occurred on 18 March 1987 in a radioisotope processing cell, Building 54 at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    At about 1745 hours on Wednesday, 18 March 1987 a fire occurred in a small charcoal filter inside a processing cell (hot cell) in Building 54 at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories (LHRL). This cell was being used to process irradiated uranium to separate the radioactive isotope molybdenum-99. Some radioactive contamination escaped from the hot cell into the operating area and three AAEC officers were found to have minor radioactive contamination on their skin/hair. The majority of the radioactive material released from the fire was trapped by the main filters outside the cell. The total amounts of radioactive noble gas and of radioiodine released to the environment during the week in which the fire occurred were within the normal range of discharge and were 53% and 2.1%, respectively, of the weekly limit authorised by the NSW Department of Health. On the evidence available to it, the Committee concludes that the fire was caused by spontaneous combustion in the charcoal filter used to trap radioactive gases released by the operations in the hot cell; the mechanism causing the fire cannot be clearly established at this stage; no member of AAEC staff, NSW emergency services personnel or the general public suffered, or will suffer, any adverse health effects from radioactivity as a result of the accident

  6. Radiopharmaceutical production at Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druce, M.

    1987-01-01

    The difficult problems of operating and maintaining complex equipment, meeting despatch deadlines, ensuring product quality, production scheduling and controlling staff are discussed in relation to Australia's national radioisotope production plant

  7. European Space Science Scales New Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Satellites, comprising nine tonnes of hardware and sixty experiments, will be placed in orbit with a view to giving scientists a new perspective on the Sun, the Earth's magnetic environment and the universe in general. ISO, the Infrared Space Observatory, will allow astronomers to study all types of objects in the so1al. system - from nearby planets to the farthermost galaxies - with unparalleled sensitivity through the invisible, cold light of infrared radiation. Soho, the solar observatory, will be the fist satellite to continuously observe the Sun in detail, and will do so for at least two yews. The quartet of identical Cluster satellites will probe the Earth's magnetosphere in order to study the storms that can occur there which disrupt radio communications or electrical power supplies on Earth. As Roger Bonnet, Director of the European Space Agency's science programme, points out: "For the programme, this year marks the culmination often years of endeavour now drawing to a close. This shows that Europe is now taking the lead in in situ exploration of the universe". On 23 May ISO successfully completed final testing which validated the satellite's technical performance. It is currently on its way to Guiana onboard the Ariana. It will be launched from the Space Centre at Kourou by an Ariane 44P launcher in late October. On 14 June Soho will undergo similar checkouts which should give it a clean bill of health for dispatch to the Kennedy Space Center (Florida). It is scheduled for a launch on 30 October by NASA's Atlas rocket. Authorisation to dispatch the Cluster quartet to Kourou should be given in late June with a view to a launch at the end of the year on a flagship launcher: the first Ariane-5, which is set to become the most competitive launcher on the world market, Another milestone in space exploration is in the offing: the journey over the Sun's north pole by ESA's Ulysses probe begins this month and will continue through to September. During this phase

  8. Sea Surface Height, Absolute, Aviso, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviso Absolute Sea Surface Height is the Sea Surface Height Deviation plus the long term mean dynamic height. This is Science Quality data.

  9. Research reactor utilization. Summary reports of three study group meetings: Irradiation techniques at research reactors, held in Istanbul 15-19 November 1965; Research reactor operation and maintenance problems, held in Caracas 6-10 December 1965; and Research reactor utilization in the Far East, held in Lucas Heights 28 February - 4 March 1966

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The three sections of this book, which are summary reports of three Study Group meetings of the IAEA: Irradiation techniques at research reactors, Istanbul, 15-19 November 1965; Research reactor operation and maintenance problems, Caracas, 6-10 December 1965; and Research reactor utilization in the Far East, Lucas Heights, Australia, 28 February - 4 March 1966. These meetings were the latest in a series designed to promote efficient utilization of research reactors, to disseminate information on advances in techniques, to discuss common problems in reactor operations, and to outline some advanced areas of reactor-based research. (author)

  10. Physiology, phylogeny, and LUCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. Martin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Genomes record their own history. But if we want to look all the way back to life’s beginnings some 4 billion years ago, the record of microbial evolution that is preserved in prokaryotic genomes is not easy to read. Microbiology has a lot in common with geology in that regard. Geologists know that plate tectonics and erosion have erased much of the geological record, with ancient rocks being truly rare. The same is true of microbes. Lateral gene transfer (LGT and sequence divergence have erased much of the evolutionary record that was once written in genomes, and it is not obvious which genes among sequenced genomes are genuinely ancient. Which genes trace to the last universal ancestor, LUCA? The classical approach has been to look for genes that are universally distributed. Another approach is to make all trees for all genes, and sift out the trees where signals have been overwritten by LGT. What is left ought to be ancient. If we do that, what do we find?

  11. On primes in Lucas sequences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížek, Michal; Somer, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2015), s. 2-23 ISSN 0015-0517 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Lucas sequence * primes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.fq.math.ca/Abstracts/53-1/somer.pdf

  12. Sea Surface Height Deviation, Aviso, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviso Sea Surface Height Deviation is the deviation from the mean geoid as measured from 1993 - 1995. This is Science Quality data.

  13. Proposed replacement nuclear research reactor at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, NSW. Statement of evidence to the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    This submission demonstrates the manner in which the replacement research reactor project is to be undertaken in accordance with all relevant Commonwealth requirements and standards. Successive submissions to Government have shown that the construction and operation of the replacement reactor will result in a range of significant benefits to Australia in the areas of health care, the national interest, scientific achievement and in industrial applications. ANSTO is confident that the construction and operation of the replacement research reactor will: meet the identified needs for an ongoing neutron source for Australia into the next century in a cost-effective manner; be effectively managed to ensure that the project is delivered to the agreed schedule and budget; involve an effective community consultation process with ongoing community consultation a feature of ANSTO`s approach; will have negligible environmental and public health implications taking account of the environmental management measures and commitments made by ANSTO in the Environmental Impact Statement and the stringent licensing arrangement by ARPANSA 24 refs., 8 tabs., 5 figs.

  14. Proposed replacement nuclear research reactor at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, NSW. Statement of evidence to the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    This submission demonstrates the manner in which the replacement research reactor project is to be undertaken in accordance with all relevant Commonwealth requirements and standards. Successive submissions to Government have shown that the construction and operation of the replacement reactor will result in a range of significant benefits to Australia in the areas of health care, the national interest, scientific achievement and in industrial applications. ANSTO is confident that the construction and operation of the replacement research reactor will: meet the identified needs for an ongoing neutron source for Australia into the next century in a cost-effective manner; be effectively managed to ensure that the project is delivered to the agreed schedule and budget; involve an effective community consultation process with ongoing community consultation a feature of ANSTO's approach; will have negligible environmental and public health implications taking account of the environmental management measures and commitments made by ANSTO in the Environmental Impact Statement and the stringent licensing arrangement by ARPANSA

  15. Repdigits in k-Lucas sequences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    57(2) 2000 243-254) proved that 11 is the largest number with only one distinct digit (the so-called repdigit) in the sequence ( L n ( 2 ) ) n . In this paper, we address a similar problem in the family of -Lucas sequences. We also show that the -Lucas sequences have similar properties to those of -Fibonacci sequences ...

  16. Luca Cambiaso: nuevos datos sobre sus herederos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cano de Gardoqui García, José Luis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Payment documents in favor of Orazio Cambiaso, son the painter Luca Cambiaso, active in El Escorial between 1583 and 1585, demonstrate that Lauretta, daughter of Luca, renounced money owed to her father for the execution of paintings and arrears from his pay that she was entitled to as his heir.Documentos de pago a favor de Orazio Cambiaso, hijo del pintor Luca Cambiaso, activo en El Escorial entre 1583 y 1585, prueban la renuncia de Laureta, hija de Luca, al dinero procedente de atrasos por ejecución de pinturas y nóminas del Maestro, que ésta habría de cobrar en calidad de su heredera.

  17. 3rd AINSE neutron scattering conference, Lucas Heights -AINSE Theatre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts of papers, the conference program and general information is included in the conference handbook. The program is divided into the following sessions: hydrogeneous and biological materials, industrial applications, phase transitions, magnetism, small angle neutron scattering and new developments

  18. On generalized Fibonacci and Lucas polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalli, Ayse [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, Selcuk University, 42075 Campus-Konya (Turkey)], E-mail: aysenalli@yahoo.com; Haukkanen, Pentti [Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Philosophy, 33014 University of Tampere (Finland)], E-mail: mapehau@uta.fi

    2009-12-15

    Let h(x) be a polynomial with real coefficients. We introduce h(x)-Fibonacci polynomials that generalize both Catalan's Fibonacci polynomials and Byrd's Fibonacci polynomials and also the k-Fibonacci numbers, and we provide properties for these h(x)-Fibonacci polynomials. We also introduce h(x)-Lucas polynomials that generalize the Lucas polynomials and present properties of these polynomials. In the last section we introduce the matrix Q{sub h}(x) that generalizes the Q-matrix whose powers generate the Fibonacci numbers.

  19. Multiple-Objective Stepwise Calibration Using Luca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Lauren E.; Umemoto, Makiko

    2007-01-01

    This report documents Luca (Let us calibrate), a multiple-objective, stepwise, automated procedure for hydrologic model calibration and the associated graphical user interface (GUI). Luca is a wizard-style user-friendly GUI that provides an easy systematic way of building and executing a calibration procedure. The calibration procedure uses the Shuffled Complex Evolution global search algorithm to calibrate any model compiled with the U.S. Geological Survey's Modular Modeling System. This process assures that intermediate and final states of the model are simulated consistently with measured values.

  20. Power sums of fibonacci and Lucas numbers | Chu | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucas numbers are established, which include, as special cases, four for-mulae for odd power sums of Melham type on Fibonacci and Lucas numbers, obtained recently by Ozeki and Prodinger (2009). Quaestiones Mathematicae 34(2011), 75- ...

  1. Jürjens vs. Lucas / Gert Kiiler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiiler, Gert

    2009-01-01

    Neljandast Indiana Jones'i filmist "Indiana Jones ja kristallpealuu kuningriik" ("Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull"), režissöör Georg Lucas. Viljandist pärit Hollywoodis filme tegeva Priit Jürjensi (Brad Jurjensi) märulifilmist "Palgamõrtsukas" ("Hired Gun")

  2. Erri de Luca: non ora, non qui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariarosaria Fabris

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The essential theme of Erri de Luca´s first novel is the conquest of word as a mean of communication with other people and, mainly, as a mean to make memory revive and to express one´s own feelings.

  3. Chamber of Commerce reception for Dr. Lucas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Dr. William R. Lucas, Marshall's fourth Center Director (1974-1986), delivers a speech in front of a picture of the lunar landscape with Earth looming in the background while attending a Huntsville Chamber of Commerce reception honoring his achievements as Director of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  4. Fibonacci-Lucas SIC-POVMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassl, Markus; Scott, Andrew J.

    2017-12-01

    We present a conjectured family of symmetric informationally complete positive operator valued measures which have an additional symmetry group whose size is growing with the dimension. The symmetry group is related to Fibonacci numbers, while the dimension is related to Lucas numbers. The conjecture is supported by exact solutions for dimensions d = 4, 8, 19, 48, 124, and 323 as well as a numerical solution for dimension d = 844.

  5. Some Finite Sums Involving Generalized Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kılıç

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By considering Melham's sums (Melham, 2004, we compute various more general nonalternating sums, alternating sums, and sums that alternate according to (−12+1 involving the generalized Fibonacci and Lucas numbers.

  6. On the Periods of Biperiodic Fibonacci and Biperiodic Lucas Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursun Tascı

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with periods of Biperiodic Fibonacci and Biperiodic Lucas sequences taken as modulo prime and prime power. By using Fermat’s little theorem, quadratic reciprocity, many results are obtained.

  7. Understanding Robert Lucas (1967-1981: his influence and influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre F.S. Andrada

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes Robert Lucas's contribution to economic theory between 1967 (year of his first solo publication and 1981 (the year before the emergence of Real Business Cycle approach, and it has two parts. The first one, using citation data from three different sources, we try to answer two questions: (i What are Lucas's most influential papers currently? (ii How has this influence changed through time? We show, for instance, that according to two of those three sources, Lucas's most influential paper today is not from his business cycle research agenda, which gave him his Nobel Prize in 1995. Moreover, it is clear the loss of influence of Lucas's macroeconomic theory since the early 1980s. In the second part, by cataloging all the works that Lucas had used as bibliographical references in his papers and separating them in two categories (positive and negative, we try to understand who exerted influence on him. We show that the author that Lucas most cited in a positive context were John Muth, Milton Friedman and Edmund Phelps. The authors more often cited in a negative context were John M. Keynes and A. W. Phillips. We discuss the reasons behind this data.

  8. Dublin and Irish politics in the age of Charles Lucas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J

    2015-09-01

    In addition to his contributions to medicine, Charles Lucas had a long career in politics, starting in the 1740s as a guild representative on the lower house of Dublin corporation, and culminating in his election to the Irish House of Commons in 1761. By examining the background in Dublin and Irish politics, this paper explores Lucas' impact on the electorate, and how it was that he was able to win a parliamentary seat in Dublin and retain it for a decade while he campaigned in support of a range of important Patriot issues. Lucas had none of the qualifications that would normally be required for a successful politician. His father held some land, but as a younger son who had to make a living, Charles was apprenticed to a Dublin apothecary. Nor did he have the political connections that might have compensated for a lack of land, wealth, or status. But Lucas possessed other advantages, notably an education that enabled him to read the city's medieval charters, identifying areas where the Dublin freemen had lost 'ancient rights', and some experience of publishing, so that he could appeal to the electorate. Lucas' remarkable political success stemmed from both local circumstances and his own personal qualities.

  9. Lucas and patriotism in mid-eighteenth century Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magennis, E

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores the extent to which Charles Lucas can be described as a typical patriot in mid-eighteenth century Ireland. The political ideas and practices of Irish patriots of the mid-eighteenth century belong to broad spectrum including opposition MPs, anti-Catholic rhetoricians and questioners of the usefulness of the penal laws, economic pamphleteers and individuals interested in recovering Ireland's history and antiquities. Lucas was significant in that he sometimes inhabited all of these political and cultural guises, but also mobilised the Dublin public in political campaigns and was striking in his voluminous output in newspapers and pamphlets.

  10. Some New Fibonacci and Lucas Identities by Matrix Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Refik; Demirturk, Bahar

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to characterize the 2 x 2 matrices "X" satisfying X[superscript 2] = X + I and obtain some new identities concerning with Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. The recommendations regarding the teaching of the identities given in this article can be presented in two cases. The first is related to the pedagogical aspect. The…

  11. Het Theatre van Lucas d'Heere. Een kostuumhistorisch onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conrads-de Bruin, M.

    2006-01-01

    The poet and painter Lucas d’Heere (1534-1584) is best portrayed by his pupil Karel van Mander. Through his Schilder-Boeck (1604; 'The Book of Painters') we are informed that D’Heere was a portrait painter with a good memory, a designer of patterns for tapestries and collector of antiques. After the

  12. A Combinatorial Proof of a Result on Generalized Lucas Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laugier Alexandre

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We give a combinatorial proof of an elementary property of generalized Lucas polynomials, inspired by [1]. These polynomials in s and t are defined by the recurrence relation 〈n〉 = s〈n-1〉+t〈n-2〉 for n ≥ 2. The initial values are 〈0〉 = 2; 〈1〉= s, respectively.

  13. On Pell, Pell-Lucas, and balancing numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadeniz Gözeri, Gül

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we derive some identities on Pell, Pell-Lucas, and balancing numbers and the relationships between them. We also deduce some formulas on the sums, divisibility properties, perfect squares, Pythagorean triples involving these numbers. Moreover, we obtain the set of positive integer solutions of some specific Pell equations in terms of the integer sequences mentioned in the text.

  14. Using LUCAS topsoil database to estimate soil organic carbon content in local spectral libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldi, Fabio; van Wesemael, Bas; Chabrillat, Sabine; Chartin, Caroline

    2017-04-01

    The quantification of the soil organic carbon (SOC) content over large areas is mandatory to obtain accurate soil characterization and classification, which can improve site specific management at local or regional scale exploiting the strong relationship between SOC and crop growth. The estimation of the SOC is not only important for agricultural purposes: in recent years, the increasing attention towards global warming highlighted the crucial role of the soil in the global carbon cycle. In this context, soil spectroscopy is a well consolidated and widespread method to estimate soil variables exploiting the interaction between chromophores and electromagnetic radiation. The importance of spectroscopy in soil science is reflected by the increasing number of large soil spectral libraries collected in the world. These large libraries contain soil samples derived from a consistent number of pedological regions and thus from different parent material and soil types; this heterogeneity entails, in turn, a large variability in terms of mineralogical and organic composition. In the light of the huge variability of the spectral responses to SOC content and composition, a rigorous classification process is necessary to subset large spectral libraries and to avoid the calibration of global models failing to predict local variation in SOC content. In this regard, this study proposes a method to subset the European LUCAS topsoil database into soil classes using a clustering analysis based on a large number of soil properties. The LUCAS database was chosen to apply a standardized multivariate calibration approach valid for large areas without the need for extensive field and laboratory work for calibration of local models. Seven soil classes were detected by the clustering analyses and the samples belonging to each class were used to calibrate specific partial least square regression (PLSR) models to estimate SOC content of three local libraries collected in Belgium (Loam belt

  15. 13th AINSE radiation chemistry conference, 12-14 November 1986, Lucas Heights - AINSE Theatre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts of papers are given which cover the fields of radiolysis in aqueous solutions, solids and gases, radiation polymerisation and degradation, excitation in solids and gases, and industrial applications of radiation chemistry

  16. On the m-extension of the Fibonacci and Lucas p-numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocer, E. Gokcen; Tuglu, Naim; Stakhov, Alexey

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we define the m-extension of the Fibonacci and Lucas p-numbers (p ≥ 0 is integer and m > 0 is real number) from which, specifying p and m, classic Fibonacci and Lucas numbers (p = 1, m = 1), Pell and Pell-Lucas numbers (p = 1, m = 2), Fibonacci and Lucas p-numbers (m = 1), Fibonacci m-numbers (p = 1), Pell and Pell-Lucas p-numbers (m = 2) are obtained. Afterwards, we obtain the continuous functions for the m-extension of the Fibonacci and Lucas p-numbers using the generalized Binet formulas. Also we introduce in the article a new class of mathematical constants - the Golden (p, m)-Proportions, which are a wide generalization of the classical golden mean, the golden p-proportions and the golden m-proportions. The article is of fundamental interest for theoretical physics where Fibonacci numbers and the golden mean are used widely.

  17. Repeatability of Lucas chamber measurements; Powtarzalnosc pomiarow za pomoca komory Lucasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaj, B.

    1997-12-31

    Results of investigations concerning the repeatability of the measurements carried out with Lucas chamber are presented in the report. The Lucas chamber is used for determination of radon concentration in air, and the Lucas chamber itself is measured in a laboratory stand. The repeatability of measurements is {+-}5.4% relative. The error due to instability of measuring channel gain is estimated to be 2-3% relative. (author). 5 refs, 17 figs, 5 tabs.

  18. Combinatorial interpretations of binomial coefficient analogues related to Lucas sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Sagan, Bruce; Savage, Carla

    2009-01-01

    Let s and t be variables. Define polynomials {n} in s, t by {0}=0, {1}=1, and {n}=s{n-1}+t{n-2} for n >= 2. If s, t are integers then the corresponding sequence of integers is called a Lucas sequence. Define an analogue of the binomial coefficients by C{n,k}={n}!/({k}!{n-k}!) where {n}!={1}{2}...{n}. It is easy to see that C{n,k} is a polynomial in s and t. The purpose of this note is to give two combinatorial interpretations for this polynomial in terms of statistics on integer partitions in...

  19. The Innovative Design of Lucas Cell for Radon Gas Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanabongse, Paitoon; Rattanabussayaporn, Sakon; Sriya, Maitree; Sola, Banthom

    2007-08-01

    Full text: Lucas scintillation cell has been widely used for radon gas measurement. They are commercially available but usually with a rather high price, therefore, four cells were developed and built in house. The invented radon gas detector has a special feature; the circumference of the upper part of the cylindrical detector is larger than the lower part. The purpose of this is to allow the light sensing device coupled at the lower end can better detect the phosphorescence light occurred inside. The result is that the invented detector yields higher detection efficiency. This special feature also allows us to increase the volume of the detector which results in higher detection sensitivity

  20. Measurement of radon concentration in air employing Lucas chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaj, B.

    1997-01-01

    The results of investigations aimed to determine the main features of radon concentration gauge in air, employing 0.17 L Lucas chamber, and air sample forced by an air pump are presented. For two hour sampling and measuring cycle time the dynamic error in the worst case (first read out) equals 5 % relative to the step jump of radon concentration. This is due to the increase of activity of the decay products in the chamber. It was observed that the short lived radon decay products (Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214) are depositing on the walls of the chamber and they are not removed by flushing the chamber with air. (author)

  1. Pell and Pell–Lucas numbers with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Koshy, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Pell and Pell–Lucas Numbers has been carefully crafted as an undergraduate/graduate textbook; the level of which depends on the college/university and the instructor’s preference. The exposition moves from the basics to more advanced topics in a systematic rigorous fashion, motivating  the reader with numerous examples, figures, and exercises. Only a strong foundation in precalculus, plus a good background in matrices, determinants, congruences, and combinatorics is required. The text may be used in a variety of number theory courses, as well as in seminars, workshops, and other capstone experiences for teachers in-training and instructors at all levels.   A number of  key features  on the Pell family surrounds the historical flavor that is interwoven into an extensive, in-depth coverage of this unique text on the subject. Pell and Pell-Lucas numbers, like the well-known Fibonacci and Catalan numbers, continue to intrigue the mathematical community with their beauty and applicability. Beyond  the cla...

  2. The Bivariate (Complex) Fibonacci and Lucas Polynomials: An Historical Investigation with the Maple's Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Francisco Regis Vieira; Catarino, Paula Maria Machado Cruz

    2016-01-01

    The current research around the Fibonacci's and Lucas' sequence evidences the scientific vigor of both mathematical models that continue to inspire and provide numerous specializations and generalizations, especially from the sixties. One of the current of research and investigations around the Generalized Sequence of Lucas, involves it's…

  3. 75 FR 9441 - Lucas-Smith Automotive, Inc.: Potosi, MO; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-71,388] Lucas-Smith Automotive, Inc.: Potosi, MO; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By...), applicable to workers and former workers of Lucas- Smith Automotive, Inc., Potosi, Missouri (subject firm...

  4. Wuthering Heights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronte, Emily

    2005-01-01

    Wuthering Heights tells the story of a romance between two youngsters: Catherine Earnshaw and an orphan boy, Heathcliff. After she rejects him for a boy from a better background he develops a lust for revenge that takes over his life. In attempting to win her back and destroy those he blames for his

  5. Time series physical oceanographic and tidal height data collected in Yaquina Bay from 11/01/1999 to 12/31/1999 as part of the Hatfield Marine Science Center Seawater Database (NODC Accession 0000129)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water characteristics of Yaquina Bay and Hatfield Marine Science Center's in-building seawater system, measured every six minutes since 1988. Tide height data is...

  6. Application of Chybeshev Polynomials in Factorizations of Balancing and Lucas-Balancing Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta Kumar Ray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, with the help of orthogonal polynomial especially Chybeshev polynomials of first and second kind, number theory and linear algebra intertwined to yield factorization of the balancing and Lucas-balancing numbers.

  7. Generalized Identities Involving Common Factors of Generalized Fibonacci, Jacobsthal and Jacobsthal-Lucas Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashwant K. Panwar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present generalized identities involving common factors of generalized Fibonacci, Jacobsthal and jacobsthal-Lucas numbers. Binet’s formula will employ to obtain the identities.

  8. Measurement of radon concentration in water with Lucas cell detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaj, B.; Pienkos, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    A method for the measurement of radon concentration in water is presented based on flushing a water sample with air in a closed loop with the Lucas cell as alpha radiation detector. The main feature of the method is washing radon away from the larger sample of water (0.75 l) to a small volume of air, approximately 0.5 l, thanks to which a high radon concentration in air and a considerable sensitivity of measurement is achieved. Basic relations and results of measurements of a model of a gauge is given. The estimated measuring sensitivity (S) is 8.5 (cpm)/(Bq/l). The random error due to the statistical fluctuations of count rate at radon concentrations 1,10, 100, 1000, 10000 Bq/l is 11, 3.6, 1.1, 0.4, 0.1% correspondingly at a counting (measuring) time of 10 min. The minimum detectable radon concentration in water is 0.11 Bq/l. (author)

  9. Modified-Fibonacci-Dual-Lucas method for earthquake prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucouvalas, A. C.; Gkasios, M.; Tselikas, N. T.; Drakatos, G.

    2015-06-01

    The FDL method makes use of Fibonacci, Dual and Lucas numbers and has shown considerable success in predicting earthquake events locally as well as globally. Predicting the location of the epicenter of an earthquake is one difficult challenge the other being the timing and magnitude. One technique for predicting the onset of earthquakes is the use of cycles, and the discovery of periodicity. Part of this category is the reported FDL method. The basis of the reported FDL method is the creation of FDL future dates based on the onset date of significant earthquakes. The assumption being that each occurred earthquake discontinuity can be thought of as a generating source of FDL time series The connection between past earthquakes and future earthquakes based on FDL numbers has also been reported with sample earthquakes since 1900. Using clustering methods it has been shown that significant earthquakes (conjunct Sun, Moon opposite Sun, Moon conjunct or opposite North or South Modes. In order to test improvement of the method we used all +8R earthquakes recorded since 1900, (86 earthquakes from USGS data). We have developed the FDL numbers for each of those seeds, and examined the earthquake hit rates (for a window of 3, i.e. +-1 day of target date) and for <6.5R. The successes are counted for each one of the 86 earthquake seeds and we compare the MFDL method with the FDL method. In every case we find improvement when the starting seed date is on the planetary trigger date prior to the earthquake. We observe no improvement only when a planetary trigger coincided with the earthquake date and in this case the FDL method coincides with the MFDL. Based on the MDFL method we present the prediction method capable of predicting global events or localized earthquakes and we will discuss the accuracy of the method in as far as the prediction and location parts of the method. We show example calendar style predictions for global events as well as for the Greek region using

  10. A proposal of the proteome before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Farias, Sávio Torres; Rêgo, Thais Gaudêncio; José, Marco V.

    2016-01-01

    The search for understanding the biological nature of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) has been a theoretical challenge and has sparked intense debate in the scientific community. We reconstructed the ancestral sequences of tRNAs in order to test the hypothesis that these molecules originated the first genes. The results showed that the proteome before LUCA may have been composed of basal energy metabolism, namely, compounds with three carbons in the glycolytic pathway, which operated as a distribution centre of substrates for the development of metabolic pathways of nucleotides, lipids and amino acids. Thus, we present a proposal for metabolism in organisms before LUCA that was the initial core for the assembly of further metabolic pathways.

  11. ¡Felices aquellos siervos! Lucas 12, 37

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Chuecas Saldías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available ¡Felices aquellos siervos! Lucas 12, 37 Las Bienaventuranzas en el Evangelio como reflejo de la propuesta de felicidad de Jesús El presente artículo investiga el tema de las bienaventuranzas en el Nuevo Testamento, es decir, la declaración de felicidad en los evangelios como un testimonio del anuncio de Jesús en relación a la felicidad humana. El empleo del género macarisma es especialmente relevante en la tradición de los evangelios sinópticos, en especial en Lucas y Mateo, estando totalmente ausente en Marcos. Un primer paso para acercarse a la temática es la presentación de los antecedentes veterotestamentarios: Jesús al emplear el género literario de los macarismas para anunciar su propuesta de felicidad lo hace a partir de un elemento clásico en la literatura del Antiguo Testamento. Pero al mismo tiempo lo adapta a la nueva situación del anuncio del Reino de Dios. En la literatura sapiencial era considerado feliz quien sigue los caminos de la Torá; en la predicación de Jesús son felices los pequeños porque en ellos se manifiestan las nuevas leyes del reinado de Dios. En el caso de las bienaventuranzas lucanas, los macarismas, propios de la escuela sapiencial, son complementados con lamentos, propios de las escuelas proféticas. Al mismo tiempo que se acentúa la centralidad del tema de la pobreza material. En la tradición de Mateo los macarismas son expresión de la nueva Torá proclamada por Jesús, como nuevo Moisés; bajo esta perspectiva el tema de la felicidad adquiere un significado especial. Lo propio de las Bienaventuranzas de Mateo es la tendencia a focalizar la actitud interior-espiritual del hombre: es en el interior del hombre donde se ha de cumplir la nueva ley dada por Jesús. Sin duda que el empleo de los macarismas en el Nuevo Testamento es reflejo de un momento importante en la predicación de Jesús: la felicidad del Reino es prometida a quienes representan los valores del ReinoHappy those servants

  12. Fear of heights and visual height intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Thomas; Huppert, Doreen

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this review is, first, to cover the different aspects of visual height intolerance such as historical descriptions, definition of terms, phenomenology of the condition, neurophysiological control of gaze, stance and locomotion, and therapy, and, second, to identify warranted epidemiological and experimental studies. Vivid descriptions of fear of heights can be found in ancient texts from the Greek, Roman, and Chinese classics. The life-time prevalence of visual height intolerance is as high as 28% in the general population, and about 50% of those who are susceptible report an impact on quality of life. When exposed to heights, visual exploration by eye and head movements is restricted, and the velocity of locomotion is reduced. Therapy for fear of heights is dominated by the behavioral techniques applied during real or virtual reality exposure. Their efficacy might be facilitated by the administration of D-cycloserine or glucocorticoids. Visual height intolerance has a considerable impact on daily life and interpersonal interactions. It is much more frequent than fear of heights, which is defined as an environmental subtype of a specific phobia. There is certainly a continuum stretching from acrophobia to a less-pronounced visual height intolerance, to which the categorical distinction of a specific phobia does not apply.

  13. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. Ganesh Kokate. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 126 Issue 2 March 2014 pp 403-413. Novel catalysts for valorization of biomass to value-added chemicals and fuels · Nishita Lucas Narasimha Rao Kanna Atul S Nagpure Ganesh Kokate ...

  14. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences. MIHAJA RAKOTOMALALA. Articles written in Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences. Volume 127 Issue 3 June 2017 pp 411-421 Research Article. On a problem of Pillai with Fibonacci numbers and powers of 2 · MAHADI DDAMULIRA FLORIAN LUCA MIHAJA ...

  15. Filling machine preventive maintenance using age replacement method in PT Lucas Djaja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustofa Fifi Herni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available PT Lucas Djaja is a company engaged in the pharmaceutical industry which produce sterile drugs and non-sterile. Filling machine has a high failure rate and expensive corrective maintenance cost. PT Lucas Djaja has a policy to perform engine maintenance by way of corrective maintenance. The study focused on the critical components, namely bearing R2, bearing 625 and bearing 626. When the replacement of the failure done by the company is currently using the formula mean time to failure with the result of bearing R2 at point 165 days, bearing 625 at a point 205 days, and bearing 626 at a point 182 days. Solutions generated by using age replacement method with minimization of total maintenance cost given on the bearing R2 at a point 60 days, bearing 625 at the point of 80 days and bearing 626 at a point 40 days.

  16. Fashioning an ex-crook self: citizenship and criminality in the work of Netley Lucas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlbrook, Matt

    2013-01-01

    This essay uses the autobiographical and journalistic work of the confidence trickster Netley Lucas to explore the possibilities and problems of writing as an ex-crook in inter-war Britain. In so doing, it considers the intersections between emerging forms of mass culture, popular and scientific narratives of criminality, and increasingly heated debates about the social and institutional management of crime. This case study provides an opportunity to think critically about the extent to which inter-war criminology was the modernizing project it often claimed to be. In the hands of Lucas and others, different modes of writing about crime bled into one another. Older forms of criminal confession coexisted with 'modern' criminological knowledge as mutually constitutive ways of apprehending the social.

  17. Da questa parte del mare. Gianmaria Testa ed Erri De Luca nel secolo delle migrazioni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Maria Zoppi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Gianmaria Testa's album Da questa parte del mare (2006 expresses a fifteen-year-long meditation about the theme of the great migrations which have marked the Twentieth Century. That same theme is considered by Erri De Luca as the only possible, epic narration of the contemporary world. On the one hand, Testa's project finds its starting point from the song-writer's capacity of observing and interpreting common stories as well as from his considerations about the changing of History; on the other hand, it takes origin from the reading of Erri De Luca's novels and lyrics, especially those of Solo andata. Righe che vanno troppo spesso a capo (2005. Within Testa's Da questa parte del mare, their lyrical voices and artistic and human perspectives seem somehow to cross and melt. Through his songs, Testa tells in an original way the new human geography traced by the migrant phenomenon across the Mediterranean and Europe.

  18. Tim, Jan Lucas ja Karl Robert - vennad üheks kuuks / Maris Laurits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laurits, Maris

    2009-01-01

    Rakvere Teatri suvelavastuse "Vennad Lõvisüdamed" kaks Karli osatäitjat Jan Lucas Videvik ja Tim Leesnurm ning Joonatani osatäitja Karl Robert Saaremäe tegid Loksal Kaldmaa talus ratsasõiduproove. Üllar Saaremäe lavastuse "Vennad Lõvisüdamed" (Astrid Lindgreni samanimelise jutustuse järgi) esietendus on 11. juunil Rakvere teatri taga aias

  19. Fall from heights: does height really matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizo, G; Sciarretta, J D; Gibson, S; Muertos, K; Romano, A; Davis, J; Pepe, A

    2018-06-01

    Fall from heights is high energy injuries and constitutes a fraction of all fall-related trauma evaluations while bearing an increase in morbidity and mortality. We hypothesize that despite advancements in trauma care, the overall survivability has not improved in this subset of trauma patients. All adult trauma patients treated after sustaining a fall from heights during a 40-month period were retrospectively reviewed. Admission demographics, clinical data, fall height (ft), injury patterns, ISS, GCS, length of stay, and mortality were reviewed. 116 patients sustained a fall from heights, 90.4% accidental. A mean age of 37± 14.7 years, 86% male, and a fall height of 19 ± 10 ft were encountered. Admission GCS was 13 ± 2 with ISS 10 ± 11. Overall LOS was 6.6 ± 14.9 days and an ICU LOS of 2.8 ± 8.9 days. Falls ≥ 25 ft.(16%) had lower GCS 10.4 ± 5.8, increased ISS 22.6 ± 13.8, a fall height 37.9 ± 13.1 ft and associated increased mortality (p < 0.001). Mortality was 5.2%, a mean distance fallen of 39 ± 22 ft. and an ISS of 31.5 ±16.5. Brain injury was the leading cause of death, 50% with open skull fractures. Level of height fallen is a good predictor of overall outcome and survival. Despite advances in trauma care, death rates remain unchanged. Safety awareness and injury prevention programs are needed to reduce the risk of high-level falls.

  20. A new numerical treatment based on Lucas polynomials for 1D and 2D sinh-Gordon equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruç, Ömer

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a new mixed method based on Lucas and Fibonacci polynomials is developed for numerical solutions of 1D and 2D sinh-Gordon equations. Firstly time variable discretized by central finite difference and then unknown function and its derivatives are expanded to Lucas series. With the help of these series expansion and Fibonacci polynomials, matrices for differentiation are derived. With this approach, finding the solution of sinh-Gordon equation transformed to finding the solution of an algebraic system of equations. Lucas series coefficients are acquired by solving this system of algebraic equations. Then by plugginging these coefficients into Lucas series expansion numerical solutions can be obtained consecutively. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate that Lucas polynomial based method is convenient for 1D and 2D nonlinear problems. By calculating L2 and L∞ error norms of some 1D and 2D test problems efficiency and performance of the proposed method is monitored. Acquired accurate results confirm the applicability of the method.

  1. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events. Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania. The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of the hill country to the

  2. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 127; Issue 3. On a problem of Pillai with Fibonacci numbers and powers of 2. MAHADI DDAMULIRA FLORIAN LUCA MIHAJA RAKOTOMALALA. Research Article Volume 127 Issue 3 June 2017 pp 411-421 ...

  3. La Contabilità pratica prima di Luca Pacioli: Origine della Partita Doppia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Antinori

    2006-12-01

    El trabajo prosigue con un estudio comparativo de las prácticas contables previas a la publicación del Tractatus XI de Luca Pacioli, contenido en su Summa de Arithmetica, seguidas en las principales regiones italianas: Venecia y sus territorios, Milán y la Lombardía, Génova y la Liguria, la Emilia-Romaña y la Toscana. Se describen las particularidades de los distintos tipos de contabilidad surgidos en cada una de estas regiones, señalando las similitudes y diferencias entre cada uno de ellos, así como sus respectivas aproximaciones a la partida doble. El artículo se detiene especialmente en la asignación que Federico Melis hace en exclusiva a la Toscana como descubridora de la contabilidad por partida doble. A estos efectos, estudia las características que Luca Pacioli atribuye a este método contable, por considerar que las mismas constituyen el paradigma de la partida doble. Luego se pasa revista a las diferencias existentes entre el modelo pacioliano y el propuesto por Federico Melis, diferencias que se considera son debidas a un excesivo provincianismo de este autor, empeñado en atribuir a la Toscana la paternidad de la contabilidad por partida doble, cuando en realidad parece que este método fue desarrollado casi simultáneamente en diversas regiones italianas.

  4. Reflexiones sobre la importancia de la Crítica de Lucas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Sánchez Puerta

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available La crítica de Lucas sostiene que, bajo la hipótesis de expectativas racionales, los parámetros estimados a partir de un modelo econométrico no se mantendrían. La ocurrencia de cambios de política llevaría a los agentes a modificar sus comportamientos, a fin de adecuarse a la nueva realidad. En consecuencia, los modelos econométricos no podrían utilizarse para fines de formulación de políticas económicas. La crítica de Lucas desafió rigurosamente el modo en que el modelado econométrico se utilizaba tradicionalmente como instrumento para la evaluación de políticas económicas y la forma en que se consideraba la política económica. Aunque la importancia empírica de la crítica sigue siendo motivo de debate, ella contribuyó a la imposición de nuevos patrones en el modelado de la interacción entre las reglas de política y las respuestas de los agentes privados.

  5. The Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering - a model for university-national laboratory collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammon, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the aims and activities of the Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE), from its foundation in 1958 through to 1993. The philosophy, structure and funding of the Institute are briefly reviewed, followed by an account of the development of national research facilities at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, with particular emphasis on nuclear techniques of analyses using neutron scattering instruments and particle accelerators. AINSE's program of Grants, fellowships and studentships are explained with many examples given of projects having significance in the context of Australia's national goals. Conference and training programs are also included. The achievements during these years demonstrate that AINSE has been an efficient and cost-effective model for collaboration between universities and a major national laboratory. In recent years, industry, government organisations and the tertiary education system have undergone major re-structuring and rationalization. A new operational structure for AINSE has evolved in response to these changes and is described

  6. The longitudinal urban cohort ageing study (LUCAS: study protocol and participation in the first decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapp Ulrike

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present concept, study protocol and selected baseline data of the Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study (LUCAS in Germany. LUCAS is a long-running cohort study of community-dwelling seniors complemented by specific studies of geriatric patients or diseases. Aims were to (1 Describe individual ageing trajectories in a metropolitan setting, documenting changes in functional status, the onset of frailty, disability and need of care; (2 Find determinants of healthy ageing; (3 Assess long-term effects of specific health promotion interventions; (4 Produce results for health care planning for fit, pre-frail, frail and disabled elderly persons; (5 Set up a framework for embedded studies to investigate various hypotheses in specific subgroups of elderly. Methods/Design In 2000, twenty-one general practitioners (GPs were recruited in the Hamburg metropolitan area; they generated lists of all their patients 60 years and older. Persons not terminally ill, without daily need of assistance or professional care were eligible. Of these, n = 3,326 (48 % agreed to participate and completed a small (baseline and an extensive health questionnaire (wave 1. In 2007/2008, a re-recruitment took place including 2,012 participants: 743 men, 1,269 women (647 deaths, 197 losses, 470 declined further participation. In 2009/2010 n = 1,627 returned the questionnaire (90 deaths, 47 losses, 248 declined further participation resulting in a good participation rate over ten years with limited and quantified dropouts. Presently, follow-up data from 2007/2008 (wave 2 and 2009/2010 (wave 3 are available. Data wave 4 is due in 2011/2012, and the project will be continued until 2013. Information on survival and need of nursing care was collected continuously and cross-checked against official records. We used Fisher’s exact test and t-tests. The study served repeatedly to evaluate health promotion interventions and concepts. Discussion LUCAS

  7. Lucas and Cornelis de Wael: Flemish artists and dealers in Antwerp, Genoa and Rome in the seventeenth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoesser-Johnston, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Until now the lives and activities of Lucas and Cornelis de Wael have been largely discussed in relation to their friendship with Anthony Van Dyck, who stayed with them in Genoa periodically from 1621 to 1627. This dissertation seeks to rectify this one-sided approach by providing up-to-date

  8. Ethnobotany of Indigenous Saraguros: Medicinal Plants Used by Community Healers “Hampiyachakkuna” in the San Lucas Parish, Southern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Andrade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an ethnobotanical survey on the use of medicinal plants by community healers “Hampiyachakkuna” in the San Lucas Parish, province of Loja, Ecuador. A particular ethnic group, the indigenous Saraguros, inhabits this region. This study reports 183 plant species used in 75 different curative therapies by the Saraguro healers.

  9. Ethnobotany of Indigenous Saraguros: Medicinal Plants Used by Community Healers "Hampiyachakkuna" in the San Lucas Parish, Southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, José M; Lucero Mosquera, Hernán; Armijos, Chabaco

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an ethnobotanical survey on the use of medicinal plants by community healers "Hampiyachakkuna" in the San Lucas Parish, province of Loja, Ecuador. A particular ethnic group, the indigenous Saraguros, inhabits this region. This study reports 183 plant species used in 75 different curative therapies by the Saraguro healers.

  10. Ethnobotany of Indigenous Saraguros: Medicinal Plants Used by Community Healers “Hampiyachakkuna” in the San Lucas Parish, Southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero Mosquera, Hernán; Armijos, Chabaco

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an ethnobotanical survey on the use of medicinal plants by community healers “Hampiyachakkuna” in the San Lucas Parish, province of Loja, Ecuador. A particular ethnic group, the indigenous Saraguros, inhabits this region. This study reports 183 plant species used in 75 different curative therapies by the Saraguro healers. PMID:28744470

  11. 78 FR 60698 - Safety Zone, Lucas Oil Drag Boat Racing Series; Thompson Bay, Lake Havasu City, AZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... this rule because the logistical details of the Lucas Oil Drag Boat Racing Series were not finalized... be enforced from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. on October 11, 2013 thru October 13, 2013. (c) Definitions. The following definition applies to this section: designated representative, means any commissioned, warrant, or...

  12. Installation, maintenance and operating manual for the Lucas-type fuel injection system of the 3 B rotary engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The installation procedure, maintenance, adjustment and operation of a Lucas type fuel injection system for 13B rotary racing engine is outlined. Components of the fuel injection system and installation procedure and notes are described. Maintenance, adjustment, and operation are discussed.

  13. Invertibility and Explicit Inverses of Circulant-Type Matrices with k-Fibonacci and k-Lucas Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulant matrices have important applications in solving ordinary differential equations. In this paper, we consider circulant-type matrices with the k-Fibonacci and k-Lucas numbers. We discuss the invertibility of these circulant matrices and present the explicit determinant and inverse matrix by constructing the transformation matrices, which generalizes the results in Shen et al. (2011.

  14. GUM approach to uncertainty estimations for online 220Rn concentration measurements using Lucas scintillation cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyabama, N.

    2014-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that, when all of the known or suspected components of errors have been evaluated and corrected, there still remains an uncertainty, that is, a doubt about how well the result of the measurement represents the value of the quantity being measured. Evaluation of measurement data - Guide to the expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) is a guidance document, the purpose of which is to promote full information on how uncertainty statements are arrived at and to provide a basis for the international comparison of measurement results. In this paper, uncertainty estimations following GUM guidelines have been made for the measured values of online thoron concentrations using Lucas scintillation cell to prove that the correction for disequilibrium between 220 Rn and 216 Po is significant in online 220 Rn measurements

  15. El discurso funerario de Lucas Macías en Al filo del agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Esther García Meza

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available En la provincia mexicana, los velorios y los enterramientos entretejen rituales y diversas prácticas, como el repaso detallado de las causas de la muerte y valoraciones sobre la vida del difunto, convirtiéndose en eventos de socialización donde el lenguaje tiene un lugar destacado. Animados por las bebidas propias de la región donde ocurren, los asistentes hablan del difunto, de sus deudos y discuten asuntos éticos y filosóficos asociados a la vida y la muerte. Uno de estos discursos es recreado artísticamente en la novela de Yáñez en la figura de Lucas Macías.

  16. [Extraordinary news of a curious apothecary. Monsters and wonders in the Florentine diary of Luca Landucci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciseri, Lorenzo Montemagno

    This article offers a new reading of the well-known diary kept by the Florentine apothecary Luca Landucci between 1450 and 1516, examining its accounts of prodigies and other "monstrous" occurrences from a modern scientific point of view. Particular consideration is given to descriptions of a variety of birth defects observed in various Italian cities at the time, providing explanations for each case based on the latest medical theories. A detailed analysis is provided for a case of cranioschisis recorded in Volterra in 1474, a case of Opitz syndrome occurring in Venice in 1489, the birth of conjoined twins in Padua in the same year, conjoined triplets born to a 60-year-old woman in Venice, the well-publicized account of the 1512 Ravenna monster and, finally, the thoraco-acephalus tetramelus adolescent that Landucci personally observed in Florence in 1513.

  17. Política fiscal óptima en un modelo de Lucas con externalidades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seijas Macías, J. Antonio.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se desarrolla una política fiscal capaz de proporcionar los incentivos adecuados para que el equilibrio competitivo sea óptimo en el modelo de Lucas con externalidades, tanto en el estado estacionario como a lo largo de la transición. A diferencia de trabajos anteriores, supondremos que la función de producción es del tipo CES. El capital humano medio tiene un efecto externo positivo sobre la producción, lo que provoca que la fracción de tiempo dedicada al estudio sea inferior a la óptima. Para corregir el fallo de mercado provocado por la externalidad, se introduce un subsidio al capital humano y se muestra cómo puede ser financiado.

  18. Measurement of radon concentration in air employing Lucas chamber; Pomiar koncentracji radonu za pomoca komory Lucasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaj, B.

    1997-12-31

    The results of investigations aimed to determine the main features of radon concentration gauge in air, employing 0.17 L Lucas chamber, and air sample forced by an air pump are presented. For two hour sampling and measuring cycle time the dynamic error in the worst case (first read out) equals 5 % relative to the step jump of radon concentration. This is due to the increase of activity of the decay products in the chamber. It was observed that the short lived radon decay products (Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214) are depositing on the walls of the chamber and they are not removed by flushing the chamber with air. (author). 4 refs, 19 figs, 2 tabs.

  19. The Larger Bound on the Domination Number of Fibonacci Cubes and Lucas Cubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengzhang Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Let Γn and Λn be the n-dimensional Fibonacci cube and Lucas cube, respectively. Denote by Γ[un,k,z] the subgraph of Γn induced by the end-vertex un,k,z that has no up-neighbor. In this paper, the number of end-vertices and domination number γ of Γn and Λn are studied. The formula of calculating the number of end-vertices is given and it is proved that γ(Γ[un,k,z]≤2k-1+1. Using these results, the larger bound on the domination number γ of Γn and Λn is determined.

  20. Pengaruh Pengendalian Intern Terhadap Efektivitas Target Produksi PT. Lucas Djaja Pharmaceutical Industry Bandung Jawa Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulan Tati Fitria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The achievement of operational targets is expected by each organization / company. Due to the achievement of the target, it can be judged that the performance of the company very well. Therefore, if it is not achieved it is necessary to study the factors that influence it. For then do repairs on these factors. In the achievement of the target company, it takes a process associated with the target to be achieved. In order to achieve maximum results and effective it is necessary to an adequate internal control structure, which aims to regulate the operational steps the company to run an organized and effective.The study was conducted at PT. Lucas Djaja Pharmaceutical Industry, located in Bandung, is to know how the implementation of internal controls and how they affect the effectiveness of the production targets, in particular the production of injection of 1 (one milliliter. This research used descriptive analysis with research techniques such as interviews, observations, questionnaires and literature study. Based on the results of this study concluded that the implementation of internal control at PT. Lucas Djaja is sufficient, this can be seen from the data obtained from the questionnaire filled out by the respondents, which is related to the control environment, risk assessment, information and communication, control activities, and monitoring. Meanwhile that of the effectiveness of the production target is still this can be seen from the data obtained from the questionnaire filled out by the respondents, ranging from productivity, quality, efficiency, flexibility, excellence, development, and satisfaction. And the obtained results of the research stating that the internal control effect on effectiveness production targets with determination coefficient of 56.01% and the remaining 43.99% influenced by other factors.

  1. Soil erodibility in Europe: a high-resolution dataset based on LUCAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagos, Panos; Meusburger, Katrin; Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasqualle; Alewell, Christine

    2014-05-01

    The greatest obstacle to soil erosion modelling at larger spatial scales is the lack of data on soil characteristics. One key parameter for modelling soil erosion is the soil erodibility, expressed as the K-factor in the widely used soil erosion model, the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its revised version (RUSLE). The K-factor, which expresses the susceptibility of a soil to erode, is related to soil properties such as organic matter content, soil texture, soil structure and permeability. With the Land Use/Cover Area frame Survey (LUCAS) soil survey in 2009 a pan-European soil dataset is available for the first time, consisting of around 20,000 points across 25 Member States of the European Union. The aim of this study is the generation of a harmonised high-resolution soil erodibility map (with a grid cell size of 500 m) for the 25 EU Member States. Soil erodibility was calculated for the LUCAS survey points using the nomograph of Wischmeier and Smith (1978). A Cubist regression model was applied to correlate spatial data such as latitude, longitude, remotely sensed and terrain features in order to develop a high-resolution soil erodibility map. The mean K-factor for Europe was estimated at 0.032 thahha(-1)MJ(-1)mm(-1) with a standard deviation of 0.009 thahha(-1)MJ(-1)mm(-1). The yielded soil erodibility dataset compared well with the published local and regional soil erodibility data. However, the incorporation of the protective effect of surface stone cover, which is usually not considered for the soil erodibility calculations, resulted in an average 15% decrease of the K-factor. The exclusion of this effect in K-factor calculations is likely to result in an overestimation of soil erosion, particularly for the Mediterranean countries, where highest percentages of surface stone cover were observed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Corpuls cpr resuscitation device generates superior emulated flows and pressures than LUCAS II in a mechanical thorax model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, S; Mendoza Garcia, A; Polski, M; Spindler, J; Stroh, A; Heller, M; Lange, R; Krane, M

    2017-06-01

    The provision of sufficient chest compression is among the most important factors influencing patient survival during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). One approach to optimize the quality of chest compressions is to use mechanical-resuscitation devices. The aim of this study was to compare a new device for chest compression (corpuls cpr) with an established device (LUCAS II). We used a mechanical thorax model consisting of a chest with variable stiffness and an integrated heart chamber which generated blood flow dependent on the compression depth and waveform. The method of blood-flow generation could be changed between direct cardiac-compression mode and thoracic-pump mode. Different chest-stiffness settings and compression modes were tested to generate various blood-flow profiles. Additionally, an endurance test at high stiffness was performed to measure overall performance and compression consistency. Both resuscitation machines were able to compress the model thorax with a frequency of 100/min and a depth of 5 cm, independent of the chosen chest stiffness. Both devices passed the endurance test without difficulty. The corpuls cpr device was able to generate about 10-40% more blood flow than the LUCAS II device, depending on the model settings. In most scenarios, the corpuls cpr device also generated a higher blood pressure than the LUCAS II. The peak compression forces during CPR were about 30% higher using the corpuls cpr device than with the LUCAS II. In this study, the corpuls cpr device had improved blood flow and pressure outcomes than the LUCAS II device. Further examination in an animal model is required to prove the findings of this preliminary study.

  3. A centralidade da Palavra de Deus em Lucas 5,1-11 (The centrality of the Word od God in Luke 5,1-11 - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2013v11n30p682

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildo Perondi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pouca atenção foi dada pelos estudiosos para a função da Palavra de Deus no relato da pesca milagrosa em Lucas, tanto em nível literário, quanto teológico. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a perícope de Lc 5,1-11, com enfoque na Palavra de Deus, proclamada em Jesus e por ele. A metodologia utilizada foi a análise e interpretação de textos, privilegiando o método histórico-crítico e os seus elementos essenciais, além do uso de outros métodos, baseados na ciência da linguagem. Pode-se dizer que a Palavra de Deus ocupa um lugar central na trama, dando cadência ao relato e elucidando o sentido teológico que Lucas pretende imprimir, o que fica evidente pelas alterações feitas pelo autor no relato original. Na perícope da pesca milagrosa, a Palavra é proclamada por Jesus em caráter performativo, faz o milagre acontecer, conduz Pedro à conversão e dá a ele uma nova missão. Na teologia de Lucas ouvimos o eco das comunidades primitivas, nascidas ao redor da Palavra do Senhor. Palavras-chave: Lucas. Pesca. Milagre. Pedro. Palavra.   Abstract The scholars haven’t given too much attention to the function of the Word of God in the report of the miraculous catch of fish in Luke, at the literary and theological level. Thus, the objective of this paper was to analyze the pericope of Luke 5:1-11, with emphasis on the Word of God proclaimed in Jesus and through Him. The methodology used was the analysis and interpretation of texts, focusing on the historical-critical method and its essential elements, besides the use of other methods, based on the science of language. It’s possible to say that the Word of God occupies a central place in the plot, giving cadence to the report and elucidating the theological sense that Luke wanted to print, which is evidenced by the changes he has made in the original report. In the pericope of the miraculous catch of fish, the Word is proclaimed by Jesus in a performative way

  4. Childhood height, adult height, and the risk of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise Geisler; Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We previously showed that childhood height is positively associated with prostate cancer risk. It is, however, unknown whether childhood height exerts its effects independently of or through adult height. We investigated whether and to what extent childhood height has a direct effect...... on the risk of prostate cancer apart from adult height. METHODS: We included 5,871 men with height measured at ages 7 and 13 years in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register who also had adult (50-65 years) height measured in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. Prostate cancer status was obtained...... through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Direct and total effects of childhood height on prostate cancer risk were estimated from Cox regressions. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2012, 429 prostate cancers occurred. Child and adult heights were positively and significantly associated with prostate cancer risk...

  5. Accuracy of recumbent height measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D S; Crider, J B; Kelley, C; Dickinson, L C

    1985-01-01

    Since many patients requiring specialized nutritional support are bedridden, measurement of height for purposes of nutritional assessment or prescription must often be done with the patient in bed. This study examined the accuracy of measuring body height in bed in the supine position. Two measurements were performed on 108 ambulatory inpatients: (1) standing height using a standard height-weight scale, and (2) bed height using a flexible tape. Patients were divided into four groups based on which of two researchers performed each of the two measurements. Each patient was also weighed and self-reported height, weight, sex, and age were recorded. Bed height was significantly longer than standing height by 3.68 cm, but the two measurements were equally precise. It was believed, however, that this 2% difference was probably not clinically significant in most circumstances. Bed height correlated highly with standing height (r = 0.95), and the regression equation was standing height = 13.82 +/- 0.09 bed height. Patients overestimated their heights. Heights recorded by nurses were more accurate when patients were measured than when asked about their heights, but the patients were more often asked than measured.

  6. KT seminar on entrepreneurship | "From CERN engineer to company founder: my journey" by Julio Lucas | 26 September

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Europe needs its economy to be boosted by the ideas of its most talented scientists and engineers. One of the best ways in which these ideas may contribute to society is by creating a new business. In this Knowledge Transfer seminar, Julio Lucas, Technical Director and co-founder of Elytt Energy and former CERN engineer gives a personal view on how to make your first steps in entrepreneurship.    

  7. A description of the Larva of Metapteron xanthomelas (Lucas, 1857) from the Restinga Forest of Southeastern Brazil (Coleoptera: Lycidae, Calopterini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vinicius De Souza; Costa, Cleide

    2015-02-03

    The last instar larva of Metapteron xanthomelas (Lucas, 1857) is described. This is the first description of a larva for the genus. Two live larvae collected in the Brazilian Atlantic coast Restinga Forest of Itanhaém, São Paulo, were reared, one to adult and one was fixed in the last instar. This larva differs from the known Calopterini larvae by the absence of urogomphi, the dorsal abdominal segments undivided and strongly alveolate ornamentation on the head. 

  8. Vorrei ma non posso. L'esperienza del non realizzato nella pratica artistica contemporanea. Un'intervista con Luca Trevisani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rossi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Le domande in questa intervista seguono e riprendono l’intervento di Luca Trevisani al convegno tenutosi nel novembre del 2013 presso il Museo del Novecento di Milano. Trevisani era stato invitato per “rappresentare” una nuova generazione di artisti, che, nati tra gli anni Settanta e i primi anni Ottanta si sono trovati ad operare proprio all’inizio del nuovo millennio.

  9. Geological evolution of the Serrania de San Lucas, north of the Magdalena valley and northwest of the Eastern Cordillera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavijo, Jairo; Mantilla, Luis; Pinto, Jorge; Bernal, Luis; Perez, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Development of the Serrania de San Lucas was determinate by eight tectonostratigraphic events: 1) Proterozoic Metamorphic Event, 2) Early Paleozoic Metamorphic Event, 3) Late Triassic - Early Jurassic Volcaniclastic Event, 3a) Middle Jurassic Magmatic Stage, 4) Late Jurassic Magmatic Event, 5) Late Jurassic Sedimentary Event 6) Cretacic -Early Eocene Sedimentary Event, 6a) Albian Late Cretacic Magmatic Stage, 7) Eocene-Oligocene Tectonic Inversion Event, 8) Miocene-Present Event.

  10. Gender Discrimination, Education and Economic Growth in a Generalized Uzawa-Lucas Two-Sector Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei-Bin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is mainly concerned with relationships between economic growth and gender discrimination in labor markets and education. Although discrimination in different fields has well been addresses and modelled in the economic literature, there are only a few growth models with endogenous wealth and human capital accumulation, gender time distribution between work, leisure and education under gender (positive or negative discrimination. The production and economic structures, human capital accumulation are based on the Uzawa-Lucas model, while the utility function and gender division of labor, leisure time and study time are based on the model by Zhang. The model takes account of learning by education in modeling human capital accumulation. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of equilibrium points and motion of the national economy. We also conduct a comparative dynamic analysis in regard to changes in discrimination in the education sector, women’s propensity to stay at home, women’s propensity to receive education, women’s knowledge utilization efficiency, and the propensity to save.

  11. Express determination of the volume 222Rn activity using the Lucas Type scintillation cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellerova, M.; Holy, K.; Polaskova, A.

    2006-01-01

    This report deals with the possibility of the accurate determination of the volume radon activity using the Lucas type scintillation chamber before the radioactive equilibrium between the radon and its decay products is achieved. This method allows to obtain data about the volume activity of the sample promptly and also it offers a possibility to apply the detector for measurements more times a day. We developed a method for the determination of the detection efficiency of the scintillation chamber for varied time periods after the chamber was filled up with a sample. The volume radon activity calculated from the count rates in saturated conditions is in a good agreement with the volume radon activity calculated from our derived relation. It was shown that the scintillation chamber can be used for the express determination of the volume radon activity. The time between the individual applications of the scintillation chamber can be compressed maintaining of sufficient accuracy of the determination of the volume radon activity. (authors)

  12. On the spectral norms of r-circulant matrices with the biperiodic Fibonacci and Lucas numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahit Köme

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we present new upper and lower bounds for the spectral norms of the r-circulant matrices Q = C r ( ( b a ξ ( 1 2 q 0 , ( b a ξ ( 2 2 q 1 , ( b a ξ ( 3 2 q 2 , … , ( b a ξ ( n 2 q n − 1 $Q=C_{r} ( (\\frac{b}{a} ^{\\frac{\\xi (1}{2}}q_{0}, (\\frac{b}{a} ^{\\frac{\\xi(2}{2}}q_{1}, (\\frac {b}{a} ^{\\frac{\\xi(3}{2}}q_{2}, \\dots, (\\frac{b}{a} ^{\\frac{\\xi(n}{2}}q_{n-1} $ and L = C r ( ( b a ξ ( 0 2 l 0 , ( b a ξ ( 1 2 l 1 , ( b a ξ ( 2 2 l 2 , … , ( b a ξ ( n − 1 2 l n − 1 $L=C_{r} ( (\\frac {b}{a} ^{\\frac{\\xi(0}{2}}l_{0}, (\\frac{b}{a} ^{\\frac{\\xi (1}{2}}l_{1}, (\\frac{b}{a} ^{\\frac{\\xi(2}{2}}l_{2}, \\dots, (\\frac{b}{a} ^{\\frac{\\xi(n-1}{2}}l_{n-1} $ whose entries are the biperiodic Fibonacci and biperiodic Lucas numbers, respectively. Finally, we obtain lower and upper bounds for the spectral norms of Kronecker and Hadamard products of Q and L matrices.

  13. Memory for target height is scaled to observer height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Elyssa; Crawford, L Elizabeth; Proffitt, Dennis R

    2012-04-01

    According to the embodied approach to visual perception, individuals scale the environment to their bodies. This approach highlights the central role of the body for immediate, situated action. The present experiments addressed whether body scaling--specifically, eye-height scaling--occurs in memory when action is not immediate. Participants viewed standard targets that were either the same height as, taller than, or shorter than themselves. Participants then viewed a comparison target and judged whether the comparison was taller or shorter than the standard target. Participants were most accurate when the standard target height matched their own heights, taking into account postural changes. Participants were biased to underestimate standard target height, in general, and to push standard target height away from their own heights. These results are consistent with the literature on eye-height scaling in visual perception and suggest that body scaling is not only a useful metric for perception and action, but is also preserved in memory.

  14. Concordant preferences for actual height and facial cues to height

    OpenAIRE

    Re, Daniel Edward; Perrett, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Physical height has a well-documented effect on human mate preferences. In general, both sexes prefer opposite-sex romantic relationships in which the man is taller than the woman, while individual preferences for height are affected by a person’s own height. Research in human mate choice has demonstrated that attraction to facial characteristics, such as facial adiposity, may reflect references for body characteristics. Here, we tested preferences for facial cues to height. In general, incre...

  15. The determination of the mixing height. Current progress and problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryning, S.E.; Beyrich, F.; Batchvarova, E. [eds.

    1997-10-01

    This report contains extended abstracts of presentations given at a EURASAP Workshop on The Determination of the Mixing Height - Current Progress and Problems. The Workshop, initiated from discussions with Peter Builtjes, was held at Risoe National Laboratory 1-3 October 1997 within the framework of EURASAP (European Association for the Sciences of Air Pollution). The specific topics and chairpersons of the Workshop were: Theoretical Considerations (Sven-Erik Gryning), Mixing Height Estimation from Turbulence Measurements and In-Situ Soundings (Douw Steyn), Mixing Height Determination from NWP-Models (Han van Dop), Climatology and Global Aspects (Werner Klug), Mixing Height Determination from Remote Systems (Werner Klug), Verification of Mixing Height Parameterizations and Models (Frank Beyrich), Mixing Height over Complex Terrain (Ekaterina Batchvarova), Internal Boundary Layers: Mixing Height in Coastal Areas and Over Cities (Allen White). The discussion at the end of the Workshop was chaired by Robert Bornstein. (au)

  16. Sexual Orientation, Objective Height, and Self-Reported Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorska, Malvina N; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2017-01-01

    Studies that have used mostly self-reported height have found that androphilic men and women are shorter than gynephilic men and women, respectively. This study examined whether an objective height difference exists or whether a psychosocial account (e.g., distortion of self-reports) may explain these putative height differences. A total of 863 participants, recruited at a Canadian university, the surrounding region, and through lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) events across Canada, self-reported their height and had their height measured. Androphilic men were shorter, on average, than gynephilic men. There was no objective height difference between gynephilic, ambiphilic, and androphilic women. Self-reported height, statistically controlling for objective height, was not related to sexual orientation. These findings are the first to show an objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. Also, the findings suggest that previous studies using self-reported height found part of a true objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. These findings have implications for existing biological theories of men's sexual orientation development.

  17. A novel methodology for online measurement of thoron using Lucas scintillation cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eappen, K.P.; Sapra, B.K.; Mayya, Y.S.

    2007-01-01

    The use of Lucas scintillation cell (LSC) technique for thoron estimation requires a modified methodology as opposed to radon estimation. While in the latter, the α counting is performed after a delay period varying between few hours to few days, in the case of thoron estimation the α counting has to be carried out immediately after sampling owing to the short half-life of thoron (55 s). This can be achieved best by having an on-line LSC sampling and counting system. However, half-life of the thoron decay product 212 Pb being 10.6 h, the background accumulates in LSC during online measurements and hence subsequent use of LSC is erroneous unless normal background level is achieved in the cell. This problem can be circumvented by correcting for the average background counts accumulated during the counting period which may be theoretically estimated. In this study, a methodology has been developed to estimate the true counts due to thoron. A linear regression between the counts obtained experimentally and the fractional decay in regular intervals of time is used to obtain the actual thoron concentration. The novelty of this approach is that the background of the cell is automatically estimated as the intercept of the regression graph. The results obtained by this technique compare well with the two filter method and the thoron concentration produced from a standard thoron source. However, the LSC as such cannot be used for environmental samples because the minimum detection level is comparable with that of thoron concentrations prevailing in normal atmosphere

  18. Definition of Physical Height Systems for Telluric Planets and Moons

    OpenAIRE

    Tenzer, R.; Foroughi, I.; Sjöberg, L.E.; Bagherbandi, M.; Hirt, C.; Pitoňák, M.

    2018-01-01

    In planetary sciences, the geodetic (geometric) heights defined with respect to the reference surface (the sphere or the ellipsoid) or with respect to the center of the planet/moon are typically used for mapping topographic surface, compilation of global topographic models, detailed mapping of potential landing sites, and other space science and engineering purposes. Nevertheless, certain applications, such as studies of gravity-driven mass movements, require the physical heights to be define...

  19. The third conference on nuclear science and engineering in Australia, 1999. Conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Association has organised this third Conference in a biennial series with the theme: 'A Nuclear Renaissance'. The theme is based on our perception that nuclear science and technology is on the threshold of a major expansion after a period which many thought was the onset of the Dark Ages after the old Australian Atomic Energy Commission was abolished in 1987. Fortunately, nuclear science and technology was not abolished and the AAEC was replaced by the government with ANSTO, which the government has continued to support strongly. The most recent expression of this support has been the approval of nearly $300 millions in investment in a major Replacement Research Reactor to be operational in about 2005, and the establishment of the new regulatory body ARPANSA. The conference aims to review all of the major nuclear issues of importance to Australia as we enter the 21st Century. These include: uranium mining and upgrading; the management of nuclear waste; the plans for the future by the government's major nuclear research laboratory, operated by ANSTO, including plans for constructing a major Replacement Research Reactor at Lucas Heights, the status of safeguards and nuclear regulation in Australia now that the government has set up the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, and the many and varied applications of nuclear science in Australia. The conference also presents the plans for nuclear research by the universities through the Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering, and features in particular the work at the Australian National University in Canberra

  20. The third conference on nuclear science and engineering in Australia, 1999. Conference handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Australian Nuclear Association has organised this third Conference in a biennial series with the theme: 'A Nuclear Renaissance'. The theme is based on our perception that nuclear science and technology is on the threshold of a major expansion after a period which many thought was the onset of the Dark Ages after the old Australian Atomic Energy Commission was abolished in 1987. Fortunately, nuclear science and technology was not abolished and the AAEC was replaced by the government with ANSTO, which the government has continued to support strongly. The most recent expression of this support has been the approval of nearly $300 millions in investment in a major Replacement Research Reactor to be operational in about 2005, and the establishment of the new regulatory body ARPANSA. The conference aims to review all of the major nuclear issues of importance to Australia as we enter the 21st Century. These include: uranium mining and upgrading; the management of nuclear waste; the plans for the future by the government's major nuclear research laboratory, operated by ANSTO, including plans for constructing a major Replacement Research Reactor at Lucas Heights, the status of safeguards and nuclear regulation in Australia now that the government has set up the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, and the many and varied applications of nuclear science in Australia. The conference also presents the plans for nuclear research by the universities through the Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering, and features in particular the work at the Australian National University in Canberra.

  1. The application of nuclear science technology to understanding and solving environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuk, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has for many years been involved in applying nuclear science-based and related technologies to the understanding of environmental processes and to the development and implementation of practical and effective solutions to site specific problems, for a broad spectrum of industry, government regulatory agencies, and other organisations in Australia, Europe, North and South America and South East Asia. ANSTO's environmental science program arose out of the need for research to predict, measure, evaluate and monitor the environmental impacts associated with : uranium mining and processing in Australia; the operation of the research reactor at Lucas Heights; and the safe treatment and disposal of radioactive and conventional wastes associated with these activities. The expertise developed in these activities, has found application to a much broader range of environmental concerns. This paper will present an overview of ANSTO's application of nuclear science-based techniques to, inter alia: coastal and marine studies; minesite rehabilitation; transport and geochemical modelling of radionuclides, heavy metals and organic chemicals in the geosphere; the application of naturally-occurring radionuclides and radioactive tracers to corrosion and sedimentation studies in the coastal environment; dating sediments, fish corals and archaeological samples; the understanding of the kinetics and the physiological responses of aquatic organisms to radionuclides and metals in the environment: and the use of aquatic organism as archival and 'realtime' monitors of pollutants

  2. In-hospital fall-risk screening in 4,735 geriatric patients from the LUCAS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, L; Hoffmann, V S; Golgert, S; Hasford, J; Von Renteln-Kruse, W

    2013-03-01

    In-hospital falls in older patients are frequent, but the identification of patients at risk of falling is challenging. Aim of this study was to improve the identification of high-risk patients. Therefore, a simplified screening-tool was developed, validated, and compared to the STRATIFY predictive accuracy. Retrospective analysis of 4,735 patients; evaluation of predictive accuracy of STRATIFY and its single risk factors, as well as age, gender and psychotropic medication; splitting the dataset into a learning and a validation sample for modelling fall-risk screening and independent, temporal validation. Geriatric clinic at an academic teaching hospital in Hamburg, Germany. 4,735 hospitalised patients ≥65 years. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, Odds Ratios, Youden-Index and the rates of falls and fallers were calculated. There were 10.7% fallers, and the fall rate was 7.9/1,000 hospital days. In the learning sample, mental alteration (OR 2.9), fall history (OR 2.1), and insecure mobility (Barthel-Index items 'transfer' + 'walking' score = 5, 10 or 15) (OR 2.3) had the most strongest association to falls. The LUCAS Fall-Risk Screening uses these risk factors, and patients with ≥2 risk factors contributed to the high-risk group (30.9%). In the validation sample, STRATIFY SENS was 56.8, SPEC 59.6, PPV 13.5 and NPV 92.6 vs. LUCAS Fall-Risk Screening was SENS 46.0, SPEC 71.1, PPV 14.9 and NPV 92.3. Both the STRATIFY and the LUCAS Fall-Risk Screening showed comparable results in defining a high-risk group. Impaired mobility and cognitive status were closely associated to falls. The results do underscore the importance of functional status as essential fall-risk factor in older hospitalised patients.

  3. Prolonged closed cardiac massage using LUCAS device in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with prolonged transport time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Matevossian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Edouard Matevossian1, Dietrich Doll4, Jakob Säckl1, Inga Sinicina5, Jürgen Schneider2, Gerhard Simon3, Norbert Hüser11Department of Surgery, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive-Care Medicine; 3Department of Radiology, Technische Universität of Munich, Germany; 4Department of Visceral, Vascular and Thoracic Surgery, Philips University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany; 5Institute of Clinical Forensic Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilian University of Munich, Munich, GermanyAbstract: Saving more human lives through more effective reanimation measures is the goal of the new international guidelines on cardiopulmonary resuscitation as the decisive aspect for survival after cardiovascular arrest is that basic resuscitation should start immediately. According to the updated guidelines, the greatest efficacy in cardiac massage is only achieved when the right compression point, an adequate compression depth, vertical pressure, the correct frequency, and equally long phases of compression and decompression are achieved. The very highest priority is placed on restoring continuous circulation. Against this background, standardized continuous chest compression with active decompression has contributed to a favorable outcome in this case. The hydraulically operated and variably adjustable automatic Lund University Cardiac Arrest System (LUCAS device (Jolife, Lund, Sweden undoubtedly meets these requirements. This case report describes a 44-year-old patient who – approximately 15 min after the onset of clinical death due to apparent ventricular fibrillation – received cardiopulmonary resuscitation, initially by laypersons and then by the emergency medical team (manual chest compressions followed by situation-adjusted LUCAS compressions. Sinus rhythm was restored after more than 90 min of continuous resuscitation, with seven defibrillations. Interventional diagnostic workup did not reveal a causal morphological correlate for the condition on coronary

  4. Height premium for job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Han, Euna

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the relationship of height with wages, using the 1998 and 2012 Korean Labor and Income Panel Study data. The key independent variable was height measured in centimeters, which was included as a series of dummy indicators of height per 5cm span (wages to assess the heterogeneity in the height-wage relationship, across the conditional distribution of monthly wages. We found a non-linear relationship of height with monthly wages. For men, the magnitude of the height wage premium was overall larger at the upper quantile of the conditional distribution of log monthly wages than at the median to low quantile, particularly in professional and semi-professional occupations. The height-wage premium was also larger at the 90th quantile for self-employed women and salaried men. Our findings add a global dimension to the existing evidence on height-wage premium, demonstrating non-linearity in the association between height and wages and heterogeneous changes in the dispersion and direction of the association between height and wages, by wage level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Diet of blue marlin Makaira mazara off the coast of Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Abitia Cárdenas, Leonardo Andrés; Galván Magaña, Felipe; Gutiérrez Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Rodríguez Romero, Jesús; Aguilar Palomino, Bernabé; Moehl Hitz, Almiae

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of the stomach contents of 204 blue marlin (Makaira mazara) caught by the sport-fishing fleet of Cabo San Lucas in the southern Gulf of California is presented. The specimens sampled were caught during the summer and fall of 1987, 1988, and 1989 when the sea is warm (28-30°C). Blue marlin were found to feed on 35 prey species, 3 of which represented 90% of the total stomach contents by frequency of occurrence. The main prey were epipelagic organisms from the oceanic zone and demersal...

  6. More practical critical height sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas B. Lynch; Jeffrey H. Gove

    2015-01-01

    Critical Height Sampling (CHS) (Kitamura 1964) can be used to predict cubic volumes per acre without using volume tables or equations. The critical height is defined as the height at which the tree stem appears to be in borderline condition using the point-sampling angle gauge (e.g. prism). An estimate of cubic volume per acre can be obtained from multiplication of the...

  7. Height-Deterministic Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowotka, Dirk; Srba, Jiri

    2007-01-01

    We define the notion of height-deterministic pushdown automata, a model where for any given input string the stack heights during any (nondeterministic) computation on the input are a priori fixed. Different subclasses of height-deterministic pushdown automata, strictly containing the class...... of regular languages and still closed under boolean language operations, are considered. Several of such language classes have been described in the literature. Here, we suggest a natural and intuitive model that subsumes all the formalisms proposed so far by employing height-deterministic pushdown automata...

  8. Unified height systems after GOCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Reiner; Gruber, Thomas; Sideris, Michael; Rangelova, Elena; Woodworth, Phil; Hughes, Chris; Ihde, Johannes; Liebsch, Gunter; Rülke, Axel; Gerlach, Christian; Haagmans, Roger

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of global height unification are twofold, (1) the realization of accurate geopotential numbers C together with their standard deviation σ(C) at a selected set of stations (datum points of national height systems, geodetic fundamental stations (IERS), primary tide gauges (PSMSL) and primary reference clocks (IERS)) and (2) the determination of height off-sets between all existing regional/national height systems and one global height reference. In the future the primary method of height determination will be GPS-levelling with very stringent requirements concerning the consistency of the positioning and the gravity potential difference part. Consistency is required in terms of the applied standards (ITRF, zero tide system, geodetic reference system). Geopotential differences will be based on a next generation geopotential model combining GOCE and GRACE and a best possible collection of global terrestrial and altimetric gravity and topographic data. Ultimately, the envisaged accuracy of height unification is about 10 cm2/s2 (or 1cm). At the moment, in well surveyed regions, an accuracy of about 40 to 60 cm2/s2 (or 4 to 6cm) is attainable. Objective One can be realized by straight forward computation of geopotential numbers C, i.e. geopotential differences relative to an adopted height reference. No adjustment is required for this. Objective Two, the unification of existing height systems is achieved by employing a least-squares adjustment based on the GBVP-approach. In order to attain a non-singular solution, this requires for each included datum zone at least one geo-referenced station per zone, i.e. its ellipsoidal height h and, in addition, the corresponding physical height H (geopotential number, normal height, orthometric height, etc.). Changes in geopotential numbers of consecutive realizations reflect (1) temporal changes of station heights, (2) improvements or changes of the applied geopotential (or geoid) model and (3) improvements of the

  9. Agreement between measured height, and height predicted from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lower limb measurements, such as knee height, as well as upper limb measures ... had with bone injuries/fractures affecting height or ulna length; and n = 1 had a ... and heels, buttocks and upper back in contact with the vertical surface of the .... found striking similarity in linear growth of infants to five-year- olds among all ...

  10. A new methodology for pixel-quantitative precipitation nowcasting using a pyramid Lucas Kanade optical flow approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Xi, Du-Gang; Li, Zhao-Liang; Hong, Yang

    2015-10-01

    Short-term high-resolution Quantitative Precipitation Nowcasting (QPN) has important implications for navigation, flood forecasting, and other hydrological and meteorological concerns. This study proposes a new algorithm called Pixel-based QPN using the Pyramid Lucas-Kanade Optical Flow method (PPLK), which comprises three steps: employing a Pyramid Lucas-Kanade Optical Flow method (PLKOF) to estimate precipitation advection, projecting rainy clouds by considering the advection and evolution pixel by pixel, and interpolating QPN imagery based on the space-time continuum of cloud patches. The PPLK methodology was evaluated with 2338 images from the geostationary meteorological satellite Fengyun-2F (FY-2F) of China and compared with two other advection-based methods, i.e., the maximum correlation method and the Horn-Schunck Optical Flow scheme. The data sample covered all intensive observations since the launch of FY-2F, despite covering a total of only approximately 10 days. The results show that the PPLK performed better than the algorithms used for comparison, demonstrating less time expenditure, more effective cloud tracking, and improved QPN accuracy.

  11. A simple method for calibration of Lucas scintillation cell counting system for measurement of 226Ra and 222Rn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K. Sethy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Known quantity of radium from high grade ore solution was chemically separated and carefully kept inside the cavity of a Lucas Cell (LC. The 222Rn gradually builds up and attain secular equilibrium with its parent 226Ra. This gives a steady count after a suitable buildup period (>25 days. This secondary source was used to calibrate the radon counting system. The method is validated in by comparison with identical measurement with AlphaGuard Aquakit. The radon counting system was used to evaluate dissolved radon in ground water sample by gross alpha counting in LC. Radon counting system measures the collected radon after a delay of >180 min by gross alpha counting. Simultaneous measurement also carried out by AlphaGuard Aquakit in identical condition. AlphaGuard measures dissolved radon from water sample by constant aeration in a closed circuit without giving any delay. Both the methods are matching with a correlation coefficient of >0.9. This validates the calibration of Lucas scintillation cell counting system by designed encapsulated source. This study provides an alternative for calibration in absence of costly Radon source available in the market.

  12. Corpuls CPR Generates Higher Mean Arterial Pressure Than LUCAS II in a Pig Model of Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eichhorn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the European Resuscitation Council guidelines, the use of mechanical chest compression devices is a reasonable alternative in situations where manual chest compression is impractical or compromises provider safety. The aim of this study is to compare the performance of a recently developed chest compression device (Corpuls CPR with an established system (LUCAS II in a pig model. Methods. Pigs (n = 5/group in provoked ventricular fibrillation were left untreated for 5 minutes, after which 15 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed with chest compressions. After 15 min, defibrillation was performed every 2 min if necessary, and up to 3 doses of adrenaline were given. If there was no return of spontaneous circulation after 25 min, the experiment was terminated. Coronary perfusion pressure, carotid blood flow, end-expiratory CO2, regional oxygen saturation by near infrared spectroscopy, blood gas, and local organ perfusion with fluorescent labelled microspheres were measured at baseline and during resuscitation. Results. Animals treated with Corpuls CPR had significantly higher mean arterial pressures during resuscitation, along with a detectable trend of greater carotid blood flow and organ perfusion. Conclusion. Chest compressions with the Corpuls CPR device generated significantly higher mean arterial pressures than compressions performed with the LUCAS II device.

  13. Height and Tilt Geometric Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vedrana; Desbrun, Mathieu; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2009-01-01

    compromise between functionality and simplicity: it can efficiently handle and process geometric texture too complex to be represented as a height field, without having recourse to full blown mesh editing algorithms. The height-and-tilt representation proposed here is fully intrinsic to the mesh, making...

  14. Fluctuations in Schottky barrier heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    A double Schottky barrier is often formed at the grain boundary in polycrystalline semiconductors. The barrier height is shown to fluctuate in value due to the random nature of the impurity positions. The magnitude of the fluctuations is 0.1 eV, and the fluctuations cause the barrier height measured by capacitance to differ from the one measured by electrical conductivity

  15. Mexico Geoid Heights (MEXICO97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Mexico, and North-Central America, is the MEXICO97 geoid model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine gravity...

  16. Alaska Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' geoid height grid for Alaska is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 1.1 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in the...

  17. Safety of mechanical chest compression devices AutoPulse and LUCAS in cardiac arrest: a randomized clinical trial for non-inferiority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Rudolph W.; Beenen, Ludo F.; van der Boom, Esther B.; Spijkerboer, Anje M.; Tepaske, Robert; van der Wal, Allart C.; Beesems, Stefanie G.; Tijssen, Jan G.

    2017-01-01

    Aims Mechanical chest compression (CC) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with AutoPulse or LUCAS devices has not improved survival from cardiac arrest. Cohort studies suggest risk of excess damage. We studied safety of mechanical CC and determined possible excess damage compared with manual

  18. A revision of the purse-web spider genus Calommata Lucas, 1837 (Araneae, Atypidae in the Afrotropical Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Fourie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purse-web spider genus Calommata Lucas, 1837 is revised in the Afrotropical Region. Following examination of the female type material, C. transvaalica Hewitt, 1916 is removed from synonymy with C. simoni Pocock, 1903 and revalidated. The females of both species are redescribed and their males described for the first time. While C. simoni is very widespread across tropical Africa, C. transvaalica is endemic to northern South Africa. Four new species are described, all known only from males: C. megae sp. n. (Zimbabwe, C. meridionalis sp. n. (South Africa, C. namibica sp. n. (Namibia and C. tibialis sp. n. (Ivory Coast and Togo. Notes are presented on the biology of each species.

  19. Definition of Physical Height Systems for Telluric Planets and Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenzer, Robert; Foroughi, Ismael; Sjöberg, Lars E.; Bagherbandi, Mohammad; Hirt, Christian; Pitoňák, Martin

    2018-01-01

    In planetary sciences, the geodetic (geometric) heights defined with respect to the reference surface (the sphere or the ellipsoid) or with respect to the center of the planet/moon are typically used for mapping topographic surface, compilation of global topographic models, detailed mapping of potential landing sites, and other space science and engineering purposes. Nevertheless, certain applications, such as studies of gravity-driven mass movements, require the physical heights to be defined with respect to the equipotential surface. Taking the analogy with terrestrial height systems, the realization of height systems for telluric planets and moons could be done by means of defining the orthometric and geoidal heights. In this case, however, the definition of the orthometric heights in principle differs. Whereas the terrestrial geoid is described as an equipotential surface that best approximates the mean sea level, such a definition for planets/moons is irrelevant in the absence of (liquid) global oceans. A more natural choice for planets and moons is to adopt the geoidal equipotential surface that closely approximates the geometric reference surface (the sphere or the ellipsoid). In this study, we address these aspects by proposing a more accurate approach for defining the orthometric heights for telluric planets and moons from available topographic and gravity models, while adopting the average crustal density in the absence of reliable crustal density models. In particular, we discuss a proper treatment of topographic masses in the context of gravimetric geoid determination. In numerical studies, we investigate differences between the geodetic and orthometric heights, represented by the geoidal heights, on Mercury, Venus, Mars, and Moon. Our results reveal that these differences are significant. The geoidal heights on Mercury vary from - 132 to 166 m. On Venus, the geoidal heights are between - 51 and 137 m with maxima on this planet at Atla Regio and Beta

  20. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). Annual Report 1998-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    The 1998/1999 Annual Report summarises ANSTO's performance and progress made on several major infrastructure projects and its research and development program. On 3 May 1999, the Government announced its support for a Replacement Research Reactor at Lucas Heights; the site licence has been granted by ARPANSA and the request for tender distributed to four pre qualified vendors. A significant effort during the year under review was directed towards the Replacement Research Reactor Project. Main objectives and achievements are also reported against established performance indicators within the the five core scientific business areas: International strategic relevance of Nuclear Science; Core nuclear facilities operation and development; Applications of Nuclear Science and Technology to the understanding of natural processes; Treatment and management of man-made and naturally occurring radioactive substances; and Competitiveness and ecological sustainability of industry. Also presented are the objectives and activities which supports the core scientific areas by providing best practice corporate support, safety management, information and human resource management for ANSTO staff. The organization has developed its 1999/2000 Operational Plan predominantly on a project-based approach

  1. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). Annual Report 1998-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The 1998/1999 Annual Report summarises ANSTO's performance and progress made on several major infrastructure projects and its research and development program. On 3 May 1999, the Government announced its support for a Replacement Research Reactor at Lucas Heights; the site licence has been granted by ARPANSA and the request for tender distributed to four pre qualified vendors. A significant effort during the year under review was directed towards the Replacement Research Reactor Project. Main objectives and achievements are also reported against established performance indicators within the the five core scientific business areas: International strategic relevance of Nuclear Science; Core nuclear facilities operation and development; Applications of Nuclear Science and Technology to the understanding of natural processes; Treatment and management of man-made and naturally occurring radioactive substances; and Competitiveness and ecological sustainability of industry. Also presented are the objectives and activities which supports the core scientific areas by providing best practice corporate support, safety management, information and human resource management for ANSTO staff. The organization has developed its 1999/2000 Operational Plan predominantly on a project-based approach.

  2. 1 September 2015 - CODEL Lucas, Members of the Committee on Science, Space and Technology, United States of America

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    visiting the ATLAS Visitors Centre and the ATLAS cavern with B. Heinemann, ATLAS Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley and signing the CERN Guest Book with the Director-General R. Heuer.

  3. Science | AAAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseppe Conte Italy's new prime minister defended discredited stem cell therapy By Luca Tancredi Barone defended discredited stem cell therapy By Luca Tancredi Barone May. 24, 2018 illustration of GOES-17 | May. 24, 2018 STEPHAN JUNEK/MPI BRAIN RESEARCH Apparatus for building a single NaCs molecule from two

  4. Encounter Probability of Significant Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.

    The determination of the design wave height (often given as the significant wave height) is usually based on statistical analysis of long-term extreme wave height measurement or hindcast. The result of such extreme wave height analysis is often given as the design wave height corresponding to a c...

  5. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...

  6. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the ... tidal height and amplitude can influence light penetra- ...... to environmental parameters in cage culture area of Sepanggar Bay, Malaysia.

  7. Acidente rural ampliado: o caso das "chuvas" de agrotóxicos sobre a cidade de Lucas do Rio Verde - MT Major rural accident: the pesticide "rain" case in Lucas do Rio Verde city - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderlei Antonio Pignati

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda o acidente ambiental causado por derivas de pulverizações aéreas de agrotóxico que atingiram o espaço urbano de Lucas do Rio Verde-MT, em março de 2006. Caracterizou-se como "acidente rural ampliado" de caráter ocupacional e ambiental, cuja gravidade e extensão ultrapassaram a unidade produtiva rural, causando impactos sanitários, sociais e ambientais. Este estudo de caso objetivou conhecer o cenário sociotécnico do acidente e o processo de vigilância em saúde-ambiente, numa dinâmica de pesquisa-ação. As informações foram colhidas através de entrevistas, documentos e registro de observações do cotidiano. Referenciou-se ainda na análise interdisciplinar e participativa de acidentes, com envolvimento de instituições locais de Saúde, Agricultura e Ambiente, lideranças sindicais e políticas, chacareiros e fazendeiros, Promotoria de Justiça, jornalistas e a Universidade. O estudo mostra que as ações de vigilância do "uso e abuso" de agrotóxicos ampliaram-se para "movimento pelo desenvolvimento sustentável da região", apoiado na vigilância participativa, articulada com a luta pela democracia e justiça social, na busca de uma agricultura e/ou ambiente sustentável.The article reports the environmental accident caused by aerial pesticide spraying that reached the urban space of Lucas do Rio Verde-MT, in March 2006. It was characterized as a "major rural accident" of environmental and occupational aspects whose seriousness and extension crossed the agriculturally productive unit boundaries causing sanitary, social and environmental impact. This case study had as its objective the understanding of the social-technical scene of the accident and the monitoring process in health-environment in a research-action dynamic. The information was collected through interviews, documents and daily observation reports. It also referred to accidents, multidisciplinary and participatory analyses with the participation

  8. Standardizing Scale Height Computation of Maven Ngims Neutral Data and Variations Between Exobase and Homeopause Scale Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, M. K.; Slipski, M.; Curry, S.; Williamson, H. N.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2017-12-01

    The MAVEN NGIMS team produces a level 3 product which includes the computation of Ar scale height an atmospheric temperatures at 200 km. In the latest version (v05_r01) this has been revised to include scale height fits for CO2, N2 O and CO. Members of the MAVEN team have used various methods to compute scale heights leading to significant variations in scale height values depending on fits and techniques within a few orbits even, occasionally, the same pass. Additionally fitting scale heights in a very stable atmosphere like the day side vs night side can have different results based on boundary conditions. Currently, most methods only compute Ar scale heights as it is most stable and reacts least with the instrument. The NGIMS team has chosen to expand these fitting techniques to include fitted scale heights for CO2, N2, CO, and O. Having compared multiple techniques, the method found to be most reliable for most conditions was determined to be a simple fit method. We have focused this to a fitting method that determines the exobase altidude of the CO2 atmosphere as a maximum altitude for the highest point for fitting, and uses the periapsis as the lowest point and then fits the altitude versus log(density). The slope of altitude vs log(density) is -1/H where H is the scale height of the atmosphere for each species. Since this is between the homeopause and the exobase, each species will have a different scale height by this point. This is being released as a new standardization for the level 3 product, with the understanding that scientists and team members will continue to compute more precise scale heights and temperatures as needed based on science and model demands. This is being released in the PDS NGIMS level 3 v05 files for August 2017. Additionally, we are examining these scale heights for variations seasonally, diurnally, and above and below the exobase. The atmosphere is significantly more stable on the dayside than on the nightside. We have also found

  9. Heritability of adult body height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Sammalisto, Sampo; Perola, Markus

    2003-01-01

    /unique environment (AE) model. Among women the heritability estimates were generally lower than among men with greater variation between countries, ranging from 0.68 to 0.84 when an additive genes/shared environment/unique environment (ACE) model was used. In four populations where an AE model fit equally well...... countries; body height was least in Italy (177 cm in men and 163 cm in women) and greatest in the Netherlands (184 cm and 171 cm, respectively). In men there was no corresponding variation in heritability of body height, heritability estimates ranging from 0.87 to 0.93 in populations under an additive genes...... or better, heritability ranged from 0.89 to 0.93. This difference between the sexes was mainly due to the effect of the shared environmental component of variance, which appears to be more important among women than among men in our study populations. Our results indicate that, in general, there are only...

  10. On the Extreme Wave Height Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1994-01-01

    The determination of the design wave height is usually based on the statistical analysis of long-term extreme wave height measurements. After an introduction to the procedure of the extreme wave height analysis, the paper presents new development concerning various aspects of the extreme wave...... height analysis. Finally, the paper gives a practical example based on a data set of the hindcasted wave heights for a deep water location in the Mediterranean Sea....

  11. Response to critique by lucas et al. (2009) of paper by Fassett (2009) documenting Paleocene dinosaurs in the San Juan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    In this issue of Palaeontologia Electronica Lucas, et al. (2009) question the validity f the Fassett (2009) paper that presented evidence for Paleocene dinosaurs in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado. Their challenges focus primarily on the lithostratigraphy, palynology, and paleomagnetism of the dinosaur-bearing Ojo Alamo Sandstone, shown by Fassett to be of Paleocene age. The lithostratigraphy of the Ojo Alamo is addressed by Lucas et al. (2009) based on detailed studies of outcrops of this formation in two relatively small areas in the southern San Juan Basin where Ojo Alamo dinosaur fossils have been found. When viewed over its 13,000 km2 extent, the Ojo Alamo is seen to be a much more complex formation than these authors recognize, thus their perception and description of the lithostratigraphy of this rock unit is limited and provincial. Fassett (2009) presented a detailed discussion of the palynology of the rocks adjacent to the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) interface in the San Juan Basin, including a 67-page appendix and 25 tables listing the 244 palynomorph species identified from these strata. The Ojo Alamo Sandstone produced 103 palynomorphs from five principal localities including one especially prolific sample set from drill core through K-T strata. Without exception, all samples collected from the Ojo Alamo Sandstone for palynologic analysis were found to contain Paleocene palynomorph assemblages. Lucas et al. challenge only one Ojo Alamo palynomorph assemblage from one of the five areas studied, stating that they were unable to find palynomorph-productive samples at that locality. They submit no new palynologic data that refutes the Paleocene palynologic age of the Ojo Alamo Sandstone. In addressing the paleomagnetism of the Ojo Alamo, these authors dismiss the presence of a critical normal-polarity magnetochron discovered in the lower part of the Ojo Alamo - magnetochron C29n.2n of Fassett (2009) with no evidence to justify this dismissal

  12. Encounter Probability of Individual Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.

    1998-01-01

    wave height corresponding to a certain exceedence probability within a structure lifetime (encounter probability), based on the statistical analysis of long-term extreme significant wave height. Then the design individual wave height is calculated as the expected maximum individual wave height...... associated with the design significant wave height, with the assumption that the individual wave heights follow the Rayleigh distribution. However, the exceedence probability of such a design individual wave height within the structure lifetime is unknown. The paper presents a method for the determination...... of the design individual wave height corresponding to an exceedence probability within the structure lifetime, given the long-term extreme significant wave height. The method can also be applied for estimation of the number of relatively large waves for fatigue analysis of constructions....

  13. Final height in survivors of childhood cancer compared with Height Standard Deviation Scores at diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijnenburg, S. L.; Raemaekers, S.; van den Berg, H.; van Dijk, I. W. E. M.; Lieverst, J. A.; van der Pal, H. J.; Jaspers, M. W. M.; Caron, H. N.; Kremer, L. C.; van Santen, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate final height in a cohort of Dutch childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and assess possible determinants of final height, including height at diagnosis. We calculated standard deviation scores (SDS) for height at initial cancer diagnosis and height in adulthood in a cohort of

  14. Modeling the height of young forests regenerating from recent disturbances in Mississippi using Landsat and ICESat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainong Li; Chengquan Huang; Guoqing Sun; Hua Shi; Chris Toney; Zhiliang Zhu; Matthew G. Rollins; Samuel N. Goward; Jeffrey G. Masek

    2011-01-01

    Many forestry and earth science applications require spatially detailed forest height data sets. Among the various remote sensing technologies, lidar offers the most potential for obtaining reliable height measurement. However, existing and planned spaceborne lidar systems do not have the capability to produce spatially contiguous, fine resolution forest height maps...

  15. En híbrida mezcolanza: Exile and Cultural Anxiety in Alirio Díaz Guerra’s Lucas Guevara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Browitt

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The novel Lucas Guevara, written by the Colombian exile, Alirio Díaz Guerra, was first published in New York in 1914. It is considered to be the earliest novel about Latin American immigration to the United States written in Spanish. This fact alone merits its study. A second edition was published in 2001 along with a critical-biographical introduction, which presents the novel as the precursor of a developing genre of Hispanic immigrant literature centred on the naïve Latin American migrant who arrives in the United States inspired by the opportunities which the metropolis supposedly affords, but who nevertheless suffers a series of misfortunes because of the inability to adapt to the new culture. On the level of overt content, the novel is a lachrymose, stereotypical and conventional denunciation of the supposed evils of an amoral US society and the libertine and materialistic values underpinning it. But on a much deeper level, a picture emerges of Díaz Guerra himself as a displaced, disenchanted intellectual exile who suffers (or has suffered an acute cultural and class anxiety in the transition from a patrician Arcadia to the heart of capitalist, industrial modernity. Through a reading of the narrative voice, and by extension the implied author, we witness his difficult coming to terms with a highly-charged New York society (in comparison to his homeland, not only because of the sexual liberation brought on by secular modernization, but also because of the close proximity of volatile, eroticised bodies on the over-crowded Lower East Side of New York, the scene of the novel and Díaz Guerra’s point of entry into the United States. The novel also provides an occasion to contrast how Díaz Guerra deals with the condition of exile, in contrast to that most emblematic of Latin American political refugees, José Martí.

  16. Cultivation of Aschersonia placenta Berkeley and Broom and its efficacy for controlling Parlatoria ziziphi (Lucas (Hemiptera: Diaspididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokgluaymai Homrahud

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The entomopathogenic fungus genus Aschersonia (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes is host specific to some aleyrodids and scale insects. In search of the Thai endemic species, fungus samples were isolated from cadavers of citrus whiteflies (Aleyrodes tabaci Gennadius found in citrus orchards in Trat province, Thailand. After morphological analysis and scanning electron microscopic examination, it was identified as Aschersonia placenta Berkeley and Broom. Seven synthetic media, namely: potato dextrose agar (PDA, PDA with pasteurized milk (Foremost® (PDA + M, Sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast extract (SDAY, SDA with pasteurized milk (Foremost® (SDA + M, corn meal agar (CMA, water agar with juice of eight vegetable species (V8® (WA + V8 and WA were explored as appropriate media for fungal cultivation. SDAY and SDA + M gave the best colony radial growth, producing 2.04 ± 0.13 cm and 2.09 ± 0.10 cm in 21 d, respectively. However, based on the ability of A. placenta to produce conidia, PDA and SDAY which produced 2.59 × 108 conidia/mL and 2.69 × 108 conidia/mL, respectively, were considered as the most suitable media for this fungal species. The efficiency assessment of A. placenta for controlling black parlatoria (Parlatoria ziziphi (Lucas, indicated that a conidial suspension at 1 × 109 conidia/mL gave 23.73% and 27.42% mortality at 14 and 21 d post inoculation, respectively.

  17. Pro-Active Fall-Risk Management is Mandatory to Sustain in Hospital-Fall Prevention in Older Patients--Validation of the LUCAS Fall-Risk Screening in 2,337 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, V S; Neumann, L; Golgert, S; von Renteln-Kruse, W

    2015-12-01

    Prevention of in-hospital falls contributes to improvement of patient safety. However, the identification of high-risk patients remains a challenge despite knowledge of fall-risk factors. Hence, objective was to prospectively validate the performance of the LUCAS (Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study) fall-risk screening, based on routine data (fall history, mobility, mental status) and applied by nurses. Observational study comparing two groups of patients who underwent different fall-risk screenings; the LUCAS screening (2010 - 2011) and the STRATIFY (St. Thomas's Risk Assessment Tool In Falling Elderly Inpatients) (2004 - 2006). Urban teaching hospital. Consecutively hospitalized patients (≥ 65 years old) were screened on admission; LUCAS n = 2,337, STRATIFY n = 4,735. The proportions of fallers were compared between the STRATIFY and the LUCAS time periods. The number of fallers expected was compared to that observed in the LUCAS time period. Standardized fall-incidence recording included case-note checks for unreported falls. Plausibility checks of fall-risk factors and logistic regression analysis for variable fall-risk factors were performed. The proportions of fallers during the two time periods were LUCAS n = 291/2,337 (12.5%) vs. STRATIFY n = 508/4,735 (10.7%). After adjustment for risk-factor prevalence, the proportion of fallers expected was 14.5% (334/2,337), the proportion observed was 12.5% (291/2,337) (p = 0.038). In-hospital fall prevention including systematic use of the LUCAS fall-risk screening reduced the proportion of fallers compared to that expected from the patients' fall-risk profile. Raw proportions of fallers are not suitable to evaluate fall prevention in hospital because of variable prevalence of patients' fall-risk factors over time. Continuous communication, education and training is needed to sustain in-hospital falls prevention.

  18. Maternal Height and Child Growth Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Addo, O. Yaw; Stein, Aryeh D.; Fall, Caroline H.; Gigante, Denise P.; Guntupalli, Aravinda M.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Lee, Nanette; Norris, Shane A.; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Richter, Linda M.; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:\\ud To examine associations between maternal height and child growth during 4 developmental periods: intrauterine, birth to age 2 years, age 2 years to mid-childhood (MC), and MC to adulthood.\\ud \\ud STUDY DESIGN:\\ud Pooled analysis of maternal height and offspring growth using 7630 mother-child pairs from 5 birth cohorts (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa). We used conditional height measures that control for collinearity in height across periods. We estim...

  19. Genetically Determined Height and Coronary Artery Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, Christopher P.; Hamby, Stephen E.; Saleheen, Danish; Hopewell, Jenna C.; Zeng, Lingyao; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Willenborg, Christina; Burgess, Stephen; Amouyel, Phillipe; Anand, Sonia; Blankenberg, Stefan; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Clarke, Robert J.; Collins, Rory; Dedoussis, George; Farrall, Martin; Franks, Paul W.; Groop, Leif; Hall, Alistair S.; Hamsten, Anders; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hovingh, G. Kees; Ingelsson, Erik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kee, Frank; König, Inke R.; Kooner, Jaspal; Lehtimäki, Terho; März, Winifred; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Nieminen, Markku S.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Peters, Annette; Perola, Markus; Reilly, Muredach P.; Ripatti, Samuli; Roberts, Robert; Salomaa, Veikko; Shah, Svati H.; Schreiber, Stefan; Siegbahn, Agneta; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Veronesi, Giovani; Wareham, Nicholas; Willer, Cristen J.; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Erdmann, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The nature and underlying mechanisms of an inverse association between adult height and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) are unclear. METHODS We used a genetic approach to investigate the association between height and CAD, using 180 height-associated genetic variants. We tested

  20. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    Give us the tools: science and technology for development. Ottawa, ...... altered technical rela- tionships among the factors used in the process of production, and the en- .... to ourselves only the rights of audit and periodic substantive review." If a ...... and destroying scarce water reserves, recreational areas and a generally.

  1. In defense of the classical height system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Ismael; Vaníček, Petr; Sheng, Michael; Kingdon, Robert William; Santos, Marcelo C.

    2017-11-01

    In many European countries, normal heights referred to the quasi-geoid as introduced by Molodenskij in the mid-20th century are preferred to the classical height system that consists of orthometric heights and the geoid as a reference surface for these heights. The rationale for this choice is supposed to be that in the classical height system, neither the geoid, nor the orthometric height can be ever known with centimetre level accuracy because one would need to know the topographical mass density to a level that can never be achieved. The aim of this paper is to question the validity of this rationale. The common way of assessing the congruency of a local geoid model and the orthometric heights is to compare the geoid heights with the difference between orthometric heights provided by leveling and geodetic heights provided by GNSS. On the other hand, testing the congruency of a quasi-geoidal model with normal height a similar procedure is used, except that instead of orthometric heights, normal heights are employed. For the area of Auvergne, France, which is now a more or less standard choice for precise geoid or quasi-geoid testing, only the normal heights are supplied by the Institute Geographic National, the provider of the data. This is clearly the consequence of the European preference for the Molodenskij system. The quality of the height system is to be judged by the congruency of the difference of the geoid/quasi-geoid heights subtracted from the geodetic heights and orthometric/normal heights. To assess the congruency of the classical height system, the Helmert approximation of orthometric heights is typically used as the transformation between normal and Helmert's heights is easily done. However, the evaluation of the differences between Helmert's and the rigorous orthometric heights is somewhat more involved as will be seen from the review in this paper. For the area of interest, the differences between normal and Helmert's heights at the control

  2. Per Luca Ronconi (1933-2015: quasi una «leçon de ténèbres»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Longhi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent death of Luca Ronconi (February 21st, 2015 became the occasion to retrace his artistic path, of a forever restless ‘adolescent’, and to understand better his typical traits. Among projects that will remain forever unfulfilled, titanic failures and visionary shows, the keystone of the poetics of Ronconi turns out to be an inexhaustible search of the infinite, in a dialectic between the exceeding of the limit and the strenuous comparison with its inescapable necessity. The theatre of Ronconi, in its giddy pursuit of ‘what has no end’, confesses its most genuine nature: an ‘anatomical’ theatre of death.

  3. Analysis of the stormwater drainage of the historic walls of Cartagena de Indias between the bastions of San Lucas, Santa Catalina and Santa Clara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utria, A.; Saba, M.; Quiñones-Bolaños, E.

    2017-12-01

    The city walls of Cartagena between the Baluarte of San Lucas and Santa Clara reflects the consequences of poor stormwater drainage. In the present investigation the current drainage state of this area have been evaluated, assessing its sizing and conditions to be then modelled through SWMM 5 software for return periods of 5, 10, 15 and 20 years respectively. Finally, it has been determined that the physical deterioration of the drainage elements justifies the malfunction of the whole system, therefore cleaning and periodic maintenance of the drainage elements is strongly suggested.

  4. The Invertibility, Explicit Determinants, and Inverses of Circulant and Left Circulant and g-Circulant Matrices Involving Any Continuous Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulant matrices play an important role in solving delay differential equations. In this paper, circulant type matrices including the circulant and left circulant and g-circulant matrices with any continuous Fibonacci and Lucas numbers are considered. Firstly, the invertibility of the circulant matrix is discussed and the explicit determinant and the inverse matrices by constructing the transformation matrices are presented. Furthermore, the invertibility of the left circulant and g-circulant matrices is also studied. We obtain the explicit determinants and the inverse matrices of the left circulant and g-circulant matrices by utilizing the relationship between left circulant, g-circulant matrices and circulant matrix, respectively.

  5. Methods for conduct of atmospheric tracer studies at ANSTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G H; Stone, D J.M.; Pascoe, J H [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Environment Division

    2000-07-01

    A perfluorocarbon atmospheric tracer system has been developed to investigate atmospheric dispersion processes in the region surrounding the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre. This report discusses the tracer release, sampling and analysis methods.

  6. Physiological pattern of lumbar disc height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggemann, M.; Frobin, W.; Brinckmann, P.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to present a new method of quantifying objectively the height of all discs in lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine and of analysing the normal craniocaudal sequence pattern of lumbar disc heights. Methods: The new parameter is the ventrally measured disc height corrected for the dependence on the angle of lordosis by normalisation to mean angles observed in the erect posture of healthy persons. To eliminate radiographic magnification, the corrected ventral height is related to the mean depth of the cranially adjoining vertebra. In this manner lumbar disc heights were objectively measured in young, mature and healthy persons (146 males and 65 females). The craniocaudal sequence pattern was analysed by mean values from all persons and by height differences of adjoining discs in each individual lumbar spine. Results: Mean normative values demonstrated an increase in disc height between L1/L2 and L4/L5 and a constant or decreasing disc height between L4/L5 and L5/S1. However, this 'physiological sequence of disc height in the statistical mean' was observed in only 36% of normal males and 55% of normal females. Conclusion: The radiological pattern of the 'physiological sequence of lumbar disc height' leads to a relevant portion of false positive pathological results especially at L4/L5. An increase of disc height from L4/L5 to L5/S1 may be normal. The recognition of decreased disc height should be based on an abrupt change in the heights of adjoining discs and not on a deviation from a craniocaudal sequence pattern. (orig.) [de

  7. Final height in survivors of childhood cancer compared with Height Standard Deviation Scores at diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knijnenburg, S L; Raemaekers, S; van den Berg, H; van Dijk, I W E M; Lieverst, J A; van der Pal, H J; Jaspers, M W M; Caron, H N; Kremer, L C; van Santen, H M

    2013-04-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate final height in a cohort of Dutch childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and assess possible determinants of final height, including height at diagnosis. We calculated standard deviation scores (SDS) for height at initial cancer diagnosis and height in adulthood in a cohort of 573 CCS. Multivariable regression analyses were carried out to estimate the influence of different determinants on height SDS at follow-up. Overall, survivors had a normal height SDS at cancer diagnosis. However, at follow-up in adulthood, 8.9% had a height ≤-2 SDS. Height SDS at diagnosis was an important determinant for adult height SDS. Children treated with (higher doses of) radiotherapy showed significantly reduced final height SDS. Survivors treated with total body irradiation (TBI) and craniospinal radiation had the greatest loss in height (-1.56 and -1.37 SDS, respectively). Younger age at diagnosis contributed negatively to final height. Height at diagnosis was an important determinant for height SDS at follow-up. Survivors treated with TBI, cranial and craniospinal irradiation should be monitored periodically for adequate linear growth, to enable treatment on time if necessary. For correct interpretation of treatment-related late effects studies in CCS, pre-treatment data should always be included.

  8. Imagery and fear influence height perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Cody, Meghan W; Stefanucci, Jeanine K; Proffitt, Dennis R; Teachman, Bethany A

    2009-04-01

    The current study tested whether height overestimation is related to height fear and influenced by images of falling. To assess perceptual biases, participants high (n=65) versus low (n=64) in height fear estimated the vertical extents of two balconies using a visual matching task. On one of the balconies, participants engaged in an imagery exercise designed to enhance the subjective sense that they were acting in a dangerous environment by picturing themselves falling. As expected, we found that individuals overestimated the balcony's height more after they imagined themselves falling, particularly if they were already afraid of heights. These findings suggest that height fear may serve as a vulnerability factor that leads to perceptual biases when triggered by a stressor (in this case, images of falling).

  9. LA CONTABILIDAD Y LA PARTIDA DOBLE: REPERCUSIÓN EUROPEA DE LA OBRA MAESTRA DE LUCA PACIOLI (SIGLOS XVI-XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gonçalves

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El artículo asume como finalidad la de analizar como se procesó la divulgación del método de la partida doble, con especial relevo para la literatura contabilística que en mucho ayudó a su difusión. De entre los diversos autores que contribuyeron para su generalización y difusión, se destaca Luca di Bartholomeu dei Pacioli. Por consiguiente, el artículo también tiene como objetivo presentar una reseña de los principales aspectos de la vida y de la obra de este tratadista de la Contabilidad, considerado por muchos el precursor de nuestra disciplina, por haber publicado en 1494 en Venecia la Summa de Arithmetica, Geometria, Proportioni et Proportionalita, obra primordial en el dominio de nuestra especialidad, más concretamente una sección suya – el Tratatus Particularis de Computis y Scripturis (De las Cuentas y las Escrituras. Palabras-clave: Historia de la Contabilidad. Partida Doble. Registros Contabilísticos. Luca Pacioli. De Computis et Scripturis.

  10. Therapeutic drug monitoring of tacrolimus in pancreas transplantation at São Lucas Hospital Monitoramento terapêutico de tacrolimus em transplante de pâncreas no Hospital São Lucas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Mello de Oliveira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Tacrolimus (FK 506, a potent immunosuppressive drug used in prevention and treatment of rejection of transplanted organs, exhibits efficacy related to its blood levels and has a narrow therapeutic index. These factors require frequent monitoring of patients blood levels, in attempt to adjust the dose to reach the best drug concentration with minimum side effects. In this historic study, the authors evaluated tacrolimus blood profile in patients submitted to pancreas transplantation between June 2002 and March 2004. The results show that blood levels were, mostly, within subtherapeutic (39.1% and toxic (43.4% ranges. Considering post-transplantation period, subtherapeutic levels were more frequent until three months after the graft receiving (51.1% and between three and six months (41.9%, whereas toxic levels were more common six months after the transplantation (63%. Patients who received pancreas/kidney transplantation showed a tendency to present toxic levels. The same did not happen with the patients who received isolated pancreas and pancreas after kidney; these patients presented subtherapeutic blood levels in all post-transplantation periods. The results found in this study reassure the importance of therapeutic monitoring to achieve the adequate blood levels of tacrolimus following pancreas transplantation.O tacrolimus (FK506, um potente imunossupressor utilizado na profilaxia e no tratamento de rejeições pós-transplante, exibe eficácia relacionada com sua concentração sangüínea e possui estreita janela terapêutica. Esses fatores requerem o freqüente monitoramento dos níveis sangüíneos em pacientes que fazem uso do fármaco, tendo como objetivo o ajuste de dose para uma concentração terapêutica ótima com efeitos colaterais mínimos. Este estudo retrospectivo foi realizado através do acesso à base de dados do Laboratório de Patologia Clínica do Hospital São Lucas, da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do

  11. Adult height, nutrition, and population health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jessica M.; Subramanian, S.V.; Davey Smith, George

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult height, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult height and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult height (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of height with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult height that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult height is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult height and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult height may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal height as a potentially important influence. PMID:26928678

  12. Bali, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The volcanic nature of the island of Bali is evident in this shaded relief image generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).Bali, along with several smaller islands, make up one of the 27 Provinces of Indonesia. It lies over a major subduction zone where the Indo-Australian tectonic plate collides with the Sunda plate, creating one of the most volcanically active regions on the planet.The most significant feature on Bali is Gunung Agung, the symmetric, conical mountain at the right-center of the image. This 'stratovolcano,' 3,148 meters (10,308 feet) high, is held sacred in Balinese culture, and last erupted in 1963 after being dormant and thought inactive for 120 years. This violent event resulted in over 1,000 deaths, and coincided with a purification ceremony called Eka Dasa Rudra, meant to restore the balance between nature and man. This most important Balinese rite is held only once per century, and the almost exact correspondence between the beginning of the ceremony and the eruption is though to have great religious significance.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot

  13. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, southern Mexico and parts of Cuba and Jamaica are all seen in this image from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The dominant feature of the northern part of Central America is the Sierra Madre Range, spreading east from Mexico between the narrow Pacific coastal plain and the limestone lowland of the Yucatan Peninsula. Parallel hill ranges sweep across Honduras and extend south, past the Caribbean Mosquito Coast to lakes Managua and Nicaragua. The Cordillera Central rises to the south, gradually descending to Lake Gatun and the Isthmus of Panama. A highly active volcanic belt runs along the Pacific seaboard from Mexico to Costa Rica.High-quality satellite imagery of Central America has, until now, been difficult to obtain due to persistent cloud cover in this region of the world. The ability of SRTM to penetrate clouds and make three-dimensional measurements has allowed the generation of the first complete high-resolution topographic map of the entire region. This map was used to generate the image.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations.For an annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Large image: 9 mB jpeg)Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect

  14. World Globes, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    These images of the world were generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM Project has recently released a new global data set called SRTM30, where the original one arcsecond of latitude and longitude resolution (about 30 meters, or 98 feet, at the equator) was reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters, or 1496 feet.) These images were created from that data set and show the Earth as it would be viewed from a point in space centered over the Americas, Africa and the western Pacific.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (about 30 meters or 98 feet

  15. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, lying between the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and the Bering Sea and Pacific Ocean to the east, is one of the most active volcanic regions along the Pacific Ring of Fire. It covers an area about the size of Colorado but contains more than 100 volcanoes stretching across the 1000-kilometer-long (620-mile-long) land mass. A dozen or more of these have active vents, with the youngest located along the eastern half of the peninsula. This color-coded shaded relief image, generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), shows Kamchatka's volcanic nature to dramatic effect.Kliuchevskoi, one of the most active and renowned volcanoes in the world, dominates the main cluster of volcanoes called the Kliuchi group, visible as a circular feature in the center-right of the image. The two other main volcanic ranges lie along northeast-southwest lines, with the older, less active range occupying the center and western half of Kamchatka. The younger, more active belt begins at the southernmost point of the peninsula and continues upward along the Pacific coastline.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction, so northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission flew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (200

  16. Sinai Peninsula, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Sinai Peninsula, located between Africa and Asia, is a result of those two continents pulling apart from each other. Earth's crust is cracking, stretching, and lowering along the two northern branches of the Red Sea, namely the Gulf of Suez, seen here on the west (left), and the Gulf of Aqaba, seen to the east (right). This color-coded shaded relief image shows the triangular nature of the peninsula, with the coast of the Mediterranean Sea forming the northern side of the triangle. The Suez Canal can be seen as the narrow vertical blue line in the upper left connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean. The peninsula is divided into three distinct parts; the northern region consisting chiefly of sandstone, plains and hills, the central area dominated by the Tih Plateau, and the mountainous southern region where towering peaks abound. Much of the Sinai is deeply dissected by river valleys, or wadis, that eroded during an earlier geologic period and break the surface of the plateau into a series of detached massifs with a few scattered oases. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed

  17. Ireland, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The island of Ireland comprises a large central lowland of limestone with a relief of hills surrounded by a discontinuous border of coastal mountains which vary greatly in geological structure. The mountain ridges of the south are composed of old red sandstone separated by limestone river valleys. Granite predominates in the mountains of Galway, Mayo and Donegal in the west and north-west and in Counties Down and Wicklow on the east coast, while a basalt plateau covers much of the north-east of the country. The central plain, which is broken in places by low hills, is extensively covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand. It has considerable areas of bog and numerous lakes. The island has seen at least two general glaciations and everywhere ice-smoothed rock, mountain lakes, glacial valleys and deposits of glacial sand, gravel and clay mark the passage of the ice. Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

  18. Evolutionary perspectives on human height variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, Gert; Barrett, Louise

    Human height is a highly variable trait, both within and between populations, has a high heritability, and influences the manner in which people behave and are treated in society. Although we know much about human height, this information has rarely been brought together in a comprehensive,

  19. Final height and intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Maïthé

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 10% of small for gestational age (SGA) children maintain a small body size throughout childhood and often into adult life with a decreased pubertal spurt. Growth hormone (GH) therapy increases short-term growth in a dose-dependent manner and adult height had now been well documented. Shorter children might benefit from a higher dose at start (50μg/kg/day). The response to GH treatment was similar for both preterm and term short SGA groups and the effect of GH treatment on adult height showed a wide variation in growth response. As a whole, mean adult height is higher than -2 SDS in 60% of patients and 70% reached an adult height in their target height with better results with higher doses and combined GnRH analog therapy in those who were short at onset of puberty. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Estructura de tallas y edad del marlin rayado Tetrapturus audax (Pisces:Xiphidae,en Cabo San Lucas,Baja California Sur,México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Neri Melo Barrera

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available De 1988 a 1993 se muestrearon 1030 ejemplares de marlin rayado (Tetrapturus audax capturados por la flota deportiva de Cabo San Lucas.Se recolectaron 389 espinas dorsales para la estimación de la edad.La relación Longitud mandibular-Radio total de la espina es similar para hembras y machos.Se encontró que la cuarta espina dorsal refleja adecuadamente el crecimiento.La periodicidad de formación de las marcas de crecimiento es anual y parece que se relaciona con la temperatura superficial promedio del mar.Se contaron las bandas opaco-hialinas en cada corte de las espinas,y se encontraron diez grupos de edad (del dos al once,siendo el grupo siete el más abundante, seguido por los grupos seis y ocho.Las tallas observadas para el marlin rayado fueron de 160-280 cm de longitud mandibular,el 90%de los organismos estuvieron entre 190 y 225 cm.Los ejemplares pequeños se incorporan a la pesquería de junio hasta diciembre.Size and age structure of the striped marlin Tetrapturus audax (Pisces:Xiphidae,at Cabo San Lucas,Baja California Sur,México .The striped marlin (Tetrapturus audaxis found in temperate and tropical waters of the Pacific and Indian Ocean.It is particularly abundant in the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula.Specimens brought to Cabo San Lucas port (22 °53 ’ N y 109 °54 ’ Wby the sport fishery fleet that operates withing a radius of 54 km from 1988 to 1993 were sexes,measured and weighed.A total 1030 individuals were sampled.Dorsal fin spines (389were collected for age estimation.The spines were sectioned and hyaline-opaque bands counted.The relation of length to spine radius was similar for males and females.The fourth dorsal spine reflected the growth of the fish.The rhythm of growth mark formation is yearly and related to the sea surface temperature.Ten age groups were found and the seventh group was the most abundant,followed by groups "6 "and "8 ".The age structure of the striped marlin was stable in the study

  1. Perfil das infecções do trato urinário em idosos hospitalizados na Unidade de Geriatria do Hospital São Lucas da PUCRS = Urinary tract infections profile of the hospitalized elderly in a Geriatric Ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallacorte, Roberta Rigo

    2007-01-01

    Conclusões: Escherichia coli foi o germe mais associado a infecções do trato urinário nos idosos hospitalizados na Unidade de Geriatria do Hospital São Lucas da PUCRS. Nessa população, a taxa de resistência bacteriana a fluorquinolonas foi elevada

  2. Height perception influenced by texture gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozawa, Junko

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to examine whether a texture gradient influences perception of relative object height. Previous research implicated texture cues in judgments of object width, but similar influences have not been demonstrated for relative height. In this study, I evaluate a hypothesis that the projective ratio of the number of texture elements covered by the objects combined with the ratio of the retinal object heights determines percepts of relative object height. Density of texture background was varied: four density conditions ranged from no-texture to very dense texture. In experiments 1 and 2, participants judged the height of comparison bar compared to the standard bar positioned on no-texture or textured backgrounds. Results showed relative height judgments differed with texture manipulations, consistent with predictions from a hypothesised combination of the number of texture elements with retinal height (experiment 1), or partially consistent with this hypothesis (experiment 2). In experiment 2, variations in the position of a comparison object showed that comparisons located far from the horizon were judged more poorly than in other positions. In experiment 3 I examined distance perception; relative distance judgments were found to be also affected by textured backgrounds. Results are discussed in terms of Gibson's relational theory and distance calibration theory.

  3. Evolución y planeación urbana en la ciudad turística de Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur (México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Bojórquez Luque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento de las ciudades debe de estar guiado por políticas públicas cuyo objetivo central sea la de configurar el espacio urbano que sea propicio para el desarrollo pleno de sus habitantes. Uno de los instrumentos fundamentales es la creación de instituciones locales para proyectar el crecimiento de la ciudad, así como los espacios de vida común para sus habitantes, donde tengan lugares de convivencia generando un tejido social sano y vigoroso. Este trabajo tiene como propósito analizar el modelo de estructura urbana para la ciudad de Cabo San Lucas que propone el Plan de Desarrollo Urbano a partir del modelo polinuclear, fortaleciendo un centro y tres subcentros urbanos y proponiendo una serie de mejoras y extensión de las instalaciones urbanas actuales.

  4. Global effects of income and income inequality on adult height and sexual dimorphism in height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, Barry; Scheffler, Christiane; Hermanussen, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Average adult height of a population is considered a biomarker of the quality of the health environment and economic conditions. The causal relationships between height and income inequality are not well understood. We analyze data from 169 countries for national average heights of men and women and national-level economic factors to test two hypotheses: (1) income inequality has a greater association with average adult height than does absolute income; and (2) neither income nor income inequality has an effect on sexual dimorphism in height. Average height data come from the NCD-RisC health risk factor collaboration. Economic indicators are derived from the World Bank data archive and include gross domestic product (GDP), Gross National Income per capita adjusted for personal purchasing power (GNI_PPP), and income equality assessed by the Gini coefficient calculated by the Wagstaff method. Hypothesis 1 is supported. Greater income equality is most predictive of average height for both sexes. GNI_PPP explains a significant, but smaller, amount of the variation. National GDP has no association with height. Hypothesis 2 is rejected. With greater average adult height there is greater sexual dimorphism. Findings support a growing literature on the pernicious effects of inequality on growth in height and, by extension, on health. Gradients in height reflect gradients in social disadvantage. Inequality should be considered a pollutant that disempowers people from the resources needed for their own healthy growth and development and for the health and good growth of their children. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. 11th AINSE Plasma Physics Conference 1977, 7th and 8th February, 1977, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia), 9th February, 1977, University of Sydney. Abstracts of Papers 1-54

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, C. J. [ed.

    1977-02-15

    Abstracts of papers 1-54 scheduled for oral presentation at the 11th AINSE Plasma Physics Conference are included. No introductory or summary information is provided. Each page consists of the title, authors, organization affiliation, and abstract.

  6. Forensic Physics 101: Falls from a height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2008-09-01

    The physics of falling from a height, a topic that could be included in a course on forensic physics or in an undergraduate class as an example of Newton's laws, is applied to a common forensic problem.

  7. Estimating Mixing Heights Using Microwave Temperature Profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson-Gammon, John; Powell, Christina; Mahoney, Michael; Angevine, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    A paper describes the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) for making measurements of the planetary boundary layer thermal structure data necessary for air quality forecasting as the Mixing Layer (ML) height determines the volume in which daytime pollution is primarily concentrated. This is the first time that an airborne temperature profiler has been used to measure the mixing layer height. Normally, this is done using a radar wind profiler, which is both noisy and large. The MTP was deployed during the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study (TexAQS-2000). An objective technique was developed and tested for estimating the ML height from the MTP vertical temperature profiles. In order to calibrate the technique and evaluate the usefulness of this approach, estimates from a variety of measurements during the TexAQS-2000 were compared. Estimates of ML height were used from radiosondes, radar wind profilers, an aerosol backscatter lidar, and in-situ aircraft measurements in addition to those from the MTP.

  8. Soft computing methods for geoidal height transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyilmaz, O.; Özlüdemir, M. T.; Ayan, T.; Çelik, R. N.

    2009-07-01

    Soft computing techniques, such as fuzzy logic and artificial neural network (ANN) approaches, have enabled researchers to create precise models for use in many scientific and engineering applications. Applications that can be employed in geodetic studies include the estimation of earth rotation parameters and the determination of mean sea level changes. Another important field of geodesy in which these computing techniques can be applied is geoidal height transformation. We report here our use of a conventional polynomial model, the Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy (or in some publications, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy) Inference System (ANFIS), an ANN and a modified ANN approach to approximate geoid heights. These approximation models have been tested on a number of test points. The results obtained through the transformation processes from ellipsoidal heights into local levelling heights have also been compared.

  9. U.S. Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the conterminous United States is the GEOID96 model. The computation used about 1.8 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in...

  10. PR/VI Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 26,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data...

  11. Principal Hawaiian Islands Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 61,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data held...

  12. Australia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. Location: 45 to 10 degrees South latitude, 112 to 155 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  13. Guiana Highlands, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Doyle's 1912 best-seller 'The Lost World.'Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.Location: 0.2 South to 8.7 degrees North latitude, 60 to 67.9 degrees West longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM30 and GTOPO30 elevation models Data Resolution: SRTM 30 arcsecond (about 928 meters or 1496 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 for SRTM

  14. Olduvai Gorge, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. Location: 3 degrees south latitude, 35 degrees east longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 223 by 223 kilometers (138 by 138 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  15. France, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of France was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was reduced to 6 arcseconds (about 185 meters north-south and 127 meters east-west), resampled to a Mercator projection, and the French border outlined. Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the country is readily apparent.The upper central part of this scene is dominated by the Paris Basin, which consists of a layered sequence of sedimentary rocks. Fertile soils over much of the area make good agricultural land. The Normandie coast to the upper left is characterized by high, chalk cliffs, while the Brittany coast (the peninsula to the left) is highly indented where deep valleys were drowned by the sea, and the Biscay coast to the southwest is marked by flat, sandy beaches.To the south, the Pyrenees form a natural border between France and Spain, and the south-central part of the country is dominated by the ancient Massif Central. Subject to volcanism that has only subsided in the last 10,000 years, these central mountains are separated from the Alps by the north-south trending Rhone River Basin.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D

  16. Challenges in Defining Tsunami Wave Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroker, K. J.; Dunbar, P. K.; Mungov, G.; Sweeney, A.; Arcos, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) and co-located World Data Service for Geophysics maintain the global tsunami archive consisting of the historical tsunami database, imagery, and raw and processed water level data. The historical tsunami database incorporates, where available, maximum wave heights for each coastal tide gauge and deep-ocean buoy that recorded a tsunami signal. These data are important because they are used for tsunami hazard assessment, model calibration, validation, and forecast and warning. There have been ongoing discussions in the tsunami community about the correct way to measure and report these wave heights. It is important to understand how these measurements might vary depending on how the data were processed and the definition of maximum wave height. On September 16, 2015, an 8.3 Mw earthquake located 48 km west of Illapel, Chile generated a tsunami that was observed all over the Pacific region. We processed the time-series water level data for 57 tide gauges that recorded this tsunami and compared the maximum wave heights determined from different definitions. We also compared the maximum wave heights from the NCEI-processed data with the heights reported by the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers. We found that in the near field different methods of determining the maximum tsunami wave heights could result in large differences due to possible instrumental clipping. We also found that the maximum peak is usually larger than the maximum amplitude (½ peak-to-trough), but the differences for the majority of the stations were Warning Centers. Since there is currently only one field in the NCEI historical tsunami database to store the maximum tsunami wave height, NCEI will consider adding an additional field for the maximum peak measurement.

  17. Love and fear of heights: the pathophysiology and psychology of height imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salassa, John R; Zapala, David A

    2009-01-01

    Individual psychological responses to heights vary on a continuum from acrophobia to height intolerance, height tolerance, and height enjoyment. This paper reviews the English literature and summarizes the physiologic and psychological factors that generate different responses to heights while standing still in a static or motionless environment. Perceptual cues to height arise from vision. Normal postural sway of 2 cm for peripheral objects within 3 m increases as eye-object distance increases. Postural sway >10 cm can result in a fall. A minimum of 20 minutes of peripheral retinal arc is required to detect motion. Trigonometry dictates that a 20-minute peripheral retinal arch can no longer be achieved in a standing position at an eye-object distance of >20 m. At this distance, visual cues conflict with somatosensory and vestibular inputs, resulting in variable degrees of imbalance. Co-occurring deficits in the visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems can significantly increase height imbalance. An individual's psychological makeup, influenced by learned and genetic factors, can influence reactions to height imbalance. Enhancing peripheral vision and vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic functions may improve height imbalance. Psychotherapy may improve the troubling subjective sensations to heights.

  18. Social inequalities in height: persisting differences today depend upon height of the parents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Galobardes

    Full Text Available Substantial increases in height have occurred concurrently with economic development in most populations during the last century. In high-income countries, environmental exposures that can limit genetic growth potential appear to have lessened, and variation in height by socioeconomic position may have diminished. The objective of this study is to investigate inequalities in height in a cohort of children born in the early 1990s in England, and to evaluate which factors might explain any identified inequalities.12,830 children from The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a population based cohort from birth to about 11.5 years of age, were used in this analysis. Gender- and age-specific z-scores of height at different ages were used as outcome variables. Multilevel models were used to take into account the repeated measures of height and to analyze gender- and age-specific relative changes in height from birth to 11.5 years. Maternal education was the main exposure variable used to examine socioeconomic inequalities. The roles of parental and family characteristics in explaining any observed differences between maternal education and child height were investigated. Children whose mothers had the highest education compared to those with none or a basic level of education, were 0.39 cm longer at birth (95% CI: 0.30 to 0.48. These differences persisted and at 11.5 years the height difference was 1.4 cm (95% CI: 1.07 to 1.74. Several other factors were related to offspring height, but few changed the relationship with maternal education. The one exception was mid-parental height, which fully accounted for the maternal educational differences in offspring height.In a cohort of children born in the 1990s, mothers with higher education gave birth to taller boys and girls. Although height differences were small they persisted throughout childhood. Maternal and paternal height fully explained these differences.

  19. Birth order progressively affects childhood height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Tim; Derraik, José G B; Miles, Harriet L; Mouat, Fran; Cutfield, Wayne S; Hofman, Paul L

    2013-09-01

    There is evidence suggesting that first-born children and adults are anthropometrically different to later-borns. Thus, we aimed to assess whether birth order was associated with changes in growth and metabolism in childhood. We studied 312 healthy prepubertal children: 157 first-borns and 155 later-borns. Children were aged 3-10 years, born 37-41 weeks gestation, and of birth weight appropriate-for-gestational-age. Clinical assessments included measurement of children's height, weight, fasting lipid and hormonal profiles and DEXA-derived body composition. First-borns were taller than later-borns (P < 0·0001), even when adjusted for parents' heights (0·31 vs 0·03 SDS; P = 0·001). There was an incremental height decrease with increasing birth order, so that first-borns were taller than second-borns (P < 0·001), who were in turn taller than third-borns (P = 0·007). Further, among sibling pairs both height SDS (P = 0·009) and adjusted height SDS (P < 0·0001) were lower in second- vs first-born children. Consistent with differences in stature, first- (P = 0·043) and second-borns (P = 0·003) had higher IGF-I concentrations than third-borns. Both first- (P < 0·001) and second-borns (P = 0·004) also had reduced abdominal adiposity (lower android fat to gynoid fat ratio) when compared with third-borns. Other parameters of adiposity and blood lipids were unaffected by birth order. First-borns were taller than later-born children, with an incremental height reduction from first to third birth order. These differences were present after correction for genetic height, and associated to some extent with alterations in plasma IGF-I. Our findings strengthen the evidence that birth order is associated with phenotypic changes in childhood. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Optimally combined regional geoid models for the realization of height systems in developing countries - ORG4heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Verena; Schmidt, Michael; Willberg, Martin; Pail, Roland

    2017-04-01

    Precise height systems require high-resolution and high-quality gravity data. However, such data sets are sparse especially in developing or newly industrializing countries. Thus, we initiated the DFG-project "ORG4heights" for the formulation of a general scientific concept how to (1) optimally combine all available data sets and (2) estimate realistic errors. The resulting regional gravity field models then deliver the fundamental basis for (3) establishing physical national height systems. The innovative key aspects of the project incorporate the development of a method which links (low- up to mid-resolution) gravity satellite mission data and (high- down to low-quality) terrestrial data. Hereby, an optimal combination of the data utilizing their highest measure of information including uncertainty quantification and analyzing systematic omission errors is pursued. Regional gravity field modeling via Multi-Resolution Representation (MRR) and Least Squares Collocation (LSC) are studied in detail and compared based on their theoretical fundamentals. From the findings, MRR shall be further developed towards implementing a pyramid algorithm. Within the project, we investigate comprehensive case studies in Saudi Arabia and South America, i. e. regions with varying topography, by means of simulated data with heterogeneous distribution, resolution, quality and altitude. GPS and tide gauge records serve as complementary input or validation data. The resulting products include error propagation, internal and external validation. A generalized concept then is derived in order to establish physical height systems in developing countries. The recommendations may serve as guidelines for sciences and administration. We present the ideas and strategies of the project, which combines methodical development and practical applications with high socio-economic impact.

  1. The height of watermelons with wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feierl, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We derive asymptotics for the moments as well as the weak limit of the height distribution of watermelons with p branches with wall. This generalizes a famous result of de Bruijn et al (1972 Graph Theory and Computing (New York: Academic) pp 15–22) on the average height of planted plane trees, and results by Fulmek (2007 Electron. J. Combin. 14 R64) and Katori et al (2008 J. Stat. Phys. 131 1067–83) on the expected value and higher moments, respectively, of the height distribution of watermelons with two branches. The asymptotics for the moments depend on the analytic behaviour of certain multidimensional Dirichlet series. In order to obtain this information, we prove a reciprocity relation satisfied by the derivatives of one of Jacobi’s theta functions, which generalizes the well-known reciprocity law for Jacobi’s theta functions. (paper)

  2. Experiences of ZAMG on mixing height determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piringer, M. [Zentralanstalt fuer Meteorologie und Geodynamik, ZAMG, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-10-01

    Temperature inversions in the boundary layer occur quite often, esp. in mountainous terrain by which Austria is covered to a large extent, and can lead to enhanced pollution at the surface because the air volume available for dilution is then vertically limited. The Department of Environmental Meteorology of ZAMG therefore set up several field programs in the past to study such conditions at a variety of sites in Austria, using tethersondes and Sodars. Early investigations aimed at comparing Sodar echo profiles to the tethersonde temperature profiles to derive mixing heights from the Sodar echo structure. More recently, evolving from KONGEX, the `convective boundary layer experiment`, mixing heights calculated for Vienna by the OML model were compared to those derived from radiosonde and tethersonde potential temperature profiles. Results of these investigations will be presented, focussing on the problems when using the different methods. New efforts to derive mixing heights from data were also undertaken and are discussed separately. (au)

  3. Height, Relationship Satisfaction, Jealousy, and Mate Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Brewer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Male height is associated with high mate value. In particular, tall men are perceived as more attractive, dominant and of a higher status than shorter rivals, resulting in a greater lifetime reproductive success. Female infidelity and relationship dissolution may therefore present a greater risk to short men. It was predicted that tall men would report greater relationship satisfaction and lower jealousy and mate retention behavior than short men. Ninety eight heterosexual men in a current romantic relationship completed a questionnaire. Both linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and relationship satisfaction, cognitive and behavioral jealousy. Tall men reported greater relationship satisfaction and lower levels of cognitive or behavioral jealousy than short men. In addition, linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and a number of mate retention behaviors. Tall and short men engaged in different mate retention behaviors. These findings are consistent with previous research conducted in this area detailing the greater attractiveness of tall men.

  4. Evidence of inbreeding depression on human height.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth McQuillan

    Full Text Available Stature is a classical and highly heritable complex trait, with 80%-90% of variation explained by genetic factors. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS have successfully identified many common additive variants influencing human height; however, little attention has been given to the potential role of recessive genetic effects. Here, we investigated genome-wide recessive effects by an analysis of inbreeding depression on adult height in over 35,000 people from 21 different population samples. We found a highly significant inverse association between height and genome-wide homozygosity, equivalent to a height reduction of up to 3 cm in the offspring of first cousins compared with the offspring of unrelated individuals, an effect which remained after controlling for the effects of socio-economic status, an important confounder (χ(2 = 83.89, df = 1; p = 5.2 × 10(-20. There was, however, a high degree of heterogeneity among populations: whereas the direction of the effect was consistent across most population samples, the effect size differed significantly among populations. It is likely that this reflects true biological heterogeneity: whether or not an effect can be observed will depend on both the variance in homozygosity in the population and the chance inheritance of individual recessive genotypes. These results predict that multiple, rare, recessive variants influence human height. Although this exploratory work focuses on height alone, the methodology developed is generally applicable to heritable quantitative traits (QT, paving the way for an investigation into inbreeding effects, and therefore genetic architecture, on a range of QT of biomedical importance.

  5. Adult height, dietary patterns, and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenjie; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Qi; Rimm, Eric B; Qi, Lu

    2017-08-01

    Background: Adult height has shown directionally diverse associations with several age-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, decline in cognitive function, and mortality. Objective: We investigated the associations of adult height with healthy aging measured by a full spectrum of health outcomes, including incidence of chronic diseases, memory, physical functioning, and mental health, among populations who have survived to older age, and whether lifestyle factors modified such relations. Design: We included 52,135 women (mean age: 44.2 y) from the Nurses' Health Study without chronic diseases in 1980 and whose health status was available in 2012. Healthy aging was defined as being free of 11 major chronic diseases and having no reported impairment of subjective memory, physical impairment, or mental health limitations. Results: Of all eligible study participants, 6877 (13.2%) were classified as healthy agers. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, we observed an 8% (95% CI: 6%, 11%) decrease in the odds of healthy aging per SD (0.062 m) increase in height. Compared with the lowest category of height (≤1.57 m), the OR of achieving healthy aging in the highest category (≥1.70 m) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.87; P -trend healthy aging ( P -interaction = 0.005), and among the individual dietary factors characterizing the prudent dietary pattern, fruit and vegetable intake showed the strongest effect modification ( P -interaction = 0.01). The association of greater height with reduced odds of healthy aging appeared to be more evident among women with higher adherence to the prudent dietary pattern rich in vegetable and fruit intake. Conclusions: Greater height was associated with a modest decrease in the likelihood of healthy aging. A prudent diet rich in fruit and vegetables might modify the relation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. The game theory in thoracic surgery: from the intuitions of Luca Pacioli to the operating rooms management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocci, Argante; Viti, Andrea; Terzi, Alberto; Bertolaccini, Luca

    2015-11-01

    Game theory is a formal way to analyze the interactions among groups of subjects who behave each other. It has historically been of great interest in the economic fields in which decisions are made in a competitive environment. Game theory has fascinating potential if applied in the medical science. Few papers have been written about the application of game theory in surgery. The majority of scenarios of game theory in surgery fall into two main groups: cooperative and no cooperative games.

  7. Tree height and tropical forest biomass estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.O. Hunter; M. Keller; D. Vitoria; D.C. Morton

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests account for approximately half of above-ground carbon stored in global vegetation. However, uncertainties in tropical forest carbon stocks remain high because it is costly and laborious to quantify standing carbon stocks. Carbon stocks of tropical forests are determined using allometric relations between tree stem diameter and height and biomass....

  8. Falls from height: A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Kasim; Sarihan, Mehmet Ediz; Colak, Cemil; Güven, Taner; Gür, Ali; Gürbüz, Sükrü

    2018-01-01

    Emergency services manage trauma patients frequently and falls from height comprise the main cause of emergency service admissions. In this study, we aimed to analyse the demographic characteristics of falls from height and their relationship to the mortality. A total of 460 patients, who admitted to the Emergency Department of Inonu University between November 2011 and November 2014 with a history of fall from height, were examined retrospectively. Demographic parameters, fall characteristics and their effect to mortality were evaluated statistically. The study comprised of 292 (63.5%) men and 168 (36.5%) women patients. The mean age of all patients was 27±24.99 years. Twenty-six (5.6%) patients died and the majority of them were in ≥62 years old group. The highest percentage of falls was at 0-5 years age group (28.3%). People fell mainly from 1.1-4 metres(m) level (46.1%). The causes of falls were ordered as unintentional (92.2%), workplace (8.1%) and suicidal (1.7%). Skin and soft tissue injuries (37.4%) were the main traumatic lesions. Age, fall height, fall place, lineer skull fracture, subarachnoidal hemorrhage, cervical fracture, thoracic vertebra fracture and trauma scores had statistically significant effect on mortality. The casualties died because of subarachnoid hemorrhage mostly.

  9. Optimizing height presentation for aircraft cockpit displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Chris S.; Croft, D.; Selcon, Stephen J.; Markin, H.; Jackson, M.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes an experiment conducted to investigate the type of display symbology that most effectively conveys height information to users of head-down plan-view radar displays. The experiment also investigated the use of multiple information sources (redundancy) in the design of such displays. Subjects were presented with eight different height display formats. These formats were constructed from a control, and/or one, two, or three sources of redundant information. The three formats were letter coding, analogue scaling, and toggling (spatially switching the position of the height information from above to below the aircraft symbol). Subjects were required to indicate altitude awareness via a four-key, forced-choice keyboard response. Error scores and response times were taken as performance measures. There were three main findings. First, there was a significant performance advantage when the altitude information was presented above and below the symbol to aid the representation of height information. Second, the analogue scale, a line whose length indicated altitude, proved significantly detrimental to performance. Finally, no relationship was found between the number of redundant information sources employed and performance. The implications for future aircraft and displays are discussed in relation to current aircraft tactical displays and in the context of perceptual psychological theory.

  10. Pulse height model for deuterated scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Haitang; Enqvist, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    An analytical model of light pulse height distribution for finite deuterated scintillation detectors is created using the impulse approximation. Particularly, the energy distribution of a scattered neutron is calculated based on an existing collision probability scheme for general cylindrical shaped detectors considering double differential cross-sections. The light pulse height distribution is analytically and numerically calculated by convoluting collision sequences with the light output function for an EJ-315 detector from our measurements completed at Ohio University. The model provides a good description of collision histories capturing transferred neutron energy in deuterium-based scintillation materials. The resulting light pulse height distribution details pulse compositions and their corresponding contributions. It shows that probabilities of neutron collision with carbon and deuterium nuclei are comparable, however the light pulse amplitude due to collisions with carbon nuclei is small and mainly located at the lower region of the light pulse distribution axis. The model can explore those neutron interaction events that generate pulses near or below a threshold that would be imposed in measurements. A comparison is made between the light pulse height distributions given by the analytical model and measurements. It reveals a significant probability of a neutron generating a small light pulse due to collisions with carbon nuclei when compared to larger light pulse generated by collisions involving deuterium nuclei. This model is beneficial to understand responses of scintillation materials and pulse compositions, as well as nuclei information extraction from recorded pulses.

  11. Aircraft height estimation using 2-D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hakl, H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to infer height information from an aircraft tracked with a single 2-D search radar is presented. The method assumes level flight in the target aircraft and a good estimate of the speed of the aircraft. The method yields good results...

  12. Evidence of inbreeding depression on human height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. McQuillan (Ruth); N. Eklund (Niina); N. Pirastu (Nicola); M. Kuningas (Maris); B.P. McEvoy (Brian); T. Esko (Tõnu); T. Corre (Tanguy); G. Davies (Gail); M. Kaakinen (Marika); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); K. Kristiansson (Kati); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); M. Gögele (Martin); V. Vitart (Veronique); A. Tenesa (Albert); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); C. Hayward (Caroline); A. Johansson (Åsa); M. Boban (Mladen); S. Ulivi (Shelia); A. Robino (Antonietta); V. Boraska (Vesna); W. Igl (Wilmar); S.H. Wild (Sarah); L. Zgaga (Lina); N. Amin (Najaf); E. Theodoratou (Evropi); O. Polasek (Ozren); S. Girotto; L.M. Lopez (Lorna); C. Sala (Cinzia); J. Lahti (Jari); T. Laatikainen (Tiina); I. Prokopenko (Inga); M. Kals (Mart); J. Viikari (Jorma); J. Yang (Joanna); A. Pouta (Anneli); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); A. Hofman (Albert); N.B. Freimer (Nelson); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M. Kähönen (Mika); L. Milani (Lili); M. Heliovaara (Markku); E. Vartiainen (Erkki); K. Räikkönen (Katri); C. Masciullo (Corrado); J.M. Starr (John); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); L. Esposito (Laura); I. Kolcic (Ivana); S.M. Farrington (Susan); B.A. Oostra (Ben); T. Zemunik (Tatijana); H. Campbell (Harry); M. Kirin (Mirna); M. Pehlic (Marina); F. Faletra (Flavio); D.J. Porteous (David J.); G. Pistis (Giorgio); E. Widen (Elisabeth); V. Salomaa (Veikko); S. Koskinen (Seppo); K. Fischer (Krista); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); A.C. Heath (Andrew); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); A.L. Hartikainen; P.A.F. Madden (Pamela); P. d' Adamo (Pio); N. Hastie (Nick); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); A.F. Wright (Alan); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); M.G. Dunlop (Malcolm); I. Rudan (Igor); P. Gasparini (Paolo); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); I.J. Deary (Ian); D. Toniolo (Daniela); K. Hagen (Knut); A. Jula (Antti); O. Raitakari (Olli); A. Metspalu (Andres); M. Perola (Markus); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P.M. Visscher (Peter); J.F. Wilson (James)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractStature is a classical and highly heritable complex trait, with 80%-90% of variation explained by genetic factors. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified many common additive variants influencing human height; however, little attention has

  13. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    occurrence of simple erosional processes acting upon fairly uniform bedrock. Very smooth plateaus here are remnants of landforms most likely developed under geologic and environmental conditions much different than those present today. Fractures paralleling the coast are likely related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean as South America drifted away from Africa, starting about 130 million years ago.To the southwest, broad lowlands host the Gran Chaco and Pampas regions. The depositional Gran Chaco drainages run almost exclusively from west to east from the Andes Mountains to the western edge of the Brazilian Highlands as a result of the much greater sediment supply from the Andes. Geologic processes on the Pampas are much more diverse, with stream erosion, stream deposition, subsidence, and wind processes all evident, even at the one-kilometer resolution shown here.Further south, Patagonia also displays these geologic processes plus more prominent volcanic features, including bumpy mesas, which are lava plateaus with small (and some large) volcanic cones. At its southern tip South America breaks into islands that include Tierra del Fuego and the Straits of Magellan.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of

  14. CALIOP-based Biomass Burning Smoke Plume Injection Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, A. J.; Choi, H. D.; Fairlie, T. D.; Pouliot, G.; Baker, K. R.; Winker, D. M.; Trepte, C. R.; Szykman, J.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon and aerosols are cycled between terrestrial and atmosphere environments during fire events, and these emissions have strong feedbacks to near-field weather, air quality, and longer-term climate systems. Fire severity and burned area are under the control of weather and climate, and fire emissions have the potential to alter numerous land and atmospheric processes that, in turn, feedback to and interact with climate systems (e.g., changes in patterns of precipitation, black/brown carbon deposition on ice/snow, alteration in landscape and atmospheric/cloud albedo). If plume injection height is incorrectly estimated, then the transport and deposition of those emissions will also be incorrect. The heights to which smoke is injected governs short- or long-range transport, which influences surface pollution, cloud interaction (altered albedo), and modifies patterns of precipitation (cloud condensation nuclei). We are working with the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) science team and other stakeholder agencies, primarily the Environmental Protection Agency and regional partners, to generate a biomass burning (BB) plume injection height database using multiple platforms, sensors and models (CALIOP, MODIS, NOAA HMS, Langley Trajectory Model). These data have the capacity to provide enhanced smoke plume injection height parameterization in regional, national and international scientific and air quality models. Statistics that link fire behavior and weather to plume rise are crucial for verifying and enhancing plume rise parameterization in local-, regional- and global-scale models used for air quality, chemical transport and climate. Specifically, we will present: (1) a methodology that links BB injection height and CALIOP air parcels to specific fires; (2) the daily evolution of smoke plumes for specific fires; (3) plumes transport and deposited on the Greenland Ice Sheet; and (4) compare CALIOP-derived smoke plume injection

  15. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  16. The impact of growth hormone therapy on adult height in noonan syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomozzi, Claudio; Deodati, Annalisa; Shaikh, Mohamad Guftar; Ahmed, Syed Faisal; Cianfarani, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is being used to promote linear growth in short children with Noonan syndrome. However, its efficacy is still controversial. To systematically determine the impact of rhGH therapy on adult height in children with Noonan syndrome. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ISI Web of Science, MEDLINE, and the bibliographic references from all retrieved articles published until April 2014. Studies reporting adult/near-adult height in children with Noonan syndrome treated with rhGH or reporting at least a 3-year follow-up were analysed. Quality and strength of recommendation were assessed according to the Endocrine Society criteria. No controlled trials reporting adult height were available. Five studies were identified reporting adult height or near adult height. Data comparison showed inter-individual variability in the response to rhGH, mean height gain standard deviation score ranging between 0.6 and 1.4 according to national standards, and between 0.6 and 2 according to Noonan standards. Significant biases affected all the studies. High-quality controlled trials on the impact of rhGH therapy on adult height are lacking, and the robustness of available data is not sufficient to recommend such therapy in children with Noonan syndrome. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Automated lidar-derived canopy height estimates for the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavacek, Enrika

    2015-01-01

    Land cover/land use (LCU) classifications serve as important decision support products for researchers and land managers. The LCU classifications produced by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) include canopy height estimates that are assigned through manual aerial photography interpretation techniques. In an effort to improve upon these techniques, this project investigated the use of high-density lidar data for the Upper Mississippi River System to determine canopy height. An ArcGIS tool was developed to automatically derive height modifier information based on the extent of land cover features for forest classes. The measurement of canopy height included a calculation of the average height from lidar point cloud data as well as the inclusion of a local maximum filter to identify individual tree canopies. Results were compared to original manually interpreted height modifiers and to field survey data from U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis plots. This project demonstrated the effectiveness of utilizing lidar data to more efficiently assign height modifier attributes to LCU classifications produced by the UMESC.

  18. A GEOMETRICAL HEIGHT SCALE FOR SUNSPOT PENUMBRAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puschmann, K. G.; Ruiz Cobo, B.; MartInez Pillet, V.

    2010-01-01

    Inversions of spectropolarimetric observations of penumbral filaments deliver the stratification of different physical quantities in an optical depth scale. However, without establishing a geometrical height scale, their three-dimensional geometrical structure cannot be derived. This is crucial in understanding the correct spatial variation of physical properties in the penumbral atmosphere and to provide insights into the mechanism capable of explaining the observed penumbral brightness. The aim of this work is to determine a global geometrical height scale in the penumbra by minimizing the divergence of the magnetic field vector and the deviations from static equilibrium as imposed by a force balance equation that includes pressure gradients, gravity, and the Lorentz force. Optical depth models are derived from the inversion of spectropolarimetric data of an active region observed with the Solar Optical Telescope on board the Hinode satellite. We use a genetic algorithm to determine the boundary condition for the inference of geometrical heights. The retrieved geometrical height scale permits the evaluation of the Wilson depression at each pixel and the correlation of physical quantities at each height. Our results fit into the uncombed penumbral scenario, i.e., a penumbra composed of flux tubes with channeled mass flow and with a weaker and more horizontal magnetic field as compared with the background field. The ascending material is hotter and denser than their surroundings. We do not find evidence of overturning convection or field-free regions in the inner penumbral area analyzed. The penumbral brightness can be explained by the energy transfer of the ascending mass carried by the Evershed flow, if the physical quantities below z = -75 km are extrapolated from the results of the inversion.

  19. Condicionamientos internos en la variación de los pronombres personales átonos en Los hechos de Don Miguel Lucas de Iranzo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Díaz Montesinos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the linguistic factors constraining the use of personal clitics lo(s, la(s, le(s in XVth Century Middle-Age Castilian, as revealed in the Relación de los Hechos de Don Miguel Lucas de Iranzo (1458. A multivariate analysis of data from this text shows that internal (morphological, syntactic, lexical and textual factors interact and allows us to imagine the simplest and original context where leísmo could start. A nearly categorical tendency to employ le for male referents as direct objects is developed with human antecedents and where Latin used dative case or alternated between dative and accusative case. If Latin used accusative case, occurrence of le (leísmo depends on a set of linguistic constraints whose effect is systematic and predictable, as shows a logistic regression analysis carried out in this paper. Use of le (leísmo for human antecedents is constrained by the following internal factors: etymology, the number and the clitic's position within the sentence, type of syntactic structure and the verb's tense.

  20. The late-medieval Royal chancery of the Kingdom of Sicily and the inquisitio of Giovan Luca Barberi (14th-16th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Silvestri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the sixteenth century, Giovan Luca Barberi, Magister notarius of the Sicilian Royal chancery, led an intense and long-lasting inquisitio on the royal patrimony of the island and on the possessions of local lords on behalf of King Ferdinand II of Aragon. This well-known inquiry arouse the interest of a number of scholars, who have especially stressed the aspects connected to its importance in the history of law, as well as its political consequences. However, by analysing Barberi’s work (a system of books known as capibrevi through an administrative perspective, it can now be understood as the result of an “archival enterprise” and, at the same time, strictly connected to the role of Magister notarius that Barberi had in the Sicilian chancery. On the one hand, this study describes the fourteenth- and fifteenth-century dynamics that influenced the functioning of the Regia cancelleria and the tasks of its personnel, as well as to define the methods for producing, recording and preserving documentation. On the other hand, this study promotes a new explanation of Barberi’s inquisitio, illustrating in detail how the Magister notarius worked in royal archives and how carried out his inquiry, in other words, how he retrieved, used and organised information for compiling the capibrevi.

  1. A Novel 1D Hybrid Chaotic Map-Based Image Compression and Encryption Using Compressed Sensing and Fibonacci-Lucas Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongfeng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional (1D hybrid chaotic system is constructed by three different 1D chaotic maps in parallel-then-cascade fashion. The proposed chaotic map has larger key space and exhibits better uniform distribution property in some parametric range compared with existing 1D chaotic map. Meanwhile, with the combination of compressive sensing (CS and Fibonacci-Lucas transform (FLT, a novel image compression and encryption scheme is proposed with the advantages of the 1D hybrid chaotic map. The whole encryption procedure includes compression by compressed sensing (CS, scrambling with FLT, and diffusion after linear scaling. Bernoulli measurement matrix in CS is generated by the proposed 1D hybrid chaotic map due to its excellent uniform distribution. To enhance the security and complexity, transform kernel of FLT varies in each permutation round according to the generated chaotic sequences. Further, the key streams used in the diffusion process depend on the chaotic map as well as plain image, which could resist chosen plaintext attack (CPA. Experimental results and security analyses demonstrate the validity of our scheme in terms of high security and robustness against noise attack and cropping attack.

  2. Isolation By Distance (IBD) signals in the deep-water rose shrimp Parapenaeus longirostris (Lucas, 1846) (Decapoda, Panaeidae) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Brutto, S; Maggio, T; Arculeo, M

    2013-09-01

    The identification of boundaries of genetic demes is one of the major goals for fishery management, and few Mediterranean commercial species have not been studied from a genetic point of view yet. The deep-water rose shrimp Parapenaeus longirostris (Lucas, 1846) is one of the most important components of commercial landings in Mediterranean, its fishery aspects have received much attention, regrettably without any concern for the genetic architecture of its populations. The population structure in the central and eastern Mediterranean Sea (captures from six Italian and two Greek landings) has been analysed on the basis of surveys carried out with mitochondrial and AFLP markers. Data revealed the presence of a gradual discrepancy along a west-east axis. This species, occurring mainly at a depth of between 100 and 400 m, is not strongly confined in isolated demes, but it demonstrates an 'Isolation By Distance' model, within the Mediterranean Sea, which includes geographical areas with a some degree of isolation. The role of hydrodynamic forces, such as currents, water fronts, is discussed; and a further evidence of the 'Levantine isolation' within Mediterranean basin is shown. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. BOREAS AFM-6 Boundary Layer Height Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site. This data set provides boundary layer height information over the site. The data were collected from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994 and are stored in tabular ASCII files. The boundary layer height data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  4. Towards worldwide height unification using ocean information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Woodworth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how we are contributing to worldwide height system unification (WHSU by using ocean models together with sea level (tide gauge and altimeter information, geodetic (GPS and levelling data, and new geoid models based on information from the GRACE and GOCE gravity missions, to understand how mean sea level (MSL varies from place to place along the coast. For the last two centuries, MSL has been used to define datums for national levelling systems. However, there are many problems with this. One consequence of WHSU will be the substitution of conventional datums as a reference for heights with the use of geoid, as the only true "level" or datum. This work is within a number of GOCE-related activities funded by the European Space Agency. The study is focused on the coastlines of North America and Europe where the various datasets are most copious.

  5. Bringing satellite winds to hub-height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Bredesen, Rolv Erlend

    2012-01-01

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface can provide detailed information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is very valuable for the mapping of wind resources offshore where other measurements are costly and sparse. Satellite sensors operating at microwave frequencies...... measure the amount of radar backscatter from the sea surface, which is a function of the instant wind speed, wind direction, and satellite viewing geometry. A major limitation related to wind retrievals from satellite observations is that existing empirical model functions relate the radar backscatter...... to wind speed at the height 10 m only. The extrapolation of satellite wind fields to higher heights, which are more relevant for wind energy, remains a challenge which cannot be addressed by means of satellite data alone. As part of the EU-NORSEWInD project (2008-12), a hybrid method has been developed...

  6. Height predicts jealousy differently for men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Park, Justin H.; Zurriaga, Rosario; Klavina, Liga; Massar, Karlijn

    Because male height is associated with attractiveness, dominance, and reproductive success, taller men may be less jealous. And because female height has a curvilinear relationship with health and reproductive success (with average-height females having the advantages), female height may have a

  7. Weight and height prediction of immobilized patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rabito,Estela Iraci; Vannucchi,Gabriela Bergamini; Suen,Vivian Marques Miguel; Castilho Neto,Laércio Lopes; Marchini,Júlio Sérgio

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To confirm the adequacy of the formula suggested in the literature and/or to develop appropriate equations for the Brazilian population of immobilized patients based on simple anthropometric measurements. METHODS: Hospitalized patients were submitted to anthropometry and methods to estimate weight and height of bedridden patients were developed by multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Three hundred sixty eight persons were evaluated at two hospital centers and five weight-predicting...

  8. Gravity and Height Variations at Medicina, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Sara; Zerbini, Susanna; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio; Wziontek, Hartmut

    2017-04-01

    Since 1996, at the Medicina station, height and gravity variations are monitored continuously by means of GPS, VLBI and superconducting gravimeter (SG) data. Additionally, absolute gravity observations are performed twice a year and environmental parameters, among others water table levels, are regularly acquired. Levelling between the different monuments at the site area is also carried out repeatedly to constrain local ties in the vertical position. Two GPS systems are located very close to each other, and both are in close proximity to the VLBI antenna. Twenty years of data are now available, which allow investigating both long- and short-period height and gravity signals together with their relevant correlations. Natural land subsidence, which is well known to occur in the area, is a major component of the observed long-term behavior; however, non-linear long-period signatures are also present in the time series. On a shorter time scale, fingerprints of the water table seasonal oscillations can be recognized in the data. The Medicina site is characterized by clayey soil subjected to consolidation effects when the water table lowers during summer periods. The pillar on which the SG is installed is especially affected because of its shallow foundation, causing height decreases in the order of 2.5-3 cm for water table lowering of 2 m. This study presents a comparative analysis of the different data sets with the aim of separating mass and deformation contributions in the SG gravity record.

  9. A global boundary-layer height climatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dop, H. van; Krol, M.; Holtslag, B. [Inst. for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, IMAU, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1997-10-01

    In principle the ABL (atmospheric boundary layer) height can be retrieved from atmospheric global circulation models since they contain algorithms which determine the intensity of the turbulence as a function of height. However, these data are not routinely available, or on a (vertical) resolution which is too crude in view of the application. This justifies the development of a separate algorithm in order to define the ABL. The algorithm should include the generation of turbulence by both shear and buoyancy and should be based on readily available atmospheric parameters. There is obviously a wide application for boundary heights in off-line global and regional chemistry and transport modelling. It is also a much used parameter in air pollution meteorology. In this article we shall present a theory which is based on current insights in ABL dynamics. The theory is applicable over land and sea surfaces in all seasons. The theory is (for various reasons) not valid in mountainous areas. In areas where boundary-layer clouds or deep cumulus convection are present the theory does not apply. However, the same global atmospheric circulation models contain parameterizations for shallow and deep convection from which separate estimates can be obtained for the extent of vertical mixing. (au)

  10. Degeneration and height of cervical discs classified from MRI compared with precise height measurements from radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolstad, Frode [National Centre of Spinal Disorders, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway)]. E-mail: frode.kolstad@medisin.ntnu.no; Myhr, Gunnar [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway); Kvistad, Kjell Arne [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway); Nygaard, Oystein P. [National Centre of Spinal Disorders, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway); Leivseth, Gunnar [Department of Neuromedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway)

    2005-09-01

    Study design: Descriptive study comparing MRI classifications with measurements from radiographs. Objectives: 1.Define the relationship between MRI classified cervical disc degeneration and objectively measured disc height. 2.Assess the level of inter- and intra-observer errors using MRI in defining cervical disc degeneration. Summary of background data: Cervical spine degeneration has been defined radiologically by loss of disc height, decreased disc and bone marrow signal intensity and disc protrusion/herniation on MRI. The intra- and inter-observer error using MRI in defining cervical degeneration influences data interpretation. Few previous studies have addressed this source of error. The relation and time sequence between cervical disc degeneration classified by MRI and cervical disc height decrease measured from radiographs is unclear. Methods: The MRI classification of degeneration was based on nucleus signal, prolaps identification and bone marrow signal. Two neuro-radiologists evaluated the MR-images independently in a blinded fashion. The radiographic disc height measurements were done by a new computer-assisted method compensating for image distortion and permitting comparison with normal level-, age- and gender-appropriate disc height. Results/conclusions: 1.Progressing disc degeneration classified from MRI is on average significantly associated with a decrease of disc height as measured from radiographs. Within each MRI defined category of degeneration measured disc heights, however, scatter in a wide range. 2.The inter-observer agreement between two neuro-radiologists in both defining degeneration and disc height by MRI was only moderate. Studies addressing questions related to cervical disc degeneration should take this into consideration.

  11. Degeneration and height of cervical discs classified from MRI compared with precise height measurements from radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolstad, Frode; Myhr, Gunnar; Kvistad, Kjell Arne; Nygaard, Oystein P.; Leivseth, Gunnar

    2005-01-01

    Study design: Descriptive study comparing MRI classifications with measurements from radiographs. Objectives: 1.Define the relationship between MRI classified cervical disc degeneration and objectively measured disc height. 2.Assess the level of inter- and intra-observer errors using MRI in defining cervical disc degeneration. Summary of background data: Cervical spine degeneration has been defined radiologically by loss of disc height, decreased disc and bone marrow signal intensity and disc protrusion/herniation on MRI. The intra- and inter-observer error using MRI in defining cervical degeneration influences data interpretation. Few previous studies have addressed this source of error. The relation and time sequence between cervical disc degeneration classified by MRI and cervical disc height decrease measured from radiographs is unclear. Methods: The MRI classification of degeneration was based on nucleus signal, prolaps identification and bone marrow signal. Two neuro-radiologists evaluated the MR-images independently in a blinded fashion. The radiographic disc height measurements were done by a new computer-assisted method compensating for image distortion and permitting comparison with normal level-, age- and gender-appropriate disc height. Results/conclusions: 1.Progressing disc degeneration classified from MRI is on average significantly associated with a decrease of disc height as measured from radiographs. Within each MRI defined category of degeneration measured disc heights, however, scatter in a wide range. 2.The inter-observer agreement between two neuro-radiologists in both defining degeneration and disc height by MRI was only moderate. Studies addressing questions related to cervical disc degeneration should take this into consideration

  12. Validation of the iPhone app using the force platform to estimate vertical jump height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos-Vivas, Jorge; Martin-Martinez, Juan P; Hernandez-Mocholi, Miguel A; Perez-Gomez, Jorge

    2018-03-01

    Vertical jump performance has been evaluated with several devices: force platforms, contact mats, Vertec, accelerometers, infrared cameras and high-velocity cameras; however, the force platform is considered the gold standard for measuring vertical jump height. The purpose of this study was to validate an iPhone app called My Jump, that measures vertical jump height by comparing it with other methods that use the force platform to estimate vertical jump height, namely, vertical velocity at take-off and time in the air. A total of 40 sport sciences students (age 21.4±1.9 years) completed five countermovement jumps (CMJs) over a force platform. Thus, 200 CMJ heights were evaluated from the vertical velocity at take-off and the time in the air using the force platform, and from the time in the air with the My Jump mobile application. The height obtained was compared using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Correlation between APP and force platform using the time in the air was perfect (ICC=1.000, PJump, is an appropriate method to evaluate the vertical jump performance; however, vertical jump height is slightly overestimated compared with that of the force platform.

  13. SRTM Data Release for Africa, Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Africa is dominated by the Great Rift Valley, extending from Lake Nyasa to the Red Sea, and splitting into two arms to enclose an interior plateau and the nearly circular Lake Victoria, visible in the right center of the image. To the west lies the Congo Basin, a vast, shallow depression which rises to form an almost circular rim of highlands. Most of the southern part of the continent rests on a concave plateau comprising the Kalahari basin and a mountainous fringe, skirted by a coastal plain which widens out in Mozambique in the southeast. Many of these regions were previously very poorly mapped due to persistent cloud cover or the inaccessibility of the terrain. Digital elevation data, such as provided by SRTM, are particularly in high demand by scientists studying earthquakes, volcanism, and erosion patterns for use in mapping and modeling hazards to human habitation. But the shape of Earth's surface affects nearly every natural process and human endeavor that occurs there, so elevation data are used in a wide range of applications. In this index map color-coding is directly related to topographic height, with brown and yellow at the lower elevations, rising through green, to white at the highest elevations. Blue areas on the map represent water within the mapped tiles, each of which includes shorelines or islands. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National

  14. Phase height measurements on the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyner, K.H.

    1974-01-01

    Phase height measurements have been taken on 2.5 MHz E-region reflection over two paths during the day. The two paths have equivalent vertical frequencies of 2.4 MHz and 1.8 MHz. Vertical pulse measurements on 2.4 MHz have also been recorded. Results and discussion on comparisons between these measurements are presented. Phase and amplitude measurements using 4.5 MHz O and E rays have also been taken at night, F-region reflection. In particular, spectral analysis of these results is discussed. (author)

  15. Boundary layer heights derived from velocity spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Kaellstrand, B. [Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    It is a well-known fact that the height of the mixed layer determines the size of the largest and most energetic eddies that can be observed in the unstable boundary layer, and consequently a peak can be observed in the power spectra of the along-wind velocity component at scales comparable to the mixed layer depth. We will now show how the mixed layer depth can be derived from the u-specta and the results will be compared with direct measurements using pibal and tethersonde measurements. (au)

  16. Patella height changes post high tibial osteotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ghim Gooi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO is a well-described treatment in early medial compartmental osteoarthritis of the knee. However, two undesirable sequelae may follow –patella baja and changes in the posterior tibial slope (TS. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study in patients who underwent HTO in our center between September 2009 and February 2017. Preoperative and 6-week postoperative long-leg weight bearing films and lateral knee radiographs were assessed. Pre- and postoperative radiological measurements include the Caton-Deschamps Index (CDI, the mechanical axis deviation (MAD, and the posterior TS. Independant t-test and Pearson correlation test were performed. Results: A total of 106 knees were recruited. The mean age was 48.8 ± 10.8 years. 66 (62.3% and 40 (37.7% knees were from males and females, respectively. The mean pre- and postoperative measurements was (−9.70° ± 3.67° to 0.08° ± 2.80° (−varus; +valgus for the MAD, (7.14° ± 1.78° to 8.72° ± 3.11° for posterior TS, and (0.93° ± 0.084° to 0.82° ± 0.13° for CDI (P ≤ 0.001 for all. The association between patella height change and the level of osteotomy (supra-tubercle vs. infra-tubercle was statistically significant (P < 0.001. A supra-tubercle osteotomy cut significantly lowering patella height (P = 0.011. There was otherwise no statistically significant correlations between patella height changes and the correction angle (P = 0.187 or posterior TS change (P = 0.744. Conclusions: A medial opening wedge HTO above the tibial tubercle was significantly associated with lowering patella height or reducing CDI postoperatively. Based on our results, we would recommend the use of an infra-tubercle osteotomy during the corrective surgery to prevent the complication of patella baja.

  17. Development of a pulse height analizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a Pulse Height Analizer is described. This equipment is essential to analize data coming from detectors producing information codified in pulse amplitudes. The system developed consist of a Signal Input Module connected to a Controller Module based on a 8085A microprocessor capable to memorize pulses up to 1 uS in 256 channels with a resolution better than 20 mV. A Communication Module with a serial interface is used for data transfer to a host computer using RS232c protocol. The Monitoring and Operation Module consist of a hexadecimal Keybord, a 6 digit 7-segment display and a XY analog output enabling real time visualization of data on a XY monitor. The hardware and the software designed for this low cost system were optimized to obtain a typical dead time of approximately 100 uS. As application, this device was used to adquire curves at the Small Angle X-ray Scattering Laboratory in this Department. The apparatus performance was tested by comparing its data with a Northern Pulse Height Analizer model NS633 output, with favorable results. (Author) [pt

  18. Pontomedullary lacerations in falls from a height--a retrospective autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivković, Vladimir; Nikolić, Slobodan; Babić, Dragan; Djonić, Danijela; Atanasijević, Tatjana; Djurić, Marija

    2012-05-01

    Brainstem pontomedullary laceration (PML) in falls from a height appears as isolated cases and usually in feet-first impacts with a ring fracture. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of PML in falls from a height, as well as the frequency of concomitant head and neck injuries. Out of 261 cases, PML was present in 40. An impact to the chin, as well as a feet- or buttocks-first impact, most often led to PML owing to transmission of the impact force. Also, a lateral, frontal, or posterior head impact, with subsequent hinge fracture, as well as the frontoposterior hyperextension of the head associated with an upper spine fracture, could be possible mechanisms of PML in falls from a height. The jawbone and other facial bones act as shock absorbers, and their fracture diminishes energy transfer toward the skull and protects the brain and brainstem from injury. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. On the Flame Height Definition for Upward Flame Spread

    OpenAIRE

    Consalvi, Jean L; Pizzo, Yannick; Porterie, Bernard; Torero, Jose L

    2007-01-01

    Flame height is defined by the experimentalists as the average position of the luminous flame and, consequently is not directly linked with a quantitative value of a physical parameter. To determine flame heights from both numerical and theoretical results, a more quantifiable criterion is needed to define flame heights and must be in agreement with the experiments to allow comparisons. For wall flames, steady wall flame experiments revealed that flame height may be define...

  20. On the Predictability of Hub Height Winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draxl, Caroline

    Wind energy is a major source of power in over 70 countries across the world, and the worldwide share of wind energy in electricity consumption is growing. The introduction of signicant amounts of wind energy into power systems makes accurate wind forecasting a crucial element of modern electrical...... grids. These systems require forecasts with temporal scales of tens of minutes to a few days in advance at wind farm locations. Traditionally these forecasts predict the wind at turbine hub heights; this information is then converted by transmission system operators and energy companies into predictions...... of power output at wind farms. Since the power available in the wind is proportional to the wind speed cubed, even small wind forecast errors result in large power prediction errors. Accurate wind forecasts are worth billions of dollars annually; forecast improvements will result in reduced costs...

  1. Dominant height-based height-diameter equations for trees in southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A., Jr. Kershaw; Robert C. Morrissey; Douglass F. Jacobs; John R. Seifert; James B. McCarter

    2008-01-01

    Height-diameter equations are developed based on dominant tree data collected in 1986 in 8- to 17-year-old clearcuts and the phase 2 Forest Inventory and Analysis plots on the Hoosier National Forest in south central Indiana. Two equation forms are explored: the basic, three-parameter Chapman-Richards function, and a modification of the three-parameter equation...

  2. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Mount Meru, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Meru is an active volcano located just 70 kilometers (44 miles) west of Mount Kilimanjaro. It reaches 4,566 meters (14,978 feet) in height but has lost much of its bulk due to an eastward volcanic blast sometime in its distant past, perhaps similar to the eruption of Mount Saint Helens in Washington State in 1980. Mount Meru most recently had a minor eruption about a century ago. The several small cones and craters seen in the vicinity probably reflect numerous episodes of volcanic activity. Mount Meru is the topographic centerpiece of Arusha National Park. Its fertile slopes rise above the surrounding savanna and support a forest that hosts diverse wildlife, including nearly 400 species of birds, and also monkeys and leopards.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark, as would be the case at noon at this latitude in June. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to blue and white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space

  3. Agreement between estimated and measured heights and weights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    index (BMI = kg/m2) and require accurate recording of a patient's height and weight.1. In reality, however, patients often cannot stand up straight for accurate height measurement, or are unable to step on a scale. In such cases, height and weight values are often obtained from the patient or their relatives, who either do not ...

  4. Anterior Face Height Values in a Nigerian Population | Folaranmi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Anterior Upper Face Height 47.7 (4) mm, Anterior Total Face Height (ATFH) 108.5 (5) mm, ratio of ALFH to ATFH ALFH: ATFH 56 (4)%. Conclusion: This study provides anterior face height measurements, which will be of great significance in evaluating facial proportions andesthetics in orthodontics, orthognathic surgery, ...

  5. Relationships between diameter and height of trees in natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationships between diameter and height of trees in natural tropical forest in Tanzania. Wilson A Mugasha, Ole M Bollandsås, Tron Eid. Abstract. The relationship between tree height (h) and tree diameter at breast height (dbh) is an important element describing forest stands. In addition, h often is a required variable in ...

  6. Estimation of Total Tree Height from Renewable Resources Evaluation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Many ecological, biological, and genetic studies use the measurement of total tree height. Until recently, the Southern Forest Experiment Station's inventory procedures through Renewable Resources Evaluation (RRE) have not included total height measurements. This note provides equations to estimate total height based on other RRE measurements.

  7. The Sine Method: An Alternative Height Measurement Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; Lee E. Frelich; Robert T. Leverett; Will Blozan; Dale J. Luthringer

    2011-01-01

    Height is one of the most important dimensions of trees, but few observers are fully aware of the consequences of the misapplication of conventional height measurement techniques. A new approach, the sine method, can improve height measurement by being less sensitive to the requirements of conventional techniques (similar triangles and the tangent method). We studied...

  8. Practical application of the geometric geoid for heighting over ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is because a geoid model is required to convert ellipsoidal heights to orthometric heights that are used in practice. A local geometric geoid ... The geoid height is expressed as a function of the local plane coordinates through a biquadratic surface polynomial, using 14 GPS/levelling points. Five points have been used ...

  9. 14 CFR 27.87 - Height-speed envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable power failure condition in paragraph (b) of this section, a limiting height-speed envelope must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Height-speed envelope. 27.87 Section 27.87... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 27.87 Height-speed envelope. (a) If there is any...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting height-speed envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limiting height-speed envelope. 29.1517... Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting height-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of... following power failure, the range of heights and its variation with forward speed must be established...

  11. 14 CFR 29.87 - Height-velocity envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Category A engine isolation requirements, the height-velocity envelope for complete power failure must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Height-velocity envelope. 29.87 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.87 Height-velocity envelope. (a...

  12. La inmigración de jubilados estadounidenses en México y sus prácticas transnacionales: Estudio de caso en Mazatlán, Sinaloa y Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur

    OpenAIRE

    Lizárraga Morales, Omár

    2008-01-01

    En este artículo se analiza la migración de jubilados estadounidenses hacia México, particularmente en dos localidades en el noroeste del país: Mazatlán, Sinaloa y Cabo San Lucas en Baja California Sur. Este es un flujo migratorio que se dirige en dirección contraria a la que tradicionalmente se estudia en la migración internacional, y tiene un rápido crecimiento en algunos destinos mexicanos, pues está compuesto por los integrantes de la generación del baby boom. Se describen las estructuras...

  13. Levantamento e Análise do Potencial Agroindustrial dos Municípios Mato-Grossenses de Sinop, Sorriso E Lucas do Rio Verde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizangela Beckmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE O estudo destaca que o desenvolvimento dos municípios mato-grossenses de Sinop, Sorriso e Lucas do Rio Verde, ao ter sua atuação econômica focada no agronegócio e este ter forte participação do segmento agrícola, encontra na região diversos fatores favoráveis a agroindustrialização, com destaque para: o baixo consumo local da produção agrícola; o potencial mercado consumidor de produtos agroalimentares; a elevada capacidade de armazenagem; as melhorias em adoção dos sistemas de transporte; e outros indicadores socioeconômicos positivos. Em que o desenvolvimento da região passa pela dotação de melhores condições estruturais (investimentos em capitais físico e humano e institucionais (instituições de apoio e suporte a empresários e trabalhadores, que ampliem as condições competitivas sistêmicas da região, além de dotá-la também de melhor “organização industrial” visando melhor eficiência produtiva e competitividade. Sendo que as melhorias das condições estruturais e institucionais devem ter à frente o setor público e organizações de classe e das condições de organização industrial, como é de se esperar, o setor privado. Em seu conjunto estes elementos criarão a base sob as quais a vantagem competitiva agroindustrial da região será criada e se sustentará: a dotação de excelência e especialização produtiva agroindustrial gerando efeitos de transbordamentos técnicos e ganhos de aglomerações, de escala e de escopo.

  14. An antithetic variate to facilitate upper-stem height measurements for critical height sampling with importance sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas B. Lynch; Jeffrey H. Gove

    2013-01-01

    Critical height sampling (CHS) estimates cubic volume per unit area by multiplying the sum of critical heights measured on trees tallied in a horizontal point sample (HPS) by the HPS basal area factor. One of the barriers to practical application of CHS is the fact that trees near the field location of the point-sampling sample point have critical heights that occur...

  15. Building on success / Edward Lucas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lucas, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Eesti edust 1990ndatel aastatel. Kuid 2007. a. parlamendivalimised näitasid, et Eestis nagu teistes endistes kommunistlikes maades puudub reformialdis valitsus. Kiitust pälvib Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves, kes pani veto pronkssõduri seadusele ja taunis Eesti iseseisvuspäeva pidustustel peetud kõnes korruptsiooni, enesega rahulolu ja takerdunud reforme. Vt. ka Marek Laane tõlge eesti keelde: Eesti vajab terasemat valitsust. Postimees 8. märts 2007, lk. 16

  16. Measuring Forest Height and Biomass from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agueh, Temilola Elisabeth Fato

    2013-01-01

    Talk about doing earth science at NASA and how what we do is focus on the biosphere- that is the living portion of the earth.In particular, we are interested in looking at forests-quantifying deforestation, regrowth, change in general and helping develop new cutting-edge technologies and instruments to be able to measure these changes in land use, land cover and quality more accurately.

  17. Hilar height ratio in normal Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Kyung Ho; Lee, Nam Joon; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Kyoo Byung

    1979-01-01

    Hilar displacement is one of the significant sign of pulmonary volume change. The hilar height ratio (HHR) is a value that express the normal position of hilum in its hemithorax, and it is calculated by dividing the distance from the hilum to the lung apex by the distance from the hilum to the diaphragm. Displacement of one hilum is usually easy to detect but both are displaced in the same direction especially, recognition is more difficult. Knowledge of normal HHR allows evaluation of hilar positional change even when the relative hilar position are not altered. Normal chest PA views of 275 cases taken at Korea University Hospital during the period of April 1978 to Jun 1979 were analyzed. The right hilum is positioned in lower half of the right hemithorax, while the left hilum is situated in the upper half of left hemithorax. The difference of hilar ratio according to age group is slight, but there is significant difference between right-HHR and left-HHR. The value of right-HHR is 1.28 ± 0.14, the value of left-HHR is 0.88 ± 0.09.

  18. [Is olfactory function impaired in moderate height?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, M; Welsch, H; Zahnert, T; Hummel, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    The human sense of smell seems to be influenced by the surrounding barometric pressure. These factors appear to be especially important during flights, for example, in order to recognize the smell of fire etc. Thus, questions are whether pilots or passengers exhibit an impaired smell sensitivity when tested at moderate heights, or, whether changes in humidity would affect the sense of smell. Using climate chambers, odor discrimination and butanol odor thresholds were tested in 77 healthy normosmic volunteers (5 female, 72 male; aged 25+/-8 years from 18 up to 53 years) under hypobaric (2 700+/-20 m, 20 degrees C+/-1 K, rh=50+/-5%) and hyperbaric, (10+/-0.5 m (2 bar)) and different humidity conditions (30 vs. 80%, 20 degrees C+/-1 K, normobaric). During all conditions cognitive performance was tested. Among other effects, olfactory sensitivity was impaired at threshold, but not suprathreshold level, in a hypobaric compared to a hyperbaric milieu, and thresholds were lower in humid, compared to relatively dry conditions. In conclusion, environmental conditions modulate the sense of smell, and may, consecutively, influence results from olfactory tests. During flight hypobaric conditions, mild hypoxia and dry air may cause impaired sensitivity of smell. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart * New York.

  19. Subexponential estimates in Shirshov's theorem on height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, Aleksei Ya; Kharitonov, Mikhail I

    2012-01-01

    Suppose that F 2,m is a free 2-generated associative ring with the identity x m =0. In 1993 Zelmanov put the following question: is it true that the nilpotency degree of F 2,m has exponential growth? We give the definitive answer to Zelmanov's question by showing that the nilpotency class of an l-generated associative algebra with the identity x d =0 is smaller than Ψ(d,d,l), where Ψ(n,d,l)=2 18 l(nd) 3log 3 (nd)+13 d 2 . This result is a consequence of the following fact based on combinatorics of words. Let l, n and d≥n be positive integers. Then all words over an alphabet of cardinality l whose length is not less than Ψ(n,d,l) are either n-divisible or contain x d ; a word W is n-divisible if it can be represented in the form W=W 0 W 1 …W n so that W 1 ,...,W n are placed in lexicographically decreasing order. Our proof uses Dilworth's theorem (according to V.N. Latyshev's idea). We show that the set of not n-divisible words over an alphabet of cardinality l has height h 87 l·n 12log 3 n+48 . Bibliography: 40 titles.

  20. Clinical longitudinal standards for height, weight, height velocity, weight velocity, and stages of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J M; Whitehouse, R H

    1976-01-01

    New charts for height, weight, height velocity, and weight velocity are presented for clinical (as opposed to population survey) use. They are based on longitudinal-type growth curves, using the same data as in the British 1965 growth standards. In the velocity standards centiles are given for children who are early- and late-maturing as well as for those who mature at the average age (thus extending the use of the previous charts). Limits of normality for the age of occurrence of the adolescent growth spurt are given and also for the successive stages of penis, testes, and pubic hair development in boys, and for stages of breast and pubic hair development in girls. PMID:952550

  1. Combined Treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Analog and Anabolic Steroid Hormone Increased Pubertal Height Gain and Adult Height in Boys with Early Puberty for Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Naiki, Yasuhiro; Horikawa, Reiko

    2012-04-01

    Twenty-one boys with a height of 135 cm or less at onset of puberty were treated with a combination of GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone, and their pubertal height gain and adult height were compared with those of untreated 29 boys who enter puberty below 135 cm. The mean age at the start of treatment with a GnRH analog, leuprorelin acetate depot (Leuplin(®)) was 12.3 yr, a mean of 1.3 yr after the onset of puberty, and GnRH analog was administered every 3 to 5 wk thereafter for a mean duration of 4.1 yr. The anabolic steroid hormone was started approximately 1 yr after initiation of treatment with the GnRH analog. The mean pubertal height gain from onset of puberty till adult height was significantly greater in the combination treatment group (33.9 cm) than in the untreated group (26.4 cm) (ppenis and pubic hair is promoted by the anabolic steroid hormone, no psychosocial problems arose because of delayed puberty. No clinically significant adverse events appeared. Combined treatment with GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone significantly increased height gain during puberty and adult height in boys who entered puberty with a short stature, since the period until epiphyseal closure was extended due to deceleration of the bone age maturation by administration of the GnRH analog and the growth rate at this time was maintained by the anabolic steroid hormone.

  2. Correlation of Index Finger Length (2D with Height, Weight and BMI in Adult Bangladeshi Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Rezwan Hasan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human hand is one of the most versatile parts of the human body which plays an important role in modern medical science and evolutionary biology. By virtue of evolution and genetic arrangements, digital lengths vary from person to person according to age, sex, races, occupation or even environmental influences. It has been found that the digital lengths and their ratios are not same in different sexes and even in both hands of same individual. Specially, index to ring digit lengths and their ratios which already have been proved to represent sexual dimorphism may differ in both hands of an individual and show positive correlations with other morphological attributes like height, weight and BMI. Objectives: To analyze the variation of index finger (2D length and its correlation with height, weight and BMI in adult Bangladeshi male. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in the department of Anatomy, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka from July 2012 to June 2013 on 100 male MBBS students (20−25 years of age. With the help of digital vernier caliper measurements of index finger length (2D was recorded. Height and weight were measured by the stadiometer and weighing scale respectively. BMI was calculated from height and weight. Pearson’s correlation analysis was done to find out the correlation of index finger length with height, weight and BMI. Results: Significant correlation has been found between the lengths of index fingers (2D and height (p0.05. Conclusion: In this study, we found variation in index finger lengths of both hands of Bangladeshi male subjects, which needs further study and comparison.

  3. Progress Report on the GROWTH (GNSS Reflectometry for Ocean Waves, Tides, and Height) Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Y.; Ichikawa, K.; Akiyama, H.; Ebinuma, T.; Isoguchi, O.; Kimura, N.; Konda, M.; Kouguchi, N.; Tamura, H.; Tomita, H.; Yoshikawa, Y.; Waseda, T.

    2016-12-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), such as GPS is a system of satellites that provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage. It allows small electronic receivers to determine their location to high precision using radio signals transmitted from satellites, GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R) involves making measurements from the reflections from the Earth of navigation signals from GNSS satellites. Reflected signals from sea surface are considered that those are useful to observe sea state and sea surface height. We have started a research program for GNSS-R applications on oceanographic observations under the contract with MEXT (Ministry of Education Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, JAPAN) and launched a Japanese research consortium, GROWTH (GNSS Reflectometry for Ocean Waves, Tides, and Height). It is aiming to evaluate the capabilities of GNSS-R observations for oceanographic phenomena with different time scales, such as ocean waves (1/10 to tens of seconds), tides (one or half days), and sea surface dynamic height (a few days to years). In situ observations of ocean wave spectrum, wind speed vertical profile, and sea surface height will be quantitatively compared with equivalent estimates from simultaneous GNSS-R measurements. The GROWTH project will utilize different types of observation platforms; marine observation towers (about 20 m height), multi-copters (about 100 to 150 m height), and much higher-altitude CYGNSS data. Cross-platform data, together with in situ oceanographic observations, will be compared after adequate temporal averaging that accounts differences of the footprint sizes and temporal and spatial scales of oceanographic phenomena. This paper will provide overview of the GROWTH project, preliminary test results, obtained by the multi-sensor platform at observation towers, suggest actual footprint sizes and identification of swell. Preparation status of a ground station which will be supplied to receive CYGNSS data

  4. Combined Treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Analog and Anabolic Steroid Hormone Increased Pubertal Height Gain and Adult Height in Boys with Early Puberty for Height

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Naiki, Yasuhiro; Horikawa, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-one boys with a height of 135 cm or less at onset of puberty were treated with a combination of GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone, and their pubertal height gain and adult height were compared with those of untreated 29 boys who enter puberty below 135 cm. The mean age at the start of treatment with a GnRH analog, leuprorelin acetate depot (Leuplin?) was 12.3 yr, a mean of 1.3 yr after the onset of puberty, and GnRH analog was administered every 3 to 5 wk thereafter for a mean d...

  5. Simulation of ICESat-2 canopy height retrievals for different ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    Slated for launch in late 2017 (or early 2018), the ICESat-2 satellite will provide a global distribution of geodetic measurements from a space-based laser altimeter of both the terrain surface and relative canopy heights which will provide a significant benefit to society through a variety of applications ranging from improved global digital terrain models to producing distribution of above ground vegetation structure. The ATLAS instrument designed for ICESat-2, will utilize a different technology than what is found on most laser mapping systems. The photon counting technology of the ATLAS instrument onboard ICESat-2 will record the arrival time associated with a single photon detection. That detection can occur anywhere within the vertical distribution of the reflected signal, that is, anywhere within the vertical distribution of the canopy. This uncertainty of where the photon will be returned from within the vegetation layer is referred to as the vertical sampling error. Preliminary simulation studies to estimate vertical sampling error have been conducted for several ecosystems including woodland savanna, montane conifers, temperate hardwoods, tropical forest, and boreal forest. The results from these simulations indicate that the canopy heights reported on the ATL08 data product will underestimate the top canopy height in the range of 1 - 4 m. Although simulation results indicate the ICESat-2 will underestimate top canopy height, there is, however, a strong correlation between ICESat-2 heights and relative canopy height metrics (e.g. RH75, RH90). In tropical forest, simulation results indicate the ICESat-2 height correlates strongly with RH90. Similarly, in temperate broadleaf forest, the simulated ICESat-2 heights were also strongly correlated with RH90. In boreal forest, the simulated ICESat-2 heights are strongly correlated with RH75 heights. It is hypothesized that the correlations between simulated ICESat-2 heights and canopy height metrics are a

  6. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study we observe wave heights by an array of four wave gauges at the Hiratsuka Tower of (Independent Administrative Institution) National Research Institute for Earth Science and ... Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Studies, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578, Japan.

  7. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. B O Adebesin. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 123 Issue 4 June 2014 pp 751-765. Ionospheric foF2 morphology and response of F2 layer height over Jicamarca during different solar epochs and comparison with IRI-2012 model · B O Adebesin ...

  8. World in Mercator Projection, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of the world was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM Project has recently released a new global data set called SRTM30, where the original one arcsecond of latitude and longitude resolution (about 30 meters, or 98 feet, at the equator) was reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters, or 1496 feet.) This image was created from that data set and shows the world between 60 degrees south and 60 degrees north latitude, covering 80% of the Earth's land mass. The image is in the Mercator Projection commonly used for maps of the world.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM

  9. Shaded Relief with Color as Height, California Mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The diversity of landforms that make up the state of California is evident in this new rendition of the 3-D topography of the state. The Central Valley, flanked on the east by the Sierra Nevada, dominates the scene with San Francisco and Monterey Bays clearly visible at left center. Other features of interest include Lake Tahoe at the edge to the right of San Francisco, Mono Lake below Lake Tahoe, and the Salton Sea at the lower right. The prominent sideways 'V' in the southern part of the state is the intersection of the Garlock and San Andreas Faults - to the east is the Mojave Desert. Offshore are the Channel Islands and to the right of them lies the city of Los Angeles.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction. North-facing slopes appear bright and south-facing slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with blue and green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science

  10. Alpine Fault, New Zealand, SRTM Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The Alpine fault runs parallel to, and just inland of, much of the west coast of New Zealand's South Island. This view was created from the near-global digital elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and is almost 500 kilometers (just over 300 miles) wide. Northwest is toward the top. The fault is extremely distinct in the topographic pattern, nearly slicing this scene in half lengthwise. In a regional context, the Alpine fault is part of a system of faults that connects a west dipping subduction zone to the northeast with an east dipping subduction zone to the southwest, both of which occur along the juncture of the Indo-Australian and Pacific tectonic plates. Thus, the fault itself constitutes the major surface manifestation of the plate boundary here. Offsets of streams and ridges evident in the field, and in this view of SRTM data, indicate right-lateral fault motion. But convergence also occurs across the fault, and this causes the continued uplift of the Southern Alps, New Zealand's largest mountain range, along the southeast side of the fault. Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast (image top to bottom) direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data

  11. Shaded Relief with Color as Height, St. Louis, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The confluence of the Mississippi, Missouri and Illinois rivers are shown in this view of the St. Louis area from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The Mississippi flows from the upper left of the image and first meets the Illinois, flowing southward from the top right. It then joins the Missouri, flowing from the west across the center of the picture. The rivers themselves appear black here, and one can clearly see the green-colored floodplains in which they are contained. These floodplains are at particular risk during times of flooding. The Mississippi forms the state boundary between Illinois (to the right) and Missouri (to the left), with the city of St. Louis located on the Mississippi just below the point where it meets the Missouri. This location at the hub of the major American waterways helped establish St. Louis' reputation as the 'Gateway to the West.'Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction. North-facing slopes appear bright and south-facing slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with blue and green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping

  12. Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, Shaded Relief with Height as Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Shenandoah National Park lies astride part of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which form the southeastern range of the greater Appalachian Mountains in Virginia. The park is well framed by this one-degree of latitude (38-39 north) by one-degree of longitude (78-79 west) cell of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data, and it appears here as the most prominent ridge trending diagonally across the scene. Skyline Drive, a 169-kilometer (105-mile) road that winds along the crest of the mountains through the length the park, provides vistas of the surrounding landscape. The Shenandoah River flows through the valley to the west, with Massanutten Mountain standing between the river's north and south forks. Unusually pronounced meanders of both river forks are very evident near the top center of this scene. Massanutten Mountain itself is an unusually distinctive landform also, consisting of highly elongated looping folds of sedimentary rock. The rolling Piedmont country lies to the southeast of the park, with Charlottesville located at the bottom center of the scene.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to bluish-white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60

  13. SRTM Colored Height and Shaded Relief: Lava plateaus in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    All of the major landforms relate to volcanism and/or erosion in this Shuttle Radar Topography Mission scene of Patagonia, near La Esperanza, Argentina. The two prominent plateaus once formed a continuous surface that extended over much of this region. Younger volcanoes have grown through and atop the plateau, and one just south of this scene has sent a long, narrow flow down a stream channel (lower left). The topographic pattern shows that streams dominate the erosion processes in this arid environment even though wind is known to move substantial amounts of sediment here.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark, as would be the case at noon at this latitude in the southern hemisphere. Color-coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.Size: 62.4 by 88.8 kilometers

  14. Mts. Agung and Batur, Bali, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This perspective view shows the major volcanic group of Bali, one 13,000 islands comprising the nation of Indonesia. The conical mountain to the left is Gunung Agung, at 3,148 meters (10,308 feet) the highest point on Bali and an object of great significance in Balinese religion and culture. Agung underwent a major eruption in 1963 after more than 100 years of dormancy, resulting in the loss of over 1,000 lives.In the center is the complex structure of Batur volcano, showing a caldera (volcanic crater) left over from a massive catastrophic eruption about 30,000 years ago. Judging from the total volume of the outer crater and the volcano, that once lay above it, approximately 140 cubic kilometers(33.4 cubic miles) of material must have been produced by this eruption, making it one of the largest known volcanic events on Earth. Batur is still active and has erupted at least 22 times since the 1800's.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National

  15. SRTM Colored Height and Shaded Relief: Near Zapala, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Topographic data provided by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission can provide many clues to geologic history and processes. This view of an area southwest of Zapala, Argentina, shows a wide diversity of geologic features. The highest peaks (left) appear to be massive (un-layered)crystalline rocks, perhaps granites. To their right (eastward) are tilted and eroded layered rocks, perhaps old lava flows, forming prominent ridges. Farther east and south, more subtle and curvilinear ridges show that the rock layers have not only been tilted but also folded. At the upper right, plateaus that cap the underlying geologic complexities are more recent lava flows - younger than the folding, but older than the current erosional pattern. Landforms in the southeast (lower right) and south-central areas appear partially wind sculpted.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark, as would be the case at noon at this latitude in the southern hemisphere. Color-coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National

  16. SRTM Colored Height and Shaded Relief: Las Bayas, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The interplay of volcanism, stream erosion and landslides is evident in this Shuttle Radar Topography Mission view of the eastern flank of the Andes Mountains, southeast of San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina. Older lava flows emanating from the Andes once covered much of this area. Younger, local volcanoes (seen here as small peaks) then covered parts of the area with fresh, erosion resistant flows (seen here as very smooth surfaces). Subsequent erosion has created fine patterns on the older surfaces (bottom of the image) and bolder, irregular patterns through and around the younger surfaces (upper center and right center). Meanwhile, where a large stream immediately borders the resistant plateau (center of the image), lateral erosion has undercut the resistant plateau causing slivers of it to fall into the stream channel. This scene well illustrate show topographic data alone can reveal some aspects of recent geologic history.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark, as would be the case at noon at this latitude in the southern hemisphere. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and

  17. Measuring the height-to-height correlation function of corrugation in suspended graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilenko, D.A.; Brunkov, P.N.

    2016-01-01

    Nanocorrugation of 2D crystals is an important phenomenon since it affects their electronic and mechanical properties. The corrugation may have various sources; one of them is flexural phonons that, in particular, are responsible for the thermal conductivity of graphene. A study of corrugation of just the suspended graphene can reveal much of valuable information on the physics of this complicated phenomenon. At the same time, the suspended crystal nanorelief can hardly be measured directly because of high flexibility of the 2D crystal. Moreover, the relief portion related to rapid out-of-plane oscillations (flexural phonons) is also inaccessible by such measurements. Here we present a technique for measuring the Fourier components of the height–height correlation function H(q) of suspended graphene which includes the effect of flexural phonons. The technique is based on the analysis of electron diffraction patterns. The H(q) is measured in the range of wavevectors q≈0.4–4.5 nm"−"1. At the upper limit of this range H(q) does follow the T/κq"4 law. So, we measured the value of suspended graphene bending rigidity κ=1.2±0.4 eV at ambient temperature T≈300 K. At intermediate wave vectors, H(q) follows a slightly weaker exponent than theoretically predicted q"−"3"."1"5 but is closer to the results of the molecular dynamics simulation. At low wave vectors, the dependence becomes even weaker, which may be a sign of influence of charge carriers on the dynamics of undulations longer than 10 nm. The technique presented can be used for studying physics of flexural phonons in other 2D materials. - Highlights: • A technique for measuring free-standing 2D crystal corrugation is proposed. • The height-to-height correlation function of the suspended graphene corrugation is measured. • Various parameters of the intrinsic graphene properties are experimentally determined.

  18. Lifting CERN entrepreneurs to new heights

    CERN Multimedia

    William Rode

    2014-01-01

    How can an international research institution help employees who wish to leave their comfort zone for the risky endeavour of starting a company? CERN encourages the creation of companies as a way of disseminating technology developed here. But what else can be done to foster these initiatives?   William Rode, a technical student in CERN’s Knowledge Transfer Group, studied spin-off creations in some leading research institutions as part of his Master's thesis in entrepreneurship at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. William, who was offered a ticket to attend the Lift14 conference in Geneva, shares some insight into how we can support entrepreneurship at CERN: "A while ago I attended the Lift conference in Geneva. The conference explores the business and social implications of technology innovation through talks and workshops, as well as through art and discussion. Innovation is at the core of the conference and is reflected in the open-mindedness of th...

  19. Australia's new nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.

    2007-01-01

    On 19 and 20 April 2007, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) celebrated the recent commissioning of its new, world-class, OPAL (Open Pool Australian Lightwater) research reactor at the Lucas Heights. On the 19th, scientists, business leaders and academics were introduced to the reactor and its technical capacity for the manufacture of radiopharmaceuticals, its material science applications, its environmental services and its neutron scattering facilities for business applications. The formal OPAL opening function took place that evening and, on the 20th, Prime Minister John Howard visited ANSTO to be briefed about OPAL and to be shown the work being carried out at Lucas Heights

  20. Ingestive behavior of supplemented Nellore heifers grazing palisadegrass pastures managed with different sward heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Bruno Ramalho; Azenha, Mariana Vieira; Casagrande, Daniel Rume; Costa, Diogo Fleury Azevedo; Ruggieri, Ana Cláudia; Berchielli, Telma Teresinha; Reis, Ricardo Andrade

    2017-04-01

    Three sward heights (15, 25 and 35 cm) and three supplement types (energy, energy-protein, and a mineral mix supplement) were evaluated in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement distributed in a completely randomized design to study changes in forage search patterns in Nellore heifers in a continuous grazing system. Pasture data were collected using two replicates (paddocks) per treatment over four periods during the rainy season. The behavior assessments were made in the first and fourth grazing seasons. It was hypothesized that supplements and pasture management would modify ingestive behavior, considering that animals would require less time grazing if they had energy requirements met through higher digestibility of better managed paddocks, or use of supplements high in energy. Total and green forage masses along with green : dead material ratio were greater in treatments managed with higher sward heights. Sward managed with 35 cm height resulted in lower leaf : stem ratio compared with 15 cm sward height treatments. The animals on the 15 cm pastures spent more time grazing overall and during each meal, but there were no differences observed in meal numbers in comparison to 35 cm treatments. Heifers fed protein and/or energy supplements spent less time grazing in the early afternoon, but overall grazing time was the same for all animals. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Mt. Elgon, Africa, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The striking contrast of geologic structures in Africa is shown in this shaded relief image of Mt. Elgon on the left and a section of the Great Rift Valley on the right. Mt. Elgon is a solitary extinct volcano straddling the border between Uganda and Kenya, and at 4,321 meters (14,178 feet) tall is the eighth highest mountain in Africa. It is positioned on the Pre-Cambriam bedrock of the Trans Nzoia Plateau, and is similar to other such volcanoes in East Africa in that it is associated with the formation of the Rift Valley. However one thing that sets Mt. Elgon apart is its age. Although there is no verifiable evidence of its earliest volcanic activity, Mt. Elgon is estimated to be at least 24 million years old, making it the oldest extinct volcano in East Africa. This presents a striking comparison to Mt. Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa at 5,895 meters (19,341 feet), which is just over one million years old. Judging by the diameter of its base, it is a common belief among geological experts that Mt. Elgon was once the highest mountains in Africa, however erosion has played a significant role in reducing the height to its present value. Juxtaposed with this impressive mountain is a section of the Great Rift Valley, a geological fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique. Erosion has concealed some sections, but in some sections like that shown here, there are sheer cliffs several thousand feet high. The present configuration of the valley, which dates from the mid-Pleistocene epoch, results from a rifting process associated with thermal currents in the Earth's mantle. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height

  2. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Iturralde Structure, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    designed to collect 3-D measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.Size: 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude (about 111 by 111 kilometers or 69 by 69 miles) Location: 12.5 degrees South latitude, 67.5 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image: Elevation data, colored height with shaded relief Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (about 30 meters or 98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM)

  3. Effect of firing conditions & release height on terminal performance of submunitions and conditions for optimum height of release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.K. Gite

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Submunitions should exhibit optimum terminal performance at target end when released from certain pre-determined height. Selection of an optimum height of release of the submunitions depends on the terminal parameters like forward throw, remaining velocity, impact angle and flight time. In this paper, the effects of initial firing conditions and height of release on terminal performance of submunitions discussed in detail. For different height of release, the relation between range and forward throw is also established & validated for a number of firing altitude and rocket configurations.

  4. An attempt to link the Brazilian Height System to a World Height System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Ferreira

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the geopotential approach to investigate the present Brazilian Height System (BHS. Geopotential numbers are derived from Global Positioning System (GPS satellite surveying and disturbing potential on selected benchmarks. A model for the disturbing potential can be obtained by an existing set of spherical harmonic coefficients such as the Earth Gravity Model 2008 (EGM08. The approach provides absolute evaluation of local normal geopotential numbers (aka spheropotential numbers related to a so-called World Height System (WHS. To test the validity of the proposed methodology, a numerical experiment was carried out related to a test region in Southern Brazil. The accuracy of the derived geopotential numbers was tested versus local normal geopotential numbers based on 262 GPS/leveling points. The root mean square error (RMSE value for metric offset of BHS derived from geopotential numbers and the disturbing potential modeling in the test area was estimated to be near 0.224 meters in the absolute view. Therefore, since these spheropotential numbers are referred to a local datum, these results of comparisons may be an indicator of the mean bias of local network due to the effect of local Sea Surface Topography (SSTop and possible offset between the unknown reference for the BHS and the quasigeoid model in the region.

  5. Spatially inhomogeneous barrier height in graphene/MoS2 Schottky junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, Dushyant; Rajput, Shivani; Li, Lian

    Graphene interfaced with a semiconductor forms a Schottky junction with rectifying properties. In this study, graphene Schottky junctions are fabricated by transferring CVD monolayer graphene on mechanically exfoliated MoS2 multilayers. The forward bias current-voltage characteristics are measured in the temperature range of 210-300 K. An increase in the zero bias barrier height and decrease in the ideality factor are observed with increasing temperature. Such behavior is attributed to Schottky barrier inhomogeneities possibly due to graphene ripples and ridges at the junction interface as suggested by atomic force microscopy. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of the barrier height, mean barrier of 0.97+/-0.10 eV is found for the graphene MoS2 junction. Our findings provide significant insight on the barrier height inhomogeneities in graphene/two dimensional semiconductor Schottky junctions. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering Award No. DEFG02-07ER46228.

  6. Measuring perceived ceiling height in a visual comparison task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Castell, Christoph; Hecht, Heiko; Oberfeld, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    When judging interior space, a dark ceiling is judged to be lower than a light ceiling. The method of metric judgments (e.g., on a centimetre scale) that has typically been used in such tasks may reflect a genuine perceptual effect or it may reflect a cognitively mediated impression. We employed a height-matching method in which perceived ceiling height had to be matched with an adjustable pillar, thus obtaining psychometric functions that allowed for an estimation of the point of subjective equality (PSE) and the difference limen (DL). The height-matching method developed in this paper allows for a direct visual match and does not require metric judgment. It has the added advantage of providing superior precision. Experiment 1 used ceiling heights between 2.90 m and 3.00 m. The PSE proved sensitive to slight changes in perceived ceiling height. The DL was about 3% of the physical ceiling height. Experiment 2 found similar results for lower (2.30 m to 2.50 m) and higher (3.30 m to 3.50 m) ceilings. In Experiment 3, we additionally varied ceiling lightness (light grey vs. dark grey). The height matches showed that the light ceiling appeared significantly higher than the darker ceiling. We therefore attribute the influence of ceiling lightness on perceived ceiling height to a direct perceptual rather than a cognitive effect.

  7. Oxygen–induced barrier height changes in aluminium – amorphous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that the application of voltage causes charge exchange between the surface states and the semiconductor leading to a change in the height of the potential barrier for electrons passing from aluminium into the a-Se films. The empirically determined values of barrier height of Al/a-Se diodes with thin and ...

  8. Diagnosis of childhood hypertension: is blood pressure height ratio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure was also recorded according to the standard method. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure to height ratio were then calculated. Receiver operating curves was used to assess the ability of systolic blood and diastolic blood pressure height ratio to discriminate childhood prehypertension and hypertension.

  9. 17 Years of Cloud Heights from Terra, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R.

    2017-12-01

    The effective cloud height, H, is the integral of observed cloud-top heights, weighted by their frequency of occurrence. Here we look at changes in the effective cloud height, H', as measured by the Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) on the first Earth Observing System platform, Terra. Terra was launched in December 1999, and now has over 17 years of consistently measured climate records. Globally, HG' has an important influence on Earth's climate, whereas regionally, HR' is a useful measure of low frequency changes in circulation patterns. MISR has a sampling error in the annual mean HG' of ≈11 m, allowing fairly small interannual variations to be detected. This paper extends the previous 15-year summary that showed significant differences in the long term mean hemispheric cloud height changes. Also of interest are the correlations in tropical cloud height changes and related teleconnections. The largest ephemeral values in the annual HR' [over 1.5 km] are noted over the Central Pacific and the Maritime Continent. These changes are strongly anticorrelated with each other, being directly related to changes in ENSO. They are also correlated with the largest ephemeral changes in HG'. Around the equator, we find at least four distinct centres of similar fluctuations in cloud height. This paper examines the relative time dependence of these regional height changes, separately for La Niña and El Niño events, and stresses the value of extending the time series of uniformly measured cloud heights from space beyond EOS-Terra.

  10. Developmental decline in height growth in Douglas-fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bond; Nicole M. Czarnomski; Clifton Cooper; Michael E. Day; Michael S. Greenwood

    2007-01-01

    The characteristic decline in height growth that occurs over a tree's lifespan is often called "age-related decline." But is the reduction in height growth in aging trees a function of age or of size? We grafted shoot tips across different ages and sizes of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees to determine whether...

  11. Stereoscopic Roadside Curb Height Measurement using V-Disparity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matu, Florin-Octavian; Vlaykov, Iskren; Thøgersen, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Managing road assets, such as roadside curbs, is one of the interests of municipalities. As an interesting application of computer vision, this paper proposes a system for automated measurement of the height of the roadside curbs. The developed system uses the spatial information available...... results show that the system can measure the height of the roadside curb with good accuracy and precision....

  12. A century of trends in adult human height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Molbo, Drude

    2016-01-01

    the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The height differential between the tallest...

  13. human pelvis height is associated with other pelvis measurements

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    guyton2

    no study seeking to relate pelvis height to the other pelvis measurements of obstetric importance in Ugandans. In this paper we set out to answer the research question what are the associations between the various pelvis anthropometric measurements of obstetric importance with pelvis height in a sample of bones from the ...

  14. Generalized height-diameter models for Populus tremula L. stands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... and stand density) into the base height-diameter models increased the accuracy of prediction for P. tremula. .... parameter estimates compared with those obtained with ... using coefficient of determination for non-linear regression (. 2. R ), ..... stochastic height-diameter model for maritime pine ecoregions in.

  15. Height among Women is Curvilinearly Related to Life History Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham P. Buunk

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available It was hypothesized that women of medium height would show a more secure, long-term mating pattern characterized by less jealousy, less intrasexual competition and a “slower” life history strategy. In three samples of female undergraduate students clear support was found for these hypotheses. In Study 1, among 120 participants, height was curvilinearly related to well-established measures of possessive and reactive jealousy, with women of medium height being less jealous than tall as well as short women. In Study 2, among 40 participants, height was curvilinearly related to intrasexual competition, with women of medium height being less competitive towards other women than tall as well as short women. In Study 3, among 299 participants, height was curvilinearly related to the Mini-K, a well-validated measure of “slower” life history strategy, with women of medium height having a slower life history strategy than tall as well as short women. The results suggest that women of medium height tend to follow a different mating strategy than either tall or short women. Various explanations and implications of these results are discussed.

  16. A century of trends in adult human height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentham, J. (James); Di Cesare, M. (Mariachiara); Stevens, G.A. (Gretchen A.); Zhou, B. (Bin); Bixby, H. (Honor); Cowan, M. (Melanie); Fortunato, L. (Léa); Bennett, J.E. (James E.); G. Danaei (Goodarz); Hajifathalian, K. (Kaveh); Lu, Y. (Yuan); Riley, L.M. (Leanne M.); Laxmaiah, A. (Avula); Kontis, V. (Vasilis); Paciorek, C.J. (Christopher J.); M. Ezzati (Majid); Abdeen, Z.A. (Ziad A.); Hamid, Z.A. (Zargar Abdul); Abu-Rmeileh, N.M. (Niveen M.); Acosta-Cazares, B. (Benjamin); Adams, R. (Robert); Aekplakorn, W. (Wichai); C.A. Aguilar-Salinas (Carlos A.); C.O. Agyemang (Charles); Ahmadvand, A. (Alireza); W. Ahrens (W.); Al-Hazzaa, H.M. (Hazzaa M.); Al-Othman, A.R. (Amani Rashed); Raddadi, R.A. (Rajaa Al); Ali, M.M. (Mohamed M.); Alkerwi, A. (Ala’a); M. Alvarez-Pedrerol (Mar); Aly, E. (Eman); P. Amouyel (Philippe); A. Amuzu (Antoinette); Andersen, L.B. (Lars Bo); Anderssen, S.A. (Sigmund A.); Anjana, R.M. (Ranjit Mohan); Aounallah-Skhiri, H. (Hajer); Ariansen, I. (Inger); Aris, T. (Tahir); Arlappa, N. (Nimmathota); Arveiler, D. (Dominique); Assah, F.K. (Felix K.); Avdicová, M. (Mária); J. Azizi (Joshan); Babu, B.V. (Bontha V.); Bahijri, S. (Suhad); Balakrishna, N. (Nagalla); Bandosz, P. (Piotr); Banegas, J.R. (José R.); Barbagallo, C.M. (Carlo M.); Barceló, A. (Alberto); Barkat, A. (Amina); Barros, M.V. (Mauro V.); Bata, I. (Iqbal); Batieha, A.M. (Anwar M.); Batista, R.L. (Rosangela L.); Baur, L.A. (Louise A.); Beaglehole, R. (Robert); Romdhane, H.B. (Habiba Ben); Benet, M. (Mikhail); Bernabe-Ortiz, A. (Antonio); Bernotiene, G. (Gailute); Bettiol, H. (Heloisa); Bhagyalaxmi, A. (Aroor); Bharadwaj, S. (Sumit); Bhargava, S.K. (Santosh K.); Bhatti, Z. (Zaid); Z.A. Bhutta (Zulfiqar A); Bi, H. (Hongsheng); Bi, Y. (Yufang); Bjerregaard, P. (Peter); Bjertness, E. (Espen); Bjertness, M.B. (Marius B.); Björkelund, C. (Cecilia); Blokstra, A. (Anneke); Bo, S. (Simona); M. Bobak (Martin); Boddy, L.M. (Lynne M.); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); H. Boeing (Heiner); Boissonnet, C.P. (Carlos P.); Bongard, V. (Vanina); P. Bovet (Pascal); Braeckman, L. (Lutgart); Bragt, M.C.E. (Marjolijn C. E.); Brajkovich, I. (Imperia); Branca, F. (Francesco); Breckenkamp, J. (Juergen); H. Brenner (Hermann); L.M. Brewster (Lizzy); Brian, G.R. (Garry R.); Bruno, G. (Graziella); Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B. (H. Bas); Bugge, A. (Anna); Burns, C. (Con); De León, A.C. (Antonio Cabrera); Cacciottolo, J. (Joseph); Cama, T. (Tilema); Cameron, C. (Christine); Camolas, J. (José); G. Can (Günay); Cândido, A.P.C. (Ana Paula C.); Capuano, V. (Vincenzo); Cardoso, V.C. (Viviane C.); Carlsson, A.C. (Axel C.); Carvalho, M.J. (Maria J.); Casanueva, F.F. (Felipe F.); J.P. Casas (Juan Pablo); Caserta, C.A. (Carmelo A.); Chamukuttan, S. (Snehalatha); A.W.M. Chan (Angelique); Chan, Q. (Queenie); Chaturvedi, H.K. (Himanshu K.); Chaturvedi, N. (Nishi); Chen, C.-J. (Chien-Jen); Chen, F. (Fangfang); Chen, H. (Huashuai); Chen, S. (Shuohua); Chen, Z. (Zhengming); Cheng, C.-Y. (Ching-Yu); A. Chetrit (Angela); Chiolero, A. (Arnaud); Chiou, S.-T. (Shu-Ti); Chirita-Emandi, A. (Adela); Cho, B. (Belong); Cho, Y. (Yumi); Christensen, K. (Kaare); Chudek, J. (Jerzy); R. Cifkova (Renata); F. Claessens; E. Clays (Els); Concin, H. (Hans); C. Cooper (Charles); Cooper, R. (Rachel); Coppinger, T.C. (Tara C.); Costanzo, S. (Simona); D. Cottel (Dominique); Cowell, C. (Chris); Craig, C.L. (Cora L.); Crujeiras, A.B. (Ana B.); D’Arrigo, G. (Graziella); d’Orsi, E. (Eleonora); J. Dallongeville; Damasceno, A. (Albertino); Damsgaard, C.T. (Camilla T.); Dankner, R. (Rachel); Dauchet, L. (Luc); G. De Backer (Guy); D. De Bacquer (Dirk); de Gaetano, G. (Giovanni); De Henauw, S. (Stefaan); D. De Smedt (Delphine); Deepa, M. (Mohan); Deev, A.D. (Alexander D.); A. Dehghan (Abbas); Delisle, H. (Hélène); Delpeuch, F. (Francis); Deschamps, V. (Valérie); K. Dhana (Klodian); Di Castelnuovo, A.F. (Augusto F.); Dias-da-Costa, J.S. (Juvenal Soares); Diaz, A. (Alejandro); Djalalinia, S. (Shirin); Do, H.T.P. (Ha T. P.); Dobson, A.J. (Annette J.); C. Donfrancesco (Chiara); Donoso, S.P. (Silvana P.); A. Döring (Angela); Doua, K. (Kouamelan); Drygas, W. (Wojciech); Dzerve, V. (Vilnis); Egbagbe, E.E. (Eruke E.); Eggertsen, R. (Robert); U. Ekelund (Ulf); El Ati, J. (Jalila); P. Elliott (Paul); Engle-Stone, R. (Reina); Erasmus, R.T. (Rajiv T.); Erem, C. (Cihangir); Eriksen, L. (Louise); Escobedo-de la Peña, J. (Jorge); A. Evans (Alun); Faeh, D. (David); Fall, C.H. (Caroline H.); F. Farzadfar (Farshad); Felix-Redondo, F.J. (Francisco J.); Ferguson, T.S. (Trevor S.); Fernández-Bergés, D. (Daniel); Ferrante, D. (Daniel); Ferrari, M. (Marika); Ferreccio, C. (Catterina); J. Ferrieres (Jean); Finn, J.D. (Joseph D.); K. Fischer (Krista); Flores, E.M. (Eric Monterubio); Föger, B. (Bernhard); Foo, L.H. (Leng Huat); Forslund, A.-S. (Ann-Sofie); Forsner, M. (Maria); S.P. Fortmann (Stephen); Fouad, H.M. (Heba M.); Francis, D.K. (Damian K.); Do Carmo Franco, M. (Maria); O.H. Franco (Oscar); Frontera, G. (Guillermo); Fuchs, F.D. (Flavio D.); Fuchs, S.C. (Sandra C.); Fujita, Y. (Yuki); Furusawa, T. (Takuro); Gaciong, Z. (Zbigniew); Gafencu, M. (Mihai); Gareta, D. (Dickman); Garnett, S.P. (Sarah P.); J.-M. Gaspoz (Jean-Michel); Gasull, M. (Magda); Gates, L. (Louise); J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne); Ghasemian, A. (Anoosheh); S. Giampaoli (Simona); F. Gianfagna (Francesco); Giovannelli, J. (Jonathan); A. Giwercman (Aleksander); Goldsmith, R.A. (Rebecca A.); Gonçalves, H. (Helen); M. Gross; González Rivas, J.P. (Juan P.); Gorbea, M.B. (Mariano Bonet); Gottrand, F. (Frederic); Graff-Iversen, S. (Sidsel); Grafnetter, D. (Dušan); Grajda, A. (Aneta); Grammatikopoulou, M.G. (Maria G.); Gregor, R.D. (Ronald D.); T. Grodzicki (Tomasz); Grøntved, A. (Anders); Gruden, G. (Grabriella); Grujic, V. (Vera); Gu, D. (Dongfeng); Gualdi-Russo, E. (Emanuela); Guan, O.P. (Ong Peng); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); Guerrero, R. (Ramiro); I. Guessous (Idris); Guimaraes, A.L. (Andre L.); Gulliford, M.C. (Martin C.); Gunnlaugsdottir, J. (Johanna); Gunter, M. (Marc); Guo, X. (Xiuhua); Guo, Y. (Yin); Gupta, P.C. (Prakash C.); Gureje, O. (Oye); Gurzkowska, B. (Beata); Gutierrez, L. (Laura); Gutzwiller, F. (Felix); J. Halkjær; Hambleton, I.R. (Ian R.); R. Hardy; Kumar, R.H. (Rachakulla Hari); Hata, J. (Jun); Hayes, A.J. (Alison J.); He, J. (Jiang); M.E. Hendriks (Marleen); Cadena, L.H. (Leticia Hernandez); Herrala, S. (Sauli); Heshmat, R. (Ramin); Hihtaniemi, I.T. (Ilpo Tapani); Ho, S.Y. (Sai Yin); Ho, S.C. (Suzanne C.); Hobbs, M. (Michael); Hofman, A. (Albert); Hormiga, C.M. (Claudia M.); Horta, B.L. (Bernardo L.); Houti, L. (Leila); Howitt, C. (Christina); Htay, T.T. (Thein Thein); Htet, A.S. (Aung Soe); Htike, M.M.T. (Maung Maung Than); Hu, Y. (Yonghua); A. Husseini (Abdullatif); Huu, C.N. (Chinh Nguyen); Huybrechts, I. (Inge); Hwalla, N. (Nahla); L. Iacoviello (Licia); Iannone, A.G. (Anna G.); Ibrahim, M.M. (Mohsen M.); Ikeda, N. (Nayu); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); V. Irazola (Vilma); M. Islam (Muhammad); Ivkovic, V. (Vanja); Iwasaki, M. (Masanori); Jackson, R.T. (Rod T.); Jacobs, J.M. (Jeremy M.); T.H. Jafar (Tazeen); Jamil, K.M. (Kazi M.); K. Jamrozik; Janszky, I. (Imre); Jasienska, G. (Grazyna); Jelakovic, B. (Bojan); Jiang, C.Q. (Chao Qiang); Joffres, M. (Michel); M. Johansson (Mattias); J.B. Jonas (Jost B.); T. Jorgensen (Torben); Joshi, P. (Pradeep); Juolevi, A. (Anne); Jurak, G. (Gregor); Jureša, V. (Vesna); R. Kaaks (Rudolf); Kafatos, A. (Anthony); Kalter-Leibovici, O. (Ofra); Kapantais, E. (Efthymios); Kasaeian, A. (Amir); Katz, J. (Joanne); Kaur, P. (Prabhdeep); M. Kavousi (Maryam); M. Keil (Mark); Boker, L.K. (Lital Keinan); S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi (Sirkka); Kelishadi, R. (Roya); H.C.G. Kemper; A.P. Kengne (Andre Pascal); Kersting, M. (Mathilde); T. Key (Tim); Y.S. Khader (Yousef Saleh); D. Khalili (Davood); Khang, Y.-H. (Young-Ho); K.-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); Khouw, I.M.S.L. (Ilse M. S. L.); S. Kiechl (Stefan); Killewo, J. (Japhet); Kim, J. (Jeongseon); Klimont, J. (Jeannette); J. Klumbiene (Jurate); Koirala, B. (Bhawesh); Kolle, E. (Elin); P. Kolsteren (Patrick); Korrovits, P. (Paul); S. Koskinen (Seppo); Kouda, K. (Katsuyasu); Koziel, S. (Slawomir); W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); Krokstad, S. (Steinar); Kromhout, D. (Daan); Kruger, H.S. (Herculina S.); R. Kubinova; U.M. Kujala (Urho); Kula, K. (Krzysztof); Kulaga, Z. (Zbigniew); Krishna Kumar, R.; Kurjata, P. (Pawel); Kusuma, Y.S. (Yadlapalli S.); K. Kuulasmaa (Kari); Kyobutungi, C. (Catherine); Laamiri, F.Z. (Fatima Zahra); T. Laatikainen (Tiina); C. Lachat (Carl); Laid, Y. (Youcef); Lam, T.H. (Tai Hing); Landrove, O. (Orlando); Lanska, V. (Vera); Lappas, G. (Georg); Larijani, B. (Bagher); L.E. Laugsand (Lars E.); Bao, K.L.N. (Khanh Le Nguyen); Le, T.D. (Tuyen D.); Leclercq, C. (Catherine); J.J.M. Lee (Jeannette); Lee, J. (Jeonghee); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Lekhraj, R. (Rampal); León-Muñoz, L.M. (Luz M.); Y. Li (Yanping); Lilly, C.L. (Christa L.); W.-Y. Lim (Wei-Yen); Fernanda Lima-Costa, M.; Lin, H.-H. (Hsien-Ho); X. Lin (Xu); A. Linneberg (Allan); L. Lissner (Lauren); Litwin, M. (Mieczyslaw); Liu, J. (Jing); R. Lorbeer (Roberto); P.A. Lotufo (Paulo A); Lozano, J.E. (José Eugenio); Luksiene, D. (Dalia); A. Lundqvist (Annamari); Lunet, N. (Nuno); Lytsy, P. (Per); Ma, G. (Guansheng); Ma, J. (Jun); Machado-Coelho, G.L.L. (George L. L.); Machi, S. (Suka); Maggi, S. (Stefania); D.J. Magliano; Maire, B. (Bernard); Makdisse, M. (Marcia); R. Malekzadeh (Reza); Malhotra, R. (Rahul); Rao, K.M. (Kodavanti Mallikharjuna); S. Malyutina; Y. Manios; Mann, J.I. (Jim I.); Manzato, E. (Enzo); Margozzini, P. (Paula); Markey, O. (Oonagh); P. Marques-Vidal (Pedro); J. Marrugat (Jaume); Martin-Prevel, Y. (Yves); Martorell, R. (Reynaldo); Masoodi, S.R. (Shariq R.); E.B. Mathiesen (Ellisiv); Matsha, T.E. (Tandi E.); Mazur, A. (Artur); Mbanya, J.C.N. (Jean Claude N.); McFarlane, S.R. (Shelly R.); McGarvey, S.T. (Stephen T.); McKee, M. (Martin); S. McLachlan (Stela); McLean, R.M. (Rachael M.); McNulty, B.A. (Breige A.); Yusof, S.M. (Safiah Md); Mediene-Benchekor, S. (Sounnia); A. Meirhaeghe (Aline); C. Meisinger (Christa); Menezes, A.M.B. (Ana Maria B.); Mensink, G.B.M. (Gert B. M.); Meshram, I.I. (Indrapal I.); A. Metspalu (Andres); J. Mi (Jie); K.F. Michaelsen; Mikkel, K. (Kairit); Miller, J.C. (Jody C.); Miquel, J.F. (Juan Francisco); Jaime Miranda, J.; Mišigoj-Durakovic, M. (Marjeta); Mohamed, M.K. (Mostafa K.); K. Mohammad (Kazem); Mohammadifard, N. (Noushin); V. Mohan (Viswanathan); Yusoff, M.F.M. (Muhammad Fadhli Mohd); Molbo, D. (Drude); Møller, N.C. (Niels C.); Molnár, D. (Dénes); Mondo, C.K. (Charles K.); Monterrubio, E.A. (Eric A.); Monyeki, K.D.K. (Kotsedi Daniel K.); Moreira, L.B. (Leila B.); Morejon, A. (Alain); Moreno, L.A. (Luis A.); Morgan, K. (Karen); Mortensen, E.L. (Erik Lykke); G. Moschonis; Mossakowska, M. (Malgorzata); Mostafa, A. (Aya); Mota, J. (Jorge); Motlagh, M.E. (Mohammad Esmaeel); Motta, J. (Jorge); Mu, T.T. (Thet Thet); M.L. Muiesan (Maria Lorenza); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); Murphy, N. (Neil); Mursu, J. (Jaakko); Murtagh, E.M. (Elaine M.); Musa, K.I. (Kamarul Imran); Musil, V. (Vera); Nagel, G. (Gabriele); Nakamura, H. (Harunobu); Námešná, J. (Jana); Nang, E.E.K. (Ei Ei K.); M. Nangia (Monika); Nankap, M. (Martin); Narake, S. (Sameer); E.M. Navarrete-Muñoz; Neal, W.A. (William A.); Nenko, I. (Ilona); Neovius, M. (Martin); Nervi, F. (Flavio); Neuhauser, H.K. (Hannelore K.); Nguyen, N.D. (Nguyen D.); Nguyen, Q.N. (Quang Ngoc); Nieto-Martínez, R.E. (Ramfis E.); Ning, G. (Guang); T. Ninomiya (Toshiharu); Nishtar, S. (Sania); Noale, M. (Marianna); Norat, T. (Teresa); Noto, D. (Davide); Nsour, M.A. (Mohannad Al); O’Reilly, D. (Dermot); Oh, K. (Kyungwon); Olayan, I.H. (Iman H.); Olinto, M.T.A. (Maria Teresa Anselmo); Oltarzewski, M. (Maciej); Omar, M.A. (Mohd A.); A. Onat (Altan); Ordunez, P. (Pedro); Ortiz, A.P. (Ana P.); Osler, M. (Merete); Osmond, C. (Clive); Ostojic, S.M. (Sergej M.); Otero, J.A. (Johanna A.); K. Overvad (Kim); E. Owusu-Dabo (Ellis); Paccaud, F.M. (Fred Michel); Padez, C. (Cristina); Pahomova, E. (Elena); A. Pajak (Andrzej); D. Palli (Domenico); Palloni, A. (Alberto); Palmieri, L. (Luigi); S. Panda-Jonas (Songhomitra); F. Panza (Francesco); Parnell, W.R. (Winsome R.); Parsaeian, M. (Mahboubeh); Pecin, I. (Ivan); Pednekar, M.S. (Mangesh S.); P.H.M. Peeters; Peixoto, S.V. (Sergio Viana); Peltonen, M. (Markku); A. Pereira (A.); Pérez, C.M. (Cynthia M.); A. Peters; Petkeviciene, J. (Janina); Peykari, N. (Niloofar); Pham, S.T. (Son Thai); Pigeot, I. (Iris); H. Pikhart (Hynek); Pilav, A. (Aida); A. Pilotto (Alberto); Pistelli, F. (Francesco); Pitakaka, F. (Freda); Piwonska, A. (Aleksandra); Plans-Rubió, P. (Pedro); Poh, B.K. (Bee Koon); M. Porta; M.L.P. Portegies (Marileen); Poulimeneas, D. (Dimitrios); Pradeepa, R. (Rajendra); Prashant, M. (Mathur); J.F. Price (Jackie F.); Puiu, M. (Maria); M. Punab (Margus); Qasrawi, R.F. (Radwan F.); Qorbani, M. (Mostafa); Bao, T.Q. (Tran Quoc); Radic, I. (Ivana); Radisauskas, R. (Ricardas); Rahman, M.-M. (Mah-mudur); O. Raitakari (Olli); Raj, M. (Manu); Rao, S.R. (Sudha Ramachandra); Ramachandran, A. (Ambady); Ramke, J. (Jacqueline); Ramos, R. (Rafel); Rampal, S. (Sanjay); Rasmussen, F. (Finn); J. Redón (Josep); Reganit, P.F.M. (Paul Ferdinand M.); Ribeiro, R. (Robespierre); Riboli, E. (Elio); Rigo, F. (Fernando); T.F. Rinke de Wit (Tobias); Ritti-Dias, R.M. (Raphael M.); Rivera, J.A. (Juan A.); S.M. Robinson (Siân); Robitaille, C. (Cynthia); F. Rodríguez Artalejo (Fernando); Del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, M. (María); Rodríguez-Villamizar, L.A. (Laura A.); Rojas-Martinez, R. (Rosalba); Rojroong-Wasinkul, N. (Nipa); Romaguera, D. (Dora); K. Ronkainen (Kimmo); A. Rosengren (Annika); Rouse, I. (Ian); Rubinstein, A. (Adolfo); Rühli, F.J. (Frank J.); Rui, O. (Ornelas); Ruiz-Betancourt, B.S. (Blanca Sandra); Russo Horimoto, A.R.V. (Andrea R. V.); Rutkowski, M. (Marcin); C. Sabanayagam (Charumathi); Sachdev, H.S. (Harshpal S.); Saidi, O. (Olfa); Salanave, B. (Benoit); Martinez, E.S. (Eduardo Salazar); V. Salomaa (Veikko); Salonen, J.T. (Jukka T.); M. Salvetti (Massimo); Sánchez-Abanto, J. (Jose); Sandjaja,; S. Sans (Susana); Santos, D.A. (Diana A.); Santos, O. (Osvaldo); Dos Santos, R.N. (Renata Nunes); Santos, R. (Rute); J. Saramies (Jouko); Sardinha, L.B. (Luis B.); Sarrafzadegan, N. (Nizal); Saum, K.-U. (Kai-Uwe); S. Savva; Scazufca, M. (Marcia); Rosario, A.S. (Angelika Schaffrath); Schargrodsky, H. (Herman); Schienkiewitz, A. (Anja); Schmidt, I.M. (Ida Maria); I.J.C. Schneider (Ione J C); C. Schultsz (Constance); Schutte, A.E. (Aletta E.); Sein, A.A. (Aye Aye); Sen, A. (Abhijit); Senbanjo, I.O. (Idowu O.); S.G. Sepanlou (Sadaf G); Shalnova, S.A. (Svetlana A.); Sharma, S.K. (Sanjib K.); J.E. Shaw; K. Shibuya (Kenji); Shin, D.W. (Dong Wook); Y. Shin (Youchan); R. Shiri (Rahman); R. Siantar (Rosalynn); Sibai, A.M. (Abla M.); Silva, A.M. (Antonio M.); Silva, D.A.S. (Diego Augusto Santos); Simon, M. (Mary); J. Simons (Judith); L.A. Simons (Leon); Sjostrom, M. (Michael); J. Slowikowska-Hilczer (Jolanta); Slusarczyk, P. (Przemyslaw); L. Smeeth (Liam); Smith, M.C. (Margaret C.); M.B. Snijder (Marieke); So, H.-K. (Hung-Kwan); Sobngwi, E. (Eugène); S. Söderberg (Stefan); Soekatri, M.Y.E. (Moesijanti Y. E.); Solfrizzi, V. (Vincenzo); E. Sonestedt (Emily); Song, Y. (Yi); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); Soric, M. (Maroje); Jérome, C.S. (Charles Sossa); Soumare, A. (Aicha); J.A. Staessen (Jan); Starc, G. (Gregor); Stathopoulou, M.G. (Maria G.); Staub, K. (Kaspar); Stavreski, B. (Bill); Steene-Johannessen, J. (Jostein); Stehle, P. (Peter); Stein, A.D. (Aryeh D.); Stergiou, G.S. (George S.); Stessman, J. (Jochanan); Stieber, J. (Jutta); D. Stöckl (Doris); Stocks, T. (Tanja); Stokwiszewski, J. (Jakub); Stratton, G. (Gareth); K. Stronks (Karien); Strufaldi, M.W. (Maria Wany); Sun, C.-A. (Chien-An); Sundström, J. (Johan); Sung, Y.-T. (Yn-Tz); J. Sunyer (Jordi); Suriyawongpaisal, P. (Paibul); Swinburn, B.A. (Boyd A.); Sy, R.G. (Rody G.); Szponar, L. (Lucjan); E. Shyong Tai; M.L. Tammesoo; A. Tamosiunas (Abdonas); Tang, L. (Line); Tang, X. (Xun); F. Tanser (Frank); Tao, Y. (Yong); Tarawneh, M.R. (Mohammed Rasoul); Tarp, J. (Jakob); Tarqui-Mamani, C.B. (Carolina B.); Taylor, A. (Anne); Tchibindat, F. (Félicité); Theobald, H. (Holger); L. Thijs (Lutgarde); L. Thuesen (Leif); A. Tjønneland (Anne); Tolonen, H.K. (Hanna K.); Tolstrup, J.S. (Janne S.); Topbas, M. (Murat); Topór-Madry, R. (Roman); M. Torrent (Maties); Toselli, S. (Stefania); Traissac, P. (Pierre); A. Trichopoulou (Antonia); Trichopoulos, D. (Dimitrios); Trinh, O.T.H. (Oanh T. H.); Trivedi, A. (Atul); Tshepo, L. (Lechaba); Tulloch-Reid, M.K. (Marshall K.); Tuomainen, T.-P. (Tomi-Pekka); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); Turley, M.L. (Maria L.); Tynelius, P. (Per); Tzotzas, T. (Themistoklis); C. Tzourio (Christophe); Ueda, P. (Peter); Ukoli, F.A.M. (Flora A. M.); Ulmer, H. (Hanno); Unal, B. (Belgin); Uusitalo, H.M.T. (Hannu M. T.); Valdivia, G. (Gonzalo); Vale, S. (Susana); D. Valvi (Damaskini); Y.T. van der Schouw (Yvonne); Van Herck, K. (Koen); Van Minh, H. (Hoang); L. van Rossem (Lenie); I. van Valkengoed (Irene); D. Vanderschueren (Dirk); D. Vanuzzo (Diego); L. Vatten (Lars); Vega, T. (Tomas); Velasquez-Melendez, G. (Gustavo); G. Veronesi (Giovanni); Monique Verschuren, W.M.; Verstraeten, R. (Roosmarijn); Victora, C.G. (Cesar G.); G. Viegi; L. Viet (Lucie); E. Viikari-Juntura (Eira); P. Vineis (Paolo); J. Vioque (Jesus); Virtanen, J.K. (Jyrki K.); S. Visvikis-Siest (Sophie); B. Viswanathan (Bharathi); P. Vollenweider (Peter); Voutilainen, S. (Sari); Vrdoljak, A. (Ana); M. Vrijheid (Martine); Wade, A.N. (Alisha N.); Wagner, A. (Aline); Walton, J. (Janette); Mohamud, W.N.W. (Wan Nazaimoon Wan); Wang, M.-D. (Ming-Dong); Wang, Q. (Qian); Y. Wang (Ying); Goya Wannamethee, S.; N.J. Wareham (Nick); Weerasekera, D. (Deepa); P.H. Whincup (Peter); Widhalm, K. (Kurt); Widyahening, I.S. (Indah S.); Wiecek, A. (Andrzej); A.H. Wijga (Alet); Wilks, R.J. (Rainford J.); J. Willeit (Johann); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); B. Wojtyniak (Bogdan); Wong, J.E. (Jyh Eiin); Wong, T.Y. (Tien Yin); Woo, J. (Jean); M. Woodward (Mark); F.C.W. Wu (Frederick C.); Wu, J. (Jianfeng); Wu, S.L. (Shou Ling); Xu, H. (Haiquan); Xu, L. (Liang); Yamborisut, U. (Uruwan); Yan, W. (Weili); Yang, X. (Xiaoguang); Yardim, N. (Nazan); X. Ye (Xingwang); P.K. Yiallouros (P.); Yoshihara, A. (Akihiro); You, Q.S. (Qi Sheng); Younger-Coleman, N.O. (Novie O.); Yusoff, A.F. (Ahmad F.); Zainuddin, A.A. (Ahmad A.); Zambon, S. (Sabina); T. Zdrojewski (T.); Zeng, Y. (Yi); Zhao, D. (Dong); Zhao, W. (Wenhua); Y. Zheng (Yingfeng); M. Zhou (Ming); Zhu, D. (Dan); E. Zimmermann; Cisneros, J.Z. (Julio Zuñiga)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBeing taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The

  17. Variability of the Mixed-Layer Height Over Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Franco, J. L.; Stremme, W.; Bezanilla, A.; Ruiz-Angulo, A.; Grutter, M.

    2018-02-01

    The diurnal and seasonal variability of the mixed-layer height in urban areas has implications for ground-level air pollution and the meteorological conditions. Measurements of the backscatter of light pulses with a commercial lidar system were performed for a continuous period of almost six years between 2011 and 2016 in the southern part of Mexico City. The profiles were temporally and vertically smoothed, clouds were filtered out, and the mixed-layer height was determined with an ad hoc treatment of both the filtered and unfiltered profiles. The results are in agreement when compared with values of mixed-layer height reconstructed from, (i) radiosonde data, and (ii) surface and vertical column densities of a trace gas. The daily maxima of the mean mixed-layer height reach values > 3 km above ground level in the months of March-April, and are clearly lower (pollution episodes and the height of the mixed layer. The growth rate of the convective mixed-layer height has a seasonal behaviour, which is characterized together with the mixed-layer-height anomalies. A clear residual layer is evident from the backscattered signals recorded in days with specific atmospheric conditions, but also from the cloud-filtered mean diurnal profiles. The occasional presence of a residual layer results in an overestimation of the reported mixed-layer height during the night and early morning hours.

  18. A century of trends in adult human height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentham, James; Di Cesare, Mariachiara; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Zhou, Bin; Bixby, Honor; Cowan, Melanie; Fortunato, Léa; Bennett, James E.; Danaei, Goodarz; Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Lu, Yuan; Riley, Leanne M.; Laxmaiah, Avula; Kontis, Vasilis; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Riboli, Elio; Ezzati, Majid; Abdeen, Ziad A.; Hamid, Zargar Abdul; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin; Adams, Robert; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Agyemang, Charles; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M.; Al-Othman, Amani Rashed; Raddadi, Rajaa Al; Ali, Mohamed M.; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Aly, Eman; Amouyel, Philippe; Amuzu, Antoinette; Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund A.; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Ariansen, Inger; Aris, Tahir; Arlappa, Nimmathota; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Hendriks, Marleen Elisabeth; Wit, Tobias F. Rinke de; Schultsz, Constance; Snijder, Marieke B.; Stronks, Karien; Valkengoed, Irene Gm van

    2016-01-01

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in

  19. Height estimations based on eye measurements throughout a gait cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine

    2014-01-01

    (EH) measurement, on the other hand, is less prone to concealment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate: (1) how the eye height varies during the gait cycle, and (2) how the eye height changes with head position. The eyes were plotted manually in APAS for 16 test subjects during...

  20. Mixing height measurements from UHF wind profiling radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angevine, W.M.; Grimsdell, A.W. [CIRES, Univ. of Colorado, and NOAA Aeronomy Lab., Boulder, Colorado (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Mixing height in convective boundary layers can be detected by wind profiling radars (profilers) operating at or near 915 MHZ. We have made such measurements in a variety of settings including Alabama in 1992; Nova Scotia, Canada, during the North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE) 1993; Tennessee during the Southern Oxidant Study (SOS) 1994; near a 450 m tower in Wisconsin in 1995; and extensively in Illinois during the Flatland95, `96, and `97 experiments, as well as continuous operations at the Flatland Atmospheric Observatory. Profiler mixing height measurements, like all measurements, are subject to some limitations. The most important of these are due to rainfall, minimum height, and height resolution. Profilers are very sensitive to rain, which dominates the reflectivity and prevents the mixing height from being detected. Because the best height resolution is currently 60 m and the minimum height is 120-150 m AGL, the profiler is not suited for detecting mixing height in stable or nocturnal boundary layers. Problems may also arise in very dry or cold environments. (au) 12 refs.

  1. Accurate tool height control by bearing gap adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielen, van der A.M.; Schellekens, P.H.J.; Jaartsveld, F.T.M.

    2002-01-01

    Face turning of optical surfaces on precision lathes needs high precision tool height adjustment, which may be a difficult and time-consuming task. In this paper we present a new tool adjustment mechanism based on varying the bearing gap height of the hydrostatic bearings present in precision lathe

  2. Imaging height fluctuations in free-standing graphene membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Kyle; Miskin, Marc; Barnard, Arthur; Rose, Peter; Cohen, Itai; McEuen, Paul

    We present a technique based on multi-wavelength interference microscopy to measure the heights of observed ripples in free-standing graphene membranes. Graphene membranes released from a transparent substrate produce interference fringes when viewed in the reflection mode of an inverted microscope(Blees et. al. Nature 524 (7564): 204-207 (2015)). The fringes correspond to corrugation of the membrane as it floats near an interface. A single set of fringes is insufficient to uniquely determine the height profile, as a given fringe spacing can correspond to an increase or decrease in height by λ / 2 . Imaging at multiple wavelengths resolves the ambiguities in phase, and enables unique determination of the height profile of the membrane (Schilling et. al.Phys. Rev. E, 69:021901, 2004). We utilize this technique to map out the height fluctuations in free-standing graphene membranes to answer questions about fundamental mechanical properties of two-dimensional materials.

  3. Height, selected genetic markers and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia

    2017-01-01

    Background:Evidence on height and prostate cancer risk is mixed, however, recent studies with large data sets support a possible role for its association with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer.Methods:We analysed data from the PRACTICAL consortium consisting of 6207 prostate cancer cases...... and 6016 controls and a subset of high grade cases (2480 cases). We explored height, polymorphisms in genes related to growth processes as main effects and their possible interactions.Results:The results suggest that height is associated with high-grade prostate cancer risk. Men with height >180 cm...... are at a 22% increased risk as compared to men with height prostate cancer risk. The aggregate scores of the selected variants identified a significantly increased risk of overall prostate cancer...

  4. Footprint parameters as a measure of arch height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, M R; Nachbauer, W; Sovak, D; Nigg, B M

    1992-01-01

    The human foot has frequently been categorized into arch height groups based upon analysis of footprint parameters. This study investigates the relationship between directly measured arch height and many of the footprint parameters that have been assumed to represent arch height. A total of 115 male subjects were measured and footprint parameters were calculated from digitized outlines. Correlation and regression analyses were used to determine the relationship between footprint measures and arch height. It may be concluded from the results that footprint parameters proposed in the literature (arch angle, footprint index, and arch index) and two further parameters suggested in this study (arch length index and truncated arch index) are invalid as a basis for prediction or categorization of arch height. The categorization of the human foot according to the footprint measures evaluated in this paper represent no more than indices and angles of the plantar surface of the foot itself.

  5. Sensitivity of the urban airshed model to mixing height profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, S.T.; Sistla, G.; Ku, J.Y.; Zhou, N.; Hao, W. [New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has recommended the use of the Urban Airshed Model (UAM), a grid-based photochemical model, for regulatory applications. One of the important parameters in applications of the UAM is the height of the mixed layer or the diffusion break. In this study, we examine the sensitivity of the UAM-predicted ozone concentrations to (a) a spatially invariant diurnal mixing height profile, and (b) a spatially varying diurnal mixing height profile for a high ozone episode of July 1988 for the New York Airshed. The 1985/88 emissions inventory used in the EPA`s Regional Oxidant Modeling simulations has been regridded for this study. Preliminary results suggest that the spatially varying case yields a higher peak ozone concentrations compared to the spatially invariant mixing height simulation, with differences in the peak ozone ranging from a few ppb to about 40 ppb for the days simulated. These differences are attributed to the differences in the shape of the mixing height profiles and its rate of growth during the morning hours when peak emissions are injected into the atmosphere. Examination of the impact of emissions reductions associated with these two mixing height profiles indicates that NO{sub x}-focussed controls provide a greater change in the predicted ozone peak under spatially invariant mixing heights than under the spatially varying mixing height profile. On the other hand, VOC-focussed controls provide a greater change in the predicted peak ozone levels under spatially varying mixing heights than under the spatially invariant mixing height profile.

  6. Evolution of Human Body Height and Its Implications in Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İzzet DUYAR

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Body height is an crucial variable in the design and production of all physical spaces, primarily in the manifacturing of clothes and means of transportation. Having such an ergonomic significance, the height of the human being has constantly changed during the course of history. There exist strong data suggesting that this change is still continue. To find out stages of evolution of human height throughout the ages up to the present will help us to illuminate the human-environment relations, and to predict the possible changes that the human height might be subjected to in the future. In view of these reasons, the changes that has occured in human height from the period at which hominids appeared until humans’ transition into settled life have been closely examined. The study was carried out on the basis of the data obtained from the earlier studies in literature. These data, when considered as a whole, reveal that the human height did not continuously increase in a linear fashion in its evolutionary path but recorded some increases and decreases at different stages. The difference between males and females (sexual dimorphism has not shown a steady decrease either; instead, it has exhibited an oscillating pattern. The modern humans as a species is not unique in terms of their height; as a matter of fact, two million years ago hominids had existed at approximately the same height as the Homo sapiens. Although the average height had shown some decrease in Homo erectus, its distribution pattern was not much different than the one observed in the modern human societies. In the findings dated to the early stages of the Upper Paleolithic Age, height showed a tendency to increase again

  7. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) Annual Report 2001-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report details outcomes, achievements and work underway. It has been a year of significant advancement with the awarding by ARPANSA in April of the Licence to Construct the Replacement Research Reactor at Lucas Heights after almost 10 years of substantiation and approval processes. Other operational highlights during the year included: the award of several facility licences by ARPANSA under their new procedures, including a licence for the ongoing operation of the HIFAR reactor and radiopharmaceutical production; the launch by the ANSTO business unit ARI in April 2002 of LeukoScan, a technetium-99m labelled diagnostic radiopharmaceutical for imaging infection; maintenance of Australia's leading role in the development of new nuclear safeguards procedures by cooperating with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to become the first country to adopt integrated safeguards; formal accreditation of ANSTO as a member of the IAEA's Network of Analytical Laboratories, the network that supports the international nuclear safeguards program; construction of a purpose-built waste treatment and packaging facility to enable state-of-the-art processing for ANSTO's low level radioactive waste in preparation for removal to the national low-level radioactive waste repository. Scientific highlights included: ANSTO's development of two new technologies that will lead to cleaner and more environmentally sustainable operations for uranium processors; new methods for depositing ceramics coatings at low temperatures for applications ranging from fibre optic communications to corrosion and scratch resistance; ANSTO sustaining its position as a world leader in carbon dating samples following the introduction of new sample preparation procedures that dramatically reduce the influence of background levels on the result and studies that provided information relating to the management and sustainable development of fishing and mining in the marine environment. ANSTO scientists, in

  8. Science Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory Delivering science and technology to protect our nation and promote world stability Science & ; Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Facilities Science Pillars Research Library Science Briefs Science News Science Highlights Lab Organizations Science Programs Applied

  9. Modeling the height of young forests regenerating from recent disturbances in Mississippi using Landsat and ICESat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ainong; Huang, Chengquan; Sun, Guoqing; Shi, Hua; Toney, Chris; Zhu, Zhiliang; Rollins, Matthew G.; Goward, Samuel N.; Masek, Jeffery G.

    2011-01-01

    Many forestry and earth science applications require spatially detailed forest height data sets. Among the various remote sensing technologies, lidar offers the most potential for obtaining reliable height measurement. However, existing and planned spaceborne lidar systems do not have the capability to produce spatially contiguous, fine resolution forest height maps over large areas. This paper describes a Landsat–lidar fusion approach for modeling the height of young forests by integrating historical Landsat observations with lidar data acquired by the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) instrument onboard the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation (ICESat) satellite. In this approach, “young” forests refer to forests reestablished following recent disturbances mapped using Landsat time-series stacks (LTSS) and a vegetation change tracker (VCT) algorithm. The GLAS lidar data is used to retrieve forest height at sample locations represented by the footprints of the lidar data. These samples are used to establish relationships between lidar-based forest height measurements and LTSS–VCT disturbance products. The height of “young” forest is then mapped based on the derived relationships and the LTSS–VCT disturbance products. This approach was developed and tested over the state of Mississippi. Of the various models evaluated, a regression tree model predicting forest height from age since disturbance and three cumulative indices produced by the LTSS–VCT method yielded the lowest cross validation error. The R2 and root mean square difference (RMSD) between predicted and GLAS-based height measurements were 0.91 and 1.97 m, respectively. Predictions of this model had much higher errors than indicated by cross validation analysis when evaluated using field plot data collected through the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program of USDA Forest Service. Much of these errors were due to a lack of separation between stand clearing and non-stand clearing

  10. Modeling the Height of Young Forests Regenerating from Recent Disturbances in Mississippi using Landsat and ICESat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ainong; Huang, Chengquan; Sun, Guoqing; Shi, Hua; Toney, Chris; Zhu, Zhiliang; Rollins, Matthew G.; Goward, Samuel N.; Masek, Jeffrey G.

    2011-01-01

    Many forestry and earth science applications require spatially detailed forest height data sets. Among the various remote sensing technologies, lidar offers the most potential for obtaining reliable height measurement. However, existing and planned spaceborne lidar systems do not have the capability to produce spatially contiguous, fine resolution forest height maps over large areas. This paper describes a Landsat-lidar fusion approach for modeling the height of young forests by integrating historical Landsat observations with lidar data acquired by the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) instrument onboard the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation (ICESat) satellite. In this approach, "young" forests refer to forests reestablished following recent disturbances mapped using Landsat time-series stacks (LTSS) and a vegetation change tracker (VCT) algorithm. The GLAS lidar data is used to retrieve forest height at sample locations represented by the footprints of the lidar data. These samples are used to establish relationships between lidar-based forest height measurements and LTSS-VCT disturbance products. The height of "young" forest is then mapped based on the derived relationships and the LTSS-VCT disturbance products. This approach was developed and tested over the state of Mississippi. Of the various models evaluated, a regression tree model predicting forest height from age since disturbance and three cumulative indices produced by the LTSS-VCT method yielded the lowest cross validation error. The R(exp 2) and root mean square difference (RMSD) between predicted and GLAS-based height measurements were 0.91 and 1.97 m, respectively. Predictions of this model had much higher errors than indicated by cross validation analysis when evaluated using field plot data collected through the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program of USDA Forest Service. Much of these errors were due to a lack of separation between stand clearing and non-stand clearing disturbances in

  11. [Influence of disc height on outcome of posterolateral fusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drain, O; Lenoir, T; Dauzac, C; Rillardon, L; Guigui, P

    2008-09-01

    Experimentally, posterolateral fusion only provides incomplete control of flexion-extension, rotation and lateral inclination forces. The stability deficit increases with increasing height of the anterior intervertebral space, which for some warrants the adjunction of an intersomatic arthrodesis in addition to the posterolateral graft. Few studies have been devoted to the impact of disc height on the outcome of posterolateral fusion. The purpose of this work was to investigate the spinal segment immobilized by the posterolateral fusion: height of the anterior intervertebral space, the clinical and radiographic impact of changes in disc height, and the short- and long-term impact of disc height measured preoperatively on clinical and radiographic outcome. In order to obtain a homogeneous group of patients, the series was limited to patients undergoing posterolateral arthrodesis for degenerative spondylolisthesis, in combination with radicular release. This was a retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of 66 patients with mean 52 months follow-up (range 3-63 months). A dedicated self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on pre- and postoperative function, the SF-36 quality of life score, and patient satisfaction. Pre- and postoperative (early, one year, last follow-up) radiographic data were recorded: olisthesic level, disc height, intervertebral angle, intervertebral mobility (angular, anteroposterior), and global measures of sagittal balance (thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, T9 sagittal tilt, pelvic version, pelvic incidence, sacral slope). SpineView was used for all measures. Univariate analysis searched for correlations between variation in disc height and early postoperative function and quality of fusion at last follow-up. Multivariate analysis was applied to the following preoperative parameters: intervertebral angle, disc height, intervertebral mobility, sagittal balance parameters, use of osteosynthesis or not. At the olisthesic

  12. Prediction of facial height, width, and ratio from thumbprints ridge count and its possible applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawan Hassan Adamu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fingerprints and face recognition are two biometric processes that comprise methods for uniquely recognizing humans based on certain number of intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. The objectives of the study were to predict the facial height (FH, facial width, and ratios from thumbprints ridge count and its possible applications. This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 457 participants were recruited. A fingerprint live scanner was used to capture the plain thumbprint. The facial photograph was captured using a digital camera. Pearson's correlation analysis was used for the relationship between thumbprint ridge density and facial linear dimensions. Step-wise linear multiple regression analysis was used to predict facial distances from thumbprint ridge density. The result showed that in males the right ulnar ridge count correlates negatively with lower facial width (LFW, upper facial width/upper FH (UFW/UFH, lower FH/FH (LFH/FH, and positively with UFH and UFW/LFW. The right and left proximal ridge counts correlate with LFW and UFH, respectively. In males, the right ulnar ridge count predicts LFW, UFW/LFW, UFW/UFH, and LFH/FH. Special upper face height I, LFW, height of lower third of the face, UFW/LFW was predicted by right radial ridge counts. LFH, height of lower third of the face, and LFH/FH were predicted from left ulnar ridge count whereas left proximal ridge count predicted LFW. In females only, the special upper face height I was predicted by right ulnar ridge count. In conclusion, thumbprint ridge counts can be used to predict FH, width, ratios among Hausa population. The possible application of fingerprints in facial characterization for used in human biology, paleodemography, and forensic science was demonstrated.

  13. An analysis of the relationship between bodily injury severity and fall height in victims of fatal falls from height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Teresiński

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : One of the basic issues discussed in forensic literature regarding falls from a height is determination of fall heights and differentiation between suicidal and accidental falls. The aim of the study was to verify the usefulness of the available methods for the purposes of forensic expertises. Material and methods : The study encompassed fatalities of falls from a height whose autopsies were performed in the Department of Forensic Medicine in Lublin. Results : Similarly to other authors, the severity of injuries was assessed using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS and injury severity score (ISS. The study findings demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between the fall height and the severity of injuries according to ISS and a statistically significant difference in fall heights between the groups of accidents and suicides.

  14. Astronomy Village Reaches for New Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, S. K.; Pompea, S. M.

    2007-12-01

    We are developing a set of complex, multimedia-based instructional modules emphasizing technical and scientific issues related to Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope project. The modules" pedagogy will be open-ended and problem-based to promote development of problem-solving skills. Problem- based-learning modules that emphasize work on open-ended complex real world problems are particularly valuable in illustrating and promoting a perspective on the process of science and engineering. Research in this area shows that these kinds of learning experiences are superior to more conventional student training in terms of gains in student learning. The format for the modules will be based on the award-winning multi-media educational Astronomy Village products that present students with a simulated environment: a mountaintop community surrounded by a cluster of telescopes, satellite receivers, and telecommunication towers. A number of "buildings" are found in the Village, such as a library, a laboratory, and an auditorium. Each building contains an array of information sources and computer simulations. Students navigate through their research with a mentor via imbedded video. The first module will be "Observatory Site Selection." Students will use astronomical data, basic weather information, and sky brightness data to select the best site for an observatory. Students will investigate the six GSMT sites considered by the professional site selection teams. Students will explore weather and basic site issues (e.g., roads and topography) using remote sensing images, computational fluid dynamics results, turbulence profiles, and scintillation of the different sites. Comparison of student problem solving with expert problem solving will also be done as part of the module. As part of a site selection team they will have to construct a case and present it on why they chose a particular site. The second module will address aspects of system engineering and optimization for a GSMT

  15. Brain structure mediates the association between height and cognitive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuoksimaa, Eero; Panizzon, Matthew S; Franz, Carol E; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Hagler, Donald J; Lyons, Michael J; Dale, Anders M; Kremen, William S

    2018-05-11

    Height and general cognitive ability are positively associated, but the underlying mechanisms of this relationship are not well understood. Both height and general cognitive ability are positively associated with brain size. Still, the neural substrate of the height-cognitive ability association is unclear. We used a sample of 515 middle-aged male twins with structural magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate whether the association between height and cognitive ability is mediated by cortical size. In addition to cortical volume, we used genetically, ontogenetically and phylogenetically distinct cortical metrics of total cortical surface area and mean cortical thickness. Height was positively associated with general cognitive ability and total cortical volume and cortical surface area, but not with mean cortical thickness. Mediation models indicated that the well-replicated height-general cognitive ability association is accounted for by individual differences in total cortical volume and cortical surface area (highly heritable metrics related to global brain size), and that the genetic association between cortical surface area and general cognitive ability underlies the phenotypic height-general cognitive ability relationship.

  16. The association between adult attained height and sitting height with mortality in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawada, Norie; Wark, Petra A.; Merritt, Melissa A.; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Ward, Heather A.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Dartois, Laureen; His, Mathilde; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Turzanski-Fortner, Renée; Kaaks, Rudolf; Overvad, Kim; Redondo, María Luisa; Travier, Noemie; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Dorronsoro, Miren; Cirera, Lluis; Ardanaz, Eva; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Valanou, Elissavet; Masala, Giovanna; Pala, Valeria; Peeters, Petra H M; Van Der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Melander, Olle; Manjer, Jonas; Silva, Marisa Da; Skeie, Guri; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Gunter, Marc J.; Riboli, Elio; Cross, Amanda J.

    2017-01-01

    Adult height and sitting height may reflect genetic and environmental factors, including early life nutrition, physical and social environments. Previous studies have reported divergent associations for height and chronic disease mortality, with positive associations observed for cancer mortality

  17. Global Distribution of Planetary Boundary Layer Height Derived from CALIPSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The global distribution of planetary boundary layer (PBL) height, which was estimated from the attenuated back-scatter observations of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), is presented. In general, the PBL is capped by a temperature inversion that tends to trap moisture and aerosols. The gradient of back-scatter observed by lidar is almost always associated with this temperature inversion and the simultaneous decrease of moisture content. Thus, the PBL top is defined as the location of the maximum aerosol scattering gradient, which is analogous to the more conventional thermodynamic definition. The maximum standard deviation method, developed by Jordan et al. (2010), is modified and used to derive the global PBL heights. The derived PBL heights are not only consistent with the results of McGrath-Spangler and Denning (2012) but also agree well with the ground-based lidar measurements. It is found that the correlation between CALIPSO and the ground-based lidar was 0.73. The seasonal mean patterns from 4-year mid-day PBL heights over global are demonstrated. Also it is found that the largest PBL heights occur over the Tibetan Plateau and the coastal areas. The smallest PBL heights appear in the Tarim Basin and the northeast of China during the local winter. The comparison of PBL heights from CALIPSO and ECMWF under different land-cover conditions showed that, over ocean and forest surface, the PBL height estimated from the CALIPSO back-scatter climatology is larger than the ones estimated from ECMWF data. However, the PBL heights from ECMWF, over grass land and bare land surface in spring and summer are larger than the ones from CALIPSO.

  18. Shaded relief, color as height, Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI)space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.Size: 192 km (119 miles) x 142 km (88 miles) Location: 17.8 deg. South lat., 178.0 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 19, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  19. Evaluation of the Correlation of Ramus Height, Gonial Angle, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    molar infraocclusion, ramus height, and vertical face type.[1]. Deep bite has been found to ... different facial forms. Subjects and Methods: A total of 51 subjects in all facial form ... to improve the effectiveness of any prosthesis and maintain the.

  20. MLS/Aura L2 Geopotential Height V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2GPH is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for geopotential height derived from radiances measured by the 118 and 240 GHz radiometers. The...

  1. MLS/Aura L2 Geopotential Height V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2GPH is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for geopotential height derived from radiances measured by the 118 and 240 GHz radiometers. The...

  2. Multiresolution wavelet-ANN model for significant wave height forecasting.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deka, P.C.; Mandal, S.; Prahlada, R.

    Hybrid wavelet artificial neural network (WLNN) has been applied in the present study to forecast significant wave heights (Hs). Here Discrete Wavelet Transformation is used to preprocess the time series data (Hs) prior to Artificial Neural Network...

  3. OW AVISO Sea-Surface Height & Niiler Climatology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains satellite-derived sea-surface height measurements collected by means of the TOPEX/Poseidon/ERS, JASON-1/Envisat, and Jason-2/Envisat satellite...

  4. Childhood height increases the risk of prostate cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B

    2015-01-01

    cancers. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. RESULTS: 630 men had prostate cancer recorded as the underlying cause of death. Childhood height at age 13years was positively associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio [HR]per z-score=1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-1.3......). Associations were significant at all other childhood ages. Growth analyses showed that height at age 13years had a stronger association with prostate cancer-specific mortality than height at age 7, suggesting the association at age 7 is largely mediated through later childhood height. The tallest boys at age...... 13years had a significantly worse survival, but only when restricted to a diagnosis at years of age (HRz-score of 1=1.7, 95% CI: 1.3-2.4). These associations were significant at all other childhood ages. Childhood BMI was not associated with prostate cancer mortality or survival. CONCLUSION...

  5. A century of trends in adult human height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Molbo, Drude

    2016-01-01

    in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over...... the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The height differential between the tallest...... and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries....

  6. A Mathematical Model for the Height of a Satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoemke, Sharon S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Emphasizes a real-world-problem situation using sine law and cosine law. Angles of elevation from two tracking stations located in the plane of the equator determine height of a satellite. Calculators or computers can be used. (LDR)

  7. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data...... on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris...... trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children...

  8. U.S. Geoid Heights, Scientific Model (G96SSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the conterminous United States is the G96SSS model. The computation used about 1.8 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in...

  9. Science and Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravetz, David

    2005-01-01

    This article is for teachers looking for new ways to motivate students, increase science comprehension, and understanding without using the old standard expository science textbook. This author suggests reading a science fiction novel in the science classroom as a way to engage students in learning. Using science fiction literature and language…

  10. SRTM Colored Height and Shaded Relief: Corral de Piedra, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Volcanism and erosion are prominently seen in this view of the eastern flank of the Andes Mountains taken by Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area is southeast of San Martin de Los Andes, Argentina. Eroded peaks up to 2,210-meter-high (7,260-foot) are seen on the west (left), but much of the scene consists of lava plateaus that slope gently eastward. These lava flows were most likely derived from volcanic sources in the high mountains. However, younger and more localized volcanic activity is evident in the topographic data as a cone surrounding oval-shaped flow near the center of the scene.The plateaus are extensively eroded by the Rio Limay (bottom of the image) and the Rio Collon Cura and its tributaries (upper half). The larger stream channels have reached a stable level and are now cutting broad valleys. Few terraces between the levels of the high plateaus and lower valleys (bottom center and upper right of the volcanic cone) indicate that stream erosion had once temporarily reached a higher stable level before eroding down to its current level. In general, depositional surfaces like lava flows are progressively younger with increasing elevation, while erosional surfaces are progressively younger with decreasing elevation.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark, as would be the case at noon at this latitude in the southern hemisphere. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red and magenta to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging

  11. New Zealand, SRTM Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    with the offset in the subduction zone pattern, vertical offsets (about 7 millimeters per year) are likewise consistent with the uplift of the Southern Alps. Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. Location: 33.5 to 48 degrees South latitude, 165 to 180 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, cylindrical projection Image Data: Shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  12. SRTM Colored Height and Shaded Relief: Pinon Canyon region, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Erosional features are prominent in this view of southern Colorado taken by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area covers about 20,000 square kilometers and is located about 50 kilometers south of Pueblo, Colorado. The prominent mountains near the left edge of the image are the Spanish Peaks, remnants of a 20 million year old volcano. Rising 2,100 meters (7,000 ft) above the plains to the east, these igneous rock formations with intrusions of eroded sedimentary rock historically served as guiding landmarks for travelers on the Mountain Branch of the Santa Fe Trail.Near the center of the image is the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, a training area for soldiers of the U.S. Army from nearby Fort Carson. The site supports a diverse ecosystem with large numbers of big and small game, fisheries, non-game wildlife, forest, range land and mineral resources. It is bounded on the east by the dramatic topography of the Purgatoire River Canyon, a 100 meter (328 foot) deep scenic red canyon with flowing streams, sandstone formations, and exposed geologic processes.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction. Southern slopes appear bright and northern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with blue and green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR)that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter

  13. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This shaded relief image of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula show a subtle, but unmistakable, indication of the Chicxulub impact crater. Most scientists now agree that this impact was the cause of the Cretatious-Tertiary Extinction, the event 65 million years ago that marked the sudden extinction of the dinosaurs as well as the majority of life then on Earth.Most of the peninsula is visible here, along with the island of Cozumel off the east coast. The Yucatan is a plateau composed mostly of limestone and is an area of very low relief with elevations varying by less than a few hundred meters (about 500 feet.) In this computer-enhanced image the topography has been greatly exaggerated to highlight a semicircular trough, the darker green arcing line at the upper left corner of the peninsula. This trough is only about 3 to 5 meters (10 to 15 feet) deep and is about 5 km. wide (3 miles), so subtle that if you walked across it you probably would not notice it, and is a surface expression of the crater's outer boundary. Scientists believe the impact, which was centered just off the coast in the Caribbean, altered the subsurface rocks such that the overlying limestone sediments, which formed later and erode very easily, would preferentially erode on the vicinity of the crater rim. This formed the trough as well as numerous sinkholes (called cenotes) which are visible as small circular depressions.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwestern slopes appear bright and southeastern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.For a smaller, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Large image: 1.5 m

  14. Pando Province, Northern Bolivia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellowish and reddish tans, to white at the highest elevations. A measure of relative local topographic height was added as brightness to enhance the contrast of stream channels to their surrounding terrain.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.Size: 536 by 710 kilometers (332 by 440 miles) Location: 10.4 degrees South latitude, 67.25 degrees West longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  15. Stature estimation using the knee height measurement amongst Brazilian elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Siqueira Fogal, Aline; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Eloiza Priore, Silvia; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi M.; Queiroz Ribeiro, Andreia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Stature is an important variable in several indices of nutritional status that are applicable to elderly persons. However, stature is difficult or impossible to measure in elderly because they are often unable to maintain the standing position. A alternative is the use of estimated height from measurements of knee height measure. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the formula proposed by Chumlea et al. (1985) based on the knee of a Caucasian population to estimat...

  16. Effect of cutting height and frequency on Leucaena leucocephala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leucaena leucocephala is a fast-growing tree that can provide both high quality forage and firewood. The objective of this trial was to determine the optimum height and frequency of cutting for both wood and forage production. Cutting heights at 0.3m, 0.6m and 1.0 m were superimposed on 3-month and 6-month cutting ...

  17. Study and Evaluation of Ultrasound System for Detecting the Height of Corn Canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Mesri Gundoshmian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Growth of population, deficiency of resources, environmental hazards, fast spatial science progress and relevant subjects have resulted in significant effects of enhanced accuracy and modern technologies in agricultural technology and management methods. One of the modern technologies’ utilities in production and nondestructive tests is determination of product characteristics (such as product height, using electronic sensors at different stages of plant growth. In recent years, electric sensors improved widely in farm science. Regarding to wide performance of sensors, from simple sensors such as thermo, light and moisture sensors, to complex ones such as GPS and lidar, also the ability of electronic sensors to exact identification and measurement of special farm properties, makes these sensors to an important part of precision agriculture. The subject of this study is to identify and measure the height of the product using ultrasonic technology to automate control of breeding and harvesting operations. Suitable price and noise and dust resistance of ultrasonic sensor, make it an attractive subject in biosystem industries and farm operations. Materials and Methods Plant height measurement Ultrasonic sensor includes an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver with more than 20 kHz frequency. As other waves, ultrasonic waves diffuse constantly from a source by mechanical distracting in a gas, liquid or solid environment. The distance between sensor and object is a function of the wave passing time from generation point to receive point. Plant height calculated by estimating this distance and minus it from sensor height. The sensor used in this research had a diffuse angle of 40 degrees to center axis of source. The sensor ability to height measurement depends on leaves angle, leaves surface, plant aggregation in area and plant height. Leaves angle is the most important factor in recognization ability of ultrasonic sensor. Electronic

  18. Variability of the Mixed-Layer Height Over Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Franco, J. L.; Stremme, W.; Bezanilla, A.; Ruiz-Angulo, A.; Grutter, M.

    2018-06-01

    The diurnal and seasonal variability of the mixed-layer height in urban areas has implications for ground-level air pollution and the meteorological conditions. Measurements of the backscatter of light pulses with a commercial lidar system were performed for a continuous period of almost six years between 2011 and 2016 in the southern part of Mexico City. The profiles were temporally and vertically smoothed, clouds were filtered out, and the mixed-layer height was determined with an ad hoc treatment of both the filtered and unfiltered profiles. The results are in agreement when compared with values of mixed-layer height reconstructed from, (i) radiosonde data, and (ii) surface and vertical column densities of a trace gas. The daily maxima of the mean mixed-layer height reach values > 3 km above ground level in the months of March-April, and are clearly lower (behaviour, which is characterized together with the mixed-layer-height anomalies. A clear residual layer is evident from the backscattered signals recorded in days with specific atmospheric conditions, but also from the cloud-filtered mean diurnal profiles. The occasional presence of a residual layer results in an overestimation of the reported mixed-layer height during the night and early morning hours.

  19. Modelling foot height and foot shape-related dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shuping; Goonetilleke, Ravindra S; Witana, Channa P; Lee Au, Emily Yim

    2008-08-01

    The application of foot anthropometry to design good-fitting footwear has been difficult due to the lack of generalised models. This study seeks to model foot dimensions so that the characteristic shapes of feet, especially in the midfoot region, can be understood. Fifty Hong Kong Chinese adults (26 males and 24 females) participated in this study. Their foot lengths, foot widths, ball girths and foot heights were measured and then evaluated using mathematical models. The results showed that there were no significant allometry (p > 0.05) effects of foot length on ball girth and foot width. Foot height showed no direct relationship with foot length. However, a normalisation with respect to foot length and foot height resulted in a significant relationship for both males and females with R(2) greater than 0.97. Due to the lack of a direct relationship between foot height and foot length, the current practice of grading shoes with a constant increase in height or proportionate scaling in response to foot length is less than ideal. The results when validated with other populations can be a significant way forward in the design of footwear that has an improved fit in the height dimension.

  20. Weighting of field heights for sharpness and noisiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keelan, Brian W.; Jin, Elaine W.

    2009-01-01

    Weighting of field heights is important in cases when a single numerical value needs to be calculated that characterizes an attribute's overall impact on perceived image quality. In this paper we report an observer study to derive the weighting of field heights for sharpness and noisiness. One-hundred-forty images were selected to represent a typical consumer photo space distribution. Fifty-three sample points were sampled per image, representing field heights of 0, 14, 32, 42, 51, 58, 71, 76, 86% and 100%. Six observers participated in this study. The field weights derived in this report include both: the effect of area versus field height (which is a purely objective, geometric factor); and the effect of the spatial distribution of image content that draws attention to or masks each of these image structure attributes. The results show that relative to the geometrical area weights, sharpness weights were skewed to lower field heights, because sharpness-critical subject matter was often positioned relatively near the center of an image. Conversely, because noise can be masked by signal, noisiness-critical content (such as blue skies, skin tones, walls, etc.) tended to occur farther from the center of an image, causing the weights to be skewed to higher field heights.

  1. Maternal and Paternal Height and the Risk of Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunsung; Magnus, Per

    2018-04-01

    The etiology of preeclampsia is unknown. Tall women have been found to have lower incidence of preeclampsia. This points to a possible biological causal effect but may be because of socioeconomic confounding. We used paternal height as an unexposed control to examine confounding. The MoBa (Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study) was used to extract data on parental heights, maternal prepregnancy weight, other background factors, and pregnancy outcomes for 99 968 singleton births. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for preeclampsia according to parental height. The adjusted odds ratio for preeclampsia was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.66-0.82) for women >172 cm as compared with women 186 cm was 1.03 (95% CI, 0.93-1.15) compared with men <178 cm. The association between maternal height and preeclampsia is unlikely to be because of confounding by familial, socioeconomic factors or by fetal genes related to height. The observed association between maternal height and preeclampsia merits further investigation. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Ethnic differences in trabecular meshwork height by optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rebecca I; Barbosa, Diego T; Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Porco, Travis C; Lin, Shan C

    2015-04-01

    Differences in ocular anatomy may contribute to ethnic differences in glaucoma risk. Because the trabecular meshwork (TM) plays an important role in aqueous outflow, its anatomy in relation to at-risk populations may provide insight into a potential contributor to elevated intraocular pressure and thus to probability of glaucoma development. To investigate whether differences exist in TM height between ethnic groups. This prospective study took place from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2013. Adult patients who self-reported as being of white, Asian, Hispanic, or African American ethnicity were recruited from ophthalmology clinics at the University of California, San Francisco. The TM height was assessed using spectral-domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Trabecular meshwork height was measured from the scleral spur to the Schwalbe line. We hypothesized that ethnicities with a higher prevalence of glaucoma would tend to have shorter TM heights. We collected data from 460 eyes of 291 participants after excluding 34 optical coherence tomographic scans owing to poor image quality. The final sample was 32.2% white, 45.1% Asian, 10.5% African American, and 12.1% Hispanic. There were 64.2% women, and the mean age was 68.1 years. The mean (SD) TM height among all eyes included in the study was 836 (131) μm. The mean (SD) TM height was characterized among white (851 [131] μm), Asian (843 [126] μm), Hispanic (822 [147] μm), and African American (771 [118] μm) persons. Ethnicity was not associated with TM height overall (P = .23, linear mixed regression model). However, the TM heights of African American participants (771 μm) were shorter than those of white (851 μm; adjusted difference 95% CI, -119.8 to -8.1; P = .02) and Asian (843 μm; adjusted difference 95% CI, -117.4 to -10.8; P = .02) participants. Although TM height is not associated with ethnicity overall, African American individuals have shorter TM heights compared with Asian and white

  3. Neural network cloud top pressure and height for MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Nina; Adok, Claudia; Thoss, Anke; Scheirer, Ronald; Hörnquist, Sara

    2018-06-01

    Cloud top height retrieval from imager instruments is important for nowcasting and for satellite climate data records. A neural network approach for cloud top height retrieval from the imager instrument MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is presented. The neural networks are trained using cloud top layer pressure data from the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) dataset. Results are compared with two operational reference algorithms for cloud top height: the MODIS Collection 6 Level 2 height product and the cloud top temperature and height algorithm in the 2014 version of the NWC SAF (EUMETSAT (European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites) Satellite Application Facility on Support to Nowcasting and Very Short Range Forecasting) PPS (Polar Platform System). All three techniques are evaluated using both CALIOP and CPR (Cloud Profiling Radar for CloudSat (CLOUD SATellite)) height. Instruments like AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) and VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) contain fewer channels useful for cloud top height retrievals than MODIS, therefore several different neural networks are investigated to test how infrared channel selection influences retrieval performance. Also a network with only channels available for the AVHRR1 instrument is trained and evaluated. To examine the contribution of different variables, networks with fewer variables are trained. It is shown that variables containing imager information for neighboring pixels are very important. The error distributions of the involved cloud top height algorithms are found to be non-Gaussian. Different descriptive statistic measures are presented and it is exemplified that bias and SD (standard deviation) can be misleading for non-Gaussian distributions. The median and mode are found to better describe the tendency of the error distributions and IQR (interquartile range) and MAE (mean absolute error) are found

  4. Accuracy of Jump-Mat Systems for Measuring Jump Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueo, Basilio; Lipinska, Patrycja; Jiménez-Olmedo, José M; Zmijewski, Piotr; Hopkins, Will G

    2017-08-01

    Vertical-jump tests are commonly used to evaluate lower-limb power of athletes and nonathletes. Several types of equipment are available for this purpose. To compare the error of measurement of 2 jump-mat systems (Chronojump-Boscosystem and Globus Ergo Tester) with that of a motion-capture system as a criterion and to determine the modifying effect of foot length on jump height. Thirty-one young adult men alternated 4 countermovement jumps with 4 squat jumps. Mean jump height and standard deviations representing technical error of measurement arising from each device and variability arising from the subjects themselves were estimated with a novel mixed model and evaluated via standardization and magnitude-based inference. The jump-mat systems produced nearly identical measures of jump height (differences in means and in technical errors of measurement ≤1 mm). Countermovement and squat-jump height were both 13.6 cm higher with motion capture (90% confidence limits ±0.3 cm), but this very large difference was reduced to small unclear differences when adjusted to a foot length of zero. Variability in countermovement and squat-jump height arising from the subjects was small (1.1 and 1.5 cm, respectively, 90% confidence limits ±0.3 cm); technical error of motion capture was similar in magnitude (1.7 and 1.6 cm, ±0.3 and ±0.4 cm), and that of the jump mats was similar or smaller (1.2 and 0.3 cm, ±0.5 and ±0.9 cm). The jump-mat systems provide trustworthy measurements for monitoring changes in jump height. Foot length can explain the substantially higher jump height observed with motion capture.

  5. Estrogen-mediated Height Control in Girls with Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yun; Hyun, Hye Sun; Huh, Rimm; Jin, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a stepwise regimen of estradiol valerate for height control in girls with Marfan syndrome. Eight girls with Marfan syndrome who had completed estrogen treatment for height control were included. Estradiol valerate was started at a dose of 2 mg/day, and then was increased. The projected final height was estimated using the initial height percentile (on a disease-specific growth curve for Korean Marfan syndrome [gcPFHt]), and the initial bone age (baPFHt). After the estrogen treatment, the projected final height was compared to the actual final height (FHt). The median baseline chronological and bone age were 10.0 and 10.5 years, respectively. After a median of 36.5 months of treatment, the median FHt (172.6 cm) was shorter than the median gcPFHt (181.0 cm) and baPFHt (175.9 cm). In the six patients who started treatment before the age of 11 years, the median FHt (171.8 cm) was shorter than the median gcPFHt (181.5 cm) and baPFHt (177.4 cm) after treatment. The median differences between the FHt and gcPFHt and baPFHt were 9.2 and 8.3 cm, respectively. In two patients started treatment after the age of 11, the differences between FHt and gcPFHt, and baPFHt after treatment were -4 and 1.4 cm, and -1.2 and 0 cm for each case, respectively. A stepwise increasing regimen of estradiol valerate may be an effective treatment for height control in girls with Marfan syndrome, especially when started under 11 years old.

  6. Influence of real and virtual heights on standing balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleworth, Taylor W; Horslen, Brian C; Carpenter, Mark G

    2012-06-01

    Fear and anxiety induced by threatening scenarios, such as standing on elevated surfaces, have been shown to influence postural control in young adults. There is also a need to understand how postural threat influences postural control in populations with balance deficits and risk of falls. However, safety and feasibility issues limit opportunities to place such populations in physically threatening scenarios. Virtual reality (VR) has successfully been used to simulate threatening environments, although it is unclear whether the same postural changes can be elicited by changes in virtual and real threat conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of real and virtual heights on changes to standing postural control, electrodermal activity (EDA) and psycho-social state. Seventeen subjects stood at low and high heights in both real and virtual environments matched in scale and visual detail. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed increases with height, independent of visual environment, in EDA, anxiety, fear, and center of pressure (COP) frequency, and decreases with height in perceived stability, balance confidence and COP amplitude. Interaction effects were seen for fear and COP mean position; where real elicited larger changes with height than VR. This study demonstrates the utility of VR, as simulated heights resulted in changes to postural, autonomic and psycho-social measures similar to those seen at real heights. As a result, VR may be a useful tool for studying threat related changes in postural control in populations at risk of falls, and to screen and rehabilitate balance deficits associated with fear and anxiety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Predicting human height by Victorian and genomic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulchenko, Yurii S; Struchalin, Maksim V; Belonogova, Nadezhda M; Axenovich, Tatiana I; Weedon, Michael N; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Kayser, Manfred; Oostra, Ben A; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Borodin, Pavel M

    2009-08-01

    In the Victorian era, Sir Francis Galton showed that 'when dealing with the transmission of stature from parents to children, the average height of the two parents, ... is all we need care to know about them' (1886). One hundred and twenty-two years after Galton's work was published, 54 loci showing strong statistical evidence for association to human height were described, providing us with potential genomic means of human height prediction. In a population-based study of 5748 people, we find that a 54-loci genomic profile explained 4-6% of the sex- and age-adjusted height variance, and had limited ability to discriminate tall/short people, as characterized by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC). In a family-based study of 550 people, with both parents having height measurements, we find that the Galtonian mid-parental prediction method explained 40% of the sex- and age-adjusted height variance, and showed high discriminative accuracy. We have also explored how much variance a genomic profile should explain to reach certain AUC values. For highly heritable traits such as height, we conclude that in applications in which parental phenotypic information is available (eg, medicine), the Victorian Galton's method will long stay unsurpassed, in terms of both discriminative accuracy and costs. For less heritable traits, and in situations in which parental information is not available (eg, forensics), genomic methods may provide an alternative, given that the variants determining an essential proportion of the trait's variation can be identified.

  8. THRESHOLD DETERMINATION FOR LOCAL INSTANTANEOUS SEA SURFACE HEIGHT DERIVATION WITH ICEBRIDGE DATA IN BEAUFORT SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The NASA Operation IceBridge (OIB mission is the largest program in the Earth’s polar remote sensing science observation project currently, initiated in 2009, which collects airborne remote sensing measurements to bridge the gap between NASA’s ICESat and the upcoming ICESat-2 mission. This paper develop an improved method that optimizing the selection method of Digital Mapping System (DMS image and using the optimal threshold obtained by experiments in Beaufort Sea to calculate the local instantaneous sea surface height in this area. The optimal threshold determined by comparing manual selection with the lowest (Airborne Topographic Mapper ATM L1B elevation threshold of 2 %, 1 %, 0.5 %, 0.2 %, 0.1 % and 0.05 % in A, B, C sections, the mean of mean difference are 0.166 m, 0.124 m, 0.083 m, 0.018 m, 0.002 m and −0.034 m. Our study shows the lowest L1B data of 0.1 % is the optimal threshold. The optimal threshold and manual selections are also used to calculate the instantaneous sea surface height over images with leads, we find that improved methods has closer agreement with those from L1B manual selections. For these images without leads, the local instantaneous sea surface height estimated by using the linear equations between distance and sea surface height calculated over images with leads.

  9. Physiological pattern of lumbar disc height; Physiologisches Muster lumbaler Bandscheibenhoehen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggemann, M [Radiologische Klinik des Evangelischen Krankenhauses Bethesda, Duisburg (Germany); Frobin, W; Brinckmann, P [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentelle Biomechanik

    1997-07-01

    Purpose of this study is to present a new method of quantifying objectively the height of all discs in lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine and of analysing the normal craniocaudal sequence pattern of lumbar disc heights. Methods: The new parameter is the ventrally measured disc height corrected for the dependence on the angle of lordosis by normalisation to mean angles observed in the erect posture of healthy persons. To eliminate radiographic magnification, the corrected ventral height is related to the mean depth of the cranially adjoining vertebra. In this manner lumbar disc heights were objectively measured in young, mature and healthy persons (146 males and 65 females). The craniocaudal sequence pattern was analysed by mean values from all persons and by height differences of adjoining discs in each individual lumbar spine. Results: Mean normative values demonstrated an increase in disc height between L1/L2 and L4/L5 and a constant or decreasing disc height between L4/L5 and L5/S1. However, this `physiological sequence of disc height in the statistical mean` was observed in only 36% of normal males and 55% of normal females. Conclusion: The radiological pattern of the `physiological sequence of lumbar disc height` leads to a relevant portion of false positive pathological results especially at L4/L5. An increase of disc height from L4/L5 to L5/S1 may be normal. The recognition of decreased disc height should be based on an abrupt change in the heights of adjoining discs and not on a deviation from a craniocaudal sequence pattern. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, einen neuen Parameter zur objektiven Messung der Hoehen aller auf einer seitlichen Uebersichtsaufnahme der LWS erkennbaren Bandscheiben vorzustellen und die physiologische kraniokaudale Diskushoehensequenz neu zu dokumentieren. Methode: Bei dem neuen Messverfahren wird die Bandscheibenhoehe ventral gemessen, zur Korrektur ihrer Haltungsabhaengigkeit auf Standardwinkel (mittlere Winkel

  10. ANALYSIS AND CORRECTION OF SYSTEMATIC HEIGHT MODEL ERRORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jacobsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The geometry of digital height models (DHM determined with optical satellite stereo combinations depends upon the image orientation, influenced by the satellite camera, the system calibration and attitude registration. As standard these days the image orientation is available in form of rational polynomial coefficients (RPC. Usually a bias correction of the RPC based on ground control points is required. In most cases the bias correction requires affine transformation, sometimes only shifts, in image or object space. For some satellites and some cases, as caused by small base length, such an image orientation does not lead to the possible accuracy of height models. As reported e.g. by Yong-hua et al. 2015 and Zhang et al. 2015, especially the Chinese stereo satellite ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3 has a limited calibration accuracy and just an attitude recording of 4 Hz which may not be satisfying. Zhang et al. 2015 tried to improve the attitude based on the color sensor bands of ZY-3, but the color images are not always available as also detailed satellite orientation information. There is a tendency of systematic deformation at a Pléiades tri-stereo combination with small base length. The small base length enlarges small systematic errors to object space. But also in some other satellite stereo combinations systematic height model errors have been detected. The largest influence is the not satisfying leveling of height models, but also low frequency height deformations can be seen. A tilt of the DHM by theory can be eliminated by ground control points (GCP, but often the GCP accuracy and distribution is not optimal, not allowing a correct leveling of the height model. In addition a model deformation at GCP locations may lead to not optimal DHM leveling. Supported by reference height models better accuracy has been reached. As reference height model the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital surface model (DSM or the new AW3D30 DSM, based on ALOS

  11. Foot and Ankle Kinematics During Descent From Varying Step Heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstle, Emily E; O'Connor, Kristian; Keenan, Kevin G; Cobb, Stephen C

    2017-12-01

    In the general population, one-third of incidences during step negotiation occur during the transition to level walking. Furthermore, falls during curb negotiation are a common cause of injury in older adults. Distal foot kinematics may be an important factor in determining injury risk associated with transition step negotiation. The purpose of this study was to identify foot and ankle kinematics of uninjured individuals during descent from varying step heights. A 7-segment foot model was used to quantify kinematics as participants walked on a level walkway, stepped down a single step (heights: 5 cm, 15 cm, 25 cm), and continued walking. As step height increased, landing strategy transitioned from the rearfoot to the forefoot, and the rearfoot, lateral and medial midfoot, and medial forefoot became more plantar flexed. During weight acceptance, sagittal plane range of motion of the rearfoot, lateral midfoot, and medial and lateral forefoot increased as step height increased. The changes in landing strategy and distal foot function suggest a less stable ankle position at initial contact and increased demand on the distal foot at initial contact and through the weight acceptance phase of transition step negotiation as step height increases.

  12. Falls from heights in and around the city of Batman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al, Behçet; Yildirim, Cuma; Coban, Sacid

    2009-03-01

    We evaluated the demographic data, mortality rates, fall causes, and post-mortem findings of individuals who fell from heights. Five hundred thirty-eight patients who sustained injuries after an accidental fall from heights were entered into the study. Our cases were collected prospectively in Batman over a seven- month period. The mean age was 12.4+/-3.22 years (3 months-98 years); 56.5% of patients were under 6 years old and 83.5% were under 20 years old. The mean fall height was 3.2+/-2.4 m. The mortality rate was 2.2%, and was highest among the patients who fell from flat-roofed houses. The most common injuries were to the head, and 100% of those who died had a head injury. Six patients were followed because of abdominal bleeding and 141 patients due to extremity fractures; 6.7% of patients were operated on and 83.8% of patients were treated in the emergency department. The results of this study were at variance with literature data with respect to the following: falls from heights were most common in the 0-5 years of age group. Craniocerebral trauma is the most common injury in fatal falls. Males had a higher rate of falls from height than females.

  13. A generalized multivariate regression model for modelling ocean wave heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. L.; Feng, Y.; Swail, V. R.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, a generalized multivariate linear regression model is developed to represent the relationship between 6-hourly ocean significant wave heights (Hs) and the corresponding 6-hourly mean sea level pressure (MSLP) fields. The model is calibrated using the ERA-Interim reanalysis of Hs and MSLP fields for 1981-2000, and is validated using the ERA-Interim reanalysis for 2001-2010 and ERA40 reanalysis of Hs and MSLP for 1958-2001. The performance of the fitted model is evaluated in terms of Pierce skill score, frequency bias index, and correlation skill score. Being not normally distributed, wave heights are subjected to a data adaptive Box-Cox transformation before being used in the model fitting. Also, since 6-hourly data are being modelled, lag-1 autocorrelation must be and is accounted for. The models with and without Box-Cox transformation, and with and without accounting for autocorrelation, are inter-compared in terms of their prediction skills. The fitted MSLP-Hs relationship is then used to reconstruct historical wave height climate from the 6-hourly MSLP fields taken from the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR, Compo et al. 2011), and to project possible future wave height climates using CMIP5 model simulations of MSLP fields. The reconstructed and projected wave heights, both seasonal means and maxima, are subject to a trend analysis that allows for non-linear (polynomial) trends.

  14. Comparison of mixing height parameterizations with profiles measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaquier, A.; Stuebi, R.; Tercier, P. [Swiss Meteorological Inst., SMI - MeteoSwiss, Payerne (Switzerland)

    1997-10-01

    Different meteorological pre-processors for dispersion studies are available to derive the atmospheric boundary layer mixing height (MH). The analysis of their performances has been reviewed in the framework of the European COST Action 710. In this project, the computed mixing height values have been compared with data derived mostly from aero-logical sounding analysis and Sodar measurements. Since then, a new analysis of a low-tropospheric wind profiler (WP) data has been performed taking advantage of its high data sampling ({delta}t {approx} 30 sec.). The comparison between these recent results and aero-logical sounding, Sodar data, as well as to meteorological pre-processors calculations are reported for three periods of several days corresponding to different meteorological situations. In convective conditions, the pre-processors give reasonable level, the mixing height growing rate is in fair agreement with the measured one. In stable cloudy daytime conditions, the modeled mixing height does not correspond to any measured height. (LN)

  15. Changes in interdental papillae heights following alignment of anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Sanjivan; Goonewardene, Mithran; Tennant, Marc

    2007-05-01

    Orthodontic alignment of overlapped incisors can reduce the apparent heights of the interdental papillae leading to unsightly dark triangles or open gingival embrasures. To determine if certain pretreatment contact point relationships between the maxillary anterior teeth were accompanied by changes in the heights of the interdental papillae after orthodontic alignment. Pre- and post-treatment intra-oral 35 mm slides, lateral cephalometric radiographs and study casts of 143 patients (60 males, 83 females) between 13 and 16 years of age were used. The patients had diastamata closed, imbricated teeth aligned and palatally or labially placed teeth repositioned. A sample of 25 patients (12 males, 13 females) between 13 and 16 years of age who had well-aligned anterior teeth at the start of treatment acted as a control group. All patients were treated for approximately 18 months. The clinical crowns of the maxillary incisors and the heights of the interdental papilla between the incisors were measured on projected images of the slides. The percentage increases or reductions in the heights of the interdental papillae were compared. The heights of the interdental papillae increased following palatal movement of labially placed (p teeth and the intrusion of one tooth relative to another. On the other hand, dark triangles are more likely to develop following labial movement of imbricated or palatally placed incisors and closure of a diastema. Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of dark triangles developing in the latter group, particularly in older patients.

  16. Science and data science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blei, David M; Smyth, Padhraic

    2017-08-07

    Data science has attracted a lot of attention, promising to turn vast amounts of data into useful predictions and insights. In this article, we ask why scientists should care about data science. To answer, we discuss data science from three perspectives: statistical, computational, and human. Although each of the three is a critical component of data science, we argue that the effective combination of all three components is the essence of what data science is about.

  17. Variation of boundary-layer wind spectra with height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Petersen, Erik L.; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    2018-01-01

    This study revisits the height dependence of the wind speed power spectrum from the synoptic scale to the spectral gap. Measurements from cup anemometers and sonics at heights of 15 m to 244 m are used. The measurements are from one land site, one coastal land‐based site and three offshore sites...... the atmospheric tide. The second finding regards the height dependence of the general spectrum. We describe the dependence through a so‐called effective roughness, which is calculated from wind spectra and represents the energy removal at different frequencies, and thus surface conditions in the footprint areas....... The generalizable spectral properties of winds presented herein may prove useful for validating numerical models....

  18. Retrieving Smoke Aerosol Height from DSCOVR/EPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Wang, J.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Unlike industrial pollutant particles that are often confined within the planetary boundary layer, smoke from forest and agriculture fires can inject massive carbonaceous aerosols into the upper troposphere due to the intense pyro-convection. Sensitivity of weather and climate to absorbing carbonaceous aerosols is regulated by the altitude of those aerosol layers. However, aerosol height information remains limited from passive satellite sensors. Here we present an algorithm to estimate smoke aerosol height from radiances in the oxygen A and B bands measured by the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) from the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR). With a suit of case studies and validation efforts, we demonstrate that smoke aerosol height can be well retrieved over both ocean and land surfaces multiple times daily.

  19. FERDO/FERD, Unfolding of Pulse-Height Spectrometer Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, B.W.; Ingersoll, D.T.; Burrus, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: FERDO and FERD are unfolding codes which can be used to correct observed pulse-height distributions for the non-ideal response of a pulse-height spectrometer or to solve poorly conditioned linear equations. 2 - Method of solution: It is assumed that the response of the spectrometer is given by Ax = b, where A is the spectrometer response function matrix, x is the unknown spectrum, and b is the pulse-height distribution. FERDO does not resolve directly for x but instead solves for p = Wx, where W is a 'window function matrix'. Typically, W is the resolution function of an ideal spectrometer which has a single Gaussian response. The effective resolution of the unfolding solution may be varied by the choice of W. Confidence intervals are found for each element of the solution p

  20. Improved pulse-height store for A/D conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casoli, P [Montedel S.p.a., Laben Division, Via Bassini 15, Milano, Italy; Maranesi, P [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Centro Studi Nucleari E. Fermi

    1979-11-15

    A new pulse-height store is described. Suitable contrivances improve integral linearity and reduce the differential errors that generally occur at signal amplitudes near the lower threshold. No degradations appear at high rates of input events. The electrical specifications of the pulse-height store are determined through a series of measurements described in the final part of the paper. In order to test the circuit in the most significant way, it has been connected to a fast successive-approximation conversion module which uses the sliding-scale technique for channel width equalisation, thus implementing a complete analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for nuclear spectrometry. The performances of the pulse-height store have been deduced from the behavior of the whole system.

  1. Climatology and evolution of the mixing height over water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sempreviva, A.M. [Istituto di Fisica dell`Atmosfera, CNR, Rome (Italy); Grynig, S.E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-10-01

    In this paper we present results from an experimental investigation on the height of the mixed layer h, using a meteorological station located on the Danish island of Anholt. The station was operational for two years from September 1990 to October 1992. We present the analysis of two years of radio-sounding showing the average daily evolution of h. Furthermore observations of the mixed layer growth under near-neutral and unstable atmospheric conditions during six consecutive days has been modelled using a simple zero-order mixed-layer height model. Finally we have compared the evolution of the mixing height from the model with the evolution of the correlation coefficient between temperature and humidity to study the influence of the deepness of the convective layer on the mechanism of the correlation between temperature and humidity in the surface layer. (au)

  2. Program Merges SAR Data on Terrain and Vegetation Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Paul; Hensley, Scott; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Simard, Marc

    2007-01-01

    X/P Merge is a computer program that estimates ground-surface elevations and vegetation heights from multiple sets of data acquired by the GeoSAR instrument [a terrain-mapping synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system that operates in the X and bands]. X/P Merge software combines data from X- and P-band digital elevation models, SAR backscatter magnitudes, and interferometric correlation magnitudes into a simplified set of output topographical maps of ground-surface elevation and tree height.

  3. Vowel Height Allophony and Dorsal Place Contrasts in Cochabamba Quechua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of two studies investigating the role of allophony in cueing phonemic contrasts. In Cochabamba Quechua, the uvularvelar place distinction is often cued by additional differences in the height of the surrounding vowels. An acoustic study documents the lowering effect of a preceding tautomorphemic or a following heteromorphemic uvular on the high vowels /i u/. A discrimination study finds that vowel height is a significant cue to the velar-uvular place contrast. These findings support a view of contrasts as collections of distinguishing properties, as opposed to oppositions in a single distinctive feature. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Sampling rare fluctuations of height in the Oslo ricepile model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Punyabrata; Dhar, Deepak

    2007-01-01

    We describe a new Monte Carlo algorithm for studying large deviations of the height of the pile from its mean value in the Oslo ricepile model. We have used it to generate events which have probabilities of order 10 -1000 . These simulations check our qualitative argument (Pradhan P and Dhar D 2006 Phys. Rev. E 73 021303) that in the steady state of the Oslo ricepile model the probability of large negative height fluctuations Δh = -αL about the mean varies as exp(-κα 4 L 3 ) as L → ∞ with α held fixed and κ > 0

  5. Characteristics of emulsion chamber family events produced at low heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, G.; Jing, C.; Zhu, Q.; Ding, L.

    1985-01-01

    The uncertainty of primary cosmic ray composition at 10 to the 14th power -10 to the 16th power eV is well known making the study of nuclear interaction mechanisms more difficult. Experimentally if one can identify effectively the family events produced at low heights, then an induced by primary protons might be separated. In this paper an attempt is made to simulate a family of events under the conditions of a mountain emulsion chamber experiments using a reasonable model. The aim is to search for the dependence of some experimentally observable quantities on the interaction height

  6. Perfil clínico-epidemiológico dos pacientes portadores de paracoccidioidomicose no Serviço de Estomatologia do Hospital São Lucas da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul Clinical-epidemiologic profile of paracoccidioidomycosis at the Stomatology Department of São Lucas Hospital, Pontificia Universidade Católica of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Dornela Verli

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, são descritas as características clínicas e epidemiológicas de 61 casos de paracoccidioidomicose, atendidos no Serviço de Estomatologia do Hospital São Lucas da PUCRS, no período de junho de 1976 a junho de 2004. O Rio Grande do Sul é considerado uma região endêmica da doença devido às condições eco-epidemiológicas para o desenvolvimento do fungo. Observou-se que a doença ocorreu em 58 (95% homens e 3 (5% mulheres, predominando a faixa etária de 40 a 59 anos (70,5%, e a profissão vinculada à agricultura em 27 (44,3% pacientes. O hábito de fumar foi prevalente em 52 (85,3% pacientes da amostra e muitos eram, também, etilistas. Todos os casos apresentavam manifestações estomatológicas, sendo que as lesões orais ocorreram predominantemente com aspecto ulcerado e moriforme, observadas em vários sítios anatômicos. As evidências radiográficas de lesões pulmonares estavam presentes em 32 (65,3% radiografias avaliadas.The aim of the article was to describe clinical and epidemiological features of 61 oral paracoccidioidomycosis cases from the Stomatology Department of São Lucas Hospital, analyzed from July 1976 to June 2004. The State of Rio Grande do Sul is an endemic region due to ecoepidemiologic conditions, that are favorable for the development of the yeast. Men are the most affected gender, with 58 (95% affected compared to 3 (5% women. Ii is most prevalent (70.5% between 40 and 59 years of age. Agricultural labor was the most common occupation with 27/61 (44.3% patients. Tobacco smoking was prevalent in 52 (85.3% of the sample, and alcoholism was a frequent finding. All the patients showed stomatologic manifestations, with ulcers and mulberry-like stomatitis the most prevalent, these oral lesions were also observed in many anatomical sites. Alterations were present in 32 (65.3% of the pulmonary radiographs.

  7. The specific features of gold ore provinces of the south of Siberia in a magnetic field at ground height and heights of flight of satellite Champ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinova, Tamara; Petrova, Alevtina

    2010-05-01

    The specific features of gold ore provinces of the south of Siberia in a magnetic field at ground height and heights of flight of satellite Champ. T.Litvinova -All-Russian Geological Research Institute (VSEGEI) A. Petrova - St. Petersburg, SPbF IZMIRAN, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg For allocation of specific features known gold ore objects (Olimpiadninskoje, Suchoi Log, etc.) is executed the morphological analysis of the magnetic field received on materials of aeromagnetic data and satellite measurements at heights of 100 and 400 km. On the ground data on a map of magnetic anomalies of Russia of scale 1:2 500000 of 50 km on the extended structures crossing known gold ore deposits and promising ore units have been constructed geomagnetic and densitys sections up to depth. On geomagnetic and densitys sections to known large gold ore to deposits are dated deep synvertical the permeable zones described by a synlenticular -layered structure. Extended horizons of not magnetic formations are located on depths about 10, 12, 15-18, 30 and 40 km. On deep densitys sections reference sites ¬ the Suchoi Log, Olimpiadninskoje and Vodorazdelnoje ¬ is characterized by zones of inversion of density. Areas of the loosened breeds are dated to synvertical to deep zones of hydrothermal and fluid study of breeds inside which the loosened lenses in intervals of depths from 2 up to 5 km are formed, 8-13 km, 18-20 and 25-30 km of 35-40 km within the limits of the bottom bark. The analysis of a magnetic field has shown, that gold mineralization in researched region is dated for zones of long-living regional explosive infringements, to permeable terrigenous to thicknesses of depressions, to adjournment depression structures in units of crossing of tectonofluid zones of diagonal orientation. Terrigenous adjournment depression structures are shown on a geomagnetic section as the powerful deflections filled with low-magnetic thicknesses. These deflections are dated to

  8. The height of the atmospheric boundary layer during unstable conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryning, S.E.

    2005-11-01

    The height of the convective atmospheric boundary layer, also called the mixed-layer, is one of the fundamental parameters that characterise the structure of the atmosphere near the ground. It has many theoretical and practical applications such as the prediction of air pollution concentrations, surface temperature and the scaling of turbulence. However, as pointed out by Builtjes (2001) in a review paper on Major Twentieth Century Milestones in Air Pollution Modelling and Its Application, the weakest point in meteorology data is still the determination of the height of the mixed-layer, the so-called mixing height. A simple applied model for the height of the mixed-layer over homogeneous terrain is suggested in chapter 2. It is based on a parameterised budget for the turbulent kinetic energy. In the model basically three terms - the spin-up term and the production of mechanical and convective turbulent kinetic energy - control the growth of the mixed layer. The interplay between the three terms is related to the meteorological conditions and the height of the mixed layer. A stable layer, the so-called entrainment zone, which is confined between the mixed layer and the free air above, caps the mixed layer. A parameterisation of the depth of the entrainment zone is also suggested, and used to devise a combined model for the height of the mixed layer and the entrainment zone. Another important aspect of the mixed layer development exists in coastal areas where an internal boundary layer forms downwind from the coastline. A model for the growth of the internal boundary layer is developed in analogy with the model for mixed layer development over homogeneous terrain. The strength of this model is that it can operate on a very fine spatial resolution with minor computer resources. Chapter 3 deals with the validation of the models. It is based in parts on data from the literature, and on own measurements. For the validation of the formation of the internal boundary layer

  9. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 5. Effect of height to diameter ( h / d ) ratio on the deformation behaviour of Fe–Al 2 O 3 metal matrix nanocomposites. PALLAV GUPTA DEVENDRA KUMAR A K JHA OM PARKASH. Volume 39 Issue 5 September 2016 pp 1245-1258 ...

  10. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of dorsal spine age rings indicate temporal variation in the diet of striped marlin (Kajikia audax) in waters around Cabo San Lucas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Pachón, Tatiana A; Ortega-García, Sofia; Graham, Brittany

    2015-09-30

    Billfishes, such as marlin, are top pelagic predators that play an important role in maintaining the stability of marine food webs. Notwithstanding the importance of these species, there remain gaps in our knowledge on their movements, foraging, and trophic status in the early stage of life. We measured the δ(13)C and δ(15)N values in each annual growth band deposited in the dorsal spine from striped marlin caught off Cabo San Lucas, Mexico, to produce retrospective isotopic profiles that would enable us to detect any significant isotopic changes across development. The samples were analyzed using an elemental analyzer coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. There was no relationship between the size of striped marlin and the δ(15) N values. Differences in δ(15)N mean values across different age classes were not significant and the variation in δ(15)N values through the marlins' life cycle was less than 2‰. However, the mean δ(15)N values between individuals varied by up to 6‰. The δ(13)C values increased as a function of age, and the mean δ(13)C values varied significantly between age classes. Fin spines can be used to construct retrospective isotopic histories for the investigation of trophic dynamics and migratory histories in billfishes, for which population dynamics are often poorly known. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Baldcypress Height-Diamter Equations and Their Prediction Confindence Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol

    1992-01-01

    Height-diameter relationships are an important component in yield estimation, stand description, and damage appraisals. A nonlinear exponential function used extensively in the northwest United States was chosen for bald cypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.). Homogeneity and normality of residuals were examined, and the function as well as the...

  12. Parturient symphysio-fundal height and abdominal girth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birth weight is known to influence morbidity and mortality. Simple measures to predict birth weight before delivery would therefore be useful in order to plan a delivery. Maternal parturient symphysio-fundal height has been used to detect Low Birth Weight. This study aims at predicting the fetal weight using the maternal ...

  13. Jump Shrug Height and Landing Forces Across Various Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Taber, Christopher B; Wright, Glenn A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that load has on the mechanics of the jump shrug. Fifteen track and field and club/intramural athletes (age 21.7 ± 1.3 y, height 180.9 ± 6.6 cm, body mass 84.7 ± 13.2 kg, 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) hang power clean 109.1 ± 17.2 kg) performed repetitions of the jump shrug at 30%, 45%, 65%, and 80% of their 1RM hang power clean. Jump height, peak landing force, and potential energy of the system at jump-shrug apex were compared between loads using a series of 1-way repeated-measures ANOVAs. Statistical differences in jump height (P .05). The greatest magnitudes of jump height, peak landing force, and potential energy of the system at the apex of the jump shrug occurred at 30% 1RM hang power clean and decreased as the external load increased from 45% to 80% 1RM hang power clean. Relationships between peak landing force and potential energy of the system at jump-shrug apex indicate that the landing forces produced during the jump shrug may be due to the landing strategy used by the athletes, especially at lighter loads. Practitioners may prescribe heavier loads during the jump-shrug exercise without viewing landing force as a potential limitation.

  14. The association between Helicobacter pylori infection and adult height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moayyedi, Paul; Forman, David; Duffett, Sara; Mason, Su; Brown, Julia; Crocombe, Will; Feltbower, Richard; Axon, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: A cross-sectional survey was performed to evaluate the association between H. pylori and adult height. Methods: H. pylori infection was assessed using a 13 C-urea breath test and height measured by a research nurse using a stadiometer in participants between the ages of 40-49 years. Results: Height was measured in 2932/3682 participants that attended and were evaluable. H. pylori infected women were 1.4 cm shorter than uninfected women (95% confidence interval, CI=0.7-2.1 cm) and this statistically significant difference persisted after adjusting for age, ethnicity, childhood and present socio-economic status (H. pylori positives 0.79 cm shorter; 95%CI: 0.05-1.52 cm). H. pylori positive men were 0.7 cm shorter than uninfected men but this did not reach statistical significance (95% CI: -0.1-1.5 cm). Conclusion: Although H. pylori infection is associated with reduced adult height in women, this maybe due to residual confounding

  15. Estimates of forest canopy height and aboveground biomass using ICESat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Lefsky; David J. Harding; Michael Keller; Warren B. Cohen; Claudia C. Carabajal; Fernando Del Bom; Maria O. Hunter; Raimundo Jr. de Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    Exchange of carbon between forests and the atmosphere is a vital component of the global carbon cycle. Satellite laser altimetry has a unique capability for estimating forest canopy height, which has a direct and increasingly well understood relationship to aboveground carbon storage. While the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) onboard the Ice, Cloud and land...

  16. stem and standing heights in bantu and white south africans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-05-29

    May 29, 1971 ... Sitting and standing heights have been recorded for Bantu and Whites, males and females. It !Vas found that Bantu males and females have relatively longer lower extremities than White South African males and females. Anthropo- metric differences account for only about 15% of the actual observed ...

  17. Tree height integrated into pantropical forest biomass estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldpausch, T.R.; Lloyd, J.; Lewis, S.L.; Brienen, R.J.W.; Gloor, M.; Montegudo Mendoza, A.; Arets, E.J.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aboveground tropical tree biomass and carbon storage estimates commonly ignore tree height (H). We estimate the effect of incorporating H on tropics-wide forest biomass estimates in 327 plots across four continents using 42 656 H and diameter measurements and harvested trees from 20 sites to answer

  18. The Effects of Microgravity on Seated Height (Spinal Elongation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. S.; Rajulu, S.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many physiological factors, such as spinal elongation, fluid shifts, bone atrophy, and muscle loss, occur during an exposure to a microgravity environment. Spinal elongation is just one of the factors that can also affect the safety and performance of a crewmember while in space. Spinal elongation occurs due to the lack of gravity/compression on the spinal column. This allows for the straightening of the natural spinal curve. There is a possible fluid shift in the inter-vertebral disks that may also result in changes in height. This study aims at collecting the overall change in seated height for crewmembers exposed to a microgravity environment. During previous Programs, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) and Skylab, spinal elongation data was collected from a small number of subjects in a standing posture but were limited in scope. Data from these studies indicated a quick increase in stature during the first few days of weightlessness, after which stature growth reached a plateau resulting in up to a 3% increase of the original measurement [1-5]. However, this data was collected only for crewmembers in standing posture and not in a seated posture. Seated height may have a different effect than standing height due to a change in posture as well as due to a compounded effect of wearing restraints and a potential compression of the gluteal area. Seated height was deemed as a critical measurement in the design of the Constellation Program s (CxP) Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), called Orion which is now the point-of-departure vehicle for the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program; therefore a better understanding of the effects of microgravity on seated height is necessary. Potential changes in seated height that may not have impacted crew accommodation in previous Programs will have significant effects on crew accommodation due to the layout of seats in the Orion.. The current and existing configuration is such that the four crewmembers are stacked two by

  19. Output pulse height distribution of the GM counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Songshou; Xiong Jianping

    1995-01-01

    The GM counters are the radiation detectors most in use. It has special advantages compared with other detectors. This paper introduces the output pulse height distribution of the GM counters, gives the measuring instruments and methods. The measuring results, some discussions, and useful conclusion are given as well

  20. 76 FR 77696 - Establishment of the Naches Heights Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... Decision. SUMMARY: This final rule establishes the 13,254-acre ``Naches Heights'' viticultural area in... origin of their wines and to allow consumers to better identify wines they may purchase. DATES: Effective... consumers to identify wines they may purchase. Establishment of a viticultural area is neither an approval...

  1. Intrapartum symphysio-fundal height measurement as a predictor of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low birth weight (LBW) increases the risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality and of the long term neurologic and developmental disorders. Early identification of LBW is necessary to decrease complications and enhance the survival of the newborn. Aim: To determine the usefulness of symphysio-fundal height ...

  2. Many sequence variants affecting diversity of adult human height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Walters, G Bragi; Thorleifsson, Gudmar

    2008-01-01

    .3 and 0.6 cm and, taken together, they explain around 3.7% of the population variation in height. The genes neighboring the identified loci cluster in biological processes related to skeletal development and mitosis. Association to three previously reported loci are replicated in our analyses...

  3. Assortative mating for human height : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, Gert; Simons, Mirre J. P.; Grasman, Sara; Pollet, Thomas V.

    ObjectivesThe study of assortative mating for height has a rich history in human biology. Although the positive correlation between the stature of spouses has often been noted in western populations, recent papers suggest that mating patterns for stature are not universal. The objective of this

  4. Individual tree diameter, height, and volume functions for longleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Salvador A. Gezan; Timothy A. Martin; Wendell P. Cropper; Lisa J. Samuelson; Daniel J. Leduc

    2014-01-01

    Currently, little information is available to estimate individual tree attributes for longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.), an important tree species of the southeastern United States. The majority of available models are local, relying on stem diameter outside bark at breast height (dbh, cm) and not including stand-level parameters. We developed...

  5. Wave Height Distribution Observed by Ships in the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Smærup; Schrøter, Carsten; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2005-01-01

    for the significant wave height, the relative speed and the ship heading relative to the wave direction is given. This distribution shows that for higher waves the crews avoid sailing in following sea and as expected the speed is decreased in higher waves. There is, however, still a relatively high probability...

  6. Encountered Wave Height Distributions for Ships in the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Smærup; Schrøter, C.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2004-01-01

    About 20 000 observations of wave heights taken on board vessels sailing in the North Atlantic are presented. The data covers year 2002 and 2003 and stem from a variety of ship types. From the preliminary analysis of the data some conclusions are reached about the effect of weather routing whether...

  7. SYMMETRICAL (AND GENERIC) ALGORITHMS FOR HEIGHT BALANCED TREES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRON, C

    1990-01-01

    Most algorithms for height balanced trees (or AVL-trees, after Adelson-Velskii and Landis [1]) suffer from a lack of exploitation of the symmetry of balance restoring operations when insertions and deletions in such tree structures are being made. Either we find algorithms in duplicate (i.e.,

  8. Tree height-diameter allometry across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Catherine M; Swenson, Nathan G; Weiser, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    The relationship between tree height and diameter is fundamental in determining community and ecosystem structure as well as estimates of biomass and carbon storage. Yet our understanding of how tree allometry relates to climate and whole organismal function is limited. We used the Forest Inventory and Analysis National Program database to determine height-diameter allometries of 2,976,937 individuals of 293 tree species across the United States. The shape of the allometric relationship was determined by comparing linear and nonlinear functional forms. Mixed-effects models were used to test for allometric differences due to climate and floristic (between angiosperms and gymnosperms) and functional groups (leaf habit and shade tolerance). Tree allometry significantly differed across the United States largely because of climate. Temperature, and to some extent precipitation, in part explained tree allometric variation. The magnitude of allometric variation due to climate, however, had a phylogenetic signal. Specifically, angiosperm allometry was more sensitive to differences in temperature compared to gymnosperms. Most notably, angiosperm height was more negatively influenced by increasing temperature variability, whereas gymnosperm height was negatively influenced by decreasing precipitation and increasing altitude. There was little evidence to suggest that shade tolerance influenced tree allometry except for very shade-intolerant trees which were taller for any given diameter. Tree allometry is plastic rather than fixed and scaling parameters vary around predicted central tendencies. This allometric variation provides insight into life-history strategies, phylogenetic history, and environmental limitations at biogeographical scales.

  9. Predicting human height by Victorian and genomic methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); M.V. Struchalin (Maksim); N.M. Belonogova (Nadezhda); T.I. Axenovich (Tatiana); M.N. Weedon (Michael); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M.H. Kayser (Manfred); B.A. Oostra (Ben); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); A.C.J.W. Janssens (Cécile); P.M. Borodin (Pavel)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn the Victorian era, Sir Francis Galton showed that 'when dealing with the transmission of stature from parents to children, the average height of the two parents, ... is all we need care to know about them' (1886). One hundred and twenty-two years after Galton's work was published, 54

  10. Height suppression of tomato plug seedlings by an environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to investigate appropriate concentrations of plant growth retardants (PGRs) and duration of seed soaking in order to suppress hypocotyl length and plug seedling height of 2 tomato cultivars ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. cv. Seogeon and Seokwang). Daminozide (B-9), uniconazole ...

  11. Nest height of the red bishop ( Eupiectes orix ) | Woodall | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heights of nests and reeds in a colony of red bishops (Euplectes orix) in Phragmites mauritianus reeds on the Makabusi River, Zimbabwe were measured in two breeding seasons. Nests were placed high in the reeds with fewer above the mean and more below the mean than in a normal distribution. During the course of a ...

  12. The role of height in the sex difference in intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi; Reyniers, Diane J

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies conclude that men on average have higher intelligence than women by 3-5 IQ points. However, the ultimate evolutionary question of why men should have evolved to have higher intelligence than women remains. We suggest that men may have slightly higher intelligence than women through 4 mechanisms: (1) assortative mating of intelligent men and beautiful women, (2) assortative mating of tall men and beautiful women, (3) an extrinsic correlation between height and intelligence produced by Mechanisms 1 and 2, and (4) a higher-than-expected offspring sex ratio (more sons) among tall (and hence intelligent) parents. Consistent with our suggestion, we show that men may have higher IQs than women because they are taller, and once we control for height women have slightly higher IQs than men.The correlation between height and IQ and the female advantage in intelligence persist even after we control for health as a measure of genetic quality, as well as physical attractiveness, age, race, education, and earnings. Height is also strongly associated with intelligence within each sex.

  13. Inheritance of culm height and grain yield in durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filev, K.

    1984-01-01

    Results from a study of GA sensitive and GA insensitive durum wheat mutants and cultivars in relation with their culm height and 1000 grain weight are presented. With increasing culm height, the GA response also increased. A positive correlation between plant height and GA response was found. Crosses were made between durum wheats and the F 1 and F 2 progenies were analysed. A different inheritance in F 1 and segregation in F 2 was obtained in crosses of a semi-dwarf, GA insensitive [1] line with GA sensitive (S) lines differing in height, medium (93.2cm) and tall (133.5cm). In a reciprocal cross, semi-dwarf - I with medium - S, the semi-dwarf type was dominant in F 1 , suggesting that their semi-dwarfing genes were not allelic. When the semi-dwarf - I and tall - S were crossed an intermediate inheritance in F 1 was observed. In the F 2 generation from crosses semi-dwarf - I with medium - S with semi-dwarf - I, a phenotypic dihybred segregation 9:3:3:1 was observed. In crosses semi-dwarf - I with tall - S different variation curves were obtained. Semi-dwarfs with high productivity were observed in F 2 , a fact indicating that lodging resistant lines with high yields could be selected. (author)

  14. HEIGHT VARIATION OF THE VECTOR MAGNETIC FIELD IN SOLAR SPICULES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suárez, D. Orozco; Ramos, A. Asensio; Bueno, J. Trujillo, E-mail: dorozco@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2015-04-20

    Proving the magnetic configuration of solar spicules has hitherto been difficult due to the lack of spatial resolution and image stability during off-limb ground-based observations. We report spectropolarimetric observations of spicules taken in the He i 1083 nm spectral region with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter II at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope of the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain). The data provide the variation with geometrical height of the Stokes I, Q, U, and V profiles, whose encoded information allows the determination of the magnetic field vector by means of the HAZEL inversion code. The inferred results show that the average magnetic field strength at the base of solar spicules is about 80 gauss, and then it decreases rapidly with height to about 30 gauss at a height of 3000 km above the visible solar surface. Moreover, the magnetic field vector is close to vertical at the base of the chromosphere and has mid-inclinations (about 50°) above 2 Mm height.

  15. Modular invariants for affine SU(3) theories at prime heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruelle, P.; Thiran, E.; Weyers, J.

    1990-01-01

    A proof is given for the existence of two and only two modular invariant partition functions in affine SU(3) k theories at heights n=k+3 which are prime numbers. Arithmetic properties of the ring of algabraic integers Z(ω) which is related to SU(3) weights are extensively used. (orig.)

  16. Significant wave height retrieval from synthetic radar images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijaya, Andreas Parama; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    2014-01-01

    In many offshore activities radar imagery is used to observe and predict ocean waves. An important issue in analyzing the radar images is to resolve the significant wave height. Different from 3DFFT methods that use an estimate related to the square root of the signal-to-noise ratio of radar images,

  17. A Fast Time-to-Pulse Height Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspelund, O

    1962-12-15

    A fast time-to-pulse height converter representing a development of Green and Bell's gated beam converter is described. The converter is compatible with 2 input pulses in the stop channel and exhibits excellent linearity and time resolution properties. High stability and large output pulses are obtained by using a large time constant in the converting network.

  18. An investigation of cloud base height in Chiang Mai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peengam, S.; Tohsing, K.

    2017-09-01

    Clouds play very important role in the variation of surface solar radiation and rain formation. To understand this role, it is necessary to know the physical and geometrical of properties of cloud. However, clouds vary with location and time, which lead to a difficulty to obtain their properties. In this work, a ceilometer was installed at a station of the Royal Rainmaking and Agricultural Aviation Department in Chiang Mai (17.80° N, 98.43° E) in order to measure cloud base height. The cloud base height data from this instrument were compared with those obtained from LiDAR, a more sophisticated instrument installed at the same site. It was found that the cloud base height from both instruments was in reasonable agreement, with root mean square difference (RMSD) and mean bias difference (MBD) of 19.21% and 1.58%, respectively. Afterward, a six-month period (August, 2016-January, 2017) of data from the ceilometer was analyzed. The results show that mean cloud base height during this period is 1.5 km, meaning that most clouds are in the category of low-level cloud.

  19. The mount Cameroon height determined from ground gravity data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract This paper deals with the accurate determination of mount Cameroon orthometric height, by combining ground gravity data, global navigation satellite system (GNSS) observations and global geopotential models. The elevation of the highest point (Fako) is computed above the WGS84 reference ellipsoid.

  20. Association between height and coronary heart disease mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Zdravkovic, Slobodan; Skytthe, Axel

    2006-01-01

    An inverse association between height and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) is well demonstrated, but it is not known whether this association is because of genetic factors, socioeconomic background, or other environmental factors. Four population-based twin cohorts with register-based follow...

  1. Exploring RSSI Dependency on Height in UHF for throughput optimisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maliwatu, R

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available in the area. When raised beyond 8.5 m further signal strength gain stifles, possibly due to effects of multi-path fading. The contribution of this paper is firstly, the implication of Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) dependency on height and secondly...

  2. Comparative analysis of extracted heights from topographic maps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Topographic maps represent the three-dimensional landscape by providing relief information in the form of contours in addition to plan information on which natural and man-made landmarks are quite accurately represented. Height information, extractible from topographic maps, comes in handy for most land use planning.

  3. Height-diameter allometry of tropical forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.R. Feldpausch; L. Banin; O.L. Phillips; T.R. Baker; S.L. Lewis; C.A. Quesada; K. Affum-Baffoe; E.J.M.M. Arets; N.J. Berry; M. Bird; E.S. Brondizio; P de Camargo; J. Chave; G. Djagbletey; T.F. Domingues; M. Drescher; P.M. Fearnside; M.B. Franca; N.M. Fyllas; G. Lopez-Gonzalez; A. Hladik; N. Higuchi; M.O. Hunter; Y. Iida; K.A. Salim; A.R. Kassim; M. Keller; J. Kemp; D.A. King; J.C. Lovett; B.S. Marimon; B.H. Marimon-Junior; E. Lenza; A.R. Marshall; D.J. Metcalfe; E.T.A. Mitchard; E.F. Moran; B.W. Nelson; R. Nilus; E.M. Nogueira; M. Palace; S. Patiño; K.S.-H. Peh; M.T. Raventos; J.M. Reitsma; G. Saiz; F. Schrodt; B. Sonke; H.E. Taedoumg; S. Tan; L. White; H. Woll; J. Lloyd

    2011-01-01

    Tropical tree height-diameter (H:D) relationships may vary by forest type and region making large-scale estimates of above-ground biomass subject to bias if they ignore these differences in stem allometry. We have therefore developed a new global tropical forest database consisting of 39 955 concurrent H and D measurements encompassing 283 sites in 22 tropical...

  4. Development and evaluation of weight and height reference ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While international reference standard exists, it has been suggested that locally generated norms would be more realistic and appropriate, especially in adults where great variations in stature among nations exist. This study was undertaken to develop a table of reference standard for weight and height for young adults in

  5. NASA Green Propulsion Technologies Pushing Aviation to New Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free, James M.; Jennings, Francis T.; Adanich, Emery; Del Rosario, Ruben; Felder, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Center Director Free is providing the Keynote at the Disruptive Propulsion Conference, sponsored by Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, England in November. Director Free will be presenting a PowerPoint presentation titled, NASA Green Propulsion Technologies Pushing Aviation to New Heights at both the conference and a meeting at the Royal Aeronautical Society.

  6. Stereoscopic, thermal, and true deep cumulus cloud top heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.; Corlett, G. K.; Lawrence, S. P.; Remedios, J. J.; Sherwood, S. C.; Chae, J.; Minnis, P.; McGill, M.

    2004-05-01

    We compare cloud-top height estimates from several sensors: thermal tops from GOES-8 and MODIS, stereoscopic tops from MISR, and directly measured heights from the Goddard Cloud Physics Lidar on board the ER-2, all collected during the CRYSTAL-FACE field campaign. Comparisons reveal a persistent 1-2 km underestimation of cloud-top heights by thermal imagery, even when the finite optical extinctions near cloud top and in thin overlying cirrus are taken into account. The most severe underestimates occur for the tallest clouds. The MISR "best-sinds" and lidar estimates disagree in very similar ways with thermally estimated tops, which we take as evidence of excellent performance by MISR. Encouraged by this, we use MISR to examine variations in cloud penetration and thermal top height errors in several locations of tropical deep convection over multiple seasons. The goals of this are, first, to learn how cloud penetration depends on the near-tropopause environment; and second, to gain further insight into the mysterious underestimation of tops by thermal imagery.

  7. Maternal height and child mortality in 42 developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monden, Christiaan W S; Smits, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    Previous research reports mixed results about the association between maternal height and child mortality. Some studies suggest that the negative association might be stronger in contexts with fewer resources. This hypothesis has yet not been tested in a cross-nationally comparative design. We use data on 307,223 children born to 194,835 women in 444 districts of 42 developing countries to estimate the association between maternal height and child mortality and test whether this association is modified by indicators at the level of the household (like sex, age and twin status of the child and socio-economic characteristics of the mother and her partner), district (regional level of development, public health facilities and female occupational attainment) and country (GDP per capita). We find a robust negative effect of logged maternal height on child mortality. The effect of maternal health is strongest for women with least education and is more important in the first year after birth and for twin births. The indicators of development at the district and country level do not modify the effect of maternal height. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Manitoba to North Dakota and Minnesota, huge striations clearly show the flow pattern of the glaciers. And southwest of Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie, arcing ridges of sediment, called terminal moraines, show where glaciers dumped sediment at their melting ends.In eastern Canada, New York, and New England, the terrain has been scoured by glaciers, and eroded by streams, particularly along fractures in the bedrock. In Labrador and Quebec, the Mistastin, Manicougan, and Clearwater Lakes meteor impact craters can also be seen. Further south, narrow curving ridges of upturned and eroded layered rocks form most of the Appalachian Mountains. In contrast, around the Caribbean Sea region (Yucatan, Florida, and the Bahamas), flat-lying, stable limestone platforms are common, while the most eastern islands of the Caribbean include active volcanoes along another convergence zone of tectonic plates.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping

  9. Reduced Height (Rht Alleles Affect Wheat Grain Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Casebow

    Full Text Available The effects of dwarfing alleles (reduced height, Rht in near isogenic lines on wheat grain quality are characterised in field experiments and related to effects on crop height, grain yield and GA-sensitivity. Alleles included those that conferred GA-insensitivity (Rht-B1b, Rht-B1c, Rht-D1b, Rht-D1c as well as those that retained GA-sensitivity (rht(tall, Rht8, Rht8 + Ppd-D1a, Rht12. Full characterisation was facilitated by including factors with which the effects of Rht alleles are known to interact for grain yield (i.e. system, [conventional or organic]; tillage intensity [plough-based, minimum or zero]; nitrogen fertilizer level [0-450 kg N/ha]; and genetic backgrounds varying in height [cvs Maris Huntsman, Maris Widgeon, and Mercia]. Allele effects on mean grain weight and grain specific weight were positively associated with final crop height: dwarfing reduced these quality criteria irrespective of crop management or GA-sensitivity. In all but two experiments the effects of dwarfing alleles on grain nitrogen and sulphur concentrations were closely and negatively related to effects on grain yield, e.g. a quadratic relationship between grain yield and crop height manipulated by the GA-insensitive alleles was mirrored by quadratic relationships for nitrogen and sulphur concentrations: the highest yields and most dilute concentrations occurred around 80cm. In one of the two exceptional experiments the GA-insensitive Rht-B1b and Rht-B1c significantly (P<0.05 reduced grain nitrogen concentration in the absence of an effect on yield, and in the remaining experiment the GA-sensitive Rht8 significantly reduced both grain yield and grain nitrogen concentration simultaneously. When Rht alleles diluted grain nitrogen concentration, N:S ratios and SDS-sedimentation volumes were often improved. Hagberg falling number (HFN was negatively related to crop height but benefits from dwarfing were only seen for GA-insensitive alleles. For HFN, therefore, there

  10. Reduced Height (Rht) Alleles Affect Wheat Grain Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casebow, Richard; Hadley, Caroline; Uppal, Rajneet; Addisu, Molla; Loddo, Stefano; Kowalski, Ania; Griffiths, Simon; Gooding, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The effects of dwarfing alleles (reduced height, Rht) in near isogenic lines on wheat grain quality are characterised in field experiments and related to effects on crop height, grain yield and GA-sensitivity. Alleles included those that conferred GA-insensitivity (Rht-B1b, Rht-B1c, Rht-D1b, Rht-D1c) as well as those that retained GA-sensitivity (rht(tall), Rht8, Rht8 + Ppd-D1a, Rht12). Full characterisation was facilitated by including factors with which the effects of Rht alleles are known to interact for grain yield (i.e. system, [conventional or organic]; tillage intensity [plough-based, minimum or zero]; nitrogen fertilizer level [0-450 kg N/ha]; and genetic backgrounds varying in height [cvs Maris Huntsman, Maris Widgeon, and Mercia]. Allele effects on mean grain weight and grain specific weight were positively associated with final crop height: dwarfing reduced these quality criteria irrespective of crop management or GA-sensitivity. In all but two experiments the effects of dwarfing alleles on grain nitrogen and sulphur concentrations were closely and negatively related to effects on grain yield, e.g. a quadratic relationship between grain yield and crop height manipulated by the GA-insensitive alleles was mirrored by quadratic relationships for nitrogen and sulphur concentrations: the highest yields and most dilute concentrations occurred around 80cm. In one of the two exceptional experiments the GA-insensitive Rht-B1b and Rht-B1c significantly (Pgrain nitrogen concentration in the absence of an effect on yield, and in the remaining experiment the GA-sensitive Rht8 significantly reduced both grain yield and grain nitrogen concentration simultaneously. When Rht alleles diluted grain nitrogen concentration, N:S ratios and SDS-sedimentation volumes were often improved. Hagberg falling number (HFN) was negatively related to crop height but benefits from dwarfing were only seen for GA-insensitive alleles. For HFN, therefore, there was the strongest evidence for

  11. Observing Crop-Height Dynamics Using a UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziliani, M. G.; Parkes, S. D.; McCabe, M.

    2017-12-01

    Retrieval of vegetation height during a growing season is a key indicator for monitoring crop status, offering insight to the forecast yield relative to previous planting cycles. Improvement in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technologies, supported by advances in computer vision and photogrammetry software, has enabled retrieval of crop heights with much higher spatial resolution and coverage. These methodologies retrieve a Digital Surface Map (DSM), which combine terrain and crop elements to obtain a Crop Surface Map (CSM). Here we describe an automated method for deriving high resolution CSMs from a DSM, using RGB imagery from a UAV platform. Importantly, the approach does not require the need for a digital terrain map (DTM). The method involves distinguishing between vegetation and bare-ground cover pixels, using vegetation index maps from the RGB orthomosaic derived from the same flight as the DSM. We show that the absolute crop height can be extracted to within several centimeters, exploiting the data captured from a single UAV flight. In addition, the method is applied across five surveys during a maize growing cycle and compared against a terrain map constructed from a baseline UAV survey undertaken prior to crop growth. Results show that the approach is able to reproduce the observed spatial variability of the crop height within the maize field throughout the duration of the growing season. This is particularly valuable since it may be employed to detect intra-field problems (i.e. fertilizer variability, inefficiency in the irrigation system, salinity etc.) at different stages of the season, from which remedial action can be initiated to mitigate against yield loss. The method also demonstrates that UAV imagery combined with commercial photogrammetry software can determine a CSM from a single flight without the requirement of a prior DTM. This, together with the dynamic crop height estimation, provide useful information with which to inform precision

  12. Growth and Final Height Among Children With Phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Alena G; Gausche, Ruth; Lindenberg, Cornelia; Beger, Christoph; Arelin, Maria; Rohde, Carmen; Mütze, Ulrike; Weigel, Johannes F; Mohnike, Klaus; Baerwald, Christoph; Scholz, Markus; Kiess, Wieland; Pfäffle, Roland; Beblo, Skadi

    2017-11-01

    Growth is an important criterion to evaluate health in childhood and adolescence, especially in patients depending on special dietary treatment. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most common inherited disease of amino acid metabolism. Patients with PKU depend on a special phenylalanine-restricted diet, low in natural protein. The study aimed to evaluate growth, growth rate, and target height in 224 patients with PKU. Retrospective, longitudinal analysis of standardized, yearly measurements of height, weight, and calculated growth rate (SD score [SDS]) of patients with PKU aged 0 to 18 years were conducted by using the national computerized CrescNet database. Inclusion was restricted to patients carried to term with a confirmed diagnosis of PKU or mild hyperphenylalaninemia determined by newborn screening and early treatment initiation. From birth to adulthood, patients with PKU were significantly shorter than healthy German children (height SDS at 18 years: -0.882 ± 0.108, P < .001). They missed their target height by 3 cm by adulthood (women: P = .02) and 5 cm (men: P = .01). In patients receiving casein hydrolysate during childhood, this was more pronounced compared with patients receiving amino acid mixtures ( P < .001). Growth rate was significantly reduced during their first 2 years of life and in puberty (growth rate SDS: -1.1 to -0.5 m/year, P < .001 and -0.5; P < .02). Early diagnosed, treated, and continuously monitored patients with PKU showed reduced height from birth onward. During the last 2 decades, this phenomenon attenuated, probably because of advances in PKU therapy related to protein supplements and special low-protein foods. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Particles of bottom and suspended sediments: height of rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodzinskaya Anna Gennadievna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, characteristic values of dynamic sizes of bottom and suspended sediments, including their probabilistic assessment, are considered. The article presents the processing results in respect of the experimental data for bottom and suspended sediments, obtained in the laboratory environment using samples and filming methods. The experiments have proven that the dynamic hydraulic size determines the height of rise for the particles of the saltation load, rather than suspended ones. In the laboratory environment, the maximal height of rise is mainly driven by the relative flow depth. According to the assessment made by the co-authors, depths of flows employed in the experiments designated for the identification of heights of rises, were comparable to saltation heights of particles. Besides, the saltation height of particles, having relative density well below 2.65, nearly always exceeded half of the depth of the laboratory flow. Hydrodynamic conditions favourable for the separation and motion of artificial particles in coarse surface tanks are far different from the motion of sand particles on the bottom of lowland rivers. Values of hydraulic resistance ratios typical for laboratory experiments by far exceed their values typical for lowland rivers, and it means that the conditions of the experiments performed in the laboratory were similar to those typical for mountain rivers. The research findings have proven that the particle separation and motion pattern, if artificial particles are made of the materials demonstrating variable density and elasticity values and if loose particles travel over fixed ones, is different from the pattern typical for natural particles having variable coarseness.

  14. [Influence of Mapuche origin and socioeconomic conditions on adult height].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erazo B, Marcia; Amigo C, Hugo; Bustos M, Patricia

    2005-04-01

    Studies in Chilean adults of low socioeconomic level suggest that their low height is likely to be due to their indigenous background. However this group also has been marginalized from socioeconomic development. To determine the influence of Mapuche ethnic origin and socioeconomic factors on the height of adults. In a cross sectional design, the height of 1,293 adults (528 males and 765 females) of Mapuche and non Mapuche origin were studied in the Araucania Region (Southern Chile) and in the Metropolitan Region (Central Chile). Subjects with Mapuche surnames were considered as pertaining to this ethnic community and those with Spanish surnames were considered as non Mapuche. Linear regression models were done, stratifying by sex, considering ethnic origin, to live in counties of different social vulnerability, and the level of family poverty. Among males, the mean height was 166.6+/-7.3 cm and among females, the figure was 153.6+/-5.9 cm. Mapuche subjects were significantly shorter: -3.2 cm (95% Confidence Interval (CI) -4.0 to -2.3) among females and -4.8 cm (CI -6.0 to -3.6) among males (non adjusted models). This deficit increased to -4.5 and -7.6 cm among females and males, respectively when they lived in poverty and in areas with highest social vulnerability. These differences decreased significantly if Mapuche subjects lived in communities with low social vulnerability and less poverty (-0.59 and -1.14 cm among females and males respectively). The studied population had low height, being lower in Mapuche subjects. The differences decreased among subjects living in counties of less vulnerability and less family poverty.

  15. Science in Science Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allday, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Offers some suggestions as to how science fiction, especially television science fiction programs such as "Star Trek" and "Star Wars", can be drawn into physics lessons to illuminate some interesting issues. (Author/KHR)

  16. The Generalized Principle of the Golden Section and its applications in mathematics, science, and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stakhov, A.P. [International Club of the Golden Section, 6 McCreary Trail, Bolton, ON, L7E 2C8 (Canada)] e-mail: goldenmuseum@rogers.com

    2005-10-01

    The 'Dichotomy Principle' and the classical 'Golden Section Principle' are two of the most important principles of Nature, Science and also Art. The Generalized Principle of the Golden Section that follows from studying the diagonal sums of the Pascal triangle is a sweeping generalization of these important principles. This underlies the foundation of 'Harmony Mathematics', a new proposed mathematical direction. Harmony Mathematics includes a number of new mathematical theories: an algorithmic measurement theory, a new number theory, a new theory of hyperbolic functions based on Fibonacci and Lucas numbers, and a theory of the Fibonacci and 'Golden' matrices. These mathematical theories are the source of many new ideas in mathematics, philosophy, botanic and biology, electrical and computer science and engineering, communication systems, mathematical education as well as theoretical physics and physics of high energy particles.

  17. The Generalized Principle of the Golden Section and its applications in mathematics, science, and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stakhov, A.P.

    2005-01-01

    The 'Dichotomy Principle' and the classical 'Golden Section Principle' are two of the most important principles of Nature, Science and also Art. The Generalized Principle of the Golden Section that follows from studying the diagonal sums of the Pascal triangle is a sweeping generalization of these important principles. This underlies the foundation of 'Harmony Mathematics', a new proposed mathematical direction. Harmony Mathematics includes a number of new mathematical theories: an algorithmic measurement theory, a new number theory, a new theory of hyperbolic functions based on Fibonacci and Lucas numbers, and a theory of the Fibonacci and 'Golden' matrices. These mathematical theories are the source of many new ideas in mathematics, philosophy, botanic and biology, electrical and computer science and engineering, communication systems, mathematical education as well as theoretical physics and physics of high energy particles

  18. Total body height estimation using sacrum height in Anatolian Caucasians: multidetector computed tomography-based virtual anthropometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakas, Hakki Muammer [Inonu University Medical Faculty, Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Malatya (Turkey); Celbis, Osman [Inonu University Medical Faculty Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Forensic Medicine, Malatya (Turkey); Harma, Ahmet [Inonu University Medical Faculty Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Malatya (Turkey); Alicioglu, Banu [Trakya University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Edirne (Turkey); Trakya University Health Sciences Institute, Department of Anatomy, Edirne (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    Estimation of total body height is a major step when a subject has to be identified from his/her skeletal structures. In the presence of decomposed skeletons and missing bones, estimation is usually based on regression equation for intact long bones. If these bones are fragmented or missing, alternative structures must be used. In this study, the value of sacrum height (SH) in total body height (TBH) estimation was investigated in a contemporary population of adult Anatolian Caucasians. Sixty-six men (41.6 {+-} 14.9 years) and 43 women (41.1 {+-} 14.2 years) were scanned with 64-row multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to obtain high-resolution anthropometric data. SH of midsagittal sections was electronically measured. The technique and methodology were validated on a standard skeletal model. Sacrum height was 111.2 {+-} 12.6 mm (77-138 mm) in men and 104.7 {+-} 8.2 (89-125 mm) in women. The difference between the two sexes regarding SH was significant (p < 0.0001). SH did not significantly correlate with age in men, whereas the correlation was significant in women (p < 0.03). The correlation between SH and the stature was significant in men (r = 0.427, p < 0.0001) and was insignificant in women. For men the regression equation was [Stature = (0.306 x SH)+137.9] (r = 0.54, SEE = 56.9, p < 0.0001). Sacrum height is not susceptible to sex, or to age in men. In the presence of incomplete male skeletons, SH helps to determine the stature. This study is also one of the initial applications of MDCT in virtual anthropometric research. (orig.)

  19. Total body height estimation using sacrum height in Anatolian Caucasians: multidetector computed tomography-based virtual anthropometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakas, Hakki Muammer; Celbis, Osman; Harma, Ahmet; Alicioglu, Banu

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of total body height is a major step when a subject has to be identified from his/her skeletal structures. In the presence of decomposed skeletons and missing bones, estimation is usually based on regression equation for intact long bones. If these bones are fragmented or missing, alternative structures must be used. In this study, the value of sacrum height (SH) in total body height (TBH) estimation was investigated in a contemporary population of adult Anatolian Caucasians. Sixty-six men (41.6 ± 14.9 years) and 43 women (41.1 ± 14.2 years) were scanned with 64-row multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to obtain high-resolution anthropometric data. SH of midsagittal sections was electronically measured. The technique and methodology were validated on a standard skeletal model. Sacrum height was 111.2 ± 12.6 mm (77-138 mm) in men and 104.7 ± 8.2 (89-125 mm) in women. The difference between the two sexes regarding SH was significant (p < 0.0001). SH did not significantly correlate with age in men, whereas the correlation was significant in women (p < 0.03). The correlation between SH and the stature was significant in men (r = 0.427, p < 0.0001) and was insignificant in women. For men the regression equation was [Stature = (0.306 x SH)+137.9] (r = 0.54, SEE = 56.9, p < 0.0001). Sacrum height is not susceptible to sex, or to age in men. In the presence of incomplete male skeletons, SH helps to determine the stature. This study is also one of the initial applications of MDCT in virtual anthropometric research. (orig.)

  20. Gridded 5-day mean sea surface height anomaly and significant wave height from Jason-1 and OSTM/Jason-2 satellites (NODC Accession 0065055)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the gridded 5-day mean sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and Ku Band significant wave height (SWH-KU) observed from Jason-1 and OSTM/Jason-2...

  1. The future of qualitative research in psychology--a discussion with Svend Brinkmann, Günter Mey, Luca Tateo, and Anete Strand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Carolin; Terkildsen, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    In May 2014, a workshop on "The future of qualitative research in psychology" took place at Aalborg University (Denmark), Department of Communication & Psychology organized by Carolin Demuth. Participants from Aalborg University engaged in a lively exchange with the two invited discussants Svend Brinkmann (Aalborg University) and Günter Mey (Stendal University of Applied Science). The discussion started out by addressing the specifics of qualitative research in the field of psychology, its historical development and the perils of recent trends of standardization and neo-positivistic orientations. In light of the discrepancy of what could be potentially achieved with qualitative methods for psychological research and how they are actually currently applied, an emphasis was made that we need to return to an understanding of qualitative methods as a craft skill and to take into account the subjectivity of the researcher in the process of scientific knowledge production. Finally, a re-focus on experience as the genuine object of psychological research, as well as a transdisciplinary approach to our understanding of human psychological functioning within a socially co-constructed, biological, as well as material world was discussed.

  2. Effective method to control the levitation force and levitation height in a superconducting maglev system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng-Tao; Yang, Wan-Min; Wang, Miao; Li, Jia-Wei; Guo, Yu-Xia

    2015-11-01

    The influence of the width of the middle magnet in the permanent magnet guideways (PMGs) on the levitation force and the levitation height of single-domain yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) bulks has been investigated at 77 K under the zero field cooled (ZFC) state. It is found that the largest levitation force can be obtained in the system with the width of the middle magnet of the PMG equal to the size of the YBCO bulk when the gap between the YBCO bulk and PMG is small. Both larger levitation force and higher levitation height can be obtained in the system with the width of the middle magnet of the PMG larger than the size of the YBCO bulk. The stiffness of the levitation force between the PMG and the YBCO bulk is higher in the system with a smaller width of the middle magnet in the PMG. These results provide an effective way to control the levitation force and the levitation height for the superconducting maglev design and applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51342001 and 50872079), the Key-grant Project of Chinese Ministry of Education (Grant No. 311033), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120202110003), the Innovation Team in Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2014KTC-18), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. GK201101001 and GK201305014), and the Outstanding Doctoral Thesis Foundation Project of Shaanxi Normal University, China (Grant Nos. X2011YB08 and X2012YB05).

  3. The effect of crate height on the behavior of female turkeys during commercial pre-slaughter transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Guido; Capello, Katia; Stefani, Anna Lisa; Tripepi, Luca; Garbo, Angelica; Speri, Marina; Trolese, Matteo; Brichese, Michele; Marangon, Stefano; Bonfanti, Lebana

    2017-10-01

    Limited information is available on suitable height of transport crates for turkeys. We compared behaviors and physiological indicators of four groups of 10 female turkeys each confined in either conventional (38.5 cm height) or experimental (77 cm height) crates during six commercial pre-slaughter transportations for 86 km (76 ± 4 min) along two tracts with one-lane streets, crossroads, bends, roundabouts (S1 and S2) and a highway tract (H) between S1 and S2. Only 36% of birds in the higher crates maintained a standing position. In conventional versus experimental crates, the frequency of rising attempts was five/bird/hour versus less than one/bird/hour, while wing flapping was seven/bird/hour versus 20/bird/hour, and balance loss was one versus four/bird/hour. The behaviors of both groups differed significantly according to the route tract, with a lower frequency of stress-related behaviors at H. No scratches, fractures or hematomas were detected in any birds after transportation. Crate height had no significant effect on hemato-biochemical markers. These results suggest that crates enabling a standing position may increase potentially dangerous behaviors. Moreover, busy and curvy routes should be avoided, as they may contribute to increasing the frequency of stress-related behaviors. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Optimal Height Calculation and Modelling of Noise Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimondas Grubliauskas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Transport is one of the main sources of noise having a particularly strong negative impact on the environment. In the city, one of the best methods to reduce the spread of noise in residential areas is a noise barrier. The article presents noise reduction barrier adaptation with empirical formulas calculating and modelling noise distribution. The simulation of noise dispersion has been performed applying the CadnaA program that allows modelling the noise levels of various developments under changing conditions. Calculation and simulation is obtained by assessing the level of noise reduction using the same variables. The investigation results are presented as noise distribution isolines. The selection of a different height of noise barriers are the results calculated at the heights of 1, 4 and 15 meters. The level of noise reduction at the maximum overlap of data, calculation and simulation has reached about 10%.Article in Lithuanian

  5. The Effect of NPP's Stack Height to Radiation Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandi, Liliana Yetta; Rohman, Budi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of dose calculation for accidents is to analyze the capability of NPP to maintain the safety of public and workers in case an accident occurs on the Plant in a site. This paper calculates the Loss of Coolant Accident in PWR plant. The calculation results shows that no risks of serious radiation exposure are given to the neighboring public even if such a large accident occurred, and the effect of stack height can be predicted by analysis of the calculation results. The whole dose is calculated for some location (100 m, 300 m, 500 m, 700 m, 900 m, 1500 m, and 2000 m) with three difference stack height i.e. 0 m, 40 m and 100 m. The result of the whole dose calculation is under permitted criteria for whole dose : 0.25 Sv and thyroid dose : 3.0 Sv. The calculation of radiation dose in this paper use EEDCDQ code

  6. Risk assessment of work at height in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letice Dalla Lana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The construction presents alarming statistics when it comes to the risks that these workers are subject. Higher risks still present work at a height where the fall is the biggest causal factor of fatal accidents. Thus the managements of companies who seek to reduce these risks and this has going for technical evaluation of operational risks. Three of these techniques are discussed in this article: PHA, FTA and CIT. The goal is to determine which one is most effective in assessing the risks of working at height in construction. The methodology used was case study of three works on three different construction of Santa Maria, RS. For a better understanding of the phenomenon suggests that the techniques are used together, but the CIT has provided a better quantitative analysis of incidents and the PHA contributes towards already establish the possible effects that each risk may have.

  7. Modelling the development of mixing height in near equatorial region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samah, A.A. [Univ. of Malaya, Air Pollution Research Unit, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1997-10-01

    Most current air pollution models were developed for mid-latitude conditions and as such many of the empirical parameters used were based on observations taken in the mid-latitude boundary layer which is physically different from that of the equatorial boundary layer. In the equatorial boundary layer the Coriolis parameter f is small or zero and moisture plays a more important role in the control of stability and the surface energy balance. Therefore air pollution models such as the OMLMULTI or the ADMS which were basically developed for mid-latitude conditions must be applied with some caution and would need some adaptation to properly simulate the properties of equatorial boundary layer. This work elucidates some of the problems of modelling the evolution of mixing height in the equatorial region. The mixing height estimates were compared with routine observations taken during a severe air pollution episodes in Malaysia. (au)

  8. The Effect of Adolescent Experience on Labor Market Outcomes: The Case of Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, Nicola; Postlewaite, Andrew; Silverman, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Taller workers receive a wage premium. Net of differences in family background, the disparity is similar in magnitude to the race and gender gaps. We exploit variation in an individual's height over time to explore how height affects wages. Controlling for teen height essentially eliminates the effect of adult height on wages for white men. The…

  9. A modern Green Revolution gene for reduced height in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würschum, Tobias; Langer, Simon M; Longin, C Friedrich H; Tucker, Matthew R; Leiser, Willmar L

    2017-12-01

    Increases in the yield of wheat during the Green Revolution of the late 20 th century were achieved through the introduction of Reduced height (Rht) dwarfing genes. The Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 loci ensured short stature by limiting the response to the growth-promoting hormone gibberellin, and are now widespread through international breeding programs. Despite this advantage, interference with the plant's response to gibberellin also triggers adverse effects for a range of important agronomic traits, and consequently modern Green Revolution genes are urgently required. In this study, we revisited the genetic control of wheat height using an association mapping approach and a large panel of 1110 worldwide winter wheat cultivars. This led to the identification of a major Rht locus on chromosome 6A, Rht24, which substantially reduces plant height alone as well as in combination with Rht-1b alleles. Remarkably, behind Rht-D1, Rht24 was the second most important locus for reduced height, explaining 15.0% of the genotypic variance and exerting an allele substitution effect of -8.8 cm. Unlike the two Rht-1b alleles, plants carrying Rht24 remain sensitive to gibberellic acid treatment. Rht24 appears in breeding programs from all countries of origin investigated, with increased frequency over the last decades, indicating that wheat breeders have actively selected for this locus. Taken together, this study reveals Rht24 as an important Rht gene of commercial relevance in worldwide wheat breeding. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Relating Time-Dependent Acceleration and Height Using an Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    A simple experiment in relating a time-dependent linear acceleration function to height is explored through the use of a smartphone and an elevator. Given acceleration as a function of time, a(t), the velocity function and position functions are determined through integration as in v(t)=? a(t) dt (1) and x(t)=? v(t) dt. Mobile devices such as…

  11. Hypohydration Reduces Vertical Ground Reaction Impulse But Not Jump Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    height, provided that muscle contractile function remains normal, because gravitational and inertial resistance to jumping are pro- portional to body...testing, anthropometric and fitness measurements were made to characterize the study population. Peak aerobic power (VO2peak) was determined using an...determinations. All volunteers performed between 3 and 5 practice days of vertical jump testing to reduce training and learning effects. Practice

  12. SOME ASPECTS IN HEIGHT MEASUREMENT BY UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Matsuoka

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We conducted an experiment to investigate the feasibility of the deformation measurement of a large-scale solar power plant on reclaimed land by UAV photogrammetry. Two teams engaged in the experiment at first. One, which is called Team-A, carried out orientation of images following the procedure of conventional aerial photogrammetry. The other, which is called Team-C, executed that in the manner of close range photogrammetry. The RMSE in height measurement by Team-A was 121.5 mm, while that by Team-C was 8.7 mm. This paper reports an analysis conducted in order to investigate the cause of the large difference in height measurement accuracy between Team-A and Team-C. In the analysis the third team, which is called Team-S, conducts supplementary orientation by using the images utilized by Team-A in the same manner as Team-C did. The RMSE in height measurement by Team-S is 19.1 mm. Our investigation focuses on the difference of the arrangement of points utilized in the orientation. Team-A selected pass points and tie points on image automatically by Intergraph’s ImageStation Automatic Triangulation (ISAT software, while Team-C and Team-S selected points to be utilized in orientation manually so that selected points are distributed uniformly in the experiment area. From the results of the analysis we conclude that the sets of tie points along a straight line on a plane that were selected automatically by the ISAT would bring the low accuracy in height measurement by Team-A.

  13. Florovsky at the crossroads: imagining Byzantine Renaissance from Morningside Heights

    OpenAIRE

    Mirkovic, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Georges Florovsky, an influential theologian, came to New York City in 1948 to be dean of the Russian St Vladimir Theological Seminary. At Morningside Heights, Florovsky taught about what went wrong in Russia in 1917 and what needed to be done about it. His ideas prefigure the critique of European Enlightenment and its Orientalism formulated by Edward Said. Florovsky argued that Russia, imitating Western Europe, gave up its own Hellenic heritage of the Church Fathers, and replaced it with the...

  14. Child Height and Maternal Health Care Knowledge in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    Stunting prevalence rates in Mozambique are very high (41 percent), especially in rural areas (46 percent). Recent research shows that consumption growth alone will not be sufficient to solve the problem of malnutrition. To investigate the role of additional determinants I use a two-stage quantil...... of education and community health care facilities in rural areas and positively affect the height of the most severely stunted children...

  15. Shoulder height, body mass and shape of proboscideans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier Larramendi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades there has been a growing interest in proboscideans’ body size, given that mass is highly correlated with biological functions. Different allometric equations have been proposed in the recent decades to estimate their body masses, based on a large number of living examples. However, the results obtained by these formulae are not accurate because extinct animals often had different body proportions and some were outside the size range of extant samples. Here the body mass of a large number of extinct proboscideans has been calculated by the Graphic Double Integration volumetric method which is based on technical restorations from graphical reconstructions of fossils employing photos, measurements and comparative anatomy of extant forms. The method has been tested on extant elephants with highly accurate results. The reconstructions necessary to apply this method give important information such as body proportions. On the other hand, equations to calculate the skeletal shoulder height have been developed, with a large number of published shoulder heights being recalculated. From the shoulder heights, several equations were created to find out the body mass of a series of extant and extinct species. A few of the largest proboscideans, namely Mammut borsoni and Palaeoloxodon namadicus, were found out to have reached and surpassed the body size of the largest indricotheres. Bearing this in mind, the largest land mammal that ever existed seems to be within the order of Proboscidea, contrary to previous understanding.

  16. Aerosol layer height from synergistic use of VIIRS and OMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Hsu, N. Y. C.; Sayer, A. M.; Kim, W.; Seftor, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    This study presents an Aerosol Single-scattering albedo and Height Estimation (ASHE) algorithm, which retrieves the height of UV-absorbing aerosols by synergistically using the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS). ASHE provides height information over a much broader area than ground-based or spaceborne lidar measurements by benefitting from the wide swaths of the two instruments used. As determination of single-scattering albedo (SSA) of the aerosol layer is the most critical part for the performance and coverage of ASHE, here we demonstrate three different strategies to constrain the SSA. First, ASHE is able to retrieve the SSA of UV-absorbing aerosols when Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) provides vertical profiles of the aerosol layer of interest. Second, Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) inversions can directly constrain the SSA of the aerosol layer when collocated with VIIRS or OMPS. Last, a SSA climatology from ASHE, AERONET, or other data sources can be used for large-scale, aged aerosol events, for which climatological SSA is well-known, at the cost of a slight decrease in retrieval accuracy. The same algorithm can be applied to measurements of similar type, such as those made by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), for a long-term, consistent data record.

  17. Ion transition heights from topside electron density profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titheridge, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical electron density profiles are calculated for the topside ionosphere to determine the major factors controlling the profile shape. Only the mean temperature, the vertical temperature gradient and the O + /H + ion transition height are important. Vertical proton fluxes alter the ion transition height but have no other effect on the profile shape. Diffusive equilibrium profiles including only these three effects fit observed profiles, at all latitudes, to within experimental accuracy. Values of plasma temperature, temperature gradient and ion transition height hsub(T) were determined by fitting theoretical models to 60,000 experimental profiles obtained from Alouette 1 ionograms, at latitudes of 75 0 S to 85 0 N near solar minimum. Inside the plasmasphere hsub(T) varies from about 500 km on winter nights to 850 km on summer days. Diurnal variations are caused primarily by the production and loss of O + in the ionosphere. The approximately constant winter night value of hsub(T) is close to the level for chemical equilibrium. In summer hsub(T) is always above the equilibrium level, giving a continual production of protons which travel along lines of force to aid in maintaining the conjugate winter night ionosphere. Outside the plasmasphere hsub(T) is 300 to 600 km above the equilibrium level at all times. This implies a continual near-limiting upwards flux of protons which persists down to latitudes of about 60 0 at night and 50 0 during the day. (author)

  18. Simple overlay device for determining radial head and neck height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Jun-Gyu; Southgate, Richard D.; Fitzsimmons, James S.; O'Driscoll, Shawn W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a simple overlay device can be used on radiographs to measure radial head and neck height. Thirty anteroposterior elbow radiographs from 30 patients with a clinical diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis were examined to measure radial head and neck height. Three methods using different points along the bicipital tuberosity as a landmark were used. Method 1 used the proximal end of the bicipital tuberosity, method 2 used the most prominent point of the bicipital tuberosity, and method 3 used a simple overlay device (SOD) template that was aligned with anatomic reference points. All measurements were performed three times by three observers to determine interobserver and intraobserver reliability. Intraclass correlation coefficients revealed higher interobserver and intraobserver correlations for the SOD template method than for the other two methods. The 95% limits of agreement between observers were markedly better (-1.8 mm to +1.0 mm) for the SOD template method than for the proximal point method (-3.8 mm to +3.4 mm) or the prominent point method (-5.9 mm to +4.9 mm). We found that the SOD template method was reliable for assessing radial head and neck height. It had less variability than other methods, its 95% limit of agreement being less than 2 mm. This method could be helpful for assessing whether or not the insertion of a radial head prosthesis has resulted in over-lengthening of the radius. (orig.)

  19. Simple overlay device for determining radial head and neck height

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Jun-Gyu; Southgate, Richard D.; Fitzsimmons, James S.; O' Driscoll, Shawn W. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2010-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a simple overlay device can be used on radiographs to measure radial head and neck height. Thirty anteroposterior elbow radiographs from 30 patients with a clinical diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis were examined to measure radial head and neck height. Three methods using different points along the bicipital tuberosity as a landmark were used. Method 1 used the proximal end of the bicipital tuberosity, method 2 used the most prominent point of the bicipital tuberosity, and method 3 used a simple overlay device (SOD) template that was aligned with anatomic reference points. All measurements were performed three times by three observers to determine interobserver and intraobserver reliability. Intraclass correlation coefficients revealed higher interobserver and intraobserver correlations for the SOD template method than for the other two methods. The 95% limits of agreement between observers were markedly better (-1.8 mm to +1.0 mm) for the SOD template method than for the proximal point method (-3.8 mm to +3.4 mm) or the prominent point method (-5.9 mm to +4.9 mm). We found that the SOD template method was reliable for assessing radial head and neck height. It had less variability than other methods, its 95% limit of agreement being less than 2 mm. This method could be helpful for assessing whether or not the insertion of a radial head prosthesis has resulted in over-lengthening of the radius. (orig.)

  20. Influence of judoka height when using the seoi nage technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Iberes Lopes Melo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n5p578 Judo techniques use the assumption of maximum efficiency with minimum energy expenditure, which means to try to use the strength of the opponent against himself, causing an imbalance that, associated with a technique, helps execute a throw. This study is aimed to evaluate the mechanical efficiency of the seoi nage technique applied to judokas (uke of different heights in relation to the thrower (tori. The knee and trunk angular variation of tori was compared with the total throw time, the time to perform each phase of the technique, and the behavior and vertical variation of the trajectory of tori’s center of mass (ΔCM. Ten throws using the seoi nage technique on three uke of shorter, equivalent, and taller statures compared to tori were cinematically analyzed. Theimages were recorded at 180 Hz using the Peak Motus System. The data was analyzed by descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and Tukey’s post-hoc (p < 0.05. The tori’s mechanical efficiency was greater when throwing a uke of a stature taller or of his same height, while the total throw time was shorter for a taller uke. The ΔCM of the tori was greater to throw a uke of a shorter stature. The conclusion is that the seoi nage technique is most effective when applied against opponents of heights equal to or taller than the tori.

  1. Process for preparing schottky diode contacts with predetermined barrier heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. Austin; Jan, Chia-Hong; Chen, Chia-Ping

    1996-01-01

    A process is provided for producing a Schottky diode having a preselected barrier height .phi..sub.Bn. The substrate is preferably n-GaAs, the metallic contact is derived from a starting alloy of the Formula [.SIGMA.M.sub..delta. ](Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x) wherein: .SIGMA.M is a moiety which consists of at least one M, and when more than one M is present, each M is different, M is a Group VIII metal selected from the group consisting of nickel, cobalt, ruthenium, rhodium, indium and platinum, .delta. is a stoichiometric coefficient whose total value in any given .SIGMA.M moiety is 1, and x is a positive number between 0 and 1 (that is, x ranges from greater than 0 to less than 1). Also, the starting alloy is capable of forming with the substrate a two phase equilibrium reciprocal system of the binary alloy mixture [.SIGMA.M.sub..delta. ]Ga-[.SIGMA.M.sub..delta. ]Al-AlAs-GaAs. When members of an alloy subclass within this Formula are each preliminarily correlated with the barrier height .phi..sub.Bn of a contact producable therewith, then Schottky diodes of predetermined barrier heights are producable by sputtering and annealing. Further provided are the product Schottky diodes that are produced according to this process.

  2. Information Science: Science or Social Science?

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramana Aithal; Paul P.K.,; Bhuimali A.

    2017-01-01

    Collection, selection, processing, management, and dissemination of information are the main and ultimate role of Information Science and similar studies such as Information Studies, Information Management, Library Science, and Communication Science and so on. However, Information Science deals with some different characteristics than these subjects. Information Science is most interdisciplinary Science combines with so many knowledge clusters and domains. Information Science is a broad disci...

  3. Inverted Polarity Thunderstorms Linked with Elevated Cloud Base Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, K. L.; Williams, E.

    2016-12-01

    The great majority of thunderstorms worldwide exhibit gross positive dipole structure, produce intracloud lightning that reduces this positive dipole (positive intracloud flashes), and produce negative cloud-to-ground lightning from the lower negative end of this dipole. During the STEPS experiment in 2000 much new evidence for thunderstorms (or cells within multi-cellular storms) with inverted polarity came to light, both from balloon soundings of electric field and from LMA analysis. Many of the storms with inverted polarity cells developed in eastern Colorado. Fleenor et al. (2009) followed up after STEPS to document a dominance of positive polarity CG lightning in many of these cases. In the present study, surface thermodynamic observations (temperature and dew point temperature) have been used to estimate the cloud base heights and temperatures at the time of the Fleenor et al. lightning observations. It was found that when more than 90% of the observed CG lightning polarity within a storm is negative, the cloud base heights were low (2000 m AGL or lower, and warmer, with T>10 C), and when more than 90% of the observed CG lightning within a storm was positive, the cloud base heights were high (3000 m AGL or higher, and colder, with Tmixed polarity were generally associated with intermediate cloud base heights. These findings on inverted polarity thunderstorms are remarkably consistent with results in other parts of the world where strong instability prevails in the presence of high cloud base height: the plateau regions of China (Liu et al., 1989; Qie et al., 2005), and in pre-monsoon India (Pawar et al., 2016), particularly when mixed polarity cases are excluded. Calculations of adiabatic cloud water content for lifting from near 0 oC cast some doubt on earlier speculation (Williams et al., 2005) that the graupel particles in these inverted polarity storms attain a wet growth condition, and so exhibit positive charging following laboratory experiments. This

  4. Measuring sea surface height with a GNSS-Wave Glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Maqueda, Miguel Angel; Penna, Nigel T.; Foden, Peter R.; Martin, Ian; Cipollini, Paolo; Williams, Simon D.; Pugh, Jeff P.

    2017-04-01

    A GNSS-Wave Glider is a novel technique to measure sea surface height autonomously using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). It consists of an unmanned surface vehicle manufactured by Liquid Robotics, a Wave Glider, and a geodetic-grade GNSS antenna-receiver system, with the antenna installed on a mast on the vehicle's deck. The Wave Glider uses the differential wave motion through the water column for propulsion, thus guaranteeing an, in principle, indefinite autonomy. Solar energy is collected to power all on-board instrumentation, including the GNSS system. The GNSS-Wave Glider was first tested in Loch Ness in 2013, demonstrating that the technology is capable of mapping geoid heights within the loch with an accuracy of a few centimetres. The trial in Loch Ness did not conclusively confirm the reliability of the technique because, during the tests, the state of the water surface was much more benign than would normally be expect in the open ocean. We now report on a first deployment of a GNSS-Wave Glider in the North Sea. The deployment took place in August 2016 and lasted thirteen days, during which the vehicle covered a distance of about 350 nautical miles in the north western North Sea off Great Britain. During the experiment, the GNSS-Wave Glider experienced sea states between 1 (0-0.1 m wave heights) and 5 (2.5-4 m wave heights). The GNSS-Wave Glider data, recorded at 5 Hz frequency, were analysed using a post-processed kinematic GPS-GLONASS precise point positioning (PPP) approach, which were quality controlled using double difference GPS kinematic processing with respect to onshore reference stations. Filtered with a 900 s moving-average window, the PPP heights reveal geoid patterns in the survey area that are very similar to the EGM2008 geoid model, thus demonstrating the potential use of a GNSS-Wave Glider for marine geoid determination. The residual of subtracting the modelled or measured marine geoid from the PPP signal combines information

  5. The association between height and birth order: evidence from 652 518 Swedish men

    OpenAIRE

    Myrskyla, Mikko; Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Background Birth order is associated with outcomes such as birth weight and adult socioeconomic position (SEP), but little is known about the association with adult height. This potential birth order-height association is important because height predicts health, and because the association may help explain population-level height trends. We studied the birth order-height association and whether it varies by family characteristics or birth cohort. Methods We used the Swedish Military Conscrip...

  6. SRTM Data Release for Eurasia, Index Map and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    landforms place constraints upon land use planning for a great population. Volcanoes in the East Indies, the Philippines, Japan, and the Kamchatka Peninsula form the western part of the 'Ring of Fire' around the Pacific Ocean.Many of these regions were previously very poorly mapped due to persistent cloud cover or the inaccessibility of the terrain. Digital elevation data, such as provided by SRTM, are particularly in high demand by scientists studying earthquakes, volcanism, and erosion patterns for use in mapping and modeling hazards to human habitation. But the shape of Earth's surface affects nearly every natural process and human endeavor that occurs there, so elevation data are used in a wide range of applications.In this index map color-coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. The large, very dark green feature in western Asia is the Caspian Sea, which is below sea level. Blue areas on the map represent water within the mapped tiles, each of which includes shorelines or islands.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena

  7. Diagnostic test of predicted height model in Indonesian elderly: a study in an urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmah Fatmah

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim In an anthropometric assessment, elderly are frequently unable to measure their height due to mobility and skeletal deformities. An alternative is to use a surrogate value of stature from arm span, knee height, and sitting height. The equations developed for predicting height in Indonesian elderly using these three predictors. The equations put in the nutritional assessment card (NSA of older people. Before the card which is the first new technology in Indonesia will be applied in the community, it should be tested. The study aimed was to conduct diagnostic test of predicted height model in the card compared to actual height.Methods Model validation towards 400 healthy elderly conducted in Jakarta City with cross-sectional design. The study was the second validation test of the model besides Depok City representing semi urban area which was undertaken as the first study.Result Male elderly had higher mean age, height, weight, arm span, knee height, and sitting height as compared to female elderly. The highest correlation between knee height and standing height was similar in women (r = 0.80; P < 0.001 and men (r = 0.78; P < 0.001, and followed by arm span and sitting height. Knee height had the lowest difference with standing height in men (3.13 cm and women (2.79 cm. Knee height had the biggest sensitivity (92.2%, and the highest specificity on sitting height (91.2%.Conclusion Stature prediction equation based on knee-height, arm span, and sitting height are applicable for nutritional status assessment in Indonesian elderly. (Med J Indones 2010;19:199-204Key words: diagnostic test, elderly, predicted height model

  8. Spatial inhomogeneous barrier heights at graphene/semiconductor Schottky junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, Dushyant

    Graphene, a semimetal with linear energy dispersion, forms Schottky junction when interfaced with a semiconductor. This dissertation presents temperature dependent current-voltage and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S) measurements performed on graphene Schottky junctions formed with both three and two dimensional semiconductors. To fabricate Schottky junctions, we transfer chemical vapor deposited monolayer graphene onto Si- and C-face SiC, Si, GaAs and MoS2 semiconducting substrates using polymer assisted chemical method. We observe three main type of intrinsic spatial inhomogeneities, graphene ripples, ridges and semiconductor steps in STM imaging that can exist at graphene/semiconductor junctions. Tunneling spectroscopy measurements reveal fluctuations in graphene Dirac point position, which is directly related to the Schottky barrier height. We find a direct correlation of Dirac point variation with the topographic undulations of graphene ripples at the graphene/SiC junction. However, no such correlation is established at graphene/Si and Graphene/GaAs junctions and Dirac point variations are attributed to surface states and trapped charges at the interface. In addition to graphene ripples and ridges, we also observe atomic scale moire patterns at graphene/MoS2 junction due to van der Waals interaction at the interface. Periodic topographic modulations due to moire pattern do not lead to local variation in graphene Dirac point, indicating that moire pattern does not contribute to fluctuations in electronic properties of the heterojunction. We perform temperature dependent current-voltage measurements to investigate the impact of topographic inhomogeneities on electrical properties of the Schottky junctions. We observe temperature dependence in junction parameters, such as Schottky barrier height and ideality factor, for all types of Schottky junctions in forward bias measurements. Standard thermionic emission theory which assumes a perfect

  9. Science of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Santo; Bergstrom, Carl T; Börner, Katy; Evans, James A; Helbing, Dirk; Milojević, Staša; Petersen, Alexander M; Radicchi, Filippo; Sinatra, Roberta; Uzzi, Brian; Vespignani, Alessandro; Waltman, Ludo; Wang, Dashun; Barabási, Albert-László

    2018-03-02

    Identifying fundamental drivers of science and developing predictive models to capture its evolution are instrumental for the design of policies that can improve the scientific enterprise-for example, through enhanced career paths for scientists, better performance evaluation for organizations hosting research, discovery of novel effective funding vehicles, and even identification of promising regions along the scientific frontier. The science of science uses large-scale data on the production of science to search for universal and domain-specific patterns. Here, we review recent developments in this transdisciplinary field. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  10. The linkage between geopotential height and monthly precipitation in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvani, Amin; Fadaei, Amir Sabetan; Landman, Willem A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper investigates the linkage between large-scale atmospheric circulation and monthly precipitation during November to April over Iran. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is used to set up the statistical linkage between the 850 hPa geopotential height large-scale circulation and monthly precipitation over Iran for the period 1968-2010. The monthly precipitation dataset for 50 synoptic stations distributed in different climate regions of Iran is considered as the response variable in the CCA. The monthly geopotential height reanalysis dataset over an area between 10° N and 60° N and from 20° E to 80° E is utilized as the explanatory variable in the CCA. Principal component analysis (PCA) as a pre-filter is used for data reduction for both explanatory and response variables before applying CCA. The optimal number of principal components and canonical variables to be retained in the CCA equations is determined using the highest average cross-validated Kendall's tau value. The 850 hPa geopotential height pattern over the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia, and Persian Gulf is found to be the major pattern related to Iranian monthly precipitation. The Pearson correlation between the area averaged of the observed and predicted precipitation over the study area for Jan, Feb, March, April, November, and December months are statistically significant at the 5% significance level and are 0.78, 0.80, 0.82, 0.74, 0.79, and 0.61, respectively. The relative operating characteristic (ROC) indicates that the highest scores for the above- and below-normal precipitation categories are, respectively, for February and April and the lowest scores found for December.

  11. On the Specification of Smoke Injection Heights for Aerosol Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, A.; Schaefer, C.; Randles, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The proper forecasting of biomass burning (BB) aerosols in global or regional transport models requires not only the specification of emission rates with sufficient temporal resolution but also the injection layers of such emissions. While current near realtime biomass burning inventories such as GFAS, QFED, FINN, GBBEP and FLAMBE provide such emission rates, it is left for each modeling system to come up with its own scheme for distributing these emissions in the vertical. A number of operational aerosol forecasting models deposits BB emissions in the near surface model layers, relying on the model's parameterization of turbulent and convective transport to determine the vertical mass distribution of BB aerosols. Despite their simplicity such schemes have been relatively successful reproducing the vertical structure of BB aerosols, except for those large fires that produce enough buoyancy to puncture the PBL and deposit the smoke at higher layers. Plume Rise models such as the so-called 'Freitas model', parameterize this sub-grid buoyancy effect, but require the specification of fire size and heat fluxes, none of which is readily available in near real-time from current remotely-sensed products. In this talk we will introduce a bayesian algorithm for estimating file size and heat fluxes from MODIS brightness temperatures. For small to moderate fires the Freitas model driven by these heat flux estimates produces plume tops that are highly correlated with the GEOS-5 model estimate of PBL height. Comparison to MINX plume height estimates from MISR indicates moderate skill of this scheme predicting the injection height of large fires. As an alternative, we make use of OMPS UV aerosol index data in combination with estimates of Overshooting Convective Tops (from MODIS and Geo-stationary satellites) to detect PyCu events and specify the BB emission vertical mass distribution in such cases. We will present a discussion of case studies during the SEAC4RS field campaign in

  12. An Apple II -based bidimensional pulse height analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Flesher, A.C.; Honeyman, R.N.; Pritchard, T.E.; Price, W.P.R.

    1984-06-01

    The implementation of a pulse height analyser function in an Apple II microcomputer using minimal purpose built hardware is described. Except for a small interface module the system consists of two suites of software, one giving a conventional one dimensional analysis on a span of 1024 channels, and the other a two dimensional analysis on a 128 x 128 image format. Using the recently introduced ACCELERATOR coprocessor card the system performs with a dead time per event of less than 50 μS. Full software facilities are provided for display, storage and processing of the data using standard Applesoft BASIC. (author)

  13. Apparent Barrier Height in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, L.; Brandbyge, Mads; Sørensen, Mads Reinholdt

    1996-01-01

    The apparent barrier height phi(ap), that is, the rate of change of the logarithm of the conductance with tip-sample separation in a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), has been measured for Ni, Pt, and Au single crystal surfaces. The results show that phi(ap) is constant until point contact...... is reached rather than decreasing at small tunneling gap distances, as previously reported. The findings for phi(ap) can be accounted for theoretically by including the relaxations of the tip-surface junction in an STM due to the strong adhesive forces at close proximity. These relaxation effects are shown...

  14. Drift chamber and pulse height readout systems using analog multiplexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisneros, E.L; Kang, H.K.; Hall, J.N.; Larsen, R.S.

    1976-11-01

    Drift chamber and pulse-height readout systems are being developed for use in a new large scale detector at the SPEAR colliding beam facility. The systems are based upon 32 channels of sample-and-hold together with an analog multiplexer in a single-width CAMAC module. The modules within each crate are scanned by an autonomous controller containing a single ADC and memory plus arithmetic capability for offset, gain and linearity corrections. The drift chamber module has a facility for extracting hit wire information for use in trigger decision circuitry

  15. Assessing Eruption Column Height in Ancient Flood Basalt Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Self, Stephen; Schmidt, Anja; Hunter, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    A buoyant plume model is used to explore the ability of flood basalt eruptions to inject climate-relevant gases into the stratosphere. An example from the 1986 Izu-Oshima basaltic fissure eruption validates the model's ability to reproduce the observed maximum plume heights of 12-16 km above sea level, sustained above fire-fountains. The model predicts maximum plume heights of 13-17 km for source widths of between 4-16 m when 32% (by mass) of the erupted magma is fragmented and involved in the buoyant plume (effective volatile content of 6 wt%). Assuming that the Miocene-age Roza eruption (part of the Columbia River Basalt Group) sustained fire-fountains of similar height to Izu-Oshima (1.6 km above the vent), we show that the Roza eruption could have sustained buoyant ash and gas plumes that extended into the stratosphere at approximately 45 deg N. Assuming 5 km long active fissure segments and 9000 Mt of SO2 released during explosive phases over a 10-15 year duration, the approximately 180 km of known Roza fissure length could have supported approximately 36 explosive events/phases, each with a duration of 3-4 days. Each 5 km fissure segment could have emitted 62 Mt of SO2 per day into the stratosphere while actively fountaining, the equivalent of about three 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruptions per day. Each fissure segment could have had one to several vents, which subsequently produced lava without significant fountaining for a longer period within the decades-long eruption. Sensitivity of plume rise height to ancient atmospheric conditions is explored. Although eruptions in the Deccan Traps (approximately 66 Ma) may have generated buoyant plumes that rose to altitudes in excess of 18 km, they may not have reached the stratosphere because the tropopause was substantially higher in the late Cretaceous. Our results indicate that some flood basalt eruptions, such as Roza, were capable of repeatedly injecting large masses of SO2 into the stratosphere. Thus sustained

  16. Multiple height calibration artefact for 3D microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Carli, Lorenzo; Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer

    2011-01-01

    A novel artefact for calibration of the height in 3D microscopy is presented. The artefact comprises three steps having a common vertical axis, which allows z-coordinate calibration at different magnifications without requiring repositioning. The artefact is suitable for transferring traceability...... to 3D techniques at the micrometer and nanometer scale, e.g. 3D SEM, confocal microscopes etc. Two different series of samples were fabricated using EDM with three steps of 2–5–7μm, and 20–50–70μm, respectively, from a 3mm diameter carbide wire. The artefact steps were calibrated on a stylus instrument...

  17. Search Trees with Relaxed Balance and Near-Optimal Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerberg, Rolf; Jensen, Rune E.; Larsen, Kim Skak

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a relaxed k-tree, a search tree with relaxed balance and a height bound, when in balance, of (1+epsilon)log_2 n + 1, for any epsilon > 0. The number of nodes involved in rebalancing is O(1/epsilon) per update in the amortized sense, and O(log n/epsilon) in the worst case sense. This ...... constant rebalancing, which is an improvement over the current definition. World Wide Web search engines are possible applications for this line of work....

  18. Research on digital multi-channel pulse height analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Wuyun; Wei Yixiang; Ai Xianyun; Ao Qi

    2005-01-01

    Multi-channel pulse height analysis techniques are developing in the direction of digitalization. Based on digital signal processing techniques, digital multi-channel analyzers are characterized by powerful pulse processing ability, high throughput, improved stability and flexibility. This paper analyzes key techniques of digital nuclear pulse processing. With MATLAB software, main algorithms are simulated, such as trapezoidal shaping, digital baseline estimation, digital pole-zero/zero-pole compensation, poles and zeros identification. The preliminary general scheme of digital MCA is discussed, as well as some other important techniques about its engineering design. All these lay the foundation of developing homemade digital nuclear spectrometers. (authors)

  19. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Florian Luca1 Igor E Shparlinski2. Instituto de Matemáticas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, C.P. 58089, Morelia, Michoacán, México; Department of Computing, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia ...

  20. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On a problem of Pillai with Fibonacci numbers and powers of 2 · MAHADI DDAMULIRA FLORIAN LUCA MIHAJA RAKOTOMALALA · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. In this paper, we find all integers c having at least two representations as a difference between a Fibonacci number and a power of 2. pp 423-430 Research ...

  1. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Fibonacci numbers; Lucas numbers; diophantine equations. Abstract. In this paper, we consider the equation x 2 − L n x y + ( − 1 ) n y 2 = ± 5 r and determine the values of for which the equation has positive integer solutions and . Moreover, we give all positive integer solutions of the equation x 2 − L n x y + ...

  2. Science Smiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Science Smiles. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 4 April 1996 pp 4-4 Science Smiles. Chief Editor's column / Science Smiles · R K Laxman · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 3-3 Science Smiles.

  3. Anterior Face Height Values in a Nigerian Population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-11

    Dec 11, 2012 ... Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Oct-Dec 2013 | Vol 3 | Issue 4 |. 583. Address for ... measurements were recorded, summarized, and statistically analyzed using the Microsoft ..... Microsoft Office 2000. 17.

  4. Wind‐gust parametrizations at heights relevant for wind energy: a study based on mast observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suomi, I.; Vihma, T.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Wind gusts are traditionally observed and reported at the reference height of 10 m and most gust parametrization methods have been developed only for this height. In many practical applications, e.g. in wind energy, the relevant heights are, however, up to a few hundred metres. In this study, mean...... speed, which is parametrized on the basis of the surface friction velocity, the Obukhov length and height and the boundary‐layer height. The new gust parametrization method outperformed the two older methods: the effects of surface roughness, stability and the height above the surface were well...

  5. Influence of Froth Height on Column Flotation of Kaolin Ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pita

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the froth height in the reverse flotation of kaolinitic ore was analyzed based on the recovery by entrainment and by true flotation of iron, titanium and manganese oxides (FeO, TiO2 and MnO. Also, the influence of the particle size in the drainage process was analyzed. The recovery by entrainment and by true flotation of the three oxides is inversely proportional to the froth height. The entrained particles are drained more easily in the froth phase than the floated particles since they are not attached to the bubbles. The recovery by entrainment and drainage of the entrained material is similar for the three oxides. However, the recovery by true flotation and drainage of the floated material is different for the three oxides. FeO has the lowest recovery, as a consequence of the minor contribution of its hydrophobic minerals, while MnO has the greatest recovery values. For the entrained material, the finest fraction is entrained more easily, but it is also drained more easily, meaning these particles have more mobility in the froth zone. For the true floated material, the finest fraction is drained more easily, indicating the greater mobility of these particles in the froth; however, the coarsest fraction is drained more easily than the two intermediate fractions, indicating the weaker attachment of the larger particles to the bubbles.

  6. Height drift correction in non-raster atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Travis R. [Department of Mathematics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ziegler, Dominik [Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brune, Christoph [Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics, University of Münster (Germany); Chen, Alex [Statistical and Applied Mathematical Sciences Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Farnham, Rodrigo; Huynh, Nen; Chang, Jen-Mei [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, California State University Long Beach, Long Beach, CA 90840 (United States); Bertozzi, Andrea L., E-mail: bertozzi@math.ucla.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ashby, Paul D., E-mail: pdashby@lbl.gov [Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    We propose a novel method to detect and correct drift in non-raster scanning probe microscopy. In conventional raster scanning drift is usually corrected by subtracting a fitted polynomial from each scan line, but sample tilt or large topographic features can result in severe artifacts. Our method uses self-intersecting scan paths to distinguish drift from topographic features. Observing the height differences when passing the same position at different times enables the reconstruction of a continuous function of drift. We show that a small number of self-intersections is adequate for automatic and reliable drift correction. Additionally, we introduce a fitness function which provides a quantitative measure of drift correctability for any arbitrary scan shape. - Highlights: • We propose a novel height drift correction method for non-raster SPM. • Self-intersecting scans enable the distinction of drift from topographic features. • Unlike conventional techniques our method is unsupervised and tilt-invariant. • We introduce a fitness measure to quantify correctability for general scan paths.

  7. Size matters: Perceived depth magnitude varies with stimulus height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, Inna; Wilcox, Laurie M; Allison, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Both the upper and lower disparity limits for stereopsis vary with the size of the targets. Recently, Tsirlin, Wilcox, and Allison (2012) suggested that perceived depth magnitude from stereopsis might also depend on the vertical extent of a stimulus. To test this hypothesis we compared apparent depth in small discs to depth in long bars with equivalent width and disparity. We used three estimation techniques: a virtual ruler, a touch-sensor (for haptic estimates) and a disparity probe. We found that depth estimates were significantly larger for the bar stimuli than for the disc stimuli for all methods of estimation and different configurations. In a second experiment, we measured perceived depth as a function of the height of the bar and the radius of the disc. Perceived depth increased with increasing bar height and disc radius suggesting that disparity is integrated along the vertical edges. We discuss size-disparity correlation and inter-neural excitatory connections as potential mechanisms that could account for these results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mixing height determination using remote sensing systems. General remarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyrich, F. [BTU Cottbus, LS Umweltmeteorologie, Cottbus (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    Remote sensing systems can be considered today as a real alternative to classical soundings with respect to the MH (mixing height) determination. They have the basic advantage to allow continuous monitoring of the ABL (atmospheric boundary layer). Some technical issues which limit their operational use at present should be solved in the near future (frequency allocation, eye safety, costs). Taking into account specific operating conditions and the formulated-above requirements of a sounding system to be used for MH determination it becomes obvious that none of the available systems meets all of them, i.e., the `Mixing height-meter` does not exist. Therefore, reliable MH determination under a wide variety of conditions can be achieved only by integrating different instruments into a complex sounding system. The S-profiles provide a suitable data base for MH estimation from all types of remote sensing instruments. The criteria to deduce MH-values from these profiles should consider the structure type and the evolution stage of the ABL as well as the shape of the profiles. A certain kind of harmonization concerning these criteria should be achieved. MH values derived automatically from remote sensing data appear to be not yet reliable enough for direct operational use, they should be in any case critically examined by a trained analyst. Contemporary mathematical methods (wavelet transforms, fuzzy logics) are supposed to allow considerable progress in this field in the near future. (au) 19 refs.

  9. Plantar Pressure Variation during Jogging with Different Heel Height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the key testing and analysis results of an investigation on the effect of heel height on the plantar pressure over different foot areas in jogging. It is important in improving the understanding of jogging with high heels and damage/injury prevention. It can also potentially guide the development of suitable/adaptive exercise schemes in between daily activities with high heels. In this work, plantar pressure data were collected from 10 habituated healthy female subjects (aged 21–25 years at their natural jogging speed with three different conditions: flat heeled shoes (0.8 cm, low heeled shoes (4.0 cm, and high heeled shoes (6.6 cm. Data analysis showed significantly differences in plantar pressure distribution associated with the heel heights with increased pressure in the first metatarsal region and decreased pressure in the lateral metatarsal and midfoot sections. However, there is no significant alteration of plantar pressure in the central area of the forefoot with jogging gait.

  10. The reliability of four widely used patellar height ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijvenbode, Dennis; Stavenuiter, Michel; Burger, Bart; van Dijke, Cees; Spermon, Jacco; Hoozemans, Marco

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the inter-observer reliability and the intra-observer reliability of four patellar height ratios: Insall-Salvati (IS), modified Insall-Salvati (MIS), Blackburne-Peel (BP) and Caton-Deschamps (CD). The patellar height ratios were assessed by four independent examiners using weight-bearing lateral knee radiographs in 30° flexion. Intra-class correlation coefficients and Fleiss' kappa's were determined. The inter-observer reliability was excellent for the IS and moderate for the other ratios. When the ratio values were categorized, the inter-observer reliability was strong for the IS, moderate for the MIS and BP, and poor for the CD. The intra-observer reliability was excellent for the IS, MIS and CD, and strong for the BP. When the ratio values were categorized, the intra-observer reliability was strong for the IS and MIS, and moderate for the other ratios. Although the IS showed best reliability, we advise to use the MIS as it showed the second best reliability but is, according to the literature, associated with better validity.

  11. Science or Science Fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefsrud, Lianne M.; Meyer, Renate

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the framings and identity work associated with professionals’ discursive construction of climate change science, their legitimation of themselves as experts on ‘the truth’, and their attitudes towards regulatory measures. Drawing from survey responses of 1077 professional......, legitimation strategies, and use of emotionality and metaphor. By linking notions of the science or science fiction of climate change to the assessment of the adequacy of global and local policies and of potential organizational responses, we contribute to the understanding of ‘defensive institutional work...

  12. Integrating Hands-On Undergraduate Research in an Applied Spatial Science Senior Level Capstone Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhavy, David L.; Unger, Daniel R.; Hung, I-Kuai; Douglass, David

    2015-01-01

    A senior within a spatial science Ecological Planning capstone course designed an undergraduate research project to increase his spatial science expertise and to assess the hands-on instruction methodology employed within the Bachelor of Science in Spatial Science program at Stephen F Austin State University. The height of 30 building features…

  13. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined.

  14. Do centimetres matter? Self-reported versus estimated height measurements in parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzi, T; Flück, Ce; L'allemand, D; Dattani, M T; Hindmarsh, P C; Mullis, P E

    2010-04-01

    An impressive discrepancy between reported and measured parental height is often observed. The aims of this study were: (a) to assess whether there is a significant difference between the reported and measured parental height; (b) to focus on the reported and, thereafter, measured height of the partner; (c) to analyse its impact on the calculated target height range. A total of 1542 individual parents were enrolled. The parents were subdivided into three groups: normal height (3-97th Centile), short (97%) stature. Overall, compared with men, women were far better in estimating their own height (p Women of normal stature underestimated the short partner and overestimated the tall partner, whereas male partners of normal stature overestimated both their short as well as tall partners. Women of tall stature estimated the heights of their short partners correctly, whereas heights of normal statured men were underestimated. On the other hand, tall men overestimated the heights of their female partners who are of normal and short stature. Furthermore, women of short stature estimated the partners of normal stature adequately, and the heights of their tall partners were overestimated. Interestingly, the short men significantly underestimated the normal, but overestimated tall female partners. Only measured heights should be used to perform accurate evaluations of height, particularly when diagnostic tests or treatment interventions are contemplated. For clinical trails, we suggest that only quality measured parental heights are acceptable, as the errors incurred in estimates may enhance/conceal true treatment effects.

  15. The Analysis of Height System Definition and the High Precision GNSS Replacing Leveling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Chuanyin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the definition of height system, the gravitational equipotential property of height datum surface is discussed in this paper, differences of the heights at ground points that defined in different height systems are tested and analyzed as well. A new method for replacing leveling using GNSS is proposed to ensure the consistency between GNSS replacing leveling and spirit leveling at mm accuracy level. The main conclusions include:①For determining normal height at centimeter accuracy level, the datum surface of normal height should be the geoid. The 1985 national height datum of China adopts normal height system, its datum surface is the geoid passing the Qingdao zero point.②The surface of equi-orthometric height in the near earth space is parallel to the geoid. The combination of GNSS precise positioning and geoid model can be directly used for orthometric height determination. However, the normal height system is more advantageous for describing the terrain and relief.③Based on the proposed method of GNSS replacing leveling, the errors in geodetic height affect more on normal height result than the errors of geoid model, the former is about 1.5 times of the latter.

  16. Diaphragmatic height index: new diagnostic test for phrenic nerve dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornrattanamaneewong, Chaturong; Limthongthang, Roongsak; Vathana, Torpon; Kaewpornsawan, Kamolporn; Songcharoen, Panupan; Wongtrakul, Saichol

    2012-11-01

    The diaphragmatic height index (DHI) was developed to measure the difference in diaphragm levels. The purpose of this study was to set definite DHI values and test the accuracy of these values for use as a new diagnostic test for phrenic nerve dysfunction. All data for this study were obtained from medical charts and retrospectively reviewed. One hundred sixty-five patients with brachial plexus injury who had undergone nerve transfers between 2005 and 2008 were divided into Groups A and B. Group A consisted of 40 patients (mean age 28.0 years) who had sustained concomitant injury of the brachial plexus and phrenic nerves. Patients in Group A1 had right phrenic nerve injury and those in Group A2 had left phrenic nerve injury. Intraoperative direct electrical stimulation of the phrenic nerve was considered the gold standard in assessing nerve function in all patients with brachial plexus injury. Group B consisted of 125 patients (mean age 28.7 years) with brachial plexus injury and normal phrenic nerve function. Group C, the control group, consisted of 80 patients with nonbrachial plexus injury (mean age 34.0 years) who had undergone other kinds of orthopedic operations between April and June 2009. Standard posteroanterior chest radiographs were blindly interpreted using the Siriraj inhouse picture archiving and communication system in all 245 patients in the study. First, a reference line (R line) was drawn along the inferior endplate of T-10. Then, 2 lines (lines A and B) were drawn through the highest point of each diaphragm and parallel to the R line. The difference between these 2 lines divided by the height of T-10 was defined as the DHI. The cutoff points of the DHI for diagnosing right and left phrenic nerve dysfunction were analyzed with a receiver operating characteristic curve. The accuracy of these DHI values was then evaluated. The DHI in Group C was 0.64 ± 0.44, slightly higher than the DHI in Group B, with no significant difference. Diaphragmatic

  17. Arm-associated measurements as estimates of true height in black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    arm-associated measurements to true height included that of the World Health ... Conclusion: Findings indicate the need for gender and race-specific height estimation ..... New. York, NY: Springer; 2012. 12. Golshan M, Amra B, Hoghoghi MA.

  18. Effect of Additional Structure on Effective Stack Height of Gas Dispersion in Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Takenobu Michioka; Koichi Sada; Kazuki Okabayashi

    2016-01-01

    Wind-tunnel experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of additional structure (building, sea wall and banking) on the effective stack height, which is usually used in safety analyses of nuclear power facilities in Japan. The effective stack heights were estimated with and without the additional structure in addition to the reactor building while varying several conditions such as the source height, the height of additional structure and the distance between the source position and the...

  19. Adaptive jump barrier height in Monte Carlo configuration kinetics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Martin; Pfeiler, Wolfgang; Pueschl, Wolfgang [Dynamics of Condensed Systems, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Strudlhofgasse 4, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Vogtenhuber, Doris [Computational Materials Science, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Sensengasse 8, A-1090 Wien (Austria)

    2008-07-01

    In usual MC simulations of configuration kinetics atom jump probabilities are calculated from energies of the initial and/or final bound states of the moving atom, leaving aside the exact energy of the intermediate saddle point state. This energy may however be critically influenced by the local atomic environment. We propose a strategy to explicitly take account of this influence. The basis is ab initio calculation of representative jump paths in the framework of the nudged elastic band method. From these results, an influence function is derived which modifies the energy of the saddle point and therefore the effective jump barrier height as calculated from the initial and final states according to a cluster expansion scheme. The overall effect is demonstrated on the NiAl system.

  20. Determination of equivalent mixing height and atmospheric stability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Bulko, M.; Holy, K.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric stability is an indicator that reflects the intensity of boundary layer mixing processes. This feature of the atmosphere is especially important since it defines dispersive atmospheric conditions and provides information on how effectively the anthropogenic pollution will be transferred to the higher levels of the atmosphere. The assessment of atmospheric dispersiveness plays a crucial role in the protection of air quality and public health in big cities. The presented paper deals with determination of atmospheric stability via so called Equivalent Mixing Height (EMH) quantity using a radioactive noble gas 222 Rn. A method of deriving a link between 222 Rn activity concentration, eddy diffusion coefficient and EMH using fluid mechanics is also outlined in this work. (authors)