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Sample records for lte mutant shows

  1. Adaptively evolved yeast mutants on galactose show trade-offs in carbon utilization on glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Kuk-Ki; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    the molecular mechanisms. In this study, adaptively evolved yeast mutants with improved galactose utilization ability showed impaired glucose utilization. The molecular genetic basis of this trade-off was investigated using a systems biology approach. Transcriptional and metabolic changes resulting from...... the improvement of galactose utilization were found maintained during growth on glucose. Moreover, glucose repression related genes showed conserved expression patterns during growth on both sugars. Mutations in the RAS2 gene that were identified as beneficial for galactose utilization in evolved mutants...

  2. LTE UE Power Consumption Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Riis; Lauridsen, Mads; Mogensen, Preben

    2012-01-01

    is based on a review of the major power consuming parts in an LTE UE radio modem. The model includes functions of UL and DL power and data rate. Measurements on a commercial LTE USB dongle were used to assign realistic power consumption values to each model parameter. Verification measurements......In this work a novel LTE user equipment (UE) power consumption model is presented. It was developed for LTE system level optimization, because it is important to understand how network settings like scheduling of resources and transmit power control affect the UE’s battery life. The proposed model...... on the dongle show that the model results in an average error of 2.6%. The measurements show that UL transmit power and DL data rate determines the overall power consumption, while UL data rate and DL receive power have smaller impact....

  3. Electron temperature determination in LTE and non-LTE plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.

    1983-01-01

    This article discusses how most experimental investigations assume a type of ''thermal equilibrium'' in which the excited levels are assumed to be populated according to the electron kinetic temperature, in the determination of electron temperature in LTE and non-LTE plasmas. This is justified on the basis that electron collisions dominate the equilibration of adjacent excited levels as shown by Byron, Stabler and Boartz. The comparison of temperature values calculated by various common methods as a check for local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTDE) or local thermal equilibrium (LTE) of the upper excited levels and the free electrons has been shown to indicate the excitation temperature in all cases utilized. Thomas shows that the source function of the first excited level may be dominated by non-local radiation, which would usually result in a different population than local collisional excitation would provide. Ionization from upper levels is by collisional means. The result may yield different valued excitation and electron temperatures

  4. The characteristics and stability of a range of Cox's Orange Pippin apple mutants showing different growth habits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacey, C.N.D.; Campbell, A.I.

    1979-01-01

    Seven hundred and fifty gamma-irradiated scions of Cox's Orange Pippin apple were grown to produce a V 1 generation and were then multiplied to produce a V 2 of 13158 individual trees. 272 obvious vegetative mutants, mainly dwarf or compact types, were found in this population and classified according to growth habit. These were propagated to produce clones of the mutant types (V 3 ) and a study of these clonal mutants as compared with their original (V 2 ) characteristics showed that while the vast majority of the selected mutants produced dwarf or compact clones, no clear indication of final cropping performance could be drawn from the original phenotype of the selected V 2 mutants. The majority of mutants produced were not of commercial value, and the main reasons for the rejection of V 3 clones depended, in many cases, on the phenotype of the V 2 selection. Thus while all types of V 2 mutant produced approximately the same proportion of acceptable trees, the reason for the rejection of the V 3 clones varies with the V 2 phenotype. Therefore selection can be carried out at an early stage in a mutation breeding programme to reduce the proportion of certain unwanted types such as mericlinal chimaeras as that otherwise are carried forward to yield trials. From the orchard trials of 82 mutant clones. 24 were short-listed for possible commercial introduction. All were derived from the less extreme mutant types. (Auth.)

  5. A herbicide-resistant ACCase 1781 Setaria mutant shows higher fitness than wild type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T; Picard, J C; Tian, X; Darmency, H

    2010-10-01

    It is often alleged that mutations conferring herbicide resistance have a negative impact on plant fitness. A mutant ACCase1781 allele endowing resistance to the sethoxydim herbicide was introgressed from a resistant green foxtail (Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv) population into foxtail millet (S. italica (L.) Beauv.). (1) Better and earlier growth of resistant plants was observed in a greenhouse cabinet. (2) Resistant plants of the advanced BC7 backcross generation showed more vigorous juvenile growth in the field, earlier flowering, more tillers and higher numbers of grains than susceptible plants did, especially when both genotypes were grown in mixture, but their seeds were lighter than susceptible seeds. (3) Field populations originating from segregating hybrids had the expected allele frequencies under normal growth conditions, but showed a genotype shift toward an excess of homozygous resistant plants within 3 years in stressful conditions. Lower seed size, lower germination rate and perhaps unexplored differences in seed longevity and predation could explain how the resistant plants have the same field fitness over the whole life cycle as the susceptible ones although they produce more seeds. More rapid growth kinetics probably accounted for higher fitness of the resistant plants in adverse conditions. The likelihood of a linkage with a beneficial gene is discussed versus the hypothesis of a pleiotropic effect of the ACCase resistance allele. It is suggested that autogamous species like Setaria could not develop a resistant population without the help of a linkage with a gene producing a higher fitness.

  6. Spirogyra varians mutant generated by high dose gamma-irradiation shows increased antioxidant properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hak-Jyung; Yoon, Minchul; Sung, Nak-Yun; Choi, Jong-il

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of a Spirogyra varians mutant (Mut) produced by gamma irradiation. Methanol extracts were prepared from Spirogyra varians wild-type and Mut plants, and their antioxidant activities and total phenolic content (TPC) were determined. Antioxidant parameters, including the 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ferric-reducing/antioxidant power, were higher in the Mut extract. Moreover, the TPC level was higher (P<0.05) in the Mut methanol extract. Therefore, these results suggest that gamma irradiation-induced S. varians Mut has superior antioxidant properties. - Highlights: ► The antioxidative properties of a Spirogyra varians mutant produced by gamma-irradiation was investiated. ► The antioxidant activities and total phenolic content levels were higher in mutant strain. ► These results suggest that gamma-irradiation induced algae mutant with superior antioxidant properties.

  7. Radio protocols for LTE and LTE-advanced

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, SeungJune; Lee, YoungDae; Park, SungJun; Jung, SungHoon

    2012-01-01

    Provides a unique focus on radio protocols for LTE and LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) Giving readers a valuable understanding of LTE radio protocols, this book covers LTE (Long-Term Evolution) Layer 2/3 radio protocols as well as new features including LTE-Advanced. It is divided into two sections to differentiate between the two technologies' characteristics. The authors systematically explain the design principles and functions of LTE radio protocols during the development of mobile handsets. The book also provides essential knowledge on the interaction between mobile networks a

  8. Handoff mechanisms in LTE networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Preeti; Yamini, Vidhu; Mohammed, V. Noor

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we have analysed and studied the handoff mechanism in Long Term Evaluation (LTE) network. A LTE network has been defined with a set number of macro-cells, micro-cells and mobile devices. In this handoff mechanism distance and speed has been considered as an important parameters. The speed has been detected using the Gauss Markov Mobility Model, and from that distances have been predicted at different instances. In the handover process, Received Signal Power (RSP) for various users has been calculated with respect to base stations at various time intervals and the path loss between transmitter and receiver. A comparative study between path loss models is done in order to improve the signal power. A detailed study has been done on unnecessary handoff probability and handoff failure probability. Simulation results shows that there is an improvement in performance of the above mentioned parameters in the defined network.

  9. The continuous UV flux of alpha lyrae: NON-LTE results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snijders, M.A.J.

    1977-01-01

    Non--LTE calculations for the ultraviolet C I and Si I continuous opacity show that LTE results overestimate the importance of these sources of opacity and underestimate the emergent flux in α Lyr. The largest errors occur between 1100 and 1160 A where the predicted flux in non--LTE is as much as 50 times larger than in LTE, in reasonable accord with Copernicus observations.The discrepancy between LTE models and observations has been interpreted by Praderie et al. to result from the existence of a chromosphere. Until a self--consistent non-LTE model atmosphere becomes available, such an interpretation is premature

  10. The continuous UV flux of Alpha Lyrae - Non-LTE results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, M. A. J.

    1977-01-01

    Non-LTE calculations for the ultraviolet C I and Si I continuous opacity show that LTE results overestimate the importance of these sources of opacity and underestimate the emergent flux in Alpha Lyr. The largest errors occur between 1100 and 1160 A, where the predicted flux in non-LTE is as much as 50 times larger than in LTE, in reasonable accord with Copernicus observations. The discrepancy between LTE models and observations has been interpreted to result from the existence of a chromosphere. Until a self-consistent non-LTE model atmosphere becomes available, such an interpretation is premature.

  11. X-ray survival characteristics and genetic analysis for nine saccharomyces deletion mutants that show altered radiation sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Game, John C.; Williamson, Marsha S.; Baccari, Clelia

    2004-01-07

    The availability of a genome-wide set of Saccharomyces deletion mutants provides a chance to identify all the yeast genes involved in DNA repair. Using X-rays, we are screening these mutants to identify additional genes that show increased sensitivity to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation. For each mutant identified as sensitive, we are confirming that the sensitivity phenotype co-segregates with the deletion allele and are obtaining multipoint survival-versus-dose assays in at least two haploid and one homozygous diploid strains. We present data for deletion mutants involving the genes DOT1, MDM20, NAT3, SPT7, SPT20, GCN5, HFI1, DCC1 and VID21/EAF1, and discuss their potential roles in repair. Eight of these genes have a clear radiation-sensitive phenotype when deleted, but the ninth, GCN5, has at most a borderline phenotype. None of the deletions confer substantial sensitivity to ultra-violet radiation, although one or two may confer marginal sensitivity. The DOT1 gene is of interest because its only known function is to methylate one lysine residue in the core of the histone H3 protein. We find that histone H3 mutants (supplied by K. Struhl) in which this residue is replaced by other amino-acids are also X-ray sensitive, seeming to confirm that methylation of the lysine-79 residue is required for effective repair of radiation damage.

  12. MIMO Technologies in 3GPP LTE and LTE-Advanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianzhong(Charlie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP has recently completed the specification of the Long Term Evolution (LTE standard. Majority of the world's operators and vendors are already committed to LTE deployments and developments, making LTE the market leader in the upcoming evolution to 4G wireless communication systems. Multiple input multiple output (MIMO technologies introduced in LTE such as spatial multiplexing, transmit diversity, and beamforming are key components for providing higher peak rate at a better system efficiency, which are essential for supporting future broadband data service over wireless links. Further extension of LTE MIMO technologies is being studied under the 3GPP study item "LTE-Advanced" to meet the requirement of IMT-Advanced set by International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R. In this paper, we introduce various MIMO technologies employed in LTE and provide a brief overview on the MIMO technologies currently discussed in the LTE-Advanced forum.

  13. An Mcm10 Mutant Defective in ssDNA Binding Shows Defects in DNA Replication Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Arnaiz, Patricia; Kaplan, Daniel L

    2016-11-20

    Mcm10 is an essential protein that functions to initiate DNA replication after the formation of the replication fork helicase. In this manuscript, we identified a budding yeast Mcm10 mutant (Mcm10-m2,3,4) that is defective in DNA binding in vitro. Moreover, this Mcm10-m2,3,4 mutant does not stimulate the phosphorylation of Mcm2 by Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) in vitro. When we expressed wild-type levels of mcm10-m2,3,4 in budding yeast cells, we observed a severe growth defect and a substantially decreased DNA replication. We also observed a substantially reduced replication protein A- chromatin immunoprecipitation signal at origins of replication, reduced levels of DDK-phosphorylated Mcm2, and diminished Go, Ichi, Ni, and San (GINS) association with Mcm2-7 in vivo. mcm5-bob1 bypasses the growth defect conferred by DDK-phosphodead Mcm2 in budding yeast. However, the growth defect observed by expressing mcm10-m2,3,4 is not bypassed by the mcm5-bob1 mutation. Furthermore, origin melting and GINS association with Mcm2-7 are substantially decreased for cells expressing mcm10-m2,3,4 in the mcm5-bob1 background. Thus, the origin melting and GINS-Mcm2-7 interaction defects we observed for mcm10-m2,3,4 are not explained by decreased Mcm2 phosphorylation by DDK, since the defects persist in an mcm5-bob1 background. These data suggest that DNA binding by Mcm10 is essential for the initiation of DNA replication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Sordaria macrospora mutant lacking the leu1 gene shows a developmental arrest during fruiting body formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kück, Ulrich

    2005-10-01

    Developmental mutants with defects in fruiting body formation are excellent resources for the identification of genetic components that control cellular differentiation processes in filamentous fungi. The mutant pro4 of the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora is characterized by a developmental arrest during the sexual life cycle. This mutant generates only pre-fruiting bodies (protoperithecia), and is unable to form ascospores. Besides being sterile, pro4 is auxotrophic for leucine. Ascospore analysis revealed that the two phenotypes are genetically linked. After isolation of the wild-type leu1 gene from S. macrospora, complementation experiments demonstrated that the gene was able to restore both prototrophy and fertility in pro4. To investigate the control of leu1 expression, other genes involved in leucine biosynthesis specifically and in the general control of amino acid biosynthesis ("cross-pathway control") have been analysed using Northern hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR. These analyses demonstrated that genes of leucine biosynthesis are transcribed at higher levels under conditions of amino acid starvation. In addition, the expression data for the cpc1 and cpc2 genes indicate that cross-pathway control is superimposed on leucine-specific regulation of fruiting body development in the leu1 mutant. This was further substantiated by growth experiments in which the wild-type strain was found to show a sterile phenotype when grown on a medium containing the amino acid analogue 5-methyl-tryptophan. Taken together, these data show that pro4 represents a novel mutant type in S. macrospora, in which amino acid starvation acts as a signal that interrupts the development of the fruiting body.

  15. 4G LTE/LTE-advanced for mobile broadband

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlman, Erik; Skold, Johan

    2013-01-01

    This book reflects the ongoing success of LTE throughout the world and focuses on LTE with full updates including LTE-Advanced (Release 11) to provide a complete picture of the LTE system. Overviews and detailed explanations are given for the latest LTE standards for radio interface architecture, the physical layer, access procedures, broadcast, relaying, spectrum and RF characteristics, and system performance. Key technologies presented include multi-carrier transmission, advanced single-carrier transmission, advanced receivers, OFDM, MIMO and adaptive antenna solutions, advanced radio res

  16. LTE-verkon mittaus

    OpenAIRE

    Summanen, Mika

    2013-01-01

    Tämän insinöörityön tarkoituksena oli esitellä LTE-verkon rakennetta ja radiorajapinnassa käytettäviä parametreja, sekä suorittaa muutamia nopeusmittauksia verkossa. Parametrien mittaukseen käytettiin Ascomin TEMS Investigation -ohjelmiston versiota 14.4. Nopeustestit puolestaan suoritettiin matkapuhelimeen asennetun Ookla speedtest sovelluksen avulla. Työssä käydään läpi LTE-verkon arkkitehtuuria ja siinä sijaitsevia elementtejä, sekä esitellään radiotien standardoinnissa valittuja tekn...

  17. LTE for public safety

    CERN Document Server

    Liebhart, Rainer; Wong, Curt; Merkel , Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the book is to educate government agencies, operators, vendors and other regulatory institutions how LTE can be deployed to serve public safety market and offer regulatory / public safety features. It is written in such a way that it can be understood by both technical and non-technical personnel with just introductory knowledge in wireless communication. Some sections and chapters about public safety services offered by LTE network are intended to be understood by anyone with no knowledge in wireless communication.

  18. Performance of Flow-Aware Networking in LTE backbone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2012-01-01

    technologies, such as Long Term Evolution (LTE). This paper proposes usage of a modified Flow Aware Networking (FAN) technique for enhancing Quality of Service (QoS) in the all-IP transport networks underlying LTE backbone. The results obtained with OPNET Modeler show that FAN, in spite of being relatively...

  19. Method for traceable measurement of LTE signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunder Dash, Soumya; Pythoud, Frederic; Leuchtmann, Pascal; Leuthold, Juerg

    2018-04-01

    This contribution presents a reference setup to measure the power of the cell-specific resource elements present in downlink long term evolution (LTE) signals in a way that the measurements are traceable to the international system of units. This setup can be used to calibrate the LTE code-selective field probes that are used to measure the radiation of base stations for mobile telephony. It can also be used to calibrate LTE signal generators and receivers. The method is based on traceable scope measurements performed directly at the output of a measuring antenna. It implements offline digital signal processing demodulation algorithms that consider the digital down-conversion, timing synchronization, frequency synchronization, phase synchronization and robust LTE cell identification to produce the downlink time-frequency LTE grid. Experimental results on conducted test scenarios, both single-input-single-output and multiple-input-multiple-output antenna configuration, show promising results confirming measurement uncertainties of the order of 0.05 dB with a coverage factor of 2.

  20. Non LTE Effects in Laser Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, Marcel

    1997-11-01

    Laser produced plasmas are not in Local Thermodynamical Equilibrium(LTE) because of the strong gradients and the escaping radiation. Departure from LTE changes the average charge state Z^*, and through it the electron temperature and other thermodynamical variables. Hydrodynamic simulations using LTE and non LTE modes show that in some cases the temperatures can change by an order of magnitude. Several rad/hydro models have solved the approximate atomic rate equations in-line within the average atom model(W. A. Lokke and W. H. Grasburger, LLNL, Report UCRL-52276 (1977),G. Pollack, LANL, Report LA-UR-90-2423 (1990)), or with global rates(M. Busquet, J. P. Raucourt and J. C. Gauthier, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 54, 81 (1995)). A new technique developed by Busquet, the Radiation Dependent Ionization Model (RADIOM)(M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids B, 5, 4191 (1993)) has been implemented in the NRL hydro-code. It uses an ionization temperature Tz to obtain the opacities and EOS in table look-ups. A very elaborate LTE atomic physics such as the STA code( A. Bar-Shalom and J. Oreg, Phys. Rev. E, 54, 1850 (1996), and ref. therein), or OPAL, can then be used off-line for generating the tables. The algorithm for Tz is very simple and quick. RADIOM has recently been benchmarked with a new detailed collisional radiative model SCROLL(A. Bar-Shalom, J. Oreg and M. Klapisch, Phys. Rev. E, to appear in July (1997)) on a range of temperatures, densities and atomic numbers. RADIOM has been surprisingly successful in calculations of non-LTE opacities.

  1. Isolation of baker's yeast mutants with proline accumulation that showed enhanced tolerance to baking-associated stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolmonbaatar, Ariunzaya; Hashida, Keisuke; Sugimoto, Yukiko; Watanabe, Daisuke; Furukawa, Shuhei; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2016-12-05

    During bread-making processes, yeast cells are exposed to baking-associated stresses such as freeze-thaw, air-drying, and high-sucrose concentrations. Previously, we reported that self-cloning diploid baker's yeast strains that accumulate proline retained higher-level fermentation abilities in both frozen and sweet doughs than the wild-type strain. Although self-cloning yeasts do not have to be treated as genetically modified yeasts, the conventional methods for breeding baker's yeasts are more acceptable to consumers than the use of self-cloning yeasts. In this study, we isolated mutants resistant to the proline analogue azetidine-2-carboxylate (AZC) derived from diploid baker's yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Some of the mutants accumulated a greater amount of intracellular proline, and among them, 5 mutants showed higher cell viability than that observed in the parent wild-type strain under freezing or high-sucrose stress conditions. Two of them carried novel mutations in the PRO1 gene encoding the Pro247Ser or Glu415Lys variant of γ-glutamyl kinase (GK), which is a key enzyme in proline biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae. Interestingly, we found that these mutations resulted in AZC resistance of yeast cells and desensitization to proline feedback inhibition of GK, leading to intracellular proline accumulation. Moreover, baker's yeast cells expressing the PRO1 P247S and PRO1 E415K gene were more tolerant to freezing stress than cells expressing the wild-type PRO1 gene. The approach described here could be a practical method for the breeding of proline-accumulating baker's yeasts with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A fasciclin-like arabinogalactan-protein (FLA mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, fla1, shows defects in shoot regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim L Johnson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fasciclin-like arabinogalactan-proteins (FLAs are an enigmatic class of 21 members within the larger family of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Located at the cell surface, in the cell wall/plasma membrane, they are implicated in many developmental roles yet their function remains largely undefined. Fasciclin (FAS domains are putative cell-adhesion domains found in extracellular matrix proteins of organisms from all kingdoms, but the juxtaposition of FAS domains with highly glycosylated AGP domains is unique to plants. Recent studies have started to elucidate the role of FLAs in Arabidopsis development. FLAs containing a single FAS domain are important for the integrity and elasticity of the plant cell wall matrix (FLA11 and FLA12 and FLA3 is involved in microspore development. FLA4/SOS5 with two FAS domains and two AGP domains has a role in maintaining proper cell expansion under salt stressed conditions. The role of other FLAs remains to be uncovered. METHOD/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe the characterisation of a T-DNA insertion mutant in the FLA1 gene (At5g55730. Under standard growth conditions fla1-1 mutants have no obvious phenotype. Based on gene expression studies, a putative role for FLA1 in callus induction was investigated and revealed that fla1-1 has a reduced ability to regenerate shoots in an in vitro shoot-induction assay. Analysis of FLA1p:GUS reporter lines show that FLA1 is expressed in several tissues including stomata, trichomes, the vasculature of leaves, the primary root tip and in lateral roots near the junction of the primary root. CONCLUSION: The results of the developmental expression of FLA1 and characterisation of the fla1 mutant support a role for FLA1 in the early events of lateral root development and shoot development in tissue culture, prior to cell-type specification.

  3. Some non-LTE diagnostic methods for hydrogen plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.; Cho, K.Y.

    1986-01-01

    This paper shows that if electric and magnetic fields are not negligible, then the 2-T model assumed by many non-LTE plasma diagnostic techniques may lead to serious errors. Significant difference between T e and T ex have been shown to exist with electric field strengths as low as ∼10 V/cm. Multithermal equilibrium (MTE) calculations show significant deviations in line emission coefficients when T e ≠ T ex compared to equivalent T e ≠ T q . A quasi non-dimentional MTE continuum relation is present to assist in diagnostics. Normalized line emission coefficients verses N e are used to indicate the type and extent of non-LTE. The MTE state diagram for hydrogen is used to show why non-LTE plasmas often appear to be in LTE based on N e determinations

  4. Enhanced cognitive Radio Resource Management for LTE systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2013-10-01

    The explosive growth in mobile Internet and related services has increased the need for more bandwidth in cellular networks. The Long-Term Evolution (LTE) technology is an attractive solution for operators and subscribers to meet such need since it provides high data rates and scalable bandwidth. Radio Resource Management (RRM) is essential for LTE to provide better communication quality and meet the application QoS requirements. Cognitive resource management is a promising solution for LTE RRM as it improves network efficiency by exploiting radio environment information, intelligent optimization algorithms to configure transmission parameters, and mitigate interference. In this paper, we propose a cognitive resource management scheme to adapt LTE network parameters to the environment conditions. The scheme optimizes resource blocks assignment, modulation selection and bandwidth selection to maximize throughput and minimize interference. The scheme uses constrained optimization for throughput maximization and interference control. It is also enhanced by learning mechanism to reduce the optimization complexity and improve the decision-making quality. Our evaluation results show that our scheme achieved significant improvements in throughput and LTE system capacity. Results also show the improvement in the user satisfaction over other techniques in LTE RRM.

  5. Location-assured, multifactor authentication on smartphones via LTE communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuseler, Torben; Lami, Ihsan A.; Al-Assam, Hisham

    2013-05-01

    With the added security provided by LTE, geographical location has become an important factor for authentication to enhance the security of remote client authentication during mCommerce applications using Smartphones. Tight combination of geographical location with classic authentication factors like PINs/Biometrics in a real-time, remote verification scheme over the LTE layer connection assures the authenticator about the client itself (via PIN/biometric) as well as the client's current location, thus defines the important aspects of "who", "when", and "where" of the authentication attempt without eaves dropping or man on the middle attacks. To securely integrate location as an authentication factor into the remote authentication scheme, client's location must be verified independently, i.e. the authenticator should not solely rely on the location determined on and reported by the client's Smartphone. The latest wireless data communication technology for mobile phones (4G LTE, Long-Term Evolution), recently being rolled out in various networks, can be employed to enhance this location-factor requirement of independent location verification. LTE's Control Plane LBS provisions, when integrated with user-based authentication and independent source of localisation factors ensures secure efficient, continuous location tracking of the Smartphone. This feature can be performed during normal operation of the LTE-based communication between client and network operator resulting in the authenticator being able to verify the client's claimed location more securely and accurately. Trials and experiments show that such algorithm implementation is viable for nowadays Smartphone-based banking via LTE communication.

  6. Spontaneous Chloroplast Mutants Mostly Occur by Replication Slippage and Show a Biased Pattern in the Plastome of Oenothera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massouh, Amid; Schubert, Julia; Yaneva-Roder, Liliya; Ulbricht-Jones, Elena S; Zupok, Arkadiusz; Johnson, Marc T J; Wright, Stephen I; Pellizzer, Tommaso; Sobanski, Johanna; Bock, Ralph; Greiner, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Spontaneous plastome mutants have been used as a research tool since the beginning of genetics. However, technical restrictions have severely limited their contributions to research in physiology and molecular biology. Here, we used full plastome sequencing to systematically characterize a collection of 51 spontaneous chloroplast mutants in Oenothera (evening primrose). Most mutants carry only a single mutation. Unexpectedly, the vast majority of mutations do not represent single nucleotide polymorphisms but are insertions/deletions originating from DNA replication slippage events. Only very few mutations appear to be caused by imprecise double-strand break repair, nucleotide misincorporation during replication, or incorrect nucleotide excision repair following oxidative damage. U-turn inversions were not detected. Replication slippage is induced at repetitive sequences that can be very small and tend to have high A/T content. Interestingly, the mutations are not distributed randomly in the genome. The underrepresentation of mutations caused by faulty double-strand break repair might explain the high structural conservation of seed plant plastomes throughout evolution. In addition to providing a fully characterized mutant collection for future research on plastid genetics, gene expression, and photosynthesis, our work identified the spectrum of spontaneous mutations in plastids and reveals that this spectrum is very different from that in the nucleus. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  7. Spontaneous Chloroplast Mutants Mostly Occur by Replication Slippage and Show a Biased Pattern in the Plastome of Oenothera[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massouh, Amid; Schubert, Julia; Yaneva-Roder, Liliya; Ulbricht-Jones, Elena S.; Johnson, Marc T.J.; Wright, Stephen I.; Pellizzer, Tommaso; Sobanski, Johanna; Greiner, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous plastome mutants have been used as a research tool since the beginning of genetics. However, technical restrictions have severely limited their contributions to research in physiology and molecular biology. Here, we used full plastome sequencing to systematically characterize a collection of 51 spontaneous chloroplast mutants in Oenothera (evening primrose). Most mutants carry only a single mutation. Unexpectedly, the vast majority of mutations do not represent single nucleotide polymorphisms but are insertions/deletions originating from DNA replication slippage events. Only very few mutations appear to be caused by imprecise double-strand break repair, nucleotide misincorporation during replication, or incorrect nucleotide excision repair following oxidative damage. U-turn inversions were not detected. Replication slippage is induced at repetitive sequences that can be very small and tend to have high A/T content. Interestingly, the mutations are not distributed randomly in the genome. The underrepresentation of mutations caused by faulty double-strand break repair might explain the high structural conservation of seed plant plastomes throughout evolution. In addition to providing a fully characterized mutant collection for future research on plastid genetics, gene expression, and photosynthesis, our work identified the spectrum of spontaneous mutations in plastids and reveals that this spectrum is very different from that in the nucleus. PMID:27053421

  8. LTE Adaptation for Mobile Broadband Satellite Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastia Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key factors for the successful deployment of mobile satellite systems in 4G networks is the maximization of the technology commonalities with the terrestrial systems. An effective way of achieving this objective consists in considering the terrestrial radio interface as the baseline for the satellite radio interface. Since the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE standard will be one of the main players in the 4G scenario, along with other emerging technologies, such as mobile WiMAX; this paper analyzes the possible applicability of the 3GPP LTE interface to satellite transmission, presenting several enabling techniques for this adaptation. In particular, we propose the introduction of an inter-TTI interleaving technique that exploits the existing H-ARQ facilities provided by the LTE physical layer, the use of PAPR reduction techniques to increase the resilience of the OFDM waveform to non linear distortion, and the design of the sequences for Random Access, taking into account the requirements deriving from the large round trip times. The outcomes of this analysis show that, with the required proposed enablers, it is possible to reuse the existing terrestrial air interface to transmit over the satellite link.

  9. Potential of dynamic spectrum allocation in LTE macro networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, H.; Ramachandra, P.; Kovács, I. Z.; Jorguseski, L.; Gunnarsson, F.; Kürner, T.

    2015-11-01

    In recent years Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) worldwide are extensively deploying LTE networks in different spectrum bands and utilising different bandwidth configurations. Initially, the deployment is coverage oriented with macro cells using the lower LTE spectrum bands. As the offered traffic (i.e. the requested traffic from the users) increases the LTE deployment evolves with macro cells expanded with additional capacity boosting LTE carriers in higher frequency bands complemented with micro or small cells in traffic hotspot areas. For MNOs it is crucial to use the LTE spectrum assets, as well as the installed network infrastructure, in the most cost efficient way. The dynamic spectrum allocation (DSA) aims at (de)activating the available LTE frequency carriers according to the temporal and spatial traffic variations in order to increase the overall LTE system performance in terms of total network capacity by reducing the interference. This paper evaluates the DSA potential of achieving the envisaged performance improvement and identifying in which system and traffic conditions the DSA should be deployed. A self-optimised network (SON) DSA algorithm is also proposed and evaluated. The evaluations have been carried out in a hexagonal and a realistic site-specific urban macro layout assuming a central traffic hotspot area surrounded with an area of lower traffic with a total size of approximately 8 × 8 km2. The results show that up to 47 % and up to 40 % possible DSA gains are achievable with regards to the carried system load (i.e. used resources) for homogenous traffic distribution with hexagonal layout and for realistic site-specific urban macro layout, respectively. The SON DSA algorithm evaluation in a realistic site-specific urban macro cell deployment scenario including realistic non-uniform spatial traffic distribution shows insignificant cell throughput (i.e. served traffic) performance gains. Nevertheless, in the SON DSA investigations, a gain of up

  10. The 7B-1 mutant in tomato shows blue-light-specific resistance to osmotic stress and abscisic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, Martin; Sawhney, Vipen K

    2002-03-01

    Germination of wild-type (WT) tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seed is inhibited by mannitol (100-140 mM) in light, but not in darkness, suggesting that light amplifies the responsiveness of the seed to osmotic stress (M. Fellner, V.K. Sawhney (2001) Theor Appl Genet 102:215-221). Here we report that white light (W) and especially blue light (B) strongly enhance the mannitol-induced inhibition of seed germination, and that the effect of red light (R) is weak or nil. The inhibitory effect of mannitol could be completely overcome by fluridone, an inhibitor of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, indicating that mannitol inhibits seed germination via ABA accumulation in seeds. The inhibition of WT seed germination by exogenous ABA was also amplified by W or B, but not by R. In a recessive, ABA-overproducing, 7B-1 mutant of tomato, seed germination and hypocotyl growth were resistant to inhibition by mannitol or exogenous ABA, both in W or B. Experiments with fluridone suggested that inhibition of hypocotyl growth by W or B is also partially via ABA accumulation. De-etiolation in the mutant was especially less in B compared to the WT, and there was no difference in hypocotyl growth between the two genotypes in R. Our data suggest that B amplifies the responsiveness of tomato seeds and hypocotyls to mannitol and ABA, and that W- or B-specific resistance of the 7B-1 mutant to osmotic stress or ABA is a consequence of a defect in B perception or signal transduction.

  11. Non-LTE effects in Al I lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzhevitski, V. S.; Shimansky, V. V.; Shimanskaya, N. N.

    2012-07-01

    We present the theoretical analysis of the Al I line formation in the spectra of late-type stars ignoring the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The calculations were based on the 39-level aluminum atom model for one-dimensional hydrostatic stellar atmosphere models with the parameters: T eff from 4000 to 9000 K, log g = 0.0-4.5, and metallicity [ A] = 0.0;-1.0;-2.0;-3.0;-4.0. The aluminum atom model and the method of calculations were tested by the study of line profiles in the solar spectrum. We refined the oscillator strengths and Van-der-Vaals broadening constants C 6 of the investigated transitions. We conclude that the Al I atom is in the overionization state: the 3 p level is underpopulated in the line formation region. This leads to the line weakening, as compared with the LTE results. The overionization effect becomes more pronounced with increasing temperature and decreasing metallicity. We show that the use of various atomic data (ionization cross-sections) for the low levels of Al I does not change the behavior of non-LTE deviations, whereas the value of these deviations varies essentially. For nine selected Al I lines we calculated the grids of theoretical non-LTE corrections (Δ X NLTE = log ɛ NLTE - log ɛ LTE) to the Al abundances determinedwith the LTE assumption. The non-LTE corrections are positive and significant for the stars with temperatures T eff > 6000 K. These corrections weakly depend on log g, and increase with declining stellar metallicity.

  12. bioA mutant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis shows severe growth defect and imparts protection against tuberculosis in guinea pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Ritika; Nangpal, Prachi; Mathur, Shubhita; Singh, Swati

    2017-01-01

    Owing to the devastation caused by tuberculosis along with the unsatisfactory performance of the Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine, a more efficient vaccine than BCG is required for the global control of tuberculosis. A number of studies have demonstrated an essential role of biotin biosynthesis in the growth and survival of several microorganisms, including mycobacteria, through deletion of the genes involved in de novo biotin biosynthesis. In this study, we demonstrate that a bioA mutant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtbΔbioA) is highly attenuated in the guinea pig model of tuberculosis when administered aerogenically as well as intradermally. Immunization with MtbΔbioA conferred significant protection in guinea pigs against an aerosol challenge with virulent M. tuberculosis, when compared with the unvaccinated animals. Booster immunization with MtbΔbioA offered no advantage over a single immunization. These experiments demonstrate the vaccinogenic potential of the attenuated M. tuberculosis bioA mutant against tuberculosis. PMID:28658275

  13. bioA mutant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis shows severe growth defect and imparts protection against tuberculosis in guinea pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika Kar

    Full Text Available Owing to the devastation caused by tuberculosis along with the unsatisfactory performance of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine, a more efficient vaccine than BCG is required for the global control of tuberculosis. A number of studies have demonstrated an essential role of biotin biosynthesis in the growth and survival of several microorganisms, including mycobacteria, through deletion of the genes involved in de novo biotin biosynthesis. In this study, we demonstrate that a bioA mutant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtbΔbioA is highly attenuated in the guinea pig model of tuberculosis when administered aerogenically as well as intradermally. Immunization with MtbΔbioA conferred significant protection in guinea pigs against an aerosol challenge with virulent M. tuberculosis, when compared with the unvaccinated animals. Booster immunization with MtbΔbioA offered no advantage over a single immunization. These experiments demonstrate the vaccinogenic potential of the attenuated M. tuberculosis bioA mutant against tuberculosis.

  14. Single Carrier Transmission for UTRA LTE Uplink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priyanto, Basuki Endah; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, we have presented the key techniques for LTE uplink as well as presented the baseline performance. Radio access technology is the key aspect in LTE uplink and two radio access schemes, SC-FDMA and OFDMA, are studied. The performance results are obtained from a detailed UTRA LTE...

  15. An introduction to LTE LTE, LTE-advanced, SAE, VoLTE and 4G mobile communications

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Following on from the successful first edition (March 2012), this book gives a clear explanation of what LTE does and how it works. The content is expressed at a systems level, offering less technically experienced readers the opportunity to grasp the key factors which make LTE the hot topic amongst vendors and operators across the globe. Assuming no more than a basic knowledge of mobile telecommunication systems, the reader is not expected to already understand complex mathematical operations.  This second edition both updates and introduces new material for the current state of the industry

  16. Using adaptive antenna array in LTE with MIMO for space-time processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdourahamane Ahmed Ali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The actual methods of improvement the existent wireless transmission systems are proposed. Mathematical apparatus is considered and proved by models, graph of which are shown, using the adaptive array antenna in LTE with MIMO for space-time processing. The results show that improvements, which are joined with space-time processing, positively reflects on LTE cell size or on throughput

  17. Analisis Kelayakan Implementasi Teknologi LTE 1.8 GHz Bagi Operator Seluler di Indonesia [Feasibility Analysis of LTE 1.8 GHz for Mobile Operators in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ariyanti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peningkatan kebutuhan layanan data mendorong operator telekomunikasi berusaha mengimplementasikan jaringan akses broadband yang lebih handal.  Teknologi LTE merupakan salah satu teknologi dengan kecepatan mencapai tiga kali dibanding teknologi HSDPA, sehingga diharapkan dapat memenuhi kebutuhan pelanggan data mobile. Refarming frekuensi 1.8 GHz  untuk penerapan teknologi LTE memberikan efisiensi karena tidak perlu membayar BHP lagi untuk menyewa frekuensi baru. Teknologi 2G GSM selama ini juga semakin ditinggalkan, masyarakat di daerah perkotaan cenderung lebih banyak menggunakan layanan data.  Sebelum diterapkannya teknologi LTE pada frekuensi 1.8 GHz perlu adanya kajian untuk mengetahui kelayakan teknologi LTE pada frekuensi 1.8 GHz. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan cost-benefit analysis implementasi LTE pada frekuensi 1.8 GHz.  Metode penelitian menggunakan pendekatan kualitataif yang didukung dengan data kuantitatif.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa minimal bandiwdth yang diperlukan agar implementasi LTE layak digunakan adalah 15 MHz.  Meskipun tanpa Global Frequency Returning, penggunaan bandwidth 10 MHz tidak layak digunakan untuk implementasi LTE.      *****The incresing of data demand drives mobile operators to implement more reliable broadband access network. LTE technology has downlink peak rate up to three times than HSDPA,  hence it may fulfill the mobile data user requirement. Frequency 1.8 GHz refarming can be implemented to provide efficiency because They do not need to pay licence fee for leasing new frequency. GSM technology will be abandoned since it is not growing anymore. Besides that, dense urban users tend to use data mobile.  Before implementing LTE technology  on 1.8 GHz frequency, It is necessary to analysis the feasibility such technology. This research used qualitative method supported by quantitative  approach.  The result of this research showed that minimum bandwidth to implement 1.8 GHz LTE

  18. A Compact Frequency Reconfigurable Antenna for LTE Mobile Handset Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munyong Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact (8 × 62 × 5 mm3; 2.48 cc frequency reconfigurable antenna that uses electrical switching with PIN diodes is proposed for the low frequency LTE band (699 MHz–862 MHz, high frequency LTE band (2496 MHz–2690 MHz, GSM850/900 bands (824 MHz–960 MHz, and DCS/PCS/WCDMA bands (1710 MHz–2170 MHz. The penta-band PIFA is first designed for GSM850/900/DCS/PCS/WCDMA bands by using two slits and ground pins within a limited antenna volume (8 × 54.6 × 5 mm3; 2.18 cc. The frequency reconfigurable antenna based on this penta-band PIFA is thus proposed to additionally cover all LTE bands. The proposed antenna has two PIN diodes with an optimal location. For State 1 (PIN diode 1: ON state, PIN diode 2: OFF state, the proposed antenna covers the low frequency LTE band, DCS/PCS/WCDMA bands, and high frequency LTE band. For State 2 (PIN diode 1: OFF state, PIN diode 2: ON state, the antenna covers the GSM850/900 bands. Simulated and measured results show that the total efficiency of the proposed antenna was greater than 40% for all operating frequency bands.

  19. Non-LTE CO, revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Thomas R.; Wiedemann, Gunter R.

    1989-01-01

    A more extensive and detailed non-LTE simulation of the Delta v = 1 bands of CO than attempted previously is reported. The equations of statistical equilibrium are formulated for a model molecule containing 10 bound vibrational levels, each split into 121 rotational substates and connected by more than 1000 radiative transitions. Solutions are obtained for self-consistent populations and radiation fields by iterative application of the 'Lambda-operator' to an initial LTE distribution. The formalism is used to illustrate models of the sun and Arcturus. For the sun, negligible departures from LTE are found in either a theoretical radiative-equilibrium photosphere with outwardly falling temperatures in its highest layers or in a semiempirical hot chromosphere that reproduces the spatially averaged emission cores of Ca II H and K. The simulations demonstrate that the puzzling 'cool cores' of the CO Delta V = 1 bands observed in limb spectra of the sun and in flux spectra of Arcturus cannot be explained simply by non-LTE scattering effects.

  20. Power Saving Scheduling Scheme for Internet of Things over LTE/LTE-Advanced Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Wei Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The devices of Internet of Things (IoT will grow rapidly in the near future, and the power consumption and radio spectrum management will become the most critical issues in the IoT networks. Long Term Evolution (LTE technology will become a promising technology used in IoT networks due to its flat architecture, all-IP network, and greater spectrum efficiency. The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP specified the Discontinuous Reception (DRX to reduce device’s power consumption. However, the DRX may pose unexpected communication delay due to missing Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH information in sleep mode. Recent studies mainly focus on optimizing DRX parameters to manage the tradeoff between the energy consumption and communication latency. In this paper, we proposed a fuzzy-based power saving scheduling scheme for IoT over the LTE/LTE-Advanced networks to deal with the issues of the radio resource management and power consumption from the scheduling and resource allocation perspective. The proposed scheme considers not only individual IoT device’s real-time requirement but also the overall network performance. The simulation results show that our proposed scheme can meet the requirements of the DRX cycle and scheduling latency and can save about half of energy consumption for IoT devices compared to conventional approaches.

  1. Arabidopsis AtDjA3 null mutant shows increased sensitivity to abscisic acid, salt, and osmotic stress in germination and postgermination stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eSalas-Muñoz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available DnaJ proteins are essential co-chaperones involved in abiotic and biotic stress responses. Arabidopsis AtDjA3 gene encodes a molecular co-chaperone of 420 amino acids, which belongs to the J-protein family. In this study, we report the functional characterization of the AtDjA3 gene using the Arabidopsis knockout line designated j3 and the 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. Loss of AtDjA3 function was associated with small seed production. In fact, j3 mutant seeds showed a reduction of 24% in seed weight compared to Col-0 seeds. Expression analysis showed that the AtDjA3 gene was modulated in response to NaCl, glucose, and abscisic acid. The j3 line had increased sensitivity to NaCl and glucose treatments in the germination and cotyledon development in comparison to parental Col-0. Furthermore, the j3 mutant line exhibited higher abscisic acid sensitivity in comparison to parental Col-0 and 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. In addition, we examined the expression of ABI3 gene, which is a central regulator in ABA signalling, in j3 mutant and 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. Under 5 μM ABA treatment at 24 h, j3 mutant seedlings displayed higher ABI3 expression, whereas in 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines, ABI3 gene expression was repressed. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the AtDjA3 gene is involved in seed development and abiotic stress tolerance.

  2. LTE-Advanced Relay Technology and Standardization

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Yifei

    2013-01-01

    LTE-Advanced Relay Technology and Standardization provides a timely reference work for relay technology with the finalizing of LTE Release 10 specifications. LTE-Advanced is quickly becoming the global standard for 4G cellular communications. The relay technology, as one of the key features in LTE-Advanced, helps not only to improve the system coverage and capacity, but also to save the costs of laying wireline backhaul. As a leading researcher in the field of LTE-Advanced standards, the author provides an in-depth description of LTE-A relay technology, and explains in detail the standard specification and design principles.     Readers from both academic and industrial fields can find sections of interest to them: Sections 2 & 4 could benefit researchers in academia and those who are engaged in exploratory work, while Sections 3 & 4 are more useful to engineers. Dr. Yifei Yuan is the Technical Director at the Standards Department of ZTE Inc.

  3. Metabolic and molecular analyses of white mutant Vaccinium berries show down-regulation of MYBPA1-type R2R3 MYB regulatory factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primetta, Anja K; Karppinen, Katja; Riihinen, Kaisu R; Jaakola, Laura

    2015-09-01

    MYBPA1-type R2R3 MYB transcription factor shows down-regulation in white mutant berries of Vaccinium uliginosum deficient in anthocyanins but not proanthocyanidins suggesting a role in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Berries of the genus Vaccinium are among the best natural sources of flavonoids. In this study, the expression of structural and regulatory flavonoid biosynthetic genes and the accumulation of flavonoids in white mutant and blue-colored wild-type bog bilberry (V. uliginosum) fruits were measured at different stages of berry development. In contrast to high contents of anthocyanins in ripe blue-colored berries, only traces were detected by HPLC-ESI-MS in ripe white mutant berries. However, similar profile and high levels of flavonol glycosides and proanthocyanidins were quantified in both ripe white and ripe wild-type berries. Analysis with qRT-PCR showed strong down-regulation of structural genes chalcone synthase (VuCHS), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (VuDFR) and anthocyanidin synthase (VuANS) as well as MYBPA1-type transcription factor VuMYBPA1 in white berries during ripening compared to wild-type berries. The profiles of transcript accumulation of chalcone isomerase (VuCHI), anthocyanidin reductase (VuANR), leucoanthocyanidin reductase (VuLAR) and flavonoid 3'5' hydroxylase (VuF3'5'H) were more similar between the white and the wild-type berries during fruit development, while expression of UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (VuUFGT) showed similar trend but fourfold lower level in white mutant. VuMYBPA1, the R2R3 MYB family member, is a homologue of VmMYB2 of V. myrtillus and VcMYBPA1 of V. corymbosum and belongs to MYBPA1-type MYB family which members are shown in some species to be related with proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in fruits. Our results combined with earlier data of the role of VmMYB2 in white mutant berries of V. myrtillus suggest that the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Vaccinium species could differ

  4. A yigP mutant strain is a small colony variant of E. coli and shows pleiotropic antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hui; Tang, Qiongwei; Song, Jie; Ye, Jiang; Wu, Haizhen; Zhang, Huizhan

    2017-12-01

    Small colony variants (SCVs) are a commonly observed subpopulation of bacteria that have a small colony size and distinctive biochemical characteristics. SCVs are more resistant than the wild type to some antibiotics and usually cause persistent infections in the clinic. SCV studies have been very active during the past 2 decades, especially Staphylococcus aureus SCVs. However, fewer studies on Escherichia coli SCVs exist, so we studied an E. coli SCV during an experiment involving the deletion of the yigP locus. PCR and DNA sequencing revealed that the SCV was attributable to a defect in the yigP function. Furthermore, we investigated the antibiotic resistance profile of the E. coli SCV and it showed increased erythromycin, kanamycin, and d-cycloserine resistance, but collateral sensitivity to ampicillin, polymyxin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, rifampin, and nalidixic acid. We tried to determine the association between yigP and the pleiotropic antibiotic resistance of the SCV by analyzing biofilm formation, cellular morphology, and coenzyme Q (Q 8 ) production. Our results indicated that impaired Q 8 biosynthesis was the primary factor that contributed to the increased resistance and collateral sensitivity of the SCV. This study offers a novel genetic basis for E. coli SCVs and an insight into the development of alternative antimicrobial strategies for clinical therapy.

  5. Enabling LTE and WiFi Coexisting in 5 GHz for Efficient Spectrum Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing mobile traffic demands in cellular network, researchers have proposed the coexistence of LTE and WiFi technologies in 5 GHz unlicensed bands. Therefore, how to efficiently utilize the spectrum in 5 GHz becomes extremely important. To avoid the channel access conflicts, current LTE Unlicensed (LTE-U technology introduces the duty cycle of LTE, while License-Assisted Access (LAA technology introduces Listen-Before-Talk (LBT mechanism. While these two technologies improve the spectrum utilization by using time division access schema, we believe that more efficient spectrum utilization can be achieved by enabling simultaneous transmissions from LTE and WiFi. In this paper, we propose a novel method (i.e., Low Amplitude Stream Injection (LASI method to enable the simultaneous transmissions of WiFi and LTE frames in the same channel and recover the data from the conflicts. To further utilize the LASI method, we introduce the Conflict-Tolerant Channel Allocation (CTCA algorithm to optimize the channel allocation and achieve more efficient spectrum utilization in 5 GHz. Extensive simulation results show that our approach achieves lower latency and higher throughput. Compared with the state-of-the-art LTE-U and LAA technologies, our approach can improve the spectrum efficiency 2.9 times.

  6. Non-LTE profiles of the Al I autoionization lines. [for solar model atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, G. D.; Jefferies, J. T.

    1974-01-01

    A non-LTE formulation is given for the transfer of radiation in the autoionizing lines of neutral aluminum at 1932 and 1936 A through both the Bilderberg and Harvard-Smithsonian model atmospheres. Numerical solutions for the common source function of these lines and their theoretical line profiles are calculated and compared with the corresponding LTE profiles. The results show that the non-LTE profiles provide a better match with the observations. They also indicate that the continuous opacity of the standard solar models should be increased in this wavelength region if the center-limb variations of observed and theoretical profiles of these lines are to be in reasonable agreement.

  7. Uplink multi-cluster scheduling with MU-MIMO for LTE-advanced with carrier aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Nguyen, Hung Tuan; Rosa, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    -Advanced requirements and are being considered as part of LTE Release 10. In this paper, some of the physical layer enhancement techniques for LTE-Advanced have been studied including carrier aggregation (CA), uplink multi-cluster scheduling, and uplink multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) transmission....... A system-level simulation was conducted to investigate the performance gains that can be achieved in uplink CA with multi-cluster scheduling and MU-MIMO. Simulation results show that with proper separation between power-limited and non-power-limited LTE-A users, multi-cluster scheduling with CA has similar...

  8. LTE uplink scheduling - flow level analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, D.C.; van den Berg, J.L.; Heijenk, G.; Litjens, R.; Sacchi, Claudio; Bellalta, Boris; Vinel, Alexey; Schlegel, Christian; Granelli, Fabrizio; Zhang, Yan

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a cellular technology foreseen to extend the capacity and improve the performance of current 3G cellular networks. A key mechanism in the LTE traffic handling is the packet scheduler, which is in charge of allocating resources to active flows in both the frequency and

  9. LTE uplink scheduling - Flow level analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, D.C.; Berg, J.L. van den; Heijenk, G.; Litjens, R.

    2011-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a cellular technology foreseen to extend the capacity and improve the performance of current 3G cellular networks. A key mechanism in the LTE traffic handling is the packet scheduler, which is in charge of allocating resources to active flows in both the frequency and

  10. Xyloketal-derived small molecules show protective effect by decreasing mutant Huntingtin protein aggregates in Caenorhabditis elegans model of Huntington’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng YX

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yixuan Zeng,1,2,* Wenyuan Guo,1,* Guangqing Xu,3 Qinmei Wang,4 Luyang Feng,1,2 Simei Long,1 Fengyin Liang,1 Yi Huang,1 Xilin Lu,1 Shichang Li,5 Jiebin Zhou,5 Jean-Marc Burgunder,6 Jiyan Pang,5 Zhong Pei1,2 1Department of Neurology, National Key Clinical Department and Key Discipline of Neurology, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Major Neurological Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 2Guangzhou Center, Chinese Huntington’s Disease Network, 3Department of Rehabilitation, The First Affiliated Hospital, 4Key laboratory on Assisted Circulation, Ministry of Health, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine of the First Affiliated Hospital, 5School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China; 6Swiss Huntington’s Disease Center, Department of Neurology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Huntington’s disease is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, with chorea as the most prominent manifestation. The disease is caused by abnormal expansion of CAG codon repeats in the IT15 gene, which leads to the expression of a glutamine-rich protein named mutant Huntingtin (Htt. Because of its devastating disease burden and lack of valid treatment, development of more effective therapeutics for Huntington’s disease is urgently required. Xyloketal B, a natural product from mangrove fungus, has shown protective effects against toxicity in other neurodegenerative disease models such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. To identify potential neuroprotective molecules for Huntington’s disease, six derivatives of xyloketal B were screened in a Caenorhabditis elegans Huntington’s disease model; all six compounds showed a protective effect. Molecular docking studies indicated that compound 1 could bind to residues GLN369 and GLN393 of the mutant Htt protein, forming a

  11. Nature of mutants induced by ionizing radiation in cultured hamster cells. III. Molecular characterization of HPRT-deficient mutants induced by. gamma. -rays or. cap alpha. -particles showing that the majority have deletions of all or part of the hprt gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thacker, J

    1986-05-01

    DNA from 58 independent HPRT-deficient mutants of V79 hamster cells induced by ionizing radiation was analysed by Southern blot hybridization to a full-length hamster hprt cDNA. About half of the ..gamma..-ray-induced mutants (20/43) were apparently total gene deletions, because they lacked all functional hprt gene sequences hybridizing to the cDNA probe. Another 10 mutants showed various partial deletions and/or rearrangements of the hprt gene. The remaining 13 mutants showed no detectable change in comparison to the structure of the normal gene, which correlated well with previous characterization of these mutants indicating that most carry point mutations in the hprt gene. Thus, 70% or more of radiation-induced HPRT-deficient mutants arise through large genetic changes, especially deletions of all or part of the hprt gene. 16 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  12. LTE-Advanced/WLAN testbed

    OpenAIRE

    Plaisner, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Táto práca sa zaoberá skúmaním a vyhodnocovaním komunikácie štandardov LTE-Advance a WiFi (IEEE 802.11n/ac). Pri jednotlivých štandardoch je preskúmaný chybový parameter EVM. Pre prácu s jednotlivými štandardmi je navrhnuté univerzálne pracovisko (testbed). Toto univerzálne pracovisko slúži na nastavovanie vysielacieho a prijímacieho zariadenia a na spracovávanie prenášaných signálov a ich vyhodnocovanie. Pre túto prácu je vybrané prostredie Matlab, cez ktoré sa ovládajú použité prístroje ako...

  13. Estudio comparativo entre redes LTE Advanced y LTE a nivel de CORE.

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Contreras, David Oswaldo

    2017-01-01

    El presente trabajo de titulación contiene un estudio y análisis de las tecnologías LTE y LTE -Advanced a nivel de CORE de voz. Mediante la metodología de investigación descriptiva, se expondrán profundamente las principales características tecnológicas de las redes LTE y LTE Advanced, haciendo un enfoque hacia la arquitectura del CORE de voz y sus principales procesos para la administración de la movilidad, llamadas originadas y llamadas terminadas. Se detallará paso a paso ...

  14. Handover Framework for Relay Enhanced LTE Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teyeb, Oumer Mohammed; Van Phan, Vinh; Raaf, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Relaying is one of the proposed technologies for future releases of UTRAN Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks. Introducing relaying is expected to increase the coverage and capacity of LTE networks. In order to enable relaying, the architecture, protocol and radio resource management procedures...... of LTE, such as handover, have to be modified. A user can be handed over not only between two base stations, but also between relays and base stations, and between two relays. With the introduction of relaying, there is a need for a new procedure to hand over a relay and all its associated users...... to another base station, allowing a flexible and dynamic relay deployment. In this paper, we extend the LTE release 8 handover mechanisms so that it can accommodate these new handover functionalities in a flexible manner....

  15. In situ LTE exposure of the general public: Characterization and extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Günter; Martens, Luc

    2012-09-01

    In situ radiofrequency (RF) exposure of the different RF sources is characterized in Reading, United Kingdom, and an extrapolation method to estimate worst-case long-term evolution (LTE) exposure is proposed. All electric field levels satisfy the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference levels with a maximal total electric field value of 4.5 V/m. The total values are dominated by frequency modulation (FM). Exposure levels for LTE of 0.2 V/m on average and 0.5 V/m maximally are obtained. Contributions of LTE to the total exposure are limited to 0.4% on average. Exposure ratios from 0.8% (LTE) to 12.5% (FM) are obtained. An extrapolation method is proposed and validated to assess the worst-case LTE exposure. For this method, the reference signal (RS) and secondary synchronization signal (S-SYNC) are measured and extrapolated to the worst-case value using an extrapolation factor. The influence of the traffic load and output power of the base station on in situ RS and S-SYNC signals are lower than 1 dB for all power and traffic load settings, showing that these signals can be used for the extrapolation method. The maximal extrapolated field value for LTE exposure equals 1.9 V/m, which is 32 times below the ICNIRP reference levels for electric fields. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The first mouse mutants of D14Abb1e (Fam208a) show that it is critical for early development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harten, S.K.; Bruxner, T.J.; Bharti, V.; Blewitt, M.; Nguyen, T.M.T.; Whitelaw, E.; Epp, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 25, 7-8 (2014), s. 293-303 ISSN 0938-8990 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : embryogenesis * forward genetics * mouse mutant Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.068, year: 2014

  17. Non-LTE line-blanketed model atmospheres of hot stars. 2: Hot, metal-rich white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, T.; Hubeny, I.

    1995-01-01

    We present several model atmospheres for a typical hot metal-rich DA white dwarf, T(sub eff) = 60,000 K, log g = 7.5. We consider pure hydrogen models, as well as models with various abundances of two typical 'trace' elements-carbon and iron. We calculte a number of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE models, taking into account the effect of numerous lines of these elements on the atmospheric structure. We demostrate that while the non-LTE effects are notvery significant for pure hydrogen models, except for describing correctly the central emission in H-alpha they are essential for predicting correctly the ionization balance of metals, such as carbon and iron. Previously reported discrepancies in LTE abundances determinations using C III and C IV lines are easily explained by non-LTE effects. We show that if the iron abundance is larger than 10(exp -5), the iron line opacity has to be considered not only for the spectrum synthesis, but also in the model construction itself. For such metal abundances, non-LTE metal line-blanketed models are needed for detailed abundance studies of hot, metal-rich white dwarfs. We also discuss the predicted Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) spectrum and show that it is very sensitive to metal abundances, as well as to non-LTE effects.

  18. Resilience of LTE networks against smart jamming attacks

    KAUST Repository

    Aziz, Farhan M.; Shamma, Jeff S.; Stuber, Gordon L.

    2014-01-01

    Commercial LTE networks are being studied for mission-critical applications, such as public safety and smart grid communications. In this paper, LTE networks are shown vulnerable to Denial-of-Service (DOS) and loss of service attacks from smart

  19. Wheat TILLING mutants show that the vernalization gene VRN1 down-regulates the flowering repressor VRN2 in leaves but is not essential for flowering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Chen

    Full Text Available Most of the natural variation in wheat vernalization response is determined by allelic differences in the MADS-box transcription factor VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1. Extended exposures to low temperatures during the winter (vernalization induce VRN1 expression and promote the transition of the apical meristem to the reproductive phase. In contrast to its Arabidopsis homolog (APETALA1, which is mainly expressed in the apical meristem, VRN1 is also expressed at high levels in the leaves, but its function in this tissue is not well understood. Using tetraploid wheat lines with truncation mutations in the two homoeologous copies of VRN1 (henceforth vrn1-null mutants, we demonstrate that a central role of VRN1 in the leaves is to maintain low transcript levels of the VRN2 flowering repressor after vernalization. Transcript levels of VRN2 were gradually down-regulated during vernalization in both mutant and wild-type genotypes, but were up-regulated after vernalization only in the vrn1-null mutants. The up-regulation of VRN2 delayed flowering by repressing the transcription of FT, a flowering-integrator gene that encodes a mobile protein that is transported from the leaves to the apical meristem to induce flowering. The role of VRN2 in the delayed flowering of the vrn1-null mutant was confirmed using double vrn1-vrn2-null mutants, which flowered two months earlier than the vrn1-null mutants. Both mutants produced normal flowers and seeds demonstrating that VRN1 is not essential for wheat flowering, which contradicts current flowering models. This result does not diminish the importance of VRN1 in the seasonal regulation of wheat flowering. The up-regulation of VRN1 during winter is required to maintain low transcript levels of VRN2, accelerate the induction of FT in the leaves, and regulate a timely flowering in the spring. Our results also demonstrate the existence of redundant wheat flowering genes that may provide new targets for engineering wheat

  20. On the impact of D2D traffic offloading on energy efficiency in green LTE-A HetNets

    KAUST Repository

    Yaacoub, Elias E.; Ghazzai, Hakim; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Abu-Dayya, Adnan A.

    2014-01-01

    multiple access-based state-of-the-art LTE cellular networks, while taking resource allocation and intercell interference into account. Results show that the proposed approach leads to energy savings for both the operator and the MTs, while leading

  1. VoLTE performance in railway scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Sønderskov, Morten; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R) is the current standard for railway voice and data communication. GSM-R provides railway specific voice services, such as Railway Emergency Call (REC). GSM-R provides also the European Train Control System (ETCS), which offers in-cab signaling and Automatic Train Protection...... (ATP). Despite these features and services, GSM-R has various major shortcomings. Therefore, alternative technologies are considered to replace GSM-R and become the next generation railway mobile communication network. 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a likely candidate for GSM-R replacement. LTE...... is more efficient, flexible and offers much higher capacity, which allows the railway network to provide new communication-based applications for railways. Most of the research on LTE in railways has been focused on data-based railway applications (ETCS signaling and other). Nevertheless, voice...

  2. Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R.I.; Stein, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    Deviations from LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient b is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section αsub(ν) grows with frequency ν faster than ν 2 ; b exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of αsub(ν). Overpopulation (b > 1) always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature. (author)

  3. Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R. I.; Stein, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Deviations for LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section grows with frequency faster than with the square of frequency; it exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of the radiative cross section. Overpopulation always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical-equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature.

  4. System Level Analysis of LTE-Advanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuanye

    This PhD thesis focuses on system level analysis of Multi-Component Carrier (CC) management for Long Term Evolution (LTE)-Advanced. Cases where multiple CCs are aggregated to form a larger bandwidth are studied. The analysis is performed for both local area and wide area networks. In local area...... reduction. Compared to the case of reuse-1, they achieve a gain of 50∼500% in cell edge user throughput, with small or no loss in average cell throughput. For the wide area network, effort is devoted to the downlink of LTE-Advanced. Such a system is assumed to be backwards compatible to LTE release 8, i...... scheme is recommended. It reduces the CQI by 94% at low load, and 79∼93% at medium to high load, with reasonable loss in downlink performance. To reduce the ACK/NACK feedback, multiple ACK/NACKs can be bundled, with slightly degraded downlink throughput....

  5. Improved non-LTE simulation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, Michel; Klapisch, Marcel; Colombant, Denis; Fyfe, David; Gardner, John

    2008-11-01

    The RAdiation Dependent Ionization Model (RADIOM)- a.k.a Busquet's model-[1] has proven its success in simulating non --LTE effects in laser fusion plasmas [2]. This improved algorithm can take into account Auger effect by a new parameter fitted to SCROLL [3] results. It is independent of the photon binning thanks to a projection on a standard grid. It guarantees smoother convergence to LTE. This algorithm has been implemented in a new way in the hydro-code FASTnD. Hydro simulations on the recent subMJ targets[4], with and without non-LTE corrections will be shown. [1] M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids B 5, 4191(1993). [2] D.G. Colombant et al, Phys. Plas. 7,2046 (2000). [3] A. Bar-Shalom, J. Oreg M. Klapisch, J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Transf. 65 ,43 (2000). [4] S. P. Obenschain, D. G. Colombant, A. J. Schmitt et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 056320 (2006).

  6. VoLTE Performance in Railway Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Sønderskov, Morten; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R) is the current standard for railway voice and data communication. GSM-R provides railway specific voice services, such as Railway Emergency Call (REC). GSM-R provides also the European Train Control System (ETCS), which offers in-cab signaling and Automatic Train Protection...... (ATP). Despite these features and services, GSM-R has various major shortcomings. Therefore, alternative technologies are considered to replace GSM-R and become the next generation railway mobile communication network. 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a likely candidate for GSM-R replacement. LTE...... is more efficient, flexible and offers much higher capacity, which allows the railway network to provide new communication-based applications for railways. Most of the research on LTE in railways has been focused on data-based railway applications (ETCS signaling and other). Nevertheless, voice...

  7. Mobility management in LTE heterogeneous networks

    CERN Document Server

    Karandikar, Abhay; Mehta, Mahima

    2017-01-01

    This book is the first of its kind, compiling information on the Long-Term Evolution (LTE) standards, which are enhanced to address new mobility-related challenges in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). It identifies the related challenges and discusses solutions and the simulation methodology for modeling HetNet mobility – cutting-edge information that was previously accessible only in the form of 3GPP specifications and documents, and research papers. The book reviews the current LTE mobility framework and discusses some of the changes for enhancing mobility management in HetNets. It describes the measurement procedures, handover (HO) mechanisms and HO success/failure scenarios. HetNets are intended to provide very high spectral efficiency while ensuring seamless coverage by deploying low-power nodes within the umbrella macrocell network. While mobility management in homogeneous networks is well understood, LTE standards are being enhanced to address the HetNet-specific mobility management challenges emergi...

  8. Wi-Fi Coexistence with Duty Cycled LTE-U

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin Pang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coexistence of Wi-Fi and LTE-Unlicensed (LTE-U technologies has drawn significant concern in industry. In this paper, we investigate the Wi-Fi performance in the presence of duty cycle based LTE-U transmission on the same channel. More specifically, one LTE-U cell and one Wi-Fi basic service set (BSS coexist by allowing LTE-U devices to transmit their signals only in predetermined duty cycles. Wi-Fi stations, on the other hand, simply contend the shared channel using the distributed coordination function (DCF protocol without cooperation with the LTE-U system or prior knowledge about the duty cycle period or duty cycle of LTE-U transmission. We define the fairness of the above scheme as the difference between Wi-Fi performance loss ratio (considering a defined reference performance and the LTE-U duty cycle (or function of LTE-U duty cycle. Depending on the interference to noise ratio (INR being above or below −62 dbm, we classify the LTE-U interference as strong or weak and establish mathematical models accordingly. The average throughput and average service time of Wi-Fi are both formulated as functions of Wi-Fi and LTE-U system parameters using probability theory. Lastly, we use the Monte Carlo analysis to demonstrate the fairness of Wi-Fi and LTE-U air time sharing.

  9. Resource allocation using ANN in LTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Tuncay; Ersoy, Mevlut

    2017-07-01

    LTE is the 4th generation wireless network technology, which provides flexible bandwidth, higher data speeds and lower delay. Difficulties may be experienced upon an increase in the number of users in LTE. The objective of this study is to ensure a faster solution to any such resource allocation problems which might arise upon an increase in the number of users. A fast and effective solution has been obtained by making use of Artificial Neural Network. As a result, fast working artificial intelligence methods may be used in resource allocation problems during operation.

  10. Non-LTE radiation in laser-disk target couply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Peijun; Fei Weibing; Feng Tinggui; Wu Changshu

    2004-11-01

    The coupling of laser-disk target has been studied by Multi-group radiation transfer code RDMGL. The results show that the X-ray spectra are strongly non-LTE and dependent on the atomic model. The plasma states, laser energy absorption and X-ray conversion rates are almost the same as those simulated by three-temperature model code, which fact shows that the three-temperature model is reasonable to describe the exchange of different kinds of energy and the hydrodynamic phenomena of plasmas in laser-target coupling. (authors)

  11. A Multistage Control Mechanism for Group-Based Machine-Type Communications in an LTE System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chien Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When machine-type communication (MTC devices perform the long-term evolution (LTE attach procedure without bit rate limitations, they may produce congestion in the core network. To prevent this congestion, the LTE standard suggests using group-based policing to regulate the maximum bit rate of all traffic generated by a group of MTC devices. However, previous studies on the access point name-aggregate maximum bit rate based on group-based policing are relatively limited. This study proposes a multistage control (MSC mechanism to process the operations of maximum bit rate allocation based on resource-use information. For performance evaluation, this study uses a Markov chain with to analyze MTC application in a 3GPP network. Traffic flow simulations in an LTE system indicate that the MSC mechanism is an effective bandwidth allocation method in an LTE system with MTC devices. Experimental results show that the MSC mechanism achieves a throughput 22.5% higher than that of the LTE standard model using the group-based policing, and it achieves a lower delay time and greater long-term fairness as well.

  12. 'LTE-diffusion approximation' for arc calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowke, J J; Tanaka, M

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of the 'LTE-diffusion approximation' for predicting the properties of electric arcs. Under this approximation, local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) is assumed, with a particular mesh size near the electrodes chosen to be equal to the 'diffusion length', based on D e /W, where D e is the electron diffusion coefficient and W is the electron drift velocity. This approximation overcomes the problem that the equilibrium electrical conductivity in the arc near the electrodes is almost zero, which makes accurate calculations using LTE impossible in the limit of small mesh size, as then voltages would tend towards infinity. Use of the LTE-diffusion approximation for a 200 A arc with a thermionic cathode gives predictions of total arc voltage, electrode temperatures, arc temperatures and radial profiles of heat flux density and current density at the anode that are in approximate agreement with more accurate calculations which include an account of the diffusion of electric charges to the electrodes, and also with experimental results. Calculations, which include diffusion of charges, agree with experimental results of current and heat flux density as a function of radius if the Milne boundary condition is used at the anode surface rather than imposing zero charge density at the anode

  13. Correlation Evaluation on Small LTE Handsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents measurements of the first MIMO handset on the market. It investigates the correlation coefficient computed from coaxial cable measurements and from optical fiber measurements. The results are compared and discussed. The question of the actual feasibility of low correlation...... for the LTE-700 band in small terminals is raised....

  14. Kesiapan Operator Seluler dalam Mengimplementasikan Teknologi Long Term Evolution (LTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ariyanti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui seberapa besar kesiapan operator seluler dalam mengimplementasikan teknologi Long Term Evolution (LTE. Model penelitian dengan menggunakan mengadopsi teknik Net Readiness Framwork. Adapun kriteria pengukurannya terdiri dari Leadership, Governance, Competencies dan Technology. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menyebarkan kuesioner kepada operator seluler di Indonesia dan melakukan wawancara kepada regulator. Kajian ini menggunakan teknik analisis data kuantitatif deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa PT. Axis, PT. HCPT dan PT. Telkomsel mempunyai tingkat kesiapan LTE Visionary yang berarti perusahaan sangat antusias dalam perubahan dan lebih dahulu mengambil resiko untuk mengimplementasikan LTE dalam organisasinya yang merupakan bagian yang tak terpisahkan proses bisnis perusahaan. PT. Indosat dan PT. XL mempunyai nilai kesiapan LTE leader  yang berarti perusahaan mampu mengadaptasi perubahan dan menginspirasi organsiasi lain dalam penerapan LTE. PT. Smartfren pada tingkat kesiapan LTE savvy yang berarti operator seluler memahami sebab dan efek dari perubahan dari munculnya LTE terhadap organisasi, namun belum melakukan adaptasi.

  15. Multiuser Scheduling on the Downlink of an LTE Cellular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Kwan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of scheduling user transmissions on the downlink of a long-term evolution (LTE cellular communication system is addressed. In particular, a novel optimalmultiuser scheduler is proposed. Numerical results show that the system performance improves with increasing correlation among OFDMA subcarriers. It is found that only a limited amount of feedback information is needed to achieve relatively good performance. A suboptimal reduced-complexity scheduler is also proposed and shown to provide good performance. The suboptimal scheme is especially attractive when the number of users is large, in which case the complexity of the optimal scheme is high.

  16. Evaluation of a Cross Layer Scheduling Algorithm for LTE Downlink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Popovska Avramova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The LTE standard is a leading standard in the wireless broadband market. The Radio Resource Management at the base station plays a major role in satisfying users demand for high data rates and quality of service. This paper evaluates a cross layer scheduling algorithm that aims at minimizing the resource utilization. The algorithm makes decisions based on channel conditions, the size of transmission buffers and different quality of service demands. Simulation results show that the new algorithm improves the resource utilization and provides better guarantees for service quality.

  17. Spectrum Sensing Experimentation for LTE and WiFi Unlicensed Band Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Milošević

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available If several different systems operate in the same frequency band, a coordination between them is needed for effective use of the available spectrum. The coordination is especially important if the systems are not designed to operate in such an environment. The very important initial phase of the coordination process is acquiring of the spectrum usage map or spectrum sensing. The paper describes the spectrum sensing experimentation in the unlicensed 5 GHz band during the WiFi or LTE transmission. It describes the experiment workflow and depicts the obtained results. The experiments were performed at NITOS testbed at the University of Thessaly, Greece, and show that it is possible to determine whether WiFi or LTE transmission is sensed. Therefore, based on spectrum sensing it will be possible to coordinate a shared access of WiFi and LTE users in the unlicensed 5 GHz band.

  18. Impact of the traffic load on performance of an alternative LTE railway communication network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2013-01-01

    communication infrastructure supporting railway signaling. This work is based on OPNET realistic network simulations, which show the relation between the traffic load (the number of trains transmitting and receiving data in an LTE cell) and the delay performance of the European Train Control System (ETCS......Although many countries only now begin to invest in deployment of GSM-Railways (GSM-R) networks, this technology is already obsolete and reveals its significant shortcomings. The most troublesome one is the insufficient number of communication channels offered by GSM-R. This is a major problem...... obstructing railway operations at big train stations and junctions. Hence, other technologies, such as Long Term Evolution (LTE), need to be considered as an alternative to GSM-R. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the capacity increase that railways can expect, from the introduction of LTE as internal...

  19. Why is observable radio recombination line emission from galactic HII regions always close to LTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    There is no evidence for significant deviations from LTE in single-dish observations of radio recombination line emission from galactic HII regions. This is in agreement with the known properties of HII regions, particularly their density variations and limited range of excitation parameters; the optimum configuration for strong observable non-LTE effects, low electron density and high emission measure, simply does not exist in galactic HII regions, and the observed lines are emitted under near-LTE conditions. Models of the Orion Nebulae and NGC 6604 are presented which fit all available data and show only weak stimulated emission. It is concluded that reliable electron temperatures can indeed be obtained from straightforward analysis of appropriate radio recombination lines. (orig.)

  20. 3D Multi-Level Non-LTE Radiative Transfer for the CO Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkner, A.; Schweitzer, A.; Hauschildt, P. H.

    2015-01-01

    The photospheres of cool stars are both rich in molecules and an environment where the assumption of LTE can not be upheld under all circumstances. Unfortunately, detailed 3D non-LTE calculations involving molecules are hardly feasible with current computers. For this reason, we present our implementation of the super level technique, in which molecular levels are combined into super levels, to reduce the number of unknowns in the rate equations and, thus, the computational effort and memory requirements involved, and show the results of our first tests against the 1D implementation of the same method.

  1. Relationship between the induction frequency and LTE in inductively coupled plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostaghimi, J.; Boulos, M.I.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of the induction frequency on the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions in an inductively coupled plasma is investigated. Using generators with frequencies ranging from 5 to 56 MHz, a previous study investigated demonstrated the importance of this effect. Their measurements of the excitation temperatures of the iron atomic lines showed a sharp decrease in this temperature as a result of the increase in frequency. Another conclusion was that, all other parameters constant, increase in frequency will help the promotion of non-LTE effects

  2. LTE-advanced a practical systems approach to understanding 3GPP LTE releases 10 and 11 radio access technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Sassan

    2013-01-01

    This book is an in-depth, systematic and structured technical reference on 3GPP's LTE-Advanced (Releases 10 and 11), covering theory, technology and implementation, written by an author who has been involved in the inception and development of these technologies for over 20 years. The book not only describes the operation of individual components, but also shows how they fit into the overall system and operate from a systems perspective. Uniquely, this book gives in-depth information on upper protocol layers, implementation and deployment issues, and services, making it suitable for engine

  3. Coexistence of 3G repeaters with LTE base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Lee, Sang-Min; Hwang, Gyung-Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Repeaters have been an attractive solution for mobile operators to upgrade their wireless networks at low cost and to extend network coverage effectively. Since the first LTE commercial deployment in 2009, many mobile operators have launched LTE networks by upgrading their 3G and legacy networks. Because all 3G frequency bands are shared with the frequency bands for LTE deployment and 3G mobile operators have an enormous number of repeaters, reusing 3G repeaters in LTE networks is definitely a practical and cost-efficient solution. However, 3G repeaters usually do not support spatial multiplexing with multiple antennas, and thus it is difficult to reuse them directly in LTE networks. In order to support spatial multiplexing of LTE, the role of 3G repeaters should be replaced with small LTE base stations or MIMO-capable repeaters. In this paper, a repeater network is proposed to reuse 3G repeaters in LTE deployment while still supporting multilayer transmission of LTE. Interestingly, the proposed network has a higher cluster throughput than an LTE network with MIMO-capable repeaters.

  4. Mice lacking Ras-GRF1 show contextual fear conditioning but not spatial memory impairments: convergent evidence from two independently generated mouse mutant lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele ed'Isa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ras-GRF1 is a neuronal specific guanine exchange factor that, once activated by both ionotropic and metabotropic neurotransmitter receptors, can stimulate Ras proteins, leading to long-term phosphorylation of downstream signaling. The two available reports on the behavior of two independently generated Ras-GRF1 deficient mouse lines provide contrasting evidence on the role of Ras-GRF1 in spatial memory and contextual fear conditioning. These discrepancies may be due to the distinct alterations introduced in the mouse genome by gene targeting in the two lines that could differentially affect expression of nearby genes located in the imprinted region containing the Ras-grf1 locus. In order to determine the real contribution of Ras-GRF1 to spatial memory we compared in Morris Water Maze learning the Brambilla’s mice with a third mouse line (GENA53 in which a nonsense mutation was introduced in the Ras-GRF1 coding region without additional changes in the genome and we found that memory in this task is normal. Also, we measured both contextual and cued fear conditioning, which were previously reported to be affected in the Brambilla’s mice, and we confirmed that contextual learning but not cued conditioning is impaired in both mouse lines. In addition, we also tested both lines for the first time in conditioned place aversion in the Intellicage, an ecological and remotely controlled behavioral test, and we observed normal learning. Finally, based on previous reports of other mutant lines suggesting that Ras-GRF1 may control body weight, we also measured this non-cognitive phenotype and we confirmed that both Ras-GRF1 deficient mutants are smaller than their control littermates. In conclusion, we demonstrate that Ras-GRF1 has no unique role in spatial memory while its function in contextual fear conditioning is likely to be due not only to its involvement in amygdalar functions but possibly to some distinct hippocampal connections specific to

  5. Visualization of electromagnetic exposure near LTE antennae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvezdina, M. Yu; Shokova, Yu A.; Nazarova, O. Yu; Al-Ali, H. T. A.; Al-Farhan, G. H. A.

    2018-01-01

    Technical progress in wireless data transfer has given an opportunity to apply information and communication technologies in various areas of economics. Digital economy is linked to the 4th and 5th generation mobile network deployment. The peculiarities of the abovementioned standards decrease BTS antenna range three times in dense developed areas and worsen electromagnetic background in big cities. In the paper the comparative assessment results for rooftop electromagnetic exposure near BTS LTE and BTS GSM antennae are given. It is shown, that at the same level of transmitter power, energy flux density for LTE standard is three times less than the one for GSM. Moreover, the conclusion is made that the rooftop could be considered safe for people for indefinite time if antenna is placed more than 5 meters above the rooftop. The value of antenna height is taken to be on the safe side, as it is required by an application of “preventive principle”.

  6. Gene Expressing and sRNA Sequencing Show That Gene Differentiation Associates with a Yellow Acer palmatum Mutant Leaf in Different Light Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Shun; Li, Qian-Zhong; Rong, Li-Ping; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Acer palmatum Thunb., like other maples, is a widely ornamental-use small woody tree for leaf shapes and colors. Interestingly, we found a yellow-leaves mutant "Jingling Huangfeng" turned to green when grown in shade or low-density light condition. In order to study the potential mechanism, we performed high-throughput sequencing and obtained 1,082 DEGs in leaves grown in different light conditions that result in A. palmatum significant morphological and physiological changes. A total of 989 DEGs were annotated and clustered, of which many DEGs were found associating with the photosynthesis activity and pigment synthesis. The expression of CHS and FDR gene was higher while the expression of FLS gene was lower in full-sunlight condition; this may cause more colorful substance like chalcone and anthocyanin that were produced in full-light condition, thus turning the foliage to yellow. Moreover, this is the first available miRNA collection which contains 67 miRNAs of A. palmatum, including 46 conserved miRNAs and 21 novel miRNAs. To get better understanding of which pathways these miRNAs involved, 102 Unigenes were found to be potential targets of them. These results will provide valuable genetic resources for further study on the molecular mechanisms of Acer palmatum leaf coloration.

  7. Dynamic Relaying in 3GPP LTE-Advanced Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Phan Vinh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Relaying is one of the proposed technologies for LTE-Advanced networks. In order to enable a flexible and reliable relaying support, the currently adopted architectural structure of LTE networks has to be modified. In this paper, we extend the LTE architecture to enable dynamic relaying, while maintaining backward compatibility with LTE Release 8 user equipments, and without limiting the flexibility and reliability expected from relaying. With dynamic relaying, relays can be associated with base stations on a need basis rather than in a fixed manner which is based only on initial radio planning. Proposals are also given on how to further improve a relay enhanced LTE network by enabling multiple interfaces between the relay nodes and their controlling base stations, which can possibly be based on technologies different from LTE, so that load balancing can be realized. This load balancing can be either between different base stations or even between different networks.

  8. Dynamic Relaying in 3GPP LTE-Advanced Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teyeb, Oumer Mohammed; Van Phan, Vinh; Redana, Simone

    2009-01-01

    Relaying is one of the proposed technologies for LTE-Advanced networks. In order to enable a flexible and reliable relaying support, the currently adopted architectural structure of LTE networks has to be modified. In this paper, we extend the LTE architecture to enable dynamic relaying, while...... maintaining backward compatibility with LTE Release 8 user equipments, and without limiting the flexibility and reliability expected from relaying.With dynamic relaying, relays can be associated with base stations on a need basis rather than in a fixed manner which is based only on initial radio planning....... Proposals are also given on how to further improve a relay enhanced LTE network by enabling multiple interfaces between the relay nodes and their controlling base stations, which can possibly be based on technologies different from LTE, so that load balancing can be realized. This load balancing can...

  9. From LTE to 5G for Connected Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria; Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    been initiated. In this article, we measure how current LTE network implementations perform in comparison with the initial LTE requirements. The target is to identify certain key performance indicators that have suboptimal implementations and therefore lend themselves to careful consideration when...... time, and coverage of four operational LTE networks based on 19,000 km of drive tests covering a mixture of rural, suburban, and urban environments. The measurements have been collected using commercial radio network scanners and measurement smartphones. Even though LTE has low air interface delays......, the measurements reveal that core network delays compromise the overall round-trip time design requirement. LTE's breakbefore- make handover implementation causes a data interruption at each handover of 40 ms at the median level. While this is in compliance with the LTE requirements, and lower values are certainly...

  10. A Wireless Location System in LTE Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qi; Hu, Rongyi; Liu, Shan

    2017-01-01

    Personal location technologies are becoming important with the rapid development of Mobile Internet services. In traditional cellular networks, the key problems of user location technologies are high-precision synchronization among different base stations, inflexible processing resources, and low accuracy positioning, especially for indoor environment. In this paper, a new LTE location system in Centralized Radio Access Network (C-RAN) is proposed, which makes channel and location measurement...

  11. Novel Architecture for LTE World-Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2013-01-01

    The 4th Generation of mobile communications (4G) came with new challenges on the antenna bandwidth and on the front-end architecture of mobile phones. This letter proposes a novel architecture overcoming these challenges. It includes narrow-band tunable antennas, co-designed with a tunable Front-......- End (FE). Simulations and measurements demonstrate the concept for low and high bands of the LTE frequency spectrum....

  12. Improving SC-FDMA performance by Turbo Equalization in UTRA LTE Uplink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardinelli, Gilberto; Priyanto, Basuki Endah; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2008-01-01

    of UTRA Long Term Evolution (LTE) Uplink. The performance is evaluated for 1x2 Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO) antenna configuration in a 6 paths Typical Urban (TU-06) channel profile. For assessment purpose, the results are compared with SC-FDMA MMSE and OFDMA schemes. Simulation results show...

  13. Demonstration of digital fronthaul over self-seeded WDM-PON in commercial LTE environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yiran; Xu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Chengliang; Lin, Huafeng; Wang, Qing; Zhou, Min; Wang, Heng; Yu, Jingwen; Wang, Xiaomu

    2015-05-04

    CPRI between BBU and RRU equipment is carried by self-seeded WDM-PON prototype system within commercial LTE end-to-end environment. Delay and jitter meets CPRI requirements while services demonstrated show the same performance as bare fiber.

  14. Machine-Learning Identification of Airborne UAV-UEs Based on LTE Radio Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amorim, Rafhael Medeiros de; Wigard, Jeroen; Nguyen, Huan Cong

    2017-01-01

    , which use standard LTE measurements from the UE as input, for detecting the presence of airborne users in the network. The algorithms are evaluated based on measurements done with mobile phones attached under a flying drone and on a car. Results are discussed showing the advantages and drawbacks...

  15. Scheduling strategies for LTE uplink with flow behaviour analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, D.C.; Berg, J.L. van den; Litjens, R.; Heijenk, G.

    2010-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a cellular technology developed to support diversity of data traffic at potentially high rates. It is foreseen to extend the capacity and improve the performance of current 3G cellular networks. A key mechanism in the LTE traffic handling is the packet scheduler, which is in charge of allocating resources to active flows in both the frequency and time dimension. In this paper we present a performance comparison of two distinct scheduling schemes for LTE uplink (fa...

  16. Towards a QoE-Driven Resource Control in LTE and LTE-A Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel architecture for providing quality of experience (QoE awareness to mobile operator networks. In particular, we describe a possible architecture for QoE-driven resource control for long-term evolution (LTE and LTE-advanced networks, including a selection of KPIs to be monitored in different network elements. We also provide a description and numerical results of the QoE evaluation process for different data services as well as potential use cases that would benefit from the rollout of the proposed framework.

  17. Exploring the physical layer frontiers of cellular uplink: The Vienna LTE-A Uplink Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöchmann, Erich; Schwarz, Stefan; Pratschner, Stefan; Nagel, Lukas; Lerch, Martin; Rupp, Markus

    Communication systems in practice are subject to many technical/technological constraints and restrictions. Multiple input, multiple output (MIMO) processing in current wireless communications, as an example, mostly employs codebook-based pre-coding to save computational complexity at the transmitters and receivers. In such cases, closed form expressions for capacity or bit-error probability are often unattainable; effects of realistic signal processing algorithms on the performance of practical communication systems rather have to be studied in simulation environments. The Vienna LTE-A Uplink Simulator is a 3GPP LTE-A standard compliant MATLAB-based link level simulator that is publicly available under an academic use license, facilitating reproducible evaluations of signal processing algorithms and transceiver designs in wireless communications. This paper reviews research results that have been obtained by means of the Vienna LTE-A Uplink Simulator, highlights the effects of single-carrier frequency-division multiplexing (as the distinguishing feature to LTE-A downlink), extends known link adaptation concepts to uplink transmission, shows the implications of the uplink pilot pattern for gathering channel state information at the receiver and completes with possible future research directions.

  18. Non-LTE effects on the strength of the Lyman edge in quasar accretion disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoerzer, H.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Allard, F.

    1994-01-01

    We have calculated UV/EUV (300 A which is less than or equal to lambda which is less than or equal to 1500 A) continuous energy distributions of accretion disks in the centers of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) for disk luminosities in the range 0.1 L(sub Edd) less than or equal to L(sub acc) less than 1.0 L(sub Edd) and central masses ranging from 10(exp 8) solar mass to 10(exp 9) solar mass. The vertical gas pressure structure of the disk and the disk height are obtained analytically; the temperature stratification and the resulting continuum radiation fields are calculated numerically. We have included non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) effects of both the ionization equilibrium and the level populations of hydrogen and helium. We show that these non-LTE effects reduce the strength of the Lyman edge when comapred to the LTE case. In non-LTE we find that the edge can be weakly in emission or absorption for disks seen face-on, depending on the disk parameters.

  19. The Effects of a Dynamic Spectrum Access Overlay in LTE-Advanced Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan D. Deaton; Ryan E. lrwin; Luiz A. DaSilva

    2011-05-01

    As early as 2014, wireless network operators spectral capacity will be overwhelmed by a data tsunami brought on by new devices and applications. To augment spectral capacity, operators could deploy a Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) overlay. In the light of the many planned Long Term Evolution (LTE) network deployments, the affects of a DSA overlay have not been fully considered into the existing LTE standards. Coalescing many different aspects of DSA, this paper develops the Spectrum Accountability (SA) framework. The SA framework defines specific network element functionality, protocol interfaces, and signaling flow diagrams for LTE to support service requests and enforce rights of responsibilities of primary and secondary users, respectively. We also include a network simulation to quantify the benefits of using DSA channels to augment capacity. Based on our simulation we show that, network operators can benefit up to %40 increase in operating capacity when sharing DSA bands to augment spectral capacity. With our framework, this paper could serve as an guide in developing future LTE network standards that include DSA.

  20. The Vienna LTE-advanced simulators up and downlink, link and system level simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Rupp, Markus; Taranetz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the Vienna Simulator Suite for 3rd-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)-compatible Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) simulators and presents applications to demonstrate their uses for describing, designing, and optimizing wireless cellular LTE-A networks. Part One addresses LTE and LTE-A link level techniques. As there has been high demand for the downlink (DL) simulator, it constitutes the central focus of the majority of the chapters. This part of the book reports on relevant highlights, including single-user (SU), multi-user (MU) and single-input-single-output (SISO) as well as multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) transmissions. Furthermore, it summarizes the optimal pilot pattern for high-speed communications as well as different synchronization issues. One chapter is devoted to experiments that show how the link level simulator can provide input to a testbed. This section also uses measurements to present and validate fundamental results on orthogonal frequency division multiple...

  1. On the Way towards Fourth-Generation Mobile: 3GPP LTE and LTE-Advanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Martín-Sacristán

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-Term Evolution (LTE is the new standard recently specified by the 3GPP on the way towards fourth-generation mobile. This paper presents the main technical features of this standard as well as its performance in terms of peak bit rate and average cell throughput, among others. LTE entails a big technological improvement as compared with the previous 3G standard. However, this paper also demonstrates that LTE performance does not fulfil the technical requirements established by ITU-R to classify one radio access technology as a member of the IMT-Advanced family of standards. Thus, this paper describes the procedure followed by the 3GPP to address these challenging requirements. Through the design and optimization of new radio access techniques and a further evolution of the system, the 3GPP is laying down the foundations of the future LTE-Advanced standard, the 3GPP candidate for 4G. This paper offers a brief insight into these technological trends.

  2. On the Way towards Fourth-Generation Mobile: 3GPP LTE and LTE-Advanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Sacristán David

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Long-Term Evolution (LTE is the new standard recently specified by the 3GPP on the way towards fourth-generation mobile. This paper presents the main technical features of this standard as well as its performance in terms of peak bit rate and average cell throughput, among others. LTE entails a big technological improvement as compared with the previous 3G standard. However, this paper also demonstrates that LTE performance does not fulfil the technical requirements established by ITU-R to classify one radio access technology as a member of the IMT-Advanced family of standards. Thus, this paper describes the procedure followed by the 3GPP to address these challenging requirements. Through the design and optimization of new radio access techniques and a further evolution of the system, the 3GPP is laying down the foundations of the future LTE-Advanced standard, the 3GPP candidate for 4G. This paper offers a brief insight into these technological trends.

  3. Double-NAT Based Mobility Management for Future LTE Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimzadeh Motallebi Azar, Morteza; Valtulina, Luca; Pras, Aiko; Liebsch, Marco; Taleb, Tarik

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the major modifications required in the current LTE network to realize a decentralized LTE architecture and develop a novel IP mobility management solution for it. The proposed solution can handle traffic redirecting and IP address continuity above the distributed anchor

  4. Potential of dynamic spectrum allocation in LTE macro networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, H.; Ramachandra, P.; Kovacs, I.Z.; Jorguseski, L.; Gunnarsson, F.; Kurner, T.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) worldwide are extensively deploying LTE networks in different spectrum bands and utilising different bandwidth configurations. Initially, the deployment is coverage oriented with macro cells using the lower LTE spectrum bands. As the offered traffic

  5. Studi Pemanfaatan Digital Dividend Untuk Layanan Long Term Evolution (LTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ariyanti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sesuai dengan Permen kominfo No. 22/PER/M/KOMINFO/11/2011 tentang Penyelenggaraan Penyiaran Televisi Digital Terestrial Penerimaan Tetap Tidak Berbayar (Free To Air, pada tahun 2018 semua TV analog migrasi secara penuh ke TV digital. Dengan demikian ada alokasi tersisa sebesar 2 x 45 Mhz FDD yang disebut sebagai digital dividend. Frekuensi tersebut rencananya akan digunakan untuk teknologi LTE. Namun sebelum digelar teknologi LTE pada frekuensi digital dividend tersebut maka perlu dikaji bagaimana penggunaan digital dividend untuk layanan LTE. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hasil perhitungan link budget frekuensi 700 MHz untuk LTE, mengetahui perbandingan kapasitas user pada daerah tipe dense-urban, urban, sub-urban dan rural, mengetahui estimasi jumlah pelanggan LTE, mengetahui jumlah operator LTE optimum dan pembagian bandwidthnya.  Metode penelitian dengan menggunakan studi literatur. Kajian ini menggunakan teknik analisis kuantitatif deskriptif.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jangkauan paling besar yaitu daerah rural kemudian disusul berturut-turut daerah sub urban, dense urban dan urban. Kapasitas user per site dalam 1 Km2 dari urutan terbesar ke kecil berturut-turut yaitu daerah rural, sub urban, urban dan dense urban. Estimasi jumlah pelanggan LTE di Indonesia paling besar yaitu di daerah dense-urban yaitu mencapai 500 user/Km2 pada tahun ke 8. Jumlah operator LTE-700 MHz paling optimum sebanyak 3 operator dengan pembagian bandwidth masing-masing 15 MHz.

  6. Resilience of LTE networks against smart jamming attacks: Wideband model

    KAUST Repository

    Aziz, Farhan M.; Shamma, Jeff S.; Stuber, Gordon L.

    2015-01-01

    communications. We have previously shown that LTE networks are vulnerable to Denial-of-Service (DOS) and loss of service attacks from smart jammers. In this paper, we extend our previous work on resilience of LTE networks to wideband multipath fading channel

  7. Scheduling strategies for LTE uplink with flow behaviour analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, D.C.; Berg, J.L. van den; Litjens, R.; Heijenk, G.

    2010-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a cellular technology developed to support diversity of data traffic at potentially high rates. It is foreseen to extend the capacity and improve the performance of current 3G cellular networks. A key mechanism in the LTE traffic handling is the packet scheduler, which

  8. Scheduling strategies for LTE uplink with flow behaviour analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, D.C.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Litjens, R.; Brogle, Marc; Osipov, Evgeny; Heijenk, Gerhard J.

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a cellular technology developed to support diversity of data traffic at potentially high rates. It is foreseen to extend the capacity and improve the performance of current 3G cellular networks. A key mechanism in the LTE traffic handling is the packet scheduler, which

  9. Capacity gain with an alternative LTE railway communication network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2014-01-01

    , such as 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE). T his paper describe s how to adapt the reversible multi - chain/channel queuing system to model an LTE cell serving ETCS - equipped trains . It is proposed to use the multiple user chains available in the model to represent varying bitrate in LTE radio access network....... Usin g this model , LTE and GSM - R are compare d in terms of capacity on an example at Copenhagen Main Train Station . The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the benefits that railway operators and infrastructure managers can expect from the introduc tion of LTE , as a telecommunication technology...... Control System (ETCS) signaling , the capacity of GSM - R turns out to be insufficient . GSM - R cannot ful fill the railway requirements , in terms of the number of simultaneous ETCS connections . This is why , alternative , more efficient communication technologies should be considered by railways...

  10. Resilience of LTE networks against smart jamming attacks: Wideband model

    KAUST Repository

    Aziz, Farhan M.

    2015-12-03

    LTE/LTE-A networks have been successfully providing advanced broadband services to millions of users worldwide. Lately, it has been suggested to use LTE networks for mission-critical applications like public safety, smart grid and military communications. We have previously shown that LTE networks are vulnerable to Denial-of-Service (DOS) and loss of service attacks from smart jammers. In this paper, we extend our previous work on resilience of LTE networks to wideband multipath fading channel, SINR estimation in frequency domain and computation of utilities based on observable parameters under the framework of single-shot and repeated games with asymmetric information. In a single-shot game formulation, network utility is severely compromised at its solutions, i.e. at the Nash Equilibria (NE). We propose evolved repeated-game strategy algorithms to combat smart jamming attacks that can be implemented in existing deployments using current technology. © 2015 IEEE.

  11. Psychometric properties of the List of Threatening Experiences--LTE and its association with psychosocial factors and mental disorders according to different scoring methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motrico, Emma; Moreno-Küstner, Berta; de Dios Luna, Juan; Torres-González, Francisco; King, Michael; Nazareth, Irwin; Montón-Franco, Carmen; Gilde Gómez-Barragán, María Josefa; Sánchez-Celaya, Marta; Díaz-Barreiros, Miguel Ángel; Vicens, Catalina; Moreno-Peral, Patricia; Bellón, Juan Ángel

    2013-09-25

    The List of Threatening Experiences (LTE) questionnaire is frequently used to assess stressful events; however, studies of its psychometric properties are scarce. We examined the LTE's reliability, factorial structure, construct validity and explored the association between LTE scores and psychosocial variables and mental disorders. This study involved interviewing 5442 primary care attendees from Spain. Associations between four different methods of quantifying LTE scores, psychosocial factors, major depression (CIDI), anxiety disorders (PRIME-MD), alcohol misuse and dependence (AUDIT) were measured. The LTE showed high test-retest reliability (Kappa range=0.61-0.87) and low internal consistency (α=0.44). Tetrachoric factorial analysis yielded four factors (spousal and relational problems; employment and financial problems; personal problems; illness and bereavement in close persons). Logistic multilevel regression found a strong association between greater social support and a lower occurrence of stressful events (OR range=0.36-0.79). The association between religious-spiritual beliefs and the LTE, was weaker. The association between mental disorders and LTE scores was greater for depression (OR range=1.64-2.57) than anxiety (OR range=1.35-1.97), though the highest ORs were obtained with alcohol dependence (OR range=2.86-4.80). The ordinal score (ordinal regression) was more sensitive to detect the strength of association with mental disorders. We are unable to distinguish the direction of the association between stressful events, psychosocial factors and mental disorders, due to our cross-sectional design of the study. The LTE is a valid and reliable measure of stress in mental health, and the strength of association with mental disorders depends on the method of quantifying LTE scores. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Size-density relations in dark clouds: Non-LTE effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloney, P.

    1986-01-01

    One of the major goals of molecular astronomy has been to understand the physics and dynamics of dense interstellar clouds. Because the interpretation of observations of giant molecular clouds is complicated by their very complex structure and the dynamical effects of star formation, a number of studies have concentrated on dark clouds. Leung, Kutner and Mead (1982) (hereafter LKM) and Myers (1983), in studies of CO and NH 3 emission, concluded that dark clouds exhibit significant correlations between linewidth and cloud radius of the form delta v varies as R(0.5) and between mean density and radius of the form n varies as R(-1), as originally suggested by Larson (1981). This result suggests that these objects are in virial equilibrium. However, the mean densities inferred from the CO data of LKM are based on an local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of their 13CO data. At the very low mean densities inferred by LKM for the larger clouds in their samples, the assumption of LTE becomes very questionable. As most of the range in R in the density-size correlation comes from the clouds observed in CO, it seems worthwhile to examine how non-LTE effects will influence the derived densities. Microturbulent models of inhomogeneous clouds of varying central concentration with the linewidth-size and mean density-size relations found by Myers show sub-thermal excitation of the 13CO line in the larger clouds, with the result that LTE analysis considerbly underestimates the actual column density. A more general approach which doesn't require detailed modeling of the clouds is to consider whether the observed T/sub R/*(13CO)/T/sub R/*(12CO) ratios in the clouds studied by LKM are in the range where the LTE-derived optical depths be seriously in error due to sub-thermal excitation of the 13CO molecule

  13. Analysis of LTE 800MHz Network Deployment Strategy%LTE 800MHz网络部署策略分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余扬尧; 陈杨; 杨芙蓉

    2016-01-01

    Starting ifrst with the current mobile user development situation of the three operators, the paper analyzed the necessity of China telecom LTE 800 MHz network construction, the network coverage, terminal market, construction speed, the business competition, and etc., concluded the short-term, mid-term and long-term deployment strategy for LTE 800 MHz.%首先从当前三大运营商的移动业务用户发展情况入手,分析了中国电信LTE 800 MHz网络建设的必要性,对LTE 800 MHz的网络覆盖、终端市场、建设速度、业务竞争等几个方面进行分析,得出了LTE 800 MHz近、中、远期的部署策略。

  14. Voice-Centric LTE Femtocells and Improper Graph Colorings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2012-01-01

    . The investigation revolves around the sensible definition of the underlying graph, i.e. the network model, rather than focusing on the coloring algorithms and their properties. Ultimately, we posit that improper online graph-coloring suffices and is actually preferable. In short, settling for less......This paper addresses carrier-based inter-cell interference coordination (CB-ICIC) among LTE femtocells operating on a single carrier. CB-ICIC is in many ways linked to the widely investigated dynamic channel assignment problem, which is often studied in the context of graph coloring......-than-optimal configurations avoids uncontrolled service interruptions. Such disruptions tend to raise understandable concerns when it comes to fully autonomous selection of operational CCs. Our results dispel such concerns by showing that conservative methods can achieve most of the benefits of unrestricted off-line coloring...

  15. Simulation of non LTE opacity with incoming radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, Marcel; Busquet, Michel

    2009-11-01

    Simulation of radiative properties of hot plasmas is important for ICF, other laboratory plasmas, and astrophysics. When mid-Z or high-Z elements are involved, the spectra are so complex that one commonly uses LTE approximation. This was recently done in interpreting a carefully calibrated experiment on Fe at 160 eV [1]. However some disagreement remains concerning the ion charge distribution. The newest version of HULLAC [2] has the capability to take into account an incoming radiation field in solving the rate equations of the coronal radiative model (CRM). We will show results with different representation of the radiation field.[4pt] [1] J.E. Bailey, G.A. Rochau, C.A. Iglesias, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, (2007) 265002-4.[0pt] [2] M. Klapisch and M. Busquet, High Ener. Dens. Phys. 5, (2009) 105-9.

  16. Fast Control Channel Decoding for LTE UE Power Saving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Jensen, Anders Riis; Mogensen, Preben

    2012-01-01

    in the current TTI. The cost is that some reference signals are not received leading to a degraded channel estimate. Calculations show that this causes an SINR degradation of approximately 0.5 dB, which will result in maximum 4 % throughput loss. Comparing this with energy saving potentials of 5 %-25...... % it is concluded that the FCCD method is a valuable aid to prolong LTE phones' battery lifetime. The results are generated using a two state Markov chain model to simulate traffic and scheduling, and verified mathematically. The work also includes an examination of various data traffic types' on/off relation...... and an evaluation of how the relation affects power consumption. The FCCD method can complement DRX sleep mode since it is applicable when the signal is too aperiodic or fast switching for DRX....

  17. G2019S LRRK2 mutant fibroblasts from Parkinson’s disease patients show increased sensitivity to neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium dependent of autophagy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakhine-Diop, Sokhna M.S.; Bravo-San Pedro, José M.; Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Rodríguez-Arribas, Mario; Climent, Vicente; Aiastui, Ana; López de Munain, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology. It is considered as a multifactorial disease dependent on environmental and genetic factors. Deregulation in cell degradation has been related with a significant increase in cell damage, becoming a target for studies on the PD etiology. In the present study, we have characterized the parkinsonian toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP + )-induced damage in fibroblasts from Parkinson’s patients with the mutation G2019S in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 protein (LRRK2) and control individuals without this mutation. The results reveal that MPP + induces mTOR-dependent autophagy in fibroblasts. Moreover, the effects of caspase-dependent cell death to MPP + were higher in cells with the G2019S LRRK2 mutation, which showed basal levels of autophagy due to the G2019S LRRK2 mutation (mTOR-independent). The inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) treatment reduces these sensitivity differences between both cell types, however, the inhibition of autophagosome–lysosome fusion by bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1) increases these differences. This data confirm the importance of the combination of genetic and environmental factors in the PD etiology. Thereby, the sensitivity to the same damage may be different in function of a genetic predisposition, reason why individuals with certain mutations can develop some early-onset diseases, such as individuals with G2019S LRRK2 mutation and PD

  18. On the impact of D2D traffic offloading on energy efficiency in green LTE-A HetNets

    KAUST Repository

    Yaacoub, Elias E.

    2014-08-11

    In this paper, the interplay between cooperative device-to-device (D2D) communications and green cellular communications in the long term evolution (LTE) and LTE-advanced (LTE-A) cellular systems is investigated. An efficient approach for grouping mobile terminals (MTs) into cooperative clusters is described. In each cluster, MTs cooperate via D2D communications to share content of common interest. In addition, an energy-efficient approach for putting base stations in sleep mode in an LTE-A heterogeneous network is presented. Finally, both methods are combined in order to ensure green communications for both the users\\' MTs and the operator\\'s base stations. The presented techniques are investigated in the framework of orthogonal frequency division multiple access-based state-of-the-art LTE cellular networks, while taking resource allocation and intercell interference into account. Results show that the proposed approach leads to energy savings for both the operator and the MTs, while leading to enhanced quality of service for mobile users. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Non-LTE diagnositics of infrared radiation of Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feofilov, Artem; Rezac, Ladislav; Kutepov, Alexander; Vinatier, Sandrine; Rey, Michael; Nikitin, Andrew; Tyuterev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Yelle (1991) and Garcia-Comas et al, (2011) demonstrated the importance of accounting for the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) breakdown in the middle and upper atmosphere of Titan for the interpretation of infrared radiances measured at these heights. In this work, we make further advance in this field by: • updating the non-LTE model of CH4 emissions in Titan's atmosphere and including a new extended database of CH4 spectroscopic parameters • studying the non-LTE CH4 vibrational level populations and the impact of non-LTE on limb infrared emissions of various CH4 ro-vibrational bands including those at 7.6 and 3.3 µm • implementing our non-LTE model into the LTE-based retrieval algorithm applied by Vinatier et al., (2015) for processing the Cassini/CIRS spectra. We demonstrate that accounting for non-LTE leads to an increase in temperatures retrieved from CIRS 7.6 µm limb emissions spectra (˜10 K at 600 km altitude) and estimate how this affects the trace gas density retrieval. Finally, we discuss the effects of including a large number of weak one-quantum and combinational bands on the calculated daytime limb 3.3 µm emissions and the impact they may have on the CH4 density retrievals from the Cassini VIMS 3.3 µm limb emission observations.

  20. A NON-LTE STUDY OF SILICON ABUNDANCES IN GIANT STARS FROM THE Si i INFRARED LINES IN THE zJ -BAND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Kefeng; Shi, Jianrong; Zhao, Gang; Takada-Hidai, Masahide; Takeda, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of Si i infrared (IR) lines as Si abundance indicators for giant stars. We find that Si abundances obtained from the Si i IR lines based on the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis show large line-to-line scatter (mean value of 0.13 dex), and are higher than those from the optical lines. However, when non-LTE effects are taken into account, the line-to-line scatter reduces significantly (mean value of 0.06 dex), and the Si abundances are consistent with those from the optical lines. The typical average non-LTE correction of [Si/Fe] for our sample stars is about −0.35 dex. Our results demonstrate that the Si i IR lines could be reliable abundance indicators, provided that the non-LTE effects are properly taken into account.

  1. An approximate method to calculate ionization of LTE and non-LTE plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jun; Gu Peijun

    1987-01-01

    When matter, especially high Z element, is heated to high temperature, it will be ionized many times. The degree of ionization has a strong effect on many plasma properties. So an approximate method to calculate the mean ionization degree is needed for solving many practical problems. An analytical expression which is convenient for the approximate numerical calculation is given by fitting it to the scaling law and numerical results of the ionization potential of Thomas-Fermi statistical model. In LTE case, the ionization degree of Au calculated by using the approximate method is in agreement with that of the average ion model. By extending the approximate method to non-LTE case, the ionization degree of Au is similarly calculated according to Corona model and Collision-Radiatoin model(C-R). The results of Corona model agree with the published data quite well, while the results of C-R approach those of Corona model as the density is reduced and approach those of LTE as the density is increased. Finally, all approximately calculated results of ionization degree of Au and the comparision of them are given in figures and tables

  2. Joint time-frequency domain proportional fair scheduler with HARQ for 3GPP LTE systems

    OpenAIRE

    Beh, KC; Doufexi, A; Armour, SMD

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the potential gain of joint diversity in both frequency domain and time domain which can be exploited to achieve spectral efficiency gains whilst simultaneously facilitating QoS/ fairness in an OFDMA system particularly in 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE)). The performance of several joint time-frequency schedulers is investigated. Simulation results show that joint time frequency schedulers achieve significantly superior performance compared to a more conventional time doma...

  3. Data Aggregation and Packet Bundling of Uplink Small Packets for Monitoring Applications in LTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Dong Min; Sørensen, René Brandborg; Mahmood, Kashif

    2017-01-01

    topic. In this article we analyze the deployment scenarios in which aggregators can perform cellular access on behalf of multiple MTC devices. We study the effect of packet bundling at the aggregator, which alleviates overhead and resource waste when sending small packets. The aggregators give rise...... of aggregators and packet bundle size. Our results show that, in general, data aggregation can benefit the uplink massive MTC in LTE by reducing the signaling overhead....

  4. Network performance and fault analytics for LTE wireless service providers

    CERN Document Server

    Kakadia, Deepak; Gilgur, Alexander

    2017-01-01

     This book is intended to describe how to leverage emerging technologies big data analytics and SDN, to address challenges specific to LTE and IP network performance and fault management data in order to more efficiently manage and operate an LTE wireless networks. The proposed integrated solutions permit the LTE network service provider to operate entire integrated network, from RAN to Core , from UE to application service, as one unified system and correspondingly collect and align disparate key metrics and data, using an integrated and holistic approach to network analysis. The LTE wireless network performance and fault involves the network performance and management of network elements in EUTRAN, EPC and IP transport components, not only as individual components, but also as nuances of inter-working of these components. The key metrics for EUTRAN include radio access network accessibility, retainability, integrity, availability and mobility. The key metrics for EPC include MME accessibility, mobility and...

  5. Enhanced cognitive Radio Resource Management for LTE systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail; Shihada, Basem; Shin, Kang G.

    2013-01-01

    as it improves network efficiency by exploiting radio environment information, intelligent optimization algorithms to configure transmission parameters, and mitigate interference. In this paper, we propose a cognitive resource management scheme to adapt LTE

  6. Size-density relations in dark clouds: Non-LTE effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, P.

    1986-01-01

    One of the major goals of molecular astronomy has been to understand the physics and dynamics of dense interstellar clouds. Because the interpretation of observations of giant molecular clouds is complicated by their very complex structure and the dynamical effects of star formation, a number of studies have concentrated on dark clouds. Leung, Kutner and Mead (1982) (hereafter LKM) and Myers (1983), in studies of CO and NH3 emission, concluded that dark clouds exhibit significant correlations between linewidth and cloud radius of the form delta v varies as R(0.5) and between mean density and radius of the form n varies as R(-1), as originally suggested by Larson (1981). This result suggests that these objects are in virial equilibrium. However, the mean densities inferred from the CO data of LKM are based on an local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of their 13CO data. At the very low mean densities inferred by LKM for the larger clouds in their samples, the assumption of LTE becomes very questionable. As most of the range in R in the density-size correlation comes from the clouds observed in CO, it seems worthwhile to examine how non-LTE effects will influence the derived densities. One way to assess the validity of LTE-derived densities is to construct cloud models and then to interpret them in the same way as the observed data. Microturbulent models of inhomogeneous clouds of varying central concentration with the linewidth-size and mean density-size relations found by Myers show sub-thermal excitation of the 13CO line in the larger clouds, with the result that LTE analysis considerbly underestimates the actual column density. A more general approach which doesn't require detailed modeling of the clouds is to consider whether the observed T sub R*(13CO)/T sub R*(12CO) ratios in the clouds studied by LKM are in the range where the LTE-derived optical depths (and hence column densities) can be seriously in error due to sub-thermal excitation of the 13CO

  7. Brazilian cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the List of Threatening Events Questionnaire (LTE-Q).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Patrícia B de; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Pose, Regina A; Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Caetano, Raul; Gaya, Carolina M; Madruga, Clarice S

    2017-01-01

    To perform a construct validation of the List of Threatening Events Questionnaire (LTE-Q), as well as convergence validation by identifying its association with drug use in a sample of the Brazilian population. This is a secondary analysis of the Second Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey (II BNADS), which used a cross-cultural adaptation of the LTE-Q in a probabilistic sample of 4,607 participants aged 14 years and older. Latent class analysis was used to validate the latent trait adversity (which considered the number of events from the list of 12 item in the LTE experienced by the respondent in the previous year) and logistic regression was performed to find its association with binge drinking and cocaine use. The confirmatory factor analysis returned a chi-square of 108.341, weighted root mean square residual (WRMR) of 1.240, confirmatory fit indices (CFI) of 0.970, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) of 0.962, and root mean square error approximation (RMSEA) score of 1.000. LTE-Q convergence validation showed that the adversity latent trait increased the chances of binge drinking by 1.31 time and doubled the chances of previous year cocaine use (adjusted by sociodemographic variables). The use of the LTE-Q in Brazil should be encouraged in different research fields, including large epidemiological surveys, as it is also appropriate when time and budget are limited. The LTE-Q can be a useful tool in the development of targeted and more efficient prevention strategies.

  8. User-Location Aware Downlink Performance Analysis of LTE Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Olaifa, John Olorunfemi

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the performance of Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks, system-level simulation with detailed focus on network related effects such as mobility, scheduling and interference management must be emphasized. Existing studies evaluate user throughput and dimension LTE networks usually assuming uniform distribution of users within the cell. These studies report average user throughputs over the cell and the 5th percentile throughputs as estimates of the performance of the users ...

  9. Random access procedures and radio access network (RAN) overload control in standard and advanced long-term evolution (LTE and LTE-A) networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Thomsen, Henning; Popovski, Petar

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe and discuss the current LTE random access procedure and the Radio Access Network Load Control solution within LTE/LTE-A. We provide an overview of the several considered load control solutions and give a detailed description of the standardized Extended Access Class B...

  10. Non-LTE effects in inertial confinement fusion target chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, J.J.; Moses, G.A.; Peterson, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    In previous studies of transport processes in inertial confinement fusion target chambers, the radiative properties of the background plasma were calculated under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). In this paper, the authors present a study of the equation of state and the radiative properties of high temperature, low-to-moderate density ( 21 cm -3 ) plasmas for the determination of the conditions under which non-LTE effects become important and for an assessment of the importance of non-LTE processes in target chambers during high yield inertial fusion target explosions. For this purpose, two-body (radiative and dielectronic) and three-body (collisional) recombination and de-excitation processes are considered in calculating the steady state ionization and excitation populations. The results of this study indicate that non-LTE processes generally become important at temperatures of > or approx. 1, 10 and 100 eV for plasma densities of 10 18 , 10 19 and 10 21 cm -3 , respectively. Radiation hydrodynamic simulations utilizing the equation of state and the opacities for a non-LTE argon plasma were performed to study the response of a background gas to an inertial fusion target explosion. These calculations indicate that non-LTE processes are often the dominant atomic processes in the background plasma and that they can strongly affect the radiative and shock properties as energy is transported away from the point of the target explosion. (author). 22 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  11. Quad Band Handset Antenna for LTE MIMO and WLAN Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact quad band antenna for long-term evolution (LTE MIMO and WLAN application in the handset is presented in this paper. The proposed antenna comprises two symmetrical quarter wavelength radiating strips and a slotted ground plane. On the ground plane, a T-shaped slot is cut from the bottom. Two symmetrical P-shaped slots are etched at both sides of the ground plane. The radiating strips and slots generate a lower resonant at 780 MHz and an upper resonant at 2.350 GHz to cover LTE 700 Band 14, LTE 2300, 2.4 GHz WLAN, and LTE 2500. A novel isolation technique by placing a rectangular patch between the radiating strips is presented. The rectangular patch creates a dedicated current path for each radiating strip. The proposed antenna has high isolation of less than −18 dBi at LTE 2300, 2.4 GHz WLAN, and LTE 2500 band.

  12. LTE/Wi-Fi Coexistence in 5 GHz ISM Spectrum: Issues, Solutions and Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abinader, Fuad; A. de Sousa Jr., Vicente; Choudhurry, Sayantan

    2018-01-01

    solutions is the aggregation of ISM unlicensed spectrum to licensed bands, using wireless networks defined by IEEE and 3GPP. While Wi-Fi networks are aggregated to LTE small cells via LTE/WLAN Aggregation (LWA), in proposals like LTE-U and LAA-LTE, the LTE air interface itself is used for transmission...... on the unlicensed band. Wi-Fi technology is widespread and also operates in the 5 GHz ISM spectrum bands, which may bring performance issues due to the coexistence of both technologies in the same spectrum band. This work is dedicated to the study of coexistence between LTE and Wi-Fi access systems operating in 5...

  13. Power Saving Scheduling Scheme for Internet of Things over LTE/LTE-Advanced Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Yen-Wei; Chou, Li-Der

    2015-01-01

    The devices of Internet of Things (IoT) will grow rapidly in the near future, and the power consumption and radio spectrum management will become the most critical issues in the IoT networks. Long Term Evolution (LTE) technology will become a promising technology used in IoT networks due to its flat architecture, all-IP network, and greater spectrum efficiency. The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) specified the Discontinuous Reception (DRX) to reduce device’s power consumption. Howev...

  14. [Research on the identification method of LTE condition in the laser-induced plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Juan-juan; Huang, Dan; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Lei; Ma, Wei-guang; Dong, Lei; Yin, Wang-bao; Jia, Suo-tang

    2014-12-01

    Because of the poor accuracy of the commonly used Boltzmann plot method and double-line method, the Boltzmann-Maxwell distribution combined with the Saha-Eggert formula is proposed to improve the measurement accuracy of the plasma temperature; the simple algorithm for determining the linewidth of the emission line was established according to the relationship between the area and the peak value of the Gaussian formula, and the plasma electron density was calculated through the Stark broadening of the spectral lines; the method for identifying the plasma local thermal equilibrium (LTE) condition was established based on the McWhirter criterion. The experimental results show that with the increase in laser energy, the plasma temperature and electron density increase linearly; when the laser energy changes within 127~510 mJ, the plasma electron density changes in the range of 1.30532X10(17)~1.87322X10(17) cm(-3), the plasma temperature changes in the range of 12586~12957 K, and all the plasma generated in this experiment meets the LTE condition threshold according to the McWhirter criterion. For element Al, there exist relatively few observable lines at the same ionization state in the spectral region of the spectrometer, thus it is unable to use the Boltzmann plane method to calculate temperature. One hundred sets of Al plasma spectra were used for temperature measurement by employing the Saha-Boltzmann method and the relative standard deviation (RSD) value is 0.4%, and compared with 1.3% of the double line method, the accuracy has been substantially increased. The methods proposed can be used for rapid plasma temperature and electron density calculation, the LTE condition identification, and are valuable in studies such as free calibration, spectral effectiveness analysis, spectral temperature correction, the best collection location determination, LTE condition distribution in plasma, and so on.

  15. Optimized scheduling technique of null subcarriers for peak power control in 3GPP LTE downlink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soobum; Park, Sang Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) is a key multiple access technique for the long term evolution (LTE) downlink. However, high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) can cause the degradation of power efficiency. The well-known PAPR reduction technique, dummy sequence insertion (DSI), can be a realistic solution because of its structural simplicity. However, the large usage of subcarriers for the dummy sequences may decrease the transmitted data rate in the DSI scheme. In this paper, a novel DSI scheme is applied to the LTE system. Firstly, we obtain the null subcarriers in single-input single-output (SISO) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, respectively; then, optimized dummy sequences are inserted into the obtained null subcarrier. Simulation results show that Walsh-Hadamard transform (WHT) sequence is the best for the dummy sequence and the ratio of 16 to 20 for the WHT and randomly generated sequences has the maximum PAPR reduction performance. The number of near optimal iteration is derived to prevent exhausted iterations. It is also shown that there is no bit error rate (BER) degradation with the proposed technique in LTE downlink system.

  16. Hydrogenic ionization model for mixtures in non-LTE plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djaoui, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Hydrogenic Ionization Model for Mixtures (HIMM) is a non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (non-LTE), time-dependent ionization model for laser-produced plasmas containing mixtures of elements (species). In this version, both collisional and radiative rates are taken into account. An ionization distribution for each species which is consistent with the ambient electron density is obtained by use of an iterative procedure in a single calculation for all species. Energy levels for each shell having a given principal quantum number and for each ion stage of each species in the mixture are calculated using screening constants. Steady-state non-LTE as well as LTE solutions are also provided. The non-LTE rate equations converge to the LTE solution at sufficiently high densities or as the radiation temperature approaches the electron temperature. The model is particularly useful at low temperatures where convergence problems are usually encountered in our previous models. We apply our model to typical situation in x-ray laser research, laser-produced plasmas and inertial confinement fusion. Our results compare well with previously published results for a selenium plasma. (author)

  17. Novel Miniaturized Octaband Antenna for LTE Smart Handset Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel octaband LTE mobile phone antenna is presented, which has a compact size with the overall dimension of 35 mm × 9 mm × 3 mm. The miniaturized octaband antenna is implemented by a simple prototype of three parts which include a folded monopole as feeding element, main radiator element, and parasitic radiator element. The main and parasitic radiator elements are excited by the folded monopole feeding element coupling and shorting to the handset ground plane. A wide bandwidth in low-frequency bands covering from 747 MHz to 960 MHz (LTE Band13/GSM850/GSM900 is contributed by both main and parasitic radiator elements. In addition, the folded monopole is designed to resonate at 2530 MHz, and the coupling between the feeding element and main radiator element is designed to resonate at 1840 MHz. Subsequently, the wide bandwidth in high-frequency bands covering from 1710 MHz to 2690 MHz (DCS1800/PCS1900/WCDMA2100/LTE2300/LTE2500 is contributed by both structures. The antenna has the total efficiency up to 30% in low bands and up to 75% in high bands, respectively. At the same time, the proposed miniaturized octaband LTE mobile phone antenna is fabricated and tested to verify the design.

  18. Voice over LTE via Generic access (Volga) as a possible solution of mobile networks transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Stepaniuk, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    This paper is focused on Voice over LTE via Generic Access Network, which concept is to connect the already existing Mobile Switching Centers to the LTE network via a gateway supporting 2G or 3G voice environment.

  19. Coverage and Capacity Analysis of LTE-M and NB-IoT in a Rural Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Kovács, István; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard

    2016-01-01

    equipped with either of the newly standardized technologies. The study is made for a site specific network deployment of a Danish operator, and the simulation is calibrated using drive test measurements. The results show that LTE-M can provide coverage for 99.9% of outdoor and indoor devices, if the latter......The 3GPP has introduced the LTE-M and NB-IoT User Equipment categories and made amendments to LTE release 13 to support the cellular Internet of Things. The contribution of this paper is to analyze the coverage probability, the number of supported devices, and the device battery life in networks...... is experiencing 10 dB additional loss. However, for deep indoor users NB-IoT is required and provides coverage for about 95% of the users. The cost is support for more than 10 times fewer devices and a 2-6 times higher device power consumption. Thus both LTE-M and NB-IoT provide extended support for the cellular...

  20. Non-LTE model atmosphere analysis of Nova Cygni 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschildt, P. H.; Starrfield, S.; Austin, S.; Wagner, R. M.; Shore, S. N.; Sonneborn, G.

    1994-01-01

    We use spherically symmetric non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE), line-blanketed, expanding model atmospheres to analyze the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) and optical spectra of Nova Cygni 1992 during the early phases of its outburst. We find that the first IUE spectrum obtained just after discovery on 1992 February 20, is best reproduced by a model atmosphere with a steep density gradient and homologous expansion, whereas the IUE and optical spectra obtained on February 24 show an extended, optically thick, wind structure. Therefore, we distinguish two phases of the early evolution of the nova photosphere: the initial, rapid, 'fireball' phase and the subsequent, much longer, optically thick 'wind' phase. The importance of line-blanketing in nova spectra is demonstrated. Our preliminary abundance analysis implies that hydrogen is depeleted in the ejecta, corresponding to abundance enhancements of Fe by a factor of approximately 2 and of CNO by more than a factor of 10 when compared to solar abundances. The synthetic spectra reproduce both the observed pseudo-continua as well as most of the observed features from the UV to the optical spectral range and demonstrate the importance of obtaining nearly simultaneous UV and optical spectra for performing accurate analyses of expanding stellar atmospheres (for both novae and supernovae).

  1. A high linearity downconverter for SAW-less LTE receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Peichen; Guan Rui; Wang Wufeng; Chen Dongpo; Zhou Jianjun

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a high linearity downconverter implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS process for long term evolution (LTE) receivers without a surface acoustic wave (SAW) filter. The proposed downconverter is composed of a transconductance (G m ) stage, a passive mixer, a current buffer, a transimpedance (TIA) stage, and a DC-offset cancellation (DCOC) loop. The current buffer is utilized to provide very low load impedance for the passive mixer at high frequencies and reduce the output voltage swing induced by out-of-band blockers. This technique improves the input referred third-order intercept point (IIP3) and second-order intercept point (IIP2) of the down-converter by 4.5 dB and 11 dB, respectively. The measured results show that the proposed downconverter achieves a voltage conversion gain of 29.5 dB, double sideband noise figure of 12.7 dB, out-of-band IIP3 of 13 dBm and IIP2 of more than 62 dBm.

  2. Highly Compact MIMO Antenna System for LTE/ISM Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingsheng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Planar monopole antenna is proposed as the antenna element to form a compact dual-element multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO antenna system for LTE2300 (used in Asia and Africa and ISM band operation. The system can cover a 310 MHz (2.20–2.51 GHz operating bandwidth, with the total size of 15.5 mm × 18 mm × 1.6 mm. Measured isolation higher than 16 dB is obtained without any specially designed decoupling structures, while the edge-to-edge element spacing is only 7.8 mm (0.08λ at 2.20 GHz. Radiation characteristics, correlation coefficient, and the performance of the whole system with a metal sheet and a plastic housing show this system is competitive for practical MIMO applications. The antenna element is further used to build an eight-element MIMO antenna system; also good results are achieved.

  3. Non-LTE Stellar Population Synthesis of Globular Clusters Using Synthetic Integrated Light Spectra. I. Constructing the IL Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mitchell. E.; Short, C. Ian

    2017-02-01

    We present an investigation of the globular cluster population synthesis method of McWilliam & Bernstein, focusing on the impact of non-LTE (NLTE) modeling effects and color-magnitude diagram (CMD) discretization. Johnson-Cousins-Bessel U - B, B-V, V-I, and J-K colors are produced for 96 synthetic integrated light (IL) spectra with two different discretization prescriptions and three degrees of NLTE treatment. These color values are used to compare NLTE- and LTE-derived population ages. Relative contributions of different spectral types to the IL spectra for different wavebands are measured. IL NLTE spectra are shown to be more luminous in the UV and optical than LTE spectra, but show stronger absorption features in the IR. The main features showing discrepancies between NLTE and LTE IL spectra may be attributed to light metals, primarily Fe I, Ca I, and Ti I, as well as TiO molecular bands. Main-sequence stars are shown to have negligible NLTE effects at IR wavelengths compared to more evolved stars. Photometric color values are shown to vary at the millimagnitude level as a function of CMD discretization. Finer CMD sampling for the upper main sequence and turnoff, base of the red giant branch, and the horizontal branch minimizes this variation. Differences in ages derived from LTE and NLTE IL spectra are found to range from 0.55 to 2.54 Gyr, comparable to the uncertainty in GC ages derived from color indices with observational uncertainties of 0.01 mag, the limiting precision of the Harris catalog.

  4. Pricing Resources in LTE Networks through Multiobjective Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yung-Liang; Jiang, Jehn-Ruey

    2014-01-01

    The LTE technology offers versatile mobile services that use different numbers of resources. This enables operators to provide subscribers or users with differential quality of service (QoS) to boost their satisfaction. On one hand, LTE operators need to price the resources high for maximizing their profits. On the other hand, pricing also needs to consider user satisfaction with allocated resources and prices to avoid “user churn,” which means subscribers will unsubscribe services due to dissatisfaction with allocated resources or prices. In this paper, we study the pricing resources with profits and satisfaction optimization (PRPSO) problem in the LTE networks, considering the operator profit and subscribers' satisfaction at the same time. The problem is modelled as nonlinear multiobjective optimization with two optimal objectives: (1) maximizing operator profit and (2) maximizing user satisfaction. We propose to solve the problem based on the framework of the NSGA-II. Simulations are conducted for evaluating the proposed solution. PMID:24526889

  5. Improvements to the RADIOM non-LTE model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, M.; Colombant, D.; Klapisch, M.; Fyfe, D.; Gardner, J.

    2009-12-01

    In 1993, we proposed the RADIOM model [M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids 85 (1993) 4191] where an ionization temperature T z is used to derive non-LTE properties from LTE data. T z is obtained from an "extended Saha equation" where unbalanced transitions, like radiative decay, give the non-LTE behavior. Since then, major improvements have been made. T z has been shown to be more than a heuristic value, but describes the actual distribution of excited and ionized states and can be understood as an "effective temperature". Therefore we complement the extended Saha equation by introducing explicitly the auto-ionization/dielectronic capture. Also we use the SCROLL model to benchmark the computed values of T z.

  6. LTE for Railways: Impact on Performance of ETCS Railway Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2014-01-01

    The Global System for Mobile Communications-Railways (GSM-R) is an obsolete mobile technology with considerable shortcomings in terms of capacity and data transmission capabilities. Because of these shortcomings, GSM-R is becoming the element limiting the number of running trains in areas with high...... train concentration, such as major train stations. Moreover, GSM-R cannot support advanced data services. Hence, modern technologies, such as long-term evolution (LTE), have to be evaluated as possible railway communication technologies to replace GSM-R in the future. This article analyzes...... the characteristics of the LTE railway radio access network in terms of eNodeB (LTE base station) density and eNodeB transmission power. Based on this analysis, a set of computer-based simulation scenarios (e.g., OPNET) with varying numbers of eNodeBs is evaluated regarding the achieved transfer delay and data...

  7. Pricing resources in LTE networks through multiobjective optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yung-Liang; Jiang, Jehn-Ruey

    2014-01-01

    The LTE technology offers versatile mobile services that use different numbers of resources. This enables operators to provide subscribers or users with differential quality of service (QoS) to boost their satisfaction. On one hand, LTE operators need to price the resources high for maximizing their profits. On the other hand, pricing also needs to consider user satisfaction with allocated resources and prices to avoid "user churn," which means subscribers will unsubscribe services due to dissatisfaction with allocated resources or prices. In this paper, we study the pricing resources with profits and satisfaction optimization (PRPSO) problem in the LTE networks, considering the operator profit and subscribers' satisfaction at the same time. The problem is modelled as nonlinear multiobjective optimization with two optimal objectives: (1) maximizing operator profit and (2) maximizing user satisfaction. We propose to solve the problem based on the framework of the NSGA-II. Simulations are conducted for evaluating the proposed solution.

  8. Pricing Resources in LTE Networks through Multiobjective Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Liang Lai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The LTE technology offers versatile mobile services that use different numbers of resources. This enables operators to provide subscribers or users with differential quality of service (QoS to boost their satisfaction. On one hand, LTE operators need to price the resources high for maximizing their profits. On the other hand, pricing also needs to consider user satisfaction with allocated resources and prices to avoid “user churn,” which means subscribers will unsubscribe services due to dissatisfaction with allocated resources or prices. In this paper, we study the pricing resources with profits and satisfaction optimization (PRPSO problem in the LTE networks, considering the operator profit and subscribers' satisfaction at the same time. The problem is modelled as nonlinear multiobjective optimization with two optimal objectives: (1 maximizing operator profit and (2 maximizing user satisfaction. We propose to solve the problem based on the framework of the NSGA-II. Simulations are conducted for evaluating the proposed solution.

  9. Adaptive Modulation and Coding for LTE Wireless Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, S. S.; Tiong, T. C.

    2015-04-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is the new upgrade path for carrier with both GSM/UMTS networks and CDMA2000 networks. The LTE is targeting to become the first global mobile phone standard regardless of the different LTE frequencies and bands use in other countries barrier. Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) is used to increase the network capacity or downlink data rates. Various modulation types are discussed such as Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK), Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). Spatial multiplexing techniques for 4×4 MIMO antenna configuration is studied. With channel station information feedback from the mobile receiver to the base station transmitter, adaptive modulation and coding can be applied to adapt to the mobile wireless channels condition to increase spectral efficiencies without increasing bit error rate in noisy channels. In High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) in Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), AMC can be used to choose modulation types and forward error correction (FEC) coding rate.

  10. LTE HetNet Mobility Performance Through Emulation with Commercial Smartphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Riis; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Lauridsen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a laboratory emulation setup for evaluation of Long Term Evolution (LTE) mobility performance in a co-channel heterogeneous network (HetNet). The setup consists of two eNodeB emulators, signal faders and release 9 LTE User Equipment (UE). It is shown how the LTE HetNet ...

  11. Software Defined Networking to support IP address mobility in future LTE network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimzadeh Motallebi Azar, Morteza; Valtulina, Luca; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Pras, Aiko; Liebsch, Marco; Taleb, Tarik

    2017-01-01

    The existing LTE network architecture dose not scale well to increasing demands due to its highly centralized and hierarchical composition. In this paper we discuss the major modifications required in the current LTE network to realize a decentralized LTE architecture. Next, we develop two IP

  12. Reducing LTE Uplink Transmission Energy by Allocating Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Jensen, Anders Riis; Mogensen, Preben

    2011-01-01

    The effect of physical resource block (PRB) allocation on an LTE modem's transmit power and total modem energy consumption is examined. In this paper the uplink resource blocks are scheduled in either a Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) or Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) manner......, to determine if low transmission power & long transmission time or high transmission power & short transmission time is most energy efficient. It is important to minimize the LTE modem's energy consumption caused by uplink transmission because it affects phone battery time, and because researchers rarely focus...

  13. Predicted continuum spectra of type II supernovae - LTE results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaviv, G.; Wehrse, R.; Wagoner, R. V.

    1985-01-01

    The continuum spectral energy distribution of the flux emerging from type II supernovae is calculated from quasi-static radiative transfer through a power-law density gradient, assuming radiative equilibrium and LTE. It is found that the Balmer jump disappears at high effective temperatures and low densities, while the spectrum resembles that of a dilute blackbody but is flatter with a sharper cutoff at the short-wavelength end. A significant UV excess is found in all models calculated. The calculation should be considered exploratory because of significant effects which are anticipated to arise from departure from LTE.

  14. Synchronized RACH-less Handover Solution for LTE Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbera, Simone; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Rosa, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    reductions in the data connectivity interruption time at each handover, no need for random access in the target cell, and reduced overall handover execution time. Laboratory handover measurement results, using commercial LTE equipment, are presented and analyzed to justify the latency benefits......Some of the most recent LTE features require synchronous base stations, and time-synchronized base stations also offer opportunities for improved handover mechanisms by introducing a new synchronized RACH-less handover scheme. The synchronized RACH-less handover solution offers significant...

  15. Power-Consumption Measurements for LTE User Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads

    wireless communications test set and the Agilent N6705B DC power analyzer to establish a power consumption model for LTE user equipment (UE). The model is useful when you need to examine the UE battery life in system-level simulations. We will explain how the Agilent equipment can be used in manual tests......, but we do not discuss how to make automated tests (for example, using VEE software). In this application note, we analyze smartphones adhering to the 3GPP LTE standard [1]....

  16. LTE modem power consumption, SAR and RF signal strength emulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musiige, Deogratius; Vincent, Laulagnet; Anton, François

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for emulating the LTE modem power consumption, emitted SAR and RF signal strength when transmitting an LTE signal. The inputs of the methodology are: modem logical/protocol commands, time advance, near-field specifier, and antenna characteristics. The power...... emulation model(s) are computed by a two layer 451 neural network based on physical power measurements. SAR is emulated by polynomial interpolation models based on FDTD simulations. The accuracies of the mathematical function approximations for the emulation models of power and SAR are 5.19% and 3...

  17. Uplink scheduling and adjacent-channel coupling loss analysis for TD-LTE deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Moon, Sung Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    TD-LTE, one of the two duplexing modes in LTE, operates in unpaired spectrum and has the advantages of TDD-based technologies. It is expected that TD-LTE will be more rapidly deployed in near future and most of WiMax operators will upgrade their networks to TD-LTE gradually. Before completely upgrading to TD-LTE, WiMax may coexist with TD-LTE in an adjacent frequency band. In addition, multiple TD-LTE operators may deploy their networks in adjacent bands. When more than one TDD network operates in adjacent frequency bands, severe interference may happen due to adjacent channel interference (ACI) and unsynchronized operations. In this paper, coexistence issues between TD-LTE and other systems are analyzed and coexistence requirements are provided. This paper has three research objectives. First, frame synchronization between TD-LTE and WiMax is discussed by investigating possible combinations of TD-LTE and WiMax configurations. Second, an uplink scheduling algorithm is proposed to utilize a leakage pattern of ACI in synchronized operations. Third, minimum requirements for coexistence in unsynchronized operations are analyzed by introducing a concept of adjacent-channel coupling loss. From the analysis and simulation results, we can see that coexistence of TD-LTE with other TDD systems is feasible if the two networks are synchronized. For the unsynchronized case, some special cell-site engineering techniques may be required to reduce the ACI.

  18. Cloudified Mobility and Bandwidth Prediction in Virtualized LTE Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Zongliang; Karimzadeh Motallebi Azar, Morteza; Braun, Torsten; Pras, Aiko; van den Berg, Hans Leo

    Network Function Virtualization involves implementing network functions (e.g., virtualized LTE component) in software that can run on a range of industry standard server hardware, and can be migrated or instantiated on demand. A prediction service hosted on cloud infrastructures enables consumers to

  19. Modeling and Simulation of Downlink Subcarrier Allocation Schemes in LTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The efficient utilization of the air interface in the LTE standard is achieved through a combination of subcarrier allocation schemes, adaptive modulation and coding, and transmission power allotment. The scheduler in the base station has a major role in achieving the required QoS and the overall...

  20. MIH based mobility for TETRA-LTE network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovska Avramova, Andrijana

    2013-01-01

    TETRA is a digital trunked mobile radio standard, devel- oped to meet the needs of traditional Professional Mobile Radio user or-ganizations. As TETRA does not provide for broadband services, many companies are looking into integration of LTE and TETRA in order to provide support for real time mu...

  1. Heterogeneous LTE-Advanced Network Expansion for 1000x Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Liang; Sanchez, Maria Laura Luque; Maternia, Michal

    2013-01-01

    this paper studies LTE (Long-Term Evolution)-Advanced heterogeneous network expansion in a dense urban environment for a 1000 times capacity increase and a 10 times increase in minimum user data rate requirements. The radio network capacity enhancement via outdoor and indoor small cell densificat...

  2. Performance of Uplink Carrier Aggregation in LTE-Advanced Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Carrier aggregation (CA) has been proposed to aggregate two or more component carriers (CCs) to support a much wider transmission bandwidth for LTE-Advanced systems. With carrier aggregation, it is possible to schedule a user equipment (UE) on multiple component carriers simultaneously. In this p...

  3. TD-LTE maritime trunking communication system based on TVWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chunxiang; Chen, Xing; Li, Wanchao; Chen, Baodan

    2014-10-01

    This paper collects the measurement results of 470 MHZ-960MHZ spectrum in the coastal areas, and analyzes the characteristics of TV broadcast spectrum occupancy in the measurement region. Moreover, this article proposes construct the TD-LTE maritime trunking communication system using geolocation database, television database (TVDB) and cognitive radio (CR) technology.

  4. RRM Strategies in LTE&WiMAX Interworking System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Anna; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert

    , that could be applied in 4G systems (LTE interworking with WiMAX is considered). Furthermore, it will also discuss the Radio Resource Management (RRM) problem addressing the challenges of designing a RRM system for such a multi-RAT wireless environment. Different functionalities and possibilities...

  5. Influence of condensed species on thermo-physical properties of LTE and non-LTE SF6-Cu mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhexin; Wu, Yi; Yang, Fei; Sun, Hao; Rong, Mingzhe; Wang, Chunlin

    2017-10-01

    SF6-Cu mixture is frequently formed in high-voltage circuit breakers due to the electrode erosion and metal vapor diffusion. During the interruption process, the multiphase effect and deviation from local thermal equilibrium (non-LTE assumption) can both affect the thermo-physical of the arc plasma and further influence the performance of circuit breaker. In this paper, thermo-physical properties, namely composition, thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients are calculated for multiphase SF6-Cu mixture with and without LTE assumption. The composition is confirmed by combining classical two-temperature mass action law with phase equilibrium condition deduced from second law of thermodynamics. The thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients are calculated using the multiphase composition result. The influence of condensed species on thermo-physical properties is discussed at different temperature, pressure (0.1-10 atm), non-equilibrium degrees (1-10), and copper molar proportions (0-50%). It is found that the multiphase effect has significant influence on specific enthalpy, specific heat and heavy species thermal conductivity in both LTE and non-LTE SF6-Cu system. This paper provides a more accurate database for computational fluid dynamic calculation.

  6. Isozyme differences in barley mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AI-Jibouri, A A.M.; Dham, K M [Department of Botany, Nuclear Research Centre, Baghdad (Iraq)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Thirty mutants (M{sub 11}) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) induced by physical and chemical mutagens were analysed for isozyme composition using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results show that these mutants were different in the isozymes leucine aminopeptidase, esterase and peroxidase. The differences included the number of forms of each enzyme, relative mobility value and their intensity on the gel. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozyme was found in six molecular forms and these forms were similar in all mutants. (author)

  7. Isozyme differences in barley mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AI-Jibouri, A.A.M.; Dham, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Thirty mutants (M 11 ) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) induced by physical and chemical mutagens were analysed for isozyme composition using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results show that these mutants were different in the isozymes leucine aminopeptidase, esterase and peroxidase. The differences included the number of forms of each enzyme, relative mobility value and their intensity on the gel. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozyme was found in six molecular forms and these forms were similar in all mutants. (author)

  8. Anonymous authentication and location privacy preserving schemes for LTE-A networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Jabr Haddad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Long Term Evaluation Advanced (LTE-A is the third generation partnership project for cellular network that allows subscribers to roam into networks (i.e., the Internet and wireless connections using spacial purpose base-stations, such as wireless access points and home node B. In such LTE-A based networks, neither base-stations, nor the Internet and wireless connections are trusted because base-stations are operated by un-trusted subscribers. Attackers may exploit these vulnerabilities to violate the privacy of the LTE-A subscribers. On the other hand, the tradeoff between privacy and authentication is another challenge in such networks. Therefore, in this paper, we propose two anonymous authentication schemes based on one-time pseudonymes and Schnorr Zero Knowledge Protocols. Instead of the international mobile subscriber identity, these schemes enable the user equipment, base-stations and mobility management entity to mutually authenticate each others and update the location of the user equipment without evolving the home subscriber server. The security analysis demonstrate that the proposed schemes thwart security and privacy attacks, such as malicious, international mobile subscriber identity catching, and tracking attacks. Additionally, our proposed schemes preserve the location privacy of user equipment since no entity except the mobility management entity and Gate-Way Mobile Location Center can link between the pseudonymes and the international mobile subscriber identity. Also attackers have no knowledge about international mobile subscriber identity. Hence, the proposed schemes achieve backward/forward secrecy. Furthermore, the performance evaluation shows that the proposed handover schemes impose a small overhead on the mobile nodes and it has smaller computation and communication overheads than those in other schemes.

  9. Evaluating TCMS Train-to-Ground communication performances based on the LTE technology and discreet event simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouaziz, Maha; Yan, Ying; Kassab, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    is shared between the train and different passengers. The simulation is based on the discrete-events network simulator Riverbed Modeler. Next, second step focusses on a co-simulation testbed, to evaluate performances with real traffic based on Hardware-In-The-Loop and OpenAirInterface modules. Preliminary...... (Long Term Evolution) network as an alternative communication technology, instead of GSM-R (Global System for Mobile communications-Railway) because of some capacity and capability limits. First step, a pure simulation is used to evaluate the network load for a high-speed scenario, when the LTE network...... simulation and co-simulation results show that LTE provides good performance for the TCMS traffic exchange in terms of packet delay and data integrity...

  10. Evaluation of Potential Relay Locations in a Urban Macro-Cell Scenario with Applicability to LTE-A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Ignacio; Coletti, Claudio; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2012-01-01

    . This paper presents a measurement-based study focusing on the performance evaluation of the relay backhaul link for different potential relay locations and antenna configurations in a real urban macro-cell scenario. Based on the assumption that a similar network deployment would apply for LTE-A, a fully......Relay base stations are expected to play an important role in extending coverage for beyond 3G networks, such as LTE-A. However, the signal quality experienced on the backhaul link between the macro-cell and the relay node has a major impact on the performance of the multi-hop transmission...... operational 3G network has been used for measuring both received signal strength and Signal-to-Interference-Ratio (SIR). Furthermore, the results have been used to estimate the performance of the multi-hop transmission under simplifying assumptions. The experimental results show that by increasing the relay...

  11. Evaluation of tall rice mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    One tall mutant (Mut NS1) of rice variety Nizersail was put to multilocation on-farm trial. It showed improvement over the parent in respect of by earlier maturity and higher grain yield at all locations and thus it appears as an improved mutant of Nizersail. (author). 6 refs

  12. Acoustic waves in the solar atmosphere. VII - Non-grey, non-LTE H(-) models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, F.; Ulmschneider, P.; Kalkofen, W.

    1985-01-01

    The propagation and shock formation of radiatively damped acoustic waves in the solar chromosphere are studied under the assumption that H(-) is the only absorber; the opacity is non-grey. Deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) are permitted. The results of numerical simulations show the depth dependence of the heating by the acoustic waves to be insensitive to the mean state of the atmosphere. After the waves have developed into shocks, their energy flux decays exponentially with a constant damping length of about 1.4 times the pressure scale height, independent of initial flux and wave period. Departures from LTE have a strong influence on the mean temperature structure in dynamical chromosphere models; this is even more pronounced in models with reduced particle density - simulating conditions in magnetic flux tubes - which show significantly increased temperatures in response to mechanical heating. When the energy dissipation of the waves is sufficiently large to dissociate most of the H(-) ions, a strong temperature rise is found that is reminiscent of the temperature structure in the transition zone between chromosphere and corona; the energy flux remaining in the waves then drives mass motions.

  13. Resilience of LTE networks against smart jamming attacks

    KAUST Repository

    Aziz, Farhan M.

    2014-12-08

    Commercial LTE networks are being studied for mission-critical applications, such as public safety and smart grid communications. In this paper, LTE networks are shown vulnerable to Denial-of-Service (DOS) and loss of service attacks from smart jammers, who may employ simple narrowband jamming techniques to attack without any need to hack the network or its users. We modeled the utilities of jamming and anti-jamming actions played by the jammer and the network under the framework of single-shot and repeated Bayesian games. In a single-shot game formulation the only Nash Equilibria (NE) are pure strategy equilibria at which network utility is severely compromised. We propose a repeated-game learning and strategy algorithm for the network that outperforms single-shot games by a significant margin. Furthermore, all of our proposed actions and algorithms can be implemented with current technology.

  14. Design and optimization of LTE 1800 MIMO antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Huey Shin; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Kibria, Salehin

    2014-01-01

    A multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) antenna that comprises a printed microstrip antenna and a printed double-L sleeve monopole antenna for LTE 1800 wireless application is presented. The printed double-L sleeve monopole antenna is fed by a 50 ohm coplanar waveguide (CPW). A novel T-shaped microstrip feedline printed on the other side of the PCB is used to excite the waveguide's outer shell. Isolation characteristics better than -15 dB can be obtained for the proposed MIMO antenna. The proposed antenna can operate in LTE 1800 (1710 MHz-1880 MHz). This antenna exhibits omnidirectional characteristics. The efficiency of the antenna is greater than 70% and has high gain of 2.18 dBi.

  15. Using LTE Networks for UAV Command and Control Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Huan Cong; Amorim, Rafhael Medeiros de; Wigard, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the ability of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) network to provide coverage for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in a rural area, in particular for the Command and Control (C2) downlink. The study takes into consideration the dependency of the large-scale path loss on the hei......In this paper we investigate the ability of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) network to provide coverage for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in a rural area, in particular for the Command and Control (C2) downlink. The study takes into consideration the dependency of the large-scale path loss...... on the height of the UAV, which is derived from actual measurements, and a real-world cellular network layout and configuration. The results indicate that interference is the dominant factor limiting the cellular coverage for UAVs in the downlink: outage level increases from 4.2% at 1.5 m height to 51.7% at 120...

  16. Capacity planning for Carrier Ethernet LTE backhaul networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Checko, Aleksandra; Ellegaard, Lars; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2012-01-01

    With the introduction of LTE networks operators need to plan a new, IP-based mobile backhaul. In this paper, we provide recommendation on dimensioning LTE backhaul networks links using three methods: delay-, dimensioning formula- and overbooking factor-based. Results are obtained from OPNET simul...... and verified. Simulation in this work proves that Carrier Ethernet, one of the candidate technologies for mobile backhaul, protects the network from users that want to flood the network with their data and manages to keep the delay experienced by other users low....... simulations with traffic model based on traffic forecast for 2015. A delay-based approach gives recommended bandwidth for expected number of users. A dimensioning formula is proposed to calculate link bandwidth when mean value of aggregated traffic in the network is known. An overbooking factor is calculated...

  17. Self-Optimization of LTE Networks Utilizing Celnet Xplorer

    CERN Document Server

    Buvaneswari, A; Polakos, Paul; Buvaneswari, Arumugam

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet demanding performance objectives in Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks, it is mandatory to implement highly efficient, autonomic self-optimization and configuration processes. Self-optimization processes have already been studied in second generation (2G) and third generation (3G) networks, typically with the objective of improving radio coverage and channel capacity. The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standard for LTE self-organization of networks (SON) provides guidelines on self-configuration of physical cell ID and neighbor relation function and self-optimization for mobility robustness, load balancing, and inter-cell interference reduction. While these are very important from an optimization perspective of local phenomenon (i.e., the eNodeB's interaction with its neighbors), it is also essential to architect control algorithms to optimize the network as a whole. In this paper, we propose a Celnet Xplorer-based SON architecture that allows detailed analysis of network performan...

  18. Lessons from the use of genetically modified Drosophila melanogaster in ecological studies: Hsf mutant lines show highly trait-specific performance in field and laboratory thermal assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Loeschcke, Volker; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård

    2009-01-01

    . 2.  We have tested the importance of inducible heat shock proteins (Hsps) under different thermal conditions using two heat shock factor (Hsf) mutant lines (either able (Hsf+) or unable (Hsf0) to mount a heat stress response) and an outbred laboratory adapted wild-type line of Drosophila......1.  Laboratory studies on genetically modified strains may reveal important information on mechanisms involved in coping with thermal stress. However, to address the evolutionary significance of specific genes or physiological mechanisms, ecologically relevant field tests should also be performed...

  19. Design, deployment and performance of 4G-LTE networks a practical approach

    CERN Document Server

    ElNashar, Ayman; Sherif, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an insight into the key practical aspects and best practice of 4G-LTE network design, performance, and deployment Design, Deployment and Performance of 4G-LTE Networks addresses the key practical aspects and best practice of 4G networks design, performance, and deployment. In addition, the book focuses on the end-to-end aspects of the LTE network architecture and different deployment scenarios of commercial LTE networks. It describes the air interface of LTE focusing on the access stratum protocol layers: PDCP, RLC, MAC, and Physical Layer. The air interface described in this book covers the concepts of LTE frame structure, downlink and uplink scheduling, and detailed illustrations of the data flow across the protocol layers. It describes the details of the optimization process including performance measurements and troubleshooting mechanisms in addition to demonstrating common issues and case studies based on actual field results. The book provides detailed performance analysis of key fe...

  20. Non-LTE line-blanketed model atmospheres of hot stars. 1: Hybrid complete linearization/accelerated lambda iteration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubeny, I.; Lanz, T.

    1995-01-01

    A new munerical method for computing non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (non-LTE) model stellar atmospheres is presented. The method, called the hybird complete linearization/accelerated lambda iretation (CL/ALI) method, combines advantages of both its constituents. Its rate of convergence is virtually as high as for the standard CL method, while the computer time per iteration is almost as low as for the standard ALI method. The method is formulated as the standard complete lineariation, the only difference being that the radiation intensity at selected frequency points is not explicity linearized; instead, it is treated by means of the ALI approach. The scheme offers a wide spectrum of options, ranging from the full CL to the full ALI method. We deonstrate that the method works optimally if the majority of frequency points are treated in the ALI mode, while the radiation intensity at a few (typically two to 30) frequency points is explicity linearized. We show how this method can be applied to calculate metal line-blanketed non-LTE model atmospheres, by using the idea of 'superlevels' and 'superlines' introduced originally by Anderson (1989). We calculate several illustrative models taking into accont several tens of thosands of lines of Fe III to Fe IV and show that the hybrid CL/ALI method provides a robust method for calculating non-LTE line-blanketed model atmospheres for a wide range of stellar parameters. The results for individual stellar types will be presented in subsequent papers in this series.

  1. Power efficient dynamic resource scheduling algorithms for LTE

    OpenAIRE

    Han, C; Beh, KC; Nicolaou, M; Armour, SMD; Doufexi, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a link level analysis of the rate and energy efficiency performance of the LTE downlink considering the unitary codebook based precoding scheme. In a multi-user environment, appropriate radio resource management strategies can be applied to the system to improve the performance gain by exploiting multi-user diversity in the time, frequency and space domains and the gains can be translated to energy reduction at the base station. Several existing and novel resource scheduli...

  2. Traffic Dimensioning and Performance Modeling of 4G LTE Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ye

    2011-01-01

    Rapid changes in mobile techniques have always been evolutionary, and the deployment of 4G Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks will be the same. It will be another transition from Third Generation (3G) to Fourth Generation (4G) over a period of several years, as is the case still with the transition from Second Generation (2G) to 3G. As a result,…

  3. Non-LTE models of Titan's upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelle, Roger V.

    1991-01-01

    Models for the thermal structure of Titan's upper atmosphere, between 0.1 mbar and 0.01 nbar are presented. The calculations include non-LTE heating/cooling in the rotation-vibration bands of CH4, C2H2, and C2H6, absorption of solar IR radiation in the near-IR bands of CH4 and subsequent cascading to the nu-4 band of CH4, absorption of solar EUV and UV radiation, thermal conduction and cooling by HCN rotational lines. Unlike earlier models, the calculated exospheric temperature agrees well with observations, because of the importance of HCN cooling. The calculations predict a well-developed mesopause with a temperature of 135-140 K at an altitude of approximately 600 km and pressure of about 0.1 microbar. The mesopause is at a higher pressure than predicted by earlier calculations because non-LTE radiative transfer in the rotation-vibration bands of CH4, C2H2, and C2H6 is treated in an accurate manner. The accuracy of the LTE approximation for source functions and heating rates is discussed.

  4. Improvements to Busquet's Non LTE algorithm in NRL's Hydro code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, M.; Colombant, D.

    1996-11-01

    Implementation of the Non LTE model RADIOM (M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids B, 5, 4191 (1993)) in NRL's RAD2D Hydro code in conservative form was reported previously(M. Klapisch et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., 40, 1806 (1995)).While the results were satisfactory, the algorithm was slow and not always converging. We describe here modifications that address the latter two shortcomings. This method is quicker and more stable than the original. It also gives information about the validity of the fitting. It turns out that the number and distribution of groups in the multigroup diffusion opacity tables - a basis for the computation of radiation effects in the ionization balance in RADIOM- has a large influence on the robustness of the algorithm. These modifications give insight about the algorithm, and allow to check that the obtained average charge state is the true average. In addition, code optimization resulted in greatly reduced computing time: The ratio of Non LTE to LTE computing times being now between 1.5 and 2.

  5. Analysis of the LTE Access Reservation Protocol for Real-Time Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henning; Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Stefanovic, Cedomir

    2013-01-01

    LTE is increasingly seen as a system for serving real-time Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication needs. The asynchronous M2M user access in LTE is obtained through a two-phase access reservation protocol (contention and data phase). Existing analysis related to these protocols is based...... of the two-phase LTE reservation protocol and asses its performance, when assumptions (1) and (2) do not hold....

  6. Analysis And Augmentation Of Timing Advance Based Geolocation In Lte Cellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    measurements to validate TA-based positioning approaches in LTE . Their approach did not, however, focus on characterizing the TA. Rather, similar to...UE will measure the time difference of arrival of the LTE Positioning Reference Signal (PRS) from multiple eNBs. This information is then sent to a...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA DISSERTATION ANALYSIS AND AUGMENTATION OF TIMING ADVANCE-BASED GEOLOCATION IN LTE CELLULAR NETWORKS by

  7. Performance of multi-rate equalizer with lte standard turbo code

    OpenAIRE

    Du, D. (Dongyang)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the uplink channel of the 3GPP long term evolution (LTE) and LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) systems, signal carrier frequency-division multiplexing access (SC-FDMA) transmission scheme is employed instead of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) to reduce the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). However, compared to OFDM, SC-FDMA has lower channel throughput, since it suffers from inter-symbol interference (ISI...

  8. Experimental Characterization of LTE Wireless Links in High-Speed Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Domínguez-Bolaño

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia and data-based services experienced a nonstopping growth over the last few years. People are continuously on the move using devices to access multimedia contents or other data-based services. Due to this, railway companies are showing a great interest in deploying broadband mobile wireless networks in high-speed-trains with the aim of supporting both passenger services provisioning as well as automatic train control and signaling. Nowadays, the most widely used technology for communications between trains and the railway infrastructure is GSM for Railways (GSM-R; however, it has limited capabilities to support such advanced services. Due to its success in the mass market, Long Term Evolution (LTE seems to be the best candidate to substitute GSM-R. In this paper, we experimentally characterize the downlink between an LTE Evolved NodeB (eNodeB and a high-speed train in a commercial high-speed line. We consider two links: the one between the eNodeB and the antennas placed outdoors on the train roof, and the direct link between the eNodeB and a receiver inside the train. Such a characterization consists in assessing the path loss, the Signal to Noise Ratio, the K-Factor, the Power Delay Profile, the delay spread, and the Doppler Power Spectral Density.

  9. Dual Band Metamaterial Antenna For LTE/Bluetooth/WiMAX System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md Mehedi; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul

    2018-01-19

    A compact metamaterial inspired antenna operate at LTE, Bluetooth and WiMAX frequency band is introduced in this paper. For the lower band, the design utilizes an outer square metallic strip forcing the patch to radiate as an equivalent magnetic-current loop. For the upper band, another magnetic current loop is created by adding metamaterial structure near the feed line on the patch. The metamaterial inspired antenna dimension of 42 × 32 mm 2 compatible to wireless devices. Finite integration technique based CST Microwave Studio simulator has been used to design and numerical investigation as well as lumped circuit model of the metamaterial antenna is explained with proper mathematical derivation. The achieved measured dual band operation of the conventional antenna are sequentially, 0.561~0.578 GHz, 2.346~2.906 GHz, and 2.91~3.49 GHz, whereas the metamaterial inspired antenna shows dual-band operation from 0.60~0.64 GHz, 2.67~3.40 GHz and 3.61~3.67 GHz, respectively. Therefore, the metamaterial antenna is applicable for LTE and WiMAX applications. Besides, the measured metamaterial antenna gains of 0.15~3.81 dBi and 3.47~3.75 dBi, respectively for the frequency band of 2.67~3.40 GHz and 3.61~3.67 GHz.

  10. Novel Handover Optimization with a Coordinated Contiguous Carrier Aggregation Deployment Scenario in LTE-Advanced Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraheem Shayea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The carrier aggregation (CA technique and Handover Parameters Optimization (HPO function have been introduced in LTE-Advanced systems to enhance system performance in terms of throughput, coverage area, and connection stability and to reduce management complexity. Although LTE-Advanced has benefited from the CA technique, the low spectral efficiency and high ping-pong effect with high outage probabilities in conventional Carrier Aggregation Deployment Scenarios (CADSs have become major challenges for cell edge User Equipment (UE. Also, the existing HPO algorithms are not optimal for selecting the appropriate handover control parameters (HCPs. This paper proposes two solutions by deploying a Coordinated Contiguous-CADS (CC-CADS and a Novel Handover Parameters Optimization algorithm that is based on the Weight Performance Function (NHPO-WPF. The CC-CADS uses two contiguous component carriers (CCs that have two different beam directions. The NHPO-WPF automatically adjusts the HCPs based on the Weight Performance Function (WPF, which is evaluated as a function of the Signal-to-Interference Noise Ratio (SINR, cell load, and UE’s velocity. Simulation results show that the CC-CADS and the NHPO-WPF algorithm provide significant enhancements in system performance over that of conventional CADSs and HPO algorithms from the literature, respectively. The integration of both solutions achieves even better performance than scenarios in which each solution is considered independently.

  11. A Trace Data-Based Approach for an Accurate Estimation of Precise Utilization Maps in LTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For network planning and optimization purposes, mobile operators make use of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs, computed from Performance Measurements (PMs, to determine whether network performance needs to be improved. In current networks, PMs, and therefore KPIs, suffer from lack of precision due to an insufficient temporal and/or spatial granularity. In this work, an automatic method, based on data traces, is proposed to improve the accuracy of radio network utilization measurements collected in a Long-Term Evolution (LTE network. The method’s output is an accurate estimate of the spatial and temporal distribution for the cell utilization ratio that can be extended to other indicators. The method can be used to improve automatic network planning and optimization algorithms in a centralized Self-Organizing Network (SON entity, since potential issues can be more precisely detected and located inside a cell thanks to temporal and spatial precision. The proposed method is tested with real connection traces gathered in a large geographical area of a live LTE network and considers overload problems due to trace file size limitations, which is a key consideration when analysing a large network. Results show how these distributions provide a very detailed information of network utilization, compared to cell based statistics.

  12. LTE UE Energy Saving by Applying Carrier Aggregation in a HetNet Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Wang, Hua; Mogensen, Preben

    2013-01-01

    In this work it is examined if downlink Carrier Aggregation (CA) can be used to save UE energy. A dual-receiver LTE release 10 UE is compared with a single-receiver LTE release 8 UE. The models are based on scaling of an existing LTE release 8 UE power model. The energy consumption of the UEs...... is examined in a Heterogeneous Network scenario consisting of macro and small cells. The unexpected conclusion is that CA UEs can save energy, compared to LTE release 8 UEs, if they, depending on cell load, experience a throughput gain of 20%. However if the UE throughput is unaltered the energy consumption...

  13. Collisional-radiative switching - A powerful technique for converging non-LTE calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, D. G.; Voels, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    A very simple technique has been developed to converge statistical equilibrium and model atmospheric calculations in extreme non-LTE conditions when the usual iterative methods fail to converge from an LTE starting model. The proposed technique is based on a smooth transition from a collision-dominated LTE situation to the desired non-LTE conditions in which radiation dominates, at least in the most important transitions. The proposed approach was used to successfully compute stellar models with He abundances of 0.20, 0.30, and 0.50; Teff = 30,000 K, and log g = 2.9.

  14. Understanding LTE with Matlab from mathematical modeling to simulation and prototyping

    CERN Document Server

    Zarrinkoub, Houman

    2014-01-01

    An introduction to technical details related to the Physical Layer of the LTE standard with MATLAB® The LTE (Long Term Evolution) and LTE-Advanced are among the latest mobile communications standards, designed to realize the dream of a truly global, fast, all-IP-based, secure broadband mobile access technology. This book examines the Physical Layer (PHY) of the LTE standards by incorporating three conceptual elements: an overview of the theory behind key enabling technologies; a concise discussion regarding standard specifications; and the MATLAB® algorithms needed to simulate the standard.

  15. Efficient Priority Access to the Shared Commercial Radio with Offloading for Public Safety in LTE Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chafika Tata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the algorithm Courteous Priority Access to the shared commercial radio with offloading (CPAwO, for public safety network (PSN over LTE heterogeneous networks (HetNets. We propose a solution for prioritization of PSN users with access to the commercial radio network resources. Our model offers additional radio resources to the PSN. Furthermore, it ensures a certain priority for commercial users by assigning quantities of additional radio resources through the courteous scheme. This allows delaying preemption and blocking bearers when the radio resources are limited. The other part of CPAwO model is to apply the principle of offloading in order to reduce the impact of the macrocell congestion. This technique is to switch the new bearers arriving at the LTE macrocells to small cells, in order to decrease the number of the blocked and interrupted bearers in the network. The results of the simulation showed that the allocation of radio resources via the courteous mechanism with offloading of new bearers to small cells reduces the rate of blocking bearers and delays the preemption of active bearers present in the LTE HetNets. It also reduces the cost of the end-to-end communications, thanks to the reallocation of free frequencies.

  16. Effects of non-LTE multiplet dynamics on lumped-state modelling in moderate to high atomic number plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, K G; Dasgupta, A; Davis, J; Coverdale, C A

    2007-01-01

    Two atomic models of the population dynamics of substates within the n 4 and n = 3 multiplets of nickel-like tungsten and beryllium-like iron, respectively, are described in this paper. The flexible atomic code (FAC) is used to calculate the collisional and radiative couplings and energy levels of the excited states within these ionization stages. These atomic models are then placed within larger principal-quantum-number-based ionization dynamic models of both tungsten and iron plasmas. Collisional-radiative equilibrium calculations are then carried out using these models that demonstrate how the multiplet substates depart from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) as a function of ion density. The effect of these deviations from LTE on the radiative and collisional deexcitation rates of lumped 3s, 3p, 3d, 4s, 4p, 4d and 4f states is then calculated and least-squares fits to the density dependence of these lumped-state rate coefficients are obtained. The calculations show that, with the use of lumped-state models (which are in common use), one can accurately model the L- and M-shell ionization dynamics occurring in present-day Z-pinch experiments only through the addition of these extra, non-LTE-induced, rate coefficient density dependences. However, the derivation and use of low-order polynomial fits to these density dependences makes lumped-state modelling both viable and of value for post-processing analyses

  17. Mobility and Bandwidth prediction in virtualized LTE systems: architecture and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karagiannis, Georgios; Jamakovic, Almerima; Briggs, Keith; Karimzadeh Motallebi Azar, Morteza; Parada, Carlos; Iulian Corici, Marius; Taleb, Tarik; Edmonds, Andy; Bohnert, Thomas Michael

    2014-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) represents the fourth generation (4G) technology which is capable of providing high data rates as well as support of high speed mobility. The EU FP7 Mobile Cloud Networking (MCN) project integrates the use of cloud computing concepts in LTE mobile networks in order to

  18. Utilizing ICN/CCN for service and VM migration support in virtualized LTE systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimzadeh Motallebi Azar, Morteza; Satria, Triadimas; Karagiannis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important concepts used in mobile networks, like LTE (Long Term Evolution) is service continuity. A mobile user moving from one network to another network should not lose an on-going service. In cloud-based (virtualized) LTE systems, services are hosted on Virtual Machines (VMs) that

  19. Efficient LTE Access with Collision Resolution for Massive M2M Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madueño, Germán Corrales; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    outage. In this work we propose a LTE RACH scheme tailored for delay-sensitive M2M services with synchronous traffic arrivals. The key idea is, upon detection of a RACH overload, to apply a collision resolution algorithm based on splitting trees. The solution is implemented on top of the existing LTE...

  20. LTE Micro-cell Deployment for High-Density Railway Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Kassab, Mohamed; Soler, José

    2014-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a serious candidate for the future releases of the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS). LTE offers more capacity and supports new communication-based applications and services for railways. Nevertheless, even with this technology, the classical macro...

  1. Jammer Type Estimation in LTE with a Smart Jammer Repeated Game

    KAUST Repository

    Aziz, Farhan; Shamma, Jeff S.; Stuber, Gordon L.

    2017-01-01

    LTE/LTE-Advanced networks are known to be vulnerable to denial-of-service (DOS) and loss-of-service attacks from smart jammers. The interaction between the network and the smart jammer has been modeled as an infinite-horizon general-sum (non

  2. A Tractable Model of the LTE Access Reservation Procedure for Machine-Type Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmy Jessen; Min Kim, Dong; Madueño, Germán Corrales

    2015-01-01

    A canonical scenario in Machine-Type Communications (MTC) is the one featuring a large number of devices, each of them with sporadic traffic. Hence, the number of served devices in a single LTE cell is not determined by the available aggregate rate, but rather by the limitations of the LTE access...

  3. Configuration interaction in LTE spectra of heavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar-Shalom, A.; Oreg, J.; Goldstein, W.

    1992-11-01

    We present a method for including the effects of configuration interaction (CI) between relativistic subconfigurations of an electron configuration in the calculation of emission and absorption spectra of plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Analytical expressions for the correction to the intensities, owing to Cl, of an unresolved transition array (UTA) and of a supertransition array (STA) are obtained when the correction is small compared to the spin-orbit splitting, bypassing the need to diagonalize energy matrices. These expressions serve as working formulas in the STA model and, in addition, reveal a priori the conditions under which CI effects are significant. Examples of the effect are presented

  4. Assessment of general public exposure to LTE and RF sources present in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Günter; Martens, Luc

    2010-10-01

    For the first time, in situ electromagnetic field exposure of the general public to fields from long term evolution (LTE) cellular base stations is assessed. Exposure contributions due to different radiofrequency (RF) sources are compared with LTE exposure at 30 locations in Stockholm, Sweden. Total exposures (0.2-2.6 V/m) satisfy the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference levels (from 28 V/m for frequency modulation (FM), up to 61 V/m for LTE) at all locations. LTE exposure levels up to 0.8 V/m were measured, and the average contribution of the LTE signal to the total RF exposure equals 4%.

  5. Cross layer scheduling algorithm for LTE Downlink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2012-01-01

    . This paper evaluates a cross layer scheduling algorithm that aims at minimizing the resource utilization. The algorithm makes decisions regarding the channel conditions and the size of transmission buffers and different QoS demands. The simulation results show that the new algorithm improves the resource...

  6. Realistic Indoor Wi-Fi and Femto deployment Study as the Offloading Solutions to LTE Macro Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Liang; Coletti, Claudio; Nguyen, Huan Cong

    2012-01-01

    that, in a dual-carrier LTE macro case, Wi-Fi access point density of 230/km2 is required to meet the Key Performance Indicator (KPI) - less than 10% of users have a throughput below 1 Mbps whereas out-band Femto access point density of 1200/km2 is required. Furthermore, we show that in-band Femto cell...... cannot meet the network KPI even at a very high access point density. We also show that Wi-Fi and Femto cell offload the same amount of traffic when they are deployed at the same access point density....

  7. Efficient Resource Allocation and Sectorization for Fractional Frequency Reuse (FFR in LTE Femtocell Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Kawser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Fractional Frequency Reuse (FFR is a resource allocation technique that can effectively mitigate inter-cell interference (ICI in LTE based HetNets and it is a promising solution. Various FFR schemes have been suggested to address the challenge of interference in femtocell systems. In this paper, we study the scopes of interference mitigation and capacity improvement. We propose a resource allocation scheme that gradually varies frequency resource share with distance from the eNodeB for both macrocells and femtocells in order to attain better utilization of the resources. This is performed effectively using three layers in the cell. The proposal also employs high number sectors in a cell, low interference and good frequency reuse. Monte-Carlo simulations are performed, which show that the proposed scheme achieves significantly better throughput compared to the existing FFR schemes.

  8. Hierarchical Modulation with Vector Rotation for E-MBMS Transmission in LTE Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast Service (E-MBMS is considered of key importance for the proliferation of Long-Term Evolution (LTE network in mobile market. Hierarchical modulation (HM, which involves a “base-layer” (BL and an “enhancement-layer” (EL bit streams, is a simple technique for achieving tradeoff between service quality and radio coverage. Therefore, it is appealing for MBMS. Generally, HM suffers from the severe performance degradation of the less protected EL stream. In this paper, HM with vector rotation operation introduced to EL stream is proposed, in order to improve EL's performance. With the proper interleaving in frequency domain, this operation can exploit the inherent diversity gain from the multipath channel. In this way, HM with vector rotation can effectively enhance multimedia broadcasting on quality video and coverage. The simulation results with scalable video coding (SVC as source show the significant benefits in comparison with the conventional HM and alternative schemes.

  9. Radio Resource Management for Uplink Carrier Aggregation in LTE-Advanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2015-01-01

    . On the other hand they will introduce additional power back-off for the power amplifier in the user equipment (UE) with non-contiguous resource allocation. Taking into account that the uplink is inherently limited by the maximum transmission power of the UE, the assignment of uplink CA and/or dual cluster...... scheduling algorithm is proposed for dual-cluster transmission, which tightly couples the bandwidth allocation and packet scheduling together to exploit the frequency domain diversity with low complexity. Simulation results show that with proper differentiation between power-limited and non-power-limited UEs......This paper investigates the uplink resource allocation problem in the context of LTE-Advanced systems with carrier aggregation (CA) and dual-cluster scheduling. On one hand these Rel’10 functionalities can increase the available transmission bandwidth and scheduling flexibility in uplink...

  10. Performance Analysis of Relays in LTE for a Realistic Suburban Deployment Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coletti, Claudio; Mogensen, Preben; Irmer, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Relays are likely to play an important role in the deployment of Beyond 3G networks, such as LTE-Advanced, thanks to the possibility of effectively extending Macro network coverage and fulfilling the expected high data-rate requirements. Up until now, the relay technology potential and its cost......-effectiveness have been widely investigated in the literature, considering mainly statistical deployment scenarios, like regular networks with uniform traffic distribution. This paper is envisaged to illustrate the performances of different relay technologies (In-Band/Out-band) in a realistic suburban network...... scenario with real Macro site positions, user density map and spectrum band availability. Based on a proposed heuristic deployment algorithm, results show that deploying In-band relays can significantly reduce the user outage if high backhaul link quality is ensured, whereas Out-band relaying and the usage...

  11. Basis expansion model for channel estimation in LTE-R communication system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Deng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates fast time-varying channel estimation in LTE-R communication systems. The Basis Expansion Model (BEM is adopted to fit the fast time-varying channel in a high-speed railway communication scenario. The channel impulse response is modeled as the sum of basis functions multiplied by different coefficients. The optimal coefficients are obtained by theoretical analysis. Simulation results show that a Generalized Complex-Exponential BEM (GCE-BEM outperforms a Complex-Exponential BEM (CE-BEM and a polynomial BEM in terms of Mean Squared Error (MSE. Besides, the MSE of the CE-BEM decreases gradually as the number of basis functions increases. The GCE-BEM has a satisfactory performance with the serious fading channel.

  12. Centralized and Distributed Solutions for Fast Muting Adaptation in LTE-Advanced HetNets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soret, Beatriz; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced Intercell Interference Coordination (eICIC) is known to provide promising performance benefits for LTE-Advanced Heterogeneous Networks. The use of eICIC facilitates more flexible inter-layer load balancing by means of small cell Range Extension (RE) and Almost Blank Subframes (ABS). Even...... though the eICIC configuration (RE and ABS) ideally should be instantaneously adapted to follow the fluctuations of the traffic and the channel conditions over time, previous studies have focused on slow intercell coordination. In this paper, we investigate fast dynamic eICIC solutions for centralized....... Two different fast muting adaptation algorithms are derived, and it is shown how those can be appplied to both the centralized and the distributed architecture. Performance results with bursty traffic show that the fast dynamic adaptation provides significant gains, both in 5%-ile and 50%-ile user...

  13. Wideband PIFA antenna for higher LTE band applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Suárez-Fajardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una antena plana F invertida (PIFA de b anda ancha con la técnica de excitación capacitiva en U para ap licaciones en la banda alta de LTE. La ante na propuesta se basa en una sim ple PIFA, donde las placas de excitación capacitiva, de radiaci ón y de tierra se modifican a una geometrí a en U de tal manera que la a ntena puede poseer características de ancho de banda amplio. Me diante el uso de la configuración de excitación propuesta, la antena mues tra un ancho de banda amplio de diagrama e impedancia del 81.6 % para un VSWR ≤ 2.0 desde 1.66GHz a 3.95GHz la cual puede cubrir apli caciones en la banda alta de LTE (1.71GHz3.8GHz, DCS 1800, DCS 1900, UCDMA, UMTS, IMT 2000, DMB, WiFi, 2.4GHz, WiMAX (2.3 –2.5 GHz, WiMAX (3.4–3 .5 GHz y Bl uetooth.

  14. Privacy-Enhancing Security Protocol in LTE Initial Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uijin Jang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-Term Evolution (LTE is a fourth-generation mobile communication technology implemented throughout the world. It is the communication means of smartphones that send and receive all of the private date of individuals. M2M, IOT, etc., are the base technologies of mobile communication that will be used in the future cyber world. However, identification parameters, such as International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI, Radio Network Temporary Identities (RNTI, etc., in the initial attach section for accessing the LTE network are presented with the vulnerability of being exposed as clear text. Such vulnerability does not end in a mere identification parameter, but can lead to a secondary attack using the identification parameter, such as replication of the smartphone, illegal use of the mobile communication network, etc. This paper proposes a security protocol to safely transmit identification parameters in different cases of the initial attach. The proposed security protocol solves the exposed vulnerability by encrypting the parameters in transmission. Using an OPNET simulator, it is shown that the average rate of delay and processing ratio are efficient in comparison to the existing process.

  15. Dwarf mutant of rice variety Seratus Malam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugiono, P. S.; Soemanggono, A.M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Seeds of 'Seratus Malam', a local tall upland variety with long panicles and high yield potential were irradiated with 10-50 krad gamma rays in 1983. From 50,000 M 2 plants, 130 semidwarf mutants and 1 dwarf mutant were selected. The dwarf mutant M-362 was obtained from the 10 krad treatment. The mutant shows about 50% reduction in plant height, but also in number of productive tillers. Thus the yield per plant is also significantly less. However, the mutant gene is not allelic to DGWG and therefore may be useful in cross breeding. (author)

  16. LTE and the evolution to 4G wireless design and measurement challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Rumney, Moray

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide to LTE design, test and measurement, this new edition has been updated to include the latest developments This book presents the latest details on LTE from a practical and technical perspective. Written by Agilent's measurement experts, it offers a valuable insight into LTE technology and its design and test challenges. Chapters cover the upper layer signaling and system architecture evolution (SAE). Basic concepts such as MIMO and SC-FDMA, the new uplink modulation scheme, are introduced and explained, and the authors look into the challenges of verifying the

  17. LTE, WiMAX and WLAN network design, optimization and performance analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Korowajczuk, Leonhard

    2011-01-01

    A technological overview of LTE and WiMAX LTE, WiMAX and WLAN Network Design, Optimization and Performance Analysis provides a practical guide to LTE and WiMAX technologies introducing various tools and concepts used within. In addition, topics such as traffic modelling of IP-centric networks, RF propagation, fading, mobility, and indoor coverage are explored; new techniques which increase throughput such as MIMO and AAS technology are highlighted; and simulation, network design and performance analysis are also examined. Finally, in the latter part of the book Korowajczuk gives a step-by-step

  18. Non-LTE hydrogen-line formation in moving prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzel, P.; Rompolt, B.

    1986-01-01

    The behavior of hydrogen-line brightness variations, depending on the prominence-velocity changes were investigated. By solving the NON-Local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) problem for hydrogen researchers determine quantitatively the effect of Doppler brightening and/or Doppler dimming (DBE, DDE) in the lines of Lyman and Balmer series. It is demonstrated that in low-density prominence plasmas, DBE in H alpha and H beta lines can reach a factor of three for velocities around 160 km/sec, while the L alpha line exhibits typical DDE. L beta brightness variations follow from a combined DBE in the H alpha and DDE in L alpha and L beta itself, providing that all relevant multilevel interlocking processes are taken into account.

  19. Dual connectivity for LTE-advanced heterogeneous networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2016-01-01

    Dual connectivity (DC) allows user equipments (UEs) to receive data simultaneously from different eNodeBs (eNBs) in order to boost the performance in a heterogeneous network with dedicated carrier deployment. Yet, how to efficiently operate with DC opens a number of research questions. In this pa......Dual connectivity (DC) allows user equipments (UEs) to receive data simultaneously from different eNodeBs (eNBs) in order to boost the performance in a heterogeneous network with dedicated carrier deployment. Yet, how to efficiently operate with DC opens a number of research questions...... aggregation (CA) and virtually zerolatency fronthaul connections, and in any case it is significantly higher compared to the case without DC. Keywords: Dual connectivity Heterogeneous network LTE-advanced Radio resource management Performance evaluation...

  20. Multicell Cooperation for LTE-Advanced Heterogeneous Network Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soret, Beatriz; Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    In this article we present two promising practical use cases for simple multicell cooperation for LTE-Advanced heterogeneous network (HetNet) scenarios with macro and small cells. For co-channel deployment cases, we recommend the use of enhanced inter-cell interference coordination (e......ICIC) to mitigate cross-tier interference and ensure sufficient offload of users from macro to small cells. It is shown how the eICIC benefit is maximized by using a distributed inter-base station control framework for dynamic adjustment of essential parameters. Secondly, for scenarios where macro and small cells...... are deployed at different carriers an efficient use of the fragmented spectrum can be achieved by using collaborative inter-site carrier aggregation. In addition to distributed coordination/collaboration between base station nodes, the importance of explicit terminal assistance is highlighted. Comprehensive...

  1. 5 Watt GaN HEMT Power Amplifier for LTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Niotaki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design and implementation of a stand-alone linear power amplifier at 2.4 GHz with high output power. A GaN HEMT transistor is selected for the design and implementation of the power amplifier. The device exhibits a gain of 11.7 dB and a drain efficiency of 39% for an output power of 36.7 dBm at 2.4 GHz for an input power of 25dBm. The carrier to intermodulation ratio is better than 25 dB for a two tone input signal of 25 dBm of total power and a spacing of 5 MHz. The fabricated device is also tested with LTE input signals of different bandwidths (5MHz to 20MHz.

  2. Multiband Printed Asymmetric Dipole Antenna for LTE/WLAN Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Mei Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of a single layer strip fed printed asymmetric dipole antenna, which is composed of top-loading, asymmetric coplanar waveguide (ACPW and stepped-feeding structure, to operate at three wide frequency bands (698~960 MHz, 1710~2620 MHz, and 5150~5850 MHz to cover WLAN and LTE operation has been demonstrated. A prototype of the proposed antenna with 57.5 mm in length, 0.4 mm in thickness, and 5 mm in width is fabricated and experimentally investigated. The experimental results indicate that the VSWR 2.5 : 1 bandwidths achieved were 74.3%, 40.8%, and 18.2% at 700 MHz, 2450 MHz, and 5500 MHz, respectively. Experimental results are shown to verify the validity of theoretical work.

  3. Miniaturized Balanced Antenna with Integrated Balun for Practical LTE Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. E. Elfergani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A design of dual-band balanced antenna structure operating in the 700 and 2600MHz LTE bands is studied and investigated. The overall dimensions of the radiator are 50 × 18 × 7 mm^3 allowing it to be easily concealed within mobile handsets. A broad-band balun is designed and integrated with the antenna handset in order to provide the feeding network and perform the measurements of the antenna radiation performance. Prototypes of proposed antenna with and without balun are fabricated and verified. The simulated and practical results with and without the handheld effects in terms of reflection coefficient, power gain and radiation pattern, are studied and shown reasonable agreement.

  4. Non-LTE calculations of Al III line strengths in early-type stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufton, P.L.; Brown, P.J.F.; Lennon, D.J.; Lynas-Gray, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    Non-LTE line formation calculations, based on the 'complete linearization method' are presented for the Al III ion in early-type stars. Equivalent widths, together with the corresponding LTE values, are tabulated for 15 ultraviolet and visible region transitions, for effective temperatures from 20 000 to 35 000 K, logarithmic gravities of 3.5, 4.0 and 4.5, microturbulent velocities of 0 and 5 km s -1 and logarithmic aluminium abundances of 6.0, 6.5 and 7.0. The non-LTE line strengths are significantly larger than the LTE values particularly for the visible region transitions and the implications of this are briefly discussed. (author)

  5. Low-cost extrapolation method for maximal LTE radio base station exposure estimation: test and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloock, Leen; Joseph, Wout; Gati, Azeddine; Varsier, Nadège; Flach, Björn; Wiart, Joe; Martens, Luc

    2013-06-01

    An experimental validation of a low-cost method for extrapolation and estimation of the maximal electromagnetic-field exposure from long-term evolution (LTE) radio base station installations are presented. No knowledge on downlink band occupation or service characteristics is required for the low-cost method. The method is applicable in situ. It only requires a basic spectrum analyser with appropriate field probes without the need of expensive dedicated LTE decoders. The method is validated both in laboratory and in situ, for a single-input single-output antenna LTE system and a 2×2 multiple-input multiple-output system, with low deviations in comparison with signals measured using dedicated LTE decoders.

  6. Optimized LTE cell planning for multiple user density subareas using meta-heuristic algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    Base station deployment in cellular networks is one of the most fundamental problems in network design. This paper proposes a novel method for the cell planning problem for the fourth generation 4G-LTE cellular networks using meta heuristic

  7. Low-cost extrapolation method for maximal lte radio base station exposure estimation: Test and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verloock, L.; Joseph, W.; Gati, A.; Varsier, N.; Flach, B.; Wiart, J.; Martens, L.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental validation of a low-cost method for extrapolation and estimation of the maximal electromagnetic-field exposure from long-term evolution (LTE) radio base station installations are presented. No knowledge on down-link band occupation or service characteristics is required for the low-cost method. The method is applicable in situ. It only requires a basic spectrum analyser with appropriate field probes without the need of expensive dedicated LTE decoders. The method is validated both in laboratory and in situ, for a single-input single-output antenna LTE system and a 2x2 multiple-input multiple-output system, with low deviations in comparison with signals measured using dedicated LTE decoders. (authors)

  8. An Empirical LTE Smartphone Power Model with a View to Energy Efficiency Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Noël, Laurent; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2014-01-01

    measurements made on state-of-the-art LTE smartphones. Discontinuous Reception (DRX) sleep mode is also modeled, because it is one of the most effective methods to improve smartphone battery life. Energy efficiency has generally improved with each Radio Access Technology (RAT) generation, and to see......Smartphone users struggle with short battery life, and this affects their device satisfaction level and usage of the network. To evaluate how chipset manufacturers and mobile network operators can improve the battery life, we propose a Long Term Evolution (LTE) smartphone power model. The idea...... this evolution, we compare the energy efficiency of the latest LTE devices with devices based on Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), High Speed Packet Access (HSPA), and Wi-Fi*. With further generations of RAT systems we expect further improvements. To this end, we discuss the new LTE features, Carrier...

  9. An Efficient Live TV Scheduling System for 4G LTE Broadcast

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong; Alabbasi, AbdulRahman; Shihada, Basem

    2016-01-01

    Traditional live television (TV) broadcasting systems are proven to be spectrum inefficient. Therefore, researchers propose to provide TV services on fourth-generation (4G) long-term evolution (LTE) networks. However, static broadcast, a typical

  10. Life adversity in depressed and non-depressed older adults: A cross-sectional comparison of the brief LTE-Q questionnaire and life events and difficulties interview as part of the CASPER study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Hjördis M; Traviss-Turner, Gemma D; House, Allan O; Lewis, Helen; Gilbody, Simon

    2016-03-15

    There is a paucity of research on the nature of life adversity in depressed and non-depressed older adults. Early life events work used in-depth interviews; however, larger epidemiological trials investigate life adversity using brief questionnaires. This study investigates the type of life adversity experienced in later life and its association with depression and compares adversity captured using a brief (LTE-Q) and in-depth (LEDS) measure. 960 participants over 65 years were recruited in UK primary care to complete the PHQ-9 and LTE-Q. A sub-sample (n=19) completed the LEDS and a question exploring the subjective experience of the LTE-Q and LEDS. Important life adversity was reported on the LTE-Q in 48% of the sample. In the LTE-Q sample the prevalence of depression (PHQ-9≥10) was 12%. Exposure to recent adversity was associated with doubling of the odds of depression. The LTE-Q only captured a proportion of adversity measured by the LEDS (42% vs 84%). Both measures showed health, bereavement and relationship events were most common. The cross-sectional design limits the extent to which inferences can be drawn around the direction of causality between adversity and depression. Recall in older adults is questionable. UK older adults face adversity in areas of health, bereavement and relationships which are associated with depression. This has clinical relevance for psychological interventions for older adults to consider social context and social support. It helps identify the strengths and weaknesses of a brief adversity measure in large scale research. Further research is needed to explore the mechanisms of onset and direction of causality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of electron collisions on non-LTE Li line formation in stellar atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, Yeisson; Barklem, Paul; Lind, Karin; Asplund, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the uncertainties in the rate coefficient data for electron-impact excitation and ionization on non-LTE Li line formation in cool stellar atmospheres is investigated. We examine the electron collision data used in previous non-LTE calculations and compare them to our own calculations using the R-matrix with pseudostates (RMPS) method and to other calculations found in the literature.

  12. NonLTE ANALYSIS OF THE NaI LINES IN THE SOLAR SPECTRUM

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, D. V.; Shimansky, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Solar spectrum of Nal lines by method of the nonLTE analysis is investigated. It shown, that in atmosphere of the Sun the Nal is in moderate ”overrecombination”. The analysis of influence of atomic data, models of atmospheres and damping constants for nonLTE deviation and sodium abundances is made. Observational solar spectrum of strong lines Nal has been synthesized in good approximation. On summary data of 15 lines the sodium abundance is determined:-5.78dex.

  13. Coordinated Dynamic Spectrum Management of LTE-U and Wi-Fi Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sagari, Shweta; Baysting, Samuel; Saha, Dola; Seskar, Ivan; Trappe, Wade; Raychaudhuri, Dipankar

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the co-existence of Wi-Fi and LTE in emerging unlicensed frequency bands which are intended to accommodate multiple radio access technologies. Wi-Fi and LTE are the two most prominent access technologies being deployed today, motivating further study of the inter-system interference arising in such shared spectrum scenarios as well as possible techniques for enabling improved co-existence. An analytical model for evaluating the baseline performance of co-existing Wi-Fi...

  14. Kajian Implementasi Standar Long-Term Evolution (LTE pada Sistem Komunikasi Taktis Militer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Pradana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sistem komunikasi taktis memungkinkan banyak pengguna dengan mobilitas tinggi, memiliki kemampuan network recovery dan network entry yang baik, serta diperkuat dengan sistem keamanan transmisi yang tahan terhadap jamming. Di sisi lain kemajuan telekomunikasi mendorong dikembangkannya LTE (Long-Term Evolution. LTE meningkatkan kapasitas sistem, cakupan area, high peak data rates, didukung dengan sistem keamanan yang baik guna mewujudkan pelayanan komunikasi menjadi lebih baik. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan simulasi dan pengkajian penggunaan standar teknologi LTE agar mampu mendukung dan meningkatkan kualitas sistem komunikasi taktis militer. Simulasi dilakukan untuk menguji kemampuan LTE terhadap jamming. Dari hasil simulasi dan pengkajian didapatkan bahwa sistem uplink LTE, dengan penambahan convolutional coding dan interleaver 8×8, memiliki ketahanan terhadap jamming dengan amplitudo di bawah 2,5 V, serta lebih tahan terhadap multitone-jamming pada sub-carrier yang berbeda daripada multitone-jamming pada sub-carrier yang sama. Arsitektur LTE dengan dukungan teknik AMC, AAA server, dan fast cell selection mampu mendukung sistem super network, network entry, dan network recovery pada sistem komunikasi taktis.

  15. Studies on reduced height mutants in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narahari, P.; Bhagwat, S.G.

    1984-01-01

    Two cross-bred derivatives of the mutant TR5xTR17 and TR21 continued to show promise and were advanced to wider scale testing. TR5 was found to carry a semi-dwarfing gene different from that in IR8. New semi-dwarf mutants were screened from M 2 through M 4 from two separate radiation experiments. The gibberellin response of seedlings of mutant and tester strains was evaluated and crosses of tester stocks and mutant semi-dwarfs were made for genetic analyses. (author)

  16. General expressions for downlink signal to interference and noise ratio in homogeneous and heterogeneous LTE-Advanced networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora A. Ali

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The interference is the most important problem in LTE or LTE-Advanced networks. In this paper, the interference was investigated in terms of the downlink signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR. In order to compare the different frequency reuse methods that were developed to enhance the SINR, it would be helpful to have a generalized expression to study the performance of the different methods. Therefore, this paper introduces general expressions for the SINR in homogeneous and in heterogeneous networks. In homogeneous networks, the expression was applied for the most common types of frequency reuse techniques: soft frequency reuse (SFR and fractional frequency reuse (FFR. The expression was examined by comparing it with previously developed ones in the literature and the comparison showed that the expression is valid for any type of frequency reuse scheme and any network topology. Furthermore, the expression was extended to include the heterogeneous network; the expression includes the problem of co-tier and cross-tier interference in heterogeneous networks (HetNet and it was examined by the same method of the homogeneous one.

  17. General expressions for downlink signal to interference and noise ratio in homogeneous and heterogeneous LTE-Advanced networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nora A; Mourad, Hebat-Allah M; ElSayed, Hany M; El-Soudani, Magdy; Amer, Hassanein H; Daoud, Ramez M

    2016-11-01

    The interference is the most important problem in LTE or LTE-Advanced networks. In this paper, the interference was investigated in terms of the downlink signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR). In order to compare the different frequency reuse methods that were developed to enhance the SINR, it would be helpful to have a generalized expression to study the performance of the different methods. Therefore, this paper introduces general expressions for the SINR in homogeneous and in heterogeneous networks. In homogeneous networks, the expression was applied for the most common types of frequency reuse techniques: soft frequency reuse (SFR) and fractional frequency reuse (FFR). The expression was examined by comparing it with previously developed ones in the literature and the comparison showed that the expression is valid for any type of frequency reuse scheme and any network topology. Furthermore, the expression was extended to include the heterogeneous network; the expression includes the problem of co-tier and cross-tier interference in heterogeneous networks (HetNet) and it was examined by the same method of the homogeneous one.

  18. Non-LTE modeling of the radiative properties of high-Z plasma using linear response methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foord, Mark; Harte, Judy; Scott, Howard

    2017-10-01

    Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) atomic processes play a key role in the radiation flow and energetics in highly ionized high temperature plasma encountered in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and astrophysical applications. Modeling complex high-Z atomic systems, such as gold used in ICF hohlraums, is particularly challenging given the complexity and intractable number of atomic states involved. Practical considerations, i.e. speed and memory, in large radiation-hydrodynamic simulations further limit model complexity. We present here a methodology for utilizing tabulated NLTE radiative and EOS properties for use in our radiation-hydrodynamic codes. This approach uses tabulated data, previously calculated with complex atomic models, modified to include a general non-Planckian radiation field using a linear response methodology. This approach extends near-LTE response method to conditions far from LTE. Comparisons of this tabular method with in-line NLTE simulations of a laser heated 1-D hohlraum will be presented, which show good agreement in the time-evolution of the plasma conditions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  19. An orthogonal wavelet division multiple-access processor architecture for LTE-advanced wireless/radio-over-fiber systems over heterogeneous networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Chinmaya; Leung, Victor CM; Stouraitis, Thanos

    2014-12-01

    The increase in internet traffic, number of users, and availability of mobile devices poses a challenge to wireless technologies. In long-term evolution (LTE) advanced system, heterogeneous networks (HetNet) using centralized coordinated multipoint (CoMP) transmitting radio over optical fibers (LTE A-ROF) have provided a feasible way of satisfying user demands. In this paper, an orthogonal wavelet division multiple-access (OWDMA) processor architecture is proposed, which is shown to be better suited to LTE advanced systems as compared to orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) as in LTE systems 3GPP rel.8 (3GPP, http://www.3gpp.org/DynaReport/36300.htm). ROF systems are a viable alternative to satisfy large data demands; hence, the performance in ROF systems is also evaluated. To validate the architecture, the circuit is designed and synthesized on a Xilinx vertex-6 field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The synthesis results show that the circuit performs with a clock period as short as 7.036 ns (i.e., a maximum clock frequency of 142.13 MHz) for transform size of 512. A pipelined version of the architecture reduces the power consumption by approximately 89%. We compare our architecture with similar available architectures for resource utilization and timing and provide performance comparison with OFDMA systems for various quality metrics of communication systems. The OWDMA architecture is found to perform better than OFDMA for bit error rate (BER) performance versus signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in wireless channel as well as ROF media. It also gives higher throughput and mitigates the bad effect of peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR).

  20. Validation of the Long-term Difficulties Inventory (LDI) and the List of Threatening Experiences (LTE) as measures of stress in epidemiological population-based cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmalen, J G M; Bos, E H; de Jonge, P

    2012-12-01

    Stress questionnaires are included in many epidemiological cohort studies but the psychometric characteristics of these questionnaires are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to describe these characteristics for two short questionnaires measuring the lifetime and past year occurrence of stress: the List of Threatening Events (LTE) as a measure of acute stress and the Long-term Difficulties Inventory (LDI) as a measure of chronic stress. This study was performed in a general population cohort consisting of 588 females (53.7%) and 506 males (46.3%), with a mean age of 53.5 years (s.d.=11.3 years). Respondents completed the LTE and the LDI for the past year, and for the age categories of 0-12, 13-18, 19-39, 40-60, and >60 years. They also completed questionnaires on perceived stress, psychological distress (the General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-12), anxiety and depression (the Symptom Checklist, SCL-8) and neuroticism (the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire - Revised Short Scale, EPQ-RSS-N). Approximately 2 years later, 976 respondents (89%) completed these questionnaires for a second time. The stability of the retrospective reporting of long-term difficulties and life events was satisfactory: 0.7 for the lifetime LDI and 0.6 for the lifetime LTE scores. The construct validity of these lists is indicated by their positive associations with psychological distress, mental health problems and neuroticism. This study in a large population-based sample shows that the LDI and LTE have sufficient validity and stability to include them in major epidemiological cohort studies.

  1. Non-LTE line formation of Fe in late-type stars - III. 3D non-LTE analysis of metal-poor stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarsi, A. M.; Lind, K.; Asplund, M.

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most important elements in astronomy, iron abundance determinations need to be as accurate as possible. We investigate the accuracy of spectroscopic iron abundance analyses using archetypal metal-poor stars. We perform detailed 3D non-LTE radiative transfer calculations based on 3D...

  2. Influence of condensed species on thermo-physical properties of LTE and non-LTE SF6–Cu mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhexin; Wu, Yi; Yang, Fei; Sun, Hao; Rong, Mingzhe; Wang, Chunlin

    2017-01-01

    SF 6 –Cu mixture is frequently formed in high-voltage circuit breakers due to the electrode erosion and metal vapor diffusion. During the interruption process, the multiphase effect and deviation from local thermal equilibrium (non-LTE assumption) can both affect the thermo-physical of the arc plasma and further influence the performance of circuit breaker. In this paper, thermo-physical properties, namely composition, thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients are calculated for multiphase SF 6 –Cu mixture with and without LTE assumption. The composition is confirmed by combining classical two-temperature mass action law with phase equilibrium condition deduced from second law of thermodynamics. The thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients are calculated using the multiphase composition result. The influence of condensed species on thermo-physical properties is discussed at different temperature, pressure (0.1–10 atm), non-equilibrium degrees (1–10), and copper molar proportions (0–50%). It is found that the multiphase effect has significant influence on specific enthalpy, specific heat and heavy species thermal conductivity in both LTE and non-LTE SF 6 –Cu system. This paper provides a more accurate database for computational fluid dynamic calculation. (paper)

  3. Recent advances in non-LTE stellar atmosphere models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Andreas A. C.

    2017-11-01

    In the last decades, stellar atmosphere models have become a key tool in understanding massive stars. Applied for spectroscopic analysis, these models provide quantitative information on stellar wind properties as well as fundamental stellar parameters. The intricate non-LTE conditions in stellar winds dictate the development of adequate sophisticated model atmosphere codes. The increase in both, the computational power and our understanding of physical processes in stellar atmospheres, led to an increasing complexity in the models. As a result, codes emerged that can tackle a wide range of stellar and wind parameters. After a brief address of the fundamentals of stellar atmosphere modeling, the current stage of clumped and line-blanketed model atmospheres will be discussed. Finally, the path for the next generation of stellar atmosphere models will be outlined. Apart from discussing multi-dimensional approaches, I will emphasize on the coupling of hydrodynamics with a sophisticated treatment of the radiative transfer. This next generation of models will be able to predict wind parameters from first principles, which could open new doors for our understanding of the various facets of massive star physics, evolution, and death.

  4. Performance analysis of IMS based LTE and WIMAX integration architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bagubali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current networking field many research works are going on regarding the integration of different wireless technologies, with the aim of providing uninterrupted connectivity to the user anywhere, with high data rates due to increased demand. However, the number of objects like smart devices, industrial machines, smart homes, connected by wireless interface is dramatically increasing due to the evolution of cloud computing and internet of things technology. This Paper begins with the challenges involved in such integrations and then explains the role of different couplings and different architectures. This paper also gives further improvement in the LTE and Wimax integration architectures to provide seamless vertical handover and flexible quality of service for supporting voice, video, multimedia services over IP network and mobility management with the help of IMS networks. Evaluation of various parameters like handover delay, cost of signalling, packet loss,, is done and the performance of the interworking architecture is analysed from the simulation results. Finally, it concludes that the cross layer scenario is better than the non cross layer scenario.

  5. A New Non-LTE Model based on Super Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Shalom, A.; Klapisch, M.

    1996-11-01

    Non-LTE effects are vital for the simulation of radiation in hot plasmas involving even medium Z materials. However, the exceedingly large number of atomic energy levels forbids using a detailed collisional radiative model on-line in the hydrodynamic simulations. For this purpose, greatly simplified models are required. We implemented recently Busquet's model(M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids B, 5, 4191 (1993)) in NRL's RAD2D Hydro code in conservative form (M. Klapisch et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., 40, 1806 (1995), and poster at this meeting.). This model is quick and the results make sense, but in the absence of precisely defined experiments, it is difficult to asses its accuracy. We present here a new collisional radiative model based on superconfigurations( A. Bar-Shalom, J. Oreg, J. F. Seely, U. Feldman, C. M. Brown, B. A. Hammel, R. W. Lee and C. A. Back, Phys. Rev. E, 52, 6686 (1995).), intended to be a benchmark for approximate models used in hydro-codes. It uses accurate rates from the HULLAC Code. Results for various elements will be presented and compared with RADIOM.

  6. Promising rice mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Two induced mutants namely, Mut NS 1 (tall) and Mut NS 5 (semi-dwarf) derived from rice variety Nizersail were evaluated for various agronomic characters at four locations in Bangladesh. Both the mutants matured about three weeks earlier and yielded significantly higher than the parent variety Nizersail. (author). 3 tabs., 9 refs

  7. The Origin of B-type Runaway Stars: Non-LTE Abundances as a Diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEvoy, Catherine M.; Dufton, Philip L.; Smoker, Jonathan V.; Keenan, Francis P. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Lambert, David L. [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Astronomy, RLM 16.316, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Schneider, Fabian R. N. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); De Wit, Willem-Jan [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2017-06-10

    There are two accepted mechanisms to explain the origin of runaway OB-type stars: the binary supernova (SN) scenario and the cluster ejection scenario. In the former, an SN explosion within a close binary ejects the secondary star, while in the latter close multibody interactions in a dense cluster cause one or more of the stars to be ejected from the region at high velocity. Both mechanisms have the potential to affect the surface composition of the runaway star. tlusty non-LTE model atmosphere calculations have been used to determine the atmospheric parameters and the C, N, Mg, and Si abundances for a sample of B-type runaways. These same analytical tools were used by Hunter et al. for their analysis of 50 B-type open-cluster Galactic stars (i.e., nonrunaways). Effective temperatures were deduced using the Si-ionization balance technique, surface gravities from Balmer line profiles, and microturbulent velocities derived using the Si spectrum. The runaways show no obvious abundance anomalies when compared with stars in the open clusters. The runaways do show a spread in composition that almost certainly reflects the Galactic abundance gradient and a range in the birthplaces of the runaways in the Galactic disk. Since the observed Galactic abundance gradients of C, N, Mg, and Si are of a similar magnitude, the abundance ratios (e.g., N/Mg) are as obtained essentially uniform across the sample.

  8. Mutant heterosis in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In the variety TKM6 a high yielding semidwarf mutant has been induced. This TKM6 mutant was used in test crosses with a number of other varieties and mutants to examine the extent of heterosis of dwarfs in rice and to select superior crosses. An excerpt of the published data is given. It appears from the backcross of the mutant with its original variety, that an increase in number of productive tillers occurs in the hybrid, leading to a striking grain yield increase, while the semi-dwarf culm length (the main mutant character) reverts to the normal phenotype. In the cross with IR8 on the other hand, there is only a minimal increase in tiller number but a substantial increase in TGW leading to more than 30% yield increase over the better parent

  9. EXTRAPOLATION METHOD FOR MAXIMAL AND 24-H AVERAGE LTE TDD EXPOSURE ESTIMATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franci, D; Grillo, E; Pavoncello, S; Coltellacci, S; Buccella, C; Aureli, T

    2018-01-01

    The Long-Term Evolution (LTE) system represents the evolution of the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System technology. This technology introduces two duplex modes: Frequency Division Duplex and Time Division Duplex (TDD). Despite having experienced a limited expansion in the European countries since the debut of the LTE technology, a renewed commercial interest for LTE TDD technology has recently been shown. Therefore, the development of extrapolation procedures optimised for TDD systems becomes crucial, especially for the regulatory authorities. This article presents an extrapolation method aimed to assess the exposure to LTE TDD sources, based on the detection of the Cell-Specific Reference Signal power level. The method introduces a βTDD parameter intended to quantify the fraction of the LTE TDD frame duration reserved for downlink transmission. The method has been validated by experimental measurements performed on signals generated by both a vector signal generator and a test Base Transceiver Station installed at Linkem S.p.A facility in Rome. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. New computational method for non-LTE, the linear response matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, K.B.; Grasiani, F.R.; Harte, J.A.; Libby, S.B.; More, R.M.; Zimmerman, G.B.

    1998-01-01

    My coauthors have done extensive theoretical and computational calculations that lay the ground work for a linear response matrix method to calculate non-LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) opacities. I will give briefly review some of their work and list references. Then I will describe what has been done to utilize this theory to create a computational package to rapidly calculate mild non-LTE emission and absorption opacities suitable for use in hydrodynamic calculations. The opacities are obtained by performing table look-ups on data that has been generated with a non-LTE package. This scheme is currently under development. We can see that it offers a significant computational speed advantage. It is suitable for mild non-LTE, quasi-steady conditions. And it offers a new insertion path for high-quality non-LTE data. Currently, the linear response matrix data file is created using XSN. These data files could be generated by more detailed and rigorous calculations without changing any part of the implementation in the hydro code. The scheme is running in Lasnex and is being tested and developed

  11. Adaptive Antenna System for Both 4G LTE and 5G Cellular Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Kendrick Q. T.

    Given the steep increase in the use of mobile communication systems, the current 4G/LTE (Long Term Evolution), cellular system will not be able to handle the increase in data. It is estimated that by 2020 the bandwidth requirements will be 10 times greater than what LTE can sustain. A new 5th generation (5G) communication system has been proposed to meet this demand. The physical layer or the antenna is the most critical part of any wireless communication systems as it is the interface between the free space medium and an electrical circuit. It sets the margin for almost all design parameters in the system such as the system noise and bandwidth. Several interactions of antennas have been proposed over the years for cellular services. These antennas are of various geometries, bandwidths, and radiation patterns with almost all having linear polarization. This thesis attempts to solve the multiple LTE antenna problem by creating a simple antenna that covers most of the LTE bands (850-2700 MHz) as well as introducing an antenna system at the 28 GHz 5G band. This allows for a greater educated hypothesis into what 5G can offer at the physical layer. The proposed concept will provide a solution to the co-existence problem of upcoming 5G wireless systems to be interoperable with existing 4G/LTE system.

  12. CBRS Spectrum Sharing between LTE-U and WiFi: A Multiarmed Bandit Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Parvez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The surge of mobile devices such as smartphone and tablets requires additional capacity. To achieve ubiquitous and high data rate Internet connectivity, effective spectrum sharing and utilization of the wireless spectrum carry critical importance. In this paper, we consider the use of unlicensed LTE (LTE-U technology in the 3.5 GHz Citizens Broadband Radio Service (CBRS band and develop a multiarmed bandit (MAB based spectrum sharing technique for a smooth coexistence with WiFi. In particular, we consider LTE-U to operate as a General Authorized Access (GAA user; hereby MAB is used to adaptively optimize the transmission duty cycle of LTE-U transmissions. Additionally, we incorporate downlink power control which yields a high energy efficiency and interference suppression. Simulation results demonstrate a significant improvement in the aggregate capacity (approximately 33% and cell-edge throughput of coexisting LTE-U and WiFi networks for different base station densities and user densities.

  13. Systematic investigation of NLTE phenomena in the limit of small departures from LTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, S. B.; Graziani, F. R.; More, R. M.; Kato, T.

    1997-04-01

    In this paper, we begin a systematic study of Non-Local Thermal Equilibrium (NLTE) phenomena in near equilibrium (LTE) high energy density, highly radiative plasmas. It is shown that the principle of minimum entropy production rate characterizes NLTE steady states for average atom rate equations in the case of small departures form LTE. With the aid of a novel hohlraum-reaction box thought experiment, we use the principles of minimum entropy production and detailed balance to derive Onsager reciprocity relations for the NLTE responses of a near equilibrium sample to non-Planckian perturbations in different frequency groups. This result is a significant symmetry constraint on the linear corrections to Kirchoff's law. We envisage applying our strategy to a number of test problems which include: the NLTE corrections to the ionization state of an ion located near the edge of an otherwise LTE medium; the effect of a monochromatic radiation field perturbation on an LTE medium; the deviation of Rydberg state populations from LTE in recombining or ionizing plasmas; multi-electron temperature models such as that of Busquet; and finally, the effect of NLTE population shifts on opacity models.

  14. Systematic investigation of NLTE phenomena in the limit of small departures from LTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libby, S.B.; Graziani, F.R.; More, R.M.; Kato, T.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we begin a systematic study of Non-Local Thermal Equilibrium (NLTE) phenomena in near equilibrium (LTE) high energy density, highly radiative plasmas. It is shown that the principle of minimum entropy production rate characterizes NLTE steady states for average atom rate equations in the case of small departures form LTE. With the aid of a novel hohlraum-reaction box thought experiment, we use the principles of minimum entropy production and detailed balance to derive Onsager reciprocity relations for the NLTE responses of a near equilibrium sample to non-Planckian perturbations in different frequency groups. This result is a significant symmetry constraint on the linear corrections to Kirchoff close-quote s law. We envisage applying our strategy to a number of test problems which include: the NLTE corrections to the ionization state of an ion located near the edge of an otherwise LTE medium; the effect of a monochromatic radiation field perturbation on an LTE medium; the deviation of Rydberg state populations from LTE in recombining or ionizing plasmas; multi-electron temperature models such as that of Busquet; and finally, the effect of NLTE population shifts on opacity models. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  15. Systematic investigation of NLTE phenomena in the limit of small departures from LTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libby, S. B.; Graziani, F. R.; More, R. M.; Kato, T.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we begin a systematic study of Non-Local Thermal Equilibrium (NLTE) phenomena in near equilibrium (LTE) high energy density, highly radiative plasmas. It is shown that the principle of minimum entropy production rate characterizes NLTE steady states for average atom rate equations in the case of small departures form LTE. With the aid of a novel hohlraum-reaction box thought experiment, we use the principles of minimum entropy production and detailed balance to derive Onsager reciprocity relations for the NLTE responses of a near equilibrium sample to non-Planckian perturbations in different frequency groups. This result is a significant symmetry constraint on the linear corrections to Kirchoff's law. We envisage applying our strategy to a number of test problems which include: the NLTE corrections to the ionization state of an ion located near the edge of an otherwise LTE medium; the effect of a monochromatic radiation field perturbation on an LTE medium; the deviation of Rydberg state populations from LTE in recombining or ionizing plasmas; multi-electron temperature models such as that of Busquet; and finally, the effect of NLTE population shifts on opacity models

  16. Analisis Performansi Algoritma Penjadwalan Log Rule dan Frame Level Schedule Skenario Multicell Pada Layer Mac LTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile telecommunications technology gradually evolved to support better services such as voice, data, and video to users of telecommunications services. LTE (Long Term Evolution is a network based on Internet Protocol (IP standardized by 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP. To support it, LTE requires a mechanism that can support. One of them by applying methods of scheduling packets in each service. Scheduling is a different treatment to packets that come in accordance with the priorities of the scheduling algorithm. In this research, to analyze the performance of LTE with paramater delay, packet loss ratio, throughput and fairness index uses a scheduling algorithms Frame Level Schedule (FLS and Log Rule on LTE-Simulator with scenarios using Voip traffic, Video and Best Effort (BE. The results is scheduling algorithms FLS is better than log rule in term of throughput values, while of scheduling algorithms log rule is better than FLS in terms of delay based on the number and speed of the users. This indicates that both scheduling algorithms suitable for use in LTE networks within conditions of traffic real time services, but not for non real time services such as BE.

  17. Biological changes in Barley mutants resistant to powdery mildew disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, I. M.; Fahim, M. M.; Moustafa, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    physiological studies showed that all kinds of chlorophyll (a), (b) and (a + b) content in infected plant were decreased while, the carotenes pigment were increased. Infection generally reduced total sugars content of all resistant mutants. Infected resistant mutant showed more phenols content and peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase activities than healthy ones of the mutants. (Author)

  18. Optimized LTE cell planning for multiple user density subareas using meta-heuristic algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2014-09-01

    Base station deployment in cellular networks is one of the most fundamental problems in network design. This paper proposes a novel method for the cell planning problem for the fourth generation 4G-LTE cellular networks using meta heuristic algorithms. In this approach, we aim to satisfy both coverage and cell capacity constraints simultaneously by formulating a practical optimization problem. We start by performing a typical coverage and capacity dimensioning to identify the initial required number of base stations. Afterwards, we implement a Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm or a recently-proposed Grey Wolf Optimizer to find the optimal base station locations that satisfy both problem constraints in the area of interest which can be divided into several subareas with different user densities. Subsequently, an iterative approach is executed to eliminate eventual redundant base stations. We have also performed Monte Carlo simulations to study the performance of the proposed scheme and computed the average number of users in outage. Results show that our proposed approach respects in all cases the desired network quality of services even for large-scale dimension problems.

  19. A Novel LTE Scheduling Algorithm for Green Technology in Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindia, Mohammad Nour; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Noordin, Kamarul Ariffin; Chayon, Muhammad Hasibur Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Smart grid (SG) application is being used nowadays to meet the demand of increasing power consumption. SG application is considered as a perfect solution for combining renewable energy resources and electrical grid by means of creating a bidirectional communication channel between the two systems. In this paper, three SG applications applicable to renewable energy system, namely, distribution automation (DA), distributed energy system-storage (DER) and electrical vehicle (EV), are investigated in order to study their suitability in Long Term Evolution (LTE) network. To compensate the weakness in the existing scheduling algorithms, a novel bandwidth estimation and allocation technique and a new scheduling algorithm are proposed. The technique allocates available network resources based on application’s priority, whereas the algorithm makes scheduling decision based on dynamic weighting factors of multi-criteria to satisfy the demands (delay, past average throughput and instantaneous transmission rate) of quality of service. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed mechanism achieves higher throughput, lower delay and lower packet loss rate for DA and DER as well as provide a degree of service for EV. In terms of fairness, the proposed algorithm shows 3%, 7 % and 9% better performance compared to exponential rule (EXP-Rule), modified-largest weighted delay first (M-LWDF) and exponential/PF (EXP/PF), respectively. PMID:25830703

  20. A Compact Frequency Reconfigurable Hybrid DRA for LTE/Wimax Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Aqeel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact hybrid antenna structure with frequency reconfiguration capabilities is presented in this article. The proposed design employs a combination of a rectangular DR element and a coupling slot on the structure’s ground plane (GP. The slot shifts the fundamental DRA mode by introducing a slow wave effect and its resonant behavior helps to achieve an omnidirectional pattern at low frequencies. The slot is loaded with a series of PIN diode switches whose ON/OFF combinations alter the effective slot length. Slot loading with PIN diodes results in frequency reconfiguration of the proposed structure with a large tuning range of 76.2% (between 1.73 and 3.86 GHz. A parametric analysis was performed to investigate the effects of slot length, width, and position on the reflection coefficients of the proposed structure. A prototype of the proposed design was fabricated and results were measured. The measured results show a close agreement with the simulated ones. The proposed design is suitable for DCS 1800 MHz, PCS 1900 MHZ, UMTS, LTE 2500–2700 MHz, and Wimax 3.5 GHz.

  1. Analysis on Target Detection and Classification in LTE Based Passive Forward Scattering Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Syamsul Azmir Raja Abdullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The passive bistatic radar (PBR system can utilize the illuminator of opportunity to enhance radar capability. By utilizing the forward scattering technique and procedure into the specific mode of PBR can provide an improvement in target detection and classification. The system is known as passive Forward Scattering Radar (FSR. The passive FSR system can exploit the peculiar advantage of the enhancement in forward scatter radar cross section (FSRCS for target detection. Thus, the aim of this paper is to show the feasibility of passive FSR for moving target detection and classification by experimental analysis and results. The signal source is coming from the latest technology of 4G Long-Term Evolution (LTE base station. A detailed explanation on the passive FSR receiver circuit, the detection scheme and the classification algorithm are given. In addition, the proposed passive FSR circuit employs the self-mixing technique at the receiver; hence the synchronization signal from the transmitter is not required. The experimental results confirm the passive FSR system’s capability for ground target detection and classification. Furthermore, this paper illustrates the first classification result in the passive FSR system. The great potential in the passive FSR system provides a new research area in passive radar that can be used for diverse remote monitoring applications.

  2. Analysis on Target Detection and Classification in LTE Based Passive Forward Scattering Radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Abdullah, Raja Syamsul Azmir; Abdul Aziz, Noor Hafizah; Abdul Rashid, Nur Emileen; Ahmad Salah, Asem; Hashim, Fazirulhisyam

    2016-09-29

    The passive bistatic radar (PBR) system can utilize the illuminator of opportunity to enhance radar capability. By utilizing the forward scattering technique and procedure into the specific mode of PBR can provide an improvement in target detection and classification. The system is known as passive Forward Scattering Radar (FSR). The passive FSR system can exploit the peculiar advantage of the enhancement in forward scatter radar cross section (FSRCS) for target detection. Thus, the aim of this paper is to show the feasibility of passive FSR for moving target detection and classification by experimental analysis and results. The signal source is coming from the latest technology of 4G Long-Term Evolution (LTE) base station. A detailed explanation on the passive FSR receiver circuit, the detection scheme and the classification algorithm are given. In addition, the proposed passive FSR circuit employs the self-mixing technique at the receiver; hence the synchronization signal from the transmitter is not required. The experimental results confirm the passive FSR system's capability for ground target detection and classification. Furthermore, this paper illustrates the first classification result in the passive FSR system. The great potential in the passive FSR system provides a new research area in passive radar that can be used for diverse remote monitoring applications.

  3. A novel LTE scheduling algorithm for green technology in smart grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindia, Mohammad Nour; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Noordin, Kamarul Ariffin; Chayon, Muhammad Hasibur Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Smart grid (SG) application is being used nowadays to meet the demand of increasing power consumption. SG application is considered as a perfect solution for combining renewable energy resources and electrical grid by means of creating a bidirectional communication channel between the two systems. In this paper, three SG applications applicable to renewable energy system, namely, distribution automation (DA), distributed energy system-storage (DER) and electrical vehicle (EV), are investigated in order to study their suitability in Long Term Evolution (LTE) network. To compensate the weakness in the existing scheduling algorithms, a novel bandwidth estimation and allocation technique and a new scheduling algorithm are proposed. The technique allocates available network resources based on application's priority, whereas the algorithm makes scheduling decision based on dynamic weighting factors of multi-criteria to satisfy the demands (delay, past average throughput and instantaneous transmission rate) of quality of service. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed mechanism achieves higher throughput, lower delay and lower packet loss rate for DA and DER as well as provide a degree of service for EV. In terms of fairness, the proposed algorithm shows 3%, 7 % and 9% better performance compared to exponential rule (EXP-Rule), modified-largest weighted delay first (M-LWDF) and exponential/PF (EXP/PF), respectively.

  4. A novel LTE scheduling algorithm for green technology in smart grid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nour Hindia

    Full Text Available Smart grid (SG application is being used nowadays to meet the demand of increasing power consumption. SG application is considered as a perfect solution for combining renewable energy resources and electrical grid by means of creating a bidirectional communication channel between the two systems. In this paper, three SG applications applicable to renewable energy system, namely, distribution automation (DA, distributed energy system-storage (DER and electrical vehicle (EV, are investigated in order to study their suitability in Long Term Evolution (LTE network. To compensate the weakness in the existing scheduling algorithms, a novel bandwidth estimation and allocation technique and a new scheduling algorithm are proposed. The technique allocates available network resources based on application's priority, whereas the algorithm makes scheduling decision based on dynamic weighting factors of multi-criteria to satisfy the demands (delay, past average throughput and instantaneous transmission rate of quality of service. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed mechanism achieves higher throughput, lower delay and lower packet loss rate for DA and DER as well as provide a degree of service for EV. In terms of fairness, the proposed algorithm shows 3%, 7 % and 9% better performance compared to exponential rule (EXP-Rule, modified-largest weighted delay first (M-LWDF and exponential/PF (EXP/PF, respectively.

  5. Scheduler-dependent inter-cell interference and its impact on LTE uplink performance at flow level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, D.C.; Heijenk, Geert; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Yankov, S.; Masip Bruin, Xavier; Verchere, Dominique; Tsaoussidis, Vassilis; Yannuzzi, Marcelo

    The Long Term Evolution (LTE) cellular technology is ex- pected to extend the capacity and improve the performance of current 3G cellular networks. Among the key mechanisms in LTE responsible for traffic management is the packet scheduler, which handles the al- location of resources to active flows

  6. Scheduler-dependent inter-cell interference and its impact on LTE uplink performance at flow level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, D.C.; Heijenk, G.; Berg, J.L. van den; Yankov, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Long Term Evolution (LTE) cellular technology is expected to extend the capacity and improve the performance of current 3G cellular networks. Among the key mechanisms in LTE responsible for traffic management is the packet scheduler, which handles the allocation of resources to active flows in

  7. Heterogeneous LTE/802.11a mobile relays for data rate enhancement and energy-efficiency in high speed trains

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Abu-Dayya, Adnan A.

    2012-01-01

    (LTE) long range links and with the mobile terminals (MTs) inside the train cars using IEEE 802.11a short range links. Scenarios with unicasting and multicasting from the BS are studied, both in the presence and absence of the relays. In addition, LTE

  8. LTE Radiated Data Throughput Measurements, Adopting MIMO 2x2 Reference Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szini, Istvan Janos; Pedersen, Gert Frølund; Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del

    2012-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) requires Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna systems. Consequently a new over-the-air (OTA) test methodology need to be created to make proper assessment of LTE devices radiated performance. The antenna specific parameters i.e. total antenna efficiency, gain...... imbalance and correlation coefficient, are essential for a proper MIMO antenna system design. However it can't be use directly to assess the LTE device system performance, since a multiplicity of other factors are involved, e.g. power amplifier load- pull, low noise amplifier source-pull, self interference...... noise, baseband algorithm and other factors. Several standard organizations are working towards a consensus over the proper OTA MIMO test method, however so far results of measurement campaigns have ambiguous results not allowing a desirable progress [1]. Initially presented at one of several MIMO OTA...

  9. Frequency Reconfigurable Antenna for Deca-Band 5 G/LTE/WWAN Mobile Terminal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingsheng; Cheng, Biyu; Jia, Hongting

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a frequency reconfigurable antenna for 5 G/LTE/WWAN mobile terminal applications is presented. The proposed antenna consists of a radiation element which is folded on a dielectric cuboid. Four PIN diodes located on the antenna element are used for frequency reconfigration. By controlling the states of four PIN diodes with an 8-bit microcontroller, a broad band which can cover deca-band as LTE700/2300/2500, GSM850/900/1800/1900, UMTS 2100, WLAN2400 and the future 5 G or LTE3600 is obtained with a compacted size of 40×8×5mm3. The antenna gain, efficiency and radiation characteristics are also shown.

  10. Non-LTE treatment of beryllium lines: Misidentification of the solar Be I feature at 2650 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipman, H.L.; Auer, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    We investigated the formation of beryllium lines, with particular reference to the solar Be spectrum, in a non-LTE context with a 25-level model atom in which 15 levels were allowed to depart from LTE. In some transitions, particularly the Be I lambda2650 line, the non-LTE effects can be quite dramatic, changing the deduced abundances by a factor of 4. Based on our non-LTE calculations and Copernicus observations of other stars, we find that a solar spectral feature at 2650 A, previously identified by numerous investigators as a Be I line, cannot be produced by Be I. Non-LTE effects on the Be II lambda3131 A line, used for most Be abundance determinations in the literature, are small by comparison

  11. A non-LTE treatment of beryllium lines - Misidentification of the solar Be I feature at 2650 A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, H. L.; Auer, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The formation of beryllium lines, with particular reference to the solar Be spectrum, is investigated in a non-LTE context with a 25-level model atom in which 15 levels are allowed to depart from LTE. In some transitions, particularly the Be I 2650-A line, the non-LTE effects can be quite dramatic, changing the deduced abundances by a factor of 4. Based on the non-LTE calculations and Copernicus observations of other stars, it is found that a solar spectral feature at 2650 A, previously identified by numerous investigators as a Be I line, cannot be produced by Be I. Non-LTE effects on the Be II 3131-A line, used for most Be abundance determinations in the literature, are small by comparison.

  12. Observed departures from LTE ionization equilibrium in late-type giants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, L.W.

    1977-01-01

    Photoelectric scans of the Ca I line at 6572 A and the forbidden Ca II transition at 7323 A are studied in the K giant α Tau, the M supergiant α Ori, and the M giants β And, α Cet, μ Gem, and β Peg. The relative strengths of these lines are shown to be indicative of the ratio of the relative number densities of the neutral and ionized species in the photosphere. The analysis indicates an overionization relative to LTE in qualitative agreement with the theoretical calculations of Auman and Woodrow for the K and M giants. The M supergiant α Ori exhibits a large over-ionization relative to LTE

  13. In-Band Interference Effects on UTRA LTE Uplink Resource Block Allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priyanto, Basuki Endah; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; Jensen, Ole Kiel

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the impact of in-band interference on the uplink multiple access of UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access, long term evolution (UTRA LTE). In- band and out-of-band interference arise as a result of transmitter imperfections. Out-of- band, or adjacent channel, interference can......, and when the interfering signal is received at higher power spectral density (PSD). The effect of frequency offset and different PSD level from the UE interferers to a victim UE is studied. The impact on different UE resource block size allocation is also investigated. The results are obtained from an LTE...

  14. Characterization of dual-polarization LTE radio over a free-space optical turbulence channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohata, J; Zvanovec, S; Korinek, T; Mansour Abadi, M; Ghassemlooy, Z

    2015-08-10

    A dual polarization (DP) radio over a free-space optical (FSO) communication link using a long-term evolution (LTE) radio signal is proposed and analyzed under different turbulence channel conditions. Radio signal transmission over the DP FSO channel is experimentally verified by means of error vector magnitude (EVM) statistics. We demonstrate that such a system, employing a 64 quadrature amplitude modulation at the frequency bands of 800 MHz and 2.6 GHz, evinces reliability with LTE signal over the FSO channel is a potential solution for last-mile access or backbone networks, when using multiple-input multiple-output based DP signals.

  15. Influence of external radiation on non-LTE opacities of Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, Marcel; Busquet, Michel

    2010-11-01

    In Laboratory Astrophysics, where astrophysics phenomena are scaled down to the laboratory, Xenon is commonly used. In most cases, astrophysical plasmas are not dense enough to warrant LTE. However, they are surrounded by radiation fields. Extensive detailed level computations of non-LTE Xe around Te = 100eV were performed with HULLAC [1], with different radiation temperatures and/or dilution factors. Generally, the effects are very important, even with small dilution factors. [4pt] [1] M. Klapisch and M. Busquet, High Ener. Dens. Phys.5, (2009) 105-9; Bull. Am. Phys. Soc.54, (2009) 210.

  16. Channelization Issues with Fairness Considerations for MU-MIMO Precoding Based UTRA-LTE/TDD Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Muhammad Imadur; Wang, Yuanye; Das, Suvra

    2008-01-01

    resource allocation point of view, choice of any technique will require different fairness conditions among users. In this paper, we have studied these different fairness conditions when combined with basic or joint access schemes mentioned above, while applied in a MU-MIMO based UTRA-LTE system. We have...... evaluated the resource allocation fairness issue when two well-known linear MU-MIMO precoding is used on a UTRA-LTE system. User grouping issue is dealt with when SDMA component is considered in the system. The results in this work provides an indicative analysis of the usability of different channelization...

  17. Access for Internet of Things using Smartphone as a Gateway utilizing LTE and WiFi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathur, Prateek; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2016-01-01

    Communicating the Internet of Things (IoT) data relying on Long-Term Evolution (LTE) and WiFi has been been presented in the relevant literature. However, this necessitates devices to have LTE/WiFi capability of their own, that has limitations in the form of power consumption, and radio access...... the data to the Internet. In this paper we present a system model wherein the smartphone functions as a gateway for the IoT devices operating on NFC, ZigBee and Bluetooth. The smartphone functioning as a gateway for transferring IoT data. The system modelled in the form of a Markov Chain based...

  18. Dual Connectivity in LTE HetNets with Split Control- and User-Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Anna; López-Pérez, David; Kucera, Stepan

    2013-01-01

    a detailed description of our dual connectivity framework based on the latest LTE-Advanced enhancements, in which macrocellassisted (MA) small cells use different channel state informationreference signals (CSI-RS) to differentiate among each other and allow User Equipment (UE) to take adequate measurements......Recently, a new network architecture with split control-plane and user-plane has been proposed and gained a lot of momentum in the standardisation of Long Term Evolution (LTE) Release 12. In this new network architecture, the controlplane, which transmits system information and handles user...

  19. Interference analysis for UAV connectivity over LTE using aerial radio measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, Istvan; Amorim, Rafhael Medeiros de; Nguyen, Huan Cong

    2017-01-01

    . In this paper, we use empirical measurements in live rural LTE networks to assess the impact of uplink and downlink radio interference on the UAV radio connectivity performance. Further, we provide a baseline analysis on the potential of interference mitigation schemes, needed to provide a reliable radio...... for these services is that the radio communication link must reliably cover a wide(er) area, when compared to the visual-line-of-sight range radio links currently used. Standardized cellular systems such as Long Term Evolution UMTS (LTE), are an obvious candidate to provide the radio communication link to UAVs...

  20. Method for Detection of Airborne UEs based on LTE Radio Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigard, Jeroen; Amorim, Rafhael Medeiros de; Nguyen, Huan Cong

    2017-01-01

    management can be optimized for UAVs separately from terrestrial UEs. In this paper, we present a classification algorithm using existing LTE UE radio measurements to identify whether a UE is airborne or terrestrial. The method is verified with LTE measurements made in a rural area at different heights......, including terrestrial measurements and it is shown that the method in 3 out of the 4 different measurement cases can detect a UE to be airborne with 99% likelihood, while the fourth case still can classify a UE correctly in 95% of the cases. The right classification can further be improved by taking...

  1. Empirical LTE Smartphone Power Model with DRX Operation for System Level Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Noël, Laurent; Mogensen, Preben

    2013-01-01

    An LTE smartphone power model is presented to enable academia and industry to evaluate users’ battery life on system level. The model is based on empirical measurements on a smartphone using a second generation LTE chipset, and the model includes functions of receive and transmit data rates...... and power levels. The first comprehensive Discontinuous Reception (DRX) power consumption measurements are reported together with cell bandwidth, screen and CPU power consumption. The transmit power level and to some extent the receive data rate constitute the overall power consumption, while DRX proves...

  2. Novel wideband MIMO antennas that can cover the whole LTE spectrum in handsets and portable computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanad, Mohamed; Hassan, Noha

    2014-01-01

    A dual resonant antenna configuration is developed for multistandard multifunction mobile handsets and portable computers. Only two wideband resonant antennas can cover most of the LTE spectrums in portable communication equipment. The bandwidth that can be covered by each antenna exceeds 70% without using any matching or tuning circuits, with efficiencies that reach 80%. Thus, a dual configuration of them is capable of covering up to 39 LTE (4G) bands besides the existing 2G and 3G bands. 2×2 MIMO configurations have been also developed for the two wideband antennas with a maximum isolation and a minimum correlation coefficient between the primary and the diversity antennas.

  3. Novel Wideband MIMO Antennas That Can Cover the Whole LTE Spectrum in Handsets and Portable Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sanad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A dual resonant antenna configuration is developed for multistandard multifunction mobile handsets and portable computers. Only two wideband resonant antennas can cover most of the LTE spectrums in portable communication equipment. The bandwidth that can be covered by each antenna exceeds 70% without using any matching or tuning circuits, with efficiencies that reach 80%. Thus, a dual configuration of them is capable of covering up to 39 LTE (4G bands besides the existing 2G and 3G bands. 2×2 MIMO configurations have been also developed for the two wideband antennas with a maximum isolation and a minimum correlation coefficient between the primary and the diversity antennas.

  4. Iterative Methods for the Non-LTE Transfer of Polarized Radiation: Resonance Line Polarization in One-dimensional Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo Bueno, Javier; Manso Sainz, Rafael

    1999-05-01

    This paper shows how to generalize to non-LTE polarization transfer some operator splitting methods that were originally developed for solving unpolarized transfer problems. These are the Jacobi-based accelerated Λ-iteration (ALI) method of Olson, Auer, & Buchler and the iterative schemes based on Gauss-Seidel and successive overrelaxation (SOR) iteration of Trujillo Bueno and Fabiani Bendicho. The theoretical framework chosen for the formulation of polarization transfer problems is the quantum electrodynamics (QED) theory of Landi Degl'Innocenti, which specifies the excitation state of the atoms in terms of the irreducible tensor components of the atomic density matrix. This first paper establishes the grounds of our numerical approach to non-LTE polarization transfer by concentrating on the standard case of scattering line polarization in a gas of two-level atoms, including the Hanle effect due to a weak microturbulent and isotropic magnetic field. We begin demonstrating that the well-known Λ-iteration method leads to the self-consistent solution of this type of problem if one initializes using the ``exact'' solution corresponding to the unpolarized case. We show then how the above-mentioned splitting methods can be easily derived from this simple Λ-iteration scheme. We show that our SOR method is 10 times faster than the Jacobi-based ALI method, while our implementation of the Gauss-Seidel method is 4 times faster. These iterative schemes lead to the self-consistent solution independently of the chosen initialization. The convergence rate of these iterative methods is very high; they do not require either the construction or the inversion of any matrix, and the computing time per iteration is similar to that of the Λ-iteration method.

  5. High yielding mutants of blackgram variety 'PH-25'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, R.C.; Mohapatra, B.D.; Panda, B.S.

    2001-01-01

    Seeds of blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) variety 'PH-5' were treated with chemical mutagens ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), nitrosoguanidine (NG), maleic hydrazide (MH) and sodium azide (NaN 3 ), each at 3 different concentrations. Thirty six mutant lines developed from mutagenic treatments along with parent varieties were tested in M 4 generation. The mutants showed wide variation in most of the traits and multivariante D 2 analysis showed genetic divergence among themselves. Twenty of the thirty mutants showed genetic divergence from parent. Ten selected high yielding mutants were tested in M 5 . Yield and other productive traits of five high yielding mutants in M 4 and M 5 are presented

  6. Discrete-event simulation of coordinated multi-point joint transmission in LTE-Advanced with constrained backhaul

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artuso, Matteo; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2014-01-01

    Inter-cell interference in LTE-Advanced can be mitigated using coordinated multi-point (CoMP) techniques with joint transmission of user data . However, this requires tight coordination of the eNodeBs, usin g the X2 interface. In this paper we use discrete-event simulation to evaluate the latency...... requirements for the X2 interface and investigate the consequences of a constrained ba ckhaul. Our simulation results show a gain of the system throug hput of up to 120% compared to the case without CoMP for low-latency backhaul. With X2 latencies above 5 ms CoMP is no longer a benefit to the network....

  7. A Cost-Based Adaptive Handover Hysteresis Scheme to Minimize the Handover Failure Rate in 3GPP LTE System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Gye-Tae

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We deal with a cost-based adaptive handover hysteresis scheme for the horizontal handover decision strategies, as one of the self-optimization techniques that can minimize the handover failure rate (HFR in the 3rd generation partnership project (3GPP long-term evolution (LTE system based on the network-controlled hard handover. Especially, for real-time operation, we propose an adaptive hysteresis scheme with a simplified cost function considering some dominant factors closely related to HFR performance such as the load difference between the target and serving cells, the velocity of user equipment (UE, and the service type. With the proposed scheme, a proper hysteresis value based on the dominant factors is easily obtained, so that the handover parameter optimization for minimizing the HFR can be effectively achieved. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can support better HFR performance than the conventional schemes.

  8. Packet-Scheduling Algorithm by the Ratio of Transmit Power to the Transmission Bits in 3GPP LTE Downlink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Gye-Tae

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Packet scheduler plays the central role in determining the overall performance of the 3GPP long-term evolution (LTE based on packet-switching operation. In this paper, a novel minimum transmit power-based (MP packet-scheduling algorithm is proposed that can achieve power-efficient transmission to the UEs while providing both system throughput gain and fairness improvement. The proposed algorithm is based on a new scheduling metric focusing on the ratio of the transmit power per bit and allocates the physical resource block (PRB to the UE that requires the least ratio of the transmit power per bit. Through computer simulation, the performance of the proposed MP packet-scheduling algorithm is compared with the conventional packet-scheduling algorithms by two primary criteria: fairness and throughput. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the conventional algorithms in terms of the fairness and throughput.

  9. The application of shortened upper leaf mutant in barley breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Hua

    2004-01-01

    The shortened upper leaf mutant was induced from Fuji Nigo by γ-ray irradiation. Fuji Nigo, the mutant, cross-cut F 1 , F 2 and back-cross F 1 , F 2 were used to analyze mutant heredity by comparative study. The yield, chlorophyll content, light intensity, dry matter of mutant were investigated. The results showed that (1) the mutant character was controlled by a couple of nuclear genes which were partial dominance; (2) the transmittance of the mutant colony was better than that of Fuji Nigo and bottom dry matter was much more than that of Fuji Nigo; (3) under the condition of high fertilizer and high plant population , the yield of mutant was higher than that of Fuji Nigo; (4) the content of chlorophyll a in the mutant was higher than that in Fuji Nigo

  10. Mobility Analysis for Inter-Site Carrier Aggregation in LTE Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbera, Simone; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Michaelsen, Per Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the mobility performance for an LTE Heterogeneous Network with macro and pico cells deployed on different carriers. Cases with/without downlink inter-site carrier aggregation are investigated. Extensive system level simulations are exploited to quantify the performance...

  11. Sensitivity of the optimal parameter settings for a LTE packet scheduler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Diaz, I.; Litjens, R.; van den Berg, C.A.; Dimitrova, D.C.; Spaey, K.

    Advanced packet scheduling schemes in 3G/3G+ mobile networks provide one or more parameters to optimise the trade-off between QoS and resource efficiency. In this paper we study the sensitivity of the optimal parameter setting for packet scheduling in LTE radio networks with respect to various

  12. Performance evaluation of ICN/CCN based service migration approach in virtualized LTE systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satria, Triadimas; Karimzadeh Motallebi Azar, Morteza; Karagiannis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    The continuous growth in using mobile devices (e.g. smart phones, tablets, etc.) has increased the complexity in provisioning cellular network resources. Applying the cloud computing model in LTE (Long Term Evolution) systems could be a good solution to increase LTE’s performance by building a

  13. Non-LTE radiating acoustic shocks and Ca II K2V bright points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Mats; Stein, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    We present, for the first time, a self-consistent solution of the time-dependent 1D equations of non-LTE radiation hydrodynamics in solar chromospheric conditions. The vertical propagation of sinusoidal acoustic waves with periods of 30, 180, and 300 s is calculated. We find that departures from LTE and ionization recombination determine the temperature profiles of the shocks that develop. In LTE almost all the thermal energy goes into ionization, so the temperature rise is very small. In non-LTE, the finite transition rates delay the ionization to behind the shock front. The compression thus goes into thermal energy at the shock front leading to a high temperature amplitude. Further behind the shock front, the delayed ionization removes energy from the thermal pool, which reduces the temperature, producing a temperature spike. The 180 s waves reproduce the observed temporal changes in the calcium K line profiles quite well. The observed wing brightening pattern, the violet/red peak asymmetry and the observed line center behavior are all well reproduced. The short-period waves and the 5 minute period waves fail especially in reproducing the observed behavior of the wings.

  14. New solar carbon abundance based on non-LTE CN molecular spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, G.H.; Linsky, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    A detailed non-LTE analysis of solar CN spectra strongly suggests a revised carbon abundance for the Sun. A value of log A/subc/=8.35plus-or-minus0.15 which is significantly lower than the presently accepted value of log A/subc/=8.55 is suggested. This revision may have important consequences in astrophysics

  15. On the Conductive Loss of High-Q Frequency Reconfigurable Antennas for LTE Frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del

    2018-01-01

    Intrinsically narrowband and highly tunable systems are a promising way to address the bandwidth challenge of LTE. However, narrowband antennas exhibit low efficiencies. This paper details the loss mechanism of narrowband antennas by investigating the contribution of the resistance of the tuner...

  16. User Acceptance of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) Services: An Application of Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunil; Kim, Ki Joon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to propose an integrated path model in order to explore user acceptance of long-term evolution (LTE) services by examining potential causal relationships between key psychological factors and user intention to use the services. Design/methodology/approach: Online survey data collected from 1,344 users are analysed…

  17. Impact of relay station positioning on LTE uplink performance at flow level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennepe, D.H. te; Berg, J.L. van den; Karagiannis, G.

    2012-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is the latest cellular system that is being standardized by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) and is expected to substantially improve end-user throughput and reduce user plane latency, while at the same time significantly improve user experience with full

  18. Multi-Layer Mobility Load Balancing in a Heterogeneous LTE Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Polignano, Michele; Laselva, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the behavior of a distributed Mobility Load Balancing (MLB) scheme in a multi-layer 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) Long Term Evolution (LTE) deployment with different User Equipment (UE) densities in certain network areas covered with pico cells. Target of the study...

  19. Modeling a content-aware LTE MAC downlink scheduler with heterogeneous traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artuso, Matteo; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2013-01-01

    The scheduling policy adopted in the LTE (Long Term Evolution) MAC layer is the most valuable degree of freedom left from the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) consortium to the industry and the research community . This paper presents an OPNET model of the downlink scheduling in a one...

  20. Cooperation Techniques between LTE in Unlicensed Spectrum and Wi-Fi towards Fair Spectral Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglogiannis, Vasilis; Naudts, Dries; Shahid, Adnan; Giannoulis, Spilios; Laermans, Eric; Moerman, Ingrid

    2017-08-31

    On the road towards 5G, a proliferation of Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets) is expected. Sensor networks are of great importance in this new wireless era, as they allow interaction with the environment. Additionally, the establishment of the Internet of Things (IoT) has incredibly increased the number of interconnected devices and consequently the already massive wirelessly transmitted traffic. The exponential growth of wireless traffic is pushing the wireless community to investigate solutions that maximally exploit the available spectrum. Recently, 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) announced standards that permit the operation of Long Term Evolution (LTE) in the unlicensed spectrum in addition to the exclusive use of the licensed spectrum owned by a mobile operator. Alternatively, leading wireless technology developers examine standalone LTE operation in the unlicensed spectrum without any involvement of a mobile operator. In this article, we present a classification of different techniques that can be applied on co-located LTE and Wi-Fi networks. Up to today, Wi-Fi is the most widely-used wireless technology in the unlicensed spectrum. A review of the current state of the art further reveals the lack of cooperation schemes among co-located networks that can lead to more optimal usage of the available spectrum. This article fills this gap in the literature by conceptually describing different classes of cooperation between LTE and Wi-Fi. For each class, we provide a detailed presentation of possible cooperation techniques that can provide spectral efficiency in a fair manner.

  1. A genetic algorithm solution for the operation of green LTE networks with energy and environment considerations

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Abu-Dayya, Adnan A.

    2012-01-01

    , as additional power sources in smart grids, becomes a real challenge to network operators to reduce power costs. In this paper, we propose a method based on genetic algorithms that decreases the energy consumption of a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular network

  2. Assessment of LTE Wireless Access for Monitoring of Energy Distribution in the Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madueño, Germán Corrales; Nielsen, Jimmy Jessen; Min Kim, Dong

    2016-01-01

    While LTE is becoming widely rolled out for human-type services, it is also a promising solution for cost-efficient connectivity of the smart grid monitoring equipment. This is a type of machine-to-machine (M2M) traffic that consists mainly of sporadic uplink transmissions. In such a setting...

  3. Delay efficient cooperation in public safety vehicular networks using LTE and IEEE 802.11p

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Filali, Fethi

    2012-01-01

    (LTE) is used for long range communications with the base station (BS) and 802.11p is considered for inter-vehicle collaboration on the short range. A high mobility environment with correlated shadowing is adopted. Both schemes are shown to outperform

  4. Impact of Relay Station Positioning on LTE Uplink Performance at Flow Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Hennepe, D.H.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Karagiannis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is the latest cellular system that is being standardized by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) and is expected to substantially improve end-user throughput and reduce user plane latency, while at the same time significantly improve user experience with full

  5. LTE delay assessment for real-time management of future smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorguseski, L.; Zhang, H.; Chrysalos, M.; Golinski, M.; Toh, Y.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using Long Term Evolution (LTE), for the real-time state estimation of the smart grids. This enables monitoring and control of future smart grids. The smart grid state estimation requires measurement reports from different nodes in the smart grid and

  6. Applying SDN/OpenFlow in Virtualized LTE to support Distributed Mobility Management (DMM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimzadeh Motallebi Azar, Morteza; Valtulina, Luca; Karagiannis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Distributed Mobility Management (DMM) is a mobility management solution, where the mobility anchors are distributed instead of being centralized. The use of DMM can be applied in cloud-based (virtualized) Long Term Evolution (LTE) mobile network environments to (1) provide session continuity to

  7. A MU-MIMO CQI estimation method for MU-MIMO UEs in LTE systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Hung Tuan; Kovacs, Istvan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract—This paper addresses a method to estimate the multi user channel quality indicator (CQI) from the reported rank 1 single user CQI in LTE systems. We investigate the relationship between the multi user CQI and the channel condition. Based on that, we propose an updating mechanism where th...

  8. A spatiotemporal model for the LTE uplink: Spatially interacting tandem queues approach

    KAUST Repository

    Gharbieh, Mohammad; Elsawy, Hesham; Bader, Ahmed; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    With the proliferation of the Internet-of-things (IoT), there is an undeniable consensus that cellular LTE networks will have to support a dramatically larger number of uplink connections. This is true since most of the devices to be added incur

  9. Tuning Range Optimization of a Planar Inverted F Antenna for LTE Low Frequency Bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Pelosi, Mauro; Franek, Ondrej

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a Planar Inverted F Antenna (PIFA) tuned with a fixed capacitor to the low frequency bands supported by the Long Term Evolution (LTE) technology. The tuning range is investigated and optimized with respect to the bandwidth and the efficiency of the resulting antenna. Simulatio...... and mock-ups are presented....

  10. Non-LTE equivalent widths for Si II, III and IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.R.; Butler, K.

    1990-01-01

    Equivalent widths for a set of Si II, III and IV lines reliable for the determination of temperatures in the B star parameter range are given. They are calculated on a fine grid of LTE line blanketed model atmospheres and lie in the wavelength region from 4070 A to 5070 A

  11. Analisa Performansi Algoritma Penjadwalan Proportional Fairness Dan Log Rule Dengan Skenario Multicell Pada Sistem 3GPP LTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dimas Arfianto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Teknologi Long Term Evolution (LTE dikembangkan dengan tujuan untuk mengurangi biaya yang dikeluarkan oleh pengguna maupun operator jasa telekomunikasi, memperluas daerah jangkauan, menambah kapasitas sistem, dan mengurangi delay. Dengan spesifikasi yang tinggi, LTE diharapkan mampu memberikan kemudahan pelanggan dalam mengakses layanan Voice over IP, Streaming, dan Video Conference. LTE diharapkan mampu memberikan layanan dengan besar throughput yang tinggi dan delay yang rendah. Padahal tidak semua user membutuhkan throughput yang sama besar namun yang dibutuhkan adalah kesesuaian pengendalian delay dan fairness index untuk setiap user dengan tetap memperhatikan batasan throughput. Untuk mendapatkan kinerja dan hasil yang maksimal tersebut pada LTE diperlukan sistem algoritma penjadwalan yang baik. Pada penelitian ini, dianalisis performansi LTE dengan parameter Delay, Packet loss, Throughput, dan Fairness Index menggunakan algoritma penjadwalan Proportional Fairness dan Log Rule pada LTE-Simulator dengan skenario menggunakan trafik VoIP, Video dan Best Effort. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa penjadwalan algoritma Proportional Fairness lebih baik dalam menangani layanan VoIP, sedangkan algoritma Log Rule lebih baik dalam menangani layanan Video. Hal ini menandakan kedua algoritma ini sangat cocok digunakan untuk jaringan LTE dengan kondisi trafik layanan real-time, tetapi tidak untuk layanan non real-time seperti layanan Best Effort

  12. Semi-dwarf mutants for rice improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Ramli; Osman, Mohammad; Ibrahim, Rusli

    1990-01-01

    Full text: MARDI and the National University of Malaysia embarked on a programme to induce resistance against blast in rice in 1978. MARDI also obtained semi dwarf mutants of cvs 'Mahsuri', 'Muda', 'Pongsu seribu' and 'Jarum Mas', which are under evaluation. The popular local rice variety 'Manik' was subjected to gamma irradiation (15-40 krad) and 101 promising semidwarf mutants have been obtained following selection in M 2 -M 6 . 29 of them show grain yields of 6.0-7.3 t/ha, compared with 5.7t for 'Manik'. Other valuable mutants were found showing long grain, less shattering, earlier maturity, and glutinous endosperm. One mutant, resistant to brown plant hopper yields 6.3t/ha. (author)

  13. Induction of Mutants in Durum Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Ubaidi, M.; Ibrahim, I.; AL-Hadithi, A.

    2002-01-01

    This investigation presents a breeding program for induction and development of a new genotype of durum wheat, resistant to lodging with high yield, by irradiation durum wheat hybrids (F2) with gamma rays 100 Gy, during 1990-1997 cultivation seasons. This program involves: induction of variability, selection evaluation of the mutants at three locations: Twaitha (Baghdad) Latifya ( Babylon) and Swari (Kutt). All mutants showed resistance to lodging and there was a significant reduction in plant height. Mutant SIXIZ-22 surpassed other mutants and its origin in lodging resistance and plant height (83.5,82.8 and 89.4 cm) in the three locations at generation M5 and M6, respectively. Also, there were significant differences between mutant and their origin in the number of spikes/M 2 and grain yild during the two successive generation. On the other hand, mutant IZxCO-105 surpassed other mutants in the number of spikes/M 2 (231.8,242.3 and 292) and grain yield (4336,3376 and 5232 kg/ha) in all testing location, respectively . (authors) 14 refs., 4 tabs

  14. Productive mutants of niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    Seeds of six niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) varieties ('GA-10', 'ONS-8', 'IGP-72', 'N-71', 'NB-9' and 'UN-4') were treated with 0.5, 0.75 and 1% ethyl methanesulphonate. After four generations of selection, 29 mutant lines were developed and those were evaluated from 1990-92 during Kharif (July to October) and Rabi (December to March) seasons. Average plant characteristics and yield data of four high yielding mutants along with 'IGP-76' (National Check), GA-10 (Zonal Check) and 'Semiliguda Local' (Local Check) are presented

  15. Mutant genes in pea breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiecicki, W.K.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutations of genes Dpo (dehiscing pods) and A (anthocyanin synthesis) played a role in pea domestication. A number of other genes were important in cultivar development for 3 types of usage (dry seeds, green vegetable types, fodder), e.g. fn, fna, le, p, v, fas and af. New genes (induced and spontaneous), are important for present ideotypes and are registered by the Pisum Genetics Association (PGA). Comparison of a pea variety ideotype with the variation available in gene banks shows that breeders need 'new' features. In mutation induction experiments, genotype, mutagen and method of treatment (e.g. combined or fractionated doses) are varied for broadening the mutation spectrum and selecting more genes of agronomic value. New genes are genetically analysed. In Poland, some mutant varieties with the gene afila were registered, controlling lodging by a shorter stem and a higher number of internodes. Really non-lodging pea varieties could strongly increase seed yield. But the probability of detecting a major gene for lodging resistance is low. Therefore, mutant genes with smaller influence on plant architecture are sought, to combine their effect by crossing. Promising seem to be the genes rogue, reductus and arthritic as well as a number of mutant genes not yet genetically identified. The gene det for terminal inflorescence - similarly to Vicia faba - changes plant development. Utilisation of assimilates and ripening should be better. Improvement of harvest index should give higher seed yield. A number of genes controlling disease resistance are well known (eg. Fw, Fnw, En, mo and sbm). Important in mass screening of resistance are closely linked gene markers. Pea gene banks collect respective lines, but mutants induced in highly productive cultivars would be better. Inducing gene markers sometimes seems to be easier than transfer by crossing. Mutation induction in pea breeding is probably more important because a high number of monogenic features are

  16. Molecular analysis of waxy mutants in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatou, O.; Amano, E.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The 'waxy' gene is a structural gene coding a glycosyl transferase which synthesises amylose in the endosperm tissue. 'Non-waxy' rice cultivars have an active gene and their amylose content is 18-25% depending upon gene performance and modifier genes. In 'waxy' rice, no amylose is found because the enzyme is absent. In mutants induced by gamma rays, neutrons, EI or EMS, amylose content ranged from 0 to 20%, i.e. there are intermediate phenotypes as well. Some of them had the same amount of the enzyme as a 'non-waxy' cultivar, even fully 'waxy' mutants showed a certain amount of the enzyme. This suggests that in mutants there may be no structural change in the enzyme gene but the enzyme produced might be less active. By molecular analysis of the mutants' genes it was found that only two mutants induced by thermal neutrons show structural alterations, the changes in other mutants are either too small to be detected by Southern analysis or are outside the structural gene in question. (author)

  17. Evidence of non-LTE Effects in Mesospheric Water Vapor from Spectrally-Resolved Emissions Observed by CIRRIS-1A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D. K.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Zaragoza, G.

    1999-01-01

    Evidence of non-LTE effects in mesospheric water vapor as determined by infrared spectral emission measurements taken from the space shuttle is reported. A cryogenic Michelson interferometer in the CIRRIS-1A shuttle payload yielded high quality, atmospheric infrared spectra. These measurements demonstrate the enhanced daytime emissions of H2O (020-010) which are the result of non-LTE processes and in agreement with non-LTE models. The radiance ratios of H2O (010 to 000) and (020 to 010) Q(1) transitions during daytime are compared with non-LTE model calculations to assess the vibration-to-vibration exchange rate between H2O and O2 in the mesosphere. An exchange rate of 1.2 x 10(exp -12)cc/s is derived.

  18. Assessing the existence of non-LTE behavior in aluminum K-shell diagnostic lines from dynamic hohlraum driven experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrill, M E

    2015-01-01

    We describe in this work a study designed to obtain insight into the sensitivity of foil targets driven out of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) by an idealized dynamic hohlraum during its brightest phase. This work is motivated by a perceived over-prediction of the plasma temperature by current LTE spectral modeling of opacity experiments performed by Bailey et al at the Sandia Z facility. Although several aspects of this modeling study parallel the SNL/LANL opacity experiments, this work is primarily intended to gain insight into radiatively over-driven systems. The results from this idealized study suggest that a non-LTE population distribution with qualities similar to an LTE distribution at higher material temperatures are possible, and therefore support a further theoretical investigation with experimental parameters. (special issue paper)

  19. TD-LTE产业发展策略之我见%Analysis of TD-LTE Industry Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨骅; 吴慧敏

    2013-01-01

    In view of the TD-LTE industry development status, the leading role of market demand for TD-LTE industry is analyzed. Based on the development experiences of mobile communication industry over the world, the development strategy of TD-LTE single market in the early stage is expounded, in the meantime, the TD-LTE spectrum planning is analyzed.%  结合TD-LTE产业发展现状,分析了市场需求对TD-LTE产业规模发展的拉动作用,基于国际国内移动通信产业的发展经验,阐述了产业发展初期采用单一TD-LTE市场模式的发展策略,并对TD-LTE频段规划使用进行分析。

  20. An arc facility for investigating non-LTE thermodynamic and transport phenomena in low and high pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedghinisab, A.; Eddy, T.L.; Murray, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses a high pressure arc facility modified for computerized control and data acquisition to simplify measurements of non-LTE plasmas. The non-LTE methods have shown that numerous spectral lines and continuum must be accurately, precisely and quickly measured.The instrumentation uses a 1-m monochrometer with programmed wavelength slews and scans; oplasma scans; and monitoring of chamber pressure, current, voltages, and location. Multiple flows of various gases can be provided simultaneously. Plasma self absorption is determined via a concave back mirror and shutter with final alignment via computer plots. The raw data is corrected for absorption, zeroed, centered and smoothed. The net line intensity is then determined and Abeled prior to feeding into LTE or non-LTE analysis methods. Sample results are presented at 0.1,1 and 10 atm

  1. Assessment of general public exposure to lte signals compared to other cellular networks present in Thessaloniki, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gkonis, Fotios; Boursianis, Achilles; Samaras, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    To assess general public exposure to electromagnetic fields from Long Term Evolution (LTE) base stations, measurements at 10 sites in Thessaloniki, Greece were performed. Results are compared with other mobile cellular networks currently in use. All exposure values satisfy the guidelines for general public exposure of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), as well as the reference levels by the Greek legislation at all sites. LTE electric field measurements were recorded up to 0.645 V/m. By applying the ICNIRP guidelines, the exposure ratio for all LTE signals is between 2.9 x 10"-"5 and 2.8 x 10"-"2. From the measurements results it is concluded that the average and maximum power density contribution of LTE down-link signals to the overall cellular networks signals are 7.8% and 36.7%, respectively. (authors)

  2. Absolute transition probabilities of 5s-5p transitions of Kr I from interferometric measurements in LTE-plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaschek, K.; Ernst, G.K.; Boetticher, W.

    1984-01-01

    Absolute transition probabilities of nine 5s-5p transitions of Kr I have been evaluated by using the hook method. The plasma was produced in a shock tube. The population density of the 5s-levels was calculated, under the assumption of LTE, from the electron density and the ground state number measured by means of a dual wavelength interferometer. An evaluation is given which proves the validity of the LTE assumption. (orig.)

  3. Physical Layer Multi-Core Prototyping A Dataflow-Based Approach for LTE eNodeB

    CERN Document Server

    Pelcat, Maxime; Piat, Jonathan; Nezan, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Base stations developed according to the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard require unprecedented processing power. 3GPP LTE enables data rates beyond hundreds of Mbits/s by using advanced technologies, necessitating a highly complex LTE physical layer. The operating power of base stations is a significant cost for operators, and is currently optimized using state-of-the-art hardware solutions, such as heterogeneous distributed systems. The traditional system design method of porting algorithms to heterogeneous distributed systems based on test-and-refine methods is a manual, thus time-expensive, task.   Physical Layer Multi-Core Prototyping: A Dataflow-Based Approach for LTE eNodeB provides a clear introduction to the 3GPP LTE physical layer and to dataflow-based prototyping and programming. The difficulties in the process of 3GPP LTE physical layer porting are outlined, with particular focus on automatic partitioning and scheduling, load balancing and computation latency reduction, specifically in sys...

  4. Modelling of synchronisation and energy performance of FBE- and LBE-based standalone LTE-U networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiamin Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Without the aid of licensed channel, deploying long-term evolution (LTE networks over unlicensed spectrum (named standalone LTE-U networks faces the difficulty of establishing and maintaining synchronisation between user equipments and base stations. In this work, considering the two modes of listen-before-talk-based channel access scheme, frame-based equipment (FBE and load-based equipment (LBE, the authors propose analytical frameworks to study the successful probability of synchronisation and the energy consumption of synchronisation in a standalone LTE-U network. Specifically, for the LBE mode, the authors also propose a Lattice-Poisson algorithm-based approach to derive the distribution of the channel non-occupancy period of a standalone LTE-U network. Furthermore, the authors explore the impact of diverse protocol parameters of both FBE and LBE modes on the two studied performance metrics. Simulation results demonstrate the accuracy of the analysis, and shed some light on the selection of FBE and LBE for standalone LTE-U networks, in terms of synchronisation, energy consumption, and throughput of standalone LTE-U and Wi-Fi networks.

  5. Connexin mutants and cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C Beyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The lens is a multicellular, but avascular tissue that must stay transparent to allow normal transmission of light and focusing of it on the retina. Damage to lens cells and/or proteins can cause cataracts, opacities that disrupt these processes. The normal survival of the lens is facilitated by an extensive network of gap junctions formed predominantly of connexin46 and connexin50. Mutations of the genes that encode these connexins (GJA3 and GJA8 have been identified and linked to inheritance of cataracts in human families and mouse lines. In vitro expression studies of several of these mutants have shown that they exhibit abnormalities that may lead to disease. Many of the mutants reduce or modify intercellular communication due to channel alterations (including loss of function or altered gating or due to impaired cellular trafficking which reduces the number of gap junction channels within the plasma membrane. However, the abnormalities detected in studies of other mutants suggest that they cause cataracts through other mechanisms including gain of hemichannel function (leading to cell injury and death and formation of cytoplasmic accumulations (that may act as light scattering particles. These observations and the anticipated results of ongoing studies should elucidate the mechanisms of cataract development due to mutations of lens connexins and abnormalities of other lens proteins. They may also contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of disease due to connexin mutations in other tissues.

  6. Perancangan dan Implementasi Duplexer Mikrostrip untuk Frekuensi LTE pada band ke-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENCENG SULAEMAN

    2013-07-01

    The necessary of mobile communication has increased in technology, now it released the new of technology is Long Term Evolution (LTE. Type of duplex is Frequency Division Duplex (FDD, designed a duplexer which it is capable for transmitting and receiving process at the same time with the different of frequency between uplink and downlink. Research of designed and implemented a duplexer using Hybrid Coupler and Bandstop filters based on Split Ring Resonators for the frequency band 7th on LTE technology at Base Transceiver Station (BTS. Duplexer is made by combining two coupler and two bandstop filter. The results of duplexer measurements, when Tx port transmit the signal to antenna port with attenuation at the downlink frequency center at 3.168 dB. Attenuation from antenna port to Rx port about 6 dB. Isolation between Tx port and Rx port about 15 dB. Keywords: Duplexer, Bandstop Filter, Split Ring Resonator, Hybrid Coupler, and Long Term Evolution.

  7. Limb-darkening coefficients from line-blanketed non-LTE hot-star model atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, D. C.; Howarth, I. D.

    2016-02-01

    We present grids of limb-darkening coefficients computed from non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE), line-blanketed TLUSTY model atmospheres, covering effective-temperature and surface-gravity ranges of 15-55 kK and 4.75 dex (cgs) down to the effective Eddington limit, at 2×, 1×, 0.5× (Large Magellanic Cloud), 0.2× (Small Magellanic Cloud), and 0.1× solar. Results are given for the Bessell UBVRICJKHL, Sloan ugriz, Strömgren ubvy, WFCAM ZYJHK, Hipparcos, Kepler, and Tycho passbands, in each case characterized by several different limb-darkening `laws'. We examine the sensitivity of limb darkening to temperature, gravity, metallicity, microturbulent velocity, and wavelength, and make a comparison with LTE models. The dependence on metallicity is very weak, but limb darkening is a moderately strong function of log g in this temperature regime.

  8. Achieving energy efficiency in LTE with joint D2D communications and green networking techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Yaacoub, Elias E.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, the joint operation of cooperative device-to-device (D2D) communications and green cellular communications is investigated. An efficient approach for grouping mobile terminals (MTs) into cooperative clusters is described. In each cluster, MTs cooperate via D2D communications to share content of common interest. Furthermore, an energy-efficient technique for putting BSs in sleep mode in an LTE cellular network is presented. Finally, both methods are combined in order to ensure green communications for both the users\\' MTs and the operator\\'s BSs. The studied methods are investigated in the framework of OFDMA-based state-of-the-art LTE cellular networks, while taking into account intercell interference and resource allocation. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Interference Coordination for E-MBMS Transmissions in LTE-Advanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Lopes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Interference coordination methods for Evolved-Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service (E-MBMS in Long-Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-A are presented. In addition, we consider signal space diversity based on Rotation Matrices (RM known to provide good performance gains over uncorrelated Rayleigh fading channels. OFDM/OFDMA systems can make the use of RM very attractive both for single and multiple antenna transmissions. In this paper, OFDM/OFDMA signals based on LTE parameters are combined with RM, MIMO, Turbo, or LDPC codes. We have considered different types of receivers, namely, we used an MMSE (Minimum Mean Squared Error equalizer and a Maximum Likelihood Soft Output criterion (MLSO. Frequency, signal, and space diversity gains are evaluated for different spatial channel models (SCM based on ITU multipath propagation channels. Different adaptive frequency reuse and schedulers are considered to evaluate the E-MBMS spectral efficiency at the cell borders.

  10. An Efficient Live TV Scheduling System for 4G LTE Broadcast

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong

    2016-01-01

    Traditional live television (TV) broadcasting systems are proven to be spectrum inefficient. Therefore, researchers propose to provide TV services on fourth-generation (4G) long-term evolution (LTE) networks. However, static broadcast, a typical broadcasting method over cellular network, is inefficient in terms of radio resource usage. To solve this problem, the audience-driven live TV scheduling (ADTVS) framework is proposed, to maximize radio resource usage when providing TV broadcasting services over LTE networks. ADTVS, a system-level scheduling framework, considers both available radio resources and audience preferences, in order to dynamically schedule TV channels for broadcasting at various time and locations. By conducting a simulation using real-life data and scenarios, it is shown that ADTVS significantly outperforms the static broadcast method. Numerical results indicate that, on average, ADTVS enables substantial improvement to broadcast efficiency and conserves considerable amount of radio resources, while forgoing less than 5% of user services compared to the benchmark system.

  11. Non-LTE model atmospheres for supersoft X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.

    2010-02-01

    In the last decade, X-ray observations of hot stellar objects became available with unprecedented resolution and S/N ratio. For an adequate interpretation, fully metal-line blanketed Non-LTE model-atmospheres are necessary. The Tübingen Non-LTE Model Atmosphere Package (TMAP) can calculate such model atmospheres at a high level of sophistication. Although TMAP is not especially designed for the calculation of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) at extreme photospheric parameters, it can be employed for the spectral analysis of burst spectra of novae like V4743 Sgr or line identifications in observations of neutron stars with low magnetic fields in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) like EXO 0748-676.

  12. Feedback Compression Schemes for Downlink Carrier Aggregation in LTE-Advanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Hung Tuan; Kovac, Istvan; Wang, Yuanye

    2011-01-01

    With full channel state information (CSI) available, it has been shown that carrier aggregation (CA) in the downlink can significantly improve the data rate experienced at the user equipments (UE) [1], [2], [3], [4]. However, full CSI feedback in all component carriers (CCs) requires a large...... portion of the uplink bandwidth and the feedback information increases linearly with the number of CCs. Therefore, the performance gain brought by deploying CA could be easily hindered if the amount of CSI feedback is not thoroughly controlled. In this paper we analyze several feedback overhead...... compression schemes in CA systems. To avoid a major re-design of the feedback schemes, only CSI compression schemes closely related to the ones specified in LTE-Release 8 and LTE-Release 9 are considered. Extensive simulations at system level were carried out to evaluate the performance of these feedback...

  13. Investigation of Diagonal Antenna-Chassis Mode in Mobile Terminal LTE MIMO Antennas for Bandwidth Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Zhao, Kun; Ying, Zhinong

    2015-01-01

    mechanism of the mismatch of these three bandwidth ranges is also explained. Furthermore, the diagonal antenna-chassis mode is also studied for MIMO elements in the adjacent and diagonal corner locations. As a practical example, a wideband collocated LTE MIMO antenna is proposed and measured. It covers......A diagonal antenna-chassis mode is investigated in long-term evolution multiple-input-multiple-output (LTE MIMO) antennas. The MIMO bandwidth is defined in this paper as the overlap range of the low-envelope correlation coefficient, high total efficiency, and -6-dB impedance matching bandwidths...... the bands of 740960 and 1700-2700 MHz, where the total efficiencies are better than -3.4 and -1.8 dB, with lower than 0.5 and 0.1, respectively. The measurements agree well with the simulations. Since the proposed method only needs to modify the excitation locations of the MIMO elements on the chassis...

  14. Body Loss Study of Beamforming Mode in LTE MIMO Mobile Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Zhao, Kun; Ying, Zhinong

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly focuses on the investigation of the body loss of beamforming mode in LTE MIMO mobile terminals with CTIA user effects. The research of the body loss and radiation efficiency is carried out over different phase differences between two ports of each MIMO antenna. During studies......, four kinds of typical LTE MIMO antennas are used, namely, collocated ground free (GF), parallel GF, parallel on ground (OG) and orthogonal OG MIMO antennas, under four mobile terminal lengths at low and high frequencies. Two kinds of CTIA user effects are included in the research. From the studies......, the parallel GF MIMO antenna type exhibits the best beamforming performance in the four MIMO antenna types. In order to verify the simulations, envelope correlation coefficients of two MIMO antenna prototypes are measured. All the measured results agree well with the simulated....

  15. Eight-Element Antenna Array for LTE 3.4-3.8 GHz Mobile Handset Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingsheng; Ji, Ming; Cheng, Biyu; Ni, Bo

    2017-05-01

    In this letter, an eight-element Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna system for LTE mobile handset applications is proposed. The antenna array consists of eight 3D inverted F-shaped antennas (3D-IFA), and the measured -10 dB impedance bandwidth is 3.2-3.9 GHz which can cover the LTE bands 42 and 43 (3.4-3.8 GHz). By controlling the rotation of the antenna elements, no less than 10 dB isolation between antenna elements can be obtained. After using the specially designed meandered slots on the ground as decoupling structures, the measured isolation can be further improved to higher than 13 dB between the antenna elements at the whole operating band.

  16. Mobility Performance in Slow- and High-Speed LTE Real Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria; Cascino, Maria Carmela; Stefan, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Mobility performance and handover data interruption times in real scenarios are studied by means of field measurements in an operational LTE network. Both slow- and high-speed scenarios are analyzed by collecting results from two different areas: Aalborg downtown and the highway which encircles...... in the city center as cells on the same site often cover different non-crossing street canyons. Moreover, no handover failures are experienced in the measurements which confirms robust LTE mobility performance. The average interruption time, which is at least equal to the handover execution time, lays within...... the same city. Measurements reveal that the terminal is configured by the network with different handover parametrization depending on the serving cell, which indicates the use of mobility robustness optimization. Although the network is dominated by three sector sites, no intra-site handovers are observed...

  17. Performance Evaluation of Received Signal Strength Based Hard Handover for UTRAN LTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anas, Mohmmad; Calabrese, Francesco Davide; Mogensen, Preben

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates the hard handover performance for UTRAN LTE system. The focus is on the impact that received signal strength based hard handover algorithm have on the system performance measured in terms of number of handovers, time between two consecutive handovers and uplink SINR for a user...... about to experience a handover. A handover algorithm based on received signal strength measurements has been designed and implemented in a dynamic system level simulator and has been studied for different parameter sets in a 3GPP UTRAN LTE recommended simulation scenario. The results suggest...... that a downlink measurement bandwidth of 1.25 MHz and a handover margin of 2 dB to 6 dB are the parameters that will lead to the best compromise between average number of handovers and average uplink SINR for user speeds of 3 kmph to 120 kmph....

  18. Energy-efficient two-hop LTE resource allocation in high speed trains with moving relays

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2014-05-01

    High-speed railway system equipped with moving relay stations placed on the middle of the ceiling of each train wagon is investigated. The users inside the train are served in two hops via the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) technology. The objective of this work is to maximize the number of served users by respecting a specific quality-of-service constraint while minimizing the total power consumption of the eNodeB and the moving relays. We propose an efficient algorithm based on the Hungarian method to find the optimal resource allocation over the LTE resource blocks in order to serve the maximum number of users with the minimum power consumption. Moreover, we derive a closed-form expression for the power allocation problem. Our simulation results illustrate the performance of the proposed scheme and compare it with various previously developed algorithms as well as with the direct transmission scenario. © 2014 IFIP.

  19. TD-LTE Wireless Private Network QoS Transmission Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianming; Cheng, Chao; Wu, Zanhong

    With the commencement of construction of the smart grid, the demand power business for reliability and security continues to improve, the reliability transmission of power TD-LTE Wireless Private Network are more and more attention. For TD-LTE power private network, it can provide different QoS services according to the user's business type, to protect the reliable transmission of business. This article describes in detail the AF module of PCC in the EPC network, specifically introduces set up AF module station and QoS mechanisms in the EPS load, fully considers the business characteristics of the special power network, establishing a suitable architecture for mapping QoS parameters, ensuring the implementation of each QoS business. Through using radio bearer management, we can achieve the reliable transmission of each business on physical channel.

  20. Implementation of LTE SC-FDMA on the USRP2 Software Defined Radio Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Bjørn; Hansen, Thomas Lundgaard; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the implementation of a Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) transceiver running over the Universal Software Radio Peripheral 2 (USRP2). SC-FDMA is the air interface which has been selected for the uplink in the latest Long Term Evolution (LTE....../s. Experimental results on the Bit Error Rate (BER) versus Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) are presented and compared to theoretical and simulated performance....

  1. A non-LTE retrieval scheme for sounding the upper atmosphere of Mars in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Valverde, Miguel Angel; García-Comas, Maya; Funke, Bernd; Jimenez-Monferrer, Sergio; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Several instruments on board Mars Express have been sounding the upper atmosphere of Mars systematically in a limb geometry in the IR part of the spectrum. Two of them in particular, OMEGA and PFS, performed emission measurements during daytime and detected the strongest IR bands of species like CO2 and CO (Piccialli et al, JGRE, submitted). Similarly on Venus, the instrument VIRTIS carried out observations of CO2 and CO bands at 2.7, 4.3 and 4.7 um at high altitudes (Gilli et al, JGRE, 2009). All these daylight atmospheric emissions respond to fluorescent situations, a case of non-local thermodynamic equilibrum conditions (non-LTE), well understood nowadays using comprehensive non-LTE theoretical models and tools (Lopez-Valverde et al., Planet. Space Sci., 2011). However, extensive exploitation of these emissions has only been done in optically thin conditions to date (Gilli et al, Icarus, 2015) or in a broad range of altitudes if in nadir geometry (Peralta et al, Apj, 2015). Within the H2020 project UPWARDS we aim at performing retrievals under non-LTE conditions including optically thick cases, like those of the CO2 and CO strongest bands during daytime in the upper atmosphere of Mars. Similar effort will also be applied eventually to Venus. We will present the non-LTE scheme used for such retrievals, based on similar efforts performed recently in studies of the Earth's upper atmosphere using data from the MIPAS instrument, on board Envisat (Funke et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2009; Jurado-Navarro, PhD Thesis, Univ. Granada, 2015). Acknowledgemnt: This work is supported by the European Union's Horizon 2020 Programme under grant agreement UPWARDS-633127

  2. New Configuration of Handset MIMO Antenna for LTE 700 Band Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeonggwi Mun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact handset multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO antenna for long-term evolution (LTE 700 band (746~787 MHz applications is proposed. The proposed antenna consists of two symmetrical PIFAs. Without the usage of any additional coupling elements between closely mounted antennas, a high isolation (>15 dB and a low enveloped correlation coefficient (ECC<0.35 are achieved by the optimum location and arrangement of MIMO antenna elements.

  3. An Empirical LTE Smartphone Power Model with a View to Energy Efficiency Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Lauridsen, Mads; Noël, Laurent; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; Mogensen, Preben

    2014-01-01

    Smartphone users struggle with short battery life, and this affects their device satisfaction level and usage of the network. To evaluate how chipset manufacturers and mobile network operators can improve the battery life, we propose a Long Term Evolution (LTE) smartphone power model. The idea is to provide a model that makes it possible to evaluate the effect of different terminal and network settings to the overall user equipment energy consumption. It is primarily intended as an instrument...

  4. Cooperation Techniques between LTE in Unlicensed Spectrum and Wi-Fi towards Fair Spectral Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Maglogiannis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available On the road towards 5G, a proliferation of Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets is expected. Sensor networks are of great importance in this new wireless era, as they allow interaction with the environment. Additionally, the establishment of the Internet of Things (IoT has incredibly increased the number of interconnected devices and consequently the already massive wirelessly transmitted traffic. The exponential growth of wireless traffic is pushing the wireless community to investigate solutions that maximally exploit the available spectrum. Recently, 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP announced standards that permit the operation of Long Term Evolution (LTE in the unlicensed spectrum in addition to the exclusive use of the licensed spectrum owned by a mobile operator. Alternatively, leading wireless technology developers examine standalone LTE operation in the unlicensed spectrum without any involvement of a mobile operator. In this article, we present a classification of different techniques that can be applied on co-located LTE and Wi-Fi networks. Up to today, Wi-Fi is the most widely-used wireless technology in the unlicensed spectrum. A review of the current state of the art further reveals the lack of cooperation schemes among co-located networks that can lead to more optimal usage of the available spectrum. This article fills this gap in the literature by conceptually describing different classes of cooperation between LTE and Wi-Fi. For each class, we provide a detailed presentation of possible cooperation techniques that can provide spectral efficiency in a fair manner.

  5. MCS and sub-band selection for downlink interference coordination in LTE-A Femtocells

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Medina, Olga; Agustín de Dios, Adrián; Vidal Manzano, José

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a decentralized algorithm for interference coordination in LTE-A networks, based on the exchange of information (pricing) at control plane level. In our approach, every user equipment (UE) report the maximum modulation and coding scheme (MCS) that can be used within several sets (sub-bands) of available resource blocks, along with a parameter (cost) that measures the MCS degradation due to the transmission from an interfering neighbor. Through the e...

  6. QoE Power-Efficient Multimedia Delivery Method for LTE-A

    OpenAIRE

    Mushtaq, M. Sajid; Mellouk, Abdelhamid; Augustin, Brice; Fowler, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The fastest growing of multimedia services overfuture wireless communication system demand more networkresources, efficient delivery of multimedia service with highusers satisfaction, and power optimization of User Equipments(UEs). The resources and power optimization are significant infuture mobile computing systems, because emerging multimediaservices consume more resources and power. The 4G standard ofLTE-A wireless system has adopted the Discontinuous Reception(DRX) method to extend and o...

  7. X-ray emission spectroscopy of well-characterised non-LTE plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgaux, A C; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S; Audebert, P; Marquès, J R; Vassura, L; Vinci, T; Jacquemot, S; Dorchies, F; Leguay, P M; Chung, H K; Bowen, C; Dervieux, V; Renaudin, P; Silvert, V

    2016-01-01

    This paper will present an experimental platform developed on LULI2000 to measure x-ray emission of non-LTE plasmas in well-defined hydrodynamic conditions thanks to implementation of a whole set of diagnostics, including time-resolved electronic and ionic Thomson scattering and self-optical pyrometry. K-, L- and M-shell spectra will be presented and the methodology, that has been developed to analyze them, discussed. (paper)

  8. Test Setup for Anechoic Room based MIMO OTA Testing of LTE Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carreño, Xavier; Fan, Wei; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2013-01-01

    introduced into, for example, LTE andWiMAX systems. The main purpose of this testing is to validate that the user equipment will have a good performance in real use. CTIA, 3GPP and COST are spending a big effort in standardizing the OTA testing procedure which is much more complex than similar SISO OTA...... the activities related to the MIMO OTA lab being built at Aalborg University (AAU), Denmark and the testing being performed....

  9. Throughput Measurement of a Dual-Band MIMO Rectangular Dielectric Resonator Antenna for LTE Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Jamal; Jamaluddin, Mohd Haizal; Ahmad Khan, Aftab; Kamarudin, Muhammad Ramlee; Yen, Bruce Leow Chee; Owais, Owais

    2017-01-13

    An L-shaped dual-band multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) rectangular dielectric resonator antenna (RDRA) for long term evolution (LTE) applications is proposed. The presented antenna can transmit and receive information independently using fundamental TE 111 and higher order TE 121 modes of the DRA. TE 111 degenerate mode covers LTE band 2 (1.85-1.99 GHz), 3 (1.71-1.88 GHz), and 9 (1.7499-1.7849 GHz) at f r = 1.8 GHz whereas TE 121 covers LTE band 7 (2.5-2.69 GHz) at f r = 2.6 GHz, respectively. An efficient design method has been used to reduce mutual coupling between ports by changing the effective permittivity values of DRA by introducing a cylindrical air-gap at an optimal position in the dielectric resonator. This air-gap along with matching strips at the corners of the dielectric resonator keeps the isolation at a value more than 17 dB at both the bands. The diversity performance has also been evaluated by calculating the envelope correlation coefficient, diversity gain, and mean effective gain of the proposed design. MIMO performance has been evaluated by measuring the throughput of the proposed MIMO antenna. Experimental results successfully validate the presented design methodology in this work.

  10. Investigation of a new handover approach in LTE and WiMAX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindia, Mohammad Nour; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Noordin, Kamarul Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the most important challenges in heterogeneous networks is the connection consistency between the mobile station and the base stations. Furthermore, along the roaming process between the mobile station and the base station, the system performance degrades significantly due to the interferences from neighboring base stations, handovers to inaccurate base station and inappropriate technology selection. In this paper, several algorithms are proposed to improve mobile station performance and seamless mobility across the long-term evolution (LTE) and Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) technologies, along with a minimum number of redundant handovers. Firstly, the enhanced global positioning system (GPS) and the novel received signal strength (RSS) prediction approaches are suggested to predict the target base station accurately. Then, the multiple criteria with two thresholds algorithm is proposed to prioritize the selection between LTE and WiMAX as the target technology. In addition, this study also covers the intercell and cochannel interference reduction by adjusting the frequency reuse ratio 3 (FRR3) to work with LTE and WiMAX. The obtained results demonstrate high next base station prediction efficiency and high accuracy for both horizontal and vertical handovers. Moreover, the received signal strength is kept at levels higher than the threshold, while maintaining low connection cost and delay within acceptable levels. In order to highlight the combination of the proposed algorithms' performance, it is compared with the existing RSS and multiple criteria handover decision algorithms.

  11. Non-LTE population probabilities of the excited ionic levels in a steady state plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzmann, D.

    1982-01-01

    A Complete-Staedy-State (CSS) model for the charge state distribution and the ionic levels population probabilities of ions in hot non-LTE plasmas is described. The following properties of this model are described: (i) it is shown that CSS covers LTE and Corona Equilibrium (CE) in the high and low electron density regimes respectively, (ii) an explicit expression is found for the low electron density asymptotic behaviour of the population probabilities, (iii) it is shown that at intermediate density regions the CSS model predicts results similar to that of the Quasi-Steady-State model, (iv) new validity limits are derived for LTE and CE, (v) the population distribution of the excited levels is revised, (vi) an analytical expression is found for the high electron density asymptotic behaviour of the population distribution, (vii) the influence of the radiation reabsorption in a spherically symmetric CSS plasma is briefly described, and (viii) the effect of the inaccuracies in the rate-coefficients on the results of CSS calculations is evaluated. (author)

  12. Multi-Group Reductions of LTE Air Plasma Radiative Transfer in Cylindrical Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoggins, James; Magin, Thierry Edouard Bertran; Wray, Alan; Mansour, Nagi N.

    2013-01-01

    Air plasma radiation in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) within cylindrical geometries is studied with an application towards modeling the radiative transfer inside arc-constrictors, a central component of constricted-arc arc jets. A detailed database of spectral absorption coefficients for LTE air is formulated using the NEQAIR code developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The database stores calculated absorption coefficients for 1,051,755 wavelengths between 0.04 µm and 200 µm over a wide temperature (500K to 15 000K) and pressure (0.1 atm to 10.0 atm) range. The multi-group method for spectral reduction is studied by generating a range of reductions including pure binning and banding reductions from the detailed absorption coefficient database. The accuracy of each reduction is compared to line-by-line calculations for cylindrical temperature profiles resembling typical profiles found in arc-constrictors. It is found that a reduction of only 1000 groups is sufficient to accurately model the LTE air radiation over a large temperature and pressure range. In addition to the reduction comparison, the cylindrical-slab formulation is compared with the finite-volume method for the numerical integration of the radiative flux inside cylinders with varying length. It is determined that cylindrical-slabs can be used to accurately model most arc-constrictors due to their high length to radius ratios.

  13. LTE-A cellular networks multi-hop relay for coverage, capacity and performance enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Yahya, Abid

    2017-01-01

    In this book, three different methods are presented to enhance the capacity and coverage area in LTE-A cellular networks. The scope involves the evaluation of the effect of the RN location in terms of capacity and the determination of the optimum location of the relay that provides maximum achievable data rate for users with limited interference at the cell boundaries. This book presents a new model to enhance both capacity and coverage area in LTE-A cellular network by determining the optimum location for the RN with limited interference. The new model is designed to enhance the capacity of the relay link by employing two antennas in RN. This design enables the relay link to absorb more users at cell edge regions. An algorithm called the Balance Power Algorithm (BPA) is developed to reduce MR power consumption. The book pertains to postgraduate students and researchers in wireless & mobile communications. Provides a variety of methods for enhancing capacity and coverage in LTE-A cellular networks Develop...

  14. Wideband LTE power amplifier with integrated novel analog pre-distorter linearizer for mobile wireless communications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eswaran Uthirajoo

    Full Text Available For the first time, a new circuit to extend the linear operation bandwidth of a LTE (Long Term Evolution power amplifier, while delivering a high efficiency is implemented in less than 1 mm2 chip area. The 950 µm × 900 µm monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC power amplifier (PA is fabricated in a 2 µm InGaP/GaAs process. An on-chip analog pre-distorter (APD is designed to improve the linearity of the PA, up to 20 MHz channel bandwidth. Intended for 1.95 GHz Band 1 LTE application, the PA satisfies adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR and error vector magnitude (EVM specifications for a wide LTE channel bandwidth of 20 MHz at a linear output power of 28 dBm with corresponding power added efficiency (PAE of 52.3%. With a respective input and output return loss of 30 dB and 14 dB, the PA's power gain is measured to be 32.5 dB while exhibiting an unconditional stability characteristic from DC up to 5 GHz. The proposed APD technique serves to be a good solution to improve linearity of a PA without sacrificing other critical performance metrics.

  15. Wideband LTE power amplifier with integrated novel analog pre-distorter linearizer for mobile wireless communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthirajoo, Eswaran; Ramiah, Harikrishnan; Kanesan, Jeevan; Reza, Ahmed Wasif

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, a new circuit to extend the linear operation bandwidth of a LTE (Long Term Evolution) power amplifier, while delivering a high efficiency is implemented in less than 1 mm2 chip area. The 950 µm × 900 µm monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifier (PA) is fabricated in a 2 µm InGaP/GaAs process. An on-chip analog pre-distorter (APD) is designed to improve the linearity of the PA, up to 20 MHz channel bandwidth. Intended for 1.95 GHz Band 1 LTE application, the PA satisfies adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR) and error vector magnitude (EVM) specifications for a wide LTE channel bandwidth of 20 MHz at a linear output power of 28 dBm with corresponding power added efficiency (PAE) of 52.3%. With a respective input and output return loss of 30 dB and 14 dB, the PA's power gain is measured to be 32.5 dB while exhibiting an unconditional stability characteristic from DC up to 5 GHz. The proposed APD technique serves to be a good solution to improve linearity of a PA without sacrificing other critical performance metrics.

  16. Wideband LTE Power Amplifier with Integrated Novel Analog Pre-Distorter Linearizer for Mobile Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthirajoo, Eswaran; Ramiah, Harikrishnan; Kanesan, Jeevan; Reza, Ahmed Wasif

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, a new circuit to extend the linear operation bandwidth of a LTE (Long Term Evolution) power amplifier, while delivering a high efficiency is implemented in less than 1 mm2 chip area. The 950 µm × 900 µm monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifier (PA) is fabricated in a 2 µm InGaP/GaAs process. An on-chip analog pre-distorter (APD) is designed to improve the linearity of the PA, up to 20 MHz channel bandwidth. Intended for 1.95 GHz Band 1 LTE application, the PA satisfies adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR) and error vector magnitude (EVM) specifications for a wide LTE channel bandwidth of 20 MHz at a linear output power of 28 dBm with corresponding power added efficiency (PAE) of 52.3%. With a respective input and output return loss of 30 dB and 14 dB, the PA’s power gain is measured to be 32.5 dB while exhibiting an unconditional stability characteristic from DC up to 5 GHz. The proposed APD technique serves to be a good solution to improve linearity of a PA without sacrificing other critical performance metrics. PMID:25033049

  17. Serrated leaf mutant in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, I.A.; Ghulam, Sarwar; Yousaf, Ali; Saleem, M.

    1988-01-01

    Dry dormant seeds of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek) were treated with gamma rays (15, 30 and 60 kR). The serrated leaf mutation was noticed in M 2 of cultivar Pak 32 treated with 60 kR. Cf 14 plants, 3 showed the altered leaf structure and the others were normal. The feature of this mutant was the deep serration of leaflet margins. The mutant had large thick leaflets with prominent venation. The mutant bred true in the M 3 and successive generation. Details of the morphological characteristics of the mutant are presented. The mutant exhibited slower growth particularly during the early stages of development, flowered later and attained shorter height. There was an increase in the number of pods, in seed weight and in seed protein content, but number of seed per pod was considerably reduced. The seed coat colour showed a change from green to yellowish green. In the mutant's flowers the stamina were placed much below the stigma level and the stigma sometimes protruded the corolla. Outcrossing of 4% recorded in some of the mutant lines revealed a reduced cleistogamy. The low number of seeds per pod in the mutant could be due to reduced pollen fertility. The mutant behaved as monogenic recessive. The symbols SL/sl are proposed for this allelic pair. The mutant may have use as a green manure crop because of its large foliage and for the breeders as a genetic marker

  18. PNRI mutant variety: Cordyline 'Afable'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurigue, Fernando B.

    2012-01-01

    Cordyline 'Afable', registered by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute as NSIC 2009 Or-83, is an induced mutant developed from Cordyline 'Kiwi' by treating stem cuttings with acute gamma radiation from a Cobalt-60 source. The new mutant is identical to Cordyline 'Kiwi' in growth habit but differs in foliage color, and exhibits field resistance to Phytophthora sp., a fungus that causes leaf blight and rot in Ti plants. Results of this mutation breeding experiment showed that leaf color was altered by gamma irradiation and resistance to fungal diseases was improved. It also demonstrated how mutations that occur in nature may be generated artificially. Propagation of cordyline 'Afable' is true-to-type by vegetative propagation methods, such as separation of suckers and offshoots, shoot tip cutting, and top cutting. Aside from landscaping material, terrarium or dish-garden plant, it is ideal as containerized plant for indoor and outdoor use. The leaves or shoots may be harvested as cut foliage for flower arrangements. (author)

  19. Chemotaxis-defective mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, D B; Sheridan, R E; Russell, R L

    1975-06-01

    The technique of countercurrent separation has been used to isolate 17 independent chemotaxis-defective mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The mutants, selected to be relatively insensitive to the normally attractive salt NaCl, show varying degrees of residual sensitivity; some are actually weakly repelled by NaCl. The mutants are due to single gene defects, are autosomal and recessive, and identify at least five complementation groups.

  20. Study on ionizing radiosensitivity of respiratory deficiency yeast mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Shuhong; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Jin Genming; Wei Zengquan; Xie Hongmei

    2006-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of respiratory deficiency yeast mutants has been studied in this work. The mutants which were screened from the yeasts after ionizing irradiation were irradiated with 12 C 6+ at different doses. Because of the great change in its mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA, the respiratory deficiency yeast mutants show radio-sensitivity at dose less than 1 Gy and radioresistance at doses higher than 1 Gy. (authors)

  1. Development of high yielding mutants in lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.A.; Sarwar, G.; Siddiqui, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) locally known as Masoor, is the second most important rabi pulse crop, after chickpea, in Pakistan. It is cultivated on an area of over 63,400 ha, which constitutes about 4.83% of the total area under pulses. The annual production of the crop is 28,200 tones with an average yield of 445 kg/ha. Yield at the national level is very low, about one-half of the world's yield, which is mainly due to non-availability of high yield potential genotypes. Keeping in view the importance of mutants in developing a large number of new varieties, an induced mutations programme was initiated at AEARC, Tandojam during 1987-88, to develop high yielding varieties in lentil. For this, seeds of two lentil varieties, 'Masoor-85' and 'ICARDA-8' had been irradiated with gamma-rays ranging from 100-600 Gy in NIAB, Faisalabad during 1990. Selections were made in M2 on the basis of earliness, plant height, branches/plant and 100 grain weight. After confirming these mutants in M3 they were promoted in station yield trials and studied continuously for three consecutive years (1993- 1995). Overall results revealed that these mutants have consistent improvement of earliness in flowering and maturity. Plant height also increased in all mutant lines except AEL 23/40/91 where reduction in this attribute was observed as compared to parent variety. Mutant lines AEL 49/20/91 and AEL 13/30/91 showed improvement in 100 grain weight. The improvement of some agronomic characters enhanced the yield of mutant lines in comparison to parent varieties (Masoor-85 and ICARDA-8). The diversity in yield over the respective parents was computed from 6.94 to 60.12%. From these encouraging results it is hoped that mutant lines like AEL 12/30/91 and AEL 49/20/91 may serve as potential lentil genotypes in future. (author)

  2. RAPD analysis on male sterility mutant of Lilium asiatic hybrids 'pollyanna' induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Yuehui; Zhao Xiangyun; Zhang Kezhong; Huang Shangwu; Lu Changxun

    2005-01-01

    RAPD analysis of 80 random 10-mer primers on Lilium Asiatic hybrids 'pollyanna' and its 20 phenotype male sterility mutants induced by irradiation was carried out. Of the tested primers, 31 primers could produced ideal amplification bands on all materials, 4 primers generated stable different polymorphic bands among 9 mutants and 'pollyanna'. Different polymorphic bands of 7-18 were found among 9 mutants and 'pollyanna'. It was showed that 9 mutants were phenotype male sterility mutant of 'pollyanna'. (authors)

  3. Photorepair mutants of Arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, C.Z.; Yee, J.; Mitchell, D.L.; Britt, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    UV radiation induces two major DNA damage products, the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and, at a lower frequency, the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidinone dimer (6-4 product). Although Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae produce a CPD-specific photolyase that eliminates only this class of dimer, Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosophila melanogaster, Crotalus atrox, and Xenopus laevis have recently been shown to photoreactivate both CPDs and 6-4 products. We describe the isolation and characterization of two new classes of mutants of Arabidopsis, termed uvr2 and uvr3, that are defective in the photoreactivation of CPDs and 6-4 products, respectively. We demonstrate that the CPD photolyase mutation is genetically linked to a DNA sequence encoding a type II (metazoan) CPD photolyase. In addition, we are able to generate plants in which only CPDs or 6-4 products are photoreactivated in the nuclear genome by exposing these mutants to UV light and then allowing them to repair one or the other class of dimers. This provides us with a unique opportunity to study the biological consequences of each of these two major UV-induced photoproducts in an intact living system

  4. Construindo Marcas Mutantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizete De Azevedo Kreutz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo é o resultado de estudos realizados desde 2000 e busca instrumentalizar os proñssionals para a construção de Marcas Mutantes, que é   uma tendência contemporânea nas estratégias comunicacionais e de branding. Embora esta estratégia ainda não esteja consolidada, observamos que a mesma tem obtido um crescimento constante e tem sido adotadas pelas mais diferentes categorias de marcas e não apenas por aquelas direcionadas aos jovens, ao esporte, ao entretenimento, como era no principia. Com base na Hermenêutica de Profundidade de Thompson (1995, alicerçada nas pesquisas bibliográficas, de intemet, entrevistas e análise semiótica, desenhamos um método de construção de Marcas Mutantes dividido em sete fases. Como resultado, esperamos que este estudo possa auxiliar na compreensão dos processos envolvidos, ao mesmo tempo que provoque a discussão sobreo mesmo e, por consequência, o seu aprimoramento.

  5. Mutants of Cercospora kikuchii altered in cercosporin synthesis and pathogenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upchurch, R.G.; Walker, D.C.; Rollins, J.A.; Ehrenshaft, M.; Daub, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have obtained spontaneous and UV-induced stable mutants, altered in the synthesis of cercosporin, of the fungal soybean pathogen Cercospora kikuchii. The mutants were isolated on the basis of colony color on minimal medium. The UV-induced mutants accumulated, at most, 2% of wild-type cercosporin levels on all media tested. In contrast, cercosporin accumulation by the spontaneous mutants was strongly medium regulated, occurring only on potato dextrose medium but at concentrations comparable to those produced by the wild-type strain. UV-induced mutants unable to synthesize cercosporin on any medium were unable to incite lesions when inoculated onto the soybean host. Cercosporin was reproducibly isolated from all inoculated leaves showing lesions. Although cercosporin involvement in disease has been indirectly suggested by many previous studies, this is the first report in which mutants blocked in cercosporin synthesis have been used to demonstrate that cercosporin is a crucial pathogenicity factor for this fungal genus

  6. Temperature sensitive riboflavin mutants of Penicillium vermiculatum Dangeard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, J.; Chaudhari, K.L.

    1974-01-01

    Two temperature sensitive UV induced riboflavin mutants rib 1 and rib 6 have been physiologically and genetically characterized. The two mutants behave differently with regard to their temperature sensitivity. The rib 1 mutant exhibits a leaky growth in minimal medium between 15 0 C and 30 0 C but grows well when the medium is supplemented with riboflavin. At 35 0 C the growth response of the mutant is at its max. and at 40 0 C and below 15 0 C it ceases to grow. The rib 6 mutant which is red brown in colour shows wild type character at temp. below 25 0 C in minimal medium but requires riboflavin at 30 0 C and above. Heterokaryotic analysis revealed the nonallelic nature of the two temperature mutants. Genetic tests of allelic relationship between riboflavin markers by crossing were also done. (author)

  7. DSRC versus 4G-LTE for Connected Vehicle Applications: A Study on Field Experiments of Vehicular Communication Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dedicated short-range communication (DSRC and 4G-LTE are two widely used candidate schemes for Connected Vehicle (CV applications. It is thus of great necessity to compare these two most viable communication standards and clarify which one can meet the requirements of most V2X scenarios with respect to road safety, traffic efficiency, and infotainment. To the best of our knowledge, almost all the existing studies on comparing the feasibility of DRSC or LTE in V2X applications use software-based simulations, which may not represent realistic constraints. In this paper, a Connected Vehicle test-bed is established, which integrates the DSRC roadside units, 4G-LTE cellular communication stations, and vehicular on-board terminals. Three Connected Vehicle application scenarios are set as Collision Avoidance, Traffic Text Message Broadcast, and Multimedia File Download, respectively. A software tool is developed to record GPS positions/velocities of the test vehicles and record certain wireless communication performance indicators. The experiments have been carried out under different conditions. According to our results, 4G-LTE is more preferred for the nonsafety applications, such as traffic information transmission, file download, or Internet accessing, which does not necessarily require the high-speed real-time communication, while for the safety applications, such as Collision Avoidance or electronic traffic sign, DSRC outperforms the 4G-LTE.

  8. Isoenzymes performance of some rice varieties and their mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winarno, Ermin; Suliwarno, Ambyah; Ismachin, M.

    1992-01-01

    Isoenzymes performance of some rice varieties and their mutants. Genetics studies on alcohol dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, peroxidase, acid phosphase, and aminopeptidase isoenzymes were carried out on several groups of rice varieties and their mutant lines. The first groups consisted of Atomita I, Pelita I/1, A227/5, Mudgo, TN-1, and IR-26. The second group was Cisadane variety and its five mutants, namely OBS 18, OBS 208, OBS 297, OBS 306, and OBS 330. The third group was mutants line 627-10-3 and its mutants, namely 1063, 1066, 1067, 1076, and 1090. Isoenzymes extracts of the rice leaves were fractionated using polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis. The pattern of acid phosphate isoenzyme shows the specific character of rice mutants susceptible to brown plant hopper biotype 1. The gene(s) controlling malic enzyme in Cisadane's mutants is (are) estimated more resistant toward gamma irradiation than gene(s) responsible for controlling the other enzymes. Generally, the isoenzymes zymograms show that gene(s) controlling the mutants enzyme have undergone mutation. This case is shown by the changes of Rm value, as well as the amount and intensity of mutants bands. (authors). 7 refs., 7 figs

  9. Non-LTE, line-blanketed model atmospheres for late O- and early B-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, James A.; Morrison, Nancy D.; Anderson, Lawrence S.

    1992-01-01

    The use of non-LTE line-blanketed model atmospheres to analyze the spectra of hot stars is reported. The stars analyzed are members of clusters and associations, have spectral types in the range O9-B2 and luminosity classes in the range III-IV, have slow to moderate rotation, and are photometrically constant. Sampled line opacities of iron-group elements were incorporated in the radiative transfer solution; solar abundances were assumed. Good to excellent agreement is obtained between the computed profiles and essentially all the line profiles used to fix the model, and reliable stellar parameters are derived. The synthetic M II 5581 equivalent widths agree well with the observed ones at the low end of the temperature range studied, but, above 25,000 K, the synthetic line is generally stronger than the observed line. The behavior of the observed equivalent widths of N II, N III, C II and C III lines as a function of Teff is studied. Most of the lines show much scatter, with no consistent trend that could indicate abundance differences from star to star.

  10. Photosynthetic characterization of a rolled leaf mutant of rice ( Oryza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new rolling leaf rice mutant was identified which showed an apparently straighter longitudinal shape normal transverse rolling characters at all developing stages. The chlorophyll contents per fresh weight of this mutant leaves were lower than those of wild-type. The electron transfer rate (ETR) and photochemical ...

  11. Isozyme patterns of powdery mildew resistant wheat mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Wengau; Li Zhengkui; Wang Kefeng

    1989-01-01

    Full Text: Wheat mutants induced by gamma irradiation and showing improved resistance to powdery mildew were analysed for isozymes. The peroxidase band 3A could be related to the disease reaction. The band 3A is absent in resistant mutants, the higher the activity of band 3A the greater the susceptibility. (author)

  12. Recent developments in the super transition array model for spectral simulation of LTE plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar-Shalom, A.; Oreg, J.; Goldstein, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    Recently developed sub-picosecond pulse lasers have been used to create hot, near solid density plasmas. Since these plasmas are nearly in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), their emission spectra involve a huge number of populated configurations. A typical spectrum is a combination of many unresolved clusters of emission, each containing an immense number of overlapping, unresolvable bound-bound and bound-free transitions. Under LTE, or near LTE conditions, traditional detailed configuration or detailed term spectroscopic models are not capable of handling the vast number of transitions involved. The average atom (AA) model, on the other hand, accounts for all relevant transitions, but in an oversimplified fashion that ignores all spectral structure. The Super Transition Array (STA) model, which has been developed in recent years, combines the simplicity and comprehensiveness of the AA model with the accuracy of detailed term accounting. The resolvable structure of spectral clusters is revealed by successively increasing the number of distinct STA's, until convergence is attained. The limit of this procedure is a detailed unresolved transition array (UTA) spectrum, with a term-broadened line for each accessible configuration-to-configuration transition, weighted by the relevant Boltzman population. In practice, this UTA spectrum is actually obtained using only a few thousand to tens of thousands of STA's (as opposed, typically, to billions of UTAs). The central result of STA theory is a set of formulas for the moments (total intensity, average transition energy, variance) of an STA. In calculating the moments, detailed relativistic first order quantum transition energies and probabilities are used. The energy appearing in the Boltzman factor associated with each level in a superconfiguration is the zero order result corrected by a superconfiguration averaged first order correction. Examples and application to recent measurements are presented

  13. Base Station Placement Algorithm for Large-Scale LTE Heterogeneous Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungseob; Lee, SuKyoung; Kim, Kyungsoo; Kim, Yoon Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Data traffic demands in cellular networks today are increasing at an exponential rate, giving rise to the development of heterogeneous networks (HetNets), in which small cells complement traditional macro cells by extending coverage to indoor areas. However, the deployment of small cells as parts of HetNets creates a key challenge for operators' careful network planning. In particular, massive and unplanned deployment of base stations can cause high interference, resulting in highly degrading network performance. Although different mathematical modeling and optimization methods have been used to approach various problems related to this issue, most traditional network planning models are ill-equipped to deal with HetNet-specific characteristics due to their focus on classical cellular network designs. Furthermore, increased wireless data demands have driven mobile operators to roll out large-scale networks of small long term evolution (LTE) cells. Therefore, in this paper, we aim to derive an optimum network planning algorithm for large-scale LTE HetNets. Recently, attempts have been made to apply evolutionary algorithms (EAs) to the field of radio network planning, since they are characterized as global optimization methods. Yet, EA performance often deteriorates rapidly with the growth of search space dimensionality. To overcome this limitation when designing optimum network deployments for large-scale LTE HetNets, we attempt to decompose the problem and tackle its subcomponents individually. Particularly noting that some HetNet cells have strong correlations due to inter-cell interference, we propose a correlation grouping approach in which cells are grouped together according to their mutual interference. Both the simulation and analytical results indicate that the proposed solution outperforms the random-grouping based EA as well as an EA that detects interacting variables by monitoring the changes in the objective function algorithm in terms of system

  14. Perancangan Dan Analisis Antena Mikrostrip Mimo Circular Pada Frekuensi 2.35 GHz Untuk Aplikasi LTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam M.P Budi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available LTE (long Term Evolution merupakan teknologi komunikasi wireless generasi keempat yang saat ini sedang mengalami perkembangan. Salah satu perangkat yang sangat dibutuhkan pada teknologi tersebut adalah antenna. Teknik yang digunakan adalah teknik MIMO. Teknik MIMO menggunakan multiantena baik di sisi transmitter maupun di sisi receiver dengan koefisien korelasi di bawah 0.2. Untuk menghasilkan nilai koefisien korelasi di bawah 0.2, antena menggunakan ?/2 untuk jarak antar dua antena. Perancangan dan realisasi antena pada skripsi ini dipergunakan untuk aplikasi LTE yang bekerja pada frekuensi 2.3 GHz sampai 2.4 GHz. Simulasi antena menunjukkan frekuensi kerja yang direncanakan yaitu antara 2.3 GHz – 2.4 GHz, memiliki Return Loss -38.582 dB dan VSWR 1.0238 pada frekuensi tengah 2.350 MHz, gain sebesar 4.332 dBi. Hasil pengukuran antena satu terdapat pergeseran frekuensi dari 2.300 MHz - 2.400 MHz menjadi 2.310 - 2.384 MHz, antena  ini memiliki  Return  Loss -35.476 dB dan VSWR 1.034. Bandwidth 74 Mhz. Untuk antena dua terdapat pergeseran frekuensi menjadi 2.310 - 2.382 MHz, dengan Return  Loss -33.637 dB  dan VSWR  1.042. Bandwidth 72 MHz. Pada frekuensi 2.35 GHz gain sebesar 8 dBi dengan pola radiasi unidirectional dan polarisasi elips. Dari perancangan dan analisis tersebut, maka antena ini dapat digunakan sebagai antena teknologi LTE

  15. An investigation of interference coordination in heterogeneous network for LTE-Advanced systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M. K.; Ismail, A. F.; H, Aisha-Hassan A.; Abdullah, Khaizuran; Ramli, H. A. M.

    2013-12-01

    The novel "femtocell" in Heterogeneous Network (HetNet) for LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) set-up will allow Malaysian wireless telecommunication operators (Maxis, Celcom, Digi, U-Mobile, P1, YTL and etc2.) to extend connectivity coverage where access would otherwise be limited or unavailable, particularly indoors of large building complexes. A femtocell is a small-sized cellular base station that encompasses all the functionality of a typical station. It therefore allows a simpler and self-contained deployment including private residences. For the Malaysian service providers, the main attractions of femtocell usage are the improvements to both coverage and capacity. The operators can provide a better service to end-users in turn reduce much of the agitations and complaints. There will be opportunity for new services at reduced cost. In addition, the operator not only benefits from the improved capacity and coverage but also can reduce both capital expenditure and operating expense i.e. alternative to brand new base station or macrocell installation. Interference is a key issue associated with femtocell development. There are a large number of issues associated with interference all of which need to be investigated, identified, quantified and solved. This is to ensure that the deployment of any femtocells will take place successfully. Among the most critical challenges in femtocell deployment is the interference between femtocell-to-macrocell and femtocell-to-femtocell in HetNets. In this paper, all proposed methods and algorithms will be investigated in the OFDMA femtocell system considering HetNet scenarios for LTE-A.

  16. An investigation of interference coordination in heterogeneous network for LTE-Advanced systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, M K; Ismail, A F; Aisha-Hassan A H; Abdullah, Khaizuran; Ramli, H A M

    2013-01-01

    The novel ''femtocell'' in Heterogeneous Network (HetNet) for LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) set-up will allow Malaysian wireless telecommunication operators (Maxis, Celcom, Digi, U-Mobile, P1, YTL and etc2.) to extend connectivity coverage where access would otherwise be limited or unavailable, particularly indoors of large building complexes. A femtocell is a small-sized cellular base station that encompasses all the functionality of a typical station. It therefore allows a simpler and self-contained deployment including private residences. For the Malaysian service providers, the main attractions of femtocell usage are the improvements to both coverage and capacity. The operators can provide a better service to end-users in turn reduce much of the agitations and complaints. There will be opportunity for new services at reduced cost. In addition, the operator not only benefits from the improved capacity and coverage but also can reduce both capital expenditure and operating expense i.e. alternative to brand new base station or macrocell installation. Interference is a key issue associated with femtocell development. There are a large number of issues associated with interference all of which need to be investigated, identified, quantified and solved. This is to ensure that the deployment of any femtocells will take place successfully. Among the most critical challenges in femtocell deployment is the interference between femtocell-to-macrocell and femtocell-to-femtocell in HetNets. In this paper, all proposed methods and algorithms will be investigated in the OFDMA femtocell system considering HetNet scenarios for LTE-A

  17. The Study of Indoor and Field Trials on 2×8 MIMO Architecture in TD-LTE Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    the networks are based on frequency division duplexing (FDD. In this paper, measurement methods of four MIMO transmission modes (TMs in time division-LTE (TD-LTE are studied and analyzed. Link level simulation is carried out to evaluate the downlink throughput for different signal-to-noise ratios and parameter settings. Furthermore, indoor and field tests are also presented in the paper to investigate how real-world propagation affects the capacity and the error performance of MIMO transmission scheme. For the indoor test, radio channel emulators are applied to generate realistic wireless fading channel, while in the field trials, a live TD-LTE experiment cellular network is built, which contains several evolved nodeBs (eNBs and a precommercial user equipment (UE. It is shown from both simulation and tests results that MIMO deployment gives a substantial performance improvement compared with the third generation wireless networks.

  18. Perancangan dan Implementasi Duplexer Mikrostrip untuk Frekuensi LTE pada band ke-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENCENG SULAEMAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Kebutuhan akan komunikasi bergerak semakin mengalami peningkatan dalam dunia teknologi yang ada saat ini, maka hadirlah teknologi terbaru yaitu Long Term Evolution (LTE. Dengan teknik duplex jenis Frequency Division Duplex (FDD, dirancanglah duplexer yang mampu melakukan proses pengiriman dan penerimaan dalam satu waktu dengan frekuensi yang berbeda antara uplink dan downlink. Pada penelitian ini dirancang dan diimplementasikan sebuah duplekser dengan menggunakan metoda Hybrid Coupler dan Bandstop Filter berbasis Split Ring Resonator untuk band frekuensi ke-7 pada teknologi LTE di sisi Base Transceiver Station (BTS. Duplekser dibuat dengan menggabungkan dua buah hybrid Coupler dan dua buah Bandstop Filter. Hasil pengukuran duplexer saat port Tx mengirimkan sinyal ke antena dengan nilai redaman pada frekuensi tengah downlink sebesar 3.168 dB. Lalu pada saat antena menerima sinyal untuk diteruskan ke Rx terdapat redaman di frekuensi tengah uplink sebesar 6 dB. Sedangkan untuk isolasi dari port Tx-port Rx dihasilkan sebesar 15 dB. Kata kunci: Duplexer, Bandstop Filter, Split Ring Resonator, Hybrid Coupler, dan Long Term Evolution. ABSTRACT The necessary of mobile communication has increased in technology, now it released the new of technology is Long Term Evolution (LTE. Type of duplex is Frequency Division Duplex (FDD, designed a duplexer which it is capable for transmitting and receiving process at the same time with the different of frequency between uplink and downlink. Research of designed and implemented a duplexer using Hybrid Coupler and Bandstop filters based on Split Ring Resonators for the frequency band 7th on LTE technology at Base Transceiver Station (BTS. Duplexer is made by combining two coupler and two bandstop filter. The results of duplexer measurements, when Tx port transmit the signal to antenna port with attenuation at the downlink frequency center at 3.168 dB. Attenuation from antenna port to Rx port about 6 d

  19. Frame Allocation and Scheduling for Relay Networks in the LTE Advanced Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The use of relays is seen as a promising way to extend cell coverage and increase rates in LTE Advanced networks. Instead of increasing the number of base stations (BS), relays with lower cost could provide similar gains. A relay will have a wireless link to the closest BS as only connection to the core network and will cover areas close to the cell edge or other areas with limited rates. Performing transmissions in several hops (BS-relay & relay-user) requires more radio resources than u...

  20. LTE modeling of inhomogeneous chromospheric structure using high-resolution limb observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, C.

    1987-01-01

    The paper discusses considerations relevant to LTE modeling of rough atmospheres. Particular attention is given to the application of recent high-resolution observations of the solar limb in the far-infrared and radio continuum to the modeling of chromospheric spicules. It is explained how the continuum limb observations can be combined with morphological knowledge of spicule structure to model the physical conditions in chromospheric spicules. This discussion forms the basis for a chromospheric model presented in a parallel publication based on observations ranging from 100 microns to 2.6 mm.

  1. A fully blanketed early B star LTE model atmosphere using an opacity sampling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, A.P.; Wright, S.L.

    1980-01-01

    A fully blanketed LTE model of a stellar atmosphere with Tsub(e) = 21914 K (thetasub(e) = 0.23), log g = 4 is presented. The model includes an explicit representation of the opacity due to the strongest lines, and uses a statistical opacity sampling technique to represent the weaker line opacity. The sampling technique is subjected to several tests and the model is compared with an atmosphere calculated using the line-distribution function method. The limitations of the distribution function method and the particular opacity sampling method used here are discussed in the light of the results obtained. (author)

  2. Performance Evaluation of Multicast Video Distribution using LTE-A in Vehicular Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Thota, Jayashree; Bulut, Berna; Doufexi, Angela; Armour, Simon; Nix, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Application Layer Forward Error Correction (AL-FEC) based on Raptor codes has been employed in Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Services (MBMS) to improve reliability. This paper considers a cross-layer system based on the latest Raptor Q codes for transmitting high data rate video. Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) channels in a realistic outdoor environment for a user moving at 50kmph in an LTE-A system is considered. A link adaptation model with optimized cross-layer parameters is propos...

  3. Next Phase of Mobile Communications – LTE: The End of Fixed Broadband?

    OpenAIRE

    Eylert, Bernd; Eras, Martin; Zeh, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    With the introduction of the Internet in the early 90th years of the last century, broadband demand has increased tremendously. As ISDN was the modern technology at that time, which has had its correspondence in the mobile world in the GSM technology, DSL and its evolution has its correspondence in UMTS/3G and its evolution into HSPA (High Speed Packet Access) and soon in LTE (Long Term Evolution). With the globalisation of our industries business has changed during the last 15 years. Employe...

  4. Time-dependent ionization balance model for non-LTE plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.T.; Zimmerman, G.B.; Bailey, D.S.; Dickson, D.; Kim, D.

    1986-01-01

    We have developed a detailed configuration-accounting kinetic model for calculating time-dependent ionization-balance and ion-level populations in non-local thermal-equilibrium (non-LTE) plasmas. We use these population estimates in computing spectral line intensities, line ratios, and synthetic spectra, and in fitting these calculated values to experimental measurements. The model is also used to design laboratory x-ray laser experiments. For this purpose, it is self-consistently coupled to the hydrodynamics code LASNEX. 20 refs., 14 figs

  5. Indoor Radio Planning A Practical Guide for GSM, DCS, UMTS, HSPA and LTE

    CERN Document Server

    Tolstrup, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Why is indoor coverage needed, and how it is best implemented? As the challenge of providing higher data speeds and quality for mobile applications intensifies, ensuring adequate in-building and tunnel coverage and capacity is increasingly important. A unique, single-source reference on the theoretical and practical knowledge behind indoor and tunnel radio planning, Indoor Radio Planning, Second Edition provides an overview of mobile networks systems and coverage solutions with GSM, UMTS, HSPA and LTE cellular systems technologies as a backdrop. All of the available solutions, from basic passi

  6. Abstract Radio Resource Management Framework for System Level Simulations in LTE-A Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Viering, Ingo; Zanier, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a simple mathematical model of different packet scheduling policies in Long Term Evolution- Advanced (LTE-A) systems, by investigating the performance of Proportional Fair (PF) and the generalized cross-Component Carrier scheduler from a theoretical perspective. For that purpose......, an abstract Radio Resource Management (RRM) framework has been developed and tested for different ratios of users with Carrier Aggregation (CA) capabilities. The conducted system level simulations confirm that the proposed model can satisfactorily capture the main properties of the aforementioned scheduling...

  7. Non-LTE considerations in spectral diagnostics of thermal transport and implosion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, R.; Skupsky, S.; Delettrez, J.; Yaakobi, B.

    1984-01-01

    Recent thermal-transport and target-implosion experiments have used the emission of radiation from highly-ionized ions to signal the advance of laser-driven heat fronts and to mark the trajectories and stagnation points of imploding shells. We examine the results of such experiments with particular attention given to non-LTE effects of non-Maxwellian electrons and of finite ionization times on the populations of signature-emitting atomic species and on the formation of signature spectra and x-ray images in these experiments

  8. eICIC functionality and performance for LTE HetNet co-channel deployments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Klaus Ingemann; Wang, Yuanye; Soret, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    . The network controlled time-domain enhanced inter-cell interference coordination (eICIC) concept is outlined by explaining the benefits and characteristics of this solution. Extensive system level performance results are presented with bursty and non-bursty traffic to demonstrate the eICIC concepts ability......Different technical solutions are enabling the move from macro-only scenarios towards heterogeneous networks with a mixture of different base station types. In this paper we focus on multi-layer LTE-Advanced networks, and especially address aspects related to co-channel interference management...... to dynamically adapt according to the traffic conditions....

  9. Integrated Power Saving for Multiple Relays and UEs in LTE-TDD

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Chuan Yang; Jeng-Yueng Chen; Yi-Ting Mai; Chen-Ming Yang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the design of integrated sleep scheduling for relay nodes and user equipments under a Donor eNB (DeNB) in the mode of Time Division Duplex (TDD) in LTE-A is presented. The idea of virtual time is proposed to deal with the discontinuous pattern of the available radio resource in TDD, and based on the estimation of the traffic load, three power saving schemes in the top-down strategy are presented. Associated mechanisms in each scheme including calculation of the virtual subframe...

  10. A genetic algorithm solution for the operation of green LTE networks with energy and environment considerations

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2012-01-01

    The Base Station (BS) sleeping strategy has become a well-known technique to achieve energy savings in cellular networks by switching off redundant BSs mainly for lightly loaded networks. Besides, the exploitation of renewable energies, as additional power sources in smart grids, becomes a real challenge to network operators to reduce power costs. In this paper, we propose a method based on genetic algorithms that decreases the energy consumption of a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular network by not only shutting down underutilized BSs but also by optimizing the amounts of energy procured from the smart grid without affecting the desired Quality of Service. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Perancangan Antena Mikrostrip Frekuensi 2,6 GHz untuk Aplikasi LTE (Long Term Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herudin Herudin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Antena mikrostrip memiliki beberapa keuntungan, di antaranya bentuk kompak, dimensi kecil, mudah untuk difabrikasi, mudah dikoneksikan dan diintegrasikan dengan divais elektronik lain. Salah satu aplikasi antena mikrostrip adalah untuk komunikasi data. Pada penelitian ini dirancang suatu antena mikrostrip yang bekerja pada frekuensi 2,6 GHz untuk aplikasi LTE(Long Term Evolution. Perancangan antena ini menggunakan software AWR Microwave Office 2009. Setelah dilakukan simulasi diperoleh beberapa parameter antena yaitu: return loss sebesar -22,16 dB, VSWR sebesar 1,169 dB. Dari hasil simulasi juga diperoleh bahwa pola radiasi antena bersifat omni directional dan impedansi masukan antena mendekati 50 Ohm.

  12. Designs of precoding for LTE TDD using cell specific reference signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Fan; Lu, Lu; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2010-01-01

    We design non-codebook-based Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) precoding schemes using multiple cell-specific reference signals patterns for the time division duplex (TDD) mode of LTE, where channel reciprocity can be exploited. Previously proposed non-codebookbased precoding schemes typically...... use UE specific reference signals for demodulation. Cell specific reference signals are however always allocated for the transmission of common control signalling, mobility measurements and downlink channel quality measurements. In order to save the resources occupied by UE specific reference signals...

  13. Uplink Performance of Dynamic Interference Coordination under Fractional Power Control for LTE-Advanced Femtocells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2010-01-01

    It has been identified in numerous contributions that dynamic interference coordination is very appealing in case of dense and uncoordinated deployments of home eNBs (eNBs), also known as femtocells. One of the proposed schemes for LTE-Advanced is known as Autonomous Component Carrier Selection...... when applied to femtocells is significantly different from that seen on macrocells. In addition we demonstrate that ACCS is equally attractive and applicable to the uplink even though most decisions are based on UE downlink measurements....

  14. Analysis on Calibration and Uncertainty for TD-LTE Radio Test System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weipeng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available TD-LTE base station radio test system measures radio signal with a required accuracy, so calibration need to be done for transmission path between base station and measurement instruments before test. Considering Transmitter OFF Power measurement within OFF period, modulated signal generator and spectrum analyzer inside test system is used for calibration, to get accurate transmission parameters of the paths, and to reduce test cost without more instruments. The paper describes the uncertainty of test system, analyzes uncertainty contribution of interface mismatch, calculates uncertainty for Transmitter OFF Power measurement, uncertainty is 1.193 dB, within the requirement of 3GPP specification.

  15. Mobility enhancements for LTE-Advanced Multilayer Networks with Inter-Site Carrier Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Klaus I.; Michaelsen, Per Henrik; Rosa, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    In this article we first summarize some of the most recent HetNet mobility studies for LTE-Advanced, and use these to highlight the challenges that should be further addressed in theresearch community. A state-of-the-art HetNet scenario with macros and small cells deployed on different carriers...... decide small cell addition, removal, and change without any explicit signaling of Measurement events to the network or any signaling of hand-over commands from the network. Hence, the proposed solution effectively offloads the network from having to perform frequent small cell handoff decisions...

  16. Evaluation of a Cross Layer Scheduling Algorithm for LTE Downlink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2013-01-01

    the resource utilization. The algorithm makes decisions based on the channel conditions, the size of the transmission buffers and different quality of service demands. The simulation results show that the new algorithm improves the resource utilization and provides better guaranties for service quality....

  17. A non-LTE study of neutral calcium in late-type stars with special reference to Pollux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, J.J.; Texas Univ., Austin, TX

    1991-01-01

    Detailed simultaneous radiative transfer-statistical equilibrium calculations have been undertaken for neutral calcium using model stellar atmospheres corresponding to a variety of late spectral types. The results are used to investigate non-LTE effects and trends with differing stellar parameters, and to estimate the likely influence of departures from LTE on model atmosphere analyses. The behaviour of individual Ca I atomic levels and lines are discussed in connection with calculations carried out for a model atmosphere corresponding to the KO III giant Pollux (β Gem). (author)

  18. Non-LTE spectral analyses of the lately discovered DB-gap white dwarfs from the SDSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huegelmeyer, S D; Dreizler, S

    2009-01-01

    For a long time, no hydrogen-deficient white dwarfs have been known that have effective temperature between 30 kK and eff < 45 kK (Eisenstein et al. 2006). It has been shown for DO white dwarfs that the relaxation of LTE is necessary to account for non local effects in the atmosphere caused by the intense radiation field. Therefore, we calculated a non-LTE model grid and re-analysed the aforementioned set of SDSS spectra. Our results confirm the existence of DB-gap white dwarfs.

  19. Power efficient MIMO techniques for 3GPP LTE and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Beh, KC; Han, C; Nicolaou, M; Armour, SMD; Doufexi, A

    2009-01-01

    Environmental issues and the need to reduce energy consumption for lowering operating costs have pushed power efficiency to become one of the major issues of current research in the field of wireless networks. The objective of the Green Radio research programme (Core 5) of Mobile VCE is to deliver reduced power consumption of radio access networks. This paper attempts to show that an efficient exploitation of multiple antenna techniques and multiuser diversity in both the time, frequency as w...

  20. An Improved Mathematical Scheme for LTE-Advanced Coexistence with FM Broadcasting Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsan, Zaid Ahmed; Al-Hetar, Abdulaziz M

    2016-01-01

    Power spectral density (PSD) overlapping analysis is considered the surest approach to evaluate feasibility of compatibility between wireless communication systems. In this paper, a new closed-form for the Interference Signal Power Attenuation (ISPA) is mathematically derived to evaluate interference caused from Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)-based Long Term Evolution (LTE)-Advanced into Frequency Modulation (FM) broadcasting service. In this scheme, ISPA loss due to PSD overlapping of both OFDM-based LTE-Advanced and FM broadcasting service is computed. The proposed model can estimate power attenuation loss more precisely than the Advanced Minimum Coupling Loss (A-MCL) and approximate-ISPA methods. Numerical results demonstrate that the interference power is less than that obtained using the A-MCL and approximate ISPA methods by 2.8 and 1.5 dB at the co-channel and by 5.2 and 2.2 dB at the adjacent channel with null guard band, respectively. The outperformance of this scheme over the other methods leads to more diminishing in the required physical distance between the two systems which ultimately supports efficient use of the radio frequency spectrum.

  1. Meandered Monopoles for 700 MHz LTE Handsets and Improved MIMO Channel Capacity Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dioum

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the design and the measurement of MIMO meandered monopole antennas and the computation of their channel capacity performance. The initial proposed handset-system is composed of a meandered monopole operating in the LTE 700 MHz band, connected to a parasitic radiating element for the upper 2.5 GHz LTE band. Two antennas of the same kind are then closely positioned on the same 120x50 mm2 Printed Circuit Board (PCB. A neutralization line connects the two antennas to enhance their port-to-port isolation in the 700 MHz band. The computation of the channel capacity performance in this band is based on propagation simulations performed with the GRIMM model from the CREMANT. Two system-prototypes are evaluated: one with the neutralization line for enhanced port-to-port isolation and a second without the neutralization exhibiting poor antenna-to-antenna isolation. It is demonstrated that the neutralization technique helps in giving a minimum improvement of 12% of the capacity performance of the handset-system, and a maximum improvement 46%, in the chosen environment.

  2. Investigation on IMCP based clustering in LTE-M communication for smart metering applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Vishal Deshpande

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Machine to Machine (M2M is foreseen as an emerging technology for smart metering applications where devices communicate seamlessly for information transfer. The M2M communication makes use of long term evolution (LTE as its backbone network and it results in long-term evolution for machine type communication (LTE-M network. As huge number of M2M devices is to be handled by single eNB (evolved Node B, clustering is exploited for efficient processing of the network. This paper investigates the proposed Improved M2M Clustering Process (IMCP based clustering technique and it is compared with two well-known clustering algorithms, namely, Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchical (LEACH and Energy Aware Multihop Multipath Hierarchical (EAMMH techniques. Further, the IMCP algorithm is analyzed with two-tier and three-tier M2M systems for various mobility conditions. The proposed IMCP algorithm improves the last node death by 63.15% and 51.61% as compared to LEACH and EAMMH, respectively. Further, the average energy of each node in IMCP is increased by 89.85% and 81.15%, as compared to LEACH and EAMMH, respectively.

  3. Target simulations with SCROLL non-LTE opacity/emissivity databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, M.; Colombant, D.; Bar-Shalom, A.

    2001-10-01

    SCROLL[1], a collisional radiative model and code based on superconfigurations, is able to compute high Z non-LTE opacities and emissivities accurately and efficiently. It was used to create opacity/emissivity databases for Pd, Lu, Au on a 50 temperatures/80 densities grid. Incident radiation field was shown to have no effect on opacities in the case of interest, and was not taken into account. These databases were introduced in the hydrocode FAST1D[2]. SCROLL also gives an ionization temperature Tz which is used in FAST1D to obtain non-LTE corrections to the equation of state. Results will be compared to those of a previous version using Busquet’s algorithm[3]. Work supported by USDOE under a contract with NRL. [1] A. Bar-Shalom, J. Oreg and M. Klapisch, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 65, 43(2000). [2] J. H. Gardner, A. J. Schmitt, J. P. Dahlburg, C. J. Pawley, S. E. Bodner, S. P. Obenschain, V. Serlin and Y. Aglitskiy, Phys. Plasmas, 5, 1935 (1998). [3] M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids B, 5, 4191 (1993).

  4. A Multistage Decision-Feedback Receiver Design for LTE Uplink in Mobile Time-Variant Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juinn-Horng Deng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-carrier-frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA has recently become the preferred uplink transmission scheme in long-term evolution (LTE systems. Similar to orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA, SC-FDMA is highly sensitive to frequency offsets caused by oscillator inaccuracies and Doppler spread, which lead to intercarrier interference (ICI. This work proposes a multistage decision-feedback structure to mitigate the ICI effect and enhance system performance in time-variant environments. Based on the block-type pilot arrangement of the LTE uplink type 1 frame structure, the time-domain least squares (TDLS method and polynomial-based curve-fitting algorithm are employed for channel estimation. Instead of using a conventional equalizer, this work uses a group frequency-domain equalizer (GFDE to reduce computational complexity. Furthermore, this work utilizes a dual iterative structure of group parallel interference cancellation (GPIC and frequency-domain group parallel interference cancellation (FPIC to mitigate the ICI effect. Finally, to optimize system performance, this work applies a novel error-correction scheme. Simulation results demonstrate the bit error rate (BER performance is markedly superior to that of the conventional full-size receiver based on minimum mean square error (MMSE. This structure performs well and is a flexible choice in mobile environments using the SC-FDMA scheme.

  5. A spatiotemporal model for the LTE uplink: Spatially interacting tandem queues approach

    KAUST Repository

    Gharbieh, Mohammad

    2017-07-31

    With the proliferation of the Internet-of-things (IoT), there is an undeniable consensus that cellular LTE networks will have to support a dramatically larger number of uplink connections. This is true since most of the devices to be added incur machine-type communications which is dominantly upstream. Can current LTE network withstand this challenge? To answer this question, the joint performance of random access process and the uplink data transmission should be investigated. These two problems have been classically treated in the literature in a disjoint fashion. In this paper, they are jointly analyzed as an inseparable couple. To do that, a tandem queuing model is adopted whereby devices are represented as spatially interacting queues. The interaction between queues is governed by the mutual inter-cell and intra-cell interference. To that end, a joint stochastic geometry and queueing theory model is exploited to study this problem and a spatiotemporal analytical model is developed accordingly. Network stability and scalability are two prime performance criteria for performance assessment. In light of these two criteria, the developed model is poised to offer valuable insights into efficient access and resource allocation strategies.

  6. SISTEMAS MULTIMEDIA BASADOS EN PROTOCOLO IP IMS APLICADOS A SERVICIOS LTE DE 4G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Alfonso Cipagauta Pedraza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta de una manera sencilla, el sistema creado para soportar los servicios de multimedia dentro de red de nueva generación (NGN llamada IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS a la vez que se explica su relación con la tecnología Long Term Evolution (LTE definida por el 3GPP en su release 8. IMS se trata de una arquitectura integrada en el núcleo de red para ofrecer servicios multimediales de audio y video sobre una infraestructura. Entonces ahora, los servicios prestados pasarán a ser ofrecidos a través de IP IMS y será la piedra angular en donde estos servicios se generarán y se ofrecerán. LTE es sin duda un impulsor de IMS, pero hay otros factores que empiezan a favorecer y a plantear un modelo de negocio favorable para la arquitectura multimedia. IMS está orientado a habilitar la convergencia de servicios, combinando el crecimiento de la Internet con el de las comunicaciones móviles, desde cualquier ubicación y método de forma continua y permanente.

  7. Cross-Layer Scheduling and Resource Allocation for Heterogeneous Traffic in 3G LTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Musabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 3G long term evolution (LTE introduces stringent needs in order to provide different kinds of traffic with Quality of Service (QoS characteristics. The major problem with this nature of LTE is that it does not have any paradigm scheduling algorithm that will ideally control the assignment of resources which in turn will improve the user satisfaction. This has become an open subject and different scheduling algorithms have been proposed which are quite challenging and complex. To address this issue, in this paper, we investigate how our proposed algorithm improves the user satisfaction for heterogeneous traffic, that is, best-effort traffic such as file transfer protocol (FTP and real-time traffic such as voice over internet protocol (VoIP. Our proposed algorithm is formulated using the cross-layer technique. The goal of our proposed algorithm is to maximize the expected total user satisfaction (total-utility under different constraints. We compared our proposed algorithm with proportional fair (PF, exponential proportional fair (EXP-PF, and U-delay. Using simulations, our proposed algorithm improved the performance of real-time traffic based on throughput, VoIP delay, and VoIP packet loss ratio metrics while PF improved the performance of best-effort traffic based on FTP traffic received, FTP packet loss ratio, and FTP throughput metrics.

  8. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  9. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  10. Radiation induced mutants in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayar, G.G.; Rajendran, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    Full text: Stem cuttings and true seeds of three promising cultivars of cassava were exposed respectively to 1 to 5 kR and 10 to 50 kR acute gamma rays from a 60 Co source. Treatments of stem cuttings beyond 5 kR and seeds beyond 50 kR were lethal. One mutant each in the cultivars M4, H-165 and H-2304 was obtained from the stem irradiated populations. Another mutant was found in the seed irradiated progeny of H-2304. The mutant of M4 is characterised by light green (chlorina) leaves. The mutant of H-165 shows significantly shorter petiole (22,5 against 35.2 cm) and narrow leaf lobes, while the H-2304 mutant shows speckled leaves, branching and early flowering. The mutant found in the seed irradiated progeny of H-2304 is having yellow tuber flesh indicating the presence of carotene. The mutants may be useful in studies related to basic information as well as in practical breeding. The chlorina mutant in M4 showed slow growth and high HCN content in leaves. Late branching may be a useful trait in the traditionally non-branching clones of cassava to maintain the desirable leaf area index during high leaf fall period. Early flowering could be useful in a recombinant breeding programme. The tuber yield of the short petiole mutant in H-165 increased by 20% - 25% through closer planting. The narrow leaf lobes of this mutant permit better light penetration to lower leaves. (author)

  11. Poliovirus Mutants Resistant to Neutralization with Soluble Cell Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Gerardo; Peters, David; Racaniello, Vincent R.

    1990-12-01

    Poliovirus mutants resistant to neutralization with soluble cellular receptor were isolated. Replication of soluble receptor-resistant (srr) mutants was blocked by a monoclonal antibody directed against the HeLa cell receptor for poliovirus, indicating that the mutants use this receptor to enter cells. The srr mutants showed reduced binding to HeLa cells and cell membranes. However, the reduced binding phenotype did not have a major impact on viral replication, as judged by plaque size and one-step growth curves. These results suggest that the use of soluble receptors as antiviral agents could lead to the selection of neutralization-resistant mutants that are able to bind cell surface receptors, replicate, and cause disease.

  12. Characteristics of mutant lines of sweet potato flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryanti

    2012-01-01

    Research on mutation induction of sweet potato Sari variety has been conducted. Flour mutant lines were obtained from selection of M1V5 tubers irradiated by gamma rays at the dose of 10 Gy. Flour was made by peeling of tubers, then dried, blended and sieved. The quality test of flour have been done by measuring degree of whiteness, proximate, amylose contents, water content, soluble water, swelling power, and flour characteristics. The result of this work showed that flour of C6.26.13 mutant line had higher protein content than the parent plant with concentration of 3.62 % and its amylose content was also higher than the other mutant lines. The soluble water value of mutant lines were significant different compared to the parent plant from 1.82 to 2.25 % and swelling power from 4.28 to 5.55 %. The flour granule of the mutant line was different compared to the parent plant. (author)

  13. Photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability in several soybean mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandanegara, S.; Hendratno, K.

    1987-01-01

    Photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability in several soybean mutant lines. A greenhouse experiment has been carried out to study photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability of five mutant lines and two soybean varieties. An amount of 330 uCi of 14 CO 2 was fed to the plants including of the non-fixing reference crop (Chippewa non-nodulating isoline). Nitrogen fixation measurements was carried out using 15 N isotope dilution technique according to A-value concept. Results showed that beside variety/mutant lines, plant growth also has important role in photosynthetic and N fixing capability. Better growth and a higher photosynthetic capability in Orba, mutant lines nos. 63 and 65 resulted in a greater amount of N 2 fixed (mg N/plant) than other mutant lines. (author). 12 refs.; 5 figs

  14. The ALI-ARMS Code for Modeling Atmospheric non-LTE Molecular Band Emissions: Current Status and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutepov, A. A.; Feofilov, A. G.; Manuilova, R. O.; Yankovsky, V. A.; Rezac, L.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    The Accelerated Lambda Iteration (ALI) technique was developed in stellar astrophysics at the beginning of 1990s for solving the non-LTE radiative transfer problem in atomic lines and multiplets in stellar atmospheres. It was later successfully applied to modeling the non-LTE emissions and radiative cooling/heating in the vibrational-rotational bands of molecules in planetary atmospheres. Similar to the standard lambda iterations ALI operates with the matrices of minimal dimension. However, it provides higher convergence rate and stability due to removing from the iterating process the photons trapped in the optically thick line cores. In the current ALI-ARMS (ALI for Atmospheric Radiation and Molecular Spectra) code version additional acceleration of calculations is provided by utilizing the opacity distribution function (ODF) approach and "decoupling". The former allows replacing the band branches by single lines of special shape, whereas the latter treats non-linearity caused by strong near-resonant vibration-vibrational level coupling without additional linearizing the statistical equilibrium equations. Latest code application for the non-LTE diagnostics of the molecular band emissions of Earth's and Martian atmospheres as well as for the non-LTE IR cooling/heating calculations are discussed.

  15. Multiband LTE-A and 4-PAM signals over large-core plastic fibers for in-home networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forni, F.; Shi, Y.; van den Boom, H.P.A.; Tangdiongga, E.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    This letter presents the transmission of eight standard compliant 64-QAM long term evolution advanced (LTE-A) bands and 1.4 Gb/s 4-pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) signals over 20 m of 1 mm core diameter graded-index polymethyl methacrylate plastic optical fiber. The optical transceiver consists of

  16. Downlink Radio Resource Management for LTE-Advanced System with Combined MU-MIMO and Carrier Aggregation Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Hung Tuan; Kovacs, Istvan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the performance enhancement of a downlink LTE-Advanced system with a combination of the multi-user MIMO and carrier aggregation transmission techniques. Radio resource management for the systems with the combined features are proposed, and the system performance is evaluate...

  17. Assessment of General Public Exposure to LTE signals compared to other Cellular Networks Present in Thessaloniki, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkonis, Fotios; Boursianis, Achilles; Samaras, Theodoros

    2017-07-01

    To assess general public exposure to electromagnetic fields from Long Term Evolution (LTE) base stations, measurements at 10 sites in Thessaloniki, Greece were performed. Results are compared with other mobile cellular networks currently in use. All exposure values satisfy the guidelines for general public exposure of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), as well as the reference levels by the Greek legislation at all sites. LTE electric field measurements were recorded up to 0.645 V/m. By applying the ICNIRP guidelines, the exposure ratio for all LTE signals is between 2.9 × 10-5 and 2.8 × 10-2. From the measurements results it is concluded that the average and maximum power density contribution of LTE downlink signals to the overall cellular networks signals are 7.8% and 36.7%, respectively. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Experimenting with 4G LTE for area coverage and the envisioned C2 deployments over 5G

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malinga, Linda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Force (SANDF). Multimedia services (voice, video, and data) and distance were used as performance measure metrics. Using a 400 MHz portable LTE system, a 10 km and 11 km radii coverage area was achieved in Line of Sight (LOS) for bushveld and maritime...

  19. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Long Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT is larger than that of wild type (WT and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape.

  20. Phanerochaete mutants with enhanced ligninolytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakar, S.N.; Perez, A.; Gonzales, J.

    1994-01-01

    In addition to lignin, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organo pollutants in soils and aqueous media. Most of the organic compounds are degraded under ligninolytic conditions with the involvement of the extracellular enzymes, lignin peroxidases, and manganese-dependent peroxidases, which are produced as secondary metabolites triggered by conditions of nutrient starvation (e.g., nitrogen limitation). The fungus and its enzymes can thus provide alternative technologies for bioremediation, bio pulping, bio bleaching, and other industrial applications. The efficiency and effectiveness of the fungus can be enhanced by increasing production and secretion of the important enzymes in large quantities and as primary metabolites under enriched conditions. One way this can be achieved is through isolation of mutants that are deregulated, or are hyper producers or super secretors of key enzymes under enriched conditions. Through UV-light and γ-ray mutagenesis, we have isolated a variety of mutants, some of which produce key enzymes of the ligninolytic system under high-nitrogen growth conditions. One of the mutants, 76UV, produced 272 U of lignin peroxidases enzyme activity/L after 9 d under high nitrogen (although the parent strain does not produce this enzyme under these conditions). The mutant and the parent strains produced up to 54 and 62 U/L, respectively, of the enzyme activity under low nitrogen growth conditions during this period. In some experiments, the mutant showed 281 U/L of enzyme activity under high nitrogen after 17 d

  1. Mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roosien, J.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis the isolation and characterization of a number of mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus, a plant virus with a coat protein dependent genome, is described. Thermo-sensitive (ts) mutants were selected since, at least theoretically, ts mutations can be present in all virus coded functions. It was found that a high percentage of spontaneous mutants, isolated because of their aberrant symptoms, were ts. The majority of these isolates could grow at the non-permissive temperature in the presence of a single wild type (wt) component. To increase the mutation rate virus preparations were treated with several mutagens. After nitrous acid treatment or irradiation with ultraviolet light, an increase in the level of mutations was observed. UV irradiation was preferred since it did not require large amounts of purified viral components. During the preliminary characterization of potential ts mutants the author also obtained one structural and several symptom mutants which were analysed further (chapter 7, 8 and 9). The properties of the ts mutants are described in chapter 3-7. (Auth.)

  2. Root hair mutants of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engvild, K.C.; Rasmussen, K.

    2005-01-01

    Barley mutants without root hairs or with short or reduced root hairs were isolated among M 2 seeds of 'Lux' barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) after acidified sodium azide mutagenesis. Root hair mutants are investigated intensively in Arabidopsis where about 40 genes are known. A few root hair mutants are known in maize, rice, barley and tomato. Many plants without root hairs grow quite well with good plant nutrition, and mutants have been used for investigations of uptake of strongly bound nutrients like phosphorus, iron, zinc and silicon. Seed of 'Lux' barley (Sejet Plant Breeding, Denmark) were soaked overnight, and then treated with 1.5-millimolarsodium azide in 0.1 molar sodium phosphate buffer, pH 3, for 2.5 hours according to the IAEA Manual on Mutation Breeding (2nd Ed.). After rinsing in tap water and air-drying, the M 2 seeds were sown in the field the same day. Spikes, 4-6 per M 1 plant, were harvested. The mutation frequency was similar to that obtained with other barley cultivars from which low-phytate mutants were isolated [5]. Seeds were germinated on black filter paper in tap water for 3 or 4 days before scoring for root hair mutants

  3. Heterotropic and homotropic cooperativity by a drug-metabolising mutant of cytochrome P450 BM3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt-Lussenburg, B.M.A.; Damsten, M.C.; Maasdijk, D.M.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.; Commandeur, J.N.M.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, we described a triple mutant of the bacterial cytochrome P450 BM3 as the first mutant with affinity for drug-like compounds. In this paper, we show that this mutant, but not wild-type BM3, is able to metabolise testosterone and several drug-like molecules such as amodiaquine,

  4. Mutants induced in winter rye (Secale cereale L.): Short straw-mutant No. 2714 and late-senescence mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muszynski, S; Darlewska, M [Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science, Warsaw Agricultural University, Warsaw (Poland)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutants were induced by treating dormant seeds with ionizing radiation (fast neutrons) or chemicals (N-nitroso-N-ethyl urea or sodium azide). Among several mutants obtained, of special value is the short-straw mutant No. 2714 and a late senescent mutant. (author)

  5. Human liver cell trafficking mutants: characterization and whole exome sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yuan

    Full Text Available The HuH7 liver cell mutant Trf1 is defective in membrane trafficking and is complemented by the casein kinase 2α subunit CK2α''. Here we identify characteristic morphologies, trafficking and mutational changes in six additional HuH7 mutants Trf2-Trf7. Trf1 cells were previously shown to be severely defective in gap junction functions. Using a Lucifer yellow transfer assay, remarkable attenuation of gap junction communication was revealed in each of the mutants Trf2-Trf7. Electron microscopy and light microscopy of thiamine pyrophosphatase showed that several mutants exhibited fragmented Golgi apparatus cisternae compared to parental HuH7 cells. Intracellular trafficking was investigated using assays of transferrin endocytosis and recycling and VSV G secretion. Surface binding of transferrin was reduced in all six Trf2-Trf7 mutants, which generally correlated with the degree of reduced expression of the transferrin receptor at the cell surface. The mutants displayed the same transferrin influx rates as HuH7, and for efflux rate, only Trf6 differed, having a slower transferrin efflux rate than HuH7. The kinetics of VSV G transport along the exocytic pathway were altered in Trf2 and Trf5 mutants. Genetic changes unique to particular Trf mutants were identified by exome sequencing, and one was investigated in depth. The novel mutation Ile34Phe in the GTPase RAB22A was identified in Trf4. RNA interference knockdown of RAB22A or overexpression of RAB22AI34F in HuH7 cells caused phenotypic changes characteristic of the Trf4 mutant. In addition, the Ile34Phe mutation reduced both guanine nucleotide binding and hydrolysis activities of RAB22A. Thus, the RAB22A Ile34Phe mutation appears to contribute to the Trf4 mutant phenotype.

  6. Promising semi-dwarf mutant in wheat variety K68

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, D [Banaras Hindu Univ. (India). Dept. of Genetics and Plant Breeding

    1977-04-01

    A semi-dwarf mutant (HUW-SDf 1) was induced from common wheat Var. K68 through the exposure of /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays at 15 kR. This mutant along with other induced mutants and control was assessed for yield components, yield and grain quality (M/sub 4/ generation); internode length reduction pattern and the yielding ability at three levels of nitrogen (M/sub 5/ generation). The mutant was significantly shorter in height and almost equal in tillers per plant and grains per spike to K68. However, it showed marked reduction in spike length and spikelets per spike. On the other hand, it possessed significantly higher (50.04 g) 1000-grain weight against control (41.15 g). The mutant gave 56.0% higher yield than the control. Grain quality studies indicated that the mutant possessed significantly higher (14.15%) total protein than K68. It was equally as good as K68 in lysine content. Pelshenke value (62.5 min) of the mutant indicated medium hard nature of gluten as compared to hard nature (198.0) of the control. The mutant showed 24.0% reduction in total culm length compared to K68. Reduction occurred due to maximum and almost equal reduction in 5th and 4th internodes (ca 34.0%) followed by 3rd, 2nd and 1st. The mutant showed similar yield and yield response to increasing nitrogen levels (80 to 160 kg per ha.) as for current commercial semi-dwarf varieties.

  7. Experiments on the Scaling of Ionization Balance vs. Electron and Radiation Temperature in Non-LTE Gold Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeter, R.F.; Hansen, S.B.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Foord, M.E.; Fournier, K.B.; Froula, D.H.; Mackinnon, A.J.; May, M.J.; Schneider, M.B.; Young, B.K.F.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding and predicting the behavior of high-Z non-LTE plasmas is important for developing indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion. Extending earlier work from the Nova laser, we present results from experiments using the Omega laser to study the ionization balance of gold as a function of electron and radiation temperature. In these experiments, gold samples embedded in Be disks expand under direct laser heating to ne ≅ 1021cm-3, with Te varying from 0.8 to 2.5 keV. An additional finite radiation field with effective temperature Tr up to 150 eV is provided by placing the gold Be disks inside truncated 1.2 mm diameter tungsten-coated cylindrical hohlraums with full laser entrance holes. Densities are measured by imaging of plasma expansion. Electron temperatures are diagnosed with either 2ω or 4ω Thomson scattering, and also K-shell spectroscopy of KCl tracers co-mixed with the gold. Hohlraum flux and effective radiation temperature are measured using an absolutely-calibrated multichannel filtered diode array. Spectroscopic measurements of the M-shell gold emission in the 2.9-4 keV spectral range provide ionization balance and charge state distribution information. The spectra show strong variation with Te, strong variation with the applied Tr, at Te below 1.6 keV, and relatively little variation with Tr at higher Te (upwards of 2 keV). We summarize our most recent spectral analyses and discuss emerging and outstanding issues

  8. Feasibility of LTE 700 MHz Digital Dividend for Broadband Development Acceleration in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Setiawan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The need of broadband services to reduce digital divide in rural areas had increased in the recent years. The government of the Republic Indonesia shared similar intention and had set guidance of ICT development in its "economic master plan" and "medium term development plan". This paper addressed feasibility and suitability of its implementation in Indonesia, by conducting assessment of possible solutions. Using mixed method, the study was started with qualitative approach to identify possible options, conducted benchmarking and case study analysis to narrow down the options and finally conducted quantitative calculation for the two remaining options and measure performance of the solutions. The results of analysis concluded that early implementation of LTE in 700 MHz Digital Dividend would be feasible in certain geographical areas to fasten the broadband plan development in Indonesia.

  9. Statistical Modeling of Antenna: Urban Equipment Interactions for LTE Access Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zeng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The latest standards for wireless networks such as LTE are essentially based on small cells in order to achieve a large network capacity. This applies for antennas to be deployed at street level or even within buildings. However, antennas are commonly designed, simulated, and measured in ideal conditions, which is not the real situation for most applications where antennas are often deployed in proximity to objects acting as disturbers. In this paper, three conventional wireless access point scenarios (antenna-wall, antenna-shelter, and antenna lamppost are investigated for directional or omnidirectional antennas. The paper first addresses the definition of three performance indicators for such scenarios and secondly uses such parameters towards the statistical analysis of the interactions between the wall and the antennas.

  10. A non-LTE model for the Jovian methane infrared emissions at high spectral resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halthore, Rangasayi N.; Allen, J. E., Jr.; Decola, Philip L.

    1994-01-01

    High resolution spectra of Jupiter in the 3.3 micrometer region have so far failed to reveal either the continuum or the line emissions that can be unambiguously attributed to the nu(sub 3) band of methane (Drossart et al. 1993; Kim et al. 1991). Nu(sub 3) line intensities predicted with the help of two simple non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) models -- a two-level model and a three-level model, using experimentally determined relaxation coefficients, are shown to be one to three orders of magnitude respectively below the 3-sigma noise level of these observations. Predicted nu(sub 4) emission intensities are consistent with observed values. If the methane mixing ratio below the homopause is assumed as 2 x 10(exp -3), a value of about 300 K is derived as an upper limit to the temperature of the high stratosphere at microbar levels.

  11. Augmented twin-nonlinear two-box behavioral models for multicarrier LTE power amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammi, Oualid

    2014-01-01

    A novel class of behavioral models is proposed for LTE-driven Doherty power amplifiers with strong memory effects. The proposed models, labeled augmented twin-nonlinear two-box models, are built by cascading a highly nonlinear memoryless function with a mildly nonlinear memory polynomial with cross terms. Experimental validation on gallium nitride based Doherty power amplifiers illustrates the accuracy enhancement and complexity reduction achieved by the proposed models. When strong memory effects are observed, the augmented twin-nonlinear two-box models can improve the normalized mean square error by up to 3 dB for the same number of coefficients when compared to state-of-the-art twin-nonlinear two-box models. Furthermore, the augmented twin-nonlinear two-box models lead to the same performance as previously reported twin-nonlinear two-box models while requiring up to 80% less coefficients.

  12. Physics of Solar Prominences: I-Spectral Diagnostics and Non-LTE Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrosse, N.; Heinzel, P.; Vial, J.-C,; Kucera, T.; Parenti, S.; Gunar, S.; Schmieder, B.; Kilper, G.

    2010-01-01

    This review paper outlines background information and covers recent advances made via the analysis of spectra and images of prominence plasma and the increased sophistication of non-LTE (i.e. when there is a departure from Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium) radiative transfer models. We first describe the spectral inversion techniques that have been used to infer the plasma parameters important for the general properties of the prominence plasma in both its cool core and the hotter prominence-corona transition region. We also review studies devoted to the observation of bulk motions of the prominence plasma and to the determination of prominence mass. However, a simple inversion of spectroscopic data usually fails when the lines become optically thick at certain wavelengths. Therefore, complex

  13. Detailed non-LTE calculations of the iron emission from NGC 1068

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, David L.; Klein, Richard I.; Castor, John I.; Nash, J. K.

    1989-01-01

    The X-ray iron line emission from NGC 1068 observed by the Ginga satellite is modeled using the new multiline, multilevel, non-LTE radiative transport code ALTAIR and a detailed atomic model for Ne-like through stripped iron. The parameter space of the obscured type 1 Seyfert nucleus model for this object is studied. The equivalent width is greater than previously predicted. It is found that detailed radiative transfer can have a significant effect on the observed line flux both for the K alpha line and for the L-shell emission. The ionization of the iron increases with temperature. Therefore the K alpha equivalent width and energy is a function not only of the ionization parameter, but also of the column depth and temperature. For a likely model of NGC 1068 it is found that the iron abundance is about twice solar, but that modifications of this model may permit a smaller abundance.

  14. IUE observations of Si and C lines and comparison with non-LTE models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, L. W.

    1982-01-01

    Classical model atmosphere techniques are applied to analyze IUE spectra, and to determine abundances, effective temperatures and gravities. Measurements of the equivalent widths and other properties of the line profiles of 24 photospheric lines of Si II, Si III, Si IV, C II, C III and C IV are presented in the range of 1175-1725 A for seven B and two O stars. Observed line profiles are compared with theoretical profiles computed using non-LTE theory and models, and using line-blanketed model atmospheres. Agreement is reasonably good, although strong lines are calculated to be systematically stronger than those observed, while the reverse occurs for weak lines, and empirical profiles have smaller wings than theoretical profiles. It is concluded that the present theory of line formation when used with solar abundances, represents fairly well observed UV photospheric lines of silicon and carbon ions in the atmospheres of main sequence stars of types B5-O9.

  15. A conjugate gradient method for solving the non-LTE line radiation transfer problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paletou, F.; Anterrieu, E.

    2009-12-01

    This study concerns the fast and accurate solution of the line radiation transfer problem, under non-LTE conditions. We propose and evaluate an alternative iterative scheme to the classical ALI-Jacobi method, and to the more recently proposed Gauss-Seidel and successive over-relaxation (GS/SOR) schemes. Our study is indeed based on applying a preconditioned bi-conjugate gradient method (BiCG-P). Standard tests, in 1D plane parallel geometry and in the frame of the two-level atom model with monochromatic scattering are discussed. Rates of convergence between the previously mentioned iterative schemes are compared, as are their respective timing properties. The smoothing capability of the BiCG-P method is also demonstrated.

  16. Performance Analysis of enhanced Inter-cell Interference Coordination in LTE-Advanced Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuanye; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordination (eICIC) for Long Term Evolution (LTE)- Advanced with co-channel deployment of both macro and pico is analyzed. The use of pico-cell Range Extension (RE) and time domain eICIC (TDM muting) is combined. The performance is evaluated...... in the downlink by means of extensive system level simulations that follow the 3GPP guidelines. The overall network performance is analyzed for different number of pico-eNBs, transmit power levels, User Equipment (UE) distributions, and packet schedulers. Recommended settings of the RE offset and TDM muting ratio...... in different scenarios are identified. The presented performance results and findings can serve as input to guidelines for co-channel deployment of macro and pico-eNBs with eICIC....

  17. Improved Mobility Performance in LTE Co-Channel HetNets Through Speed Differentiated Enhancements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbera, Simone; Michaelsen, Per Henrik; Säily, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    , requiring minimum assistance and signaling from the network. Extensive system level simulations are used to quantify the benefits. Results confirm that the proposed solutions offer improvements in several mobility key performance indicators such as radio link failure, number of handovers, offload to pico......This paper analyzes the mobility performance of LTE (Long Term Evolution) co-channel heterogeneous networks (HetNet) with macro and pico cells. Improved methods for differentiating offload and mobility robustness as a function of the UE (User Equipment) mobility are proposed. The suggested solution...... comprises two key elements, namely enhanced UE MSE (Mobility State Estimation), as well as optimized methods such that high speed users are primarily kept at the macro layer, while the offload to pico cells for low speed users is maximized. The proposed methods are designed as UE autonomous solutions...

  18. Feasibility of LTE 700 MHz Digital Dividend for Broadband Development Acceleration in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Setiawan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The need of broadband services to reduce digital divide in rural areas had increased in the recent years. The government of the Republic Indonesia shared similar intention and had set guidance of ICT development in its "economic master plan" and "medium term development plan". This paper addressed feasibility and suitability of its implementation in Indonesia, by conducting assessment of possible solutions. Using mixed method, the study was started with qualitative approach to identify possible options, conducted benchmarking and case study analysis to narrow down the options and finally conducted quantitative calculation for the two remaining options and measure performance of the solutions. The results of analysis concluded that early implementation of LTE in 700 MHz Digital Dividend would be feasible in certain geographical areas to fasten the broadband plan development in Indonesia.

  19. Dual Band Parasitic Element Patch Antenna for LTE/WLAN Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAG Biplab

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a single layer coaxial fed dual band slotted microstrip antenna is proposed. The proposed antenna consists of two direct couple parasitic elements and L-shape slots on the main resonating element. Two resonant modes are excited and it covers 4G LTE and WLAN middle band. The -10dB impedance bandwidth for resonant frequency of 2.35GHz and 5.28GHz are 140MHz (2.25-2.39GHz and 570MHz (5.18-5.75GHz, respectively. The measured VSWR at 2.35GHz is 1.27 and at 5.28GHz is 1.41. The proposed antenna is simple in design and compact in size. The simulated and measured results are in good agreement.

  20. Performance Analysis of Downlink Inter-band Carrier Aggregation in LTE-Advanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    CC can be different. In this paper, we investigate the downlink resource allocation for inter-band CA, i.e., how to assign carrier(s) to different UEs. A simple yet effective G-factor based carrier selection algorithm, which takes both traffic load and radio channel characteristics......Carrier aggregation (CA) is one of the most distinct features for LTE-Advanced systems, which can support a much wider transmission bandwidth up to 100 MHz by aggregating two or more individual component carriers (CCs) belonging to the same (intra-band) or different (inter-band) frequency bands....... With CA, it is possible to schedule a user equipment (UE) on multiple CCs simultaneously. From radio resource management (RRM) perspective, CC selection plays an important role in optimizing the system performance, especially in the case of inter-band CA where the radio propagation characteristics of each...

  1. Optimized green operation of LTE networks in the presence of multiple electricity providers

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2012-12-01

    Energy efficiency aspects in cellular networks can significantly contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and help to save the environment. The base station (BS) sleeping strategy has become a well-known technique to achieve energy savings by switching off redundant BSs mainly for lightly loaded networks. Besides, introducing renewable energies as alternative power sources becomes a real challenge to network operators. In this paper, we propose a method that reduces the energy consumption of BSs by not only shutting down underutilized BSs but also by optimizing the amounts of energy procured from different retailers (Renewable energy and electricity retailers). We formulate an optimization problem that leads to the maximization of the profit of a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular operator, and at the same time to the minimization of CO2 emissions in green wireless cellular networks without affecting the desired Quality of Service. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. Optimized green operation of LTE networks in the presence of multiple electricity providers

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Abu-Dayya, Adnan A.

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency aspects in cellular networks can significantly contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and help to save the environment. The base station (BS) sleeping strategy has become a well-known technique to achieve energy savings by switching off redundant BSs mainly for lightly loaded networks. Besides, introducing renewable energies as alternative power sources becomes a real challenge to network operators. In this paper, we propose a method that reduces the energy consumption of BSs by not only shutting down underutilized BSs but also by optimizing the amounts of energy procured from different retailers (Renewable energy and electricity retailers). We formulate an optimization problem that leads to the maximization of the profit of a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular operator, and at the same time to the minimization of CO2 emissions in green wireless cellular networks without affecting the desired Quality of Service. © 2012 IEEE.

  3. Delay efficient cooperation in public safety vehicular networks using LTE and IEEE 802.11p

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative schemes for critical content distribution over vehicular networks are presented and analyzed. The first scheme is based on unicasting from the base station, whereas the second is based on threshold based multicasting. Long Term Evolution (LTE) is used for long range communications with the base station (BS) and 802.11p is considered for inter-vehicle collaboration on the short range. A high mobility environment with correlated shadowing is adopted. Both schemes are shown to outperform non-cooperative unicasting and multicasting, respectively, when the appropriate 802.11p power class is used. The first scheme achieves the best performance among the compared methods, and a practical approximation of that scheme is shown to be close to optimal performance. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. An LTE effective temperature scale for red supergiants in the Magellanic clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernero, H. M.; Dorda, R.; Negueruela, I.; González-Fernández, C.

    2018-05-01

    We present a self-consistent study of cool supergiants (CSGs) belonging to the Magellanic clouds. We calculated stellar atmospheric parameters using LTE KURUCZ and MARCS atmospheric models for more than 400 individual targets by fitting a careful selection of weak metallic lines. We explore the existence of a Teff scale and its implications in two different metallicity environments (each Magellanic cloud). Critical and in-depth tests have been performed to assess the reliability of our stellar parameters (i.e. internal error budget, NLTE systematics). In addition, several Monte Carlo tests have been carried out to infer the significance of the Teff scale found. Our findings point towards a unique Teff scale that seems to be independent of the environment.

  5. Wideband Tunable PIFA Antenna with Loaded Slot Structure for Mobile Handset and LTE Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Elfergani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A compact planar inverted F antenna (PIFA with a tunable frequency response is presented. Tuning of the resonant frequency is realized by loading a varactor on an embedded slot of the proposed antenna structure without further optimizing other antenna geometry parameters. The antenna exhibits a wide frequency range from 1570 to 2600 MHz with a good impedance matching (S11 ≤-10 dB covering the GPS, PCS, DCS, UMTS, WLAN and LTE systems. To validate the theoretical model and design concept, the antenna prototype was fabricated and measured. The compact size of the antenna is 15mm × 8mm × 3mm, which makes this antenna a good candidate for mobile handset and wireless communication applications.

  6. Python Radiative Transfer Emission code (PyRaTE): non-LTE spectral lines simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritsis, A.; Yorke, H.; Tassis, K.

    2018-05-01

    We describe PyRaTE, a new, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) line radiative transfer code developed specifically for post-processing astrochemical simulations. Population densities are estimated using the escape probability method. When computing the escape probability, the optical depth is calculated towards all directions with density, molecular abundance, temperature and velocity variations all taken into account. A very easy-to-use interface, capable of importing data from simulations outputs performed with all major astrophysical codes, is also developed. The code is written in PYTHON using an "embarrassingly parallel" strategy and can handle all geometries and projection angles. We benchmark the code by comparing our results with those from RADEX (van der Tak et al. 2007) and against analytical solutions and present case studies using hydrochemical simulations. The code will be released for public use.

  7. Jammer Type Estimation in LTE with a Smart Jammer Repeated Game

    KAUST Repository

    Aziz, Farhan

    2017-02-22

    LTE/LTE-Advanced networks are known to be vulnerable to denial-of-service (DOS) and loss-of-service attacks from smart jammers. The interaction between the network and the smart jammer has been modeled as an infinite-horizon general-sum (non-zero-sum) Bayesian game with asymmetric information, with the network being the uninformed player. Although significant work has been done on optimal strategy computation and control of information revelation of the informed player in repeated asymmetric information games, it has been limited to zero-sum games with perfect monitoring. Recent progress on the strategy computation of the uninformed player is also limited to zero-sum games with perfect monitoring and is focused on expected payoff formulations. Since the proposed formulation is a general-sum game with imperfect monitoring, existing formulations cannot be leveraged for estimating true state of nature (the jammer type). Hence, a threat-based mechanism is proposed for the uninformed player (the network) to estimate the informed player’s type (jammer type). The proposed mechanism helps the network resolve uncertainty about the state of nature (jammer type) so that it can compute a repeated-game strategy conditioned on its estimate. The proposed algorithm does not rely on the commonly assumed “full monitoring” premise, and uses a combination of threat-based mechanism and non-parametric estimation to estimate the jammer type. In addition, it does not require any explicit feedback from the network users nor does it rely on a specific distribution (e.g., Gaussian) of test statistic. It is shown that the proposed algorithm’s estimation performance is quite robust under realistic modeling and observational constraints despite all the aforementioned challenges.

  8. Non-LTE Analysis of Interstellar Line Spectra of SiO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziwei; Stancil, Phillip C.

    2016-01-01

    SiO emission lines are important probes of chemical processes in diverse astrophysical environments. In circumstellar outflows of AGB stars, the production of silicate grains is preceded by SiO formation, making SiO a useful measure of Si depletion. SiO is also commonly observed in shocks associated with the outflows of young stellar objects, both low- and high-mass. To model SiO emission for non-LTE conditions requires collisional rate coefficients due to H2 impact which are currently unavailable. Unknown collisional rate coefficients are often estimated from known systems. For the case of SiO-H2, rate coefficients have previously been adapted from a different collider, He (Dayau & Balanca 2006), based on a reduced-mass scaling approach. Recently it has been suggested that scaling via the interaction potential well depth and the reduced masses of the collisional systems may be more reliable (Walker et al. 2014). Using the non-LTE spectral modeling package Radex (van der Tak et al. 2007), we construct diagnostic plots of SiO line ratios using SiO-H2 collisional rate coefficients based on (i) reduced-mass scaling from the LAMDA database, (ii) potential well-depth scaling, and (iii) a more comprehensive input with multiple colliders (H2, He and H). Our goal is to give a more rigorous approach to SiO line emission simulations to better understand Si chemistry, dust formation/destruction, and other astrophysical processes.This work was supported by NASA ATP grant NNX15AI61G.

  9. PNRI mutant variety: sansevieria 'Sword of Ibe'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurigue, Fernando B.

    2011-01-01

    Sansevieria 'Sword of Ibe,' registered by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute as NSIC 2008 Or-66, is a chlorophyll mutant of Sansevieria trifasciata 'Moonshine' developed by treating its suckers or shoots arising from a rhizome with acute gamma radiation from a Cobalt-60 source. The new mutant is identical in growth habit and vigor to Sansevieria 'Moonshine,' also known as Moonglow. Results of this mutation breeding experiment showed that leaf color and flowering were altered by gamma irradiation without changing the other characteristics of the plant. Propagation is true-to-type by separation of sucker and top cutting. The plant is recommended for use as landscaping material and as pot plant for indoor and outdoor use. The leaves may be harvested as cut foliage for Japanese flower arrangements. (author)

  10. Serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase mutant of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, R.; Murray, A.; Joy, K.; Lea, P.

    1987-01-01

    A photorespiratory mutant of barley (LaPr 85/84), deficient in both of the major peaks of serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity detected in the wild type, also lacks serine:pyruvate and asparagine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activities. Genetic analysis of the mutation demonstrated that these three activities are all carried on the same enzyme. The mutant, when placed in air, accumulated a large pool of serine, showed the expected rate (50%) of ammonia release during photorespiration but produced CO 2 at twice the wild type rate when it was fed [ 14 C] glyoxylate. Compared with the wild type, LaPr 85/84 exhibited abnormal transient changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence when the CO 2 concentration of the air was altered, indicating that the rates of the fluorescence quenching mechanisms were affected in vivo by the lack of this enzyme

  11. Characterization of mutants of yeast sensitive to x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strike, T.L.

    1978-01-01

    This study deals with the characterization of mutants at the rad50 to rad57 loci selected on the basis of their sensitivity to x rays. They were also examined for sensitivity to uv and mms and for characteristics of mutation induction, heteroallelic reversion (gene conversion), liquid holding recovery from x rays, and sporulation. All the mutants were slightly to moderately sensitive to uv though they did not show the extreme sensitivity of the rad1 to rad22 mutations, and all demonstrated cross sensitivity to both x rays and MMS. If a mutant was very sensitive to x-rays, it was usually very sensitive to MMS also

  12. Circulation of Pneumocystis dihydropteroate synthase mutants in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, Solène; Damiani, Céline; Perrot, Maëla; Rouillé, Amélie; Virmaux, Michèle; Quinio, Dorothée; Moalic, Elodie; Saliou, Philippe; Berthou, Christian; Le Meur, Yann; Totet, Anne; Nevez, Gilles

    2012-10-01

    Data on the prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) mutants in France are still limited. In this study, mutant prevalence in the Brest region (western France) was determined. Archival pulmonary specimens from 85 patients infected with P. jirovecii and admitted to our institution (University Hospital, Brest) from October 2007 to February 2010 were retrospectively typed at the DHPS locus using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Type identification was successful in 66 of 85 patients. Sixty-four patients were infected with a wild type, whereas mutants were found in 2 patients (2/66, 3%). Medical chart analysis revealed that these 2 patients usually lived in Paris. Another patient usually lived on the French Riviera, whereas 63 patients were from the city of Brest. Thus, the corrected prevalence of mutants in patients who effectively lived in our geographic area was 0% (0/63). Taking into account that i) Paris is characterized by a high prevalence of mutants from 18.5% to 40%, ii) infection diagnoses were performed in the 2 Parisians during their vacation Paris to Brest through infected vacationers. The study shows that the usual city of patient residence, rather than the city of infection diagnosis, is a predictor of mutants and that P. jirovecii infections involving mutants do not represent a public health issue in western France. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Análisis de las estrategias de gestión del espectro radioeléctrico en un sistema LTE con la herramienta Atoll

    OpenAIRE

    López Diaz, Eduardo José

    2012-01-01

    Estudiar el impacto de usar una estrategia ICIC y los posibles esquemas de reuso frecuencial en un sistema LTE. English: the Mobile Communications Research Group as part of the Signal Theory and Communications Department of the Polytechnic University of Catalonia, in order to keep up with the latest technological trends in the mobile networks field, saw the need to study and analyze the new emerging mobile standards such as LTE (Long Term Evolution), and through Atoll, a mobile network rad...

  14. Genetical, cytological and physiological studies on the induced mutants with special regard to effective methods for obtaining useful mutants in perennial woody plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukimura, H.; Ikeda, F.; Fujita, H.; Maeta, T.; Nakajima, K.; Katagiri, K.; Nakahira, K.; Somegou, M.

    1975-01-01

    The study was aimed at elucidating the biological aspects of artificially induced mutations in perennial tree crops and at promoting the utilization of such mutations in a practical breeding programme. A number of mutants obtained particularly in Cryptomeria and mulberry (Morus spp.) by means of gamma radiation were examined for their practical usefulness. Doses from 7.5 to 15.0 kR were used. In mulbery, some mutant strains showed increased shoot growth, and one mutant strain showed a remarkable increase also in rooting ability. Entire leaf mutants were investigated for their breeding behaviour. None of the mutant strains showed acquired disease resistance. Changes in the number of isozyme bands and different staining intensity was observed in all the mutant strains compared to the original strains

  15. Multivariate analysis for selecting apple mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faedi, W.; Bagnara, G.L.; Rosati, P.; Cecchini, M.

    1992-01-01

    The mutlivariate analysis of four year records on several vegetative and productive traits of twenty-one apple mutants (3 of 'Jonathan', 3 of 'Ozark Gold', 14 of 'Mollie's Delicious', 1 of 'Neipling's Early Stayman)' induced by gamma radiations showed that observation of some traits of one-year-old shoots is the most efficient way to reveal compact growing apple mutants. In particular, basal cross-section area, total length and leaf area resulted the most appropriate parameters, while internode length together with conopy height and width are less appropriate. The most interesting mutants we found are: one of 'Mollie's Delicious for the best balance among tree and fruit traits and for high skin color; one of 'Neipling's Early Stayman' with an earlier and more extensively red colored apple than the original clone. (author)

  16. Gamma ray induced male sterility mutant in lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.; Yadav, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Male sterility refers to the failure of pollen grains to bring about effective fertilization, either due to structural default or physiological disfunctioning and has special significance in hybridization programmes. Male steriles have been produced in a number of crop plants like red gram, pigeon pea, mung bean, khesari and lentil. A completely male sterile mutant was isolated in Lens culinaris Medik, after seed treatment with 100 Gy dose of gamma rays. The male sterile mutant showed 100% pollen sterility but was morphologically more vigorous than the parent plants. It showed more branches and its leaves were bigger, more oblong and dark green. The number of flowers borne by the mutant was significantly higher than any other plant of the treatment. The size of the flowers was also increased but the anthers were smaller in size. Pollen grains were few in number, round in shape but empty and did not take up any stain, indicating that normal microsporogenesis had not taken place. This male sterile mutant was used as the female parent and pollinated with pollen of a parent. Four pods with one seed in each were formed indicating that the mutant was female fertile. The seeds were smaller than those of the parent variety and also dark coloured. The mutant showed increased vigour and flower number as compared to parental plants. Lentil is an important pulse crop and induction of variability in its germplasm is necessary for its improvement. Male steriles can be used conveniently in lentil hybridization programmes. (author)

  17. MUTANT AND BASTARD JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar G. Rincón

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century ended in 2016. Fidel Castro died in politics. And the journalism could not tell the reality. The great ruin of journalism is that it has stopped narrating democracy, making sense of our times, telling the realities of ordinary people, controlling power. Thus, the journalistic office is an endangered species in the mainstream media that have decided to become political actors that lobby for business interests and have turned information into sensationalism or show business. By doing so, we have reached a world where the value of journalistic information is low and media legitimacy and credibility is ruined. This essay argues that it is necessary and urgent to re-invent journalism and raise some glimpses of where to do it.

  18. Characterization of three Agrobacterium tumefaciens avirulent mutants with chromosomal mutations that affect induction of vir genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metts, J; West, J; Doares, S H; Matthysse, A G

    1991-02-01

    Three Agrobacterium tumefaciens mutants with chromosomal mutations that affect bacterial virulence were isolated by transposon mutagenesis. Two of the mutants were avirulent on all hosts tested. The third mutant, Ivr-211, was a host range mutant which was avirulent on Bryophyllum diagremontiana, Nicotiana tabacum, N. debneyi, N. glauca, and Daucus carota but was virulent on Zinnia elegans and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato). That the mutant phenotype was due to the transposon insertion was determined by cloning the DNA containing the transposon insertion and using the cloned DNA to replace the wild-type DNA in the parent bacterial strain by marker exchange. The transposon insertions in the three mutants mapped at three widely separated locations on the bacterial chromosome. The effects of the mutations on various steps in tumor formation were examined. All three mutants showed no alteration in binding to carrot cells. However, none of the mutants showed any induction of vir genes by acetosyringone under conditions in which the parent strain showed vir gene induction. When the mutant bacteria were examined for changes in surface components, it was found that all three of the mutants showed a similar alteration in lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS from the mutants was larger in size and more heavily saccharide substituted than LPS from the parent strain. Two of the mutants showed no detectable alteration in outer membrane and periplasmic space proteins. The third mutant, Ivr-225, was missing a 79-kDa surface peptide. The reason(s) for the failure of vir gene induction in these mutants and its relationship, if any, to the observed alteration in LPS are unknown.

  19. Characteristics and use of wheat mutants tolerant or resistant to Septoria nodorum Berk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossati, A.; Kleijer, G.; Fried, P.M.

    1983-01-01

    Mutation induction was used to obtain mutants tolerant or resistant to Septoria nodorum. This technique is valuable but many genotypes had to be treated because mutants could not be selected from all the genotypes. Short tolerant mutants could be obtained from 3 of the 15 treated tall tolerant lines. Induction of tolerance in susceptible lines of good agronomic value succeeded for 2 of 5 treated varieties. All these mutants showed a reduction in yield potential. One mutant showed partial resistance to S. nodorum. The disease development on the leaves and the spikes of this mutant was much slower than on the original variety. The characteristics of this mutant are discussed in detail. The genetics of tolerance proved to be polygenic and additive, which has consequences on the breeding method. A good way of obtaining a stable system would be the combination of high tolerance and partial resistance in the same cultivar. (author)

  20. Heterogeneous LTE/802.11a mobile relays for data rate enhancement and energy-efficiency in high speed trains

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad

    2012-12-01

    Performance enhancements of cellular networks for passengers in high speed railway systems are investigated. Relays placed on top of each train car are proposed. These relays communicate with the cellular base station (BS) over Long Term Evolution (LTE) long range links and with the mobile terminals (MTs) inside the train cars using IEEE 802.11a short range links. Scenarios with unicasting and multicasting from the BS are studied, both in the presence and absence of the relays. In addition, LTE resource allocation is taken into account. The presence of the relays is shown to lead to significant enhancements in the effective data rates of the MTs, in addition to leading to huge savings in the energy consumption from the batteries of the MTs. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. Studies on an X-ray induced crinkled leaf mutant of Trichosanthes anguina L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Subodh Kumar

    1986-01-01

    Crinkled leaf mutant isolated in the second generation after treatment with X-ray bred true in subsequent generation. The mutant was a late flowering type with increased percentage of PMC's with chromosomal abnormality and pollen grain sterility. TLC study on phenolic compounds in leaves showed that both the mother line and the mutant had equal number of spots but they differed from each other with respect to four spots. Spot Nos. 2 and 4 of the mother line were absent in the mutant but the latter had two new spots (spot Nos. 11 and 12). The mutant and the mother line also differed from each other in pollen grain morohology. (author)

  2. Gamma ray induced mutants in Colocasia with improved storability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudevan, K.; Jos, J.S.; Padmaja, G.

    1989-01-01

    Our mutation induction experiments with Colocasia esculenta (taro) were described before. Poor storability of tubers and acridity of tuber flesh in tubers are problems in taro. While screening for induced mutants, variability in shelf-life of tubers was observed. Tubers of the mutant CM 17 did neither spoil nor lose their viability even after storing for 180 days. Yield and results of quality analyses are presented in the Table in comparison with the control variety C 9 (locally known as ''Thamarakkannan''), the check variety Rasmi (well accepted in Kerala) and another mutant CM 1. Besides high yield and long storability, the mutant CM 17 shows a reduction in phenol and sugar, but an increase in dry matter and starch content which were found to be excellent characteristics for making taro chips as the usual browning phenomenon did not occur

  3. Selection of mutants of capsicum annuum induced by gamma ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. I.; Lee, Y. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, E. K. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    For induction and selection of mutations of Capsicum annuum L., dry seeds of pure lines No.1 and No.2 were irradiated with gamma ray of 150Gy, 200Gy and 250Gy. Various mutants were selected such as showing early maturity, short plant height, long fruit and chlorophyll mutations. Mutation frequency of No.1 line was 3.4% in the dose of 150Gy, while the frequency of No.2 line was 2.7% in the dose of 250Gy. For selection of resistant mutant to amino acid analog, the optimum concentration of 5-methyltryptophan (5-MT) and S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine were 25 ppm and 30 ppm, respectively. Four resistant mutant lines to 5-MT were selected among 400 mutant lines.

  4. early maturing mutants in Indica rice and their traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Liu Xueyu; Yang Hefeng; Xu Chenwu; Gu Shiliang

    1998-01-01

    The correlation and genetic parameters of eleven agronomic characters of 50 early mature lines induced from late mature cultivar, IR 1529-68-3-2 were studied by morphological classification and correlation and regression analysis. The results showed that: 1. The early mutants could be divided into two ecotype: early mature type and medium mature type of mid-maturity rice. 2. The 1000-grain weight of early mutants negatively correlated with the length of growing period. 3. According to direct path coefficients, the relation with heading period of early mutants was in order of 1000-grain-weight>plant height>seed sterility. 4.The higher heritability in broad sense were found in plant height, 1000 grain weight and heading period of the early mutants

  5. Is auxin involved in the induction of genetic instability in barley homeotic double mutants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiukšta, Raimondas; Vaitkūnienė, Virginija; Rančelis, Vytautas

    2018-02-01

    The triggers of genetic instability in barley homeotic double mutants are tweaky spike -type mutations associated with an auxin imbalance in separate spike phytomeres. Barley homeotic tweaky spike;Hooded (tw;Hd) double mutants are characterized by an inherited instability of spike and flower development, which is absent in the single parental constituents. The aim of the present study was to show that the trigger of genetic instability in the double mutants is the tw mutations, which are associated with an auxin imbalance in the developing spikes. Their pleiotropic effects on genes related to spike/flower development may cause the genetic instability of double mutants. The study of four double-mutant groups composed of different mutant alleles showed that the instability arose only if the mutant allele tw was a constituent of the double mutants. Application of auxin inhibitors and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) demonstrated the relationship of the instability of the double mutants and the phenotype of the tw mutants to auxin imbalance. 2,4-D induced phenocopies of the tw mutation in wild-type plants and rescued the phenotypes of three allelic tw mutants. The differential display (dd-PCR) method allowed the identification of several putative candidate genes in tw that may be responsible for the initiation of instability in the double mutants by pleiotropic variations of their expression in the tw mutant associated with auxin imbalance in the developing spikes. The results of the present study linked the genetic instability of homeotic double mutants with an auxin imbalance caused by one of the constituents (tw). The genetic instability of the double mutants in relation to auxin imbalance was studied for the first time. A matrocliny on instability expression was also observed.

  6. Absolute, time-resolved emission of non-LTE L-shell spectra from Ti-doped aerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, C.A.; Feldman, U.; Weaver, J.L.; Seely, J.F.; Constantin, C.; Holland, G.; Lee, R.W.; Chung, H.-K.; Scott, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Outstanding discrepancies between data and calculations of laser-produced plasmas in recombination have been observed since the 1980s. Although improvements in hydrodynamic modeling may reduce the discrepancies, there are indications that non-LTE atomic kinetics may be the dominant cause. Experiments to investigate non-LTE effects were recently performed at the NIKE KrF laser on low-density Ti-doped aerogels. The laser irradiated a 2mm diameter, cylindrical sample of various lengths with a 4-ns square pulse to create a volumetrically heated plasma. Ti L-shell spectra spanning a range of 0.47-3keV were obtained with a transmission grating coupled to Si photodiodes. The diagnostic can be configured to provide 1-dimensional spatial resolution at a single photon energy, or 18 discrete energies with a resolving power, λ/δλ of 3-20. The data are examined and compared to calculations to develop absolute emission measurements that can provide new tests of the non-LTE physics

  7. Absolute, time-resolved emission of non-LTE L-shell spectra from Ti-doped aerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, C.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-21, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)]. E-mail: tinaback@llnl.gov; Feldman, U. [Artep Inc. 2922 Excelsior Ct., Ellicott City, MD 21042 (United States); Weaver, J.L. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Drive, SW, Washington DC 20375 (United States); Seely, J.F. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Drive, SW, Washington DC 20375 (United States); Constantin, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-21, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Holland, G. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Drive, SW, Washington DC 20375 (United States); Lee, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-21, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Chung, H.-K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-21, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Scott, H.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-21, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Outstanding discrepancies between data and calculations of laser-produced plasmas in recombination have been observed since the 1980s. Although improvements in hydrodynamic modeling may reduce the discrepancies, there are indications that non-LTE atomic kinetics may be the dominant cause. Experiments to investigate non-LTE effects were recently performed at the NIKE KrF laser on low-density Ti-doped aerogels. The laser irradiated a 2mm diameter, cylindrical sample of various lengths with a 4-ns square pulse to create a volumetrically heated plasma. Ti L-shell spectra spanning a range of 0.47-3keV were obtained with a transmission grating coupled to Si photodiodes. The diagnostic can be configured to provide 1-dimensional spatial resolution at a single photon energy, or 18 discrete energies with a resolving power, {lambda}/{delta}{lambda} of 3-20. The data are examined and compared to calculations to develop absolute emission measurements that can provide new tests of the non-LTE physics.

  8. 英国 EE 的 LTE 运营案例分析及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱海峰

    2014-01-01

    本文通过对英国移动运营商 Everything Ev-erywhere 公司(简称“EE”)的案例研究,从网络、终端、市场策略三个维度进行了问题分析,探寻该企业未能在较长的时间窗口内达到市场预期的原因,并在网络覆盖、终端提供、品牌推广、资费与市场定位、业务等方面总结了对中国移动 LTE 发展的启示。%This article studies the British mobile op-erator, Everything Everywhere's deployment of LTE (referred as "EE" for short), to explore the reason why this company fails to reach the market expectation in a long time from three aspects of the network, terminal and market strategy, and then sums up its experience in network coverage, terminals, brand promotion, tar-iffs and market positioning, business and so on, in or-der to enlighten the development of CMCC's LTE de-velopment.

  9. Effect of AQM-Based RLC Buffer Management on the eNB Scheduling Algorithm in LTE Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Kumar Paul

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of the Long-Term Evolution (LTE network and smart-phones, most of today’s internet content is delivered via cellular links. Due to the nature of wireless signal propagation, the capacity of the last hop link can vary within a short period of time. Unfortunately, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP does not perform well in such scenarios, potentially leading to poor Quality of Service (QoS (e.g., end-to-end throughput and delay for the end user. In this work, we have studied the effect of Active Queue Management (AQM based congestion control and intra LTE handover on the performance of different Medium Access Control (MAC schedulers with TCP traffic by ns3 simulation. A proper AQM design in the Radio Link Control (RLC buffer of eNB in the LTE network leads to the avoidance of forced drops and link under-utilization along with robustness to a variety of network traffic-loads. We first demonstrate that the original Random Early Detection (RED linear dropping function cannot cope well with different traffic-load scenarios. Then, we establish a heuristic approach in which different non-linear functions are proposed with one parameter free to define. In our simulations, we demonstrate that the performance of different schedulers can be enhanced via proper dropping function.

  10. Multi-Radio Mobile Device in Role of Hybrid Node Between WiFi and LTE networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Masek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the ubiquitous wireless network coverage, Machine-Type Communications (MTC is emerging to enable data transfers using devices/sensors without need for human interaction. In this paper we, we introduce a comprehensive simulation scenario for modeling and analysis for heterogeneous MTC. We demonstrate the most expected scenario of MTC communication using the IEEE 802.11 standard for direct communication between sensors and for transmitting data between individual sensor and Machine-Type Communication Gateway (MTCG. The MTCG represents the hybrid node serving as bridge between two heterogeneous networks (WiFi and LTE. Following the idea of hybrid node, two active interfaces must be implemented on this node together with mechanism for handling the incoming traffic (from WiFi network to LTE network. As a simulation tool, the Network Simulator 3 (NS-3 with implemented LTE/EPC Network Simulator (LENA framework was used. The major contribution of this paper therefore lies in the implementation of logic for interconnection of two heterogeneous networks in simulation environment NS-3.

  11. Mutant power: using mutant allele collections for yeast functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Kaitlyn L; Kumar, Anuj

    2016-03-01

    The budding yeast has long served as a model eukaryote for the functional genomic analysis of highly conserved signaling pathways, cellular processes and mechanisms underlying human disease. The collection of reagents available for genomics in yeast is extensive, encompassing a growing diversity of mutant collections beyond gene deletion sets in the standard wild-type S288C genetic background. We review here three main types of mutant allele collections: transposon mutagen collections, essential gene collections and overexpression libraries. Each collection provides unique and identifiable alleles that can be utilized in genome-wide, high-throughput studies. These genomic reagents are particularly informative in identifying synthetic phenotypes and functions associated with essential genes, including those modeled most effectively in complex genetic backgrounds. Several examples of genomic studies in filamentous/pseudohyphal backgrounds are provided here to illustrate this point. Additionally, the limitations of each approach are examined. Collectively, these mutant allele collections in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the related pathogenic yeast Candida albicans promise insights toward an advanced understanding of eukaryotic molecular and cellular biology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  13. Radiation induced desynaptic mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, H.M.

    1974-01-01

    Spontaneous occurrence of asynapsis and desynapsis has been frequently reported in a number of crop plants (Beadle 1930, 1933; Beasley and Brown 1942; Li et al. 1945; Magoon et al. 1961; Miller 1963) and other angiospermic texa (Calarier 1955; Chennaveraiah and Krisnappa 1968; Ehrenberg 1949; Johnson 1941, 1944; Roy and Jha 1958). However, there are only a few reports of induced asynapsis or desynapsis (Gottschalk and Baquar 1971; Martini and Bozzini 1966). The present paper deals with the morphology and meiotic behavior of gamma-ray induced barley mutants showing high degree of desynapsis resulting in partial to complete sterility. (author)

  14. CO2 non-LTE limb emissions in Mars' atmosphere as observed by OMEGA/Mars Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccialli, A.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Määttänen, A.; González-Galindo, F.; Audouard, J.; Altieri, F.; Forget, F.; Drossart, P.; Gondet, B.; Bibring, J. P.

    2016-06-01

    We report on daytime limb observations of Mars upper atmosphere acquired by the OMEGA instrument on board the European spacecraft Mars Express. The strong emission observed at 4.3 μm is interpreted as due to CO2 fluorescence of solar radiation and is detected at a tangent altitude in between 60 and 110 km. The main value of OMEGA observations is that they provide simultaneously spectral information and good spatial sampling of the CO2 emission. In this study we analyzed 98 dayside limb observations spanning over more than 3 Martian years, with a very good latitudinal and longitudinal coverage. Thanks to the precise altitude sounding capabilities of OMEGA, we extracted vertical profiles of the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) emission at each wavelength and we studied their dependence on several geophysical parameters, such as the solar illumination and the tangent altitude. The dependence of the non-LTE emission on solar zenith angle and altitude follows a similar behavior to that predicted by the non-LTE model. According to our non-LTE model, the tangent altitude of the peak of the CO2 emission varies with the thermal structure, but the pressure level where the peak of the emission is found remains constant at ˜0.03 ± 0.01 Pa, . This non-LTE model prediction has been corroborated by comparing SPICAM and OMEGA observations. We have shown that the seasonal variations of the altitude of constant pressure levels in SPICAM stellar occultation retrievals correlate well with the variations of the OMEGA peak emission altitudes, although the exact pressure level cannot be defined with the spectroscopy for the investigation of the characteristics of the atmosphere of Venus (SPICAM) nighttime data. Thus, observed changes in the altitude of the peak emission provide us information on the altitude of the 0.03 Pa pressure level. Since the pressure at a given altitude is dictated by the thermal structure below, the tangent altitude of the peak emission represents

  15. A wheat cold resistance mutant derived from space mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peng; Sun Mingzhu; Zhang Fengyun; Gao Guoqiang; Qiu Denglin; Li Xinhua

    2012-01-01

    A cold resistance mutant, obtained by spaceflight mutagenesis on the seeds of wheat variety Han6172, and the DNA of cold resistance mutant and contrast Han6172 were compared by SRAP technique. 380 pairs of primers were screened, 6 pairs of them had polymorphisms between mutant and contrast, the rate was 1.58%, and this data indicated that there are no obvious DNA differences between mutant and contrast Six specific fragments were obtained, 3 fragments of them were amplified in mutant. Homology analysis in GenBank showed that Me3-Em7-Mt, Me4-Em11-CK, Me7-Em19-CK and Me6-Em9-Mt all had homologous sequences with wheat chromosome 3B-specific BAC library, and this result indicated that the gene and regulator sequences associated with mutant cold resistance might locate on 3B chromosome. It was speculated that space mutation induced the mutation of 3B chromosome primary structure, and influenced the expressions of cold resistance genes, which resulted in the mutation of cold resistance ability. (authors)

  16. A wheat cold resistance mutant derived from space mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peng; Sun Mingzhu; Zhang Fengyun; Gao Guoqiang; Qiu Denglin; Li Xinhua

    2011-01-01

    A cold resistance mutant, obtained by spaceflight mutagenesis on the seeds of wheat variety Han6172, and the DNA of cold resistance mutant and contrast Han6172 were compared by SRAP technique. 380 pairs of primers were screened, 6 pairs of them had polymorphisms between mutant and contrast, the rate was 1.58%, and this data indicated that there are no obvious DNA differences between mutant and contrast. Six specific fragments were obtained, 3 fragments of them were amplified in mutant. Homology analysis in GenBank showed that Me3-Em7-Mt, Me4-Em11-CK, Me7-Em19-CK and Me6-Em9-Mt all had homologous sequences with wheat chromosome 3B-specific BAC library, and this result indicated that the gene and regulator sequences associated with mutant cold resistance might locate on 3B chromosome. It was speculated that space mutation induced the mutation of 3B chromosome primary structure, and influenced the expressions of cold resistance genes, which resulted in the mutation of cold resistance ability. (authors)

  17. Inhibition of citric acid accumulation by manganese ions in Aspergillus niger mutants with reduced citrate control of phosphofructokinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreferl, G.; Kubicek, C.P.; Roehr, M.

    1986-03-01

    Mutant strains of Aspergillus niger with reduced citrate control of carbohydrate catabolism (cic mutants) grow faster than the parent strain on media containing 5% (wt/vol) citrate. The mutants tolerated a higher intracellular citrate concentration than the parent strain. One mutant (cic-7/3) contained phosphofructokinase activity significantly less sensitive towards citrate than the enzyme from the parent strain. When this mutant was grown under citrate accumulating conditions, acidogenesis was far less sensitive to inhibition by Mn/sup 2 +/ than in the parent strain. Some of the cic mutants also showed altered citrate inhibition of NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase.

  18. Tractable Stochastic Geometry Model for IoT Access in LTE Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Gharbieh, Mohammad; Elsawy, Hesham; Bader, Ahmed; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is large-scale by nature. This is not only manifested by the large number of connected devices, but also by the high volumes of traffic that must be accommodated. Cellular networks are indeed a natural candidate for the data tsunami the IoT is expected to generate in conjunction with legacy human-type traffic. However, the random access process for scheduling request represents a major bottleneck to support IoT via LTE cellular networks. Accordingly, this paper develops a mathematical framework to model and study the random access channel (RACH) scalability to accommodate IoT traffic. The developed model is based on stochastic geometry and discrete time Markov chains (DTMC) to account for different access strategies and possible sources of inter-cell and intra-cell interferences. To this end, the developed model is utilized to assess and compare three different access strategies, which incorporate a combination of transmission persistency, back-off, and power ramping. The analysis and the results showcased herewith clearly illustrate the vulnerability of the random access procedure as the IoT intensity grows. Finally, the paper offers insights into effective scenarios for each transmission strategy in terms of IoT intensity and RACH detection thresholds.

  19. Non-LTE model calculations for SN 1987A and the extragalactic distance scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, W.; Abbott, D. C.; Russell, R. S.; Hamann, W.-R.; Wessolowski, U.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents model atmospheres for the first week of SN 1987A, based on the luminosity and density/velocity structure from hydrodynamic models of Woosley (1988). The models account for line blanketing, expansion, sphericity, and departures from LTE in hydrogen and helium and differ from previously published efforts because they represent ab initio calculations, i.e., they contain essentially no free parameters. The formation of the UV spectrum is dominated by the effects of line blanketing. In the absorption troughs, the Balmer line profiles were fit well by these models, but the observed emissions are significantly stronger than predicted, perhaps due to clumping. The generally good agreement between the present synthetic spectra and observations provides independent support for the overall accuracy of the hydrodynamic models of Woosley. The question of the accuracy of the Baade-Wesselink method is addressed in a detailed discussion of its approximations. While the application of the standard method produces a distance within an uncertainty of 20 percent in the case of SN 1987A, systematic errors up to a factor of 2 are possible, particularly if the precursor was a red supergiant.

  20. Enabling Remote Health-Caring Utilizing IoT Concept over LTE-Femtocell Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindia, M N; Rahman, T A; Ojukwu, H; Hanafi, E B; Fattouh, A

    2016-01-01

    As the enterprise of the "Internet of Things" is rapidly gaining widespread acceptance, sensors are being deployed in an unrestrained manner around the world to make efficient use of this new technological evolution. A recent survey has shown that sensor deployments over the past decade have increased significantly and has predicted an upsurge in the future growth rate. In health-care services, for instance, sensors are used as a key technology to enable Internet of Things oriented health-care monitoring systems. In this paper, we have proposed a two-stage fundamental approach to facilitate the implementation of such a system. In the first stage, sensors promptly gather together the particle measurements of an android application. Then, in the second stage, the collected data are sent over a Femto-LTE network following a new scheduling technique. The proposed scheduling strategy is used to send the data according to the application's priority. The efficiency of the proposed technique is demonstrated by comparing it with that of well-known algorithms, namely, proportional fairness and exponential proportional fairness.

  1. Non-LTE analysis of the Ofpe/WN9 star HDE 269227 (R84)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Werner; Leitherer, Claus; Hubeny, Ivan; Vogel, Manfred; Hamann, Wolf-Rainer

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a spectral analysis of the Ofpe/WN9 star HD 269227 (R84), which assumes a spherically expanding atmosphere to find solutions for equations of radiative transfer. The spectra of hydrogen and helium were predicted with a non-LTE model. Six stellar parameters were determined for R84. The shape of the velocity law is empirically found, since it can be probed from the terminal velocity of the wind. The six stellar parameters are further employed in a hydrodynamic model where stellar wind is assumed to be directed by radiation pressure, duplicating the mass-loss rate and the terminal wind velocity. The velocity laws found by computation and analysis are found to agree, supporting the theory of radiation-driven stellar wind. R84 is surmised to be a post-red supergiant which lost half of its initial mass, possibly during the red-supergiant phase. This mass loss is also suggested by its spectroscopic similarity to S Doradus.

  2. Biomedical sensing analyzer (BSA) for mobile-health (mHealth)-LTE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibi, Sasan

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of mobile-based systems, the capabilities of smartphone devices, as well as the radio access and cellular network technologies are the wind beneath the wing of mobile health (mHealth). In this paper, the concept of biomedical sensing analyzer (BSA) is presented, which is a novel framework, devised for sensor-based mHealth applications. The BSA is capable of formulating the Quality of Service (QoS) measurements in an end-to-end sense, covering the entire communication path (wearable sensors, link-technology, smartphone, cell-towers, mobile-cloud, and the end-users). The characterization and formulation of BSA depend on a number of factors, including the deployment of application-specific biomedical sensors, generic link-technologies, collection, aggregation, and prioritization of mHealth data, cellular network based on the Long-Term Evolution (LTE) access technology, and extensive multidimensional delay analyses. The results are studied and analyzed in a LabView 8.5 programming environment.

  3. Non-LTE spectral analysis and model constraints on SN 1993J

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, E.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Branch, D.; Austin, S.; Garnavich, P.; Ann, Hong Bae; Wagner, R. M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Matheson, T.; Liebert, James

    1995-01-01

    We present non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) synthetic spectra for a time series of observations of SN 1993J obtained on 1993 March 30-31, April 7, April 13-15, and June 13 UT. The spectra are dominated by hydrogen Balmer lines; neutral helium lines, which have been nonthermally excited; and Fe II features. The density profile evolves from an extremely steep 'brick wall' structure with an equivalent power-law index of about 50 on March 30 to a more typical SN II profile with a power law index of about 10. The early spectra are well fitted by a solar composition of metals, although an enhanced abundance of helium is required in order to fit the neutral helium lines. By June 13, the photosphere has receded deep into the helium layer, although there appears to be a layer of hydrogen at higher velocity. The distance is estimated for each epoch. While consistent results are found for spectra obtained in the month of April, the spread in distances from March to June is quite large. Our value for April is mu = 28.0 +/- 0.3 mag, consistent with the recent Cepheid distance to the host galaxy M81. We also compare our results to other implementations of the expanding photosphere method.

  4. Energy Savings through Site Renewal in an HSPA/LTE Network Evolution Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert; Mogensen, Preben

    Mobile network operators are committing themselves to reduce the energy consumption of their networks. However, the expected growth in traffic and the upgrades required to sustain this growth pose a serious question on whether these targets are achievable. Through a case study, this paper looks a...... to just 12%. In some cases, when a less aggressive traffic growth is assumed, the energy savings are enough to balance any increase in energy. In a best case scenario, where all sites are replaced when new equipment is available, energy savings close to 40% are achievable....... at how the energy consumption of a mobile network is likely to develop over a period of nine years, considering the evolution of an existing HSPA layer into a multi-layered (HSPA+LTE) network. Besides, this study also considers four different equipment versions released throughout the years, which...... are introduced in the network based on a replacement strategy. In addition, the two most modern sites are assumed to be configured with remote radio head. In comparison to the reference case which leads to an increase in energy consumption of almost 200%, considering these site upgrades can limit the increase...

  5. Dual-Polarized Cross Bowtie Dipole for 3G and LTE Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ya Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A dual-polarized cross bowtie dipole element with parasitical circular patch and vertical metal cylinders for base station antennas is presented. A pair of orthogonal cross bowtie dipoles, with a reflector ground plane, is used to obtain the two linear polarizations. Besides two inverted L-shaped feed strips and two shorted feed baluns, parasitical circular patch is introduced to improve the impendence bandwidth and vertical metal cylinders are employed to decrease the lateral dimensions of the antenna. A wideband impedance characteristic of about 45.6% for VSWR ≤ 1.5 (+45° polarization and VSWR ≤ 1.5 (−45° polarization ranging from 1.76 to 2.80 GHz is obtained. Moreover, the stable peak gain, unidirectional radiation patterns, high isolation between the two orthogonal polarizations, and low cross-polarization over the whole operating band are also achieved. The proposed antenna is very suitable for potential base station applications in mobile communication such as TD-SCDMA, WCDMA, and CDMA2000 and LTE applications.

  6. A High Isolation MIMO Antenna without Decoupling Structure for LTE 700 MHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjie Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a long-term evolution (LTE 700 MHz band multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO antenna, and high isolation between the two symmetrical antenna elements is obtained without introducing extra decoupling structure. Each antenna element is a combination antenna of PIFA and a meander monopole antenna. The end of the PIFA and the meander monopole antenna are, respectively, overlapped with the 50 Ω microstrip feed line, the two overlapping areas produce additional capacitance which can be considered decoupling structures to enhance the isolation for the MIMO antenna, as well as the impedance matching of the antenna elements. The MIMO antenna is etched on FR4 PCB board with dimensions of 71 × 40 × 1.6 mm3; the edge-to-edge separation of the two antenna elements is only nearly 0.037 λ at 700 MHz. Both simulation and measurement results are used to confirm the MIMO antenna performance; the operating bandwidth is 698–750 MHz with S11≤−6 dB and S21≤−23 dB.

  7. Tractable Stochastic Geometry Model for IoT Access in LTE Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Gharbieh, Mohammad

    2017-02-07

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is large-scale by nature. This is not only manifested by the large number of connected devices, but also by the high volumes of traffic that must be accommodated. Cellular networks are indeed a natural candidate for the data tsunami the IoT is expected to generate in conjunction with legacy human-type traffic. However, the random access process for scheduling request represents a major bottleneck to support IoT via LTE cellular networks. Accordingly, this paper develops a mathematical framework to model and study the random access channel (RACH) scalability to accommodate IoT traffic. The developed model is based on stochastic geometry and discrete time Markov chains (DTMC) to account for different access strategies and possible sources of inter-cell and intra-cell interferences. To this end, the developed model is utilized to assess and compare three different access strategies, which incorporate a combination of transmission persistency, back-off, and power ramping. The analysis and the results showcased herewith clearly illustrate the vulnerability of the random access procedure as the IoT intensity grows. Finally, the paper offers insights into effective scenarios for each transmission strategy in terms of IoT intensity and RACH detection thresholds.

  8. Optimized smart grid energy procurement for LTE networks using evolutionary algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2014-11-01

    Energy efficiency aspects in cellular networks can contribute significantly to reducing worldwide greenhouse gas emissions. The base station (BS) sleeping strategy has become a well-known technique to achieve energy savings by switching off redundant BSs mainly for lightly loaded networks. Moreover, introducing renewable energy as an alternative power source has become a real challenge among network operators. In this paper, we formulate an optimization problem that aims to maximize the profit of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular operators and to simultaneously minimize the CO2 emissions in green wireless cellular networks without affecting the desired quality of service (QoS). The BS sleeping strategy lends itself to an interesting implementation using several heuristic approaches, such as the genetic (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms. In this paper, we propose GA-based and PSO-based methods that reduce the energy consumption of BSs by not only shutting down underutilized BSs but by optimizing the amounts of energy procured from different retailers (renewable energy and electricity retailers), as well. A comparison with another previously proposed algorithm is also carried out to evaluate the performance and the computational complexity of the employed methods.

  9. NON-LTE INVERSIONS OF THE Mg ii h and k AND UV TRIPLET LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Cruz Rodríguez, Jaime; Leenaarts, Jorrit [Institute for Solar Physics, Dept. of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm Sweden (Sweden); Ramos, Andrés Asensio [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2016-10-20

    The Mg ii h and k lines are powerful diagnostics for studying the solar chromosphere. They have become particularly popular with the launch of the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ) satellite, and a number of studies that include these lines have lead to great progress in understanding chromospheric heating, in many cases thanks to the support from 3D MHD simulations. In this study, we utilize another approach to analyze observations: non-LTE inversions of the Mg ii h and k and UV triplet lines including the effects of partial redistribution. Our inversion code attempts to construct a model atmosphere that is compatible with the observed spectra. We have assessed the capabilities and limitations of the inversions using the FALC atmosphere and a snapshot from a 3D radiation-MHD simulation. We find that Mg ii h and k allow reconstructing a model atmosphere from the middle photosphere to the transition region. We have also explored the capabilities of a multi-line/multi-atom setup, including the Mg ii h and k, the Ca ii 854.2 nm, and the Fe i 630.25 lines to recover the full stratification of physical parameters, including the magnetic field vector, from the photosphere to the chromosphere. Finally, we present the first inversions of observed IRIS spectra from quiet-Sun, plage, and sunspot, with very promising results.

  10. Enabling Remote Health-Caring Utilizing IoT Concept over LTE-Femtocell Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindia, M. N.; Rahman, T. A.; Ojukwu, H.; Hanafi, E. B.; Fattouh, A.

    2016-01-01

    As the enterprise of the “Internet of Things” is rapidly gaining widespread acceptance, sensors are being deployed in an unrestrained manner around the world to make efficient use of this new technological evolution. A recent survey has shown that sensor deployments over the past decade have increased significantly and has predicted an upsurge in the future growth rate. In health-care services, for instance, sensors are used as a key technology to enable Internet of Things oriented health-care monitoring systems. In this paper, we have proposed a two-stage fundamental approach to facilitate the implementation of such a system. In the first stage, sensors promptly gather together the particle measurements of an android application. Then, in the second stage, the collected data are sent over a Femto-LTE network following a new scheduling technique. The proposed scheduling strategy is used to send the data according to the application’s priority. The efficiency of the proposed technique is demonstrated by comparing it with that of well-known algorithms, namely, proportional fairness and exponential proportional fairness. PMID:27152423

  11. Heating, Hydrodynamics, and Radiation From a Laser Heated Non-LTE High-Z Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, William; Foord, M. E.; Schneider, M. B.; Barrios, M. A.; Brown, G. V.; Heeter, R. F.; Jarrott, L. C.; Liedahl, D. A.; Marley, E. V.; Mauche, C. W.; Widmann, K.

    2016-10-01

    We present 2D R-z simulations that model the hydrodynamics and x-ray output of a laser heated, tamped foil, using the rad-hydro code LASNEX. The foil consists of a thin (2400 A) cylindrical disk of iron/vanadium/gold that is embedded in a thicker Be tamper. The simulations utilize a non-LTE detailed configuration (DCA) model, which generates the emission spectra. Simulated pinhole images are compared with data, finding qualitative agreement with the time-history of the face-on emission profiles, and exhibiting an interesting reduction in emission size over a few ns time period. Furthermore, we find that the simulations recover similar burn through times in both the target and Be tamper as measured by a time-dependent filtered x-ray detector (DANTE). Additional results and characterization of the experimental plasma will be presented. This work performed under the auspices of U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. Performance Analysis of Handover Measurements and Layer 3 Filtering for UTRAN LTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anas, Mohmmad; Calabrese, Francesco Davide; Östling, Per-Erik

    2007-01-01

    B domain L3 filtering has been studied by using a dynamic system level simulator for a 3GPP UTRAN LTE recommended scenario. The results suggest that RSS measurement with linear or dB domain L3 filtering is a better criterion for handover in terms of reduced number of handovers for a small penalty......Handover is one of the key functionalities which tries to keep a user equipment (UE) connected to the best base station (eNodeB). Handover is usually based on the downlink received signal strength (RSS) and carrier-to-interference ratio (CIR) measurements. Processing of the handover measurement...... is usually done in Layer 1 (L1) and Layer 3 (L3) by the UE, and handover is initiated by the serving eNodeB if certain event criteria are met. L3 filtering can be done in linear domain or decibel (dB) domain. A hard handover algorithm based on the downlink RSS and CIR measurements along with linear and d...

  13. Primary study on lesion mimic mutants of rice (oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Zhongna; Zhang Hongzhi; Tao Rongixang

    2007-01-01

    Nineteen lesion mimic mutants (xsl1-19) of japonica rice Xiushui11 were obtained by γ-rays irradiation treatment. All mutants belonged to whole life lesion mimic. Lesion mimic of mutants didn't largen after tillering stage, leaves didn't wither, and no effect on the plants exsert spikes and seed. When the highest temperature in day exceeded 32 degree C in seedling stage, lesion mimic of all mutant expect xsl19 disappeared. Under 32 degree C, lesion mimic would appear gradually, and symptoms weren't inhibited by high temperature after 5 leaf stage. The plant heights of all lesion mimic mutants were 47.56-63.54 cm in the tillering stage, and that of CK was 83.75 cm; but the dwarf phenomenon of mutants only appeared before tillering stage, and didn't affect plant heights finally; the heading dates of mutants were the same to the CK, the ear length of all mutants were 9.43-15.19 cm, and that of CK was 16.41 cm; the total grain quantity per spike of all mutants were 88.17-165.33, and those of xsl19 and CK were 49.50 and 76.17. The results showed all lesion mimic mutants except xsl19 had short spikes and total grain quantity per spike increasing. All lesion mimic mutants were susceptible to Magnaporthe grisea, and they had no relationship with resistance. (authors)

  14. Exploring the regulatory role of isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant protein on glioma stem cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H-C; Ma, J; Zhuang, Z; Qiu, F; Cheng, H-L; Shi, J-X

    2016-08-01

    Glioma is the most lethal form of cancer that originates mostly from the brain and less frequently from the spine. Glioma is characterized by abnormal regulation of glial cell differentiation. The severity of the glioma was found to be relaxed in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutant. The present study focused on histological discrimination and regulation of cancer stem cell between IDH1 mutant and in non-IDH1 mutant glioma tissue. Histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting techniques are used to analyze the glioma nature and variation in glioma stem cells that differ between IDH1 mutant and in non-IDH1 mutant glioma tissue. The aggressive form of non-IDH1 mutant glioma shows abnormal cellular histological variation with prominent larger nucleus along with abnormal clustering of cells. The longer survival form of IDH1 mutant glioma has a control over glioma stem cell proliferation. Immunohistochemistry with stem cell markers, CD133 and EGFRvIII are used to demonstrate that the IDH1 mutant glioma shows limited dependence on cancer stem cells and it shows marked apoptotic signals in TUNEL assay to regulate abnormal cells. The non-IDH1 mutant glioma failed to regulate misbehaving cells and it promotes cancer stem cell proliferation. Our finding supports that the IDH1 mutant glioma has a regulatory role in glioma stem cells and their survival.

  15. An extra early mutant of pigeonpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravikesavan, R.; Kalaimagal, T.; Rathnaswamy, R.

    2001-01-01

    The redgram (Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth) variety 'Prabhat DT' was gamma irradiated with 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gy doses. Several mutants have been identified viz., extra early mutants, monostem mutants, obcordifoliate mutants and bi-stigmatic mutants. The extra early mutant was obtained when treated with 100 Gy dose. The mutant was selfed and forwarded from M 2 to M 4 generation. In the M 4 generation the mutant line was raised along with the parental variety. Normal cultural practices were followed and the biometrical observations were recorded. It was observed that for the characters viz., total number of branches per plant, number of pods per plants, seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and seed yield per plant there was no difference between the mutant and parent variety. Whereas, regarding the days to flowering and maturity the mutants were earlier than the parents. The observation was recorded from two hundred plants each. The mutant gives the same yield in 90 days as that of the parent variety in 107 days, which make it an economic mutant

  16. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  17. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  18. Adaptive MCS selection and resource planning for energy-efficient communication in LTE-M based IoT sensing platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Nhu-Ngoc; Park, Minho; Kim, Joongheon; Cho, Sungrae

    2017-01-01

    As an important part of IoTization trends, wireless sensing technologies have been involved in many fields of human life. In cellular network evolution, the long term evolution advanced (LTE-A) networks including machine-type communication (MTC) features (named LTE-M) provide a promising infrastructure for a proliferation of Internet of things (IoT) sensing platform. However, LTE-M may not be optimally exploited for directly supporting such low-data-rate devices in terms of energy efficiency since it depends on core technologies of LTE that are originally designed for high-data-rate services. Focusing on this circumstance, we propose a novel adaptive modulation and coding selection (AMCS) algorithm to address the energy consumption problem in the LTE-M based IoT-sensing platform. The proposed algorithm determines the optimal pair of MCS and the number of primary resource blocks (#PRBs), at which the transport block size is sufficient to packetize the sensing data within the minimum transmit power. In addition, a quantity-oriented resource planning (QORP) technique that utilizes these optimal MCS levels as main criteria for spectrum allocation has been proposed for better adapting to the sensing node requirements. The simulation results reveal that the proposed approach significantly reduces the energy consumption of IoT sensing nodes and #PRBs up to 23.09% and 25.98%, respectively.

  19. Defining the requirements for the pathogenic interaction between mutant calreticulin and MPL in MPN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elf, Shannon; Abdelfattah, Nouran S; Baral, April J; Beeson, Danielle; Rivera, Jeanne F; Ko, Amy; Florescu, Natalie; Birrane, Gabriel; Chen, Edwin; Mullally, Ann

    2018-02-15

    Mutations in calreticulin ( CALR ) are phenotypic drivers in the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms. Mechanistic studies have demonstrated that mutant CALR binds to the thrombopoietin receptor MPL, and that the positive electrostatic charge of the mutant CALR C terminus is required for mutant CALR-mediated activation of JAK-STAT signaling. Here we demonstrate that although binding between mutant CALR and MPL is required for mutant CALR to transform hematopoietic cells; binding alone is insufficient for cytokine independent growth. We further show that the threshold of positive charge in the mutant CALR C terminus influences both binding of mutant CALR to MPL and activation of MPL signaling. We find that mutant CALR binds to the extracellular domain of MPL and that 3 tyrosine residues within the intracellular domain of MPL are required to activate signaling. With respect to mutant CALR function, we show that its lectin-dependent function is required for binding to MPL and for cytokine independent growth, whereas its chaperone and polypeptide-binding functionalities are dispensable. Together, our findings provide additional insights into the mechanism of the pathogenic mutant CALR-MPL interaction in myeloproliferative neoplasms. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  20. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)