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Sample records for lt-gaas layers grown

  1. Counting molecular-beam grown graphene layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaut, Annette S. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Wurstbauer, Ulrich [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Pinczuk, Aron [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Garcia, Jorge M. [MBE Lab, IMM-Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Madrid, E-28760 (Spain); Pfeiffer, Loren N. [Electrical Engineering Department, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2013-06-17

    We have used the ratio of the integrated intensity of graphene's Raman G peak to that of the silicon substrate's first-order optical phonon peak, accurately to determine the number of graphene layers across our molecular-beam (MB) grown graphene films. We find that these results agree well both, with those from our own exfoliated single and few-layer graphene flakes, and with the results of Koh et al.[ACS Nano 5, 269 (2011)]. We hence distinguish regions of single-, bi-, tri-, four-layer, etc., graphene, consecutively, as we scan coarsely across our MB-grown graphene. This is the first, but crucial, step to being able to grow, by such molecular-beam-techniques, a specified number of large-area graphene layers, to order.

  2. Large-area, laterally-grown epitaxial semiconductor layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung; Song, Jie; Chen, Danti

    2017-07-18

    Structures and methods for confined lateral-guided growth of a large-area semiconductor layer on an insulating layer are described. The semiconductor layer may be formed by heteroepitaxial growth from a selective growth area in a vertically-confined, lateral-growth guiding structure. Lateral-growth guiding structures may be formed in arrays over a region of a substrate, so as to cover a majority of the substrate region with laterally-grown epitaxial semiconductor tiles. Quality regions of low-defect, stress-free GaN may be grown on silicon.

  3. InN-based layers grown by modified HVPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrkin, A.; Usikov, A.; Soukhoveev, V.; Kovalenkov, O.; Ivantsov, V.; Dmitriev, V.; Collins, C.; Readinger, E.; Shmidt, N.; Davydov, V.; Nikishin, S.; Kuryatkov, V.; Song, D.; Rosenbladt, D.; Holtz, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This paper contains results on InN and InGaN growth by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE) on various substrates including sapphire and GaN/sapphire, AlGaN/sapphire, and AlN/sapphire templates. The growth processes are carried out at atmospheric pressure in a hot wall reactor in the temperature range from 500 to 750 and ordm;C. Continuous InN layers are grown on GaN/sapphire template substrates. Textured InN layers are deposited on AlN/sapphire and AlGaN/sapphire templates. Arrays of nano-crystalline InN rods with various shapes are grown directly on sapphire substrates. X-ray diffraction rocking curves for the (002)InN reflection have the full width at half maximum (FWHM) as narrow as 270 arcsec for the nano-rods and 460 arcsec for the continuous layers. In x Ga 1-x N layers with InN content up to 10 mol.% are grown on GaN/sapphire templates. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. InN layers grown by the HVPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrkin, A.L.; Ivantsov, V.; Usikov, A.; Dmitriev, V.A.; Chambard, G.; Ruterana, P.; Davydov, A.V.; Sundaresan, S.G.; Lutsenko, E.; Mudryi, A.V.; Readinger, E.D.; Chern-Metcalfe, G.D.; Wraback, M.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the properties of high quality HVPE InN and on successful subsequent MBE growth of InN layers with improved characteristics on HVPE InN template substrates. InN layers were grown by HVPE on GaN/sapphire HVPE templates. The (00.2) XRD rocking curve of the best InN layer (RC) had the FWHM of about 375 arc sec, being the narrowest XRD RCs ever reported for HVPE InN. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) revealed that at the GaN/InN interface, the threading dislocations that come from GaN were transmitted into the InN layer. We estimated the dislocation density in HVPE grown InN to be in the low 10 9 cm -2 range. Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) confirmed monocrystalline structure of the InN layers surface. Layers photoluminescence (PL) showed edge emission around 0.8 eV. Hall measured free electron concentration was in the range of 10 19 -10 20 cm -3 and electron mobility was ∝200 cm 2 /V s. MBE growth of InN was performed on the HVPE grown InN template substrate demonstrating the improvement of material quality in the case of homo-epitaxial growth of InN. Demonstration of the high quality HVPE InN materials opens a new way for InN substrate development. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Optical transparency of graphene layers grown on metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rut’kov, E. V.; Lavrovskaya, N. P.; Sheshenya, E. S.; Gall, N. R.

    2017-01-01

    It is shown that, in contradiction with the fundamental results obtained for free graphene, graphene films grown on the Rh(111) surface to thicknesses from one to ~(12–15) single layers do not absorb visible electromagnetic radiation emitted from the surface and influence neither the brightness nor true temperature of the sample. At larger thicknesses, such absorption occurs. This effect is observed for the surfaces of other metals, specifically, Pt(111), Re(1010), and Ni(111) and, thus, can be considered as being universal. It is thought that the effect is due to changes in the electronic properties of thin graphene layers because of electron transfer between graphene and the metal substrate.

  6. Optical transparency of graphene layers grown on metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rut’kov, E. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Lavrovskaya, N. P. [State University of Aerospace Instrumentation (Russian Federation); Sheshenya, E. S., E-mail: sheshenayket@gmail.ru; Gall, N. R. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    It is shown that, in contradiction with the fundamental results obtained for free graphene, graphene films grown on the Rh(111) surface to thicknesses from one to ~(12–15) single layers do not absorb visible electromagnetic radiation emitted from the surface and influence neither the brightness nor true temperature of the sample. At larger thicknesses, such absorption occurs. This effect is observed for the surfaces of other metals, specifically, Pt(111), Re(1010), and Ni(111) and, thus, can be considered as being universal. It is thought that the effect is due to changes in the electronic properties of thin graphene layers because of electron transfer between graphene and the metal substrate.

  7. Epitaxially Grown Layered MFI–Bulk MFI Hybrid Zeolitic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi

    2012-11-27

    The synthesis of hybrid zeolitic materials with complex micropore-mesopore structures and morphologies is an expanding area of recent interest for a number of applications. Here we report a new type of hybrid zeolite material, composed of a layered zeolite material grown epitaxially on the surface of a bulk zeolite material. Specifically, layered (2-D) MFI sheets were grown on the surface of bulk MFI crystals of different sizes (300 nm and 10 μm), thereby resulting in a hybrid material containing a unique morphology of interconnected micropores (∼0.55 nm) and mesopores (∼3 nm). The structure and morphology of this material, referred to as a "bulk MFI-layered MFI" (BMLM) material, was elucidated by a combination of XRD, TEM, HRTEM, SEM, TGA, and N2 physisorption techniques. It is conclusively shown that epitaxial growth of the 2-D layered MFI sheets occurs in at least two principal crystallographic directions of the bulk MFI crystal and possibly in the third direction as well. The BMLM material combines the properties of bulk MFI (micropore network and mechanical support) and 2-D layered MFI (large surface roughness, external surface area, and mesoporosity). As an example of the uses of the BMLM material, it was incorporated into a polyimide and fabricated into a composite membrane with enhanced permeability for CO2 and good CO2/CH4 selectivity for gas separations. SEM-EDX imaging and composition analysis showed that the polyimide and the BMLM interpenetrate into each other, thereby forming a well-adhered polymer/particle microstructure, in contrast with the defective interfacial microstructure obtained using bare MFI particles. Analysis of the gas permeation data with the modified Maxwell model also allows the estimation of the effective volume of the BMLM particles, as well as the CO2 and CH4 gas permeabilities of the interpenetrated layer at the BMLM/polyimide interface. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  8. Suppression of Mg propagation into subsequent layers grown by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anchal; Tahhan, Maher; Mates, Tom; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh

    2017-01-01

    Low temperature (LT) flow modulation epitaxy (FME) or "pulsed" growth was successfully used to prevent magnesium from Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) grown p-GaN:Mg layers riding into subsequently deposited n-type layers. Mg concentration in the subsequent layers was lowered from ˜1 × 1018 cm-3 for a medium temperature growth at 950 °C to ˜1 × 1016 cm-3 for a low temperature growth at 700 °C via FME. The slope of the Mg concentration drop in the 700 °C FME sample was 20 nm/dec—the lowest ever demonstrated by MOCVD. For growth on Mg implanted GaN layers, the drop for a medium temperature regrowth at 950 °C was ˜10 nm/dec compared to >120 nm/dec for a high temperature regrowth at 1150 °C. This drop-rate obtained at 950 °C or lower was maintained even when the growth temperature in the following layers was raised to 1150 °C. A controlled silicon doping series using LT FME was also demonstrated with the lowest and highest achieved doping levels being 5 × 1016 cm-3 and 6 × 1019 cm-3, respectively.

  9. Characterization of GaN/AlGaN epitaxial layers grown

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GaN and AlGaN epitaxial layers are grown by a metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) system. The crystalline quality of these epitaxially grown layers is studied by different characterization techniques. PL measurements indicate band edge emission peak at 363.8 nm and 312 nm for GaN and AlGaN layers ...

  10. Single layer porous gold films grown at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Renyun; Hummelgard, Magnus; Olin, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    Large area porous gold films can be used in several areas including electrochemical electrodes, as an essential component in sensors, or as a conducting material in electronics. Here, we report on evaporation induced crystal growth of large area porous gold films at 20, 40 and 60 deg. C. The gold films were grown on liquid surface at 20 deg. C, while the films were grown on the wall of beakers when temperature increased to 40 and 60 deg. C. The porous gold films consisted of a dense network of gold nanowires as characterized by TEM and SEM. TEM diffraction results indicated that higher temperature formed larger crystallites of gold wires. An in situ TEM imaging of the coalescence of gold nanoparticles mimicked the process of the growth of these porous films, and a plotting of the coalescence time and the neck radius showed a diffusion process. The densities of these gold films were also characterized by transmittance, and the results showed film grown at 20 deg. C had the highest density, while the film grown at 60 deg. C had the lowest consistent with SEM and TEM characterization. Electrical measurements of these gold films showed that the most conductive films were the ones grown at 40 deg. C. The conductivities of the gold films were related to the amount of contamination, density and the diameter of the gold nanowires in the films. In addition, a gold film/gold nanoparticle hybrid was made, which showed a 10% decrease in transmittance during hybridization, pointing to applications as chemical and biological sensors.

  11. Epitaxially Grown Layered MFI–Bulk MFI Hybrid Zeolitic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi; Zhang, Xueyi; Lee, Jong Suk; Tsapatsis, Michael; Nair, Sankar

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of hybrid zeolitic materials with complex micropore-mesopore structures and morphologies is an expanding area of recent interest for a number of applications. Here we report a new type of hybrid zeolite material, composed of a layered

  12. Photoluminescence of phosphorus atomic layer doped Ge grown on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuji; Nien, Li-Wei; Capellini, Giovanni; Virgilio, Michele; Costina, Ioan; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Seifert, Winfried; Srinivasan, Ashwyn; Loo, Roger; Scappucci, Giordano; Sabbagh, Diego; Hesse, Anne; Murota, Junichi; Schroeder, Thomas; Tillack, Bernd

    2017-10-01

    Improvement of the photoluminescence (PL) of Phosphorus (P) doped Ge by P atomic layer doping (ALD) is investigated. Fifty P delta layers of 8 × 1013 cm-2 separated by 4 nm Ge spacer are selectively deposited at 300 °C on a 700 nm thick P-doped Ge buffer layer of 1.4 × 1019 cm-3 on SiO2 structured Si (100) substrate. A high P concentration region of 1.6 × 1020 cm-3 with abrupt P delta profiles is formed by the P-ALD process. Compared to the P-doped Ge buffer layer, a reduced PL intensity is observed, which might be caused by a higher density of point defects in the P delta doped Ge layer. The peak position is shifted by ˜0.1 eV towards lower energy, indicating an increased active carrier concentration in the P-delta doped Ge layer. By introducing annealing at 400 °C to 500 °C after each Ge spacer deposition, P desorption and diffusion is observed resulting in relatively uniform P profiles of ˜2 × 1019 cm-3. Increased PL intensity and red shift of the PL peak are observed due to improved crystallinity and higher active P concentration.

  13. Characterization of GaN/AlGaN epitaxial layers grown by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GaN and AlGaN epitaxial layers are grown by a metalorganic chemical ... reported by introducing annealing of the GaN layer in nitrogen [5], Fe doping [6], .... [2] Y F Wu, S M Wood, R P Smith, S Sheppard, S T Allen, P Parikh and J Milligan,.

  14. Monocrystalline zinc oxide films grown by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachnicki, L.; Krajewski, T.; Luka, G.; Witkowski, B.; Kowalski, B.; Kopalko, K.; Domagala, J.Z.; Guziewicz, M.; Godlewski, M.; Guziewicz, E.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work we report on the monocrystalline growth of (00.1) ZnO films on GaN template by the Atomic Layer Deposition technique. The ZnO films were obtained at temperature of 300 o C using dietylzinc (DEZn) as a zinc precursor and deionized water as an oxygen precursor. High resolution X-ray diffraction analysis proves that ZnO layers are monocrystalline with rocking curve FWHM of the 00.2 peak equals to 0.07 o . Low temperature photoluminescence shows a sharp and bright excitonic line with FWHM of 13 meV.

  15. Characterization of few-layered graphene grown by carbon implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kin Kiong; McCallum, Jeffrey C.; Jamieson, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Graphene is considered to be a very promising material for applications in nanotechnology. The properties of graphene are strongly dependent on defects that occur during growth and processing. These defects can be either detrimental or beneficial to device performance depending on defect type, location and device application. Here we present experimental results on formation of few-layered graphene by carbon ion implantation into nickel films and characteristics of graphene devices formed by graphene transfer and lithographic patterning. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the number of graphene layers formed and identify defects arising from the device processing. The graphene films were cleaned by annealing in vacuum. Transport properties of cleaned graphene films were investigated by fabrication of back-gated field-effect transistors, which exhibited high hole and electron mobility of 1935 and 1905 cm2/Vs, respectively

  16. Characterization of few-layered graphene grown by carbon implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kin Kiong; McCallum, Jeffrey C.; Jamieson, David N.

    2014-02-01

    Graphene is considered to be a very promising material for applications in nanotechnology. The properties of graphene are strongly dependent on defects that occur during growth and processing. These defects can be either detrimental or beneficial to device performance depending on defect type, location and device application. Here we present experimental results on formation of few-layered graphene by carbon ion implantation into nickel films and characteristics of graphene devices formed by graphene transfer and lithographic patterning. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the number of graphene layers formed and identify defects arising from the device processing. The graphene films were cleaned by annealing in vacuum. Transport properties of cleaned graphene films were investigated by fabrication of back-gated field-effect transistors, which exhibited high hole and electron mobility of 1935 and 1905 cm2/Vs, respectively.

  17. Epitaxially grown polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on solid-phase crystallised seed layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei, E-mail: weili.unsw@gmail.com; Varlamov, Sergey; Xue, Chaowei

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Crystallisation kinetic is used to analyse seed layer surface cleanliness. • Simplified RCA cleaning for the seed layer can shorten the epitaxy annealing duration. • RTA for the seed layer can improve the quality for both seed layer and epi-layer. • Epitaxial poly-Si solar cell performance is improved by RTA treated seed layer. - Abstract: This paper presents the fabrication of poly-Si thin film solar cells on glass substrates using seed layer approach. The solid-phase crystallised P-doped seed layer is not only used as the crystalline template for the epitaxial growth but also as the emitter for the solar cell structure. This paper investigates two important factors, surface cleaning and intragrain defects elimination for the seed layer, which can greatly influence the epitaxial grown solar cell performance. Shorter incubation and crystallisation time is observed using a simplified RCA cleaning than the other two wet chemical cleaning methods, indicating a cleaner seed layer surface is achieved. Cross sectional transmission microscope images confirm a crystallographic transferal of information from the simplified RCA cleaned seed layer into the epi-layer. RTA for the SPC seed layer can effectively eliminate the intragrain defects in the seed layer and improve structural quality of both of the seed layer and the epi-layer. Consequently, epitaxial grown poly-Si solar cell on the RTA treated seed layer shows better solar cell efficiency, V{sub oc} and J{sub sc} than the one on the seed layer without RTA treatment.

  18. Optical characteristics of silicon nanowires grown from tin catalyst layers on silicon coated glass

    KAUST Repository

    Ball, Jeremy

    2012-08-20

    The optical characteristics of silicon nanowires grown on Si layers on glass have been modeled using the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) technique and compared with experimental results. The wires were grown by the VLS (vapour-liquid-solid) method using Sn catalyst layers and exhibit a conical shape. The resulting measured and modeled absorption, reflectance and transmittance spectra have been investigated as a function of the thickness of the underlying Si layer and the initial catalyst layer, the latter having a strong influence on wire density. High levels of absorption (>90% in the visible wavelength range) and good agreement between the modeling and experiment have been observed when the nanowires have a relatively high density of ∼4 wires/μ m2. The experimental and modeled results diverge for samples with a lower density of wire growth. The results are discussed along with some implications for solar cell fabrication. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

  19. Optical characteristics of silicon nanowires grown from tin catalyst layers on silicon coated glass

    KAUST Repository

    Ball, Jeremy; Centeno, Anthony; Mendis, Budhika G.; Reehal, H. S.; Alford, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The optical characteristics of silicon nanowires grown on Si layers on glass have been modeled using the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) technique and compared with experimental results. The wires were grown by the VLS (vapour-liquid-solid) method using Sn catalyst layers and exhibit a conical shape. The resulting measured and modeled absorption, reflectance and transmittance spectra have been investigated as a function of the thickness of the underlying Si layer and the initial catalyst layer, the latter having a strong influence on wire density. High levels of absorption (>90% in the visible wavelength range) and good agreement between the modeling and experiment have been observed when the nanowires have a relatively high density of ∼4 wires/μ m2. The experimental and modeled results diverge for samples with a lower density of wire growth. The results are discussed along with some implications for solar cell fabrication. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

  20. Conformity and structure of titanium oxide films grown by atomic layer deposition on silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jogi, Indrek [University of Tartu, Institute of Experimental Physics and Technology, Taehe 4, 51010, Tartu (Estonia)], E-mail: indrek.jogi@ut.ee; Paers, Martti; Aarik, Jaan; Aidla, Aleks [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Riia 142, 51014, Tartu (Estonia); Laan, Matti [University of Tartu, Institute of Experimental Physics and Technology, Taehe 4, 51010, Tartu (Estonia); Sundqvist, Jonas; Oberbeck, Lars; Heitmann, Johannes [Qimonda Dresden GmbH and Co. OHG, Koenigsbruecker Strasse 180, 01099, Dresden (Germany); Kukli, Kaupo [University of Tartu, Institute of Experimental Physics and Technology, Taehe 4, 51010, Tartu (Estonia)

    2008-06-02

    Conformity and phase structure of atomic layer deposited TiO{sub 2} thin films grown on silicon substrates were studied. The films were grown using TiCl{sub 4} and Ti(OC{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 4} as titanium precursors in the temperature range from 125 to 500 {sup o}C. In all cases perfect conformal growth was achieved on patterned substrates with elliptical holes of 7.5 {mu}m depth and aspect ratio of about 1:40. Conformal growth was achieved with process parameters similar to those optimized for the growth on planar wafers. The dominant crystalline phase in the as-grown films was anatase, with some contribution from rutile at relatively higher temperatures. Annealing in the oxygen ambient resulted in (re)crystallization whereas the effect of annealing depended markedly on the precursors used in the deposition process. Compared to films grown from TiCl{sub 4}, the films grown from Ti(OC{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 4} were transformed into rutile in somewhat greater extent, whereas in terms of step coverage the films grown from Ti(OC{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 4} remained somewhat inferior compared to the films grown from TiCl{sub 4}.

  1. Low temperature synthesis and field emission characteristics of single to few layered graphene grown using PECVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Avshish; Khan, Sunny; Zulfequar, M.; Harsh; Husain, Mushahid, E-mail: mush_reslab@rediffmail.com

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Graphene was synthesized by PECVD system at a low temperature of 600 °C. • From different characterization techniques, the presence of single and few layered graphene was confirmed. • X-ray diffraction pattern of the graphene showed single crystalline nature of the film. • The as-grown graphene films were observed extremely good field emitters with long term emission current stability. - Abstract: In this work, high-quality graphene has successfully been synthesized on copper (Cu) coated Silicon (Si) substrate at very large-area by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. This method is low cost and highly effective for synthesizing graphene relatively at low temperature of 600 °C. Electron microscopy images have shown that surface morphology of the grown samples is quite uniform consisting of single layered graphene (SLG) to few layered graphene (FLG). Raman spectra reveal that graphene has been grown with high-quality having negligible defects and the observation of G and G' peaks is also an indicative of stokes phonon energy shift caused due to laser excitation. Scanning probe microscopy image also depicts the synthesis of single to few layered graphene. The field emission characteristics of as-grown graphene samples were studied in a planar diode configuration at room temperature. The graphene samples were observed to be a good field emitter having low turn-on field, higher field amplification factor and long term emission current stability.

  2. Crystallinity Improvement of Zn O Thin Film on Different Buffer Layers Grown by MBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao-Ying, T.; Che-Hao, L.; Wen-Ming, Ch.; Yang, C.C.; Po-Ju, Ch.; Hsiang-Chen, W.; Ya-Ping, H.

    2012-01-01

    The material and optical properties of Zn O thin film samples grown on different buffer layers on sapphire substrates through a two-step temperature variation growth by molecular beam epitaxy were investigated. The thin buffer layer between the Zn O layer and the sapphire substrate decreased the lattice mismatch to achieve higher quality Zn O thin film growth. A Ga N buffer layer slightly increased the quality of the Zn O thin film, but the threading dislocations still stretched along the c-axis of the Ga N layer. The use of Mg O as the buffer layer decreased the surface roughness of the Zn O thin film by 58.8% due to the suppression of surface cracks through strain transfer of the sample. From deep level emission and rocking curve measurements it was found that the threading dislocations play a more important role than oxygen vacancies for high-quality Zn O thin film growth.

  3. Photoluminescence characteristics of Pb-doped, molecular-beam-epitaxy grown ZnSe crystal layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mita, Yoh; Kuronuma, Ryoichi; Inoue, Masanori; Sasaki, Shoichiro; Miyamoto, Yoshinobu

    2004-01-01

    The characteristic green photoluminescence emission and related phenomena in Pb-doped, molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE)-grown ZnSe crystal layers were investigated to explore the nature of the center responsible for the green emission. The intensity of the green emission showed a distinct nonlinear dependence on excitation intensity. Pb-diffused polycrystalline ZnSe was similarly examined for comparison. The characteristic green emission has been observed only in MBE-grown ZnSe crystal layers with moderate Pb doping. The results of the investigations on the growth conditions, luminescence, and related properties of the ZnSe crystal layers suggest that the green emission is due to isolated Pb replacing Zn and surrounded with regular ZnSe lattice with a high perfection

  4. Atomic layer deposition grown composite dielectric oxides and ZnO for transparent electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieraltowska, S.; Wachnicki, L.; Witkowski, B.S.; Godlewski, M.; Guziewicz, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report on transparent transistor obtained using laminar structure of two high-k dielectric oxides (hafnium dioxide, HfO 2 and aluminum oxide, Al 2 O 3 ) and zinc oxide (ZnO) layer grown at low temperature (60 °C–100 °C) using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) technology. Our research was focused on the optimization of technological parameters for composite layers Al 2 O 3 /HfO 2 /Al 2 O 3 for thin film transistor structures with ZnO as a channel and a gate layer. We elaborate on the ALD growth of these oxides, finding that the 100 nm thick layers of HfO 2 and Al 2 O 3 exhibit fine surface flatness and required amorphous microstructure. Growth parameters are optimized for the monolayer growth mode and maximum smoothness required for gating.

  5. Selective exfoliation of single-layer graphene from non-uniform graphene grown on Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae-Young; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Jang, Hyeon-Sik; Whang, Dongmok; Joo, Won-Jae; Hwang, SungWoo

    2015-01-01

    Graphene growth on a copper surface via metal-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition has several advantages in terms of providing high-quality graphene with the potential for scale-up, but the product is usually inhomogeneous due to the inability to control the graphene layer growth. The non-uniform regions strongly affect the reliability of the graphene in practical electronic applications. Herein, we report a novel graphene transfer method that allows for the selective exfoliation of single-layer graphene from non-uniform graphene grown on a Cu foil. Differences in the interlayer bonding energy are exploited to mechanically separate only the top single-layer graphene and transfer this to an arbitrary substrate. The dry-transferred single-layer graphene showed electrical characteristics that were more uniform than those of graphene transferred using conventional wet-etching transfer steps. (paper)

  6. Positron annihilation studies of defects in molecular beam epitaxy grown III-V layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umlor, M.T.; Keeble, D.J.; Cooke, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    A summary of recent positron annihilation experiments on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown III-V layers is Presented. Variable energy positron beam measurements on Al 0.32 Ga 0.68 As undoped and Si doped have been completed. Positron trapping at a open volume defect in Al 0.32 Ga 0.68 :Si for temperatures from 300 to 25 K in the dark was observed. The positron trap was lost after 1.3 eV illumination at 25K. These results indicate an open volume defect is associated with the local structure of the deep donor state of the DX center. Stability of MBE GaAs to thermal annealing war, investigated over the temperature range of 230 to 700 degrees C, Proximity wafer furnace anneals in flowing argon were used, Samples grown above 450 degrees C were shown to be stable but for sample below this temperature an anneal induced vacancy related defect was produced for anneals between 400 and 500 degrees C. The nature of the defect was shown to be different for material grown at 350 and 230 degrees C. Activation energies of 2.5 eV to 2.3 eV were obtained from isochronal anneal experiments for samples grown at 350 and 230 degrees C, respectively

  7. Crystallinity Improvement of ZnO Thin Film on Different Buffer Layers Grown by MBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Ying Ting

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The material and optical properties of ZnO thin film samples grown on different buffer layers on sapphire substrates through a two-step temperature variation growth by molecular beam epitaxy were investigated. The thin buffer layer between the ZnO layer and the sapphire substrate decreased the lattice mismatch to achieve higher quality ZnO thin film growth. A GaN buffer layer slightly increased the quality of the ZnO thin film, but the threading dislocations still stretched along the c-axis of the GaN layer. The use of MgO as the buffer layer decreased the surface roughness of the ZnO thin film by 58.8% due to the suppression of surface cracks through strain transfer of the sample. From deep level emission and rocking curve measurements it was found that the threading dislocations play a more important role than oxygen vacancies for high-quality ZnO thin film growth.

  8. Some studies on successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) grown indium sulphide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathan, H.M.; Lokhande, C.D.; Kulkarni, S.S.; Amalnerkar, D.P.; Seth, T.; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2005-01-01

    Indium sulphide (In 2 S 3 ) thin films were grown on amorphous glass substrate by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Rutherford back scattering (RBS) were applied to study the structural, optical, surface morphological and compositional properties of the indium sulphide thin films. Utilization of triethanolamine and hydrazine hydrate complexed indium sulphate and sodium sulphide as precursors resulted in nanocrystalline In 2 S 3 thin film. The optical band gap was found to be 2.7 eV. The film appeared to be smooth and homogeneous from SEM study

  9. Triboelectric charge generation by semiconducting SnO2 film grown by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, No Ho; Yoon, Seong Yu; Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, Seong Keun; Choi, Byung Joon

    2017-07-01

    Improving the energy harvesting efficiency of triboelectric generators (TEGs) requires exploring new types of materials that can be used, and understanding their properties. In this study, we have investigated semiconducting SnO2 thin films as friction layers in TEGs, which has not been explored thus far. Thin films of SnO2 with various thicknesses were grown by atomic layer deposition on Si substrates. Either polymer or glass was used as counter friction layers. Vertical contact/separation mode was utilized to evaluate the TEG efficiency. The results indicate that an increase in the SnO2 film thickness from 5 to 25 nm enhances the triboelectric output voltage of the TEG. Insertion of a 400-nm-thick Pt sub-layer between the SnO2 film and Si substrate further increased the output voltage up to 120 V in a 2 cm × 2 cm contact area, while the enhancement was cancelled out by inserting a 10-nm-thick insulating Al2O3 film between SnO2 and Pt films. These results indicate that n-type semiconducting SnO2 films can provide triboelectric charge to counter-friction layers in TEGs.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Mosaic Structure Characterization of the AlInN Layer Grown on Sapphire Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Arslan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 150 nm thick, (0001 orientated wurtzite-phase Al1−xInxN epitaxial layers were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on GaN (2.3 µm template/(0001 sapphire substrate. The indium (x concentration of the Al1−xInxN epitaxial layers was changed as 0.04, 0.18, 0.20, 0.47, and 0.48. The Indium content (x, lattice parameters, and strain values in the AlInN layers were calculated from the reciprocal lattice mapping around symmetric (0002 and asymmetric (10–15 reflection of the AlInN and GaN layers. The mosaic structure characteristics of the AlInN layers, such as lateral and vertical coherence lengths, tilt and twist angle, heterogeneous strain, and dislocation densities (edge and screw type dislocations of the AlInN epilayers, were investigated by using high-resolution X-ray diffraction measurements and with a combination of Williamson-Hall plot and the fitting of twist angles.

  11. STM studies of GeSi thin layers epitaxially grown on Si(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, N.; Sgarlata, A.; De Crescenzi, M.; Derrien, J.

    1996-08-01

    Ge/Si alloys were prepared in UHV by solid phase epitaxy on Si(111) substrates. The alloy formation, as a function of the evaporation rate and the Ge layer thickness has been followed in situ by RHEED and scanning tunneling microscopy. The 5 × 5 surface reconstruction appeared after annealing at 450°C Ge layers (up to 10 Å thick), obtained from a low rate Knudsen cell evaporator. In this case a nearly flat and uniform layer of reconstructed alloy was observed. When using an e-gun high rate evaporator we needed to anneal the Ge layer up to 780°C to obtain a 5 × 5 reconstruction. The grown layer was not flat, with many steps and Ge clusters; at high coverages (10 Å and more) large Ge islands appeared. Moreover, we then succeeded in visualizing at atomic resolution the top of some of these Ge islands which displayed a 2 × 1 reconstruction, probably induced from the high compressive strain due to the lattice mismatch with the substrate. We suggest that this unusual behavior could be connected to the high evaporation rate, which helped the direct formation of Ge microcrystals on the Si substrate during the deposition process.

  12. Effects of Complex Structured Anodic Oxide Dielectric Layer Grown in Pore Matrix for Aluminum Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jin-Ha; Yun, Sook Young; Lee, Chang Hyoung; Park, Hwa-Sun; Suh, Su-Jeong

    2015-11-01

    Anodization of aluminum is generally divided up into two types of anodic aluminum oxide structures depending on electrolyte type. In this study, an anodization process was carried out in two steps to obtain high dielectric strength and break down voltage. In the first step, evaporated high purity Al on Si wafer was anodized in oxalic acidic aqueous solution at various times at a constant temperature of 5 degrees C. In the second step, citric acidic aqueous solution was used to obtain a thickly grown sub-barrier layer. During the second anodization process, the anodizing potential of various ranges was applied at room temperature. An increased thickness of the sub-barrier layer in the porous matrix was obtained according to the increment of the applied anodizing potential. The microstructures and the growth of the sub-barrier layer were then observed with an increasing anodizing potential of 40 to 300 V by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). An impedance analyzer was used to observe the change of electrical properties, including the capacitance, dissipation factor, impedance, and equivalent series resistance (ESR) depending on the thickness increase of the sub-barrier layer. In addition, the breakdown voltage was measured. The results revealed that dielectric strength was improved with the increase of sub-barrier layer thickness.

  13. α-Ga2O3 grown by low temperature atomic layer deposition on sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. W.; Jarman, J. C.; Johnstone, D. N.; Midgley, P. A.; Chalker, P. R.; Oliver, R. A.; Massabuau, F. C.-P.

    2018-04-01

    α-Ga2O3 is a metastable phase of Ga2O3 of interest for wide bandgap engineering since it is isostructural with α-In2O3 and α-Al2O3. α-Ga2O3 is generally synthesised under high pressure (several GPa) or relatively high temperature (∼500 °C). In this study, we report the growth of α-Ga2O3 by low temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) on sapphire substrate. The film was grown at a rate of 0.48 Å/cycle, and predominantly consists of α-Ga2O3 in the form of (0001) -oriented columns originating from the interface with the substrate. Some inclusions were also present, typically at the tips of the α phase columns and most likely comprising ε-Ga2O3. The remainder of the Ga2O3 film - i.e. nearer the surface and between the α-Ga2O3 columns, was amorphous. The film was found to be highly resistive, as is expected for undoped material. This study demonstrates that α-Ga2O3 films can be grown by low temperature ALD and suggests the possibility of a new range of ultraviolet optoelectronic and power devices grown by ALD. The study also shows that scanning electron diffraction is a powerful technique to identify the different polymorphs of Ga2O3 present in multiphase samples.

  14. Stress engineering in GaN structures grown on Si(111) substrates by SiN masking layer application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymański, Tomasz, E-mail: tomasz.szymanski@pwr.edu.pl; Wośko, Mateusz; Paszkiewicz, Bogdan; Paszkiewicz, Regina [The Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wrocaw University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, 50-372 Wroclaw (Poland); Drzik, Milan [International Laser Center, Ilkovicova 3, 841-04 Bratislava 4 (Slovakia)

    2015-07-15

    GaN layers without and with an in-situ SiN mask were grown by using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy for three different approaches used in GaN on silicon(111) growth, and the physical and optical properties of the GaN layers were studied. For each approach applied, GaN layers of 1.4 μm total thickness were grown, using silan SiH{sub 4} as Si source in order to grow Si{sub x}N{sub x} masking layer. The optical micrographs, scanning electron microscope images, and atomic force microscope images of the grown samples revealed cracks for samples without SiN mask, and micropits, which were characteristic for the samples grown with SiN mask. In situ reflectance signal traces were studied showing a decrease of layer coalescence time and higher degree of 3D growth mode for samples with SiN masking layer. Stress measurements were conducted by two methods—by recording micro-Raman spectra and ex-situ curvature radius measurement—additionally PLs spectra were obtained revealing blueshift of PL peak positions with increasing stress. The authors have shown that a SiN mask significantly improves physical and optical properties of GaN multilayer systems reducing stress in comparison to samples grown applying the same approaches but without SiN masking layer.

  15. Unusual strain in homoepitaxial CdTe(001) layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinke, H.; Waag, A.; Moeller, M.O.; Regnet, M.M.; Landwehr, G. [Physikalisches Institut, Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)

    1994-01-01

    For homoepitaxial CdTe(001) films grown by molecular beam epitaxy onto CdTe(001) substrates, a difference between the lattice constants of the substrate and the layer was systematically observed using high resolution X-ray diffraction. Reciprocal space maps point out an unusual strain state of such layers which is indicated by the position of their reciprocal lattice points. They lie in a section of reciprocal space which is usually forbidden by elasticity theory. The strain is laterally anisotropic leading to a monoclinic symmetry of the thin films. The lateral strain is depth dependent. Possible reasons for the formation of the unusual strain are discussed, and a correlation of the unusual strain with the growth conditions is attempted

  16. Molecular beam epitaxy grown Ge/Si pin layer sequence for photonic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, J.; Oehme, M.; Werner, J.

    2012-01-01

    A key challenge to obtain a convergence of classical Si-based microelectronics and optoelectronics is the manufacturing of photonic integrated circuits integrable into classical Si-based integrated circuits. This integration would be greatly enhanced if similar facilities and technologies could be used. Therefore one approach is the development of optoelectronic components and devices made from group-IV-based materials such as SiGe, Ge or Ge:Sn. In this paper the optoelectronic performances of a pin diode made from a Ge/Si heterostructure pin layer sequence grown by molecular beam epitaxy are discussed. After a detailed description of the layer sequence growth and the device manufacturing process it will be shown that – depending on the chosen operating point and device design – the diode serves as a broadband high speed photo detector, Franz–Keldysh effect modulator or light emitting diode.

  17. Molecular beam epitaxy grown Ge/Si pin layer sequence for photonic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, J., E-mail: schulze@iht.uni-stuttgart.de; Oehme, M.; Werner, J.

    2012-02-01

    A key challenge to obtain a convergence of classical Si-based microelectronics and optoelectronics is the manufacturing of photonic integrated circuits integrable into classical Si-based integrated circuits. This integration would be greatly enhanced if similar facilities and technologies could be used. Therefore one approach is the development of optoelectronic components and devices made from group-IV-based materials such as SiGe, Ge or Ge:Sn. In this paper the optoelectronic performances of a pin diode made from a Ge/Si heterostructure pin layer sequence grown by molecular beam epitaxy are discussed. After a detailed description of the layer sequence growth and the device manufacturing process it will be shown that - depending on the chosen operating point and device design - the diode serves as a broadband high speed photo detector, Franz-Keldysh effect modulator or light emitting diode.

  18. RBS/channeling study of buried Ge quantum dots grown in a Si layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, A.; Alves, E.; Barradas, N.P.; Leitao, J.P.; Sobolev, N.A.; Carmo, M.C.; Nikiforov, A.I.; Presting, H.

    2006-01-01

    In last decades we have been assisting to a crescent importance of low dimensional systems for the fabrication of nano- and opto-electronic devices. Ge quantum dots (QDs) are well suited for fulfilling these requirements. In this work we present and discuss Ge/Si multilayer and single layer samples grown by molecular beam epitaxy. RBS/channeling results reveal the evidence for the presence of Ge QD for the thickest (with 1 ML of SiO 2 and 0.9 nm of Ge) single layer sample. On the other hand Ge atoms are fully substitutional incorporated in the Si matrix for the thinner sample, excluding the formation of Ge QDs. Multilayer sample shows an angular deviation of the Ge curve (-0.48 o ) with respect to the Si ones, indicating the compressive strain of the films. A tetragonal distortion of (1.78 ± 0.19%) was calculated

  19. Photo-electrochemical and impedance investigation of passive layers grown anodically on titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, N.T.C. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, CP 676, 13560-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Biaggio, S.R. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, CP 676, 13560-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Piazza, S. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica dei Processi e dei Materiali, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)]. E-mail: piazza@dicpm.unipa.it; Sunseri, C. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica dei Processi e dei Materiali, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Di Quarto, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica dei Processi e dei Materiali, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2004-10-15

    The anodic behaviour of two titanium cast alloys, obtained by fusion in a voltaic arc under argon atmosphere, was analyzed in aerated aqueous solutions having different pH values. In all solutions the alloys, having nominal compositions Ti-50Zr at.% and Ti-13Zr-13Nb wt.%, displayed a valve-metal behaviour, owing to the formation of barrier-type oxide films. Passive films, grown potentiodynamically up to about 9 V, were investigated by photocurrent spectroscopy (PCS) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). These passive layers show photoactivity under anodic polarizations, with optical gaps close to 3.55 and 3.25 eV for the binary and the ternary alloy, respectively, independent of the anodizing electrolyte. Films grown on the binary alloy present insulating behaviour and anodic impedance spectra with one time constant; this was interpreted in terms of a single-layer mixed Ti-Zr oxide enriched in Ti with respect to the alloy composition. Also for the ternary alloy the results are consistent with the formation, upon anodization, of Ti-Nb-Zr mixed oxide films, but they display n-type semiconducting behaviour, owing to their poor content of ZrO{sub 2} groups.

  20. Conduction and stability of holmium titanium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castán, H., E-mail: helena@ele.uva.es [Department of Electronic, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); García, H.; Dueñas, S.; Bailón, L. [Department of Electronic, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Miranda, E. [Departament d' Enginyería Electrònica, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Kukli, K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, EE-50411,Tartu (Estonia); Kemell, M.; Ritala, M.; Leskelä, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-09-30

    Holmium titanium oxide (HoTiO{sub x}) thin films of variable chemical composition grown by atomic layer deposition are studied in order to assess their suitability as dielectric materials in metal–insulator–metal electronic devices. The correlation between thermal and electrical stabilities as well as the potential usefulness of HoTiO{sub x} as a resistive switching oxide are also explored. It is shown that the layer thickness and the relative holmium content play important roles in the switching behavior of the devices. Cycled current–voltage measurements showed that the resistive switching is bipolar with a resistance window of up to five orders of magnitude. In addition, it is demonstrated that the post-breakdown current–voltage characteristics in HoTiO{sub x} are well described by a power-law model in a wide voltage and current range which extends from the soft to the hard breakdown regimes. - Highlights: • Gate and memory suitabilities of atomic layer deposited holmium titanium oxide. • Holmium titanium oxide exhibits resistive switching. • Layer thickness and holmium content influence the resistive switching. • Low and high resistance regimes follow a power-law model. • The power-law model can be extended to the hard breakdown regime.

  1. Infrared Reflectance Analysis of Epitaxial n-Type Doped GaN Layers Grown on Sapphire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsykaniuk, Bogdan I; Nikolenko, Andrii S; Strelchuk, Viktor V; Naseka, Viktor M; Mazur, Yuriy I; Ware, Morgan E; DeCuir, Eric A; Sadovyi, Bogdan; Weyher, Jan L; Jakiela, Rafal; Salamo, Gregory J; Belyaev, Alexander E

    2017-12-01

    Infrared (IR) reflectance spectroscopy is applied to study Si-doped multilayer n + /n 0 /n + -GaN structure grown on GaN buffer with GaN-template/sapphire substrate. Analysis of the investigated structure by photo-etching, SEM, and SIMS methods showed the existence of the additional layer with the drastic difference in Si and O doping levels and located between the epitaxial GaN buffer and template. Simulation of the experimental reflectivity spectra was performed in a wide frequency range. It is shown that the modeling of IR reflectance spectrum using 2 × 2 transfer matrix method and including into analysis the additional layer make it possible to obtain the best fitting of the experimental spectrum, which follows in the evaluation of GaN layer thicknesses which are in good agreement with the SEM and SIMS data. Spectral dependence of plasmon-LO-phonon coupled modes for each GaN layer is obtained from the spectral dependence of dielectric of Si doping impurity, which is attributed to compensation effects by the acceptor states.

  2. Ultra-smooth epitaxial Ge grown on Si(001) utilizing a thin C-doped Ge buffer layer

    KAUST Repository

    Mantey, J.; Hsu, W.; James, J.; Onyegam, E. U.; Guchhait, S.; Banerjee, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present work on epitaxial Ge films grown on a thin buffer layer of C doped Ge (Ge:C). The growth rate of Ge:C is found to slow over time and is thus unsuitable for thick (>20 nm) layers. We demonstrate Ge films from 10 nm to >150 nm

  3. Luminescence and deep-level transient spectroscopy of grown dislocation-rich Si layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Kurkina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The charge deep-level transient spectroscopy (Q-DLTS is applied to the study of the dislocation-rich Si layers grown on a surface composed of dense arrays of Ge islands prepared on the oxidized Si surface. This provides revealing three deep-level bands located at EV + 0.31 eV, EC – 0.35 eV and EC – 0.43 eV using the stripe-shaped p-i-n diodes fabricated on the basis of these layers. The most interesting observation is the local state recharging process which proceeds with low activation energy (∼50 meV or without activation. The recharging may occur by carrier tunneling within deep-level bands owing to the high dislocation density ∼ 1011 - 1012 cm-2. This result is in favor of the suggestion on the presence of carrier transport between the deep states, which was previously derived from the excitation dependence of photoluminescence (PL intensity. Electroluminescence (EL spectra measured from the stripe edge of the same diodes contain two peaks centered near 1.32 and 1.55 μm. Comparison with PL spectra indicates that the EL peaks are generated from arsenic-contaminated and pure areas of the layers, respectively.

  4. Silicon transport in sputter-deposited tantalum layers grown under ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallais, P.; Hantzpergue, J.J.; Remy, J.C.; Roptin, D.

    1988-01-01

    Tantalum was sputter deposited on (111) Si substrate under low-energy ion bombardment in order to study the effects of the ion energy on the silicon transport into the Ta layer. The Si substrate was heated up to 500 0 C during growth. For ion energies up to 180 eV silicon is not transported into tantalum and the growth temperature has no effect. An ion bombardment energy of 280 eV enhances the transport of silicon throughout the tantalum layer. Growth temperatures up to 300 0 C have no effect on the silicon transport which is mainly enhanced by the ion bombardment. For growth temperatures between 300 and 500 0 C, the silicon transport is also enhanced by the thermal diffusion. The experimental depth distribution of silicon is similar to the theoretical depth distribution calculated for the case of an interdiffusion. The ion-enhanced process of silicon transport is characterized by an activation energy of 0.4 eV. Silicon into the layers as-grown at 500 0 C is in both states, amorphous silicide and microcrystalline cubic silicon

  5. Uniform GaN thin films grown on (100) silicon by remote plasma atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Chen, Miin-Jang; Lin, Ming-Chih; Chen, Liang-Yih

    2015-01-01

    The growth of uniform gallium nitride (GaN) thin films was reported on (100) Si substrate by remote plasma atomic layer deposition (RP-ALD) using triethylgallium (TEG) and NH 3 as the precursors. The self-limiting growth of GaN was manifested by the saturation of the deposition rate with the doses of TEG and NH 3 . The increase in the growth temperature leads to the rise of nitrogen content and improved crystallinity of GaN thin films, from amorphous at a low deposition temperature of 200 °C to polycrystalline hexagonal structures at a high growth temperature of 500 °C. No melting-back etching was observed at the GaN/Si interface. The excellent uniformity and almost atomic flat surface of the GaN thin films also infer the surface control mode of the GaN thin films grown by the RP-ALD technique. The GaN thin films grown by RP-ALD will be further applied in the light-emitting diodes and high electron mobility transistors on (100) Si substrate. (paper)

  6. Surface diffusion coefficient of Au atoms on single layer graphene grown on Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffino, F., E-mail: francesco.ruffino@ct.infn.it; Cacciato, G.; Grimaldi, M. G. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia-Universitá di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania, Italy and MATIS IMM-CNR, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-02-28

    A 5 nm thick Au film was deposited on single layer graphene sheets grown on Cu. By thermal processes, the dewetting phenomenon of the Au film on the graphene was induced so to form Au nanoparticles. The mean radius, surface-to-surface distance, and surface density evolution of the nanoparticles on the graphene sheets as a function of the annealing temperature were quantified by scanning electron microscopy analyses. These quantitative data were analyzed within the classical mean-field nucleation theory so to obtain the temperature-dependent Au atoms surface diffusion coefficient on graphene: D{sub S}(T)=[(8.2±0.6)×10{sup −8}]exp[−(0.31±0.02(eV)/(at) )/kT] cm{sup 2}/s.

  7. Luminescence properties of ZnO layers grown on Si-on-insulator substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Bhupendra; Gong, Hao; Vicknesh, S.; Chua, S. J.; Tripathy, S.

    2006-01-01

    The authors report on the photoluminescence properties of polycrystalline ZnO thin films grown on compliant silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The ZnO thin films on SOI were characterized by micro-Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The observation of E 2 high optical phonon mode near 438 cm -1 in the Raman spectra of the ZnO samples represents the wurtzite crystal structure. Apart from the near-band-edge free exciton (FX) transition around 3.35 eV at 77 K, the PL spectra of such ZnO films also showed a strong defect-induced violet emission peak in the range of 3.05-3.09 eV. Realization of such ZnO layers on SOI would be useful for heterointegration with SOI-based microelectronics and microelectromechanical systems

  8. Characterization and growth mechanism of nonpolar and semipolar GaN layers grown on patterned sapphire substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Narihito; Tadatomo, Kazuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Nonpolar and semipolar GaN layers with markedly improved crystalline quality can be obtained by selective-area growth from the sapphire sidewalls of patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs). In this paper, we review the crystalline qualities of GaN layers grown on PSSs and their growth mechanism. We grew semipolar {1 1 −2 2} and {1 0 −1 1} GaN layers on r- and n-PSSs. The crystalline qualities of the GaN layers grown on the PSSs were higher than those of GaN layers grown directly on heteroepitaxial substrates. To reveal the growth mechanism of GaN layers grown on PSSs, we also grew various nonpolar and semipolar GaN layers such as m-GaN on a-PSS, {1 1 −2 2} GaN on r-PSS, {1 0 − 1  1} GaN on n-PSS, m-GaN on c-PSS and a-GaN on m-PSS. It was found that the nucleation of GaN on the c-plane-like sapphire sidewall results in selective growth from the sapphire sidewall, and nonpolar or semipolar GaN can be obtained. Finally, we demonstrated a light-emitting diode fabricated on a {1 1 −2 2} GaN layer grown on an r-PSS. (paper)

  9. Successful Fabrication of GaN Epitaxial Layer on Non-Catalytically grown Graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Won [Konkuk University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Suk-Ho [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Sapphire is widely used as a substrate for the growth of GaN epitaxial layer (EPI), but has several drawbacks such as high cost, large lattice mismatch, non-flexibility, and so on. Here, we first employ graphene directly grown on Si or sapphire substrate as a platform for the growth and lift-off of GaN-light-emitting diode (LED) EPI, useful for not only recycling the substrate but also transferring the GaN-LED EPI to other flexible substrates. Sequential standard processes of nucleation/recrystallization of GaN seeds and deposition of undoped (u-) GaN/AlN buffer layer were done on graphene/substrate before the growth of GaN-LED EPI, accompanied by taping and lift-off of u-GaN/AlN or GaN-LED EPI. This approach can overcome the limitations by the catalytic growth and transfer of graphene, and make the oxygen-plasma treatment of graphene for the growth of GaN EPI unnecessary.

  10. Chemical resistance of thin film materials based on metal oxides grown by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammelselg, Väino; Netšipailo, Ivan; Aidla, Aleks; Tarre, Aivar; Aarik, Lauri; Asari, Jelena; Ritslaid, Peeter; Aarik, Jaan

    2013-01-01

    Etching rate of technologically important metal oxide thin films in hot sulphuric acid was investigated. The films of Al-, Ti-, Cr-, and Ta-oxides studied were grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) method on silicon substrates from different precursors in large ranges of growth temperatures (80–900 °C) in order to reveal process parameters that allow deposition of coatings with higher chemical resistance. The results obtained demonstrate that application of processes that yield films with lower concentration of residual impurities as well as crystallization of films in thermal ALD processes leads to significant decrease of etching rate. Crystalline films of materials studied showed etching rates down to values of < 5 pm/s. - Highlights: • Etching of atomic layer deposited thin metal oxide films in hot H 2 SO 4 was studied. • Smallest etching rates of < 5 pm/s for TiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , and Cr 2 O 3 were reached. • Highest etching rate of 2.8 nm/s for Al 2 O 3 was occurred. • Remarkable differences in etching of non- and crystalline films were observed

  11. Composition, structure and electrical properties of alumina barrier layers grown in fluoride-containing oxalic acid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagminas, A. [Institute of Chemistry, A. Gostauto 9, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)], E-mail: jagmin@ktl.mii.lt; Vrublevsky, I. [Department of Microelectricals, Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectricals, 6 Brovka Street, Minsk 220013 (Belarus); Kuzmarskyte, J.; Jasulaitiene, V. [Institute of Chemistry, A. Gostauto 9, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2008-04-15

    The composition, structure and electrical properties of alumina barrier layers grown by anodic oxidation in F{sup -}-containing (FC) and F{sup -}-free (FF) oxalic acid solutions were studied using the re-anodizing/dissolution technique, Fourier-transformed infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These results confirmed formation in FC anodizing solutions of films structurally different from ones grown in FF oxalic acid baths. It was found that the barrier layer of FC alumina films is composed of two layers differing in the dissolution rate. These differences are related to the formation in the FC electrolyte of a barrier layer composed of a more microporous outer part and a thin, non-porous and non-scalloped inner part consisting of aluminum oxide and aluminum fluoride.

  12. High-Brightness Blue Light-Emitting Diodes Enabled by a Directly Grown Graphene Buffer Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaolong; Zhang, Xiang; Dou, Zhipeng; Wei, Tongbo; Liu, Zhiqiang; Qi, Yue; Ci, Haina; Wang, Yunyu; Li, Yang; Chang, Hongliang; Yan, Jianchang; Yang, Shenyuan; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wang, Junxi; Gao, Peng; Li, Jinmin; Liu, Zhongfan

    2018-06-08

    Single-crystalline GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with high efficiency and long lifetime are the most promising solid-state lighting source compared with conventional incandescent and fluorescent lamps. However, the lattice and thermal mismatch between GaN and sapphire substrate always induces high stress and high density of dislocations and thus degrades the performance of LEDs. Here, the growth of high-quality GaN with low stress and a low density of dislocations on graphene (Gr) buffered sapphire substrate is reported for high-brightness blue LEDs. Gr films are directly grown on sapphire substrate to avoid the tedious transfer process and GaN is grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The introduced Gr buffer layer greatly releases biaxial stress and reduces the density of dislocations in GaN film and In x Ga 1- x N/GaN multiple quantum well structures. The as-fabricated LED devices therefore deliver much higher light output power compared to that on a bare sapphire substrate, which even outperforms the mature process derived counterpart. The GaN growth on Gr buffered sapphire only requires one-step growth, which largely shortens the MOCVD growth time. This facile strategy may pave a new way for applications of Gr films and bring several disruptive technologies for epitaxial growth of GaN film and its applications in high-brightness LEDs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Adsorption properties of Mg-Al layered double hydroxides thin films grown by laser based techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matei, A., E-mail: andreeapurice@nipne.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., 77125 Bucharest, Magurele (Romania); Birjega, R.; Vlad, A.; Filipescu, M.; Nedelcea, A.; Luculescu, C. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., 77125 Bucharest, Magurele (Romania); Zavoianu, R.; Pavel, O.D. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Chemical Technology and Catalysis, 4-12 Regina Elisabeta Bd., Bucharest (Romania); Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., 77125 Bucharest, Magurele (Romania)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laser techniques MAPLE and PLD can successfully be used to produce LDHs thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydration treatments of the PLD and MAPLE deposited films lead to the LDH reconstruction effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ni retention from aqueous solution occurs in the films via a dissolution-reconstruction mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films are suitable for applications in remediation of contaminated drinking water or waste waters. - Abstract: Powdered layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been widely studied due to their applications as catalysts, anionic exchangers or host materials for inorganic and/or organic molecules. Assembling nano-sized LDHs onto flat solid substrates forming thin films is an expanding area of research due to the prospects of novel applications as sensors, corrosion-resistant coatings, components in optical and magnetic devices. Continuous and adherent thin films were grown by laser techniques (pulsed laser deposition - PLD and matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation - MAPLE) starting from targets of Mg-Al LDHs. The capacity of the grown thin films to retain a metal (Ni) from contaminated water has been also explored. The thin films were immersed in an Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} aqueous solutions with Ni concentrations of 10{sup -3}% (w/w) (1 g/L) and 10{sup -4}% (w/w) (0.1 g/L), respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) were the techniques used to characterize the prepared materials.

  14. Carrier confinement in Ge/Si quantum dots grown with an intermediate ultrathin oxide layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryliuk, V.; Korotchenkov, O.; Cantarero, A.

    2012-02-01

    We present computational results for strain effects on charge carrier confinement in GexSi1-x quantum dots (QDs) grown on an oxidized Si surface. The strain and free carrier probability density distributions are obtained using the continuum elasticity theory and the effective-mass approximation implemented by a finite-element modeling scheme. Using realistic parameters and conditions for hemisphere and pyramid QDs, it is pointed out that an uncapped hemisphere dot deposited on the Si surface with an intermediate ultrathin oxide layer offers advantageous electron-hole separation distances with respect to a square-based pyramid grown directly on Si. The enhanced separation is associated with a larger electron localization depth in the Si substrate for uncapped hemisphere dots. Thus, for dot diameters smaller than 15-20 nm and surface density of the dots (nQD) ranging from about 1010 to 1012 cm-2, the localization depth may be enhanced from about 8 nm for a pyramid to 38 nm for a hemisphere dot. We find that the effect in a hemisphere dot is very sensitive to the dot density and size, whereas the localization depth is not significantly affected by the variation of the Ge fraction x in GexSi1-x and the aspect ratio of the dot. We also calculate the effect of the fixed oxide charge (Qox) with densities ranging from 10-9 to 10-7 C/cm2 for 10-Ωcm p-type Si wafers on the carrier confinement. Although the confinement potential can be strongly perturbed by the charge at nQD less than ≈4×1011 cm-2, it is not very sensitive to the value of Qox at higher nQD. Since, to our knowledge, there are no data on carrier confinement for Ge QDs deposited on oxidized Si surfaces, these results might be applicable to functional devices utilizing separated electrons and holes such as photovoltaic devices, spin transistors, and quantum computing components. The use of hemisphere QDs placed on oxidized Si rather than pyramid dots grown on bare Si may help to confine charge carriers deeper

  15. Thermally oxidized formation of new Ge dots over as-grown Ge dots in the Si capping layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Tianxiao; Lin Jinhui; Shao Yuanmin; Wu Yueqin; Yang Xinju; Fan Yongliang; Jiang Zuimin; Chen Zhigang; Zou Jin

    2011-01-01

    A Si-capped Ge quantum dot sample was self-assembly grown via Stranski-Krastanov mode in a molecular beam epitaxy system with the Si capping layer deposited at 300 deg. C. After annealing the sample in an oxygen atmosphere at 1000 deg. C, a structure, namely two layers of quantum dots, was formed with the newly formed Ge-rich quantum dots embedded in the oxidized matrix with the position accurately located upon the as-grown quantum dots. It has been found that the formation of such nanostructures strongly depends upon the growth temperature and oxygen atmosphere. A growth mechanism was proposed to explain the formation of the nanostructure based on the Ge diffusion from the as-grown quantum dots, Ge segregation from the growing oxide, and subsequent migration/agglomeration.

  16. Layer-controlled large area MoS{sub 2} layers grown on mica substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y.Y.; Yang, C. [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Jiang, S.Z. [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); State Key Lab of Crystal Materials Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Man, B.Y., E-mail: byman@sdnu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Liu, M.; Chen, C.S.; Zhang, C.; Sun, Z.C.; Qiu, H.W. [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Li, H.S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Key Laboratory of Radiation Oncology of Shandong Province, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Jinan 250117 (China); Feng, D.J. [College of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, J.X. [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Layer-controlled large-area and continuous MoS{sub 2} atomic layers were obtained on mica substrate by thermally decomposing ammonium thiomolybdate at relatively low temperature. • The as-grown MoS{sub 2}/mica substrate was demonstrated to be suitable as a substrate for enhancing Raman signals without any modification and we even collected Raman signals of R6G as low as 10{sup −7} M. • Using the Raman peak of R6G at 1361 cm{sup −1} as a signature, Raman intensity showed an approximately linear increase with the increasing of the logarithm of R6G concentrations. - Abstract: Molybdenum disulfide has recently raised more and more interest due to its layer-related properties and potential applications in optoelectronics and electronics. Here, layer-controlled large-area and continuous MoS{sub 2} atomic layers were obtained on mica substrate by thermally decomposing ammonium thiomolybdate. The obtained MoS{sub 2} film is three layers uniformly. Because of the small lattice mismatch between MoS{sub 2} and mica, the epitaxial MoS{sub 2} film is well grown on the substrate. The as-grown MoS{sub 2}/mica substrate is demonstrated to be suitable as a substrate for enhancing Raman signals of adsorbed molecules without any modification, which even can compare with graphene and will expand the application of MoS{sub 2} to microanalysis.

  17. XRD Investigation of the relaxation of InAsP layers grown by CBE on (100) InP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marschner, T.H.; Leijs, M.R.; Vonk, H.; Wolter, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    We present X-ray diffraction (XRD) investigations of the influence of the substrate off-orientation on the relaxation of InAsP layers grown on InP by chemical beam epitaxy (CBE). Our measurements show that with beginning relaxation the As-concentration increases drastically and stays constant if the

  18. ZnO nanostructures directly grown on paper and bacterial cellulose substrates without any surface modification layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Saionara V; Gonçalves, Agnaldo S; Zaguete, Maria A; Mazon, Talita; Nogueira, Ana F

    2013-09-21

    In this report, hierarchical ZnO nano- and microstructures were directly grown for the first time on a bacterial cellulose substrate and on two additional different papers by hydrothermal synthesis without any surface modification layer. Compactness and smoothness of the substrates are two important parameters that allow the growth of oriented structures.

  19. Low temperature step-graded InAlAs/GaAs metamorphic buffer layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, X Z; Wu, S D; Liu, C; Wang, W X; Guo, L W; Huang, Q; Zhou, J M

    2006-01-01

    Low-temperature step-graded InAlAs metamorphic buffer layers on GaAs substrate grown by molecular beam epitaxy were investigated. The strain relaxation and the composition of the top InAlAs layer were determined by high-resolution triple-axis x-ray diffraction measurements, which show that the top InAlAs layer is nearly fully relaxed. Surface morphology was observed by reflection high-energy electron diffraction pattern and atomic force microscopy. Under a selected range of growth parameters, the root mean square surface roughness of the sample grown at 380 deg. C is 0.802 nm, which has the smallest value compared with those of other samples. Furthermore, The ω-2θ and ω scans of the triple-axis x-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence show the sample grown at 380 deg. C has better crystalline quality. With decreasing As overpressure at this growth temperature, crystalline quality became poor and could not maintain two dimensional growth with increasing overpressure. The carrier concentrations and Hall mobilities of the InAlAs/ InGaAs/GaAs MM-HEMT structure on low-temperature step-graded InAlAs metamorphic buffer layers grown in optimized conditions are high enough to make devices

  20. Nanomechanical mapping of graphene layers and interfaces in suspended graphene nanostructures grown via carbon diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, B.J. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Rabot, C. [CEA-LETI-Minatec Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Mazzocco, R. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Delamoreanu, A. [Microelectronics Technology Laboratory (LTM), Joseph Fourier University, French National Research Center (CNRS), 17 Avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Zenasni, A. [CEA-LETI-Minatec Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Kolosov, O.V., E-mail: o.kolosov@lancaster.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-01

    Graphene's remarkable mechanical, electronic and thermal properties are strongly determined by both the mechanism of its growth and its interaction with the underlying substrate. Evidently, in order to explore the fundamentals of these mechanisms, efficient nanoscale methods that enable observation of features hidden underneath the immediate surface are needed. In this paper we use nanomechanical mapping via ultrasonic force microscopy that employs MHz frequency range ultrasonic vibrations and allows the observation of surface composition and subsurface interfaces with nanoscale resolution, to elucidate the morphology of few layer graphene (FLG) films produced via a recently reported method of carbon diffusion growth (CDG) on platinum-metal based substrate. CDG is known to result in FLG suspended over large areas, which could be of high importance for graphene transfer and applications where a standalone graphene film is required. This study directly reveals the detailed mechanism of CDG three-dimensional growth and FLG film detachment, directly linking the level of graphene decoupling with variations of the substrate temperature during the annealing phase of growth. We also show that graphene initially and preferentially decouples at the substrate grain boundaries, likely due to its negative expansion coefficient at cooling, forming characteristic “nano-domes” at the intersections of the grain boundaries. Furthermore, quantitative nanomechanical mapping of flexural stiffness of suspended FLG “nano-domes” using kHz frequency range force modulation microscopy uncovers the progression of “nano-dome” stiffness from single to bi-modal distribution as CDG growth progresses, suggesting growth instability at advanced CDG stages. - Highlights: • Exploring growth and film-substrate decoupling in carbon diffusion grown graphene • Nanomechanical mapping of few layer graphene and graphene–substrate interfaces • Quantitative stiffness mapping of

  1. Raman scattering from epitaxial HfN layers grown on MgO(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoehr, M.; Seo, H.-S.; Petrov, I.; Greene, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Stoichiometric single-crystal HfN layers grown on MgO(001) are analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Second-order Raman scattering predominates, but first-order modes in the acoustic and optical ranges are also visible. The latter indicates that the O h symmetry of NaCl-structure HfN is broken. The large mass difference between Hf and N leads to a correspondingly large separation, 250 cm -1 , between the first-order acoustic and optical bands. Within this gap, four Raman lines are clearly observed. The first three are the second-order transverse acoustic mode (240 cm -1 ), the sum of the first-order transverse and longitudinal acoustic modes (280 cm -1 ), and the second-order longitudinal acoustic mode (325 cm -1 ). The fourth line at 380 cm -1 is identified as the difference between the first-order optical and acoustic modes. The observed first-order Raman scattering, as well as the width of the gap between the first-order acoustic and optical modes, is in good agreement with previously calculated HfN phonon density of states

  2. X-ray and scanning electron microscopic investigation of porous silicon and silicon epitaxial layers grown on porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzchowski, W.; Pawlowska, M.; Nossarzewska-Orlowska, E.; Brzozowski, A.; Wieteska, K.; Graeff, W.

    1998-01-01

    The 1 to 5 μm thick layers of porous silicon and epitaxial layers grown on porous silicon were studied by means of X-ray diffraction methods, realised with a wide use of synchrotron source and scanning microscopy. The results of x-ray investigation pointed the difference of lateral periodicity between the porous layer and the substrate. It was also found that the deposition of epitaxial layer considerably reduced the coherence of porous fragments. A number of interface phenomena was also observed in section and plane wave topographs. The scanning electron microscopic investigation of cleavage faces enabled direct evaluation of porous layer thickness and revealed some details of their morphology. The scanning observation of etched surfaces of epitaxial layers deposited on porous silicon revealed dislocations and other defects not reasonable in the X-ray topographs. (author)

  3. Atomic force microscopy studies of homoepitaxial GaN layers grown on GaN template by laser MBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, B. S. [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Rajasthan Technical University, Rawatbhata Road, Kota 324010 (India); Singh, A.; Tyagi, P. K. [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi 110042 (India); Tanwar, S. [Rajasthan Technical University, Rawatbhata Road, Kota 324010 (India); Kumar, M. Senthil; Kushvaha, S. S., E-mail: kushvahas@nplindia.org [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2016-04-13

    We have grown homoepitaxial GaN films on metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) grown 3.5 µm thick GaN on sapphire (0001) substrate (GaN template) using an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) laser assisted molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) system. The GaN films were grown by laser ablating a polycrystalline solid GaN target in the presence of active r.f. nitrogen plasma. The influence of laser repetition rates (10-30 Hz) on the surface morphology of homoepitaxial GaN layers have been studied using atomic force microscopy. It was found that GaN layer grown at 10 Hz shows a smooth surface with uniform grain size compared to the rough surface with irregular shape grains obtained at 30 Hz. The variation of surface roughness of the homoepitaxial GaN layer with and without wet chemical etching has been also studied and it was observed that the roughness of the film decreased after wet etching due to the curved structure/rough surface.

  4. Rubrene epitaxial layers for organic TFT's grown by hot wall epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd AL-Baqi, S.

    2010-01-01

    discussed in a statistical analysis as well as using thermodynamic modelling. Rubrene films were grown on different substrates as well as applying electrical field during the growth to study the growth mechanism. Optical characterisation techniques like fluorescence microscopy (FM), laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), time resolved photoluminescence spectra and thermally stimulated luminescence were implemented to analyse various growth conditions to obtain more details about the material and the crystallization properties. Ellipsometry was also used to find the optical parameters for rubrene thin films. By using a special evaluation program for ellipsometry, it was possible to find the thickness of rubrene films. Finally, field effect transistors with rubrene thin films as an active layer were fabricated and characterized. Better output characteristics are achieved by using a self-assembled monolayer at the interface between SiO 2 and rubrene. (author) [de

  5. Sensitivity of the crystal quality of SiGe layers grown at low temperatures by trisilane and germane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedin, A., E-mail: aabedin@kth.se; Moeen, M.; Cappetta, C.; Östling, M.; Radamson, H.H., E-mail: rad@kth.se

    2016-08-31

    This work investigates the crystal quality of SiGe layers grown at low temperatures using trisilane, and germane precursors. The crystal quality sensitivity was monitored for hydrogen chloride and/or minor oxygen amount during SiGe epitaxy or at the interface of SiGe/Si layers. The quality of the epi-layers was examined by quantifying noise parameter, K{sub 1/f} obtained from the power spectral density vs. 1/f curves. The results indicate that while it is difficult to detect small defect densities in SiGe layers by physical material characterization, the noise measurement could reveal the effects of oxygen contamination as low as 0.16 mPa inside and in the interface of the layers. - Highlights: • SiGe layers were grown using trisilane and germane. • Effect of HCl flow on Ge content and growth rate was investigated. • O{sub 2} partial pressures up to 4.3 mPa did not affect x-ray diffraction pattern. • O{sub 2} partial pressures as low as 0.16 mPa increased the noise level. • HCl increased metal contaminations of the layers and the noise level consequently.

  6. Reducing the layer number of AB stacked multilayer graphene grown on nickel by annealing at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, J Marquez; Giamini, S A; Kelaidis, N; Tsipas, P; Tsoutsou, D; Kordas, G; Raptis, Y S; Boukos, N; Dimoulas, A

    2015-10-09

    Controlling the number of layers of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition is crucial for large scale graphene application. We propose here an etching process of graphene which can be applied immediately after growth to control the number of layers. We use nickel (Ni) foil at high temperature (T = 900 °C) to produce multilayer-AB-stacked-graphene (MLG). The etching process is based on annealing the samples in a hydrogen/argon atmosphere at a relatively low temperature (T = 450 °C) inside the growth chamber. The extent of etching is mainly controlled by the annealing process duration. Using Raman spectroscopy we demonstrate that the number of layers was reduced, changing from MLG to few-layer-AB-stacked-graphene and in some cases to randomly oriented few layer graphene near the substrate. Furthermore, our method offers the significant advantage that it does not introduce defects in the samples, maintaining their original high quality. This fact and the low temperature our method uses make it a good candidate for controlling the layer number of already grown graphene in processes with a low thermal budget.

  7. Hydrogen-related defects in Al2O3 layers grown on n-type Si by the atomic layer deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkovsky, Vl.; Stübner, R.

    2018-04-01

    The electrical properties of alumina films with thicknesses varying from 15 nm to 150 nm, grown by the atomic layer deposition technique on n-type Si, were investigated. We demonstrated that the annealing of the alumina layers in argon (Ar) or hydrogen (H) atmosphere at about 700 K resulted in the introduction of negatively charged defects irrespective of the type of the substrate. These defects were also observed in samples subjected to a dc H plasma treatment at temperatures below 400 K, whereas they were not detected in as-grown samples and in samples annealed in Ar atmosphere at temperatures below 400 K. The concentration of these defects increased with a higher H content in the alumina films. In good agreement with theory we assigned these defects to interstitial H-related defects.

  8. Nanomechanical properties of thick porous silicon layers grown on p- and p+-type bulk crystalline Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charitidis, C.A.; Skarmoutsou, A.; Nassiopoulou, A.G.; Dragoneas, A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The nanomechanical properties of bulk crystalline Si. → The nanomechanical properties of porous Si. → The elastic-plastic deformation of porous Si compared to bulk crystalline quantified by nanoindentation data analysis. - Abstract: The nanomechanical properties and the nanoscale deformation of thick porous Si (PSi) layers of two different morphologies, grown electrochemically on p-type and p+-type Si wafers were investigated by the depth-sensing nanoindentation technique over a small range of loads using a Berkovich indenter and were compared with those of bulk crystalline Si. The microstructure of the thick PSi layers was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. PSi layers on p+-type Si show an anisotropic mesoporous structure with straight vertical pores of diameter in the range of 30-50 nm, while those on p-type Si show a sponge like mesoporous structure. The effect of the microstructure on the mechanical properties of the layers is discussed. It is shown that the hardness and Young's modulus of the PSi layers exhibit a strong dependence on their microstructure. In particular, PSi layers with the anisotropic straight vertical pores show higher hardness and elastic modulus values than sponge-like layers. However, sponge-like PSi layers reveal less plastic deformation and higher wear resistance compared with layers with straight vertical pores.

  9. Structural characterization of AgGaTe{sub 2} layers grown on a- and c-sapphire substrates by a closed space sublimation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uruno, Aya; Usui, Ayaka [Department of Electrical Engineering and Bioscience, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kobayashi, Masakazu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Bioscience, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kagami Memorial Research Institute for Materials Science and Technology, Waseda University, 2-8-26 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0051 (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    AgGaTe{sub 2} layers were grown on a- and c-plane sapphire substrates by a closed space sublimation method with varying the source temperature. Grown films were evaluated by θ -2θ and pole figure measurements of X-ray diffraction. AgGaTe{sub 2} layers were grown to have strong preference for the (103) orientation. However, it was cleared the Ag{sub 5}Te{sub 3} was formed along with the AgGaTe{sub 2} when the layer was grown on c-plane sapphire. The orientation of the film was analyzed by using the pole figure, and resulted in AgGaTe{sub 2} without Ag{sub 5}Te{sub 3} layers could be grown on a-plane sapphire. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Electrical and mechanical stability of aluminum-doped ZnO films grown on flexible substrates by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luka, G.; Witkowski, B.S.; Wachnicki, L.; Jakiela, R.; Virt, I.S.; Andrzejczuk, M.; Lewandowska, M.; Godlewski, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Transparent and conductive ZnO:Al films were grown by atomic layer deposition. • The films were grown on flexible substrates at low growth temperatures (110–140 °C). • So-obtained films have low resistivities, of the order of 10 −3 Ω cm. • Bending tests indicated a critical bending radius of ≈1.2 cm. • Possible sources of the film resistivity changes upon bending are proposed. - Abstract: Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were grown on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at low deposition temperatures (110–140 °C). The films have low resistivities, ∼10 −3 Ω cm, and high transparency (∼90%) in the visible range. Bending tests indicated a critical bending radius of ≈1.2 cm, below which the resistivity changes became irreversible. The films deposited on PET with additional buffer layer are more stable upon bending and temperature changes

  11. Investigation of InN layers grown by MOCVD using analytical and high resolution TEM: The structure, band gap, role of the buffer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruterana, P.; Abouzaid, M.; Gloux, F.; Maciej, W.; Doualan, J.L.; Drago, M.; Schmidtling, T.; Pohl, U.W.; Richter, W.

    2006-01-01

    In this work we investigate the microstructure of InN layers grown by MOCVD on different buffer layers using TEM (InN, GaN). The large mismatch between the various lattices (InN, sapphire or GaN) leads to particular interface structures. Our local analysis allows to show that at atomic scale, the material has the InN lattice parameters and that no metallic In precipitates are present, meaning that the PL emission below 0.8 eV is a genuine property of the InN semiconductor. It is also shown that the N polar layers, which exhibit a 2D growth, have poorer PL emission than In polar layers. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Enhanced B doping in CVD-grown GeSn:B using B δ-doping layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen, David; Vohra, Anurag; Loo, Roger; Vandervorst, Wilfried; Bhargava, Nupur; Margetis, Joe; Tolle, John

    2018-02-01

    Highly doped GeSn material is interesting for both electronic and optical applications. GeSn:B is a candidate for source-drain material in future Ge pMOS device because Sn adds compressive strain with respect to pure Ge, and therefore can boost the Ge channel performances. A high B concentration is required to obtain low contact resistivity between the source-drain material and the metal contact. To achieve high performance, it is therefore highly desirable to maximize both the Sn content and the B concentration. However, it has been shown than CVD-grown GeSn:B shows a trade-off between the Sn incorporation and the B concentration (increasing B doping reduces Sn incorporation). Furthermore, the highest B concentration of CVD-grown GeSn:B process reported in the literature has been limited to below 1 × 1020 cm-3. Here, we demonstrate a CVD process where B δ-doping layers are inserted in the GeSn layer. We studied the influence of the thickness between each δ-doping layers and the δ-doping layers process conditions on the crystalline quality and the doping density of the GeSn:B layers. For the same Sn content, the δ-doping process results in a 4-times higher B doping than the co-flow process. In addition, a B doping concentration of 2 × 1021 cm-3 with an active concentration of 5 × 1020 cm-3 is achieved.

  13. Effects of buffer layer annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties of hydrothermal grown ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, X.Q.; Kim, C.R.; Lee, J.Y.; Heo, J.H.; Shin, C.M. [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, H., E-mail: hhryu@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, J.H. [Major of Nano Semiconductor, Korea Maritime University, 1 Dongsam-dong, Yeongdo-Ku, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H.C. [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Korea Maritime University, 1 Dongsam-dong, Yeongdo-Ku, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Son, C.S. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Silla University, Gwaebeop-dong, Sasang-gu, Busan 617-736 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W.J. [Department of Nano Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, W.G. [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kookmin University, 861-1 Jeongneung-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of); Tan, S.T. [Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Zhao, J.L. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sun, X.W. [Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2009-02-01

    ZnO was deposited on bare Si(1 0 0), as-deposited, and annealed ZnO/Si(1 0 0) substrates by hydrothermal synthesis. The effects of a ZnO buffer layer and its thermal annealing on the properties of the ZnO deposited by hydrothermal synthesis were studied. The grain size and root mean square (RMS) roughness values of the ZnO buffer layer increased after thermal annealing of the buffer layer. The effect of buffer layer annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties was investigated by photoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Hydrothermal grown ZnO deposited on ZnO/Si(1 0 0) annealed at 750 deg. C with the concentration of 0.3 M exhibits the best structural and optical properties.

  14. Ultra-smooth epitaxial Ge grown on Si(001) utilizing a thin C-doped Ge buffer layer

    KAUST Repository

    Mantey, J.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present work on epitaxial Ge films grown on a thin buffer layer of C doped Ge (Ge:C). The growth rate of Ge:C is found to slow over time and is thus unsuitable for thick (>20 nm) layers. We demonstrate Ge films from 10 nm to >150 nm are possible by growing pure Ge on a thin Ge:C buffer. It is shown that this stack yields exceedingly low roughness levels (comparable to bulk Si wafers) and contains fewer defects and higher Hall mobility compared to traditional heteroepitaxial Ge. The addition of C at the interface helps reduce strain by its smaller atomic radius and its ability to pin defects within the thin buffer layer that do not thread to the top Ge layer. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  15. Buffer layers grown by replicating the texture of an original template tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sunme; Yoo, Jaeun; Park, Chan; Youm, Dojun

    2007-01-01

    We propose a fabrication method of the buffer layers, whose biaxial textures are replicated from an original template tape. The purpose of this method is economical texturing process for coated conductors. At first we prepared a biaxially textured metal tape (TM-tape). Then a sacrifice layer (SA), a buffer layer (BU) and a thick metallic layer (SM) were sequentially deposited on the TM-tape. SA-layer and BU-layer were deposited epitaxially to copy the texture of the TM-tape. SA-layer was dissoluble in water. SM-layer with the textured BU-layer was separated and could be used for a supporting tape for the further growth of a superconducting layer. In this way, it is possible to reuse the original textured TM-tape many times. In this paper, we report the results of our experiments, in which we used a biaxially Ni tape, BaO film, STO film, and a thick Ag film for TM-tape, SA-layer, BU-layer, and SM-layer, respectively. The Ag/STO layers were successfully separated form the Ni tape by dissolving the BaO layer in water. The texture quality of the STO layer was well secured after the separation

  16. Luminescence and Morphological Properties of GaN Layers Grown on SiC/Si(111) Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Ristic, J.; Calleja, E. [ISOM and Dpto. Ing. Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Serre, C.; Romano-Rodriguez, A.; Morante, J.R. [EME - Electronic Materials and Engineering, Department of Electronics, Universidad de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Koegler, R.; Skorupa, W. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., 01314 Dresden (Germany); Trampert, A.; Ploog, K.H. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2002-08-16

    This article describes the fabrication of SiC thin films on top of Si(111) substrates by means of a multiple C-ion implantation and the subsequent growth by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of GaN layers. The stoichiometry of the top SiC layer is controlled by reactive ion etching. Photoluminescence spectra reveal that all GaN layers are under biaxial tensile strain of thermal origin. The photoluminescence efficiency clearly depends on the stoichiometry of the initial SiC layer and on whether AlN buffer layers are used or not. GaN layers grown directly on bare non-stoichiometric SiC layers exhibit the best photoluminescence efficiency but also a high degree of mosaicity, as measured by X-ray diffraction techniques. The nucleation process involved in the initial stages of the growth leads to the formation of large dislocation-free grains with a high PL efficiency and with a higher tensile strain character. Despite the lack of a perfect monocrystalline SiC substrate lattice, high quality GaN microcrystals are obtained. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Comparative study of polar and semipolar (112¯2) InGaN layers grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, Duc V.; Zubialevich, V. Z.; Oehler, F.; Kappers, M. J.; Humphreys, C. J.; Alam, S. N.; Parbrook, P. J.; Caliebe, M.; Scholtz, F.

    2014-01-01

    InGaN layers were grown simultaneously on (112 ¯ 2) GaN and (0001) GaN templates by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy. At higher growth temperature (≥750 °C), the indium content ( ¯ 2) and (0001) InGaN layers was similar. However, for temperatures less than 750 °C, the indium content of the (112 ¯ 2) InGaN layers (15%–26%) were generally lower than those with (0001) orientation (15%–32%). The compositional deviation was attributed to the different strain relaxations between the (112 ¯ 2) and (0001) InGaN layers. Room temperature photoluminescence measurements of the (112 ¯ 2) InGaN layers showed an emission wavelength that shifts gradually from 380 nm to 580 nm with decreasing growth temperature (or increasing indium composition). The peak emission wavelength of the (112 ¯ 2) InGaN layers with an indium content of more than 10% blue-shifted a constant value of ≈(50–60) nm when using higher excitation power densities. This blue-shift was attributed to band filling effects in the layers.

  18. Near-field microwave microscopy of high-κ oxides grown on graphene with an organic seeding layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tselev, Alexander, E-mail: tseleva@ornl.gov; Kalinin, Sergei V. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Sangwan, Vinod K.; Jariwala, Deep; Lauhon, Lincoln J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2013-12-09

    Near-field scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) is used for non-destructive nanoscale characterization of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} films grown on epitaxial graphene on SiC by atomic layer deposition using a self-assembled perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride seeding layer. SMM allows imaging of buried inhomogeneities in the dielectric layer with a spatial resolution close to 100 nm. The results indicate that, while topographic features on the substrate surface cannot be eliminated as possible sites of defect nucleation, the use of a vertically heterogeneous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/HfO{sub 2} stack suppresses formation of large outgrowth defects in the oxide film, ultimately improving lateral uniformity of the dielectric film.

  19. Buffer optimization for crack-free GaN epitaxial layers grown on Si(1 1 1) substrate by MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Engin; Ozbay, Ekmel; Ozturk, Mustafa K; Ozcelik, Suleyman; Teke, Ali

    2008-01-01

    We report the growth of GaN films on the Si(1 1 1) substrate by metalorganic chemical vapour phase deposition (MOCVD). Different buffer layers were used to investigate their effects on the structural and optical properties of GaN layers. A series of GaN layers were grown on Si(1 1 1) with different buffer layers and buffer thicknesses and were characterized by Nomarski microscopy, atomic force microscopy, high-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. We first discuss the optimization of the LT-AlN/HT-AlN/Si(1 1 1) templates and then the optimization of the graded AlGaN intermediate layers. In order to prevent stress relaxation, step-graded AlGaN layers were introduced along with a crack-free GaN layer of thickness exceeding 2.6 μm. The XRD and PL measurements results confirmed that a wurtzite GaN was successfully grown. The resulting GaN film surfaces were flat, mirror-like and crack-free. The mosaic structure in the GaN layers was investigated. With a combination of Williamson-Hall measurements and the fitting of twist angles, it was found that the buffer thickness determines the lateral coherence length, vertical coherence length, as well as the tilt and twist of the mosaic blocks in GaN films. The PL spectra at 8 K show that a strong band edge photoluminescence of GaN on Si (1 1 1) emits light at an energy of 3.449 eV with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of approximately 16 meV. At room temperature, the peak position and FWHM of this emission become 3.390 eV and 58 meV, respectively. The origin of this peak was attributed to the neutral donor bound exciton. It was found that the optimized total thickness of the AlN and graded AlGaN layers played a very important role in the improvement of quality and in turn reduced the cracks during the growth of GaN/Si(1 1 1) epitaxial layers

  20. Polarity and microstructure in InN thin layers grown by MOVPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwano, N.; Nakahara, Y.; Amano, H.

    2006-01-01

    Microstructures in InN grown on sapphire (0001) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) (111) by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) were analyzed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to clarify the growth process. Special attention was paid to the selectivity of the crystal polarity of InN. The InN thin films grown on sapphire after nitridation has a flat surface while those grown on YSZ has hillocks on the surface. The crystal polarity was determined by comparing the experimentally observed intensity distribution in convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) disks with those simulated by the Broch-wave method. It was found that the InN grown on the sapphire has a nitrogen-polarity and the one on YSZ has a mixture of In- and N-polarities. The effect of surface-nitridation of sapphire on the growth process is also discussed (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Effects of a GaSb buffer layer on an InGaAs overlayer grown on Ge(111) substrates: Strain, twin generation, and surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikawa, Y.; Nishigaichi, M.; Tenma, S.; Kato, K.; Katsube, S.

    2018-04-01

    InGaAs layers were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on nominal and vicinal Ge(111) substrates with inserting GaSb buffer layers. High-resolution X-ray diffraction using symmetric 333 and asymmetric 224 reflections was employed to analyze the crystallographic properties of the grown layers. By using the two reflections, we determined the lattice constants (the unit cell length a and the angle α between axes) of the grown layers with taking into account the rhombohedral distortion of the lattices of the grown layers. This allowed us the independent determination of the strain components (perpendicular and parallel components to the substrate surface, ε⊥ and ε//) and the composition x of the InxGa1-xAs layers by assuming the distortion coefficient D, which is defined as the ratio of ε⊥ against ε//. Furthermore, the twin ratios were determined for the GaSb and the InGaAs layers by comparing asymmetric 224 reflections from the twin domain with that from the normal domain of the layers. As a result, it has been shown that the twin ratio in the InGaAs layer can be decreased to be less than 0.1% by the use of the vicinal substrate together with annealing the GaSb buffer layer during the growth interruption before the InGaAs overgrowth.

  2. Structural properties of layers of HgCdTe, grown by the laser epitaxy method on silicon substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plyatsko, S.V.; Vergush, M.M.; Litvin, P.M.; Kozirjev, Yu.M.; Shevlyakov, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    Thin films (0.1-1.5 μm) of HgCdTe on substrates Si (100) and Si (111) from monocrystal and pressed sources Hg 1-x Cd x Te (x=0.22) sprayed by laser IR radiation were grown and are investigated. The concentration of macro defects (drops) on the surface of films is determined by the relation of the diameter of a laser beam and depth of the crater, formed by laser irradiation. The size of crystal grains almost does not depend on the temperature of a substrate and power densities of a laser radiation and increases with the thickness of a layer

  3. Cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy of antiphase boundaries in epitaxially grown GaP layers on Si(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohl, Christopher; Lenz, Andrea, E-mail: alenz@physik.tu-berlin.de [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Festkörperphysik, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Döscher, Henning; Kleinschmidt, Peter; Hannappel, Thomas [Helmholtz Center Berlin for Materials and Energy, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    In a fundamental cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy investigation on epitaxially grown GaP layers on a Si(001) substrate, differently oriented antiphase boundaries are studied. They can be identified by a specific contrast and by surface step edges starting/ending at the position of an antiphase boundary. Moreover, a change in the atomic position of P and Ga atoms along the direction of growth is observed in agreement with the structure model of antiphase boundaries in the GaP lattice. This investigation opens the perspective to reveal the orientation and position of the antiphase boundaries at the atomic scale due to the excellent surface sensitivity of this method.

  4. New method for the determination of the defect profile in thin layers grown over a substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubiaga, A.; Garcia, J.A.; Plazaola, F.; Tuomisto, F.; Zuniga, J.; Munoz-Sanjose, V.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new method to obtain information about the defect profile of films grown over high quality substrates. The method is valid, at least, for films where the positron mean-diffusion length is small. We have used the method for the case of ZnO films grown over sapphire, but the method can be generalized very easily to other film/substrate systems. Applying the method to the ratio of W and S parameters obtained from Doppler broadening measurements, W/S plots, one can determine the thickness of the film and the defect profile trend in the film, when mainly one positron trap is contributing to positron trapping within the film. Indeed, the quality of such a characterization is very important for the potential technological applications of the film. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. New method for the determination of the defect profile in thin layers grown over a substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubiaga, A.; Garcia, J.A.; Plazaola, F. [Fisika Aplikatua II Saila, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Bilbao (Spain); Tuomisto, F. [Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Zuniga, J.; Munoz-Sanjose, V. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada i Electromagnetisme, Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    We present a new method to obtain information about the defect profile of films grown over high quality substrates. The method is valid, at least, for films where the positron mean-diffusion length is small. We have used the method for the case of ZnO films grown over sapphire, but the method can be generalized very easily to other film/substrate systems. Applying the method to the ratio of W and S parameters obtained from Doppler broadening measurements, W/S plots, one can determine the thickness of the film and the defect profile trend in the film, when mainly one positron trap is contributing to positron trapping within the film. Indeed, the quality of such a characterization is very important for the potential technological applications of the film. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Low-dislocation-density epitatial layers grown by defect filtering by self-assembled layers of spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George T.; Li, Qiming

    2013-04-23

    A method for growing low-dislocation-density material atop a layer of the material with an initially higher dislocation density using a monolayer of spheroidal particles to bend and redirect or directly block vertically propagating threading dislocations, thereby enabling growth and coalescence to form a very-low-dislocation-density surface of the material, and the structures made by this method.

  7. Layer-dependent supercapacitance of graphene films grown by chemical vapor deposition on nickel foam

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei; Fan, Zhongli; Zeng, Gaofeng; Lai, Zhiping

    2013-01-01

    High-quality, large-area graphene films with few layers are synthesized on commercial nickel foams under optimal chemical vapor deposition conditions. The number of graphene layers is adjusted by varying the rate of the cooling process. It is found

  8. Characterization for rbs of layers de grown cdznse for chemical deposition (cbd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrero, E.; Larramendi, E.; Calzadilla, O.

    1999-01-01

    Depth and composition of CdZnSe thin films grown by Chemical Bath Deposition were characterized by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry. Depth and the relative cuantitity of Se, both decrease when annealed in air. The films have a non-stoichiometric Cd:Zn:Se composition constant from the substrate to the surface , with vacancies of Se. After annealing all the films come up to a similar composition: Cd( Zn 0.2 )Se

  9. Strain and Structure Heterogeneity in MoS2 Atomic Layers Grown by Chemical Vapour Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-18

    cture heterogeneity in MoS2 atomiclayers grown by chemical vapour deposition 6. AUTHORS Zheng Liu, Matin Amani, Sina Najmaei, Quan Xu, Xiaolong Zou...deposition Zheng Liu1•2•3·*, Matin Amani4·*, Sina Najmaei5·*, Quan Xu6•7, Xiaolong Zou5, Wu Zhou8, Ting Yu9, Caiyu Qiu9, A Glen Birdwell4, Frank J. Crowne4

  10. Dimensional crossover of electron weak localization in ZnO/TiO{sub x} stacked layers grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, D., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Misra, P., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Joshi, M. P.; Kukreja, L. M. [Laser Materials Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India); Bhartiya, S. [Laser Materials Development & Devices Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India); Gupta, M. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore 452 017 (India)

    2016-01-25

    We report on the dimensional crossover of electron weak localization in ZnO/TiO{sub x} stacked layers having well-defined and spatially-localized Ti dopant profiles along film thickness. These films were grown by in situ incorporation of sub-monolayer TiO{sub x} on the growing ZnO film surface and subsequent overgrowth of thin conducting ZnO spacer layer using atomic layer deposition. Film thickness was varied in the range of ∼6–65 nm by vertically stacking different numbers (n = 1–7) of ZnO/TiO{sub x} layers of nearly identical dopant-profiles. The evolution of zero-field sheet resistance (R{sub ◻}) versus temperature with decreasing film thickness showed a metal to insulator transition. On the metallic side of the metal-insulator transition, R{sub ◻}(T) and magnetoresistance data were found to be well corroborated with the theoretical framework of electron weak localization in the diffusive transport regime. The temperature dependence of both R{sub ◻} and inelastic scattering length provided strong evidence for a smooth crossover from 2D to 3D weak localization behaviour. Results of this study provide deeper insight into the electron transport in low-dimensional n-type ZnO/TiO{sub x} stacked layers which have potential applications in the field of transparent oxide electronics.

  11. Engineering the mechanical properties of ultrabarrier films grown by atomic layer deposition for the encapsulation of printed electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulusu, A.; Singh, A.; Kim, H.; Wang, C. Y.; Dindar, A.; Fuentes-Hernandez, C.; Kippelen, B.; Cullen, D.; Graham, S.

    2015-01-01

    Direct deposition of barrier films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) onto printed electronics presents a promising method for packaging devices. Films made by ALD have been shown to possess desired ultrabarrier properties, but face challenges when directly grown onto surfaces with varying composition and topography. Challenges include differing nucleation and growth rates across the surface, stress concentrations from topography and coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch, elastic constant mismatch, and particle contamination that may impact the performance of the ALD barrier. In such cases, a polymer smoothing layer may be needed to coat the surface prior to ALD barrier film deposition. We present the impact of architecture on the performance of aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 )/hafnium oxide (HfO 2 ) ALD nanolaminate barrier films deposited on fluorinated polymer layer using an optical calcium (Ca) test under damp heat. It is found that with increasing polymer thickness, the barrier films with residual tensile stress are prone to cracking resulting in rapid failure of the Ca sensor at 50 °C/85% relative humidity. Inserting a SiN x layer with residual compressive stress between the polymer and ALD layers is found to prevent cracking over a range of polymer thicknesses with more than 95% of the Ca sensor remaining after 500 h of testing. These results suggest that controlling mechanical properties and film architecture play an important role in the performance of direct deposited ALD barriers

  12. Engineering the mechanical properties of ultrabarrier films grown by atomic layer deposition for the encapsulation of printed electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulusu, A.; Singh, A.; Kim, H. [Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Wang, C. Y.; Dindar, A.; Fuentes-Hernandez, C.; Kippelen, B. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Cullen, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008 MS-6064, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Graham, S., E-mail: sgraham@gatech.edu [Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008 MS-6064, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Direct deposition of barrier films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) onto printed electronics presents a promising method for packaging devices. Films made by ALD have been shown to possess desired ultrabarrier properties, but face challenges when directly grown onto surfaces with varying composition and topography. Challenges include differing nucleation and growth rates across the surface, stress concentrations from topography and coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch, elastic constant mismatch, and particle contamination that may impact the performance of the ALD barrier. In such cases, a polymer smoothing layer may be needed to coat the surface prior to ALD barrier film deposition. We present the impact of architecture on the performance of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3})/hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) ALD nanolaminate barrier films deposited on fluorinated polymer layer using an optical calcium (Ca) test under damp heat. It is found that with increasing polymer thickness, the barrier films with residual tensile stress are prone to cracking resulting in rapid failure of the Ca sensor at 50 °C/85% relative humidity. Inserting a SiN{sub x} layer with residual compressive stress between the polymer and ALD layers is found to prevent cracking over a range of polymer thicknesses with more than 95% of the Ca sensor remaining after 500 h of testing. These results suggest that controlling mechanical properties and film architecture play an important role in the performance of direct deposited ALD barriers.

  13. Microstructural and magnetic properties of L10 FePt-C (0 0 1) textured nanocomposite films grown on different intermediate layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J S; Chow, G M; Lim, B C; Hu, J F; Ding, Y F; Ju, G

    2008-01-01

    The FePt : C films with different volume fractions of carbon and different thicknesses were epitaxially grown on a CrRu(2 0 0) underlayer with Pt and MgO intermediate layers. The magnetic properties and microstructure of these FePt : C films were investigated. The FePt : C films grown on the Pt intermediate layer consisted of a continuous layer of FePt, with overlying granular FePt grains, while the FePt : C films grown on the MgO intermediate layer consisted of granular FePt : C layers with overlying granular grains. The formation of the overlying granular FePt grains was attributed to carbon diffusion to the surface which resulted in the second nucleation of FePt. The different interface energies and surface energies of FePt on Pt and MgO intermediate layers caused the formation of an initial continuous FePt layer on the Pt intermediate layer and initial granular FePt layers on the MgO intermediate layer. The coupling between the continuous FePt layer or the granular FePt layer and the overlying granular FePt grains resulted in simultaneous magnetization reversal and thus strong exchange coupling in FePt : C films.

  14. The effects of ZnO buffer layers on the properties of phosphorus doped ZnO thin films grown on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K-W; Lugo, F J; Lee, J H; Norton, D P

    2012-01-01

    The properties of phosphorus doped ZnO thin films grown on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition were examined, specifically focusing on the effects of undoped ZnO buffer layers. In particular, buffer layers were grown under different conditions; the transport properties of as-deposited and rapid thermal annealed ZnO:P films were then examined. As-deposited films showed n-type conductivity. After rapid thermal annealing, the film on buffer layer grown at a low temperature showed the conversion of carrier type to p-type for specific growth conditions while the films deposited on buffer layer grown at a high temperature remained n-type regardless of growth condition. The films deposited on buffer layer grown at a low temperature showed higher resistivity and more significant change of the transport properties upon rapid thermal annealing. These results suggest that more dopants are incorporated in films with higher defect density. This is consistent with high resolution x-ray diffraction results for phosphorus doped ZnO films on different buffer layers. In addition, the microstructure of phosphorus doped ZnO films is substantially affected by the buffer layer.

  15. Far-infrared phonon spectroscopy of Pb1-xMn xTe layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romcevic, N.; Nadolny, A.J.; Romcevic, M.; Story, T.; Taliashvili, B.; Milutinovic, A.; Trajic, J.; Lusakowska, E.; Vasiljevic-Radovic, D.; Domukhovski, V.; Osinniy, V.; Hadzic, B.; Dziawa, P.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we used far-infrared spectroscopy, reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED), X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate structural and optical properties of Pb 1-x Mn x Te layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). A numerical model for calculating the reflectivity coefficient for complex systems which include films, buffer layer and substrate has been applied. The infrared reflectivity spectra consist of Pb 1-x Mn x Te phonons, which exhibit intermediate one-two mode behavior, and MnTe phonons. A good agreement between calculated and experimental spectra is achieved. We registered the local distribution of Mn impurities depending on substrate type. For films growth on BaF 2 substrate we registered the orthorhombic local structure of MnTe clusters, while in the case of KCl substrate this structure is cubic. The Pb 1-x Mn x Te long wavelength optical phonons were described by the modified Genzel's model

  16. In-situ Ga doping of fully strained Ge1-xSnx heteroepitaxial layers grown on Ge(001) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimura, Y.; Takeuchi, S.; Nakatsuka, O.; Vincent, B.; Gencarelli, F.; Clarysse, T.; Vandervorst, W.; Caymax, M.; Loo, R.; Jensen, A.; Petersen, D.H.; Zaima, S.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the Ga and Sn content dependence of the crystallinity and electrical properties of Ga-doped Ge 1-x Sn x layers that are heteroepitaxially grown on Ge(001) substrates. The doping of Ga to levels as high as the solubility limit of Ga at the growth temperature leads to the introduction of dislocations, due to the increase in the strain of the Ge 1-x Sn x layers. We achieved the growth of a fully strained Ge 0.922 Sn 0.078 layer on Ge with a Ga concentration of 5.5 × 10 19 /cm 3 without any dislocations and stacking faults. The resistivity of the Ga-doped Ge 1-x Sn x layer decreased as the Sn content was increased. This decrease was due to an increase in the carrier concentration, with an increase in the activation level of Ga atoms in the Ge 1-x Sn x epitaxial layers being induced by the introduction of Sn. As a result, we found that the resistivity for the Ge 0.950 Sn 0.050 layer annealed at 600°C for 1 min is 3.6 times less than that of the Ga-doped Ge/Ge sample. - Highlights: ► Heavy Ga-doping into fully strained GeSn layers without the introduction of dislocations ► The uniform Ga depth profile allowed the introduction of Sn ► The decrease in resistivity with an increase in the activation level of Ga was caused by the introduction of Sn

  17. Structural characterization of oxidized allotaxially grown CoSi2 layers by x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaendler, I. D.; Seeck, O. H.; Schlomka, J.-P.; Tolan, M.; Press, W.; Stettner, J.; Kappius, L.; Dieker, C.; Mantl, S.

    2000-01-01

    A series of buried CoSi 2 layers prepared by a modified molecular beam epitaxy process (allotaxy) and a subsequent wet-oxidation process was investigated by x-ray scattering. The oxidation time which determines the depth in which the CoSi 2 layers are located within the Si substrates has been varied during the preparation. The electron density profiles and the structure of the interfaces were extracted from specular reflectivity and diffuse scattering measurements. Crystal truncation rod investigations yielded the structure on an atomic level (crystalline quality). It turns out that the roughness of the CoSi 2 layers increases drastically with increasing oxidation time, i.e., with increasing depth of the buried layers. Furthermore, the x-ray data reveal that the oxidation growth process is diffusion limited. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  18. Study of ion implantation in grown layers of multilayer coatings under ion-plasma vacuum deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voevodin, A.A.; Erokhin, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    The model of ion implantation into growing layers of a multilayer coating produced with vacuum ion-plasma deposition was developed. The model takes into account a possibility for ions to pass through the growing layer and alloys to find the distribution of implanted atoms over the coating thickness. The experimental vitrification of the model was carried out on deposition of Ti and TiN coatings

  19. High-resistivity unintentionally carbon-doped GaN layers with nitrogen as nucleation layer carrier gas grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, high-resistivity unintentionally carbon-doped GaN layers with sheet resistivity greater than 106 Ω/□ have been grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD. We have observed that the growth of GaN nucleation layers (NLs under N2 ambient leads to a large full width at half maximum (FWHM of (102 X-ray diffraction (XRD line in the rocking curve about 1576 arc sec. Unintentional carbon incorporation can be observed in the secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS measurements. The results demonstrate the self-compensation mechanism is attributed to the increased density of edge-type threading dislocations and carbon impurities. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT grown on the high-resistivity GaN template has also been fabricated, exhibiting a maximum drain current of 478 mA/mm, a peak transconductance of 60.0 mS/mm, an ON/OFF ratio of 0.96×108 and a breakdown voltage of 621 V.

  20. High-resistivity unintentionally carbon-doped GaN layers with nitrogen as nucleation layer carrier gas grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu; Sun, Shichuang; Deng, Xuguang; Fu, Kai; Yu, Guohao; Song, Liang; Hao, Ronghui; Fan, Yaming; Cai, Yong; Zhang, Baoshun

    2017-12-01

    In this letter, high-resistivity unintentionally carbon-doped GaN layers with sheet resistivity greater than 106 Ω/□ have been grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We have observed that the growth of GaN nucleation layers (NLs) under N2 ambient leads to a large full width at half maximum (FWHM) of (102) X-ray diffraction (XRD) line in the rocking curve about 1576 arc sec. Unintentional carbon incorporation can be observed in the secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) measurements. The results demonstrate the self-compensation mechanism is attributed to the increased density of edge-type threading dislocations and carbon impurities. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT grown on the high-resistivity GaN template has also been fabricated, exhibiting a maximum drain current of 478 mA/mm, a peak transconductance of 60.0 mS/mm, an ON/OFF ratio of 0.96×108 and a breakdown voltage of 621 V.

  1. CVD grown 2D MoS{sub 2} layers: A photoluminescence and fluorescence lifetime imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezden, Ayberk; Madenoglu, Buesra [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Sar, Hueseyin; Ay, Feridun; Perkgoez, Nihan Kosku [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Yeltik, Aydan [Department of Physics, UNAM Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara (Turkey); Sevik, Cem [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2016-11-15

    In this letter, we report on the fluorescence lifetime imaging and accompanying photoluminescence properties of a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown atomically thin material, MoS{sub 2}. μ-Raman, μ-photoluminescence (PL) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) are utilized to probe the fluorescence lifetime and photoluminescence properties of individual flakes of MoS{sub 2} films. Usage of these three techniques allows identification of the grown layers, grain boundaries, structural defects and their relative effects on the PL and fluorescence lifetime spectra. Our investigation on individual monolayer flakes reveals a clear increase of the fluorescence lifetime from 0.3 ns to 0.45 ns at the edges with respect to interior region. On the other hand, investigation of the film layer reveals quenching of PL intensity and lifetime at the grain boundaries. These results could be important for applications where the activity of edges is important such as in photocatalytic water splitting. Finally, it has been demonstrated that PL mapping and FLIM are viable techniques for the investigation of the grain-boundaries. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Growth and characterization of polar and nonpolar ZnO film grown on sapphire substrates by using atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki-Wook; Son, Hyo-Soo; Choi, Nak-Jung; Kim, Jihoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the electrical and the optical properties of polar and nonpolar ZnO films grown on sapphire substrates with different crystallographic planes. High resolution X-ray results revealed that polar c-plane (0001), nonpolar m-plane (10-10) and a-plane (11-20) ZnO thin films were grown on c-plane, m- and r-sapphire substrates by atomic layer deposition, respectively. Compared with the c-plane ZnO film, nonpolar m-plane and a-plane ZnO films showed smaller surface roughness and anisotropic surface structures. Regardless of ZnO crystal planes, room temperature photoluminescence spectra represented two emissions which consisted of the near bandedge (∼ 380 nm) and the deep level emission (∼ 500 nm). The a-plane ZnO films represented better optical and electrical properties than c-plane ZnO, while m-plane ZnO films exhibited poorer optical and electrical properties than c-plane ZnO. - Highlights: • Growth and characterization of a-, c- and m-plane ZnO film by atomic layer deposition. • The a-plane ZnO represented better optical and electrical properties than c-plane ZnO. • The m-plane ZnO exhibited poorer optical and electrical properties than c-plane ZnO

  3. Inverted fractal analysis of TiO{sub x} thin layers grown by inverse pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Égerházi, L., E-mail: egerhazi.laszlo@gmail.com [University of Szeged, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Physics and Informatics, Korányi fasor 9., H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Smausz, T. [University of Szeged, Faculty of Science, Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, Dóm tér 9., H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Bari, F. [University of Szeged, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Physics and Informatics, Korányi fasor 9., H-6720 Szeged (Hungary)

    2013-08-01

    Inverted fractal analysis (IFA), a method developed for fractal analysis of scanning electron microscopy images of cauliflower-like thin films is presented through the example of layers grown by inverse pulsed laser deposition (IPLD). IFA uses the integrated fractal analysis module (FracLac) of the image processing software ImageJ, and an objective thresholding routine that preserves the characteristic features of the images, independently of their brightness and contrast. IFA revealed f{sub D} = 1.83 ± 0.01 for TiO{sub x} layers grown at 5–50 Pa background pressures. For a series of images, this result was verified by evaluating the scaling of the number of still resolved features on the film, counted manually. The value of f{sub D} not only confirms the fractal structure of TiO{sub x} IPLD thin films, but also suggests that the aggregation of plasma species in the gas atmosphere may have only limited contribution to the deposition.

  4. Layered double hydroxides/polymer thin films grown by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birjega, R.; Matei, A.; Mitu, B.; Ionita, M.D.; Filipescu, M.; Stokker-Cheregi, F.; Luculescu, C.; Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., 77125 Bucharest–Magurele (Romania); Zavoianu, R.; Pavel, O.D. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Chemical Technology and Catalysis, 4-12 Regina Elisabeta Bd., Bucharest (Romania); Corobea, M.C. [National R. and S. Institute for Chemistry and Petrochemistry, ICECHIM, 202 Splaiul Independentei Str., CP-35-274, 060021, Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-09-30

    Due to their highly tunable properties, layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are an emerging class of the favorably layered crystals used for the preparation of multifunctional polymer/layered crystal nanocomposites. In contrast to cationic clay materials with negatively charge layers, LDHs are the only host lattices with positively charged layers (brucite-like), with interlayer exchangeable anions and intercalated water. In this work, the deposition of thin films of Mg and Al based LDH/polymers nanocomposites by laser techniques is reported. Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation was the method used for thin films deposition. The Mg–Al LDHs capability to act as a host for polymers and to produce hybrid LDH/polymer films has been investigated. Polyethylene glycol with different molecular mass compositions and ethylene glycol were used as polymers. The structure and surface morphology of the deposited LDH/polymers films were examined by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. - Highlights: • Hybrid composites deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). • Mg–Al layered double hydroxides (LDH) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) are used. • Mixtures of PEG1450 and LDH were deposited by MAPLE. • Deposited thin films preserve the properties of the starting material. • The film wettability can be controlled by the amount of PEG.

  5. Thin-Film Solar Cells with InP Absorber Layers Directly Grown on Nonepitaxial Metal Substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Maxwell

    2015-08-25

    The design and performance of solar cells based on InP grown by the nonepitaxial thin-film vapor-liquid-solid (TF-VLS) growth technique is investigated. The cell structure consists of a Mo back contact, p-InP absorber layer, n-TiO2 electron selective contact, and indium tin oxide transparent top electrode. An ex situ p-doping process for TF-VLS grown InP is introduced. Properties of the cells such as optoelectronic uniformity and electrical behavior of grain boundaries are examined. The power conversion efficiency of first generation cells reaches 12.1% under simulated 1 sun illumination with open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 692 mV, short-circuit current (JSC) of 26.9 mA cm-2, and fill factor (FF) of 65%. The FF of the cell is limited by the series resistances in the device, including the top contact, which can be mitigated in the future through device optimization. The highest measured VOC under 1 sun is 692 mV, which approaches the optically implied VOC of ≈795 mV extracted from the luminescence yield of p-InP. The design and performance of solar cells based on indium phosphide (InP) grown by the nonepitaxial thin-film vapor-liquid-solid growth technique is investigated. The cell structure consists of a Mo back contact, p-InP absorber layer, n-TiO2 electron selective contact, and an indium tin oxide transparent top electrode. The highest measured open circuit voltage (VOC) under 1 sun is 692 mV, which approaches the optically implied VOC of ≈795 mV extracted from the luminescence yield of p-InP.

  6. Effect of Sn Composition in Ge1- x Sn x Layers Grown by Using Rapid Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Yeon-Ho; Kang, Sukill; Jeong, Tae Soo; Shim, Kyu-Hwan; Kim, Dae-Jung; Choi, Yong-Dae; Kim, Mi Joung; Kim, Taek Sung

    2018-05-01

    The Ge1- x Sn x layers were grown by using rapid thermal chemical-vapor deposition (RTCVD) on boron-doped p-type Si (100) substrates with Sn compositions up to x = 0.83%. In order to obtain effect of the Sn composition on the structural and the optical characteristics, we utilized highresolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), etch pit density (EPD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy, and photocurrent (PC) spectra. The Sn compositions in the Ge1- x Sn x layers were found to be of x = 0.00%, 0.51%, 0.65%, and 0.83%. The root-mean-square (RMS) of the surface roughness of the Ge1- x Sn x layer increased from 2.02 nm to 3.40 nm as the Sn composition was increased from 0.51% to 0.83%, and EPD was on the order of 108 cm-2. The Raman spectra consist of only one strong peak near 300 cm-1, which is assigned to the Ge-Ge LO peaks and the Raman peaks shift to the wave number with increasing Sn composition. Photocurrent spectra show near energy band gap peaks and their peak energies decrease with increasing Sn composition due to band-gap bowing in the Ge1- x Sn x layer. An increase in the band gap bowing parameter was observed with increasing Sn composition.

  7. Crystallinity and superconductivity of as-grown MgB2 thin films with AlN buffer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, K.; Shimakage, H.; Wang, Z.; Kaya, N.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of aluminum nitride (AlN) buffer layers on the superconducting properties of MgB 2 thin film were investigated. The AlN buffer layers and as-grown MgB 2 thin films were deposited in situ using the multiple-target sputtering system. The best depositing condition for the AlN/MgB 2 bi-layer occurred when the AlN was deposited on c-cut sapphire substrates at 290 deg. C. The crystallinity of the AlN/MgB 2 bi-layer was studied using the XRD φ-scan and it showed that AlN and MgB 2 had the same in-plane alignment rotated at an angle of 30 deg. as compared to c-cut sapphire. The critical temperature of the MgB 2 film was 29.8 K and the resistivity was 50.0 μΩ cm at 40 K

  8. Effect of e-beam irradiation on graphene layer grown by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M. Z.; Kumar Singh, Arun; Iqbal, M. W.; Seo, Sunae; Eom, Jonghwa

    2012-01-01

    We have grown graphene by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and transferred it onto Si/SiO 2 substrates to make tens of micron scale devices for Raman spectroscopy study. The effect of electron beam (e-beam) irradiation of various doses (600 to 12 000 μC/cm 2 ) on CVD grown graphene has been examined by using Raman spectroscopy. It is found that the radiation exposures result in the appearance of the strong disorder D band attributed the damage to the lattice. The evolution of peak frequencies, intensities, and widths of the main Raman bands of CVD graphene is analyzed as a function of defect created by e-beam irradiation. Especially, the D and G peak evolution with increasing radiation dose follows the amorphization trajectory, which suggests transformation of graphene to the nanocrystalline and then to amorphous form. We have also estimated the strain induced by e-beam irradiation in CVD graphene. These results obtained for CVD graphene are in line with previous findings reported for the mechanically exfoliated graphene [D. Teweldebrhan and A. A. Balandin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 013101 (2009)]. The results have important implications for CVD graphene characterization and device fabrication, which rely on the electron microscopy.

  9. Layer-dependent supercapacitance of graphene films grown by chemical vapor deposition on nickel foam

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2013-03-01

    High-quality, large-area graphene films with few layers are synthesized on commercial nickel foams under optimal chemical vapor deposition conditions. The number of graphene layers is adjusted by varying the rate of the cooling process. It is found that the capacitive properties of graphene films are related to the number of graphene layers. Owing to the close attachment of graphene films on the nickel substrate and the low charge-transfer resistance, the specific capacitance of thinner graphene films is almost twice that of the thicker ones and remains stable up to 1000 cycles. These results illustrate the potential for developing high-performance graphene-based electrical energy storage devices. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) grown bi-layer graphene transistor characteristics at high temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Qaisi, Ramy M.

    2014-05-15

    We report the characteristics of atmospheric chemical vapor deposition grown bilayer graphene transistors fabricated on ultra-scaled (10 nm) high-κ dielectric aluminum oxide (Al2O3) at elevated temperatures. We observed that the drive current increased by >400% as temperature increased from room temperature to 250 °C. Low gate leakage was maintained for prolonged exposure at 100 °C but increased significantly at temperatures >200 °C. These results provide important insights for considering chemical vapor deposition graphene on aluminum oxide for high temperature applications where low power and high frequency operation are required. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) grown bi-layer graphene transistor characteristics at high temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Qaisi, Ramy M.; Smith, Casey; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    We report the characteristics of atmospheric chemical vapor deposition grown bilayer graphene transistors fabricated on ultra-scaled (10 nm) high-κ dielectric aluminum oxide (Al2O3) at elevated temperatures. We observed that the drive current increased by >400% as temperature increased from room temperature to 250 °C. Low gate leakage was maintained for prolonged exposure at 100 °C but increased significantly at temperatures >200 °C. These results provide important insights for considering chemical vapor deposition graphene on aluminum oxide for high temperature applications where low power and high frequency operation are required. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Optical characterization of MOVPE grown δ-InAs layers in GaAs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hazdra, P.; Voves, J.; Hulicius, Eduard; Pangrác, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2005), s. 1319-1324 ISSN 1610-1634 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010318; GA MŠk(CZ) LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : δ-layer * MOVPE * GaAs * photoluminescence * photocurrent * photoreflectance Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  13. High quality InAsSb grown on InP substrates using AlSb/AlAsSb buffer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, B.-R.; Liao, C.; Cheng, K. Y.

    2008-01-01

    High quality InAsSb grown on semi-insulating InP substrates by molecular beam epitaxy was achieved using AlSb/AlAsSb structure as the buffer layer. A 1000 A InAsSb layer grown on top of 1 μm AlSb/AlAsSb buffer layer showed a room temperature electron mobility of ∼12 000 cm 2 /V s. High structural quality and low misfit defect density were also demonstrated in the InAsSb layer. This novel AlSb/AlAsSb buffer layer structure with the AlAsSb layer lattice matched to InP substrates could enhance the performance of optoelectronic devices utilizing 6.1 A family of compound semiconductor alloys

  14. Strain-free GaN thick films grown on single crystalline ZnO buffer layer with in situ lift-off technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. W.; Minegishi, T.; Lee, W. H.; Goto, H.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Ha, J. S.; Goto, T.; Hanada, T.; Cho, M. W.; Yao, T.

    2007-01-01

    Strain-free freestanding GaN layers were prepared by in situ lift-off process using a ZnO buffer as a sacrificing layer. Thin Zn-polar ZnO layers were deposited on c-plane sapphire substrates, which was followed by the growth of Ga-polar GaN layers both by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The MBE-grown GaN layer acted as a protecting layer against decomposition of the ZnO layer and as a seeding layer for GaN growth. The ZnO layer was completely in situ etched off during growth of thick GaN layers at low temperature by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Hence freestanding GaN layers were obtained for the consecutive growth of high-temperature GaN thick layers. The lattice constants of freestanding GaN agree with those of strain-free GaN bulk. Extensive microphotoluminescence study indicates that strain-free states extend throughout the high-temperature grown GaN layers

  15. Heavily doped GaAs:Te layers grown by MOVPE using diisopropyl telluride as a source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniltsev, V. M.; Demidov, E. V.; Drozdov, M. N.; Drozdov, Yu. N., E-mail: drozdyu@ipmras.ru; Kraev, S. A.; Surovegina, E. A.; Shashkin, V. I.; Yunin, P. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The capabilities of GaAs epitaxial layers extremely heavily doped with tellurium by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy using diisopropyl telluride as a source are studied. It is shown that tellurium incorporation into GaAs occurs to an atomic concentration of 10{sup 21} cm{sup –3} without appreciable diffusion and segregation effects. Good carrier concentrations (2 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup –3}) and specific contact resistances of non-alloyed ohmic contacts (1.7 × 10{sup –6} Ω cm{sup 2}) give grounds to use such layers to create non-alloyed ohmic contacts in electronic devices. A sharp decrease in the electrical activity of Te atoms, a decrease in the electron mobility, and an increase in the contact resistance at atomic concentrations above 2 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup –3} are detected.

  16. Thermoelectric energy conversion in layered structures with strained Ge quantum dots grown on Si surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotchenkov, Oleg; Nadtochiy, Andriy; Kuryliuk, Vasyl; Wang, Chin-Chi; Li, Pei-Wen; Cantarero, Andres

    2014-03-01

    The efficiency of the energy conversion devices depends in many ways on the materials used and various emerging cost-effective nanomaterials have promised huge potentials in highly efficient energy conversion. Here we show that thermoelectric voltage can be enhanced by a factor of 3 using layer-cake growth of Ge quantum dots through thermal oxidation of SiGe layers stacked in SiO2/Si3N4 multilayer structure. The key to achieving this behavior has been to strain the Ge/Si interface by Ge dots migrating to Si substrate. Calculations taking into account the carrier trapping in the dot with a quantum transmission into the neighboring dot show satisfactory agreement with experiments above ≈200 K. The results may be of interest for improving the functionality of thermoelectric devices based on Ge/Si.

  17. GaN epitaxial layers grown on multilayer graphene by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianbao; Liu, Chenyang; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Bin; Dong, Hailiang; Jia, Wei; Jia, Zhigang; Yu, Chunyan; Gan, Lin; Xu, Bingshe

    2018-04-01

    In this study, GaN epitaxial layers were successfully deposited on a multilayer graphene (MLG) by using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Highly crystalline orientations of the GaN films were confirmed through electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). An epitaxial relationship between GaN films and MLG is unambiguously established by transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The Raman spectra was used to analyze the internal stress of GaN films, and the spectrum shows residual tensile stress in the GaN films. Moreover, the results of the TEM analysis and Raman spectra indicate that the high quality of the MLG substrate is maintained even after the growth of the GaN film. This high-quality MLG makes it possible to easily remove epitaxial layers from the supporting substrate by micro-mechanical exfoliation technology. This work can aid in the development of transferable devices using GaN films.

  18. The role of defects in fluorescent silicon carbide layers grown by sublimation epitaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schimmel, Saskia; Kaiser, Michl; Jokubavicius, Valdas

    Donor-acceptor co-doped silicon carbide layers are promising light converters for novel monolithic all-semiconductor LEDs due to their broad-band donor-acceptor pair luminescence and potentially high internal quantum efficiency. Besides appropriate doping concentrations yielding low radiative...... lifetimes, high nonradiative lifetimes are crucial for efficient light conversion. Despite the excellent crystalline quality that can generally be obtained by sublimation epitaxy according to XRD measurements, the role of defects in f-SiC is not yet well understood. Recent results from room temperature...... photoluminescence, charge carrier lifetime measurements by microwave detected photoconductivity and internal quantum efficiency measurements suggest that the internal quantum efficiency of f-SiC layers is significantly affected by the incorporation of defects during epitaxy. Defect formation seems to be related...

  19. Evolution of microstructure and related optical properties of ZnO grown by atomic layer deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adib Abou Chaaya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of transmittance and photoluminescence spectra on the growth of oxygen-rich ultra-thin ZnO films prepared by atomic layer deposition is reported. The structural transition from an amorphous to a polycrystalline state is observed upon increasing the thickness. The unusual behavior of the energy gap with thickness reflected by optical properties is attributed to the improvement of the crystalline structure resulting from a decreasing concentration of point defects at the growth of grains. The spectra of UV and visible photoluminescence emissions correspond to transitions near the band-edge and defect-related transitions. Additional emissions were observed from band-tail states near the edge. A high oxygen ratio and variable optical properties could be attractive for an application of atomic layer deposition (ALD deposited ultrathin ZnO films in optical sensors and biosensors.

  20. Optical and magnetic resonance studies of Mg-doped GaN homoepitaxial layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaser, E.R.; Murthy, M.; Freitas, J.A.; Storm, D.F.; Zhou, L.; Smith, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    Low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) and optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) at 24 GHz have been performed on a series of MBE-grown Mg-doped (10 17 -10 20 cm -3 ) GaN homoepitaxial layers. High-resolution PL at 5 K revealed intense bandedge emission with narrow linewidths (0.2-0.4 meV) attributed to annihilation of excitons bound to shallow Mg acceptors. In contrast to many previous reports for GaN heteroepitaxial layers doped with [Mg]>3x10 18 cm -3 , the only visible PL observed was strong shallow donor-shallow acceptor recombination with zero phonon line at 3.27 eV. Most notably, ODMR on this emission from a sample doped with [Mg] of 1x10 17 cm -3 revealed the first evidence for the highly anisotropic g-tensor (g parallel ∼2.19, g perpendicular ∼0) expected for Mg shallow acceptors in wurtzite GaN. This result is attributed to the much reduced dislocation densities (≤5x10 6 cm -3 ) and Mg impurity concentrations compared to those characteristic of the more conventional investigated Mg-doped GaN heteroepitaxial layers

  1. Structural and optical properties of GaxIn1-xP layers grown by chemical beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Tae-Yeon; Yang, Jung-Ja; Ryu, Mee Yi; Song, Jong-In; Yu, Phil W.

    1998-05-01

    Chemical beam epitaxial (CBE) GaxIn1-xP layers (x≈0.5) grown on (001) GaAs substrates at temperatures ranging from 490 to 580°C have been investigated using transmission electron diffraction (TED), transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence (PL). TED examination revealed the presence of diffuse scattering 1/2{111}B positions, indicating the occurrence of typical CuPt-type ordering in the GaInP CBE layers. As the growth temperature decreased from 580 to 490°C, maxima in the intensity of the diffuse scattering moved from ½{111}B to ½{-1+δ,1-δ,0} positions, where δ is a positive value. As the growth temperature increased from 490 to 550°C, the maxima in the diffuse scattering intensity progressively approached positions of 1/2\\{bar 110\\} , i.e., the value of δ decreased from 0.25 to 0.17. Bandgap reduction (˜45 meV) was observed in the CBE GaInP layers and was attributed to the presence of ordered structures.

  2. Direct insight into grains formation in Si layers grown on 3C-SiC by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazaka, Rami; Portail, Marc; Vennéguès, Philippe; Alquier, Daniel; Michaud, Jean François

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this contribution, we demonstrated the influence of the 3C-SiC layer on the subsequent growth of Si epilayers. We were able to give a direct evidence that the rotation in the Si epilayer of 90° around the growth direction occurs exactly on the termination of an antiphase boundary in the 3C-SiC layer as shown in the figure above. Thus, increasing the layer thickness of the 3C-SiC leads to a direct improvement of the crystalline quality of the subsequent Si epilayer. (a) Cross-section bright-field TEM image of the Si/3C-SiC layer stack along two 3C-SiC zone axes [1 −1 0] and [1 1 0] (equivalent to [1 −1 1] and [1 1 2] in Si, respectively), (b) dark field image selecting a (2 0 −2) electron diffraction spot indicated by the black circle in the SAED shown as inset, (c) dark field image selecting a (−1 1 −1) electron diffraction spot indicated by the black circle in the SAED shown as inset. The dotted white line in the images show the position of the defect in the 3C-SiC layer. - Abstract: This work presents a structural study of silicon (Si) thin films grown on cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) by chemical vapor deposition. The presence of grains rotated by 90° around the growth direction in the Si layer is directly related to the presence of antiphase domains on the 3C-SiC surface. We were able to provide a direct evidence that the 90° rotation of Si grains around the growth direction occurs exactly on the termination of antiphase boundaries (APBs) in 3C-SiC layer. Increasing the 3C-SiC thickness reduces the APBs density on 3C-SiC surface leading to a clear improvement of the uppermost Si film crystal quality. Furthermore, we observed by high resolution plan-view TEM images the presence of hexagonal Si domains limited to few nm in size. These hexagonal Si domains are inclusions in small Si grains enclosed in larger ones rotated by 90°. Finally, we propose a model of grains formation in the Si layer taking into consideration the effect

  3. Ellipsometry study on Pd thin film grown by atomic layer deposition with Maxwell–Garnett effective medium approximation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yihang; Zhou, Xueqi; Cao, Kun [State Key Laboratory of Digital of Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die & Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Xiuguo; Deng, Zhang [State Key Laboratory of Digital of Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Shiyuan, E-mail: shyliu@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Digital of Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Shan, Bin [State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die & Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Rong, E-mail: rongchen@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Digital of Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2015-10-30

    Maxwell–Garnett effective medium approximation (MG-EMA) model is chosen to study Pd ultrathin film grown on Si substrate, as well as its growth on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) modified substrate respectively. The general oscillator (GO) model with one Drude and two Lorentz oscillators is firstly applied to fix the optical constants of Pd. Compared with Pd bulk model, MG-EMA model with GO is more reliable to predict the film thickness verified by X-ray reflection test. The stable growth rate on Si substrate reveals our methods are feasible and the quartz crystal microbalance measurement confirms the stability of the ALD chamber. For Pd coverage, MG-EMA fitting result is similar to the statistical computation from scanning electron microscope when Pd ALD cycles are over 400, while large bias exists for cycles under 400, might be due to that air is not the proper filling medium between nanoparticles. Then we change the filling medium into SAMs as a comparison, better fitting performance is obtained. It is demonstrated that the filling medium between nanoparticles is important for the application of MG-EMA model. - Highlights: • Ultrathin Pd thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition. • The measurement of thin film was important to understand initial growth behavior. • Maxwell–Garnett effective medium approximation model was applied. • Pd nanoparticle size and coverage were studied. • The filling medium between nanoparticles was important for model application.

  4. Phase-coherent electron transport in (Zn, Al)Ox thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, D.; Misra, P.; Ajimsha, R. S.; Joshi, M. P.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2014-11-01

    A clear signature of disorder induced quantum-interference phenomena leading to phase-coherent electron transport was observed in (Zn, Al)Ox thin films grown by atomic layer deposition. The degree of static-disorder was tuned by varying the Al concentration through periodic incorporation of Al2O3 sub-monolayer in ZnO. All the films showed small negative magnetoresistance due to magnetic field suppressed weak-localization effect. The temperature dependence of phase-coherence length ( l φ ∝ T - 3 / 4 ), as extracted from the magnetoresistance measurements, indicated electron-electron scattering as the dominant dephasing mechanism. The persistence of quantum-interference at relatively higher temperatures up to 200 K is promising for the realization of ZnO based phase-coherent electron transport devices.

  5. Phase-coherent electron transport in (Zn, Al)O{sub x} thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, D., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Misra, P., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Ajimsha, R. S.; Joshi, M. P.; Kukreja, L. M. [Laser Materials Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India)

    2014-11-24

    A clear signature of disorder induced quantum-interference phenomena leading to phase-coherent electron transport was observed in (Zn, Al)O{sub x} thin films grown by atomic layer deposition. The degree of static-disorder was tuned by varying the Al concentration through periodic incorporation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sub-monolayer in ZnO. All the films showed small negative magnetoresistance due to magnetic field suppressed weak-localization effect. The temperature dependence of phase-coherence length (l{sub φ}∝T{sup −3/4}), as extracted from the magnetoresistance measurements, indicated electron-electron scattering as the dominant dephasing mechanism. The persistence of quantum-interference at relatively higher temperatures up to 200 K is promising for the realization of ZnO based phase-coherent electron transport devices.

  6. The role of defects in fluorescent silicon carbide layers grown by sublimation epitaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schimmel, Saskia; Kaiser, Michl; Jokubavicius, Valdas

    2014-01-01

    Donor-acceptor co-doped SiC is a promising light converter for novel monolithic all-semiconductor white LEDs due to its broad-band donor-acceptor pair luminescence and potentially high internal quantum efficiency. Besides sufficiently high doping concentrations in an appropriate ratio yielding...... short radiative lifetimes, long nonradiative lifetimes are crucial for efficient light conversion. The impact of different types of defects is studied by characterizing fluorescent silicon carbide layers with regard to photoluminescence intensity, homogeneity and efficiency taking into account...

  7. Elimination of macrostep-induced current flow nonuniformity in vertical GaN PN diode using carbon-free drift layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikura, Hajime; Hayashi, Kentaro; Horikiri, Fumimasa; Narita, Yoshinobu; Konno, Taichiro; Yoshida, Takehiro; Ohta, Hiroshi; Mishima, Tomoyoshi

    2018-04-01

    In vertical GaN PN diodes (PNDs) grown entirely by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), large current nonuniformity was observed. This nonuniformity was induced by macrosteps on the GaN surface through modulation of carbon incorporation into the n-GaN crystal. It was eliminated in a hybrid PND consisting of a carbon-free n-GaN layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) and an MOCVD-regrown p-GaN layer. The hybrid PND showed a fairly low on-resistance (2 mΩ cm2) and high breakdown voltage (2 kV) even without a field plate electrode. These results clearly indicated the strong advantages of the HVPE-grown drift layer for improving power device performance, uniformity, and yield.

  8. Near-infrared light absorption by polycrystalline SiSn alloys grown on insulating layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosawa, Masashi, E-mail: kurosawa@alice.xtal.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); JSPS, 5-3-1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Kato, Motohiro; Yamaha, Takashi; Taoka, Noriyuki; Nakatsuka, Osamu [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Zaima, Shigeaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-04-27

    High-Sn-content SiSn alloys are strongly desired for the next-generation near-infrared optoelectronics. A polycrystalline growth study has been conducted on amorphous SiSn layers with a Sn-content of 2%–30% deposited on either a substrate of SiO{sub 2} or SiN. Incorporating 30% Sn into Si permits the crystallization of the amorphous layers at annealing temperatures below the melting point of Sn (231.9 °C). Composition analyses indicate that approximately 20% of the Sn atoms are substituted into the Si lattice after solid-phase crystallization at 150–220 °C for 5 h. Correspondingly, the optical absorption edge is red-shifted from 1.12 eV (Si) to 0.83 eV (Si{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} (x ≈ 0.18 ± 0.04)), and the difference between the indirect and direct band gap is significantly reduced from 3.1 eV (Si) to 0.22 eV (Si{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} (x ≈ 0.18 ± 0.04)). These results suggest that with higher substitutional Sn content the SiSn alloys could become a direct band-gap material, which would provide benefits for Si photonics.

  9. A Comparative Study on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Micro-Nanorod Arrays Grown on Seed Layers Using Chemical Bath Deposition and Spin Coating Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel MORKOÇ KARADENİZ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Zinc Oxide (ZnO seed layers were prepared on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO substrates by using Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD method and Sol-gel Spin Coating (SC method. ZnO micro-nanorod arrays were grown on ZnO seed layers by using Hydrothermal Synthesis method. Seed layer effects of structural and optical properties of ZnO arrays were characterized. X-ray diffractometer (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Ultraviolet Visible (UV-Vis Spectrometer were used for analyses. ZnO micro-nanorod arrays consisted of a single crystalline wurtzite ZnO structure for each seed layer. Besides, ZnO rod arrays were grown smoothly and vertically on SC seed layer, while ZnO rod arrays were grown randomly and flower like structures on CBD seed layer. The optical absorbance peaks found at 422 nm wavelength in the visible region for both ZnO arrays. Optical bandgap values were determined by using UV-Vis measurements at 3.12 and 3.15 eV for ZnO micro-nanorod arrays on CBD seed layer and for ZnO micro-nanorod arrays on SC-seed layer respectively.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.13443

  10. Quantum size effects in TiO2 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tallarida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the atomic layer deposition of TiO2 by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The Ti precursor, titanium isopropoxide, was used in combination with H2O on Si/SiO2 substrates that were heated at 200 °C. The low growth rate (0.15 Å/cycle and the in situ characterization permitted to follow changes in the electronic structure of TiO2 in the sub-nanometer range, which are influenced by quantum size effects. The modified electronic properties may play an important role in charge carrier transport and separation, and increase the efficiency of energy conversion systems.

  11. Transmission electron microscopy studies of HfO{sub 2} thin films grown by chloride-based atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.R.G. [Institute of Materials and Engineering Science, ANSTO, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)]. E-mail: drm@ansto.gov.au; Aidla, A. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Taehe 4, EE-51010 Tartu (Estonia); Aarik, J. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Taehe 4, EE-51010 Tartu (Estonia)

    2006-11-15

    Detailed transmission electron microscopy characterization of HfO{sub 2} films deposited on Si(1 0 0) using atomic layer deposition has been carried out. The influence of deposition temperature has been investigated. At 226 deg. C, a predominantly quasi-amorphous film containing large grains of cubic HfO{sub 2} (a {sub 0} = 5.08 A) was formed. Grain morphology enabled the nucleation sites to be determined. Hot stage microscopy showed that both the cubic phase and the quasi-amorphous phase were very resistant to thermal modification up to 500 deg. C. These observations suggest that nucleation sites for the growth of the crystalline cubic phase form at the growing surface of the film, rather homogeneously within the film. The films grown at higher temperatures (300-750 deg. C) are crystalline and monoclinic. The principal effects of deposition temperature were on: grain size, which coarsens at the highest temperature; roughness with increases at the higher temperatures due to the prismatic faceting, and texture, with texturing being strongest at intermediate temperatures. Detailed interfacial characterization shows that interfacial layers of SiO{sub 2} form at low and high temperatures. However, at intermediate temperatures, interfaces devoid of SiO{sub 2} were formed.

  12. On the conductive properties of MgO films grown on ultrathin hexagonal close-packed Co(0001) layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladczuk, L.; Aleszkiewicz, M.

    2013-01-01

    Here we present a scanning tunneling microscopy study of electrical conductivity of (110)-oriented MgO ultrathin films grown on hexagonal close-packed Co(0001) surface by molecular beam epitaxy, being a good candidate for tunneling barrier for future-generation spintronic devices. Three-dimensional growth of the tunneling barrier, expected for compressive strains emerging at the Co/MgO interface, is demonstrated by reflection high-energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The 5 eV height of the full barrier of MgO is reached at a layer thickness of 4 nm. Thinner MgO layers exhibit randomly distributed spots of the high conductance on the tunneling current map. The current–voltage curves indicate the existence of vacancies in MgO crystal lattice, lowering the resistivity of the tunneling barrier. - Highlights: • Conductivity of MgO barrier in MgO/hexagonal close-packed-Co bilayer • Conductivity strongly varies with MgO thickness • MgO barrier exhibits randomly distributed spots of particularly high conductance • Tunneling current–voltage curves indicate the existence of vacancies in MgO lattice

  13. Characterization of ZnO film grown on polycarbonate by atomic layer deposition at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyeong Beom; Han, Gwon Deok; Shim, Joon Hyung; Choi, Byoung-Ho, E-mail: bhchoi@korea.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-707 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    ZnO is an attractive material for use in various technological products such as phosphors, gas sensors, and transparent conductors. Recently, aluminum-doped zinc oxide has received attention as a potential replacement for indium tin oxide, which is one of the transparent conductive oxides used in flat panel displays, organic light-emitting diodes, and organic solar cells. In this study, the characteristics of ZnO films deposited on polycarbonate (PC) substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are investigated for various process temperatures. The growth mechanism of these films was investigated at low process temperatures using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD and XPS were used to determine the preferred orientation and chemical composition of the films, respectively. Furthermore, the difference of the deposition mechanisms on an amorphous organic material, i.e., PC substrate and an inorganic material such as silicon was discussed from the viewpoint of the diffusion and deposition of precursors. The structure of the films was also investigated by chemical analysis in order to determine the effect of growth temperature on the films deposited by ALD.

  14. Surface potential driven dissolution phenomena of [0 0 0 1]-oriented ZnO nanorods grown from ZnO and Pt seed layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngmi; Kim, Jung Hyeun

    2011-06-01

    Highly oriented ZnO nanorods are synthesized hydrothermally on ZnO and Pt seed layers, and they are dissolved in KOH solution. The rods grown on ZnO seed layer show uniform dissolution, but those grown on Pt seed layer are rod-selectively dissolved. The ZnO nanorods from both seed layers show the same crystalline structure through XRD and Raman spectrometer data. However, the surface potential analysis reveals big difference for ZnO and Pt seed cases. The surface potential distribution is very uniform for the ZnO seed case, but it is much fluctuated on the Pt seed case. It suggests that the rod-selective dissolution phenomena on Pt seed case are likely due to the surface energy difference.

  15. A possibility of enhancing Jc in MgB2 film grown on metallic hastelloy tape with the use of SiC buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putri, W. B. K.; Kang, B.; Ranot, M.; Lee, J. H.; Kang, W. N.

    2014-01-01

    We have grown MgB 2 on SiC buffer layer by using metallic Hastelloy tape as the substrate. Hastelloy tape was chosen for its potential practical applications, mainly in the power cable industry. SiC buffer layers were deposited on Hastelloy tapes at 400, 500, and 600 degrees C by using a pulsed laser deposition method, and then by using a hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition technique, MgB 2 films were grown on the three different SiC buffer layers. An enhancement of critical current density values were noticed in the MgB 2 films on SiC/Hastelloy deposited at 500 and 600 degrees C. From the surface analysis, smaller and denser grains of MgB 2 tapes are likely to cause this enhancement. This result infers that the addition of SiC buffer layers may contribute to the improvement of superconducting properties of MgB 2 tapes.

  16. Defect properties of InGaAsN layers grown as sub-monolayer digital alloys by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, Artem I.; Gudovskikh, Alexander S.; Kudryashov, Dmitry A.; Lazarenko, Alexandra A.; Morozov, Ivan A.; Mozharov, Alexey M.; Nikitina, Ekaterina V.; Pirogov, Evgeny V.; Sobolev, Maxim S.; Zelentsov, Kirill S.; Egorov, Anton Yu.; Darga, Arouna; Le Gall, Sylvain; Kleider, Jean-Paul

    2018-04-01

    The defect properties of InGaAsN dilute nitrides grown as sub-monolayer digital alloys (SDAs) by molecular beam epitaxy for photovoltaic application were studied by space charge capacitance spectroscopy. Alloys of i-InGaAsN (Eg = 1.03 eV) were lattice-matched grown on GaAs wafers as a superlattice of InAs/GaAsN with one monolayer of InAs (solar cells. Low p-type background doping was demonstrated at room temperature in samples with InGaAsN layers 900 nm and 1200 nm thick (less 1 × 1015 cm-3). According to admittance spectroscopy and deep-level transient spectroscopy measurements, the SDA approach leads to defect-free growth up to a thickness of 900 nm. An increase in thickness to 1200 nm leads to the formation of non-radiative recombination centers with an activation energy of 0.5 eV (NT = 8.4 × 1014 cm-3) and a shallow defect level at 0.20 eV. The last one leads to the appearance of additional doping, but its concentration is low (NT = 5 × 1014 cm-3) so it does not affect the photoelectric properties. However, further increase in thickness to 1600 nm, leads to significant growth of its concentration to (3-5) × 1015 cm-3, while the concentration of deep levels becomes 1.3 × 1015 cm-3. Therefore, additional free charge carriers appearing due to ionization of the shallow level change the band diagram from p-i-n to p-n junction at room temperature. It leads to a drop of the external quantum efficiency due to the effect of pulling electric field decrease in the p-n junction and an increased number of non-radiative recombination centers that negatively impact lifetimes in InGaAsN.

  17. Nitrogen doping in atomic layer deposition grown titanium dioxide films by using ammonium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeaeriaeinen, M.-L., E-mail: marja-leena.kaariainen@lut.fi; Cameron, D.C.

    2012-12-30

    Titanium dioxide films have been created by atomic layer deposition using titanium chloride as the metal source and a solution of ammonium hydroxide in water as oxidant. Ammonium hydroxide has been used as a source of nitrogen for doping and three thickness series have been deposited at 350 Degree-Sign C. A 15 nm anatase dominated film was found to possess the highest photocatalytic activity in all film series. Furthermore almost three times better photocatalytic activity was discovered in the doped series compared to undoped films. The doped films also had lower resistivity. The results from X-ray photoemission spectroscopy showed evidence for interstitial nitrogen in the titanium dioxide structure. Besides, there was a minor red shift observable in the thickest samples. In addition the film conductivity was discovered to increase with the feeding pressure of ammonium hydroxide in the oxidant precursor. This may indicate that nitrogen doping has caused the decrease in the resistivity and therefore has an impact as an enhanced photocatalytic activity. The hot probe test showed that all the anatase or anatase dominant films were p-type and all the rutile dominant films were n-type. The best photocatalytic activity was shown by anatase-dominant films containing a small amount of rutile. It may be that p-n-junctions are formed between p-type anatase and n-type rutile which cause carrier separation and slow down the recombination rate. The combination of nitrogen doping and p-n junction formation results in superior photocatalytic performance. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found all N-doped and undoped anatase dominating films p-type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found all N-doped and undoped rutile dominating films n-type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose that p-n junctions are formed in anatase-rutile mixture films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found that low level N-doping has increased TiO{sub 2} conductivity. Black

  18. Nanoporous Aluminum Oxide Membranes Coated with Atomic Layer Deposition-Grown Titanium Dioxide for Biomedical Applications: An In Vitro Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrochenko, Peter E; Kumar, Girish; Fu, Wujun; Zhang, Qin; Zheng, Jiwen; Liang, Chengdu; Goering, Peter L; Narayan, Roger J

    2015-12-01

    The surface topographies of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) membranes have been shown to modulate cell response in orthopedic and skin wound repair applications. In this study, we: (1) demonstrate an improved atomic layer deposition (ALD) method for coating the porous structures of 20, 100, and 200 nm pore diameter AAO with nanometer-thick layers of TiO2 and (2) evaluate the effects of uncoated AAO and TiO2-coated AAO on cellular responses. The TiO2 coatings were deposited on the AAO membranes without compromising the openings of the nanoscale pores. The 20 nm TiO2-coated membranes showed the highest amount of initial protein adsorption via the micro bicinchoninic acid (micro-BCA) assay; all of the TiO2-coated membranes showed slightly higher protein adsorption than the uncoated control materials. Cell viability, proliferation, and inflammatory responses on the TiO2-coated AAO membranes showed no adverse outcomes. For all of the tested surfaces, normal increases in proliferation (DNA content) of L929 fibroblasts were observed over from 4 hours to 72 hours. No increases in TNF-alpha production were seen in RAW 264.7 macrophages grown on TiO2-coated AAO membranes compared to uncoated AAO membranes and tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) surfaces. Both uncoated AAO membranes and TiO2-coated AAO membranes showed no significant effects on cell growth and inflammatory responses. The results suggest that TiO2-coated AAO may serve as a reasonable prototype material for the development of nanostructured wound repair devices and orthopedic implants.

  19. Influence of seed layer treatment on low temperature grown ZnO nanotubes: Performances in dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameen, Sadia [Energy Materials and Surface Science Laboratory, Solar Energy Research Center, School of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Akhtar, M. Shaheer [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering and Solar Energy Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); New and Renewable Energy Material Development Center (NewREC), Chonbuk National University, Buan-gun, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Soon [Energy Materials and Surface Science Laboratory, Solar Energy Research Center, School of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, O-Bong [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering and Solar Energy Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyung-Shik, E-mail: hsshin@jbnu.ac.k [Energy Materials and Surface Science Laboratory, Solar Energy Research Center, School of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-01

    Non-aligned and highly densely aligned ZnO nanotube (NTs), synthesized by low temperature solution method were applied as photoanode materials for the fabrication of efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The crystalline and the morphological analysis revealed that the grown aligned ZnO NTs possessed a typical hexagonal crystal structure of outer and inner diameter {approx}250 nm and {approx}100 nm, respectively. ZnO seeding on FTO substrates is an essential step to achieve the aligned ZnO NTs. A DSSC fabricated with aligned ZnO NTs photoanode achieved high solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency of {approx}2.2% with short circuit current (J{sub SC}) of 5.5 mA/cm{sup 2}, open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.65 V and fill factor (FF) of 0.61. Significantly, the aligned ZnO NTs photoanode showed three times improved solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency than DSSC fabricated with non-aligned ZnO NTs. The enhanced performances were credited to the aligned morphology of ZnO NTs which executed the high charge collection and the transfer of electrons at the interfaces of ZnO NTs and electrolyte layer.

  20. Surface photovoltage and photoluminescence study of thick Ga(In)AsN layers grown by liquid-phase epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donchev, V; Milanova, M; Lemieux, J; Shtinkov, N; Ivanov, I G

    2016-01-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical study of Ga(In)AsN layers with a thickness of around 1 μm grown by liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) on n-type GaAs substrates. The samples are studied by surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy and by photoluminescence spectroscopy. Theoretical calculations of the electronic structure and the spectral dependence of the dielectric function are carried out for different nitrogen concentrations using a full-band tight-binding approach in the sp 3 d 5 s*s N parameterisation. The SPV spectra measured at room temperature clearly show a red shift of the absorption edge with respect to the absorption of the GaAs substrate. This shift, combined with the results of the theoretical calculations, allows assessing the nitrogen concentration in different samples. The latter increases with increasing the In content. The analysis of the SPV phase spectra provides information about the alignment of the energy bands across the structures. The photoluminescence measurements performed at 2 K show a red shift of the emission energy with respect to GaAs, in agreement with the SPV results. (paper)

  1. Effect of substrates and thickness on optical properties in atomic layer deposition grown ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dipayan; Singhal, Jaya; Mathur, Aakash; Singh, Ajaib; Dutta, Surjendu; Zollner, Stefan; Chattopadhyay, Sudeshna

    2017-11-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition technique was used to grow high quality, very low roughness, crystalline, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films on silicon (Si) and fused quartz (SiO2) substrates to study the optical properties. Spectroscopic ellipsometry results of ZnO/Si system, staggered type-II quantum well, demonstrate that there is a significant drop in the magnitudes of both the real and imaginary parts of complex dielectric constants and in near-band gap absorption along with a blue shift of the absorption edge with decreasing film thickness at and below ∼20 nm. Conversely, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy of ZnO/SiO2, thin type-I quantum well, consisting of a narrower-band gap semiconductor grown on a wider-band gap (insulator) substrate, shows the similar thickness dependent blue-shift of the absorption edge but with an increase in the magnitude of near-band gap absorption with decreasing film thickness. Thickness dependent blue shift, energy vs. 1/d2, in two different systems, ZnO/Si and ZnO/SiO2, show a difference in their slopes. The observed phenomena can be consistently explained by the corresponding exciton (or carrier/s) deconfinement and confinement effects at the ZnO/Si and ZnO/SiO2 interface respectively, where Tanguy-Elliott amplitude pre-factor plays the key role through the electron-hole overlap factor at the interface.

  2. Reduction of buffer layer conduction near plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy grown GaN/AlN interfaces by beryllium doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, D.F.; Katzer, D.S.; Binari, S.C.; Glaser, E.R.; Shanabrook, B.V.; Roussos, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Beryllium doping of epitaxial GaN layers is used to reduce leakage currents through interfacial or buffer conducting layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on SiC. Capacitance-voltage measurements of Schottky barrier test structures and dc pinch-off characteristics of unintentionally doped GaN high-electron-mobility transistors indicate that these leakage currents are localized near the GaN/AlN interface of our AlGaN/GaN/AlN device structures. Insertion of a 2000 Aa Be:GaN layer at the interface reduces these currents by three orders of magnitude

  3. Effects of the annealing duration of the ZnO buffer layer on structural and optical properties of ZnO rods grown by a hydrothermal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, C.M.; Lee, J.Y.; Heo, J.H.; Park, J.H.; Kim, C.R. [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, H., E-mail: hhryu@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, J.H. [Major of Nano Semiconductor, Korea Maritime University, 1 Dongsam-dong, Yeongdo-Ku, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Son, C.S. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Silla University, Gwaebeop-dong, Sasang-gu, Busan 617-736 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W.J. [Department of Nano Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Tan, S.T. [Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Zhao, J.L. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sun, X.W. [Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2009-07-30

    In this study, the effects of the annealing duration of a zinc oxide (ZnO) buffer layer on structural and optical properties of ZnO rods grown by a hydrothermal process are discussed. A ZnO buffer layer was deposited on p-type Si (1 1 1) substrates by the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. After that, ZnO rods were grown on the ZnO-buffer/Si (1 1 1) substrate by a hydrothermal process. In order to determine the optimum annealing duration of the buffer layer for the growth of ZnO rods, durations ranging from 0.5 to 30 min were tried. The morphology and crystal structure of the ZnO/ZnO-buffer/Si (1 1 1) were measured by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The optical properties were investigated by photoluminescence (PL) measurement.

  4. UV light induced insulator-metal transition in ultra-thin ZnO/TiO{sub x} stacked layer grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, D., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Misra, P., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Joshi, M. P.; Kukreja, L. M. [Laser Materials Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India)

    2016-08-28

    In the present study, atomic layer deposition has been used to grow a series of Ti incorporated ZnO thin films by vertically stacking different numbers (n = 1–7) of ZnO/TiO{sub x} layers on (0001) sapphire substrates. The effects of defect states mediated chemisorption of O{sub 2} and/OH groups on the electrical properties of these films have been investigated by illuminating the samples under UV light inside a high vacuum optical cryostat. The ultra-thin film having one stacked layer (n = 1) did not show any change in its electrical resistance upon UV light exposure. On the contrary, marginal drop in the electrical resistivity was measured for the samples with n ≥ 3. Most surprisingly, the sample with n = 2 (thickness ∼ 12 nm) showed an insulator to metal transition upon UV light exposure. The temperature dependent electrical resistivity measurement on the as grown film (n = 2) showed insulating behaviour, i.e., diverging resistivity on extrapolation to T→ 0 K. However, upon UV light exposure, it transformed to a metallic state, i.e., finite resistivity at T → 0 K. Such an insulator-metal transition plausibly arises due to the de-trapping of conduction electrons from the surface defect sites which resulted in an upward shift of the Fermi level above the mobility edge. The low-temperature electron transport properties on the insulating film (n = 2) were investigated by a combined study of zero field electrical resistivity ρ(T) and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. The observed negative MR was found to be in good agreement with the magnetic field induced suppression of quantum interference between forward-going paths of tunnelling electrons. Both ρ(T) and MR measurements provided strong evidence for the Efros-Shklovskii type variable range hopping conduction in the low-temperature (≤40 K) regime. Such studies on electron transport in ultra-thin n-type doped ZnO films are crucial to achieve optimum functionality

  5. Microstructures of GaN1-xPx layers grown on (0001) GaN substrates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Tae-Yeon; Bae, In-Tae; Choi, Chel-Jong; Noh, D. Y.; Zhao, Y.; Tu, C. W.

    1999-03-01

    Transmission electron microscope (TEM), transmission electron diffraction (TED), and synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies have been performed to investigate microstructural behavior of gas source molecular beam epitaxial GaN1-xPx layers grown on (0001) GaN/sapphire at temperatures (Tg) in the range 500-760 °C. TEM, TED, and XRD results indicate that the samples grown at Tg⩽600 °C undergo phase separation resulting in a mixture of GaN-rich and GaP-rich GaNP with zinc-blende structure. However, the samples grown at Tg⩾730 °C are found to be binary zinc-blende GaN(P) single crystalline materials. As for the 500 °C layer, the two phases are randomly oriented and distributed, whereas the 600 °C layer consists of phases that are elongated and inclined by 60°-70° clockwise from the [0001]α-GaN direction. The samples grown at Tg⩾730 °C are found to consist of two types of microdomains, namely, GaN(P)I and GaN(P)II; the former having twin relation to the latter.

  6. Effects of growth duration on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods grown on seed-layer ZnO/polyethylene terephthalate substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y.I.; Shin, C.M.; Heo, J.H. [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing Inje University, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, H., E-mail: hhryu@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing Inje University, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W.J. [Department of Nano Engineering, Dong-Eui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, J.H. [Major of Nano Semiconductor, Korea Maritime University, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Son, C.S. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Silla University, Busan 617-736 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, J. [Department of Nano Science and Engineering, Institute of Advanced Materials Kyungnam University, Changwon, Gyeongnam 631-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-01

    Well-aligned single crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were successfully grown, by hydrothermal synthesis at a low temperature, on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates with a seed layer. Photoluminescence (PL), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) measurements were used to analyze the optical and structural properties of ZnO nanorods grown for various durations from 0.5 h to 10 h. Regular and well-aligned ZnO nanorods with diameters ranging from 62 nm to 127 nm and lengths from 0.3 {mu}m to 1.65 {mu}m were formed after almost 5 h of growth. The growth rate of ZnO grown on PET substrates is lower than that grown on Si (1 0 0) substrates. Enlarged TEM images show that the tips of the ZnO nanorods grown for 6 h have a round shape, whereas the tips grown for 10 h are sharpened. The crystal properties of ZnO nanorods can be tuned by using the growth duration as a growth condition. The XRD and PL results indicate that the structural and optical properties of the ZnO nanorods are most improved after 5 h and 6 h of growth, respectively.

  7. Effect of annealing on metastable shallow acceptors in Mg-doped GaN layers grown on GaN substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Pozina, Galia; Hemmingsson, Carl; Paskov, Plamen P.; Bergman, Peder; Monemar, Bo; Kawashima, T.; Amano, H.; Akasaki, I.; Usui, A.

    2008-01-01

    Mg-doped GaN layers grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy on GaN substrates produced by the halide vapor phase technique demonstrate metastability of the near-band-gap photoluminescence (PL). The acceptor bound exciton (ABE) line possibly related to the C acceptor vanishes in as-grown samples within a few minutes under UV laser illumination. Annealing activates the more stable Mg acceptors and passivates C acceptors. Consequently, only the ABE line related to Mg is dominant in PL spectra...

  8. Enhanced optical output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on a silicon (111) substrate with a nanoporous GaN layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Jae; Chun, Jaeyi; Kim, Sang-Jo; Oh, Semi; Ha, Chang-Soo; Park, Jung-Won; Lee, Seung-Jae; Song, Jae-Chul; Baek, Jong Hyeob; Park, Seong-Ju

    2016-03-07

    We report the growth of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on a silicon (111) substrate with an embedded nanoporous (NP) GaN layer. The NP GaN layer is fabricated by electrochemical etching of n-type GaN on the silicon substrate. The crystalline quality of crack-free GaN grown on the NP GaN layer is remarkably improved and the residual tensile stress is also decreased. The optical output power is increased by 120% at an injection current of 20 mA compared with that of conventional LEDs without a NP GaN layer. The large enhancement of optical output power is attributed to the reduction of threading dislocation, effective scattering of light in the LED, and the suppression of light propagation into the silicon substrate by the NP GaN layer.

  9. Thin films of copper oxide and copper grown by atomic layer deposition for applications in metallization systems of microelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waechtler, Thomas

    2010-05-25

    Copper-based multi-level metallization systems in today's ultralarge-scale integrated electronic circuits require the fabrication of diffusion barriers and conductive seed layers for the electrochemical metal deposition. Such films of only several nanometers in thickness have to be deposited void-free and conformal in patterned dielectrics. The envisaged further reduction of the geometric dimensions of the interconnect system calls for coating techniques that circumvent the drawbacks of the well-established physical vapor deposition. The atomic layer deposition method (ALD) allows depositing films on the nanometer scale conformally both on three-dimensional objects as well as on large-area substrates. The present work therefore is concerned with the development of an ALD process to grow copper oxide films based on the metal-organic precursor bis(trin- butylphosphane)copper(I)acetylacetonate [({sup n}Bu{sub 3}P){sub 2}Cu(acac)]. This liquid, non-fluorinated {beta}-diketonate is brought to react with a mixture of water vapor and oxygen at temperatures from 100 to 160 C. Typical ALD-like growth behavior arises between 100 and 130 C, depending on the respective substrate used. On tantalum nitride and silicon dioxide substrates, smooth films and selfsaturating film growth, typical for ALD, are obtained. On ruthenium substrates, positive deposition results are obtained as well. However, a considerable intermixing of the ALD copper oxide with the underlying films takes place. Tantalum substrates lead to a fast self-decomposition of the copper precursor. As a consequence, isolated nuclei or larger particles are always obtained together with continuous films. The copper oxide films grown by ALD can be reduced to copper by vapor-phase processes. If formic acid is used as the reducing agent, these processes can already be carried out at similar temperatures as the ALD, so that agglomeration of the films is largely avoided. Also for an integration with subsequent

  10. Thin films of copper oxide and copper grown by atomic layer deposition for applications in metallization systems of microelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waechtler, Thomas

    2010-05-25

    Copper-based multi-level metallization systems in today's ultralarge-scale integrated electronic circuits require the fabrication of diffusion barriers and conductive seed layers for the electrochemical metal deposition. Such films of only several nanometers in thickness have to be deposited void-free and conformal in patterned dielectrics. The envisaged further reduction of the geometric dimensions of the interconnect system calls for coating techniques that circumvent the drawbacks of the well-established physical vapor deposition. The atomic layer deposition method (ALD) allows depositing films on the nanometer scale conformally both on three-dimensional objects as well as on large-area substrates. The present work therefore is concerned with the development of an ALD process to grow copper oxide films based on the metal-organic precursor bis(trin- butylphosphane)copper(I)acetylacetonate [({sup n}Bu{sub 3}P){sub 2}Cu(acac)]. This liquid, non-fluorinated {beta}-diketonate is brought to react with a mixture of water vapor and oxygen at temperatures from 100 to 160 C. Typical ALD-like growth behavior arises between 100 and 130 C, depending on the respective substrate used. On tantalum nitride and silicon dioxide substrates, smooth films and selfsaturating film growth, typical for ALD, are obtained. On ruthenium substrates, positive deposition results are obtained as well. However, a considerable intermixing of the ALD copper oxide with the underlying films takes place. Tantalum substrates lead to a fast self-decomposition of the copper precursor. As a consequence, isolated nuclei or larger particles are always obtained together with continuous films. The copper oxide films grown by ALD can be reduced to copper by vapor-phase processes. If formic acid is used as the reducing agent, these processes can already be carried out at similar temperatures as the ALD, so that agglomeration of the films is largely avoided. Also for an integration with subsequent

  11. Determination of the thickness distribution of a graphene layer grown on a 2″ SiC wafer by means of Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotis, L.; Gurban, S.; Pecz, B.; Menyhard, M.; Yakimova, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The thickness of graphene grown on SiC was determined by AES depth profiling. • The AES depth profiling verified the presence of buffer layer on SiC. • The presence of unsaturated Si bonds in the buffer layer has been shown. • Using multipoint analysis thickness distribution of the graphene on the wafer was determined. - Abstract: Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth profiling was applied for determination of the thickness of a macroscopic size graphene sheet grown on 2 in. 6H-SiC (0 0 0 1) by sublimation epitaxy. The measured depth profile deviated from the expected exponential form showing the presence of an additional, buffer layer. The measured depth profile was compared to the simulated one which allowed the derivation of the thicknesses of the graphene and buffer layers and the Si concentration of buffer layer. It has been shown that the graphene-like buffer layer contains about 30% unsaturated Si. The depth profiling was carried out in several points (diameter 50 μm), which permitted the constructing of a thickness distribution characterizing the uniformity of the graphene sheet

  12. Effects of ZnO Seed Layers Prepared with Various Precursor Concentrations on Structural and Defect Emission Properties of ZnO Nanorods Grown by Hydrothermal Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soaram; Nam, Giwoong; Leem, Jae-Young; Kim, Yangsoo [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ghun Sik; Yoon, Sung Pil [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    ZnO nanorods were grown by a hydrothermal method on ZnO seed layers that had previously been prepared from solutions containing various precursor concentrations. The effects of the ZnO seed layers prepared with various precursor concentrations on the structural and defect emissions of the ZnO nanorods were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The surface morphology of the ZnO seed layers changed with an increasing precursor concentration, and the diameters and densities of the ZnO nanorods depended on the morphologies of the ZnO seed layers. The ZnO seed layers prepared with various precursor concentrations affected the residual stress in the nanorods grown on the seed layers, the intensity and full widths at half maximum of the 2-theta angle in the XRD spectra for the nanorods, and the intensity and position of the defect emission peak in deep-level emission (DLE) PL spectra for the ZnO nanorods.

  13. Characterization of crystallinity of Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} epitaxial layers grown using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inuzuka, Yuki [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Ike, Shinichi; Asano, Takanori [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8472 (Japan); Takeuchi, Wakana [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Nakatsuka, Osamu, E-mail: nakatuka@alice.xtal.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Zaima, Shigeaki [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2016-03-01

    The epitaxial growth of a Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layer was examined using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with two types of Ge precursors; tetra-ethyl-germane (TEGe) and tertiary-butyl-germane (TBGe); and the Sn precursor tri-butyl-vinyl-tin (TBVSn). Though the growth of a Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layer on a Ge(001) substrate by MOCVD has been reported, a high-Sn-content Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layer and the exploration of MO material combinations for Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} growth have not been reported. Therefore, the epitaxial growth of a Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layer on Ge(001) and Si(001) substrates was examined using these precursors. The Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layers were pseudomorphically grown on a Ge(001) substrate, while the Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layer with a high degree of strain relaxation was obtained on a Si(001) substrate. Additionally, it was found that the two Ge precursors have different growth temperature ranges, where the TBGe could realize a higher growth rate at a lower growth temperature than the TEGe. The Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layers grown using a combination of TBGe and TBVSn exhibited a higher crystalline quality and a smoother surface compared with the Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layer prepared by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. In this study, a Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} epitaxial layer with a Sn content as high as 5.1% on a Ge(001) substrate was achieved by MOCVD at 300 °C. - Highlights: • Tertiary-butyl-germane and tri-butyl-vinyl-tin are suitable for Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} MOCVD growth. • We achieved a Sn content of 5.1% in Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} epitaxial layer on Ge(001). • The Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layers grown on Ge and Si by MOCVD have high crystalline quality.

  14. Optical properties of metastable shallow acceptors in Mg-doped GaN layers grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Pozina, Galia; Hemmingsson, Carl; Bergman, Peder; Kawashima, T.; Amano, H.; Akasaki, I.; Usui, A.; Monemar, Bo

    2010-01-01

    GaN layers doped by Mg show a metastable behavior of the near-band-gap luminescence caused by electron irradiation or UV excitation. At low temperatures < 30 K the changes in luminescence are permanent. Heating to room temperature recovers the initial low temperature spectrum shape completely. Two acceptors are involved in the recombination process as confirmed by transient PL. In as-grown samples a possible candidate for the metastable acceptor is C-N, while after annealing a second m...

  15. Electroplating of CdTe Thin Films from Cadmium Sulphate Precursor and Comparison of Layers Grown by 3-Electrode and 2-Electrode Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imyhamy M. Dharmadasa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrodeposition of CdTe thin films was carried out from the late 1970s using the cadmium sulphate precursor. The solar energy group at Sheffield Hallam University has carried out a comprehensive study of CdTe thin films electroplated using cadmium sulfate, cadmium nitrate and cadmium chloride precursors, in order to select the best electrolyte. Some of these results have been published elsewhere, and this manuscript presents the summary of the results obtained on CdTe layers grown from cadmium sulphate precursor. In addition, this research program has been exploring the ways of eliminating the reference electrode, since this is a possible source of detrimental impurities, such as K+ and Ag+ for CdS/CdTe solar cells. This paper compares the results obtained from CdTe layers grown by three-electrode (3E and two-electrode (2E systems for their material properties and performance in CdS/CdTe devices. Thin films were characterized using a wide range of analytical techniques for their structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties. These layers have also been used in device structures; glass/FTO/CdS/CdTe/Au and CdTe from both methods have produced solar cells to date with efficiencies in the region of 5%–13%. Comprehensive work carried out to date produced comparable and superior devices fabricated from materials grown using 2E system.

  16. Multiple defects in GaInN multiple quantum wells grown on ELO GaN layers and on GaN substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiya, S.; Goto, O.; Hoshina, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Ikeda, M.

    2006-01-01

    A new type of structural defects was observed in GaInN multiple quantum well structures with higher In concentrations that were grown on low-threading-dislocation-density templates. The defects were investigated by using various kinds of transmission electron microscopy techniques, and were found to consist of planar defects and associated dislocations. The planar defects nucleate at the interfaces between the quantum well layers and barrier layers. The dislocations are created at the edge boundary of the planar defects and run almost along the c-axis towards the epi-surface. The planar defects are revealed to be inversion domains which are thought to be caused by the segregation of excess In-In bonds at the interface between the quantum well layer and the barrier layer. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Multiple defects in GaInN multiple quantum wells grown on ELO GaN layers and on GaN substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomiya, S. [Materials Analysis Laboratory, Sony Corporation, Kanagawa (Japan); Goto, O.; Hoshina, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Ikeda, M. [Shiroishi Laser Center, Semiconductor Laser Division, MSNC, Sony Corporation, Miyagi (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    A new type of structural defects was observed in GaInN multiple quantum well structures with higher In concentrations that were grown on low-threading-dislocation-density templates. The defects were investigated by using various kinds of transmission electron microscopy techniques, and were found to consist of planar defects and associated dislocations. The planar defects nucleate at the interfaces between the quantum well layers and barrier layers. The dislocations are created at the edge boundary of the planar defects and run almost along the c-axis towards the epi-surface. The planar defects are revealed to be inversion domains which are thought to be caused by the segregation of excess In-In bonds at the interface between the quantum well layer and the barrier layer. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Impact of growth and annealing conditions on the parameters of Ge/Si(001) relaxed layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurasov, D. V., E-mail: Inquisitor@ipm.sci-nnov.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Bobrov, A. I. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Daniltsev, V. M.; Novikov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Pavlov, D. A. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Skorokhodov, E. V.; Shaleev, M. V.; Yunin, P. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    Influence of the Ge layer thickness and annealing conditions on the parameters of relaxed Ge/Si(001) layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy via two-stage growth is investigated. The dependences of the threading dislocation density and surface roughness on the Ge layer thickness, annealing temperature and time, and the presence of a hydrogen atmosphere are obtained. As a result of optimization of the growth and annealing conditions, relaxed Ge/Si(001) layers which are thinner than 1 μm with a low threading dislocation density on the order of 10{sup 7} cm{sup –2} and a root mean square roughness of less than 1 nm are obtained.

  19. Defect characterization in compositionally graded InGaAs layers on GaAs(001) grown by MBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takuo; Takahasi, Masamitu; Norman, Andrew G.; Romero, Manuel J.; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M.; Kojima, Nobuaki; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    Defect characterization in molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) compositionally-graded In x Ga 1-x As layers on GaAs substrates consisting different thickness of overshooting (OS) layers was carried out using cathodoluminescence (CL) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We found that the thickness of the OS layer influences not only stress but also lattice defects generated in a top InGaAs layer. While the top InGaAs layer with a thin OS layer is under compression and has mainly threading dislocations, the top layer with a thick OS layer is under tension and exhibits inhomogeneous strain associating with phase separation. We will discuss the mechanisms of defect generation and their in-plane distribution based on strain relaxation at the top and OS layers. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Structural characterization of ZnTe grown by atomic-layer-deposition regime on GaAs and GaSb (100) oriented substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo-Ojeda, Roberto Saúl [Universidad Politécnica de Pachuca (Mexico); Díaz-Reyes, Joel; Peralta-Clara, María de la Cruz; Veloz-Rendón, Julieta Salomé, E-mail: joel_diaz_reyes@hotmail.com [Centro de Investigación en Biotecnología Aplicada, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Tlaxcala, (Mexico); Galván-Arellano, Miguel [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Mexico); Anda-Salazar, Francisco de [Instituto de Investigación en Comunicación Óptica, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Contreras-Rascon, Jorge Indalecio [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Sonora (Mexico)

    2017-10-15

    This work presents the characterization of ZnTe nano layers grown on GaAs and GaSb (100) substrates by the Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) regime. Under certain conditions, the alternating exposition of a substrate surface to the element vapours makes possible the growth of atomic layers in a reactor where the atmosphere is high-purity hydrogen. ZnTe was grown simultaneously on GaAs and GaSb at the same run, allowing, a comparison between the effects produced by the superficial processes due to the different used substrates, thereby eliminating possible unintended changes of growth parameters. Nano layers on GaSb maintained their shiny appearance even at temperatures near 420°C. It was found that for exposure times below 2.5 s there was not growth on GaAs, while for GaSb the shortest time was 1.5 s at 385°C. By HRXRD the peak corresponding to (004) diffraction plane of ZnTe was identified and investigated, the FWHM resulted very wide (600-800 arcsec) indicating a highly distorted lattice mainly due to mosaicity. Raman scattering shows the peak corresponding to LO-ZnTe, which is weak and slightly shifted in comparison with the reported for the bulk ZnTe at 210 cm{sup -1}. Additionally, the measurements suggest that the crystalline quality have a dependence with the growth temperature. (author)

  1. Structural and electrical properties of Ge-on-Si(0 0 1) layers with ultra heavy n-type doping grown by MBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurasov, D. V.; Antonov, A. V.; Drozdov, M. N.; Yunin, P. A.; Andreev, B. A.; Bushuykin, P. A.; Baydakova, N. A.; Novikov, A. V.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we report about the formation of ultra heavy doped n-Ge layers on Si(0 0 1) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy and their characterization by different independent techniques. Combined study of structural and electrical properties of fabricated layers using secondary ion mass spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Hall effect and reflection measurements was carried out and it has revealed the achievable charge carrier densities exceeding 1020 cm-3 without deterioration of crystalline quality of such doped layers. It was also shown that X-ray analysis can be used as a fast, reliable and non-destructive method for evaluation of the electrically active Sb concentration in heavy doped Ge layers. The appropriate set of doping density allowed to adjust the plasmonic resonance position in Ge:Sb layers in a rather wide range reaching the wavelength of 3.6 μm for the highest doping concentration. Room temperature photoluminescence confirmed the high crystalline quality of such doped layers. Our results indicated the attainability of high electron concentration in Ge:Sb layers grown on Si substrates without crystalline quality deterioration which may find potential applications in the fields of Si-based photonics and mid-IR plasmonics.

  2. Effects of buffer layer on the structural and electrical properties of InAsSb epilayers grown on GaAs(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayavel, P.; Nakamura, S.; Koyama, T.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2006-01-01

    InAsSb ternary epilayers with arsenic composition of 0.5 have been grown on GaAs(001) substrates. Linear-graded and step-graded InAsSb buffer layers with an InSb layer have been used to relax lattice mismatch between the epilayer and substrate. X-ray diffraction results of the epilayers indicate that an enhancement in the peak intensity of the buffer layer samples is due to improved crystalline quality of the epilayers. We find that the growth technique of the buffer layer strongly influences the surface morphology and roughness of the epilayer. Hall effect measurements of the step-graded buffer layer samples show an order of magnitude higher electron mobility than the direct and linear-graded buffer layer samples. These results demonstrate that high crystalline quality and electron mobility of the InAs 0.5 Sb 0.5 ternary epilayers can be achieved by using the step-graded InAsSb buffer layers. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Electrical properties of pseudo-single-crystalline Ge films grown by Au-induced layer exchange crystallization at 250 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, H.; Kudo, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamada, S.; Kanashima, T.; Tsunoda, I.; Nakashima, H.; Hamaya, K.

    2018-06-01

    We study the electrical properties of pseudo-single-crystalline Ge (PSC-Ge) films grown by a Au-induced layer exchange crystallization method at 250 °C. By inserting the SiNx layer between PSC-Ge and SiO2, we initiatively suppress the influence of the Ge/SiO2 interfacial defective layers, which have been reported in our previous works, on the electrical properties of the PSC-Ge layers. As a result, we can detect the influence of the ionized Au+ donors on the temperature-dependent hole concentration and Hall mobility. To further examine their electrical properties in detail, we also fabricate p-thin-film transistors (TFTs) with the PSC-Ge layer. Although the off-state leakage currents are suppressed by inserting the SiNx layer, the value of on/off ratio remains poor (leakage current although a nominal field effect mobility is enhanced up to ˜25 cm2/V s. Considering these features, we conclude that the Au contaminations into the PSC-Ge layer can affect the electrical properties and device performances despite a low-growth temperature of 250 °C. To achieve further high-performance p-TFTs, we have to suppress the Au contaminations into PSC-Ge during the Au-induced crystallization growth.

  4. Band Offsets and Interfacial Properties of HfAlO Gate Dielectric Grown on InP by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lifeng; Wang, Tao; Zou, Ying; Lu, Hong-Liang

    2017-12-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy have been used to determine interfacial properties of HfO 2 and HfAlO gate dielectrics grown on InP by atomic layer deposition. An undesirable interfacial InP x O y layer is easily formed at the HfO 2 /InP interface, which can severely degrade the electrical performance. However, an abrupt interface can be achieved when the growth of the HfAlO dielectric on InP starts with an ultrathin Al 2 O 3 layer. The valence and conduction band offsets for HfAlO/InP heterojunctions have been determined to be 1.87 ± 0.1 and 2.83 ± 0.1 eV, respectively. These advantages make HfAlO a potential dielectric for InP MOSFETs.

  5. Effects of TiO{sub 2} buffer layer on the photoelectrochemical properties of TiO{sub 2} Nano rods grown by modified chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae-hyun; Ha, Jin-wook; Ryu, Hyukhyun [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Jae [Dong-Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    In this study, we grew TiO{sub 2} nano rods on TiO{sub 2}-film buffered FTO substrate using modified chemical bath deposition (M-CBD). The TiO{sub 2} buffer layer was grown by spin coating method with different RPM (revolutions per minute) values and deposition cycles. We investigated the effects of the RPM values and the deposition cycles on the morphological, structural and photoelectrochemical properties of TiO{sub 2} nano rods. In this work, we have also found that the morphological and structural properties of TiO{sub 2} nano rods affected the photoelectrochemical properties of TiO{sub 2} nano rods. And the maximum photocurrent density of 0.34 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0.6V (vs.SCE) was obtained from the buffer layer deposition process condition of 4,000 RPM and two-times buffer layer depositions.

  6. Analysis of reaction between c+a and -c+a dislocations in GaN layer grown on 4-inch Si(111) substrate with AlGaN/AlN strained layer superlattice by transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Yukari, E-mail: yukari@jfcc.or.jp [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Atsuta, Nagoya, 456-8587 (Japan); Watanabe, Arata [Research Center for Nano Devices and Advanced Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya, 466-8555 (Japan); Miyoshi, Makoto; Egawa, Takashi [Research Center for Nano Devices and Advanced Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya, 466-8555 (Japan); Innovation Center for Multi-Business of Nitride Semiconductors, Nagoya Institute of Technoloy, Nagoya, 466-8555 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    The behavior of dislocations in a GaN layer grown on a 4-inch Si(111) substrate with an AlGaN/AlN strained layer superlattice using horizontal metal-organic chemical vapor deposition was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Cross-sectional observation indicated that a drastic decrease in the dislocation density occurred in the GaN layer. The reaction of a dislocation (b=1/3[-211-3]) and anothor dislocation (b =1/3[-2113]) to form one dislocation (b =2/3[-2110]) in the GaN layer was clarified by plan-view observation using weak-beam dark-field and large-angle convergent-beam diffraction methods.

  7. Complementary and bipolar regimes of resistive switching in TiN/HfO{sub 2}/TiN stacks grown by atomic-layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorov, K.V.; Kirtaev, R.V.; Markeev, A.M.; Zablotskiy, A.V. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskii per. 9, 141700, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Lebedinskii, Yu.Yu.; Matveyev, Yu.A.; Zenkevich, A.V. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskii per. 9, 141700, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoye shosse 31, 115409, Moscow (Russian Federation); Orlov, O.M. [Scientific Research Institute of Molecular Electronics and Plant ' ' Micron' ' , 124462, Zelenograd (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-01

    Atomic-layer deposition (ALD) technique in combination with in vacuo X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis has been successfully employed to obtain fully ALD-grown planar TiN/HfO{sub 2}/TiN metal-insulator-metal structures for resistive random access memory (ReRAM) memory elements. In vacuo XPS analysis of ALD-grown TiN/HfO{sub 2}/TiN stacks reveals the presence of the ultrathin oxidized layers consisting of TiON (∝0.5 nm) and TiO{sub 2} (∝0.6 nm) at the bottom TiN/HfO{sub 2} interface (i); the nonoxidized TiN at the top HfO{sub 2}/TiN interface (ii); the oxygen deficiency in the HfO{sub 2} layer does not exceed the XPS detection limit (iii). Electroformed ALD TiN/HfO{sub 2}/TiN stacks reveal both conventional bipolar and complementary types of resistive switching. In the complementary resistive switching regime, each programming sequence is terminated by a reset operation, leaving the TiN/HfO{sub 2}/TiN stack in a high-resistance state. The observed feature can avoid detrimental leaky paths during successive reading operation, which is useful in the passive ReRAM arrays without a selector element. The bipolar regime of resistive switching is found to reveal the gradual character of the SET and RESET switching processes. Long-term potentiation and depression tests performed on ALD-grown TiN/HfO{sub 2}/TiN stacks indicate that they can be used as electronic synapse devices for the implementation of emerging neuromorphic computation systems. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers with InGaP cladding layer grown by solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, N.-T.; Liu, W.-S.; Chen, S.-H.; Chiu, P.-C.; Chyi, J.-I.

    2002-01-01

    This letter presents the lasing properties of InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers with InGaP cladding layers grown by solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy. These Al-free lasers exhibit a threshold current density of 138 A/cm 2 , an internal loss of 1.35 cm -1 , and an internal quantum efficiency of 31% at room temperature. At a low temperature, a very high characteristic temperature of 425 K and very low threshold current density of 30 A/cm 2 are measured

  9. In-situ Ga doping of fully strained Ge1-xSnx heteroepitaxial layers grown on Ge(001) substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shimura, Y.; Takeuchi, S.; Nakatsuka, O.

    2012-01-01

    to the introduction of dislocations, due to the increase in the strain of the Ge1-xSnx layers. We achieved the growth of a fully strained Ge0.922Sn0.078 layer on Ge with a Ga concentration of 5.5×1019 /cm3 without any dislocations and stacking faults. The resistivity of the Ga-doped Ge1-xSnx layer decreased as the Sn...... content was increased. This decrease was due to an increase in the carrier concentration, with an increase in the activation level of Ga atoms in the Ge1-xSnx epitaxial layers being induced by the introduction of Sn. As a result, we found that the resistivity for the Ge0.950Sn0.050 layer annealed at 600°C...

  10. The improvement of GaN-based LED grown on concave nano-pattern sapphire substrate with SiO2 blocking layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jyun-Hao; Huang, Shyh-Jer; Su, Yan-Kuin; Huang, Kai-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Concave nano-patterned sapphire substrates with SiO 2 blocking layer. • The IQE is almost two times larger than that of conventional one. • The EQE was extremely enhanced more than 100%. - Abstract: In contrast to convex nano-pattern sapphire substrates (NPSS), which are frequently used to fabricate high-quality nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs), concave NPSS have been paid relatively less attention. In this study, a concave NPSS was fabricated, and its nitride epitaxial growth process was evaluated in a step by step manner. A SiO 2 layer was used to avoid nucleation over the sidewall and bottom of the nano-patterns to reduce dislocation reformation. Traditional LED structures were grown on the NPSS layer to determine its influence on device performance. X-ray diffraction, etched pit density, inverse leakage current, and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) results showed that dislocations and non-radiative recombination centers are reduced by the NPSS constructed with a SiO 2 blocking layer. An IQE twice that on a planar substrate was also achieved; such a high IQE significantly enhanced the external quantum efficiency of the resultant device. Taken together, the results demonstrate that the SiO 2 blocking layer proposed in this work can enhance the performance of LEDs.

  11. Surface segregation as a means of gettering Cu in liquid-phase-epitaxy silicon thin layers grown from Al-Cu-Si solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.H.; Ciszek, T.F.; Reedy, R.; Asher, S.; King, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The authors demonstrate that, by using the natural surface segregation phenomenon, Cu can be gettered to the surface from the bulk of silicon layers so that its concentrations in the liquid-phase-epitaxy (LPE) layers are much lower than its solubility at the layer growth temperature and the reported 10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}3} degradation threshold for solar-cell performance. Secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis indicates that, within a micron-deep sub-surface region, Cu accumulates even in as-grown LPE samples. Slower cooling after growth to room temperature enhances this Cu enrichment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement shows as much as 3.2% Cu in a surface region of about 50 {Angstrom}. More surface-sensitive, ion-scattering spectroscopy (ISS) analysis further reveals about 7% of Cu at the top surface. These results translate to an areal gettering capacity of about 1.0 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}2}, which is higher than the available total-area density of Cu in the layer and substrate (3.6 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}2} for a uniform 1.2 x 10{sup 17}cm{sup {minus}3} Cu throughout the layer and substrate with a total thickness of 300 {mu}m).

  12. Dependence of the Mg-related acceptor ionization energy with the acceptor concentration in p-type GaN layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochen, Stéphane; Brault, Julien; Chenot, Sébastien; Dussaigne, Amélie; Leroux, Mathieu; Damilano, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Hall effect and capacitance-voltage C(V) measurements were performed on p-type GaN:Mg layers grown on GaN templates by molecular beam epitaxy with a high range of Mg-doping concentrations. The free hole density and the effective dopant concentration N A −N D as a function of magnesium incorporation measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy clearly reveal both a magnesium doping efficiency up to 90% and a strong dependence of the acceptor ionization energy Ea with the acceptor concentration N A . These experimental observations highlight an isolated acceptor binding energy of 245±25 meV compatible, at high acceptor concentration, with the achievement of p-type GaN:Mg layers with a hole concentration at room temperature close to 10 19 cm −3

  13. Composition modulation analysis of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}P layers grown on (0 0 1) germanium substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastore, C.E.; Araujo, D. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e IM y QI, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain); Gutierrez, M., E-mail: marina.gutierrez@uca.es [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e IM y QI, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain); Miguel-Sanchez, J.; Rodriguez-Messmer, E. [Isofoton, C/ Severo Ochoa 50, 29590 Malaga (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    The development of new photovoltaic approach to improve costs and efficiencies is focused on the new materials and new technologies. InGaP is, in this sense, a key material for solar conversion. In particular, in the solar concentration approach, this material is part of multiple junction solar cells. Its low lattice mismatch with germanium and its adequate bandgap make it very promising. This paper shows how compositional modulation can affect the InGaP emitter and the AlGaAs tunnel junctions. The influence of the growth conditions, on the compositional modulation and misfit and threading dislocations, in In{sub 0.49}Ga{sub 0.51}P layers is demonstrated by TEM on purposely grown single InGaP layers. High resolution electron microscopy (HREM) intensity profiles showed no elastic lattice related modulation.

  14. Structural and electronic properties of InN epitaxial layer grown on c-plane sapphire by chemical vapor deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barick, Barun Kumar, E-mail: bkbarick@gmail.com; Prasad, Nivedita; Saroj, Rajendra Kumar; Dhar, Subhabrata [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-09-15

    Growth of InN epilayers on c-plane sapphire substrate by chemical vapor deposition technique using pure indium metal and ammonia as precursors has been systematically explored. It has been found that [0001] oriented indium nitride epitaxial layers with smooth surface morphology can be grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by optimizing the growth conditions. Bandgap of the film is observed to be Burstein–Moss shifted likely to be due to high background electron concentration. It has been found that the concentration of this unintentional doping decreases with the increase in the growth temperature and the ammonia flux. Epitaxial quality on the other hand deteriorates as the growth temperature increases. Moreover, the morphology of the deposited layer has been found to change from flat top islands to faceted mounds as the flow rate of ammonia increases. This phenomenon is expected to be related to the difference in surface termination character at low and high ammonia flow rates.

  15. Near-infrared emitting In-rich InGaN layers grown directly on Si: Towards the whole composition range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aseev, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.aseev@upm.es; Rodriguez, Paul E. D. Soto; Gómez, Víctor J.; Alvi, Naveed ul Hassan; Calleja, Enrique [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectrónicos y Microtecnología, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mánuel, José M.; Jiménez, Juan J.; García, Rafael [Departamente Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real, 11510 Cádiz (Spain); Morales, Francisco M. [Departamente Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real, 11510 Cádiz (Spain); IMEYMAT: Institute of Research on Electron Microscopy and Materials of the University of Cádiz, 11510 Cádiz (Spain); Senichev, Alexander [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Lienau, Christoph [Institute of Physics and Center of Interface Science, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, Ammerländer Heerstr. 114-118, 26129 Oldenburg (Germany); and others

    2015-02-16

    The authors report compact and chemically homogeneous In-rich InGaN layers directly grown on Si (111) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High structural and optical quality is evidenced by transmission electron microscopy, near-field scanning optical microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Photoluminescence emission in the near-infrared is observed up to room temperature covering the important 1.3 and 1.55 μm telecom wavelength bands. The n-InGaN/p-Si interface is ohmic due to the absence of any insulating buffer layers. This qualitatively extends the application fields of III-nitrides and allows their integration with established Si technology.

  16. Near-infrared emitting In-rich InGaN layers grown directly on Si: Towards the whole composition range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aseev, Pavel; Rodriguez, Paul E. D. Soto; Gómez, Víctor J.; Alvi, Naveed ul Hassan; Calleja, Enrique; Mánuel, José M.; Jiménez, Juan J.; García, Rafael; Morales, Francisco M.; Senichev, Alexander; Lienau, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The authors report compact and chemically homogeneous In-rich InGaN layers directly grown on Si (111) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High structural and optical quality is evidenced by transmission electron microscopy, near-field scanning optical microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Photoluminescence emission in the near-infrared is observed up to room temperature covering the important 1.3 and 1.55 μm telecom wavelength bands. The n-InGaN/p-Si interface is ohmic due to the absence of any insulating buffer layers. This qualitatively extends the application fields of III-nitrides and allows their integration with established Si technology

  17. Quantitative and simultaneous analysis of the polarity of polycrystalline ZnO seed layers and related nanowires grown by wet chemical deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Sophie; Parize, Romain; Carabetta, Joseph; Cantelli, Valentina; Albertini, David; Gautier, Brice; Brémond, Georges; Fong, Dillon D.; Renevier, Hubert; Consonni, Vincent

    2017-03-01

    The polarity in ZnO nanowires is an important issue since it strongly affects surface configuration and reactivity, nucleation and growth, electro-optical properties, and nanoscale-engineering device performances. However, measuring statistically the polarity of ZnO nanowire arrays grown by chemical bath deposition and elucidating its correlation with the polarity of the underneath polycrystalline ZnO seed layer grown by the sol-gel process represents a major difficulty. To address that issue, we combine resonant x-ray diffraction (XRD) at Zn K-edge using synchrotron radiation with piezoelectric force microscopy and polarity-sensitive chemical etching to statistically investigate the polarity of more than 107 nano-objects both on the macroscopic and local microscopic scales, respectively. By using high temperature annealing under an argon atmosphere, it is shown that the compact, highly c-axis oriented ZnO seed layer is more than 92% Zn-polar and that only a few small O-polar ZnO grains with an amount less than 8% are formed. Correlatively, the resulting ZnO nanowires are also found to be Zn-polar, indicating that their polarity is transferred from the c-axis oriented ZnO grains acting as nucleation sites in the seed layer. These findings pave the way for the development of new strategies to form unipolar ZnO nanowire arrays as a requirement for a number of nanoscale-engineering devices like piezoelectric nanogenerators. They also highlight the great advantage of resonant XRD as a macroscopic, non-destructive method to simultaneously and statistically measure the polarity of ZnO nanowire arrays and of the underneath ZnO seed layer.

  18. Effect of Fe inter-diffusion on properties of InP layers grown with addition of RE elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazkova, O.; Zavadil, J.; Zdansky, K.

    2005-01-01

    This contribution reports the redistribution behaviour of Fe during the growth of InP layers from liquid phase with addition of some rare earth elements on semi-insulating InP:Fe substrates. We have studied the influence of different rare earths on the Fe diffusion into InP layer and compared it with the phenomenon of an extraction of iron from Fe doped materials into adjacent layers doped by Zn, Cd and Be, reported recently. In the case of Tm addition a conversion of electrical conductivity of InP layer to semi-insulating as a consequence of Fe diffusion has been observed while no significant Fe inter-diffusion has been confirmed in the presence of other investigated rare earth additions. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Effect of strain, substrate surface and growth rate on B-doping in selectively grown SiGe layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghandi, R.; Kolahdouz, M.; Hallstedt, J.; Wise, R.; Wejtmans, Hans; Radamson, H.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the role of strain and growth rate on boron incorporation in selective epitaxial growth (SEG) of B-doped Si 1-x Ge x (x = 0.15-0.25) layers in recessed or unprocessed (elevated) openings for source/drain applications in CMOS has been studied. A focus has been made on the strain distribution and B incorporation in SEG of SiGe layers

  20. Effect of strain, substrate surface and growth rate on B-doping in selectively grown SiGe layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghandi, R. [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), Isafjordsg. 22-26, Electrum 229, 16640 Kista (Sweden)], E-mail: ghandi@kth.se; Kolahdouz, M.; Hallstedt, J. [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), Isafjordsg. 22-26, Electrum 229, 16640 Kista (Sweden); Wise, R.; Wejtmans, Hans [Texas Instrument, 13121 TI Boulevard, Dallas, Tx 75243 (United States); Radamson, H.H. [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), Isafjordsg. 22-26, Electrum 229, 16640 Kista (Sweden)

    2008-11-03

    In this work, the role of strain and growth rate on boron incorporation in selective epitaxial growth (SEG) of B-doped Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} (x = 0.15-0.25) layers in recessed or unprocessed (elevated) openings for source/drain applications in CMOS has been studied. A focus has been made on the strain distribution and B incorporation in SEG of SiGe layers.

  1. Use of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} films grown by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition for shallow boron doping in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkofen, Bodo, E-mail: bodo.kalkofen@ovgu.de; Amusan, Akinwumi A.; Bukhari, Muhammad S. K.; Burte, Edmund P. [Institute of Micro and Sensor Systems, Otto-von-Guericke University, Universitätsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Garke, Bernd [Institute for Experimental Physics, Otto-von-Guericke University, Universitätsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Lisker, Marco [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Gargouri, Hassan [SENTECH Instruments GmbH, Schwarzschildstraße 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    Plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PALD) was carried for growing thin boron oxide films onto silicon aiming at the formation of dopant sources for shallow boron doping of silicon by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). A remote capacitively coupled plasma source powered by GaN microwave oscillators was used for generating oxygen plasma in the PALD process with tris(dimethylamido)borane as boron containing precursor. ALD type growth was obtained; growth per cycle was highest with 0.13 nm at room temperature and decreased with higher temperature. The as-deposited films were highly unstable in ambient air and could be protected by capping with in-situ PALD grown antimony oxide films. After 16 weeks of storage in air, degradation of the film stack was observed in an electron microscope. The instability of the boron oxide, caused by moisture uptake, suggests the application of this film for testing moisture barrier properties of capping materials particularly for those grown by ALD. Boron doping of silicon was demonstrated using the uncapped PALD B{sub 2}O{sub 3} films for RTA processes without exposing them to air. The boron concentration in the silicon could be varied depending on the source layer thickness for very thin films, which favors the application of ALD for semiconductor doping processes.

  2. Resistance Switching Memory Characteristics of Si/CaF2/CdF2 Quantum-Well Structures Grown on Metal (CoSi2) Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denda, Junya; Uryu, Kazuya; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2013-04-01

    A novel scheme of resistance switching random access memory (ReRAM) devices fabricated using Si/CaF2/CdF2/CaF2/Si quantum-well structures grown on metal CoSi2 layer formed on a Si substrate has been proposed, and embryonic write/erase memory operation has been demonstrated at room temperature. It has been found that the oxide-mediated epitaxy (OME) technique for forming the CoSi2 layer on Si dramatically improves the stability and reproducibility of the current-voltage (I-V) curve. This technology involves 10-nm-thick Co layer deposition on a protective oxide prepared by boiling in a peroxide-based solution followed by annealing at 550 °C for 30 min for silicidation in ultrahigh vacuum. A switching voltage of lower than 1 V, a peak current density of 32 kA/cm2, and an ON/OFF ratio of 10 have been observed for the sample with the thickness sequence of 0.9/0.9/2.5/0.9/5.0 nm for the respective layers in the Si/CaF2/CdF2/CaF2/Si structure. Results of surface morphology analysis suggest that the grain size of crystal islands with flat surfaces strongly affects the quality of device characteristics.

  3. Structural Properties of Zinc Oxide Nanorods Grown on Al-Doped Zinc Oxide Seed Layer and Their Applications in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Ho Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated zinc oxide (ZnO nanorods (NRs with Al-doped ZnO (AZO seed layers and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs employed the ZnO NRs between a TiO2 photoelectrode and a fluorine-doped SnO2 (FTO electrode. The growth rate of the NRs was strongly dependent on the seed layer conditions, i.e., thickness, Al dopant and annealing temperature. Attaining a large particle size with a high crystallinity of the seed layer was vital to the well-aligned growth of the NRs. However, the growth was less related to the substrate material (glass and FTO coated glass. With optimized ZnO NRs, the DSSCs exhibited remarkably enhanced photovoltaic performance, because of the increase of dye absorption and fast carrier transfer, which, in turn, led to improved efficiency. The cell with the ZnO NRs grown on an AZO seed layer annealed at 350 °C showed a short-circuit current density (JSC of 12.56 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage (VOC of 0.70 V, a fill factor (FF of 0.59 and a power conversion efficiency (PCE, η of 5.20% under air mass 1.5 global (AM 1.5G illumination of 100 mW/cm2.

  4. Spectroscopic ellipsometry analysis of GaAs1-xNx layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Sedrine, N.; Rihani, J.; Stehle, J.L.; Harmand, J.C.; Chtourou, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we present the effect of nitrogen incorporation on the dielectric function of GaAsN samples, grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) followed by a rapid thermal annealing (for 90 s at 680 deg. C). The GaAs 1-x N x samples with N content up to 1.5% (x = 0.0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.5%), are investigated using room temperature spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The optical transitions in the spectral region around 3 eV are analyzed by fitting analytical critical point line shapes to the second derivative of the dielectric function. It was found that the features associated with E 1 and E 1 + Δ 1 transitions are blue-shifted and become less sharp with increasing nitrogen incorporation, in contrast to the case of E 0 transition energy in GaAs 1-x N x . An increase of the split-off Δ 1 energy with nitrogen content was also obtained, in agreement to results found with MOVPE GaAs 1-x N x grown samples

  5. n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN based nitride–oxide heterostructure with various thickness of VO{sub 2} layer grown by MBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Minhuan [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Bian, Jiming, E-mail: jmbian@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, China (China); Sun, Hongjun; Liu, Weifeng [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang, Yuzhi [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, China (China); Luo, Yingmin [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The significant influences of VO{sub 2} layer thickness on the structural, electrical and contact properties of the n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN based nitride-oxide heterostructure were investigated systemically. - Highlights: • High quality VO{sub 2} films with precisely controlled thickness were grown on p-GaN/sapphire substrates by oxide molecular beam epitaxy (O-MBE). • A distinct reversible SMT phase transition was observed for the n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN based nitride-oxide heterostructure. • The clear rectifying transport characteristics originated from the n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN interface were demonstrated before and after SMT of the VO{sub 2} over layer. • The XPS analyses confirmed the valence state of V in VO{sub 2} films was principally composed of V{sup 4+} with trace amount of V{sup 5+}. • The design and modulation of the n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN based heterostructure devices will benefit significantly from these achievements. - Abstract: High quality VO{sub 2} films with precisely controlled thickness were grown on p-GaN/sapphire substrates by oxide molecular beam epitaxy (O-MBE). Results indicated that a distinct reversible semiconductor-to-metal (SMT) phase transition was observed for all the samples in the temperature dependent electrical resistance measurement, and the influence of VO{sub 2} layer thickness on the SMT properties of the as-grown n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN based nitride-oxide heterostructure was investigated. Meanwhile, the clear rectifying transport characteristics originated from the n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN interface were demonstrated before and after SMT of the VO{sub 2} over layer, which were attributed to the p-n junction behavior and Schottky contact character, respectively. Moreover, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses confirmed the valence state of vanadium (V) in VO{sub 2} films was principally composed of V{sup 4+} with trace amount of V{sup 5+}. The design and modulation of the n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN based heterostructure

  6. Structure and electronic properties of Zn-tetra-phenyl-porphyrin single- and multi-layers films grown on Fe(001)-p(1 × 1)O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussetti, Gianlorenzo, E-mail: gianlorenzo.bussetti@polimi.it; Calloni, Alberto; Celeri, Matteo; Yivlialin, Rossella; Finazzi, Marco; Bottegoni, Federico; Duò, Lamberto; Ciccacci, Franco

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • ZnTPP/Fe(001)-p(1 × 1)O is a prototypical system to investigate the porphyrin/thin metal oxide film interaction. • Oxygen layer plays a crucial role in decreasing the porphyrin-substrate interaction. • An ordered ZnTPP (5 × 5) reconstruction is found on the nominal 1 ML-thick film. • On Fe(001)-p(1 × 1)O the electronic properties of the ZnTPP film are preserved with respect to other substrates. - Abstract: The structure and the electronic properties of thin (1 molecular layer) and thick (20 molecular layers) Zn-tetra-phenyl-porphyrin (ZnTPP) films grown on a single metal oxide (MO) layer, namely Fe(001)-p(1 × 1)O, are shown and discussed. During the first stages of deposition, the ultra-thin MO layer reduces the molecule-substrate interaction enhancing the molecular diffusivity with the respect to other investigated substrates [namely, Si(111), Au(001) and oxygen-free Fe(001)]. On Fe(001)-p(1 × 1)O, ZnTPP molecules form an ordered and stable square-lattice array. The photoemission analysis of the valence bands reveals that all the characteristic features of the molecule are already visible in the 1 monolayer-thick sample spectrum. Similarly, the core level investigation suggests a weak molecule perturbation. The ZnTPP/Fe(001)-p(1 × 1)O interface represents a prototypical system to investigate the organic film adhesion on ultra-thin MO layers and the processes involved during the film growth.

  7. A porous layer: an evidence for the deterioration of MOVPE InN grown at high temperature (∝650 C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, K.; Hashimoto, A.; Yamamoto, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper indicates an evidence for the deterioration of the MOVPE InN during the growth at high temperature (∝650 C). It is noted that the deterioration occurs near the interface and InN film becomes porous layer during the further growth. The porous layer has high electron density. The rate-limiting process of N-face InN decomposition depends on atomic hydrogen. The atomic hydrogen produced by the decomposition of NH 3 is responsible for the deterioration of InN film. The crystal quality of InN improves with decreasing the porous layer which is important for MOVPE InN. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. High Quality GaAs Epilayers Grown on Si Substrate Using 100 nm Ge Buffer Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Cheng Kuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present high quality GaAs epilayers that grow on virtual substrate with 100 nm Ge buffer layers. The thin Ge buffer layers were modulated by hydrogen flow rate from 60 to 90 sccm to improve crystal quality by electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECR-CVD at low growth temperature (180°C. The GaAs and Ge epilayers quality was verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD and spectroscopy ellipsometry (SE. The full width at half maximum (FWHM of the Ge and GaAs epilayers in XRD is 406 arcsec and 220 arcsec, respectively. In addition, the GaAs/Ge/Si interface is observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM to demonstrate the epitaxial growth. The defects at GaAs/Ge interface are localized within a few nanometers. It is clearly showed that the dislocation is well suppressed. The quality of the Ge buffer layer is the key of III–V/Si tandem cell. Therefore, the high quality GaAs epilayers that grow on virtual substrate with 100 nm Ge buffer layers is suitable to develop the low cost and high efficiency III–V/Si tandem solar cells.

  9. Interface manipulation in GaxIn1-xAs/InP multiple layer structures grown by chemical beam epitaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongen, R.T.H.; van Rijswijk, A.J.C.; Leijs, M.R.; Es, van C.M.; Vonk, H.; Wolter, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    In this study the control of interfacial layers in nanometre thin heterostructures is demonstrated by variation of the growth interruption sequence (GIS) at the binary - ternary interfaces. All samples have been prepared by chemical beam epitaxy simultaneously growing the structures on exact (100)

  10. Metal-oxide-semiconductor devices based on epitaxial germanium-carbon layers grown directly on silicon substrates by ultra-high-vacuum chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David Quest

    After the integrated circuit was invented in 1959, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology soon became the mainstay of the semiconductor industry. Silicon-based CMOS has dominated logic technologies for decades. During this time, chip performance has grown at an exponential rate at the cost of higher power consumption and increased process complexity. The performance gains have been made possible through scaling down circuit dimensions by improvements in lithography capabilities. Since scaling cannot continue forever, researchers have vigorously pursued new ways of improving the performance of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) without having to shrink gate lengths and reduce the gate insulator thickness. Strained silicon, with its ability to boost transistor current by improving the channel mobility, is one of the methods that has already found its way into production. Although not yet in production, high-kappa dielectrics have also drawn wide interest in industry since they allow for the reduction of the electrical oxide thickness of the gate stack without having to reduce the physical thickness of the dielectric. Further out on the horizon is the incorporation of high-mobility materials such as germanium (Ge), silicon-germanium (Si1-xGe x), and the III-V semiconductors. Among the high-mobility materials, Ge has drawn the most attention because it has been shown to be compatible with high-kappa dielectrics and to produce high drive currents compared to Si. Among the most difficult challenges for integrating Ge on Si is finding a suitable method for reducing the number of crystal defects. The use of strain-relaxed Si1- xGex buffers has proven successful for reducing the threading dislocation density in Ge epitaxial layers, but questions remain as to the viability of this method in terms of cost and process complexity. This dissertation presents research on thin germanium-carbon (Ge 1-yCy layers on Si for the fabrication

  11. Effect of 3C-SiC intermediate layer in GaN—based light emitting diodes grown on Si(111) substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Youhua; Wang, Meiyu; Li, Yi; Tan, Shuxin; Deng, Honghai; Guo, Xinglong; Yin, Haihong; Egawa, Takashi

    2017-03-01

    GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on Si(111) substrate with and without 3C-SiC intermediate layer (IL). Structural property has been characterized by means of atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscope measurements. It has been revealed that a significant improvement in crystalline quality of GaN and superlattice epitaxial layers can be achieved by using 3C-SiC as IL. Regarding of electrical and optical characteristics, it is clearly observed that the LEDs with its IL have a smaller leakage current and higher light output power comparing with the LEDs without IL. The better performance of LEDs using 3C-SiC IL can be contributed to both of the improvements in epitaxial layers quality and light extraction efficiency. As a consequence, in terms of optical property, a double enhancement of the light output power and external quantum efficiency has been realized.

  12. Efficient n-type doping of CdTe epitaxial layers grown by photo-assisted molecular beam epitaxy with the use of chlorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hommel, D.; Scholl, S.; Kuhn, T.A.; Ossau, W.; Waag, A.; Landwehr, G. (Univ. Wuerzburg, Physikalisches Inst. (Germany)); Bilger, G. (Univ. Stuttgart, Inst. fuer Physikalische Elektronik (Germany))

    1993-01-30

    Chlorine has been used successfully for the first time for n-type doping of CdTe epitaxial layers (epilayers) grown by photo-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Similar to n-type doping of ZnSe layers, ZnCl[sub 2] has been used as source material. The free-carrier concentration can be varied over more than three orders of magnitude by changing the ZnCl[sub 2] oven temperature. Peak mobilities are 4700 cm[sup 2] V[sup -1] s[sup -1] for an electron concentration of 2x10[sup 16] cm[sup -3] and 525 cm[sup 2] V[sup -1] s[sup -1] for 2x10[sup 18] cm[sup -3]. The electrical transport data obtained by Van der Pauw configuration and Hall structure measurements are consistent with each other, indicating a good uniformity of the epilayers. In photoluminescence the donor-bound-exciton emission dominates for all chlorine concentrations. This contasts significantly with results obtained for indium doping, commonly used for obtaining n-type CdTe epilayers. The superiority of chlorine over indium doping and the influence of growth parameters on the behaviour of CdTe:Cl layers will be discussed on the basis of transport, luminescence, secondary ion mass spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data. (orig.).

  13. Effect of the growth temperature and the AlN mole fraction on In incorporation and properties of quaternary III-nitride layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Pereiro, J.; Munoz, E.; Calleja, E.; Redondo-Cubero, A.; Gago, R.; Bertram, F.; Christen, J.; Luna, E.; Trampert, A.

    2008-01-01

    Indium incorporation into wurtzite (0001)-oriented In x Al y Ga 1-x-y N layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy was studied as a function of the growth temperature (565-635 deg. C) and the AlN mole fraction (0.01< y<0.27). The layer stoichiometry was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). RBS shows that indium incorporation decreased continuously with increasing growth temperature due to thermally enhanced dissociation of In-N bonds and for increasing AlN mole fractions. High resolution x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements did not show evidence of phase separation. The mosaicity of the quaternary layers was found to be mainly determined by the growth temperature and independent on alloy composition within the range studied. However, depending on the AlN mole fraction, nanometer-sized composition fluctuations were detected by TEM. Photoluminescence spectra showed a single broad emission at room temperature, with energy and bandwidth S- and W-shaped temperature dependences typical of exciton localization by alloy inhomogeneities. Cathodoluminescence measurements demonstrated that the alloy inhomogeneities, responsible of exciton localization, occur on a lateral length scale below 150 nm, which is corroborated by TEM

  14. Correlation between (in)commensurate domains of multilayer epitaxial graphene grown on SiC(0 0 0 1-bar ) and single layer electronic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes-de-Sa, T G; Goncalves, A M B; Matos, M J S; Coelho, P M; Magalhaes-Paniago, R; Lacerda, R G

    2012-01-01

    A systematic study of the evolution of the electronic behavior and atomic structure of multilayer epitaxial graphene (MEG) as a function of growth time was performed. MEG was obtained by sublimation of a 4H-SiC(0 0 0 1-bar ) substrate in an argon atmosphere. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction were carried out in samples grown for different times. For 30 min of growth the sample Raman signal is similar to that of graphite, while for 60 min the spectrum becomes equivalent to that of exfoliated graphene. Conventional x-ray diffraction reveals that all the samples have two different (0001) lattice spacings. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction shows that thin films are composed of rotated (commensurate) structures formed by adjacent graphene layers. Thick films are almost completely disordered. This result can be directly correlated to the single layer electronic behavior of the films as observed by Raman spectroscopy. Finally, to understand the change in lattice spacings as a result of layer rotation, we have carried out first principles calculations (using density functional theory) of the observed commensurate structures. (paper)

  15. Quasicubic α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles embedded in TiO{sub 2} thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamm, Aile [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi 1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Seinberg, Liis [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Kozlova, Jekaterina [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi 1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Link, Joosep [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Pikma, Piret [University of Tartu, Institute of Chemistry, Ravila 14A, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Stern, Raivo [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Kukli, Kaupo [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi 1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-08-01

    Monodispersed quasicubic α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized from ferric nitrite (Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}), N,N-dimethyl formamide and poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone). Layers of nanoparticles were attached to HF-etched Si substrates by dip coating and subsequently embedded in thin titanium oxide films grown by atomic layer deposition from TiCl{sub 4} and H{sub 2}O. The deposition of TiO{sub 2} onto Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles covered the nanoparticles uniformly and anatase phase of TiO{sub 2} was observed in Si/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanostructures. In Si/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanostructure magnetic domains, observable by magnetic force microscopy, were formed and these nanostructures implied ferromagnetic-like behavior at room temperature with the saturative magnetization and coercivity of 10 kA/m. - Highlights: • Cubic-shaped iron oxide crystallites were supported by thin titanium oxide films. • The process chemistry applied allowed formation of heterogeneous composite. • Atomic layer deposition of titanium oxide on nanocubes was uniform and conformal. • The nanostructures formed can be regarded as magnetically susceptible materials.

  16. Studying physical properties of CuInS2 absorber layers grown by spin coating method on different kinds of substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerioun, M. H.; Ghazi, M. E.; Izadifard, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, first the CuInS2 (CIS2) layers are deposited on Aluminum and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as flexible substrates, and on glass and soda lime glass (SLG) as rigid substrates by the sol-gel method. Then the samples are analyzed by x-ray diffractomery (XRD) and atomic force microscope (AFM) to investigate the crystal structures and surface roughness of the samples. The I-V curve measurements and Seebeck effect setup are used to measure the electrical properties of the samples. The XRD data obtained for the CIS2 layers show that all the prepared samples have a single phase with a preferred orientation that is substrate-dependent. The samples grown on the rigid substrates had higher crystallite sizes. The results obtained for the optical measurements indicate the dependence of the band gap energy on the substrate type. The measured Seebeck coefficient showed that the carriers were of p-type in all the samples. According to the AFM images, the surface roughness also varied in the CIS2 layers with different substrates. In this regard, the type of substrate could be an important parameter for the final performance of the fabricated CIS2 cells.

  17. Effects of anodizing conditions and annealing temperature on the morphology and crystalline structure of anodic oxide layers grown on iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Anna; Hnida, Katarzyna; Socha, Robert P.; Wiercigroch, Ewelina; Małek, Kamilla; Sulka, Grzegorz D.

    2017-12-01

    Anodic iron oxide layers were formed by anodization of the iron foil in an ethylene glycol-based electrolyte containing 0.2 M NH4F and 0.5 M H2O at 40 V for 1 h. The anodizing conditions such as electrolyte composition and applied potential were optimized. In order to examine the influence of electrolyte stirring and applied magnetic field, the anodic samples were prepared under the dynamic and static conditions in the presence or absence of magnetic field. It was shown that ordered iron oxide nanopore arrays could be obtained at lower anodizing temperatures (10 and 20 °C) at the static conditions without the magnetic field or at the dynamic conditions with the applied magnetic field. Since the as-prepared anodic layers are amorphous in nature, the samples were annealed in air at different temperatures (200-500 °C) for a fixed duration of time (1 h). The morphology and crystal phases developed after anodization and subsequent annealing were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. The results proved that the annealing process transforms the amorphous layer into magnetite and hematite phases. In addition, the heat treatment results in a substantial decrease in the fluorine content and increase in the oxygen content.

  18. Growth and optical characteristics of Tm-doped AlGaN layer grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsu, J.; Fuji, R.; Tatebayashi, J.; Timmerman, D.; Lesage, A.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Fujiwara, Y.

    2018-04-01

    We report on the growth and optical properties of Tm-doped AlGaN layers by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE). The morphological and optical properties of Tm-doped GaN (GaN:Tm) and Tm-doped AlGaN (AlGaN:Tm) were investigated by Nomarski differential interference contrast microscopy and photoluminescence (PL) characterization. Nomarski images reveal an increase of surface roughness upon doping Tm into both GaN and AlGaN layers. The PL characterization of GaN:Tm shows emission in the near-infrared range originating from intra-4f shell transitions of Tm3+ ions. In contrast, AlGaN:Tm also exhibits blue light emission from Tm3+ ions. In that case, the wider band gap of the AlGaN host allows energy transfer to higher states of the Tm3+ ions. With time-resolved PL measurements, we could distinguish three types of luminescent sites of Tm3+ in the AlGaN:Tm layer, having different decay times. Our results confirm that Tm ions can be doped into GaN and AlGaN by OMVPE, and show potential for the fabrication of novel high-color-purity blue light emitting diodes.

  19. Electrical and materials properties of ZrO2 gate dielectrics grown by atomic layer chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Charles M.; Triplett, Baylor B.; McIntyre, Paul C.; Saraswat, Krishna C.; Haukka, Suvi; Tuominen, Marko

    2001-04-01

    Structural and electrical properties of gate stack structures containing ZrO2 dielectrics were investigated. The ZrO2 films were deposited by atomic layer chemical vapor deposition (ALCVD) after different substrate preparations. The structure, composition, and interfacial characteristics of these gate stacks were examined using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ZrO2 films were polycrystalline with either a cubic or tetragonal crystal structure. An amorphous interfacial layer with a moderate dielectric constant formed between the ZrO2 layer and the substrate during ALCVD growth on chemical oxide-terminated silicon. Gate stacks with a measured equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of 1.3 nm showed leakage values of 10-5 A/cm2 at a bias of -1 V from flatband, which is significantly less than that seen with SiO2 dielectrics of similar EOT. A hysteresis of 8-10 mV was seen for ±2 V sweeps while a midgap interface state density (Dit) of ˜3×1011 states/cm eV was determined from comparisons of measured and ideal capacitance curves.

  20. Synthesis of GaAs quantum dots on Si-layers on AlGaAs films grown on GaAs(100) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez-Garcia, V. H.; Zamora-Peredo, L.; Saucedo-Zeni, N.

    2002-01-01

    In this work we report a novel method for obtaining GaAs quantum dots by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on an AlGaAs underlying film. We propose to use a Si monolayer (ML) grown on AlGaAs, in order to induce a 3D nucleation during the GaAs overgrowth. The samples were prepared in a Riber 32P MBE system employing undoped Si-GaAs(100) substrates. First, a 500 nm thick layer of Al x Ga 1-x As was grown with a nominal concentration x=0.35. Several samples were grown in order to analyze the effects of changing the Si interlayer thickness, and the amount of GaAs overgrowth, on the final structures. Previous to the Si-exposure, the AlGaAs presented a (1x3) surface reconstruction which gradually turned to a (3x1) structure when the Si-thickness was 1 ML, as observed in the reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns. When the GaAs overgrowth started on this surface, transmission RHEED spots appeared and showed a considerable increase in intensity until reaching a maximum. This behavior is typical from a 3D island growth. If the GaAs overgrowth continues, the initial streaky RHEED patterns recovered indicating a 2D-growth. Thus, we prepared a sample stopping the GaAs overgrowth at the time when the diffraction 3D spot reached the maximum intensity, equivalent to 2ML of GaAs. The sample surface was analyzed in air by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Islands of 1.5 nm-height and 20x20 nm of base were clearly observed, these dimensions are suitable for applications in quantum dots. (Authors)

  1. Deep level defects in Ge-doped (010) β-Ga2O3 layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzana, Esmat; Ahmadi, Elaheh; Speck, James S.; Arehart, Aaron R.; Ringel, Steven A.

    2018-04-01

    Deep level defects were characterized in Ge-doped (010) β-Ga2O3 layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) using deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS) and deep level transient (thermal) spectroscopy (DLTS) applied to Ni/β-Ga2O3:Ge (010) Schottky diodes that displayed Schottky barrier heights of 1.50 eV. DLOS revealed states at EC - 2.00 eV, EC - 3.25 eV, and EC - 4.37 eV with concentrations on the order of 1016 cm-3, and a lower concentration level at EC - 1.27 eV. In contrast to these states within the middle and lower parts of the bandgap probed by DLOS, DLTS measurements revealed much lower concentrations of states within the upper bandgap region at EC - 0.1 - 0.2 eV and EC - 0.98 eV. There was no evidence of the commonly observed trap state at ˜EC - 0.82 eV that has been reported to dominate the DLTS spectrum in substrate materials synthesized by melt-based growth methods such as edge defined film fed growth (EFG) and Czochralski methods [Zhang et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 052105 (2016) and Irmscher et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 063720 (2011)]. This strong sensitivity of defect incorporation on crystal growth method and conditions is unsurprising, which for PAMBE-grown β-Ga2O3:Ge manifests as a relatively "clean" upper part of the bandgap. However, the states at ˜EC - 0.98 eV, EC - 2.00 eV, and EC - 4.37 eV are reminiscent of similar findings from these earlier results on EFG-grown materials, suggesting that possible common sources might also be present irrespective of growth method.

  2. Resistive switching and synaptic properties of fully atomic layer deposition grown TiN/HfO{sub 2}/TiN devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveyev, Yu.; Zenkevich, A. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700 Moscow Region (Russian Federation); NRNU “Moscow Engineering Physics Institute”, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Egorov, K.; Markeev, A. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700 Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-28

    Recently proposed novel neural network hardware designs imply the use of memristors as electronic synapses in 3D cross-bar architecture. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is the most feasible technique to fabricate such arrays. In this work, we present the results of the detailed investigation of the gradual resistive switching (memristive) effect in nanometer thick fully ALD grown TiN/HfO{sub 2}/TiN stacks. The modelling of the I-V curves confirms interface limited trap-assisted-tunneling mechanism along the oxygen vacancies in HfO{sub 2} in all conduction states. The resistivity of the stack is found to critically depend upon the distance from the interface to the first trap in HfO{sub 2}. The memristive properties of ALD grown TiN/HfO{sub 2}/TiN devices are correlated with the demonstrated neuromorphic functionalities, such as long-term potentiation/depression and spike-timing dependent plasticity, thus indicating their potential as electronic synapses in neuromorphic hardware.

  3. Bromine doping of CdTe and CdMnTe epitaxial layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waag, A. (Physikalisches Inst. der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)); Scholl, S. (Physikalisches Inst. der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)); Schierstedt, K. von (Physikalisches Inst. der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)); Hommel, D. (Physikalisches Inst. der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)); Landwehr, G. (Physikalisches Inst. der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)); Bilger, G. (Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Stuttgart (Germany))

    1993-03-01

    We report on the n-type doping of CdTe and CdMnTe with bormine as a novel dopant material. /the thin films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. ZnBr[sub 2] was used as a source material for the n-type doping. Free carrier concentrations at room temperature of up to 2.8x10[sup 18] cm[sup -3] could be readily obtained for both CdTe as well as CdMnTe thin films with Mn concentrations below 10%. This is to our knowledge the highest value ever obtained for the dilute magnetic semiconductor CdMnTe. For ZnBr[sub 2] source temperatures up to 60 C - corresponding to a free carrier concentration of (2-3)x10[sup 18] cm[sup -3] - the free carrier concentration of the epitaxial film increases with ZnBr[sub 2] source temperature. For higher ZnBr[sub 2] source temperatures compensation becomes dominant, which is indicated by a steep decrease of the free carrier concentration with increasing ZnBr[sub 2] source temperature. In addition the carrier mobility decreases drastically for such high dopant fluxes. A model of bromine incorporation is proposed. (orig.)

  4. Transfer of Graphene Layers Grown on SiC Wafers to Other Substrates and Their Integration into Field Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unarunotai, Sakulsuk; Murata, Yuya; Chialvo, Cesar; Kim, Hoon-Sik; MacLaren, Scott; Mason, Nadya; Petrov, Ivan; Rogers, John

    2010-03-01

    An approach to produce graphene films by epitaxial growth on silicon carbide substrate is promising, but its current implementation requires the use of SiC as the device substrate. We present a simple method for transferring epitaxial sheets of graphene on SiC to other substrates. The graphene was grown on the (0001) face of 6H-SiC by thermal annealing in a hydrogen atmosphere. Transfer was accomplished using a peeling process with a bilayer film of Gold/polyimide, to yield graphene with square millimeters of coverage on the target substrate. Back gated field-effect transistors fabricated on oxidized silicon substrates with Cr/Au as source-drain electrodes exhibited ambipolar characteristics with hole mobilities of ˜100 cm^2/V-s, and negligible influence of resistance at the contacts. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE, under Award No. DE-FG02-07ER46471, through the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

  5. Structural Properties Characterized by the Film Thickness and Annealing Temperature for La2O3 Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Liu, Hongxia; Zhao, Lu; Fei, Chenxi; Feng, Xingyao; Chen, Shupeng; Wang, Yongte

    2017-12-01

    La 2 O 3 films were grown on Si substrates by atomic layer deposition technique with different thickness. Crystallization characteristics of the La 2 O 3 films were analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction after post-deposition rapid thermal annealing treatments at several annealing temperatures. It was found that the crystallization behaviors of the La 2 O 3 films are affected by the film thickness and annealing temperatures as a relationship with the diffusion of Si substrate. Compared with the amorphous La 2 O 3 films, the crystallized films were observed to be more unstable due to the hygroscopicity of La 2 O 3 . Besides, the impacts of crystallization characteristics on the bandgap and refractive index of the La 2 O 3 films were also investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry, respectively.

  6. Hybrid Organic/ZnO p-n Junctions with n-Type ZnO Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuka, G.; Krajewski, T.; Szczerbakow, A.; Łusakowska, E.; Kopalko, K.; Guziewicz, E.; Wachnicki, Ł.; Szczepanik, A.; Godlewski, M.; Fidelus, J. D.

    2008-11-01

    We report on fabrication of hybrid inorganic-on-organic thin film structures with polycrystalline zinc oxide films grown by atomic layer deposition technique. ZnO films were deposited on two kinds of thin organic films, i.e. pentacene and poly(dimethylosiloxane) elastomer with a carbon nanotube content (PDMS:CNT). Surface morphology as well as electrical measurements of the films and devices were analyzed. The current density versus voltage (I-V) characteristics of ITO/pentacene/ZnO/Au structure show a low-voltage switching phenomenon typical of organic memory elements. The I-V studies of ITO/PDMS:CNT/ZnO/Au structure indicate some charging effects in the system under applied voltages.

  7. Optical, Electrical, and Crystal Properties of TiO2 Thin Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition on Silicon and Glass Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupa, I.; Unal, Y.; Cetin, S. S.; Durna, L.; Topalli, K.; Okyay, A. K.; Ates, H.

    2018-05-01

    TiO2 thin films have been deposited on glass and Si(100) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique using tetrakis(diethylamido)titanium(IV) and water vapor as reactants. Thorough investigation of the properties of the TiO2/glass and TiO2/Si thin films was carried out, varying the deposition temperature in the range from 100°C to 250°C while keeping the number of reaction cycles fixed at 1000. Physical and material property analyses were performed to investigate optical and electrical properties, composition, structure, and morphology. TiO2 films grown by ALD may represent promising materials for future applications in optoelectronic devices.

  8. Influence of titanium-substrate roughness on Ca–P–O thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananda Sagari, A.R., E-mail: arsagari@gmail.com [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Malm, Jari [Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Laitinen, Mikko [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Rahkila, Paavo [Department of Biology of Physical Activity, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Hongqiang, Ma [Department of Health Sciences, P.O. Box 35 (L), FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Putkonen, Matti [Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Beneq Oy, P.O. Box 262, FI-01511 Vantaa (Finland); Karppinen, Maarit [Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Whitlow, Harry J.; Sajavaara, Timo [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2013-03-01

    Amorphous Ca–P–O films were deposited on titanium substrates using atomic layer deposition, while maintaining a uniform Ca/P pulsing ratio of 6/1 with varying number of atomic layer deposition cycles starting from 10 up to 208. Prior to film deposition the titanium substrates were mechanically abraded using SiC abrasive paper of 600, 1200, 2000 grit size and polished with 3 μm diamond paste to obtain surface roughness R{sub rms} values of 0.31 μm, 0.26 μm, 0.16 μm, and 0.10 μm, respectively. The composition and film thickness of as-deposited amorphous films were studied using Time-Of-Flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis. The results showed that uniform films could be deposited on rough metal surfaces with a clear dependence of substrate roughness on the Ca/P atomic ratio of thin films. The in vitro cell-culture studies using MC3T3 mouse osteoblast showed a greater coverage of cells on the surface polished with diamond paste in comparison to rougher surfaces after 24 h culture. No statistically significant difference was observed between Ca–P–O coated and un-coated Ti surfaces for the measured roughness value. The deposited 50 nm thick films did not dissolve during the cell culture experiment. - Highlights: ► Atomic layer deposition of Ca–P–O films on abraded Ti substrate ► Surface analysis using Time-Of-Flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis ► Dependence of substrate roughness on the Ca/P atomic ratio of thin films ► An increase in Ca/P atomic ratio with decreasing roughness ► Mouse osteoblast showed greater coverage of cells in polished surface.

  9. Design and characterization of thick InxGa1-xAs metamorphic buffer layers grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, K. L.; Zutter, B. T.; Wood, A. W.; Babcock, S. E.; Kuech, T. F.

    2014-03-01

    Thick InxGa1-xAs metamorphic buffer layers (MBLs) grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) were studied. Relationships between MBL properties and growth parameters such as grading rate, cap layer thickness, final xInAs, and deposition temperature (TD) were explored. The MBLs were characterized by measurement of in-plane residual strain (ɛ¦¦), surface etch pit density (EPD), and surface roughness. Capping layer thickness had a strong effect on strain relaxation, with thickly capped samples exhibiting the lowest ɛ¦¦. EPD was higher in samples with thicker caps, reflecting their increased relaxation through dislocation generation. ɛ¦¦ and EPD were weakly affected by the grading rate, making capping layer thickness the primary structural parameter which controls these properties. MBLs graded in discrete steps had similar properties to MBLs with continuous grading. In samples with identical thickness and 10-step grading style, ɛ¦¦ increased almost linearly with final xInAs, while total relaxation stayed relatively constant. Relaxation as a function of xInAs could be described by an equilibrium model in which dislocation nucleation is impeded by the energy of the existing dislocation array. EPD was constant from xInAs = 0 to 0.24 then increased exponentially, which is related to the increased dislocation interaction and blocking seen at higher dislocation densities. RMS roughness increased with xInAs above a certain strain rate (0.15%/µm) samples grown below this level possessed large surface hillocks and high roughness values. The elimination of hillocks at higher values of xInAs is attributed to increased density of surface steps and is related to the out-of-plane component of the burgers vector of the dominant type of 60° dislocation. TD did not affect ɛ¦¦ for samples with a given xInAs. EPD tended to increase with TD, indicating dislocation glide likely is impeded at higher temperatures.

  10. Aperture-time of oxygen-precursor for minimum silicon incorporation into the interface-layer in atomic layer deposition-grown HfO{sub 2}/Si nanofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani-Gonzalez, Pierre Giovanni [CINVESTAV-Unidad Querétaro, Querétaro 76230, Querétaro, Mexico and Departamento de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Ave. Del Charro 450, Cd. Juárez C.P. 32310, Chihuahua (Mexico); Vazquez-Lepe, Milton Oswaldo [CINVESTAV-Unidad Querétaro, Querétaro 76230, Querétaro, Mexico and Departamento de Ingeniería de Proyectos, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara 45100, Jalisco (Mexico); Herrera-Gomez, Alberto, E-mail: aherrera@qro.cinvestav.mx [CINVESTAV-Unidad Querétaro, Querétaro 76230, Querétaro (Mexico)

    2015-01-15

    Hafnium oxide nanofilms were grown with atomic layer deposition on H-terminated Si (001) wafers employing tetrakis dimethyl amino hafnium (TDMA-Hf) and water as precursors. While the number of cycles (30) and the aperture-time for TDMA-Hf (0.08 s) were kept constant, the aperture-time (τ{sub H{sub 2O}}) for the oxidant-agent (H{sub 2}O) was varied from 0 to 0.10 s. The structure of the films was characterized with robust analysis employing angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition to a ∼1 nm hafnium oxide layer, a hafnium silicate interface layer, also ∼1 nm thick, is formed for τ{sub H{sub 2O}} > 0. The incorporation degree of silicon into the interface layer (i.e., the value of 1 − x in Hf{sub x}Si{sub 1−x}O{sub y}) shows a minimum of 0.32 for τ{sub H{sub 2O}} = 0.04 s. By employing the simultaneous method during peak-fitting analysis, it was possible to clearly resolve the contribution from the silicate and from oxide to the O 1s spectra, allowing for the assessment of the oxygen composition of each layer as a function of oxidant aperture time. The uncertainties of the peak areas and on the thickness and composition of the layers were calculated employing a rigorous approach.

  11. Electron beam induced coloration and luminescence in layered structure of WO3 thin films grown by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karuppasamy, A.; Subrahmanyam, A.

    2007-01-01

    Tungsten oxide thin films have been deposited by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering of tungsten in argon and oxygen atmosphere. The as-deposited WO 3 film is amorphous, highly transparent, and shows a layered structure along the edges. In addition, the optical properties of the as-deposited film show a steplike behavior of extinction coefficient. However, the electron beam irradiation (3.0 keV) of the as-deposited films results in crystallization, coloration (deep blue), and luminescence (intense red emission). The above changes in physical properties are attributed to the extraction of oxygen atoms from the sample and the structural modifications induced by electron bombardment. The present method of coloration and luminescence has a potential for fabricating high-density optical data storage device

  12. Insitu grown superhydrophobic Zn-Al layered double hydroxides films on magnesium alloy to improve corrosion properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meng; Pang, Xiaolu; Wei, Liang; Gao, Kewei

    2015-05-01

    A hierarchical superhydrophobic zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (Zn-Al LDHs) film has been fabricated on a magnesium alloy substrate via a facile hydrothermal crystallization method following chemical modification. The characteristics of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). XRD patterns and SEM images showed that the micro/nanoscale hierarchical LDHs film surfaces composed of ZnO nanorods and Zn-Al LDHs nanowalls structures. The static contact angle (CA) for the prepared surfaces was observed at around 165.6°. The corrosion resistance of the superhydrophobic films was estimated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiondynamic polarization measurement. EIS and polarization measurements revealed that the superhydrophobic Zn-Al LDHs coated magnesium alloy had better corrosion resistance in neutral 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution.

  13. Bipolar resistive switching characteristics of low temperature grown ZnO thin films by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jian; Yang Hui; Zhang Qilong; Dong Shurong; Luo, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    ZnO films deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) have been used to investigate resistive memory behavior. The bipolar resistance switching properties were observed in the Al/PEALD-ZnO/Pt devices. The resistance ratio for the high and low resistance states (HRS/LRS) is more than 10 3 , better than ZnO devices deposited by other methods. The dominant conduction mechanisms of HRS and LRS are trap-controlled space charge limited current and Ohmic behavior, respectively. The resistive switching behavior is induced upon the formation/disruption of conducting filaments. This study demonstrated that the PEALD-ZnO films have better properties for the application in 3D resistance random access memory.

  14. Resistivity of atomic layer deposition grown ZnO: The influence of deposition temperature and post-annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laube, J., E-mail: laube@imtek.de; Nübling, D.; Beh, H.; Gutsch, S.; Hiller, D.; Zacharias, M.

    2016-03-31

    Conductive zinc oxide (ZnO) films deposited by atomic layer deposition were studied as function of post-annealing treatments. Effusion experiments were conducted on ZnO films deposited at different temperatures. The influence of different annealing atmospheres on the resistivity of the films was investigated and compared to reference samples. It was found that the influence of the deposition temperature on the resistivity is much higher than that of subsequent annealings. This leads to the conclusion that reduction of the resistivity by diffusion of different gases, such as oxygen and hydrogen, into annealed ZnO films is unlikely. - Highlights: • Conformal growth of ZnO-ALD over a temperature range of 25 °C up to 300 °C. • Post-annealing in different atmospheres (H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, vacuum) and temperatures. • Analysis of film-conductivity and effusion characteristic.

  15. Characteristics of Mg-doped and In-Mg co-doped p-type GaN epitaxial layers grown by metal organic chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, S J; Lee, Y S; Suh, E-K; Senthil Kumar, M; An, M H

    2010-01-01

    Mg-doped and In-Mg co-doped p-type GaN epilayers were grown using the metal organic chemical vapour deposition technique. The effect of In co-doping on the physical properties of p-GaN layer was examined by high resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Hall effect, photoluminescence (PL) and persistent photoconductivity (PPC) at room temperature. An improved crystalline quality and a reduction in threading dislocation density are evidenced upon In doping in p-GaN from HRXRD and TEM images. Hole conductivity, mobility and carrier density also significantly improved by In co-doping. PL studies of the In-Mg co-doped sample revealed that the peak position is blue shifted to 3.2 eV from 2.95 eV of conventional p-GaN and the PL intensity is increased by about 25%. In addition, In co-doping significantly reduced the PPC effect in p-type GaN layers. The improved electrical and optical properties are believed to be associated with the active participation of isolated Mg impurities.

  16. Characterization of nanostructured photosensitive (NiS)x(CdS)(1-x) composite thin films grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubale, A.U.; Bargal, A.N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Thin films of (NiS) x (CdS) (1-x) with variable composition (x = 1 to 0) were deposited onto glass substrates by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. → The structural, surface morphological and electrical characterizations of the as deposited and annealed films were studied. → The bandgap and activation energy of annealed (NiS) x (CdS) (1-x) film decrease with improvement in photosensitive nature. -- Abstract: Recently ternary semiconductor nanostructured composite materials have attracted the interest of researchers because of their photovoltaic applications. Thin films of (NiS) x (CdS) (1-x) with variable composition (x = 1-0) had been deposited onto glass substrates by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. As grown and annealed films were characterised by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and EDAX to investigate structural and morphological properties. The (NiS) x (CdS) (1-x) films were polycrystalline in nature having mixed phase of rhombohedral and hexagonal crystal structure due to NiS and CdS respectively. The optical and electrical properties of (NiS) x (CdS) (1-x) thin films were studied to determine compsition dependent bandgap, activation energy and photconductivity. The bandgap and activation energy of annealed (NiS) x (CdS) (1-x) film decrease with improvement in photosensitive nature.

  17. Characterization of nanostructured photosensitive (NiS){sub x}(CdS){sub (1-x)} composite thin films grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubale, A.U., E-mail: ashokuu@yahoo.com [Nanostructured Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Govt. Vidarbha Institute of Science and Humanities, Amravati 444604, Maharashtra (India); Bargal, A.N. [Nanostructured Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Govt. Vidarbha Institute of Science and Humanities, Amravati 444604, Maharashtra (India)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} Thin films of (NiS){sub x}(CdS){sub (1-x)} with variable composition (x = 1 to 0) were deposited onto glass substrates by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. {yields} The structural, surface morphological and electrical characterizations of the as deposited and annealed films were studied. {yields} The bandgap and activation energy of annealed (NiS){sub x}(CdS){sub (1-x)} film decrease with improvement in photosensitive nature. -- Abstract: Recently ternary semiconductor nanostructured composite materials have attracted the interest of researchers because of their photovoltaic applications. Thin films of (NiS){sub x}(CdS){sub (1-x)} with variable composition (x = 1-0) had been deposited onto glass substrates by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. As grown and annealed films were characterised by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and EDAX to investigate structural and morphological properties. The (NiS){sub x}(CdS){sub (1-x)} films were polycrystalline in nature having mixed phase of rhombohedral and hexagonal crystal structure due to NiS and CdS respectively. The optical and electrical properties of (NiS){sub x}(CdS){sub (1-x)} thin films were studied to determine compsition dependent bandgap, activation energy and photconductivity. The bandgap and activation energy of annealed (NiS){sub x}(CdS){sub (1-x)} film decrease with improvement in photosensitive nature.

  18. Observation of dopant-profile independent electron transport in sub-monolayer TiO{sub x} stacked ZnO thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, D., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Misra, P., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Joshi, M. P.; Kukreja, L. M. [Laser Materials Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India); Das, Gangadhar [Indus Synchrotrons Utilisation Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India)

    2016-01-18

    Dopant-profile independent electron transport has been observed through a combined study of temperature dependent electrical resistivity and magnetoresistance measurements on a series of Ti incorporated ZnO thin films with varying degree of static-disorder. These films were grown by atomic layer deposition through in-situ vertical stacking of multiple sub-monolayers of TiO{sub x} in ZnO. Upon decreasing ZnO spacer layer thickness, electron transport smoothly evolved from a good metallic to an incipient non-metallic regime due to the intricate interplay of screening of spatial potential fluctuations and strength of static-disorder in the films. Temperature dependent phase-coherence length as extracted from the magnetotransport measurement revealed insignificant role of inter sub-monolayer scattering as an additional channel for electron dephasing, indicating that films were homogeneously disordered three-dimensional electronic systems irrespective of their dopant-profiles. Results of this study are worthy enough for both fundamental physics perspective and efficient applications of multi-stacked ZnO/TiO{sub x} structures in the emerging field of transparent oxide electronics.

  19. Conformal spinel/layered heterostructures of Co3O4 shells grown on single-crystal Li-rich nanoplates for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yue; Lan, Xiwei; Chang, Peng; Huang, Yaqun; Wang, Libin; Hu, Xianluo

    2018-07-01

    Lithium-rich layered materials have received much attention because of their high specific capacity and high energy density. Unfortunately, they suffer from irreversible capacity loss, low initial Coulombic efficiency and poor cyclability. Here we report a facile co-precipitation method to synthesize uniform single-crystal Li-rich Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2 nanoplates without using any template. Subsequently, a Co3O4 shell is in situ grown on the Li-rich nanoplates through a hydrothermal method, leading to spinel/layered heterostructures. The electrode made of conformal heterostructured Li-rich/Co3O4 nanoplates delivers a high discharge capacity of 296 mA h g-1 at 0.1 C with an initial Coulombic efficiency of 84%. The capacity retention reaches 83.2% with a discharge capacity of 223 mA h g-1 after 160 cycles at 0.2 C during the potential window ranging from 2.0 to 4.8 V. The enhanced electrochemical performance of the resulting Li-rich/Co3O4 nanoplates benefits from the unique conformal heterostructure as well as the electrochemically active LixCoOy generated between the reaction of Co3O4 shells and the extracted Li2O during charging/discharging processes.

  20. Origin of the 2.45 eV luminescence band observed in ZnO epitaxial layers grown on c-plane sapphire by chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saroj, R K; Dhar, S

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide epitaxial layers have been grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. A structural study shows (0001)-oriented films with good crystalline quality. The temperature and excitation power dependence of the photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of these layers is studied as a function of various growth parameters, such as the growth temperature, oxygen flow rate and Zn flux, which suggest that the origin of the broad visible luminescence (VL), which peaks at 2.45 eV, is the transition between the conduction band and the Zn vacancy acceptor states. A bound excitonic transition observed at 3.32 eV in low temperature PL has been identified as an exciton bound to the neutral Zn vacancy. Our study also reveals the involvement of two activation processes in the dynamics of VL, which has been explained in terms of the fluctuation of the capture barrier height for the holes trapped in Zn vacancy acceptors. The fluctuation, which might be a result of the inhomogeneous distribution of Zn vacancies, is found to be associated with an average height of 7 and 90 meV, respectively, for the local and global maxima. (paper)

  1. Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of amorphous and crystalline TiO2 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, D.; Ajimsha, R. S.; Rajiv, K.; Mukherjee, C.; Gupta, M.; Misra, P.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2014-10-01

    TiO2 thin films of widely different structural and morphological characteristics were grown on Si (1 0 0) substrates using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) by varying the substrate temperature (Ts) in a wide range (50 °C ≤ Ts ≤ 400 °C). Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements were carried out to investigate the effect of growth temperature on the optical properties of the films. Measured SE data were analyzed by considering double layer optical model for the sample together with the single oscillator Tauc-Lorentz dispersion relation. Surface roughness was taken into consideration due to the columnar growths of grains in crystalline films. The refractive index was found to be increased from amorphous (Ts ≤ 150 °C) to the nanocrystalline films (2500 < Ts ≤ 400 °C). The pronounced surface roughening for the large-grained anatase film obtained at the amorphous to crystalline phase transformation temperature of 200 °C, impeded SE measurement. The dispersions of refractive indices below the interband absorption edge were found to be strongly correlated with the single oscillator Wemple-DiDomenico (WD) model. The increase in dispersion energy parameter in WD model from disordered amorphous to the more ordered nanocrystalline films was found to be associated with the increase in the film density and coordination number.

  2. Influence of incoherent twin boundaries on the electrical properties of β-Ga2O3 layers homoepitaxially grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, A.; Schewski, R.; Baldini, M.; Galazka, Z.; Wagner, G.; Albrecht, M.; Irmscher, K.

    2017-10-01

    We present a quantitative model that addresses the influence of incoherent twin boundaries on the electrical properties in β-Ga2O3. This model can explain the mobility collapse below a threshold electron concentration of 1 × 1018 cm-3 as well as partly the low doping efficiency in β-Ga2O3 layers grown homoepitaxially by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy on (100) substrates of only slight off-orientation. A structural analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals a high density of twin lamellae in these layers. In contrast to the coherent twin boundaries parallel to the (100) plane, the lateral incoherent twin boundaries exhibit one dangling bond per unit cell that acts as an acceptor-like electron trap. Since the twin lamellae are thin, we consider the incoherent twin boundaries to be line defects with a density of 1011-1012 cm-2 as determined by TEM. We estimate the influence of the incoherent twin boundaries on the electrical transport properties by adapting Read's model of charged dislocations. Our calculations quantitatively confirm that the mobility reduction and collapse as well as partly the compensation are due to the presence of twin lamellae.

  3. Effects of temperature and Mo2C layer on stress and structural properties in CVD diamond film grown on Mo foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Fen; Wei, Qiuping; Yu, Z.M.; Luo, Jiaqi; Zhang, Xiongwei; Long, Hangyu; Wu, Xianzhe

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Polycrystalline diamond films were grown on Mo foil substrates by HF-CVD. •We investigated the temperature dependence of the film stress for each sample. •We show that how the thermal stress and intrinsic stress affects the total stress. •The stress of Mo foil substrate obtained by XRD was investigated in this study. •The effect of Mo 2 C interface layer for stress of multilayer system was considered. -- Abstract: Polycrystalline diamond films have been prepared by hot-filament-assisted chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) on Mo foils. The morphology, growth rate, phase composition, element distribution and residual stress of the films at different temperature were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectrum, field emission electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction. Results show that the residual stress of the diamond films is compressive. The thermal stress plays a decisive role in the total stress, while the intrinsic stress can change the trend of the total stress. The residual stress of substrate gradually changes from tensile stress to compressive stress with the increase of the deposited temperature. A Mo 2 C interlayer is formed during deposition process, and this layer has an important influence on the stresses of films and substrates

  4. Formation and reconstruction of Se nanoislands at the surface of thin epitaxial ZnSe layers grown on GaAs substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlovskiy, V. I.; Krivobok, V. S., E-mail: krivobok@lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, P. I.; Nikolaev, S. N.; Onistchenko, E. E.; Pruchkina, A. A.; Temiryazev, A. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotel’nikov Institute of Radio-Engineering and Electronics (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    Strained epitaxial ZnSe layers are grown on GaAs substrates by the method of vapor-phase epitaxy from metal-organic compounds. It is found that Se nanoislands with a density of 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 9} cm{sup –2} are formed at the surface of such layers. It is established that an increase in the size of Se islands and a decrease in their density take place after completion of growth. Annealing in a H{sub 2} atmosphere at a temperature higher than 260°C leads to the disappearance of Se islands and to a decrease in the surface roughness. It is shown that annealing does not lead to deterioration of the structural perfection of the epitaxial ZnSe films; rather, annealing gives rise to a decrease in the intensity of impurity–defect luminescence and to an increase in the intensity of intrinsic radiation near the bottom of the exciton band.

  5. Structural and optical studies of GaN pn-junction with AlN buffer layer grown on Si (111) by RF plasma enhanced MBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusoff, Mohd Zaki Mohd; Hassan, Zainuriah; Woei, Chin Che; Hassan, Haslan Abu; Abdullah, Mat Johar [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia and Department of Applied Sciences Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) 13500 Permatang Pauh, Penang (Malaysia); Department of Applied Sciences Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) 13500 Permatang Pauh, Penang (Malaysia)

    2012-06-29

    GaN pn-junction grown on silicon substrates have been the focus in a number of recent reports and further effort is still necessary to improve its crystalline quality for practical applications. GaN has the high n-type background carrier concentration resulting from native defects commonly thought to be nitrogen vacancies. In this work, we present the growth of pn-junction of GaN on Si (111) substrate using RF plasma-enhanced molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Both of the layers show uniformity with an average thickness of 0.709 {mu}m and 0.095 {mu}m for GaN and AlN layers, respectively. The XRD spectra indicate that no sign of cubic phase of GaN are found, so it is confirmed that the sample possessed hexagonal structure. It was found that all the allowed Raman optical phonon modes of GaN, i.e. the E2 (low), E1 (high) and A1 (LO) are clearly visible.

  6. Isotope analysis of diamond-surface passivation effect of high-temperature H2O-grown atomic layer deposition-Al2O3 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Saito, Tatsuya; Matsumura, Daisuke; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The Al 2 O 3 film formed using an atomic layer deposition (ALD) method with trimethylaluminum as Al precursor and H 2 O as oxidant at a high temperature (450 °C) effectively passivates the p-type surface conduction (SC) layer specific to a hydrogen-terminated diamond surface, leading to a successful operation of diamond SC field-effect transistors at 400 °C. In order to investigate this excellent passivation effect, we carried out an isotope analysis using D 2 O instead of H 2 O in the ALD and found that the Al 2 O 3 film formed at a conventional temperature (100 °C) incorporates 50 times more CH 3 groups than the high-temperature film. This CH 3 is supposed to dissociate from the film when heated afterwards at a higher temperature (550 °C) and causes peeling patterns on the H-terminated surface. The high-temperature film is free from this problem and has the largest mass density and dielectric constant among those investigated in this study. The isotope analysis also unveiled a relatively active H-exchange reaction between the diamond H-termination and H 2 O oxidant during the high-temperature ALD, the SC still being kept intact. This dynamic and yet steady H termination is realized by the suppressed oxidation due to the endothermic reaction with H 2 O. Additionally, we not only observed the kinetic isotope effect in the form of reduced growth rate of D 2 O-oxidant ALD but found that the mass density and dielectric constant of D 2 O-grown Al 2 O 3 films are smaller than those of H 2 O-grown films. This is a new type of isotope effect, which is not caused by the presence of isotopes in the films unlike the traditional isotope effects that originate from the presence of isotopes itself. Hence, the high-temperature ALD is very effective in forming Al 2 O 3 films as a passivation and/or gate-insulation layer of high-temperature-operation diamond SC devices, and the knowledge of the aforementioned new isotope effect will be a basis for further enhancing ALD

  7. Insitu grown superhydrophobic Zn–Al layered double hydroxides films on magnesium alloy to improve corrosion properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Meng; Pang, Xiaolu; Wei, Liang; Gao, Kewei, E-mail: kwgao@yahoo.com

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Hierarchical superhydrophobic Zn–Al LDHs film has been fabricated on a magnesium alloy substrate. • The superhydrophobic surface has good long-term stability under atmospheric environment. • The superhydrophobic surface can provide a stable corrosion protection for the Mg alloys. - Abstract: A hierarchical superhydrophobic zinc–aluminum layered double hydroxides (Zn–Al LDHs) film has been fabricated on a magnesium alloy substrate via a facile hydrothermal crystallization method following chemical modification. The characteristics of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). XRD patterns and SEM images showed that the micro/nanoscale hierarchical LDHs film surfaces composed of ZnO nanorods and Zn–Al LDHs nanowalls structures. The static contact angle (CA) for the prepared surfaces was observed at around 165.6°. The corrosion resistance of the superhydrophobic films was estimated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiondynamic polarization measurement. EIS and polarization measurements revealed that the superhydrophobic Zn–Al LDHs coated magnesium alloy had better corrosion resistance in neutral 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution.

  8. Insitu grown superhydrophobic Zn–Al layered double hydroxides films on magnesium alloy to improve corrosion properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Meng; Pang, Xiaolu; Wei, Liang; Gao, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hierarchical superhydrophobic Zn–Al LDHs film has been fabricated on a magnesium alloy substrate. • The superhydrophobic surface has good long-term stability under atmospheric environment. • The superhydrophobic surface can provide a stable corrosion protection for the Mg alloys. - Abstract: A hierarchical superhydrophobic zinc–aluminum layered double hydroxides (Zn–Al LDHs) film has been fabricated on a magnesium alloy substrate via a facile hydrothermal crystallization method following chemical modification. The characteristics of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). XRD patterns and SEM images showed that the micro/nanoscale hierarchical LDHs film surfaces composed of ZnO nanorods and Zn–Al LDHs nanowalls structures. The static contact angle (CA) for the prepared surfaces was observed at around 165.6°. The corrosion resistance of the superhydrophobic films was estimated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiondynamic polarization measurement. EIS and polarization measurements revealed that the superhydrophobic Zn–Al LDHs coated magnesium alloy had better corrosion resistance in neutral 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution

  9. Laser damage properties of TiO2/Al2O3 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yaowei; Liu Hao; Sheng Ouyang; Liu Zhichao; Chen Songlin; Yang Liming

    2011-01-01

    Research on thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) for laser damage resistance is rare. In this paper, it has been used to deposit TiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 films at 110 deg. C and 280 deg. C on fused silica and BK7 substrates. Microstructure of the thin films was investigated by x-ray diffraction. The laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of samples was measured by a damage test system. Damage morphology was studied under a Nomarski differential interference contrast microscope and further checked under an atomic force microscope. Multilayers deposited at different temperatures were compared. The results show that the films deposited by ALD had better uniformity and transmission; in this paper, the uniformity is better than 99% over 100 mm Φ samples, and the transmission is more than 99.8% at 1064 nm. Deposition temperature affects the deposition rate and the thin film microstructure and further influences the LIDT of the thin films. As to the TiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 films, the LIDTs were 6.73±0.47 J/cm 2 and 6.5±0.46 J/cm 2 at 110 deg. C on fused silica and BK7 substrates, respectively. The LIDTs at 110 deg. C are notably better than 280 deg. C.

  10. Morphology, composition and electrical properties of SnO{sub 2}:Cl thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hsyi-En, E-mail: sean@mail.stust.edu.tw; Wen, Chia-Hui; Hsu, Ching-Ming [Department of Electro-Optical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan 71005, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-15

    Chlorine doped SnO{sub 2} thin films were prepared using atomic layer deposition at temperatures between 300 and 450 °C using SnCl{sub 4} and H{sub 2}O as the reactants. Composition, structure, surface morphology, and electrical properties of the as-deposited films were examined. Results showed that the as-deposited SnO{sub 2} films all exhibited rutile structure with [O]/[Sn] ratios between 1.35 and 1.40. The electrical conductivity was found independent on [O]/[Sn] ratio but dependent on chlorine doping concentration, grain size, and surface morphology. The 300 °C-deposited film performed a higher electrical conductivity of 315 S/cm due to its higher chlorine doping level, larger grain size, and smoother film surface. The existence of Sn{sup 2+} oxidation state was demonstrated to minimize the effects of chlorine on raising the electrical conductivity of films.

  11. Photoreflectance study of the near-band-edge transitions of chemical vapor deposition-grown mono- and few-layer MoS{sub 2} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Kuang-I, E-mail: kilin@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Jen; Wang, Bo-Yan; Cheng, Yung-Chen [Department of Materials Science, National University of Tainan, Tainan 70005, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chang-Hsiao, E-mail: chsiaoc@fcu.edu.tw [Department of Automatic Control Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2016-03-21

    Room-temperature photoreflectance (PR) and reflectance (R) spectroscopy are utilized to investigate the near-band-edge transitions of molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) thin films grown on sapphire substrates by a hot-wall chemical vapor deposition system. The layer thickness and optical properties of the MoS{sub 2} thin films are confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscope, and photoluminescence (PL) analysis. The B exciton shows relatively weak PL intensity in comparing with the A exciton even for monolayer MoS{sub 2} films. In the R spectrum of few‐layer MoS{sub 2}, it is not possible to clearly observe exciton related features. The PR spectra have two sharp, derivative-like features on a featureless background. Throughout the PR lineshape fitting, the transition energies are designated as the A and B excitons at the K-point of the Brillouin zone, but at room temperature there seems to be no distinguishable feature corresponding to an H‐point transition for the mono- and few-layer MoS{sub 2} films unlike in bulk. These transition energies are slightly larger than those obtained by PL, which is attributed to the Stokes shifts related to doping level. The obtained values of valence-band spin-orbit splitting are in good agreement with those from other experimental methods. By comparing the PR lineshapes, the dominant modulation mechanism is attributed to variations of the exciton transition energies due to change in the built-in electric field. On the strength of this study, PR spectroscopy is demonstrated as a powerful technique for characterizing the near-band-edge transitions of MoS{sub 2} from monolayer to bulk.

  12. Effect of reactant concentration on the structural properties of hydrothermally-grown ZnO rods on seed-layer ZnO / polyethylene terephthalate substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y. I.; Shin, C. M.; Heo, J. H.; Ryu, H. [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W. J. [Dong-Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Son, C. S. [Silla University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, H. [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    The morphology and the structural properties were studied for zinc-oxide (ZnO) rods hydrothermally grown on seed-layer ZnO/polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates at various reactant concentrations. Dissolved solutions with de-ionized water, zinc nitrate hexahydrate (Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O, ZNH) and hexamethylenetetramine (C{sub 6}H{sub 12}N{sub 4}, HMT) were employed as reactants for hydrothermal growth of ZnO. The transparency of the mixtures (ZNH+HMT) with increasing reactant concentration from 0.025 to 0.25 M changed from transparent to translucent to opaque (white colors) due to Zn(OH){sub 2} precipitates. When the concentration was increased, the density of the ZnO rods increased, and the morphology of the ZnO rods changed from a hexagonal flat-end shape to a sharp-end or flake-like structure. The sharp-end rods with increasing concentration from 0.1 to 0.15 M resulted from the etching process at a lower pH condition (less than pH 6) after the ZnO rod growth, and the flake-like structure was due to a high growth rate. The ZnO seed layer might have improved the alignment of ZnO rods and made a high density of ZnO rods. In addition, the structural properties were improved at lower concentrations by inserting a seed layer.

  13. Efficient Planar Structured Perovskite Solar Cells with Enhanced Open-Circuit Voltage and Suppressed Charge Recombination Based on a Slow Grown Perovskite Layer from Lead Acetate Precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Guo, Qiang; Wang, Zhibin; Bai, Yiming; Liu, Lin; Wang, Fuzhi; Zhou, Erjun; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Tan, Zhan'ao

    2017-12-06

    For planar structured organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PerSCs) with the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hole transport layer, the open-circuit voltage (V oc ) of the device is limited to be about 1.0 V, resulting in inferior performance in comparison with TiO 2 -based planar counterparts. Therefore, increasing V oc of the PEDOT:PSS-based planar device is an important way to enhance the efficiency of the PerSCs. Herein, we demonstrate a novel approach for perovskite film formation and the film is formed by slow growth from lead acetate precursor via a one-step spin-coating process without the thermal annealing (TA) process. Because the perovskite layer grows slowly and naturally, high-quality perovskite film can be achieved with larger crystalline particles, less defects, and smoother surface morphology. Ultraviolet absorption, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy (photoluminescence), and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy are used to clarify the crystallinity, morphology, and internal defects of perovskite thin films. The power conversion efficiency of p-i-n PerSCs based on slow-grown film (16.33%) shows greatly enhanced performance compared to that of the control device based on traditional thermally annealed perovskite film (14.33%). Furthermore, the V oc of the slow-growing device reaches 1.12 V, which is 0.1 V higher than that of the TA device. These findings indicate that slow growth of the perovskite layer from lead acetate precursor is a promising approach to achieve high-quality perovskite film for high-performance PerSCs.

  14. Effects of nitrogen incorporation in HfO(2) grown on InP by atomic layer deposition: an evolution in structural, chemical, and electrical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu-Seon; Kim, Dae-Kyoung; Kang, Hang-Kyu; Jeong, Kwang-Sik; Cho, Mann-Ho; Ko, Dae-Hong; Kim, Hyoungsub; Seo, Jung-Hye; Kim, Dong-Chan

    2014-03-26

    We investigated the effects of postnitridation on the structural characteristics and interfacial reactions of HfO2 thin films grown on InP by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a function of film thickness. By postdeposition annealing under NH3 vapor (PDN) at 600 °C, an InN layer formed at the HfO2/InP interface, and ionized NHx was incorporated in the HfO2 film. We demonstrate that structural changes resulting from nitridation of HfO2/InP depend on the film thickness (i.e., a single-crystal interfacial layer of h-InN formed at thin (2 nm) HfO2/InP interfaces, whereas an amorphous InN layer formed at thick (>6 nm) HfO2/InP interfaces). Consequently, the tetragonal structure of HfO2 transformed into a mixture structure of tetragonal and monoclinic because the interfacial InN layer relieved interfacial strain between HfO2 and InP. During postdeposition annealing (PDA) in HfO2/InP at 600 °C, large numbers of oxidation states were generated as a result of interfacial reactions between interdiffused oxygen impurities and out-diffused InP substrate elements. However, in the case of the PDN of HfO2/InP structures at 600 °C, nitrogen incorporation in the HfO2 film effectively blocked the out-diffusion of atomic In and P, thus suppressing the formation of oxidation states. Accordingly, the number of interfacial defect states (Dit) within the band gap of InP was significantly reduced, which was also supported by DFT calculations. Interfacial InN in HfO2/InP increased the electron-barrier height to ∼0.6 eV, which led to low-leakage-current density in the gate voltage region over 2 V.

  15. Studies on transient characteristics of unipolar resistive switching processes in TiO2 thin film grown by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Vikas Kumar; Das, Amit K.; Ajimsha, R. S.; Misra, P.

    2018-05-01

    The transient characteristics of resistive switching processes have been investigated in TiO2 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) to study the temporal evolution of the switching processes and measure the switching times. The reset and set switching times of unipolar Au/TiO2/Pt devices were found to be ~250 µs and 180 ns, respectively in the voltage windows of 0.5–0.9 V for reset and 1.9–4.8 V for set switching processes, obtained from quasi-static measurements. The reset switching time decreased exponentially with increasing amplitude of applied reset voltage pulse, while the set switching time remained insensitive to the amplitude of the set voltage pulse. A fast reset process with a switching time of ~400 ns was achieved by applying a reset voltage of ~1.8 V, higher than that of the quasi-static reset voltage window but below the set voltage window. The sluggish reset process in TiO2 thin film and the dependence of the reset switching time on the amplitude of the applied voltage pulse was understood on the basis of a self-accelerated thermal dissolution model of conducting filaments (CFs), where a higher temperature of the CFs owing to enhanced Joule heating at a higher applied voltage imposes faster diffusion of oxygen vacancies, resulting in a shorter reset switching time. Our results clearly indicate that fast resistive switching with switching times in hundreds of nanoseconds can be achieved in ALD-grown TiO2 thin films. This may find applications in fast non-volatile unipolar resistive switching memories.

  16. Calcium impurity as a source of non-radiative recombination in (In,Ga)N layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Young, E. C.; Grandjean, N.; Mates, T. E.; Speck, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Ca as an unintentional impurity has been investigated in III-nitride layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). It is found that Ca originates from the substrate surface, even if careful cleaning and rinsing procedures are applied. The initial Ca surface coverage is ∼1012 cm−2, which is consistent with previous reports on GaAs and silicon wafers. At the onset of growth, the Ca species segregates at the growth front while incorporating at low levels. The incorporation rate is strongly temperature dependent. It is about 0.03% at 820 °C and increases by two orders of magnitude when the temperature is reduced to 600 °C, which is the typical growth temperature for InGaN alloy. Consequently, [Ca] is as high as 1018 cm−3 in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures. Such a huge concentration might be detrimental for the efficiency of light emitting diodes (LEDs) if one considers that Ca is potentially a source of Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) defects. We thus developed a specific growth strategy to reduce [Ca] in the MBE grown LEDs, which consisted of burying Ca in a low temperature InGaN/GaN superlattice (SL) before the growth of the active region. Finally, two LED samples with and without an SL were fabricated. An increase in the output power by one order of magnitude was achieved when Ca was reduced in the LED active region, providing evidence for the role of Ca in the SRH recombination.

  17. Photoelectrochemical and Raman characterization of nanocrystalline CdS grown on ZnO by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozytskiy, A.V. [L.V. Pysarzhevsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 31 Nauky Av., 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Stroyuk, O.L., E-mail: stroyuk@inphyschem-nas.kiev.ua [L.V. Pysarzhevsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 31 Nauky Av., 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kuchmiy, S.Ya. [L.V. Pysarzhevsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 31 Nauky Av., 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Mazanik, A.V.; Poznyak, S.K. [Belarusian State University, Nezalezhnastsi Av. 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Streltsov, E.A., E-mail: streltea@bsu.by [Belarusian State University, Nezalezhnastsi Av. 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Kulak, A.I., E-mail: kulak@igic.bas-net.by [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Surganova str., 9/1, Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Korolik, O.V. [Belarusian State University, Nezalezhnastsi Av. 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Dzhagan, V.M., E-mail: dzhagan@isp.kiev.ua [V.E. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 41 Nauky Av., 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Properties of CdS nanoparticles (NPs) grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method on the surface of electrodeposited ZnO films were studied by Raman, photocurrent and UV–Vis absorption spectroscopies. The CdS nanoparticles deposited at a SILAR cycle number (N) from 5 to 10 exhibit a broadening of the band gap (E{sub g}) by 0.17–0.31 eV as compared with that of the CdS particles grown at N = 30. The size quantization of the interband transition energy in CdS nanoparticles is in accordance with the Raman spectroscopic data demonstrating a considerable increase in the LO peak intensity with increasing the N from 5 to 10 as a result of transition to resonant light scattering. The spectral width of the LO peak decreases from 50 to 15 cm{sup −1} as the N increases from 5 to 30 reflecting a less pronounced effect of the nanoparticle surface on the phonon scattering. A large spectral width of the Raman peaks is assumed to originate from a complex structure of the CdS nanoparticles comprising crystallinity domains that can affect the phonon confinement. The photocurrent spectroscopy of ZnO/CdS heterostructures showed that the band gap of CdS NPs deposited at N > 20 is smaller by ∼ 0.08 eV than that of bulk cadmium sulfide. It was concluded that this effect is not associated with photoexcitation of structural defects but rather reflects intrinsic electronic properties of SILAR-deposited CdS nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Visible-light-sensitive ZnO/CdS heterostructures were prepared by SILAR. • A large Raman peak width originates from a complex structure of CdS nanoparticles. • Vibrational properties of CdS nanoparticles depend on SILAR cycle number.

  18. Photoelectrochemical and Raman characterization of nanocrystalline CdS grown on ZnO by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozytskiy, A.V.; Stroyuk, O.L.; Kuchmiy, S.Ya.; Mazanik, A.V.; Poznyak, S.K.; Streltsov, E.A.; Kulak, A.I.; Korolik, O.V.; Dzhagan, V.M.

    2014-01-01

    Properties of CdS nanoparticles (NPs) grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method on the surface of electrodeposited ZnO films were studied by Raman, photocurrent and UV–Vis absorption spectroscopies. The CdS nanoparticles deposited at a SILAR cycle number (N) from 5 to 10 exhibit a broadening of the band gap (E g ) by 0.17–0.31 eV as compared with that of the CdS particles grown at N = 30. The size quantization of the interband transition energy in CdS nanoparticles is in accordance with the Raman spectroscopic data demonstrating a considerable increase in the LO peak intensity with increasing the N from 5 to 10 as a result of transition to resonant light scattering. The spectral width of the LO peak decreases from 50 to 15 cm −1 as the N increases from 5 to 30 reflecting a less pronounced effect of the nanoparticle surface on the phonon scattering. A large spectral width of the Raman peaks is assumed to originate from a complex structure of the CdS nanoparticles comprising crystallinity domains that can affect the phonon confinement. The photocurrent spectroscopy of ZnO/CdS heterostructures showed that the band gap of CdS NPs deposited at N > 20 is smaller by ∼ 0.08 eV than that of bulk cadmium sulfide. It was concluded that this effect is not associated with photoexcitation of structural defects but rather reflects intrinsic electronic properties of SILAR-deposited CdS nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Visible-light-sensitive ZnO/CdS heterostructures were prepared by SILAR. • A large Raman peak width originates from a complex structure of CdS nanoparticles. • Vibrational properties of CdS nanoparticles depend on SILAR cycle number

  19. Calcium impurity as a source of non-radiative recombination in (In,Ga)N layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Young, E. C.

    2016-11-23

    Ca as an unintentional impurity has been investigated in III-nitride layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). It is found that Ca originates from the substrate surface, even if careful cleaning and rinsing procedures are applied. The initial Ca surface coverage is ∼1012 cm−2, which is consistent with previous reports on GaAs and silicon wafers. At the onset of growth, the Ca species segregates at the growth front while incorporating at low levels. The incorporation rate is strongly temperature dependent. It is about 0.03% at 820 °C and increases by two orders of magnitude when the temperature is reduced to 600 °C, which is the typical growth temperature for InGaN alloy. Consequently, [Ca] is as high as 1018 cm−3 in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures. Such a huge concentration might be detrimental for the efficiency of light emitting diodes (LEDs) if one considers that Ca is potentially a source of Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) defects. We thus developed a specific growth strategy to reduce [Ca] in the MBE grown LEDs, which consisted of burying Ca in a low temperature InGaN/GaN superlattice (SL) before the growth of the active region. Finally, two LED samples with and without an SL were fabricated. An increase in the output power by one order of magnitude was achieved when Ca was reduced in the LED active region, providing evidence for the role of Ca in the SRH recombination.

  20. Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of amorphous and crystalline TiO{sub 2} thin films grown by atomic layer deposition at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, D., E-mail: babaisps@rrcat.gov.in [Laser Materials Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Ajimsha, R.S. [Laser Materials Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Rajiv, K.; Mukherjee, C. [Mechanical and Optical Support Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Gupta, M. [UGC-DAE Consortium, Indore Centre, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India); Misra, P.; Kukreja, L.M. [Laser Materials Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • Refractive index was found to be increased from amorphous to the nanocrystalline films. • Refractive index was found to be inversely proportional with growth per cycle. • Large-grained anatase films showed lower refractive indices than the amorphous films. • Roughness was taken into consideration due to the columnar growths of crystalline films. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} thin films of widely different structural and morphological characteristics were grown on Si (1 0 0) substrates using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) by varying the substrate temperature (T{sub s}) in a wide range (50 °C ≤ T{sub s} ≤ 400 °C). Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements were carried out to investigate the effect of growth temperature on the optical properties of the films. Measured SE data were analyzed by considering double layer optical model for the sample together with the single oscillator Tauc-Lorentz dispersion relation. Surface roughness was taken into consideration due to the columnar growths of grains in crystalline films. The refractive index was found to be increased from amorphous (T{sub s} ≤ 150 °C) to the nanocrystalline films (250{sup 0} < T{sub s} ≤ 400 °C). The pronounced surface roughening for the large-grained anatase film obtained at the amorphous to crystalline phase transformation temperature of 200 °C, impeded SE measurement. The dispersions of refractive indices below the interband absorption edge were found to be strongly correlated with the single oscillator Wemple–DiDomenico (WD) model. The increase in dispersion energy parameter in WD model from disordered amorphous to the more ordered nanocrystalline films was found to be associated with the increase in the film density and coordination number.

  1. Effects of Rapid Thermal Annealing on the Structural, Electrical, and Optical Properties of Zr-Doped ZnO Thin Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjin Wu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The 4 at. % zirconium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Zr films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD were annealed at various temperatures ranging from 350 to 950 °C. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of rapid thermal annealing (RTA treated ZnO:Zr films have been evaluated to find out the stability limit. It was found that the grain size increased at 350 °C and decreased between 350 and 850 °C, while creeping up again at 850 °C. UV–vis characterization shows that the optical band gap shifts towards larger wavelengths. The Hall measurement shows that the resistivity almost keeps constant at low annealing temperatures, and increases rapidly after treatment at 750 °C due to the effect of both the carrier concentration and the Hall mobility. The best annealing temperature is found in the range of 350–550 °C. The ZnO:Zr film-coated glass substrates show good optical and electrical performance up to 550 °C during superstrate thin film solar cell deposition.

  2. Electronic and magnetic properties of triple-layered ruthenate Sr4Ru3O10 single crystals grown by a floating-zone method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, M.; Hooper, J.; Fobes, D.; Mao, Z.Q.; Golub, V.; O'Connor, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    We have grown high-quality single crystals of the triple-layered perovskite ruthenate Sr 4 Ru 3 O 10 using a floating-zone (FZ) method and measured their electronic transport and magnetic properties. Our experiments results are consistent with those previously reported for Sr 4 Ru 3 O 10 flux crystals; the magnetic ground state of Sr 4 Ru 3 O 10 is poised between an itinerant metamagnetic and itinerant ferromagnetic state, and its electronic ground state is a Fermi liquid. In addition, we have investigated the effect of disorder on the metallic state of Sr 4 Ru 3 O 10 . From resistivity measurements of various Sr 4 Ru 3 O 10 crystals with different levels of disorder, we found that disorder enhances both temperature-independent elastic scattering and also temperature-dependent inelastic scattering. The in-plane metamagnetic transition is also found to be sensitive to disorder. Disorder results in an increase in the metamagnetic transition field and different magnetic behavior above the transition. We discuss the implications of this interesting observation

  3. Hall-effect measurements of metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy-grown p-type homoepitaxial GaN layers with various Mg concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Masahiro; Takashima, Shinya; Tanaka, Ryo; Matsuyama, Hideaki; Ueno, Katsunori; Edo, Masaharu; Takahashi, Tokio; Shimizu, Mitsuaki; Suda, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Mg-doped p-type gallium nitride (GaN) layers with doping concentrations in the range from 6.5 × 1016 cm-3 (lightly doped) to 3.8 × 1019 cm-3 (heavily doped) were investigated by Hall-effect measurement for the analysis of hole concentration and mobility. p-GaN was homoepitaxially grown on a GaN free-standing substrate by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. The threading dislocation density of p-GaN was 4 × 106 cm-2 measured by cathodoluminescence mapping. Hall-effect measurements of p-GaN were carried out at a temperature in the range from 130 to 450 K. For the lightly doped p-GaN, the acceptor concentration of 7.0 × 1016 cm-3 and the donor concentration of 3.2 × 1016 cm-3 were obtained, where the compensation ratio was 46%. We also obtained the depth of the Mg acceptor level to be 220 meV. The hole mobilities of 86, 31, 14 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 200, 300, 400 K, respectively, were observed in the lightly doped p-GaN.

  4. Physical properties of nanostructured (PbSx(CuS1−x composite thin films grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.U. Ubale

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured ternary semiconducting (PbSx(CuS1−x thin films were grown on glass substrates by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR technique at room temperature. The structural, morphological and optical characterizations of the films were carried out by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV–Vis spectrophotometer respectively. The structural studies revealed that, (PbSx(CuS1−x films are nanocrystalline in nature and have mixed phase of cubic PbS and hexagonal CuS. The optical absorption measurements showed that band gap energy of (PbSx(CuS1−x can be engineered between 2.57 and 2.28 eV by varying compositional parameter ‘x’. The room temperature dc dark electrical resistivity of PbS film is found to be 28.85 Ωcm and it decreases when content of Cu in composite increases and becomes 0.05 Ωcm for pure CuS. The thermo-emf measurements showed that the as deposited (PbSx(CuS1−x films are of n-type. The water angle contact measurements of (PbSx(CuS1−x, revealed that, films are hydrophilic in nature and it could be advantageous in electrochemical application.

  5. Impact of post-deposition annealing on interfacial chemical bonding states between AlGaN and ZrO2 grown by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Gang; Arulkumaran, Subramaniam; Ng, Geok Ing; Li, Yang; Ang, Kian Siong; Wang, Hong; Ng, Serene Lay Geok; Ji, Rong; Liu, Zhi Hong

    2015-01-01

    The effect of post-deposition annealing on chemical bonding states at interface between Al 0.5 Ga 0.5 N and ZrO 2 grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is studied by angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It has been found that both of Al-O/Al 2p and Ga-O/Ga 3d area ratio decrease at annealing temperatures lower than 500 °C, which could be attributed to “clean up” effect of ALD-ZrO 2 on AlGaN. Compared to Ga spectra, a much larger decrease in Al-O/Al 2p ratio at a smaller take-off angle θ is observed, which indicates higher effectiveness of the passivation of Al-O bond than Ga-O bond through “clean up” effect near the interface. However, degradation of ZrO 2 /AlGaN interface quality due to re-oxidation at higher annealing temperature (>500 °C) is also found. The XPS spectra clearly reveal that Al atoms at ZrO 2 /AlGaN interface are easier to get oxidized as compared with Ga atoms

  6. Formation of definite GaN p-n junction by Mg-ion implantation to n--GaN epitaxial layers grown on a high-quality free-standing GaN substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Takuya; Saijo, Yusuke; Kato, Shigeki; Mishima, Tomoyoshi; Nakamura, Tohru

    2015-12-01

    P-type conversion of n--GaN by Mg-ion implantation was successfully performed using high quality GaN epitaxial layers grown on free-standing low-dislocation-density GaN substrates. These samples showed low-temperature PL spectra quite similar to those observed from Mg-doped MOVPE-grown p-type GaN, consisting of Mg related donor-acceptor pair (DAP) and acceptor bound exciton (ABE) emission. P-n diodes fabricated by the Mg-ion implantation showed clear rectifying I-V characteristics and UV and blue light emissions were observed at forward biased conditions for the first time.

  7. Liquid-phase exfoliation of chemical vapor deposition-grown single layer graphene and its application in solution-processed transparent electrodes for flexible organic light-emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chaoxing; Li, Fushan; Wu, Wei; Chen, Wei; Guo, Tailiang

    2014-01-01

    Efficient and low-cost methods for obtaining high performance flexible transparent electrodes based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene are highly desirable. In this work, the graphene grown on copper foil was exfoliated into micron-size sheets through controllable ultrasonication. We developed a clean technique by blending the exfoliated single layer graphene sheets with conducting polymer to form graphene-based composite solution, which can be spin-coated on flexible substrate, forming flexible transparent conducting film with high conductivity (∼8 Ω/□), high transmittance (∼81% at 550 nm), and excellent mechanical robustness. In addition, CVD-grown-graphene-based polymer light emitting diodes with excellent bendable performances were demonstrated

  8. High-performance hybrid (electrostatic double-layer and faradaic capacitor-based) polymer actuators incorporating nickel oxide and vapor-grown carbon nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasawa, Naohiro; Asaka, Kinji

    2014-12-02

    The electrochemical and electromechanical properties of polymeric actuators prepared using nickel peroxide hydrate (NiO2·xH2O) or nickel peroxide anhydride (NiO2)/vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (VGCF)/ionic liquid (IL) electrodes were compared with actuators prepared using solely VGCFs or single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and an IL. The electrode in these actuator systems is equivalent to an electrochemical capacitor (EC) exhibiting both electrostatic double-layer capacitor (EDLC)- and faradaic capacitor (FC)-like behaviors. The capacitance of the metal oxide (NiO2·xH2O or NiO2)/VGCF/IL electrode is primarily attributable to the EDLC mechanism such that, at low frequencies, the strains exhibited by the NiO2·xH2O/VGCF/IL and NiO2/VGCF/IL actuators primarily result from the FC mechanism. The VGCFs in the NiO2·xH2O/VGCF/IL and NiO2/VGCF/IL actuators strengthen the EDLC mechanism and increase the electroconductivity of the devices. The mechanism underlying the functioning of the NiO2·xH2O/VGCF/IL actuator in which NiO2·xH2O/VGCF = 1.0 was found to be different from that of the devices produced using solely VGCFs or SWCNTs, which exhibited only the EDLC mechanism. In addition, it was found that both NiO2 and VGCFs are essential with regard to producing actuators that are capable of exhibiting strain levels greater than those of SWCNT-based polymer actuators and are thus suitable for practical applications. Furthermore, the frequency dependence of the displacement responses of the NiO2·xH2O/VGCF and NiO2/VGCF polymer actuators were successfully simulated using a double-layer charging kinetic model. This model, which accounted for the oxidization and reduction reactions of the metal oxide, can also be applied to SWCNT-based actuators. The results of electromechanical response simulations for the NiO2·xH2O/VGCF and NiO2/VGCF actuators predicted the strains at low frequencies as well as the time constants of the devices, confirming that the model is applicable

  9. High-quality AlGaN/GaN grown on sapphire by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy using a thin low-temperature AlN layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurkovic, M.J.; Li, L.K.; Turk, B.; Wang, W.I.; Syed, S.; Simonian, D.; Stormer, H.L.

    2000-07-01

    Growth of high-quality AlGaN/GaN heterostructures on sapphire by ammonia gas-source molecular beam epitaxy is reported. Incorporation of a thin AlN layer grown at low temperature within the GaN buffer is shown to result in enhanced electrical and structural characteristics for subsequently grown heterostructures. AlGaN/GaN structures exhibiting reduced background doping and enhanced Hall mobilities (2100, 10310 and 12200 cm{sup 2}/Vs with carrier sheet densities of 6.1 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup {minus}2}, and 5.8 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup {minus}2} at 300 K, 77 K, and 0.3 K, respectively) correlate with dislocation filtering in the thin AlN layer. Magnetotransport measurements at 0.3 K reveal well-resolved Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations starting at 3 T.

  10. Terahertz radiation in In{sub 0.38}Ga{sub 0.62}As grown on a GaAs wafer with a metamorphic buffer layer under femtosecond laser excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponomarev, D. S., E-mail: ponomarev-dmitr@mail.ru; Khabibullin, R. A.; Yachmenev, A. E.; Maltsev, P. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultrahigh Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation); Grekhov, M. M. [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI” (Russian Federation); Ilyakov, I. E.; Shishkin, B. V.; Akhmedzhanov, R. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Applied Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    The results of time-domain spectroscopy of the terahertz (THz) generation in a structure with an In{sub 0.38}Ga{sub 0.62}As photoconductive layer are presented. This structure grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on a GaAs substrate using a metamorphic buffer layer allows THz generation with a wide frequency spectrum (to 6 THz). This is due to the additional contribution of the photo-Dember effect to THz generation. The measured optical-to-terahertz conversion efficiency in this structure is 10{sup –5} at a rather low optical fluence of ~40 μJ/cm{sup 2}, which is higher than that in low-temperature grown GaAs by almost two orders of magnitude.

  11. The thermal expansion coefficient of Ga/sub x/In/sub 1-x/As/sub y/P/sub 1-y/ epitaxial layers grown on InP substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, U.; Marlow, D.

    1986-01-01

    The amount of the measured room temperature thermal expansion coefficient of tetragonal strained layers grown lattice matched on the InP substrate used is about 30% greater the expected one for a cubic 'relaxed' material. This issue has to be taken into account for the determination of the composition of the quarternary Ga/sub x/In/sub 1-x/As/sub y/P/sub 1-y/ layers from both X-ray and photoluminescence data as well as for the estimation of the thermally created stress field of optoelectronic devices. (author)

  12. Impact of surface morphology of Si substrate on performance of Si/ZnO heterojunction devices grown by atomic layer deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, Purnima; Singh, Satyendra Kumar; Jit, Satyabrata

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors have investigated the structural, optical, and electrical characteristics of silicon nanowire (SiNW)/zinc oxide (ZnO) core–shell nanostructure heterojunctions and compared their characteristics with Si/ZnO planar heterojunctions to investigate the effect of surface morphology of Si substrate in the characteristics of Si/ZnO heterojunction devices. In this work, ZnO thin film was conformally deposited on both p-type 〈100〉 planar Si substrate and substrate with vertically aligned SiNW arrays by atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. The x-ray diffraction spectra show that the crystalline structures of Si/ZnO heterojunctions are having (101) preferred orientation, whereas vertically oriented SiNW/ZnO core–shell heterojunctions are having (002)-oriented wurtzite crystalline structures. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Si/ZnO heterojunctions show a very sharp single peak at 377 nm, corresponding to the bandgap of ZnO material with no other defect peaks in visible region; hence, these devices can have applications only in UV region. On the other hand, SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions are having band-edge peak at 378 nm along with a broad emission band, spreading almost throughout the entire visible region with a peak around 550 nm. Therefore, ALD-grown SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions can emit green and red light simultaneously. Reflectivity measurement of the heterojunctions further confirms the enhancement of visible region peak in the PL spectra of SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions, as the surface of the SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions exhibits extremely low reflectance ( 20%). The current–voltage characteristics of both Si/ZnO and SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions are measured with large area ohmic contacts on top and bottom of the structure to compare the electrical characteristics of the devices. Due to large surface to-volume ratio of SiNW/ZnO core–shell heterojunction devices, the output current rating is about 130 times larger compared to their planar

  13. Impact of surface morphology of Si substrate on performance of Si/ZnO heterojunction devices grown by atomic layer deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazra, Purnima; Singh, Satyendra Kumar [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Motilal Neheru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad 211004 (India); Jit, Satyabrata, E-mail: sjit.ece@itbhu.ac.in [Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors have investigated the structural, optical, and electrical characteristics of silicon nanowire (SiNW)/zinc oxide (ZnO) core–shell nanostructure heterojunctions and compared their characteristics with Si/ZnO planar heterojunctions to investigate the effect of surface morphology of Si substrate in the characteristics of Si/ZnO heterojunction devices. In this work, ZnO thin film was conformally deposited on both p-type 〈100〉 planar Si substrate and substrate with vertically aligned SiNW arrays by atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. The x-ray diffraction spectra show that the crystalline structures of Si/ZnO heterojunctions are having (101) preferred orientation, whereas vertically oriented SiNW/ZnO core–shell heterojunctions are having (002)-oriented wurtzite crystalline structures. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Si/ZnO heterojunctions show a very sharp single peak at 377 nm, corresponding to the bandgap of ZnO material with no other defect peaks in visible region; hence, these devices can have applications only in UV region. On the other hand, SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions are having band-edge peak at 378 nm along with a broad emission band, spreading almost throughout the entire visible region with a peak around 550 nm. Therefore, ALD-grown SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions can emit green and red light simultaneously. Reflectivity measurement of the heterojunctions further confirms the enhancement of visible region peak in the PL spectra of SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions, as the surface of the SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions exhibits extremely low reflectance (<3%) in the visible wavelength region compared to Si/ZnO heterojunctions (>20%). The current–voltage characteristics of both Si/ZnO and SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions are measured with large area ohmic contacts on top and bottom of the structure to compare the electrical characteristics of the devices. Due to large surface to-volume ratio of SiNW/ZnO core–shell heterojunction devices, the

  14. Different defect levels configurations between double layers of nanorods and film in ZnO grown on c-Al2O3 by MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Bin; Zhang, Yuantao; Shi, Zhifeng; Li, Xiang; Cui, Xijun; Zhuang, Shiwei; Zhang, Baolin; Du, Guotong

    2014-01-01

    Epitaxial ZnO structures with inherent two layers of nanorods layer on film layer were fabricated on c-Al 2 O 3 by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and studied by photoluminescence. Specially, photoluminescence spectra for the film layer were obtained by rendering the excitation from the substrate side. Different defect levels configurations between nanorods and film were revealed. Zinc vacancies tend to form in top nanorods layer, whereas abundant zinc–oxygen divacancies accumulate in bottom film layer. An acceptor state with activation energy of ∼200 meV is exclusive to the film layer. The stacking fault related acceptor and Al introduced donor are present in both layers. Besides, two other defect related donors contained in the nanorods layer perhaps also exist within the film layer. - Highlights: • Inherent double layer ZnO of nanorods on film layer were studied by PL. • V Zn tend to form in the nanorods layer, and V ZnO accumulate in the film layer. • An acceptor with activation energy of ∼200 meV is exclusive to the film layer. • Pure NBE emission without DLE in RT PL spectrum does not mean good crystallinity

  15. Structure characterization of Pd/Co/Pd tri-layer films epitaxially grown on MgO single-crystal substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobari, Kousuke, E-mail: tobari@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.jp; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Nagano, Katsumasa; Futamoto, Masaaki

    2011-09-30

    Pd/Co/Pd tri-layer films were prepared on MgO substrates of (001), (111), and (011) orientations at room temperature by ultra high vacuum rf magnetron sputtering. The detailed film structures around the Co/Pd and the Pd/Co interfaces are investigated by reflection high energy electron diffraction. Pd layers of (001){sub fcc}, (111){sub fcc}, and (011){sub fcc} orientations epitaxially grow on the respective MgO substrates. Strained fcc-Co(001) single-crystal layers are formed on the Pd(001){sub fcc} layers by accommodating the fairly large lattice mismatch between the Co and the Pd layers. On the Co layers,, Pd polycrystalline layers are formed. When Co films are formed on the Pd(111){sub fcc} and the Pd(011){sub fcc} layers, atomic mixing is observed around the Co/Pd interfaces and fcc-CoPd alloy phases are coexisting with Co crystals. The Co crystals formed on the Pd(111){sub fcc} layers consist of hcp(0001) + fcc(111) and Pd(111){sub fcc} epitaxial layers are formed on the Co layers. Co crystals epitaxially grow on the Pd(011){sub fcc} layers with two variants, hcp(11-bar 00) and fcc(111). On the Co layers, Pd(011){sub fcc} epitaxial layers are formed.

  16. m-plane GaN layers grown by rf-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy with varying Ga/N flux ratios on m-plane 4H-SiC substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armitage, R.; Horita, M.; Suda, J.; Kimoto, T.

    2007-01-01

    A series of m-plane GaN layers with the Ga beam-equivalent pressure (BEP) as the only varied parameter was grown by rf-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on m-plane 4H-SiC substrates using AlN buffer layers. The smoothest growth surfaces and most complete film coalescence were found for the highest Ga BEP corresponding to the Ga droplet accumulation regime. However, better structural quality as assessed by x-ray rocking curves was observed for growth at a lower Ga BEP value below the droplet limit. The variation of rocking curve widths for planes inclined with respect to the epilayer c axis followed a different trend with Ga BEP than those of reflections parallel to the c axis. The GaN layers were found to exhibit a large residual compressive strain along the a axis

  17. Effect of Al/N ratio during nucleation layer growth on Hall mobility and buffer leakage of molecular-beam epitaxy grown AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, D.F.; Katzer, D.S.; Binari, S.C.; Shanabrook, B.V.; Zhou Lin; Smith, David J.

    2004-01-01

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures have been grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on semi-insulating 4H-SiC utilizing an AlN nucleation layer. The electron Hall mobility of these structures increases from 1050 cm 2 /V s to greater than 1450 cm 2 /V s when the Al/N flux ratio during the growth of the nucleation layer is increased from 0.90 to 1.07. Buffer leakage currents increase abruptly by nearly three orders of magnitude when the Al/N ratio increases from below to above unity. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that high buffer leakage is correlated with the presence of stacking faults in the nucleation layer and cubic phase GaN in the buffer, while low mobilities are correlated with high dislocation densities

  18. Electrode interface controlled electrical properties in epitaxial Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} films grown on Si substrates with SrTiO{sub 3} buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boni, Andra Georgia, E-mail: andra.boni@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 105bis, Magurele, Ilfov 77125 (Romania); University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Magurele 077125 (Romania); Chirila, Cristina; Pasuk, Iuliana; Negrea, Raluca; Trupina, Lucian [National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 105bis, Magurele, Ilfov 77125 (Romania); Le Rhun, Gwenael [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Vilquin, Bertrand [Université de Lyon, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, INL, CNRS UMR5270, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, F-69134 Ecully cedex (France); Pintilie, Ioana; Pintilie, Lucian [National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 105bis, Magurele, Ilfov 77125 (Romania)

    2015-10-30

    Electrical properties of ferroelectric capacitors based on PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3} thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on silicon substrate with SrTiO{sub 3} buffer layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy were studied. A SrRuO{sub 3} layer was deposited as bottom electrode also by pulse laser deposition and Pt, Ir, Ru, SrRuO{sub 3} were used as top contacts. Electrical characterization comprised hysteresis and capacitance–voltage measurements in the temperature range from 150 K to 400 K. It was found that the macroscopic electrical properties are affected by the electrode interface, by the choice of the top electrode. However, even for metals with very different work functions (e.g. Pt and SrRuO{sub 3}) the properties of the top and bottom electrode interfaces remain fairly symmetric suggesting a strong influence from the bound polarization charges located near the interface. - Highlights: • Ferroelectric capacitors based on PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3} were deposited on Si substrate. • The structural characterization proved the epitaxial growth of the layers. • Macroscopic electrical properties are affected by the choice of the top electrode. • The difference on imprint field, dielectric constant are analyzed depending on the electrode-ferroelectric interface.

  19. Passivation effect on optical and electrical properties of molecular beam epitaxy-grown HgCdTe/CdTe/Si layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Rajni; Mallick, Shubhrangshu; Hahn, Suk-Ryong; Lee, T. S.; Sivananthan, Sivalingam; Ghosh, Siddhartha; Wijewarnasuriya, P. S.

    2006-06-01

    The effects of passivation with two different passivants, ZnS and CdTe, and two different passivation techniques, physical vapor deposition (PVD) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), were quantified in terms of the minority carrier lifetime and extracted surface recombination velocity on both MBE-grown medium-wavelength ir (MWIR) and long-wavelength ir HgCdTe samples. A gradual increment of the minority carrier lifetime was reported as the passivation technique was changed from PVD ZnS to PVD CdTe, and finally to MBE CdTe, especially at low temperatures. A corresponding reduction in the extracted surface recombination velocity in the same order was also reported for the first time. Initial data on the 1/ f noise values of as-grown MWIR samples showed a reduction of two orders of noise power after 1200-Å ZnS deposition.

  20. Incorporation of La in epitaxial SrTiO{sub 3} thin films grown by atomic layer deposition on SrTiO{sub 3}-buffered Si (001) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Martin D.; Ngo, Thong Q.; Ekerdt, John G., E-mail: ekerdt@utexas.edu [University of Texas at Austin, Department of Chemical Engineering, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Posadas, Agham; Demkov, Alexander A. [University of Texas at Austin, Department of Physics, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Karako, Christine M. [University of Dallas, Department of Chemistry, Irving, Texas 75062 (United States); Bruley, John; Frank, Martin M.; Narayanan, Vijay [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

    2014-06-14

    Strontium titanate, SrTiO{sub 3} (STO), thin films incorporated with lanthanum are grown on Si (001) substrates at a thickness range of 5–25 nm. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is used to grow the La{sub x}Sr{sub 1−x}TiO{sub 3} (La:STO) films after buffering the Si (001) substrate with four-unit-cells of STO deposited by molecular beam epitaxy. The crystalline structure and orientation of the La:STO films are confirmed via reflection high-energy electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. The low temperature ALD growth (∼225 °C) and post-deposition annealing at 550 °C for 5 min maintains an abrupt interface between Si (001) and the crystalline oxide. Higher annealing temperatures (650 °C) show more complete La activation with film resistivities of ∼2.0 × 10{sup −2} Ω cm for 20-nm-thick La:STO (x ∼ 0.15); however, the STO-Si interface is slightly degraded due to the increased annealing temperature. To demonstrate the selective incorporation of lanthanum by ALD, a layered heterostructure is grown with an undoped STO layer sandwiched between two conductive La:STO layers. Based on this work, an epitaxial oxide stack centered on La:STO and BaTiO{sub 3} integrated with Si is envisioned as a material candidate for a ferroelectric field-effect transistor.

  1. Wafer-scale controlled exfoliation of metal organic vapor phase epitaxy grown InGaN/GaN multi quantum well structures using low-tack two-dimensional layered h-BN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayari, Taha; Li, Xin; Voss, Paul L.; Ougazzaden, Abdallah, E-mail: aougazza@georgiatech-metz.fr [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Georgia Tech Lorraine, UMI 2958, Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Sundaram, Suresh; El Gmili, Youssef [Georgia Tech Lorraine, UMI 2958, Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Salvestrini, Jean Paul [Georgia Tech Lorraine, UMI 2958, Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Université de Lorraine, LMOPS, EA 4423, 57070 Metz (France)

    2016-04-25

    Recent advances in epitaxial growth have led to the growth of III-nitride devices on 2D layered h-BN. This advance has the potential for wafer-scale transfer to arbitrary substrates, which could improve the thermal management and would allow III-N devices to be used more flexibly in a broader range of applications. We report wafer scale exfoliation of a metal organic vapor phase epitaxy grown InGaN/GaN Multi Quantum Well (MQW) structure from a 5 nm thick h-BN layer that was grown on a 2-inch sapphire substrate. The weak van der Waals bonds between h-BN atomic layers break easily, allowing the MQW structure to be mechanically lifted off from the sapphire substrate using a commercial adhesive tape. This results in the surface roughness of only 1.14 nm on the separated surface. Structural characterizations performed before and after the lift-off confirm the conservation of structural properties after lift-off. Cathodoluminescence at 454 nm was present before lift-off and 458 nm was present after. Electroluminescence near 450 nm from the lifted-off structure has also been observed. These results show that the high crystalline quality ultrathin h-BN serves as an effective sacrificial layer—it maintains performance, while also reducing the GaN buffer thickness and temperature ramps as compared to a conventional two-step growth method. These results support the use of h-BN as a low-tack sacrificial underlying layer for GaN-based device structures and demonstrate the feasibility of large area lift-off and transfer to any template, which is important for industrial scale production.

  2. Photoluminescence studies of cubic phase GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (001) silicon covered with SiC layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godlewski, M.; Ivanov, V.Yu.; Bergman, J.P.; Monemar, B.; Barski, A.; Langer, R.

    1997-01-01

    In this work we evaluate optical properties of cubic phase GaN epilayers grown on top of (001) silicon substrate prepared by new process. Prior to the growth Si substrate was annealed at 1300-1400 o C in propane. The so-prepared substrate is covered within a thin (∼ 4 nm) SiC wafer, which allowed a successful growth of good morphological quality cubic phase GaN epilayers. The present results confirm recent suggestion on smaller ionization energies of acceptors in cubic phase GaN epilayers. (author)

  3. Influence of the Compositional Grading on Concentration of Majority Charge Carriers in Near-Surface Layers of n(p)-HgCdTe Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Nesmelov, S. N.; Dzyadukh, S. M.

    2018-02-01

    The capacitive characteristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures based on the compositionally graded Hg1-xCdxTe created by molecular beam epitaxy have been experimentally investigated in a wide temperature range (8-77 K). A program has been developed for numerical simulation of ideal capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics in the low-frequency and high-frequency approximations. The concentrations of the majority carriers in the near-surface semiconductor layer are determined from the values of the capacitances in the minima of low-frequency C-V curves. For MIS structures based on p-Hg1-xCdxTe, the effect of the presence of the compositionally graded layer on the hole concentration in the near-surface semiconductor layer, determined from capacitive measurements, has not been established. Perhaps this is due to the fact that the concentration of holes in the near-surface layer largely depends on the type of dielectric coating and the regimes of its application. For MIS structures based on n-Hg1-x Cd x Te (x = 0.22-0.23) without a graded-gap layer, the electron concentration determined by the proposed method is close to the average concentration determined by the Hall measurements. The electron concentration in the near-surface semiconductor layer of the compositionally graded n-Hg1-x Cd x Te (x = 0.22-0.23) found from the minimum capacitance value is much higher than the average electron concentration determined by the Hall measurements. The results are qualitatively explained by the creation of additional intrinsic donor-type defects in the near-surface compositionally graded layer of n-Hg1-x Cd x Te.

  4. Studies of surface morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown on different molarities of TiO_2 seed layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asib, N. A. M.; Afaah, A. N.; Aadila, A.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO_2) seed layer was prepared by using sol-gel spin-coating technique, followed by growth of 0.01 M of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures by solution-immersion. The molarities of TiO_2 seed layer were varied from 1.1 M to 0.100 M on glass substrates. The nanostructures thin films were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electrons Microscope (FESEM), Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. FESEM images demonstrate that needle-like ZnO nanostructures are formed on all TiO_2 seed layer. The smallest diameter of needle-like ZnO nanostructures (90.3 nm) were deposited on TiO_2 seed layer of 0.100 M. PL spectra of the TiO_2: ZnO nanostructures thin films show the blue shifted emissions in the UV regions compared to the ZnO thin film. Meanwhile, UV-vis spectra of films display high absorption in the UV region and high trasparency in the visible region. The highest absorbance at UV region was recorded for sample which has 0.100 M of TiO_2 seed layer.

  5. Characterization of low-frequency noise in molecular beam epitaxy-grown GaN epilayers deposited on double buffer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, W.K.; Ng, S.W.; Leung, B.H.; Surya, Charles

    2003-01-01

    We report the growth of high-mobility Si-doped GaN epilayers utilizing unique double buffer layer (DBL) structures, which consist of a thin buffer layer and a thick GaN intermediate-temperature buffer layer (ITBL). In this study, three types of DBL were investigated: (i) thin GaN low-temperature buffer layer/GaN ITBL (type I); (ii) nitridated Ga metal film/GaN ITBL (type II); and (iii) thin AlN high-temperature buffer layer/GaN ITBL (type III). Systematic measurements were conducted on the electron mobilities and the low-frequency noise over a wide range of temperatures. It is found that the electron mobilities of the GaN films are substantially improved with the use of DBLs, with the sample using type III DBL which exhibits the highest low-temperature mobility. Furthermore, the same sample also demonstrates the elimination of deep levels at 91 and 255 meV below the conduction band. This is believed to result from the relaxation of tensile stress during growth with the use of type III DBLs

  6. X-ray diffraction pattern and morphology of superconducting Nb/sub 3/Sn layer grown on a polycrystalline Nb substrate of (111) main texture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, B [Politechnika Wroclawska (Poland)

    1983-01-16

    A study is presented on structure and crystallographic orientation of Nb/sub 3/Sn layers formed in the process of interaction of polycrystalline Nb substrate with Cu/sub 0.2/Sn/sub 0.8/ solution at 980 /sup 0/C. Grain structure characterization of Nb/sub 3/Sn layers has been carried out with scanning electron microscopy and TV automatic image analysis. The superconducting layer is divided into a fine-grained FG and coarse-grained CG zone. The X-ray patterns of FG and CG zones did not differ from one another and were the same as in randomly oriented Nb/sub 3/Sn polycrystalline powder.

  7. Passive harmonic mode-locking of Er-doped fiber laser using CVD-grown few-layer MoS2 as a saturable absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Han-Ding; Li He-Ping; Lan Chang-Yong; Li Chun; Deng Guang-Lei; Li Jian-Feng; Liu Yong

    2015-01-01

    Passive harmonic mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser based on few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) saturable absorber (SA) is demonstrated. The few-layer MoS 2 is prepared by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and then transferred onto the end face of a fiber connector to form a fiber-compatible MoS 2 SA. The 20th harmonic mode-locked pulses at 216-MHz repetition rate are stably generated with a pulse duration of 1.42 ps and side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of 36.1 dB. The results confirm that few-layer MoS 2 can serve as an effective SA for mode-locked fiber lasers. (paper)

  8. CdTe layer structures for X-ray and gamma-ray detection directly grown on the Medipix readout-chip by MBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, A.; Schütt, S.; Frei, K.; Fiederle, M.

    2017-11-01

    This work investigates the potential of CdTe semiconducting layers used for radiation detection directly deposited on the Medipix readout-chip by MBE. Due to the high Z-number of CdTe and the low electron-hole pair creation energy a thin layer suffices for satisfying photon absorption. The deposition takes place in a modified MBE system enabling growth rates up to 10 μm/h while the UHV conditions allow the required high purity for detector applications. CdTe sensor layers deposited on silicon substrates show resistivities up to 5.8 × 108 Ω cm and a preferred (1 1 1) orientation. However, the resistivity increases with higher growth temperature and the orientation gets more random. Additionally, the deposition of a back contact layer sequence in one process simplifies the complex production of an efficient contact on CdTe with aligned work functions. UPS measurements verify a decrease of the work function of 0.62 eV induced by Te doping of the CdTe.

  9. Deep levels in a-plane, high Mg-content MgxZn1−xO epitaxial layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gür, Emre; Tabares, G.; Hierro, A.; Arehart, A.; Ringel, S. A.; Chauveau, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Deep level defects in n-type unintentionally doped a-plane Mg x Zn 1−x O, grown by molecular beam epitaxy on r-plane sapphire were fully characterized using deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS) and related methods. Four compositions of Mg x Zn 1−x O were examined with x = 0.31, 0.44, 0.52, and 0.56 together with a control ZnO sample. DLOS measurements revealed the presence of five deep levels in each Mg-containing sample, having energy levels of E c − 1.4 eV, 2.1 eV, 2.6 V, and E v + 0.3 eV and 0.6 eV. For all Mg compositions, the activation energies of the first three states were constant with respect to the conduction band edge, whereas the latter two revealed constant activation energies with respect to the valence band edge. In contrast to the ternary materials, only three levels, at E c − 2.1 eV, E v + 0.3 eV, and 0.6 eV, were observed for the ZnO control sample in this systematically grown series of samples. Substantially higher concentrations of the deep levels at E v + 0.3 eV and E c − 2.1 eV were observed in ZnO compared to the Mg alloyed samples. Moreover, there is a general invariance of trap concentration of the E v + 0.3 eV and 0.6 eV levels on Mg content, while at least and order of magnitude dependency of the E c − 1.4 eV and E c − 2.6 eV levels in Mg alloyed samples.

  10. Characteristics of the epitaxy of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes grown by nanoscale epitaxial lateral overgrowth using a nitrided titanium buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, Chen-Yu; Li, Zhen-Yu; Chang, Jenq-Yang; Chi, Gou-Chung

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a buffer layer of nitrided titanium (Ti) achieved through the nitridation of a Ti metal layer on a sapphire substrate was used for the epitaxial growth of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) achieved by low pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The effect of in-situ Ti metal nitridation on the performance of these InGaN-based LEDs was then investigated. It was very clear that the use of the nitrided Ti buffer layer (NTBL) induced the formation of a nanoscale epitaxial lateral overgrowth layer during the epitaxial growth. When evaluated by Raman spectroscopy, this epi-layer exhibited large in-plane compressive stress releasing with a Raman shift value of 567.9 cm -1 . Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy results indicated that the InGaN-based LEDs with an NTBL have improved crystal quality, with a low threading dislocations density being yielded via the strain relaxation in the InGaN-based LEDs. Based on the results mentioned above, the electroluminescence results indicate that the light performance of InGaN-based LEDs with an NTBL can be enhanced by 45% and 42% at 20 mA and 100 mA, respectively. These results suggest that the strain relaxation and quality improvement in the GaN epilayer could be responsible for the enhancement of emission power. - Highlights: • The crystal-quality of InGaN-based LEDs with NTBL by NELOG was improved. • The InGaN-based LEDs with NTBL have strain releases by NELOG. • The optical properties of InGaN-based LEDs were shown by CL and EL measurements

  11. Charge-collection efficiency of GaAs field effect transistors fabricated with a low temperature grown buffer layer: dependence on charge deposition profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMorrow, D.; Knudson, A.R.; Melinger, J.S.; Buchner, S.

    1999-01-01

    The results presented here reveal a surprising dependence of the charge-collection efficiency of LT GaAs FETs (field effect transistors) on the depth profile of the deposited charge. Investigation of the temporal dependence of the signal amplitude, carrier density contours, and potential contours reveals different mechanisms for charge collection arising from carriers deposited above and below the LT GaAs buffer layer, respectively. In particular, carriers deposited below the LT GaAs buffer layer dissipate slowly and give rise to a persistent charge collection that is associated with a bipolar-like gain process. These results may be of significance in understanding the occurrence of single-event upsets from protons, neutrons, and large-angle, glancing heavy-ion strikes. (authors)

  12. Optical characterization of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} solar cell buffer layers grown by chemical bath and physical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trigo, J.F.; Asenjo, B.; Herrero, J.; Gutierrez, M.T. [Department of Energy, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    In this paper, we study the optical properties of indium sulfide thin films to establish the best conditions to obtain a good solar cell buffer layer. The In{sub 2}S{sub 3} buffer layers have been prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) and thermal evaporation (PVD). Optical behavior differences have been found between CBD and PVD In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films that have been explained as due to structural, morphological and compositional differences observed in the films prepared by both methods. The resultant refractive index difference has to be attributed to the lower density of the CBD films, which can be related to the presence of oxygen. Its higher refractive index makes PVD film better suited to reduce overall reflectance in a typical CIGS solar cell. (author)

  13. MOVPE grown InGaAs quantum dots of high optical quality as seed layer for low-density InP quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, D; Hafenbrak, R; Joens, K D; Schulz, W-M; Eichfelder, M; Rossbach, R; Jetter, M; Michler, P

    2010-01-01

    To achieve a low density of optically active InP-quantum dots we used InGaAs islands embedded in GaAs as a seed layer. First, the structural InGaAs quantum dot properties and the influence of the annealing technique was investigated by atomic force microscope measurements. High-resolution micro-photoluminescence spectra reveal narrow photoluminescence lines, with linewidths down to 11 μeV and fine structure splittings of 25 μeV. Furthermore, using these InGaAs quantum dots as seed layer reduces the InP quantum dot density of optically active quantum dots drastically. InP quantum dot excitonic photoluminescence emission with a linewidth of 140 μeV has been observed.

  14. Effects of Doping Concentration on the Structural and Optical Properties of Spin-Coated In-doped ZnO Thin Films Grown on Thermally Oxidized ZnO Film/ZnO Buffer Layer/Mica Substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byunggu; Leem, Jae-Young

    2017-01-01

    ZnO buffer layers were deposited on mica substrates using a sol-gel spin coating method. Then, a thin film of metallic Zn was deposited onto the ZnO buffer layer/mica substrate using a thermal evaporator, and the deposited Zn thin films were then thermally oxidized in a furnace at 500 ℃ for 2 h in air. Finally, In-doped ZnO (IZO) thin films with different In concentrations were grown on the oxidized ZnO film/ZnO buffer layer/mica substrates using the sol-gel spin-coating method. All the IZO films showed ZnO peaks with similar intensities. The full width at half maximum values of the ZnO (002) peak for the IZO thin films decreased with an increase in the In concentration to 1 at%, because the crystallinity of the films was enhanced. However, a further increase in the In concentration caused the crystal quality to degrade. This might be attributed to the fact that the higher In doping resulted in an increase in the number of ionized impurities. The Urbach energy (EU) values of the IZO thin film decreased with an increase in the In concentration to 1 at % because of the enhanced crystal quality of the films. The EU values for the IZO thin films increased with the In concentration from 1 at%to 3 at%, reflecting the broadening of localized band tail state near the conduction band edge of the films.

  15. Effects of Doping Concentration on the Structural and Optical Properties of Spin-Coated In-doped ZnO Thin Films Grown on Thermally Oxidized ZnO Film/ZnO Buffer Layer/Mica Substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byunggu; Leem, Jae-Young [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    ZnO buffer layers were deposited on mica substrates using a sol-gel spin coating method. Then, a thin film of metallic Zn was deposited onto the ZnO buffer layer/mica substrate using a thermal evaporator, and the deposited Zn thin films were then thermally oxidized in a furnace at 500 ℃ for 2 h in air. Finally, In-doped ZnO (IZO) thin films with different In concentrations were grown on the oxidized ZnO film/ZnO buffer layer/mica substrates using the sol-gel spin-coating method. All the IZO films showed ZnO peaks with similar intensities. The full width at half maximum values of the ZnO (002) peak for the IZO thin films decreased with an increase in the In concentration to 1 at%, because the crystallinity of the films was enhanced. However, a further increase in the In concentration caused the crystal quality to degrade. This might be attributed to the fact that the higher In doping resulted in an increase in the number of ionized impurities. The Urbach energy (EU) values of the IZO thin film decreased with an increase in the In concentration to 1 at % because of the enhanced crystal quality of the films. The EU values for the IZO thin films increased with the In concentration from 1 at%to 3 at%, reflecting the broadening of localized band tail state near the conduction band edge of the films.

  16. Effect of growth conditions on the Al composition and optical properties of Al x Ga 1−x N layers grown by atmospheric-pressure metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Soltani, S.

    2017-02-17

    The effect of growth conditions on the Al composition and optical properties of AlxGa1-xN layers grown by atmospheric-pressure metal organic vapor phase epitaxy is investigated. The Al content of the samples is varied between 3.0% and 9.3% by changing the gas flow rate of either trimethylaluminum (TMA) or trimethylgallium (TMG) while other growth parameters are kept constant. The optical properties of the AlxGa1-xN layers are studied by photoreflectance and time-resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) spectroscopies. A degeneration in the material quality of the samples is revealed when the Al content is increased by increasing the TMA flow rate. When the TMG flow rate is decreased with a fixed TMA flow rate, the Al content of the AlxGa1-xN layers is increased and, furthermore, an improvement in the optical properties corresponding with an increase in the PL decay time is observed. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of growth conditions on the Al composition and optical properties of Al x Ga 1−x N layers grown by atmospheric-pressure metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Soltani, S.; Bouzidi, M.; Chine, Z.; Toure, A.; Halidou, I.; El Jani, B.; Shakfa, M. K.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of growth conditions on the Al composition and optical properties of AlxGa1-xN layers grown by atmospheric-pressure metal organic vapor phase epitaxy is investigated. The Al content of the samples is varied between 3.0% and 9.3% by changing the gas flow rate of either trimethylaluminum (TMA) or trimethylgallium (TMG) while other growth parameters are kept constant. The optical properties of the AlxGa1-xN layers are studied by photoreflectance and time-resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) spectroscopies. A degeneration in the material quality of the samples is revealed when the Al content is increased by increasing the TMA flow rate. When the TMG flow rate is decreased with a fixed TMA flow rate, the Al content of the AlxGa1-xN layers is increased and, furthermore, an improvement in the optical properties corresponding with an increase in the PL decay time is observed. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of MOVPE grown GaAs, InGaAs and GaAsSb covering layers for different InAs/GaAs quantum dot applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zíková, Markéta; Hospodková, Alice; Pangrác, Jiří; Oswald, Jiří; Hulicius, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 464, Apr (2017), s. 59-63 ISSN 0022-0248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1603 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : MOVPE * quantum dot * strain reducing layer * InAs * GaAsSb * InGaAs Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.751, year: 2016

  19. Electrical and morphological characterization of transfer-printed Au/Ti/TiO{sub x}/p{sup +}-Si nano- and microstructures with plasma-grown titanium oxide layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiler, Benedikt, E-mail: benedikt.weiler@nano.ei.tum.de; Nagel, Robin; Albes, Tim; Haeberle, Tobias; Gagliardi, Alessio; Lugli, Paolo [Institute for Nanoelectronics, Technische Universität München, Arcisstrasse 21, 80333 München (Germany)

    2016-04-14

    Highly-ordered, sub-70 nm-MOS-junctions of Au/Ti/TiO{sub x}/p{sup +}-Si were efficiently and reliably fabricated by nanotransfer-printing (nTP) over large areas and their functionality was investigated with respect to their application as MOS-devices. First, we used a temperature-enhanced nTP process and integrated the plasma-oxidation of a nm-thin titanium film being e-beam evaporated directly on the stamp before the printing step without affecting the p{sup +}-Si substrate. Second, morphological investigations (scanning electron microscopy) of the nanostructures confirm the reliable transfer of Au/Ti/TiO{sub x}-pillars of 50 nm, 75 nm, and 100 nm size of superior quality on p{sup +}-Si by our transfer protocol. Third, the fabricated nanodevices are also characterized electrically by conductive AFM. Fourth, the results are compared to probe station measurements on identically processed, i.e., transfer-printed μm-MOS-structures including a systematic investigation of the oxide formation. The jV-characteristics of these MOS-junctions demonstrate the electrical functionality as plasma-grown tunneling oxides and the effectivity of the transfer-printing process for their large-scale fabrication. Next, our findings are supported by fits to the jV-curves of the plasma-grown titanium oxide by kinetic-Monte-Carlo simulations. These fits allowed us to determine the dominant conduction mechanisms, the material parameters of the oxides and, in particular, a calibration of the thickness depending on applied plasma time and power. Finally, also a relative dielectric permittivity of 12 was found for such plasma-grown TiO{sub x}-layers.

  20. Reduced defect densities in the ZnO epilayer grown on Si substrates by laser-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy using a ZnS epitaxial buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, T.; Chichibu, S.F.; Uedono, A.; Yoo, Y.-Z.; Chikyow, T.; Sota, T.; Kawasaki, M.; Koinuma, H.

    2004-01-01

    Nonradiative photoluminescence (PL) lifetime (τ nr ) and point defect density in the (0001) ZnO epilayer grown on (111) Si substrates by laser-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy (L-MBE) using a (0001) ZnS epitaxial buffer layer were compared with those in the ZnO films on (111) and (001) Si substrates prepared by direct transformation of ZnS epilayers on Si by thermal oxidation [Yoo et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 616 (2001)]. Both the ZnO films exhibited excitonic reflectance anomalies and corresponding PL peaks at low temperature, and the density or size of vacancy-type point defects (Zn vacancies), which were measured by the monoenergetic positron annihilation measurement, in the L-MBE epilayer was lower than that in the films prepared by the oxidation transformation. The ZnO epilayer grown on a (0001) ZnS epitaxial buffer on (111) Si exhibited longer τ nr of 105 ps at room temperature

  1. Photoluminescence of heterostructures with GaP1−xNx and GaP1−x−yNxAsy layers grown on GaP and Si substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarenko, A. A.; Nikitina, E. V.; Sobolev, M. S.; Pirogov, E. V.; Denisov, D. V.; Egorov, A. Yu.

    2015-01-01

    The structural and optical properties of heterostructures containing GaP 1−x N x ternary and GaP 1−x−y N x As y quaternary alloy layers are discussed. The heterostructures are grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaP and Si substrates. The structures are studied by the high-resolution X-ray diffraction technique and photoluminescence measurements in a wide temperature range from 10 to 300 K. In the low-temperature photoluminescence spectra of the alloys with a low nitrogen fraction (x < 0.007), two clearly resolved narrow lines attributed to the localized states of nitrogen pairs and the phonon replicas of these lines are observed

  2. Quasi-two-dimensional electron gas at the interface of γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} heterostructures grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, Thong Q.; McDaniel, Martin D.; Ekerdt, John G., E-mail: ekerdt@che.utexas.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Goble, Nicholas J.; Gao, Xuan P. A. [Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Posadas, Agham; Kormondy, Kristy J.; Demkov, Alexander A. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Lu, Sirong [School of Engineering for Matter, Transport and Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Jordan-Sweet, Jean [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Smith, David J. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    We report the formation of a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) at the interface of γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}-terminated SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The ALD growth of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on STO(001) single crystal substrates was performed at temperatures in the range of 200–345 °C. Trimethylaluminum and water were used as co-reactants. In situ reflection high energy electron diffraction, ex situ x-ray diffraction, and ex situ cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy were used to determine the crystallinity of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films. As-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films grown above 300 °C were crystalline with the γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase. In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterize the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/STO interface, indicating that a Ti{sup 3+} feature in the Ti 2p spectrum of STO was formed after 2–3 ALD cycles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at 345 °C and even after the exposure to trimethylaluminum alone at 300 and 345 °C. The interface quasi-2-DEG is metallic and exhibits mobility values of ∼4 and 3000 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} at room temperature and 15 K, respectively. The interfacial conductivity depended on the thickness of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. The Ti{sup 3+} signal originated from the near-interfacial region and vanished after annealing in an oxygen environment.

  3. Structural analysis of ELO-GaN grown on a sapphire substrate as the underlying layer of a GaN-based laser diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyajima, Takao; Hino, Tomonori; Narui, Hironobu [Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, 4-14-1 Asahi, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0014 (Japan); Takeda, Shingo; Tsusaka, Yoshiyuki; Matsui, Junji [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Kouto, Kamigori-cho, Hyogo (Japan); Kudo, Yoshihiro; Tomiya, Shigetaka [Materials Analysis Lab., Sony Corporation, 4-16-1 Okada, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0021 (Japan); Goto, Shu; Ikeda, Masao [Shiroishi Laser Ctr., Semiconductor Laser Div., Sony Corp., 3-53-2 Shiratori, Shiroishi, Miyagi 989-0734 (Japan)

    2007-01-15

    Using micro-beam X-ray diffraction (XRD), small c-axis tilting was observed in maskless epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN (ELO-GaN), which is a suitable underlying layer for realizing a reliable GaN-based blue-violet laser diode. By analyzing the micro-scale structure of ELO-GaN without coalescence and the ambient-temperature dependence of the tilting angle, we conclude that the small c-axis tilting is caused by compressive stress in the seed region of ELO-GaN. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Characterization of Cu3SbS3 thin films grown by thermally diffusing Cu2S and Sb2S3 layers

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Arshad; Ahmed, Rashid; Ali, N.; Shaari, A.; Luo, Jing-Ting; Fu, Yong Qing

    2017-01-01

    Copper antimony sulphide (Cu3SbS3) with a p-type conductivity and optical band gaps in the range of 1.38 to 1.84 eV is considered to be a promising solar harvesting material with non-toxic and economical elements. In this study, we reported the fabrication of Cu3SbS3 thin films using successive thermal evaporation of Cu2S and Sb2S3 layers followed by annealing in an argon atmosphere at a temperature range of 300-375°C. The structural and optical properties of the as-deposited and annealed fil...

  5. Effects of In-situ UV Irradiation on the Uniformity and Optical Properties of GaAsBi Epi-layers Grown by MBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, Daniel A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steger, Mark [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christian, Theresa [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mascarenhas, Angelo J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-14

    In-situ UV illumination influences the incorporation dynamics of bismuth adatom in GaAs. Here we use the inherent variation of the fluence across the sample to explore the role of the incident irradiation. With illumination it is found that steady state growth processes are achieved more quickly resulting in more abrupt interfaces, as well as uniform GaAs1-xGaAs1-xBixBix epi-layers. Comparisons of low temperature photoluminescence spectra show an increasing density of clusters of incorporated bismuth atoms with decreasing incident fluence.

  6. Study of High Quality Indium Nitride Films Grown on Si(100 Substrate by RF-MOMBE with GZO and AlN Buffer Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chun Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wurtzite structure InN films were prepared on Si(100 substrates using radio-frequency metal-organic molecular beam epitaxy (RF-MOMBE system. Ga-doped ZnO (GZO and Amorphous AlN (a-AlN film were used as buffer layers for InN films growth. Structural, surface morphology and optical properties of InN films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and photoluminescence (PL. XRD results indicated that all InN films exhibited preferred growth orientation along the c-axis with different intermediate buffers. TEM images exhibit the InN/GZO growth by two-dimensional mode and thickness about 900 nm. Also, the InN films can be obtained by growth rate about ~1.8 μm/h. Optical properties indicated that the band gap of InN/GZO is about 0.79 eV. These results indicate that the control of buffer layer is essential for engineering the growth of InN on silicon wafer.

  7. Correlation between the physical parameters of the i-nc-Si absorber layer grown by 27.12 MHz plasma with the nc-Si solar cell parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debajyoti; Mondal, Praloy

    2017-09-01

    Growth of highly conducting nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) thin films of optimum crystalline volume fraction, involving dominant crystallographic preferred orientation with simultaneous low fraction of microstructures at a low substrate temperature and high growth rate, is a challenging task for its promising utilization in nc-Si solar cells. Utilizing enhanced electron density and superior ion flux densities of the high frequency (∼27.12 MHz) SiH4 plasma, improved nc-Si films have been produced by simple optimization of H2-dilution, controlling the ion damage and enhancing supply of atomic-hydrogen onto the growing surface. Single junction nc-Si p-i-n solar cells have been prepared with i-nc-Si absorber layer and optimized. The physical parameters of the absorber layer have been systematically correlated to variations of the solar cell parameters. The preferred alignment of crystallites, its contribution to the low recombination losses for conduction of charge carriers along the vertical direction, its spectroscopic correlation with the dominant growth of ultra-nanocrystalline silicon (unc-Si) component and corresponding longer wavelength absorption, especially in the neighborhood of i/n-interface region recognize scientific and technological key issues that pave the ground for imminent advancement of multi-junction silicon solar cells.

  8. Structural properties of relaxed thin film germanium layers grown by low temperature RF-PECVD epitaxy on Si and Ge (100) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cariou, R., E-mail: romain.cariou@polytechnique.edu [LPICM-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128, Palaiseau (France); III-V lab a joint laboratory between Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs France, Thales Research and Technology and CEA-LETI, route de Nozay, 91460, Marcoussis, France. (France); Ruggeri, R. [LPICM-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128, Palaiseau (France); CNR-IMM, strada VIII n°5, zona industriale, 95121, Catania (Italy); Tan, X.; Nassar, J.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P. [LPICM-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128, Palaiseau (France); Mannino, Giovanni [CNR-IMM, strada VIII n°5, zona industriale, 95121, Catania (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    We report on unusual low temperature (175 °C) heteroepitaxial growth of germanium thin films using a standard radio-frequency plasma process. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal a perfect crystalline quality of epitaxial germanium layers on (100) c-Ge wafers. In addition direct germanium crystal growth is achieved on (100) c-Si, despite 4.2% lattice mismatch. Defects rising from Ge/Si interface are mostly located within the first tens of nanometers, and threading dislocation density (TDD) values as low as 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2} are obtained. Misfit stress is released fast: residual strain of −0.4% is calculated from Moiré pattern analysis. Moreover we demonstrate a striking feature of low temperature plasma epitaxy, namely the fact that crystalline quality improves with thickness without epitaxy breakdown, as shown by TEM and depth profiling of surface TDD.

  9. Studies on morphology, electrical and optical characteristics of Al-doped ZnO thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Chen, Xinliang; Zhou, Zhongxin; Guo, Sheng; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2018-03-01

    Al doped ZnO (AZO) films deposited on glass substrates through the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique are investigated with various temperatures from 100 to 250 °C and different Zn : Al cycle ratios from 20 : 0 to 20 : 3. Surface morphology, structure, optical and electrical properties of obtained AZO films are studied in detail. The Al composition of the AZO films is varied by controlling the ratio of Zn : Al. We achieve an excellent AZO thin film with a resistivity of 2.14 × 10‑3 Ω·cm and high optical transmittance deposited at 150 °C with 20 : 2 Zn : Al cycle ratio. This kind of AZO thin films exhibit great potential for optoelectronics device application. Project supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Nos. 2011CBA00706, 2011CBA00707) and the Tianjin Applied Basic Research Project and Cutting-Edge Technology Research Plan (No. 13JCZDJC26900).

  10. Effects of a finite melt on the thickness and composition of liquid phase epitaxial InGaAsP and InGaAs layers grown by the diffusion-limited step-cooling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, L.W.; Tashima, M.M.; Stillman, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    The thickness of InGaAsP (lambda/sub g/=1.15 μm) and InGaAs (lambda/sub g/=1.68 μm) liquid phase epitaxial layers grown on (100) InP substrates by the step-cooling technique has been measured as a function of growth time. (lambda/sub g/ is defined as the wavelength corresponding to the energy gap of the epitaxial layer.) For growth times much less than the shortest diffusion time tau/sub i/=l 2 /D/sub i/ of the melt constituents, where l is the melt height and D/sub i/ is the diffusivity of each component in the melt, the thickness is consistent with diffusion-limited theory, and the composition is constant. The time at which the growth rate deviates sharply from diffusion-limited theory and beyond which constant composition growth can no longer be maintained has been determined for the melt size used in our experiments and can be estimated for any melt size

  11. Evidence for the presence of U-Mo-Al ternary compounds in the U-Mo/Al interaction layer grown by thermal annealing: a coupled micro X-ray diffraction and micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palancher, H.; Martin, P.; Nassif, V.

    2007-01-01

    The systematic presence of the ternary phases U 6 Mo 4 Al 43 and UMo 2 Al 20 is reported in a U-Mo/Al interaction layer grown by thermal annealing. This work shows, therefore, the low Mo solubility in UAl 3 and UAl 4 binary phases; it contradicts the hypothesis of the formation of (U,Mo)Al 3 and (U,Mo)Al 4 solid solutions often admitted in the literature. Using μ-XAS (micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy) at the Mo K edge and μ-XRD (micro X-ray diffraction), the heterogeneity of the interaction layer obtained on a γ-U 0.85 Mo 0.15 /Al diffusion couple has been precisely investigated. The UMo 2 Al 20 phase has been identified at the closest location from the Al side. Moreover, μ-XRD mapping performed on an annealed fuel plate enabled the characterization of the four phases resulting from the γ-U 0.85 Mo 0.15 /Al and (U 2 Mo+α-U)/Al interactions. A strong correlation between the concentrations of UAl 4 and UMo 2 Al 20 and those of UAl 3 and U 6 Mo 4 Al 43 has been shown. (orig.)

  12. Isotope analysis of diamond-surface passivation effect of high-temperature H{sub 2}O-grown atomic layer deposition-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraiwa, Atsushi, E-mail: hiraiwa@aoni.waseda.jp, E-mail: qs4a-hriw@asahi-net.or.jp [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Waseda University, 513 Waseda-tsurumaki, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan); Saito, Tatsuya; Matsumura, Daisuke; Kawarada, Hiroshi, E-mail: kawarada@waseda.jp [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2015-06-07

    The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film formed using an atomic layer deposition (ALD) method with trimethylaluminum as Al precursor and H{sub 2}O as oxidant at a high temperature (450 °C) effectively passivates the p-type surface conduction (SC) layer specific to a hydrogen-terminated diamond surface, leading to a successful operation of diamond SC field-effect transistors at 400 °C. In order to investigate this excellent passivation effect, we carried out an isotope analysis using D{sub 2}O instead of H{sub 2}O in the ALD and found that the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film formed at a conventional temperature (100 °C) incorporates 50 times more CH{sub 3} groups than the high-temperature film. This CH{sub 3} is supposed to dissociate from the film when heated afterwards at a higher temperature (550 °C) and causes peeling patterns on the H-terminated surface. The high-temperature film is free from this problem and has the largest mass density and dielectric constant among those investigated in this study. The isotope analysis also unveiled a relatively active H-exchange reaction between the diamond H-termination and H{sub 2}O oxidant during the high-temperature ALD, the SC still being kept intact. This dynamic and yet steady H termination is realized by the suppressed oxidation due to the endothermic reaction with H{sub 2}O. Additionally, we not only observed the kinetic isotope effect in the form of reduced growth rate of D{sub 2}O-oxidant ALD but found that the mass density and dielectric constant of D{sub 2}O-grown Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films are smaller than those of H{sub 2}O-grown films. This is a new type of isotope effect, which is not caused by the presence of isotopes in the films unlike the traditional isotope effects that originate from the presence of isotopes itself. Hence, the high-temperature ALD is very effective in forming Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films as a passivation and/or gate-insulation layer of high-temperature-operation diamond SC devices, and the knowledge of

  13. Nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide anchored zinc oxide nanowires grown on carbon fiber cloth for high-performance flexible pseudocapacitive energy storage devices

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Imran; Shahid, Muhammad; Rana, Usman Ali; Nashef, Inas M Al; Hussain, Rafaqat

    2014-01-01

    Nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide (Ni-Co LDH) nanoflakes-ZnO nanowires hybrid array has been directly synthesized on a carbon cloth substrate by a facile cost-effective two-step hydrothermal route. As electrode materials for flexible pseudocapacitors, Ni-Co LDH nanoflakes-ZnO nanowires hybrid array exhibits a significantly enhanced specific capacitance of 1927 Fg-1, which is a ∼1.8 time greater than pristine Ni-Co LDH nanoflakes. The synthesized Ni-Co LDH nanoflakes-ZnO nanowires hybrid array shows a maximum energy density of 45.55 Whkg-1 at a power density of 46.15 kWkg -1, which is 35% higher than the pristine Ni-Co LDH nanoflakes electrode. Moreover, Ni-Co LDH nanoflakes-ZnO nanowires hybrid array exhibit excellent excellent rate capability (80.3% capacity retention at 30 Ag -1) and cycling stability (only 3.98% loss after 3000 cycles), due to the significantly improved faradaic redox reaction. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Effect of thickness on the structural and optical properties of CuO thin films grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akaltun, Yunus, E-mail: yakaltun@erzincan.edu.tr

    2015-11-02

    CuO thin films were synthesised on glass substrates at room temperature using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The effect of film thickness on characteristic parameters such as the structural, morphological and optical properties of the films was investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that all of the films exhibited polycrystalline structure with monoclinic phases and covered the glass substrates well. The crystalline and morphology of the films improved with increasing film thickness. The optical band gap decreased from 2.03 to 1.79 eV depending on the film thickness. The refractive index (n), electron effective mass (m{sub e}{sup ⁎}/m{sub o}) and static and frequency dielectric constants (ε{sub o}, ε{sub ∞}) were determined using the energy band gap values. - Highlights: • CuO thin films were deposited using SILAR method. • The electron effective mass, refractive index, dielectric constant values were calculated. • Characterisation of the films has been performed using XRD, SEM, Raman and optical measurements. • The d values of the planes of with thickness show no variation.

  15. Effect of thickness on the structural and optical properties of CuO thin films grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaltun, Yunus

    2015-01-01

    CuO thin films were synthesised on glass substrates at room temperature using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The effect of film thickness on characteristic parameters such as the structural, morphological and optical properties of the films was investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that all of the films exhibited polycrystalline structure with monoclinic phases and covered the glass substrates well. The crystalline and morphology of the films improved with increasing film thickness. The optical band gap decreased from 2.03 to 1.79 eV depending on the film thickness. The refractive index (n), electron effective mass (m_e"⁎/m_o) and static and frequency dielectric constants (ε_o, ε_∞) were determined using the energy band gap values. - Highlights: • CuO thin films were deposited using SILAR method. • The electron effective mass, refractive index, dielectric constant values were calculated. • Characterisation of the films has been performed using XRD, SEM, Raman and optical measurements. • The d values of the planes of with thickness show no variation.

  16. Morphology of Diamond Layers Grown on Different Facets of Single Crystal Diamond Substrates by a Microwave Plasma CVD in CH4-H2-N2 Gas Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny E. Ashkinazi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxial growth of diamond films on different facets of synthetic IIa-type single crystal (SC high-pressure high temperature (HPHT diamond substrate by a microwave plasma CVD in CH4-H2-N2 gas mixture with the high concentration (4% of nitrogen is studied. A beveled SC diamond embraced with low-index {100}, {110}, {111}, {211}, and {311} faces was used as the substrate. Only the {100} face is found to sustain homoepitaxial growth at the present experimental parameters, while nanocrystalline diamond (NCD films are produced on other planes. This observation is important for the choice of appropriate growth parameters, in particular, for the production of bi-layer or multilayer NCD-on-microcrystalline diamond (MCD superhard coatings on tools when the deposition of continuous conformal NCD film on all facet is required. The development of the film morphology with growth time is examined with SEM. The structure of hillocks, with or without polycrystalline aggregates, that appear on {100} face is analyzed, and the stress field (up to 0.4 GPa within the hillocks is evaluated based on high-resolution mapping of photoluminescence spectra of nitrogen-vacancy NV optical centers in the film.

  17. Abundance of the multiheme c-type cytochrome OmcB increases in outer biofilm layers of electrode-grown Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille S Stephen

    Full Text Available When Geobacter sulfurreducens utilizes an electrode as its electron acceptor, cells embed themselves in a conductive biofilm tens of microns thick. While environmental conditions such as pH or redox potential have been shown to change close to the electrode, less is known about the response of G. sulfurreducens to growth in this biofilm environment. To investigate whether respiratory protein abundance varies with distance from the electrode, antibodies against an outer membrane multiheme cytochrome (OmcB and cytoplasmic acetate kinase (AckA were used to determine protein localization in slices spanning ∼25 µm-thick G. sulfurreducens biofilms growing on polished electrodes poised at +0.24 V (vs. Standard Hydrogen Electrode. Slices were immunogold labeled post-fixing, imaged via transmission electron microscopy, and digitally reassembled to create continuous images allowing subcellular location and abundance per cell to be quantified across an entire biofilm. OmcB was predominantly localized on cell membranes, and 3.6-fold more OmcB was detected on cells 10-20 µm distant from the electrode surface compared to inner layers (0-10 µm. In contrast, acetate kinase remained constant throughout the biofilm, and was always associated with the cell interior. This method for detecting proteins in intact conductive biofilms supports a model where the utilization of redox proteins changes with depth.

  18. Nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide anchored zinc oxide nanowires grown on carbon fiber cloth for high-performance flexible pseudocapacitive energy storage devices

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Imran

    2014-05-01

    Nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide (Ni-Co LDH) nanoflakes-ZnO nanowires hybrid array has been directly synthesized on a carbon cloth substrate by a facile cost-effective two-step hydrothermal route. As electrode materials for flexible pseudocapacitors, Ni-Co LDH nanoflakes-ZnO nanowires hybrid array exhibits a significantly enhanced specific capacitance of 1927 Fg-1, which is a ∼1.8 time greater than pristine Ni-Co LDH nanoflakes. The synthesized Ni-Co LDH nanoflakes-ZnO nanowires hybrid array shows a maximum energy density of 45.55 Whkg-1 at a power density of 46.15 kWkg -1, which is 35% higher than the pristine Ni-Co LDH nanoflakes electrode. Moreover, Ni-Co LDH nanoflakes-ZnO nanowires hybrid array exhibit excellent excellent rate capability (80.3% capacity retention at 30 Ag -1) and cycling stability (only 3.98% loss after 3000 cycles), due to the significantly improved faradaic redox reaction. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Band-gap and sub-band-gap photoelectrochemical processes at nanocrystalline CdS grown on ZnO by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malashchonak, M.V.; Streltsov, E.A.; Mazanik, A.V.; Kulak, A.I.; Poznyak, S.K.; Stroyuk, O.L.; Kuchmiy, S.Ya.; Gaiduk, P.I.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide nanoparticle (NP) deposition by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method on the surface of mesoporous ZnO micro-platelets with a large specific surface area (110 ± 10 m 2 g −1 ) results in the formation of ZnO/CdS heterostructures exhibiting a high incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (Y) not only within the region of CdS fundamental absorption (Y max = 90%; 0.1 M Na 2 S + 0.1 M Na 2 SO 3 ), but also in the sub-band-gap (SBG) range (Y max = 25%). The onset potentials of SBG photoelectrochemical processes are more positive than the band-gap (BG) onset potential by up to 100 mV. A maximum incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency value for SBG processes is observed at larger amount of deposited CdS in comparison with the case of BG ones. The Urbach energy (E U ) of CdS NPs determined from the photocurrent spectra reaches a maximal value on an early deposition stage (E U = 93 mV at SILAR cycle number N = 5), then lowers somewhat (E U = 73 mV at N = 10) and remains steady in the range of N from 20 to 300 (E U = 67 ± 1 mV). High efficiency of the photoelectrochemical SBG processes are interpreted in terms of light scattering in the ZnO/CdS heterostructures. - Highlights: • ZnO/CdS films demonstrate high quantum efficiency (25%) for sub-band-gap transitions. • Onset photocurrent potentials for sub-band-gap processes differ than those for band-gap ones. • Sub-band-gap transitions are caused by band-tail states in CdS nanoparticles

  20. Band-gap and sub-band-gap photoelectrochemical processes at nanocrystalline CdS grown on ZnO by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malashchonak, M.V., E-mail: che.malasche@gmail.com [Belarusian State University, Nezalezhnastsi Av. 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Streltsov, E.A., E-mail: streltea@bsu.by [Belarusian State University, Nezalezhnastsi Av. 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Mazanik, A.V. [Belarusian State University, Nezalezhnastsi Av. 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Kulak, A.I., E-mail: kulak@igic.bas-net.by [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Surganova str., 9/1, Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Poznyak, S.K. [Belarusian State University, Nezalezhnastsi Av. 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Stroyuk, O.L., E-mail: stroyuk@inphyschem-nas.kiev.ua [L.V. Pysarzhevsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 31 prosp. Nauky, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kuchmiy, S.Ya. [L.V. Pysarzhevsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 31 prosp. Nauky, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Gaiduk, P.I. [Belarusian State University, Nezalezhnastsi Av. 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus)

    2015-08-31

    Cadmium sulfide nanoparticle (NP) deposition by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method on the surface of mesoporous ZnO micro-platelets with a large specific surface area (110 ± 10 m{sup 2}g{sup −1}) results in the formation of ZnO/CdS heterostructures exhibiting a high incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (Y) not only within the region of CdS fundamental absorption (Y{sub max} = 90%; 0.1 M Na{sub 2}S + 0.1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}), but also in the sub-band-gap (SBG) range (Y{sub max} = 25%). The onset potentials of SBG photoelectrochemical processes are more positive than the band-gap (BG) onset potential by up to 100 mV. A maximum incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency value for SBG processes is observed at larger amount of deposited CdS in comparison with the case of BG ones. The Urbach energy (E{sub U}) of CdS NPs determined from the photocurrent spectra reaches a maximal value on an early deposition stage (E{sub U} = 93 mV at SILAR cycle number N = 5), then lowers somewhat (E{sub U} = 73 mV at N = 10) and remains steady in the range of N from 20 to 300 (E{sub U} = 67 ± 1 mV). High efficiency of the photoelectrochemical SBG processes are interpreted in terms of light scattering in the ZnO/CdS heterostructures. - Highlights: • ZnO/CdS films demonstrate high quantum efficiency (25%) for sub-band-gap transitions. • Onset photocurrent potentials for sub-band-gap processes differ than those for band-gap ones. • Sub-band-gap transitions are caused by band-tail states in CdS nanoparticles.

  1. Possibility of a quasi-liquid layer of As on GaAs substrate grown by MBE as observed by enhancement of Ga desorption at high As pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, K.; Feng, J. M.; Vaccaro, P. O.; Fujita, K.; Ohachi, T.

    2000-06-01

    The As vapor pressure dependence of the Ga desorption rate during molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth on GaAs( n11)A ( n=1-4 hereafter) substrates was studied by photoluminescence (PL) measurements at 12 K for undoped AlGaAs/GaAs asymmetric double quantum wells (ADQWs). Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) oscillation measurements on a GaAs(100) surface were also used. Two K-cells of As solid sources (corresponding to beam equivalent pressures (BEPs) of 9.0×10 -6 and 4.5×10 -5 Torr) were used to change the As pressure rapidly. The Ga flux and substrate temperature were kept constant at 0.76 ML/s and 12 K, respectively, while the As flux changed from 7.6 (BEP 9.0×10 -6 Torr) to 32 ML/s (4.5×10 -5 Torr). With increasing As pressure, two separated PL peaks for the wide well (WW) of high index substrates were observed. This peak separation is attributed to a reduced well depth from an increasing Ga desorption rate. The energy differences of the PL peak depending on the off-angle from (111)A to (100) plane indicates an orientation-dependent Ga desorption rate. Moreover, amongst all ( n11)A and (100) planes, the Ga desorption rate was smallest from the (111)A surface. The increase of Ga desorption from the surface at high As pressures probably arose from an increasing coverage with a quasi-liquid layer (QLL).

  2. Optical characterization of Zn-doped In{sub 0.14}Ga{sub 0.86}As{sub 0.13}Sb{sub 0.87} layers grown by liquid phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Reyes, Joel, E-mail: jdiazr2010@yahoo.com [CIBA-IPN, Ex-Hacienda de San Juan Molino Km. 1.5. Tepetitla, Tlaxcala 90700. Mexico (Mexico); Rodriguez-Fragoso, Patricia; Mendoza-Alvarez, Julio Gregorio [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 14-740, Mexico, D.F. 07000 (Mexico)

    2013-02-15

    Quaternary layers were grown by liquid phase epitaxy on (1 0 0) GaSb substrates under lattice-matching conditions. The low-temperature photoluminescence of p-type In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1-y} was obtained as a function of incorporated zinc concentration. The photoluminescence spectra were interpreted using a model which takes into account nonparabolicity of the valence band. Calculations of the peak position and photoluminescence transitions were performed. Both the band filling as well as band tailing due to Coulomb interaction of free carriers with ionized impurities and shrinkage due to exchange interaction between free carriers were considered in order to properly account for the observed features of photoluminescence spectra. It is proposed that low-temperature photoluminescence band-to-band energy transition can be used to obtain the carrier concentration in p-type In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1-y}. This method could be used to estimate free carrier concentration ranging from 6.036 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} to 1.350 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this work the optical characterization of InGaAsSb highly doped with zinc by grown LPE.is reported Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It analyses the LT-PL of p-type InGaAsSb layersis analzysed as a function of incorporated zinc concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PL was interpreted using a model that takes into account nonparabolicity of the valence band. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The band-to-band transition energy can be used to estimate the hole concentration in InGaAsSb.

  3. Growth and Characterization of (211)B Cadmium Telluride Buffer Layer Grown by Metal-organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy on Nanopatterned Silicon for Mercury Cadmium Telluride Based Infrared Detector Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintri, Shashidhar S.

    Mercury cadmium telluride (MCT or Hg1-xCdxTe) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is presently the material of choice for fabricating infrared (IR) detectors used in night vision based military applications. The focus of MCT epitaxy has gradually shifted since the last decade to using Si as the starting substrate since it offers several advantages. But the ˜19 % lattice mismatch between MCT and Si generates lots of crystal defects some of which degrade the performance of MCT devices. Hence thick CdTe films are used as buffer layers on Si to accommodate the defects. However, growth of high quality single crystal CdTe on Si is challenging and to date, the best MBE CdTe/Si reportedly has defects in the mid-105 cm -2 range. There is a critical need to reduce the defect levels by at least another order of magnitude, which is the main motivation behind the present work. The use of alternate growth technique called metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) offers some advantages over MBE and in this work MOVPE has been employed to grow the various epitaxial films. In the first part of this work, conditions for obtaining high quality (211)B CdTe epitaxy on (211)Si were achieved, which also involved studying the effect of having additional intermediate buffer layers such as Ge and ZnTe and incorporation of in-situ thermal cyclic annealing (TCA) to reduce the dislocation density. A critical problem of Si cross-contamination due to 'memory effect' of different reactant species was minimized by introducing tertiarybutylArsine (TBAs) which resulted in As-passivation of (211)Si. The best 8-10 µm thick CdTe films on blanket (non-patterned) Si had dislocations around 3×105 cm-2, which are the best reported by MOVPE till date and comparable to the highest quality films available by MBE. In the second part of the work, nanopatterned (211)Si was used to study the effect of patterning on the crystal quality of epitaxial CdTe. In one such study, patterning of ˜20 nm holes in SiO2

  4. Vacancy behavior in Cu(In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} layers grown by a three-stage coevaporation process probed by monoenergetic positron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uedono, Akira; Islam, Muhammad M.; Sakurai, Takeaki [Division of Applied Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Hugenschmidt, Christoph [Physics Department E21 and Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Egger, Werner [Universität der Bundeswehr München, Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Scheer, Roland; Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard [Department of Physics, Martin Luther University Halle, 06099 Halle (Germany); Akimoto, Katsuhiro [Division of Applied Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2016-03-31

    Vacancy-type defects in Cu(In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} (x ≅ 0.45 and 1) grown by a three-stage coevaporation process were probed using monoenergetic positron beams. Measurements of Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation and positron lifetime spectra showed that two different defect species coexist in the Cu(In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} layers, and these were identified as mono/divacancy-type defects and vacancy clusters, respectively. The vacancy clusters were mainly introduced during the third growth stage, and were located in the subsurface region. The concentration of the defects affected the short-circuit current density and the conversion efficiency of the solar cells. The defect concentration and their depth distributions varied depending on Se beam equivalent pressure, growth time, and post-growth annealing time. The behavior of the vacancy-type defects is discussed also with respect to results obtained using an electron probe micro-analyzer. - Highlights: • We applied positron annihilation to characterize Cu(In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2}. • Defect species were identified as mono/divacancy-type defects and vacancy clusters. • The conversion efficiency increased with a decreasing vacancy concentration.

  5. Processing of n{sup +}/p{sup −}/p{sup +} strip detectors with atomic layer deposition (ALD) grown Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} field insulator on magnetic Czochralski silicon (MCz-si) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Härkönen, J., E-mail: jaakko.harkonen@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Institute of Physics (Finland); Tuovinen, E. [Helsinki Institute of Physics (Finland); VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Microsystems and Nanoelectronics (Finland); Luukka, P.; Gädda, A.; Mäenpää, T.; Tuominen, E.; Arsenovich, T. [Helsinki Institute of Physics (Finland); Junkes, A. [Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg (Germany); Wu, X. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Microsystems and Nanoelectronics (Finland); Picosun Oy, Tietotie 3, FI-02150 Espoo Finland (Finland); Li, Z. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2016-08-21

    Detectors manufactured on p-type silicon material are known to have significant advantages in very harsh radiation environment over n-type detectors, traditionally used in High Energy Physics experiments for particle tracking. In p-type (n{sup +} segmentation on p substrate) position-sensitive strip detectors, however, the fixed oxide charge in the silicon dioxide is positive and, thus, causes electron accumulation at the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface. As a result, unless appropriate interstrip isolation is applied, the n-type strips are short-circuited. Widely adopted methods to terminate surface electron accumulation are segmented p-stop or p-spray field implantations. A different approach to overcome the near-surface electron accumulation at the interface of silicon dioxide and p-type silicon is to deposit a thin film field insulator with negative oxide charge. We have processed silicon strip detectors on p-type Magnetic Czochralski silicon (MCz-Si) substrates with aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin film insulator, grown with Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) method. The electrical characterization by current–voltage and capacitance−voltage measurement shows reliable performance of the aluminum oxide. The final proof of concept was obtained at the test beam with 200 GeV/c muons. For the non-irradiated detector the charge collection efficiency (CCE) was nearly 100% with a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of about 40, whereas for the 2×10{sup 15} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} proton irradiated detector the CCE was 35%, when the sensor was biased at 500 V. These results are comparable with the results from p-type detectors with the p-spray and p-stop interstrip isolation techniques. In addition, interestingly, when the aluminum oxide was irradiated with Co-60 gamma-rays, an accumulation of negative fixed oxide charge in the oxide was observed.

  6. Oxidant effect of La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O solution on the crystalline characteristics of nanocrystalline ZrO{sub 2} films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Nam Khen [Graduate School of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Vacuum Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), 267 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34113 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin-Tae [Vacuum Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), 267 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34113 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanomaterials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34113 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Goru; An, Jong-Ki; Nam, Minwoo [Vacuum Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), 267 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34113 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, So Yeon [Graduate School of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Park, In-Sung, E-mail: parkis77@hanyang.ac.kr [Institute of Nano Science and Technology, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Ju-Young, E-mail: jyun@kriss.re.kr [Vacuum Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), 267 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34113 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanomaterials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34113 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • The La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O aqua solution is introduced as an oxidant in ALD process. • The H{sub 2}O and La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O lead different crystalline properties of ZrO{sub 2} films. • Concentration of La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O solution minimally influences crystalline status. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline ZrO{sub 2} films were synthesized by atomic layer deposition method using CpZr[N(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 3} (Cp = C{sub 5}H{sub 5}) as the metal precursor and La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O solution as the oxygen source. La element in the deposited ZrO{sub 2} films could not be detected as its content was below the resolution limit of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The alternative introduction of La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O solution to conventionally used H{sub 2}O as the oxidant effectively altered the crystalline structure, grain size, and surface roughness of the grown ZrO{sub 2} films. Specifically, the crystalline structure of the ZrO{sub 2} film changed from a mixture of tetragonal and monoclinic phases to monoclinic phase. The average grain size also increased, and the resulting film surface became rougher. The average grain sizes of the ZrO{sub 2} films prepared from La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O solution at concentrations of 10, 20, 30, and 40% were 280, 256, 208, and 200 nm, respectively, whereas that prepared using H{sub 2}O oxidant was 142 nm. However, the concentration of La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O solution minimally influenced the crystalline characteristics of the nanocrystalline ZrO{sub 2} films i.e., the crystalline structure, grain size, and surface roughness except for crystallite size.

  7. Compositions of Mg and Se, surface morphology, roughness and Raman property of Zn1-xMgxSeyTe1-y layers grown at various substrate temperatures or dopant transport rates by MOVPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Katsuhiko; Urata, Kensuke; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Daichi; Araki, Yasuhiro; Abiru, Masakatsu; Mori, Eiichiro; Tanaka, Tooru; Guo, Qixin

    2015-03-01

    The growth of undoped and phosphorus (P)-doped Zn1-xMgxSeyTe1-y layers on (100) ZnTe substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy was carried out. The compositions of Mg and Se, surface morphology, roughness and Raman property were characterized as a function of substrate temperature. Not only the compositions of Mg and Se but also the crystal quality of undoped Zn1-xMgxSeyTe1-y layer strongly depended upon the substrate temperature. Furthermore, the growth of Zn1-xMgxSeyTe1-y layer nearly-lattice-matched to ZnTe substrate was achieved independent of the transport rate of trisdimethylaminophosphorus. Undoped Zn1-xMgxSeyTe1-y layer nearly-lattice-matched to ZnTe led to improvement of surface roughness. On the other hand, P doping brought about deterioration of crystalline quality.

  8. Characteristic of doping and diffusion of heavily doped n and p type InP and InGaAs epitaxial layers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinzone, C.J.; Dupuis, R.D.; Ha, N.T.; Luftman, H.S.; Gerrard, N.D.

    1990-01-01

    Electronic and photonic device applications of the InGaAs/InP materials system often require the growth of epitaxial material doped to or near the solubility limit of the impurity in the host material. These requirements present an extreme challenge for the crystal grower. To produce devices with abrupt dopant profiles, preserve the junction during subsequent growth, and retain a high degree of crystalline perfection, it is necessary to understand the limits of dopant incorporation and the behavior of the impurity in the material. In this study, N-type doping above 10 19 cm -3 has been achieved in InP and InGaAs using Sn as a dopant. P-type Zn doping at these levels has also been achieved in these materials but p type activation above ∼3 x 10 18 cm -3 in InP has not been seen. All materials were grown by the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) crystal growth technique. Effective diffusion coefficients have been measured for Zn and Sn in both materials from analysis of secondary ion mass spectra (SIMS) of specially grown and annealed samples

  9. Effect of III/V ratio on the polarity of AlN and GaN layers grown in the metal rich growth regime on Si(111) by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Manvi; Dharmarasu, Nethaji; Radhakrishnan, K.; Pramana, Stevin Snellius

    2015-01-01

    Wet chemical etching, reflection high energy electron diffraction, scanning electron microscope and convergent beam electron diffraction have been employed to study the polarities of AlN and the subsequently grown GaN as a function of metal flux in the metal rich growth regime. Both AlN and GaN exhibited metal polarity in the intermediate growth conditions. However, in the droplet growth regime, the polarity of AlN and GaN were N polar and Ga polar, respectively. It was observed that Ga polar GaN could be obtained on both Al and N polar AlN. AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) heterostructure exhibiting hall mobility of 900 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and sheet carrier density of 1.2 × 10 13 cm -2 was demonstrated using N polar AlN which confirmed Ga polarity of GaN. Al metal flux was likely to play an important role in controlling the polarity of AlN and determining the polarity of the subsequent GaN grown on Si(111) by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). (author)

  10. Optical properties of a-plane (Al, Ga)N/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on strain engineered Zn1-xMgxO layers by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Y.; Vinter, B.; Chauveau, J.-M.; Brault, J.; Nemoz, M.; Teisseire, M.; Leroux, M.

    2011-01-01

    Nonpolar (1120) Al 0.2 Ga 0.8 N/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (1120) Zn 0.74 Mg 0.26 O templates on r-plane sapphire substrates. The quantum wells exhibit well-resolved photoluminescence peaks in the ultra-violet region, and no sign of quantum confined Stark effect is observed in the complete multiple quantum well series. The results agree well with flat band quantum well calculations. Furthermore, we show that the MQW structures are strongly polarized along the [0001] direction. The origin of the polarization is discussed in terms of the strain anisotropy dependence of the exciton optical oscillator strengths.

  11. The effect of substrate temperature upon the compositions of Mg and Se in Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}Se{sub y}Te{sub 1-y} layer grown by MOVPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, M.; Ito, R.; Tanaka, K.; Urata, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Tanaka, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Saito, K.; Guo, Q.X. [Synchrotron Light Application Center, Saga University, 1 Honjo, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    The growth of Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}Se{sub y}Te{sub 1-y} layers was performed on (100) ZnTe substrate by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy using dimethylzinc, bis-methylcyclopentadienyl-magnesium, diethyltelluride and diethylselenide. The effects of substrate temperature upon the compositions of Mg and Se have been investigated. The Mg composition in Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}Se{sub y}Te{sub 1-y} layer is significantly enhanced at low substrate temperature. Although the Se composition decreases with decreasing the substrate temperature, Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}Se{sub y}Te{sub 1-y} layer with a relatively high Se composition of 0.3 is obtainable at a low substrate temperature as low as 380 C. For all the layers, a two-mode behaviour with ZnTe- and MgTe-like longitudinal optical phonon modes is confirmed by Raman scattering. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Structural and interfacial defects in c-axis oriented LiNbO{sub 3} thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on Si using Al : ZnO conducting layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shandilya, Swati; Sreenivas, K; Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Tomar, Monika [Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2009-05-07

    Highly c-axis oriented LiNbO{sub 3} films are deposited using pulsed laser deposition on a silicon substrate using a transparent conducting Al doped ZnO layer. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic analysis show the fabrication of single phase and oriented LiNbO{sub 3} films under the optimized deposition condition. An extra peak at 905 cm{sup -1} was observed in the Raman spectra of LiNbO{sub 3} film deposited at higher substrate temperature and higher oxygen pressure, and attributed to the presence of niobium antisite defects in the lattice. Dielectric constant and ac conductivity of oriented LiNbO{sub 3} films deposited under the static and rotating substrate modes have been studied. Films deposited under the rotating substrate mode exhibit dielectric properties close to the LiNbO{sub 3} single crystal. The cause of deviation in the dielectric properties of the film deposited under the static substrate mode, in comparison with the bulk, are discussed in the light of the possible formation of an interdiffusion layer at the interface of the LiNbO{sub 3} film and the Al : ZnO layer.

  13. Structural and interfacial defects in c-axis oriented LiNbO3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on Si using Al : ZnO conducting layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandilya, Swati; Sreenivas, K; Gupta, Vinay; Tomar, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Highly c-axis oriented LiNbO 3 films are deposited using pulsed laser deposition on a silicon substrate using a transparent conducting Al doped ZnO layer. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic analysis show the fabrication of single phase and oriented LiNbO 3 films under the optimized deposition condition. An extra peak at 905 cm -1 was observed in the Raman spectra of LiNbO 3 film deposited at higher substrate temperature and higher oxygen pressure, and attributed to the presence of niobium antisite defects in the lattice. Dielectric constant and ac conductivity of oriented LiNbO 3 films deposited under the static and rotating substrate modes have been studied. Films deposited under the rotating substrate mode exhibit dielectric properties close to the LiNbO 3 single crystal. The cause of deviation in the dielectric properties of the film deposited under the static substrate mode, in comparison with the bulk, are discussed in the light of the possible formation of an interdiffusion layer at the interface of the LiNbO 3 film and the Al : ZnO layer.

  14. Structural and interfacial defects in c-axis oriented LiNbO3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on Si using Al : ZnO conducting layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandilya, Swati; Tomar, Monika; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2009-05-01

    Highly c-axis oriented LiNbO3 films are deposited using pulsed laser deposition on a silicon substrate using a transparent conducting Al doped ZnO layer. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic analysis show the fabrication of single phase and oriented LiNbO3 films under the optimized deposition condition. An extra peak at 905 cm-1 was observed in the Raman spectra of LiNbO3 film deposited at higher substrate temperature and higher oxygen pressure, and attributed to the presence of niobium antisite defects in the lattice. Dielectric constant and ac conductivity of oriented LiNbO3 films deposited under the static and rotating substrate modes have been studied. Films deposited under the rotating substrate mode exhibit dielectric properties close to the LiNbO3 single crystal. The cause of deviation in the dielectric properties of the film deposited under the static substrate mode, in comparison with the bulk, are discussed in the light of the possible formation of an interdiffusion layer at the interface of the LiNbO3 film and the Al : ZnO layer.

  15. Electro-optic properties of epitaxial Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6 films grown on MgO substrates using LixNi2-xO buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. T.; Du, P. Y.; Ye, H.; Mak, C. L.; Wong, K. H.

    2008-08-01

    Textured LixNi2-xO (LNO) thin films have been fabricated on (001)MgO substrates by pulsed laser deposition technique. The as-deposited LNO films shows a conductivity of 2.5×10-3 Ω m and possess a transmittance of about 35% in the visible region. Subsequent deposition of Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6 (SBN60) thin film on these LNO-coated MgO substrates resulted in a textured SBN layer with a orientation perpendicular to the substrate plane. Phi scans on the (221) plane of the SBN layer indicated that the films have two in-plane orientations with respect to the substrate. The SBN unit cells were rotated in the plane of the film by ± 8.2° as well as ± 45° with respect to the LNO/MgO substrate. Besides the highly (00l)-orientation, the SBN films also exhibited a dense microstructure as shown by scanning electron microscopy. The electro-optic coefficient (r33) of the SBN film was measured to be 186 pm/V. On the basis of our results, we have demonstrated that the LNO film can be used as a buffer layer as well as a transparent bottom electrode for waveguide applications. The SBN/LNO heterostructure is also a suitable candidate for integrated electro-optics devices.

  16. Graphic Grown Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ann

    2009-01-01

    It's no secret that children and YAs are clued in to graphic novels (GNs) and that comics-loving adults are positively giddy that this format is getting the recognition it deserves. Still, there is a whole swath of library card-carrying grown-up readers out there with no idea where to start. Splashy movies such as "300" and "Spider-Man" and their…

  17. Crystallographic tilt and in-plane anisotropies of an a-plane InGaN/GaN layered structure grown by MOCVD on r-plane sapphire using a ZnO buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H F; Chi, D Z; Liu, W; Guo, S

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) was used to investigate the crystallographic tilts and structural anisotropies in epitaxial nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN grown by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition on r-plane sapphire using a ZnO buffer. The substrate had an unintentional miscut of 0.14° towards its [–4 2 2 3] axis. However, HRXRD revealed a tilt of 0.26° (0.20°) between the ZnO (GaN) (11-20) and the Al 2 O 3 (1-102) atomic planes, with the (11-20) axis of ZnO (GaN) tilted towards its c-axis, which has a difference of 163° in azimuth from that of the substrate’s miscut. Excess broadenings in the GaN/ZnO (11-20) rocking curves (RCs) were observed along its c-axis. Specific analyses revealed that partial dislocations and anisotropic in-plane strains, rather than surface-related effects, wafer curvature or stacking faults, are the dominant factors for the structural anisotropy. The orientation of the partial dislocations is most likely affected by the miscut of the substrate, e.g. via tilting of the misfit dislocation gliding planes created during island coalescences. Their Burgers vector components in the growth direction, in turn, gave rise to crystallographic tilts in the same direction as that of the excess RC-broadenings. (paper)

  18. Crystallographic tilt and in-plane anisotropies of an a-plane InGaN/GaN layered structure grown by MOCVD on r-plane sapphire using a ZnO buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. F.; Liu, W.; Guo, S.; Chi, D. Z.

    2016-03-01

    High-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) was used to investigate the crystallographic tilts and structural anisotropies in epitaxial nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on r-plane sapphire using a ZnO buffer. The substrate had an unintentional miscut of 0.14° towards its [-4 2 2 3] axis. However, HRXRD revealed a tilt of 0.26° (0.20°) between the ZnO (GaN) (11-20) and the Al2O3 (1-102) atomic planes, with the (11-20) axis of ZnO (GaN) tilted towards its c-axis, which has a difference of 163° in azimuth from that of the substrate’s miscut. Excess broadenings in the GaN/ZnO (11-20) rocking curves (RCs) were observed along its c-axis. Specific analyses revealed that partial dislocations and anisotropic in-plane strains, rather than surface-related effects, wafer curvature or stacking faults, are the dominant factors for the structural anisotropy. The orientation of the partial dislocations is most likely affected by the miscut of the substrate, e.g. via tilting of the misfit dislocation gliding planes created during island coalescences. Their Burgers vector components in the growth direction, in turn, gave rise to crystallographic tilts in the same direction as that of the excess RC-broadenings.

  19. AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with an AlGaN layer grown directly on reactive-ion-etched GaN showing a high electron mobility (>1300 cm2 V-1 s-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Akio; Makino, Shinya; Kanatani, Keito; Kuzuhara, Masaaki

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the metal-organic-vapor-phase-epitaxial growth behavior and electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN structures prepared by the growth of an AlGaN layer on a reactive-ion-etched (RIE) GaN surface without regrown GaN layers were investigated. The annealing of RIE-GaN surfaces in NH3 + H2 atmosphere, employed immediately before AlGaN growth, was a key process in obtaining a clean GaN surface for AlGaN growth, that is, in obtaining an electron mobility as high as 1350 cm2 V-1 s-1 in a fabricated AlGaN/RIE-GaN structure. High-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) were successfully fabricated with AlGaN/RIE-GaN wafers. With decreasing density of dotlike defects observed on the surfaces of AlGaN/RIE-GaN wafers, both two-dimensional electron gas properties of AlGaN/RIE-GaN structures and DC characteristics of HEMTs were markedly improved. Since dotlike defect density was markedly dependent on RIE lot, rather than on growth lot, surface contaminations of GaN during RIE were believed to be responsible for the formation of dotlike defects and, therefore, for the inferior electrical properties.

  20. The structure of InAlGaN layers grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy: effects of threading dislocations and inversion domains from the GaN template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ammar, H; Minj, A; Chauvat, M-P; Gamarra, P; Lacam, C; Morales, M; Ruterana, P

    2017-12-01

    Defects in quaternary InAlGaN barriers and their effects on crystalline quality and surface morphology have been studied. In addition to growth conditions, the quality of the GaN template may play an important role in the formation of defects in the barrier. Therefore, this work is focused on effects caused by threading dislocations (TDs) and inversion domains (IDs) originating from the underlying GaN. The effects are observed on the crystalline quality of the barrier and characteristic surface morphologies. Each type of TDs is shown to affect the surface morphology in a different way. Depending on the size of the corresponding hillock for a given pinhole, it was possible to determine the dislocation type. It is pointed out that the smallest pinholes are not connected to TDs whereas the large ones terminate either mixed type or edge type TDs. At sufficiently large layer thickness, the IDs originating from the GaN template lead to the formation of concentric trenches at the layer surface, and this is related to the change in growth kinetics on top and at the immediate surroundings of the ID. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  1. Heteroepitaxially grown InP solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C.K.; Brinker, D.J.; Wilt, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Although they are significantly more radiation resistant than either Si or GaAs solar cells, their high wafer cost presents a barrier to the widespread use of InP solar cells in space. For this reason, the authors have initiated a program aimed at producing high efficiency, radiation resistant solar cells processed from InP heteroepitaxially grown on cheaper substrates. The authors' objective is to present the most recent results emanating from this program together with the results of their initial proton irradiations on these cells. This paper reports that InP cells were processed from a 4 micron layer of InP, grown by OMCVD on a silicon substrate, with a 0.5 micron buffer layer between the InP directly grown on a GaAs substrate. Initial feasibility studies, in a Lewis sponsored program at the Spire corporation, resulted in air mass zero efficiencies of 7.1% for the former cells and 9.1% for the latter. These initial low efficiencies are attributed to the high dislocation densities caused by lattice mismatch. The authors' preirradiation analysis indicates extremely low minority carrier diffusion lengths, in both cell base and emitter, and high values of both the diffusion and recombination components of the diode reverse saturation currents. Irradiation by 10 MeV protons, to a fluence of 10 13 cm -2 , resulted in relatively low degradation in cell efficiency, short circuit current and open circuit voltage

  2. Influences of the CdS nanoparticles grown strategies on CdTe nanorods array films: A comparison between successive ionic layer absorption and reaction and chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jun; Zhou, Xiaoming; Lv, Pin; Yang, Lihua; Ding, Dong; Niu, Jiasheng; Liu, Li; Li, Xue; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin

    2016-01-01

    The cadmium sulfide (CdS) film is deposited on the surface of cadmium telluride (CdTe) nanorods (NRs) by two different methods, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) techniques. The influence of the deposition parameters on the properties of the films is investigated. Compared to SILAR, CBD is a simple and time saving technique, which can ensure full coverage and better growth of CdS on the surface of CdTe NRs. The photovoltaic characteristics of CdS sensitized CdTe films are also investigated. It is found that the CdTe/CBD-CdS thin film demonstrates excellent photoelectrical properties, which is ascribed to the large absorption coefficient of the material, indicating the potential applications in solar cells.

  3. Deep levels in as-grown and Si-implanted In(0.2)Ga(0.8)As-GaAs strained-layer superlattice optical guiding structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, S.; Das, U.; Bhattacharya, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    Trap levels in about 2-micron In(0.2)Ga(0.8)As(94 A)/GaAs(25 A) strained-layer superlattices, suitable for optical waveguides, have been identified and characterized by deep-level transient spectroscopy and optical deep-level transient spectroscopy measurements. Several dominant electron and hole traps with concentrations of approximately 10 to the 14th/cu cm, and thermal ionization energies Delta-E(T) varying from 0.20 to 0.75 eV have been detected. Except for a 0.20-eV electron trap, which might be present in the In(0.2)Ga(0.8)As well regions, all the other traps have characteristics similar to those identified in molecular-beam epitaxial GaAs. Of these, a 0.42-eV hole trap is believed to originate from Cu impurities, and the others are probably related to native defects. Upon Si implantation and halogen lamp annealing, new deep centers are created. These are electron traps with Delta-E(T) = 0.81 eV and hole traps with Delta-E(T) = 0.46 eV. Traps occurring at room temperature may present limitations for optical devices.

  4. Structural and morphological properties of GaN buffer layers grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy on SiC substrates for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrion, A. L.; Poblenz, C.; Wu, F.; Speck, J. S.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of growth conditions on the surface morphology and structural properties of ammonia molecular beam epitaxy GaN buffers layers on SiC substrates was investigated. The threading dislocation (TD) density was found to decrease with decreasing NH 3 :Ga flux ratio, which corresponded to an increase in surface roughness and reduction in residual compressive lattice mismatch stress. Furthermore, the dislocation density and compressive stress decreased for increasing buffer thickness. TD inclination was proposed to account for these observations. Optimized surface morphologies were realized at high NH 3 :Ga flux ratios and were characterized by monolayer-high steps, spiral hillocks, and pyramidal mounds, with rms roughness of ∼1.0 nm over 2x2 μm 2 atomic force microscopy images. Smooth surface morphologies were realized over a large range of growth temperatures and fluxes, and growth rates of up to 1 μm/h were achieved. TD densities in the buffers as low as 3x10 9 cm -2 were demonstrated. These buffers were highly insulating and were used in recently reported AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with power densities of >11 W/mm at 4 and 10 GHz

  5. Influence of wide band gap oxide substrates on the photoelectrochemical properties and structural disorder of CdS nanoparticles grown by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malashchonak, Mikalai V; Mazanik, Alexander V; Korolik, Olga V; Streltsov, Еugene А; Kulak, Anatoly I

    2015-01-01

    The photoelectrochemical properties of nanoheterostructures based on the wide band gap oxide substrates (ZnO, TiO2, In2O3) and CdS nanoparticles deposited by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method have been studied as a function of the CdS deposition cycle number (N). The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) passes through a maximum with the increase of N, which is ascribed to the competition between the increase in optical absorption and photocarrier recombination. The maximal IPCE values for the In2O3/CdS and ZnO/CdS heterostructures are attained at N ≈ 20, whereas for TiO2/CdS, the appropriate N value is an order of magnitude higher. The photocurrent and Raman spectroscopy studies of CdS nanoparticles revealed the occurrence of the quantum confinement effect, demonstrating the most rapid weakening with the increase of N in ZnO/CdS heterostructures. The structural disorder of CdS nanoparticles was characterized by the Urbach energy (E U), spectral width of the CdS longitudinal optical (LO) phonon band and the relative intensity of the surface optical (SO) phonon band in the Raman spectra. Maximal values of E U (100-120 meV) correspond to СdS nanoparticles on a In2O3 surface, correlating with the fact that the CdS LO band spectral width and intensity ratio for the CdS SO and LO bands are maximal for In2O3/CdS films. A notable variation in the degree of disorder of CdS nanoparticles is observed only in the initial stages of CdS growth (several tens of deposition cycles), indicating the preservation of the nanocrystalline state of CdS over a wide range of SILAR cycles.

  6. Influence of wide band gap oxide substrates on the photoelectrochemical properties and structural disorder of CdS nanoparticles grown by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikalai V. Malashchonak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The photoelectrochemical properties of nanoheterostructures based on the wide band gap oxide substrates (ZnO, TiO2, In2O3 and CdS nanoparticles deposited by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method have been studied as a function of the CdS deposition cycle number (N. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE passes through a maximum with the increase of N, which is ascribed to the competition between the increase in optical absorption and photocarrier recombination. The maximal IPCE values for the In2O3/CdS and ZnO/CdS heterostructures are attained at N ≈ 20, whereas for TiO2/CdS, the appropriate N value is an order of magnitude higher. The photocurrent and Raman spectroscopy studies of CdS nanoparticles revealed the occurrence of the quantum confinement effect, demonstrating the most rapid weakening with the increase of N in ZnO/CdS heterostructures. The structural disorder of CdS nanoparticles was characterized by the Urbach energy (EU, spectral width of the CdS longitudinal optical (LO phonon band and the relative intensity of the surface optical (SO phonon band in the Raman spectra. Maximal values of EU (100–120 meV correspond to СdS nanoparticles on a In2O3 surface, correlating with the fact that the CdS LO band spectral width and intensity ratio for the CdS SO and LO bands are maximal for In2O3/CdS films. A notable variation in the degree of disorder of CdS nanoparticles is observed only in the initial stages of CdS growth (several tens of deposition cycles, indicating the preservation of the nanocrystalline state of CdS over a wide range of SILAR cycles.

  7. Chemical solution seed layer for rabits tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10

    A method for making a superconducting article includes the steps of providing a biaxially textured substrate. A seed layer is then deposited. The seed layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different rare earth or transition metal cations. A superconductor layer is grown epitaxially such that the superconductor layer is supported by the seed layer.

  8. Hydrothermally grown zeolite crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, S.K.; Qureshi, A.H.; Hussain, M.A.; Qazi, N.K.

    2009-01-01

    The aluminium-deficient and ferrosilicate zeolite-type materials were synthesized by hydrothermal process at 150-170 degree C for various periods of time from the mixtures containing colloidal reactive silica, sodium aluminate, sodium hydroxide, iron nitrate and organic templates. Organic polycation templates were used as zeolite crystal shape modifiers to enhance relative growth rates. The template was almost completely removed from the zeolite specimens by calcination at 550 degree C for 8h in air. Simultaneous thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) was performed to study the removal of water molecules and the amount of organic template cations occluded inside the crystal pore of zeolite framework. The 12-13% weight loss in the range of (140-560 degree C) was associated with removal of the (C/sub 3/H/sub 7/)/sub 4/ N+ cation and water molecules. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques were employed to study the structure, morphology and surface features of hydrothermally grown aluminium-deficient and ferrosilicate zeolite-type crystals. In order to elucidate the mode of zeolite crystallization the crystallinity and unit cell parameters of the materials were determined by XRD, which are the function of Al and Fe contents of zeolites. (author)

  9. Grown on Novel Microcarriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Falk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE cells have been tested as a cell-based therapy for Parkinson’s disease but will require additional study before further clinical trials can be planned. We now show that the long-term survival and neurotrophic potential of hRPE cells can be enhanced by the use of FDA-approved plastic-based microcarriers compared to a gelatin-based microcarrier as used in failed clinical trials. The hRPE cells grown on these plastic-based microcarriers display several important characteristics of hRPE found in vivo: (1 characteristic morphological features, (2 accumulation of melanin pigment, and (3 high levels of production of the neurotrophic factors pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A. Growth of hRPE cells on plastic-based microcarriers led to sustained levels (>1 ng/ml of PEDF and VEGF-A in conditioned media for two months. We also show that the expression of VEGF-A and PEDF is reciprocally regulated by activation of the GPR143 pathway. GPR143 is activated by L-DOPA (1 μM which decreased VEGF-A secretion as opposed to the previously reported increase in PEDF secretion. The hRPE microcarriers are therefore novel candidate delivery systems for achieving long-term delivery of the neuroprotective factors PEDF and VEGF-A, which could have a value in neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson’s disease.

  10. Surface oxidation phenomena of boride coatings grown on iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbucicchio, M.; Palombarini, G.; Sambogna, G.

    1992-01-01

    Very hard boride coatings are grown on various metals using thermochemical as well as chemical vapour deposition techniques. In this way many surface properties, and in particular the wear resistance, can be considerably improved. Usually, also the corrosion behaviour of the treated components is important. In particular, oxidizing atmospheres are involved in many applications where, therefore, coating-environment interactions can play a relevant role. In a previous work, the early stages of the oxidation of iron borides were studied by treating single phase compacted powders in flowing oxygen at low temperatures (300-450deg C). In the present paper, the attention is addressed to the oxidation of both single phase and polyphase boride coatings thermochemically grown on iron. The single phase boride coatings were constituted by Fe 2 B, while the polyphase coatings were constituted by an inner Fe 2 B layer and an outer FeB-base layer. All the boride layers displayed strong (002) preferred crystallographic orientations. (orig.)

  11. GaN:Co epitaxial layers grown by MOVPE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, P.; Sedmidubský, D.; Klímová, K.; Mikulics, M.; Maryško, Miroslav; Veselý, M.; Jurek, Karel; Sofer, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 44, Mar (2015), 62-68 ISSN 0022-0248 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20507S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : doping * metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy * cobalt * gallium compounds * nitrides * magnetic materials spintronics Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.462, year: 2015

  12. Mn doping of GaN layers grown by MOVPE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, P.; Šofer, Z.; Sedmidubský, D.; Jankovský, O.; Hejtmánek, Jiří; Maryško, Miroslav; Václavů, M.; Mikulics, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2012), s. 122-126 ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0621 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy * nitrides * magnetic materials * semiconducting III-V materials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.418, year: 2012

  13. GREENHOUSE-GROWN CAPE GOOSEBERRY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /2006 S 4,00. Printed in Uganda. All rights reserved O2006, African Crop Science Society. SHORT COMMINICATION. EFFECT OF GIBBERRELLIC ACID ON GROWTH AND FRUIT YIELD OF. GREENHOUSE-GROWN CAPE GOOSEBERRY.

  14. Carbon Nanotube Microarrays Grown on Nanoflake Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Howard K.; Hauge, Robert H.; Pint, Cary; Pheasant, Sean

    2013-01-01

    This innovation consists of a new composition of matter where single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are grown in aligned arrays from nanostructured flakes that are coated in Fe catalyst. This method of growth of aligned SWNTs, which can yield well over 400 percent SWNT mass per unit substrate mass, exceeds current yields for entangled SWNT growth. In addition, processing can be performed with minimal wet etching treatments, leaving aligned SWNTs with superior properties over those that exist in entangled mats. The alignment of the nanotubes is similar to that achieved in vertically aligned nanotubes, which are called "carpets. " Because these flakes are grown in a state where they are airborne in a reactor, these flakes, after growing SWNTs, are termed "flying carpets. " These flakes are created in a roll-to-roll evaporator system, where three subsequent evaporations are performed on a 100-ft (approx. =30-m) roll of Mylar. The first layer is composed of a water-soluble "release layer, " which can be a material such as NaCl. After depositing NaCl, the second layer involves 40 nm of supporting layer material . either Al2O3 or MgO. The thickness of the layer can be tuned to synthesize flakes that are larger or smaller than those obtained with a 40-nm deposition. Finally, the third layer consists of a thin Fe catalyst layer with a thickness of 0.5 nm. The thickness of this layer ultimately determines the diameter of SWNT growth, and a layer that is too thick will result in the growth of multiwalled carbon nanotubes instead of single-wall nanotubes. However, between a thickness of 0.5 nm to 1 nm, single-walled carbon nanotubes are known to be the primary constituent. After this three-layer deposition process, the Mylar is rolled through a bath of water, which allows catalyst-coated flakes to detach from the Mylar. The flakes are then collected and dried. The method described here for making such flakes is analogous to that which is used to make birefringent ink that is

  15. ZnO based nanowires grown by chemical vapour deposition for selective hydrogenation of acetylene alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Protasova, L.N.; Rebrov, E.; Choy, K.L.; Pung, S.Y.; Engels, V.; Cabaj, M.; Wheatley, A.E.H.; Schouten, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs) with a length of 1.5–10 µm and a mean diameter of ca. 150 nm were grown by chemical vapour deposition onto a c-oriented ZnO seed layer which was deposited by atomic layer deposition on Si substrates. The substrates were then spin-coated with an ethanol solution

  16. A study of 1/f noise in InP grown by CBE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.Y.; Leijs, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    The origin of low-frequency noise in InP was studied experimentally by measuring the noise of InP layers grown by chemical beam epitaxy (CBE). Such InP layers are unintentionally doped, but of varying purity and always of n-type conductivity. We performed noise measurements at temperatures from 77

  17. Microstructure of nitrides grown on inclined c-plane sapphire and SiC substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imura, M.; Honshio, A.; Miyake, Y.; Nakano, K.; Tsuchiya, N.; Tsuda, M.; Okadome, Y.; Balakrishnan, K.; Iwaya, M.; Kamiyama, S.; Amano, H.; Akasaki, I.

    2006-01-01

    High-quality (112-bar 0) GaN layers with atomically flat surface have been grown on a precisely offset-angle-controlled (11-bar 02) sapphire substrate by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Insertion of AlGaN layer between underlying AlN layer and GaN was found to improve crystalline quality of upper GaN layer. In addition, a combination of high growth condition followed and epitaxial lateral overgrowth has been employed for the growth of GaN and this helped in reducing the dislocation density in the resultant layers. GaN and AlN were grown on (303-bar 8) SiC substrates by MOVPE and sublimation methods, respectively. The crystal orientation of GaN and AlN could be just aligned to that of the substrate. Microstructure analysis of the layers was also carried out by transmission electron microscopy

  18. The optical properties of transferred graphene and the dielectrics grown on it obtained by ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasikov, Aarne; Kahro, Tauno; Matisen, Leonard; Kodu, Margus; Tarre, Aivar; Seemen, Helina; Alles, Harry

    2018-04-01

    Graphene layers grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method and transferred from Cu-foils to the oxidized Si-substrates were investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), Raman and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) methods. The optical properties of transferred CVD graphene layers do not always correspond to the ones of the exfoliated graphene due to the contamination from the chemicals used in the transfer process. However, the real thickness and the mean properties of the transferred CVD graphene layers can be found using ellipsometry if a real thickness of the SiO2 layer is taken into account. The pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) methods were used to grow dielectric layers on the transferred graphene and the obtained structures were characterized using optical methods. The approach demonstrated in this work could be useful for the characterization of various materials grown on graphene.

  19. Epitaxial Ge Solar Cells Directly Grown on Si (001) by MOCVD Using Isobutylgermane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjo; Kim, Kangho; Lee, Jaejin; Kim, Chang Zoo; Kang, Ho Kwan; Park, Won-Kyu

    2018-03-01

    Epitaxial Ge layers have been grown on Si (001) substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using an isobutylgermane (IBuGe) metalorganic source. Low and high temperature two-step growth and post annealing techniques are employed to overcome the lattice mismatch problem between Ge and Si. It is demonstrated that high quality Ge epitaxial layers can be grown on Si (001) by using IBuGe with surface RMS roughness of 2 nm and an estimated threading dislocation density of 4.9 × 107 cm -2. Furthermore, single-junction Ge solar cells have been directly grown on Si substrates with an in situ MOCVD growth. The epitaxial Ge p- n junction structures are investigated with transmission electron microscopy and electrochemical C- V measurements. As a result, a power conversion efficiency of 1.69% was achieved for the Ge solar cell directly grown on Si substrate under AM1.5G condition.

  20. Skin cancer full-grown from scar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.; Sanginov, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter authors investigate the peculiarities of skin cancer full-grown from scar, the theory of it's descent, quote some statistical data on skin cancer full-grown from scar and variety clinical forms of skin cancer full-grown from scar was shown, quote some methods of treatment

  1. Photo-induced wettability of TiO{sub 2} film with Au buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purkayastha, Debarun Dhar; Sangani, L. D. Varma; Krishna, M. Ghanashyam [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India); Madhurima, V., E-mail: madhurima.v@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur-610004 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The effect of thickness of Au buffer layer (15-25 nm) between TiO{sub 2} film and substrate on the wettability of TiO{sub 2} films is reported. TiO{sub 2} films grown on Au buffer layer have a higher contact angle of 96-;100° as compared to 47.6o for the film grown without buffer layer. The transition from hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity under UV irradiation occurs within 10 min. for the buffer layered films whereas it is almost 30 min. for the film grown without buffer layer. The enhanced photo induced hydrophilicity is shown to be surface energy driven.

  2. Superconductivity in MBE grown InN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunes, M.; Balkan, N. [School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, CO4 3SQ, Colchester (United Kingdom); Tiras, E.; Ardali, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Anadolu University, Yunus Emre Campus, 26470, Eskisehir (Turkey); Ajagunna, A.O.; Iliopoulos, E.; Georgakilas, A. [Microelectronics Research Group, IESL, FORTH and Physics Department, University of Crete, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2011-05-15

    We present the experimental investigation of superconductivity in unintentionally doped MBE grown InN samples with various InN film thicknesses. A significant change in resistivity was observed at 3.82 K, for an 1080 nm InN layer with carrier concentration n{sub 3D}=1.185x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. However, no significant resistance change was observed in the case of InN samples with carrier density of 1.024x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, 1.38x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, and thicknesses of 2070 and 4700 nm, respectively. The carrier density of all investigated samples was within the range of values between the Mott transition (2x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}) and the superconductivity to metal transition (7x10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}). We believe that at lower temperatures ({sup 3}He) which we cannot achieve with our set-up, the phase transition in other samples is likely to be observed. The origin of the observed anisotropic type-II superconductivity is discussed (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Electrical properties of ZnO thin films grown by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagni, O. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Somhlahlo, N.N. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Weichsel, C. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Leitch, A.W.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)]. E-mail: andrew.leitch@nmmu.ac.za

    2006-04-01

    We report on the electrical characterization of ZnO films grown by MOCVD on glass and sapphire substrates. After correcting our temperature variable Hall measurements by applying the standard two-layer model, which takes into account an interfacial layer, scattering mechanisms in the ZnO films were studied as well as donor activation energies determined. ZnO films grown at different oxygen partial pressures indicated the importance of growth conditions on the defect structure by means of their conductivities and conductivity activation energies.

  4. GaSb grown from Sn solvent at low temperatures by LPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compean, V H; Anda, F de; Mishurnyi, V A; Gorbatchev, A Yu, E-mail: fdeanda@cactus.iico.uaslp.m [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Av. Karakorum 1470, Col. Lomas 4a Sec., San Luis Potosi, SLP, CP 78210 (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    The LPE growth of GaSb using Sn as a solvent has been studied in the temperature range 250-370 C and using liquid solutions covering a wide range of compositions. In order to find the growth conditions the phase diagram has been determined experimentally around the same temperature region. It is shown the Sn incorporates into the grown layers and that it behaves as an acceptor. The photoluminescence spectra of the grown layers with different Sn contents show characteristic peaks that can be attributed to different recombination processes.

  5. Electrical properties of ZnO thin films grown by MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagni, O.; Somhlahlo, N.N.; Weichsel, C.; Leitch, A.W.R.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the electrical characterization of ZnO films grown by MOCVD on glass and sapphire substrates. After correcting our temperature variable Hall measurements by applying the standard two-layer model, which takes into account an interfacial layer, scattering mechanisms in the ZnO films were studied as well as donor activation energies determined. ZnO films grown at different oxygen partial pressures indicated the importance of growth conditions on the defect structure by means of their conductivities and conductivity activation energies

  6. Evidence for possible quantum dot interdiffusion induced by cap layer growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinski, J.; Czeczott, M.; Gladysz, A.; Babinski, A.; Kozubowski, J.

    1999-01-01

    Self-organised InGaAs quantum dots were grown on (001) GaAs substrates and covered with two different types of cap layers grown at significantly different temperatures. In order to determine quantum dot emission energy and dot size distribution, photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy studies were carried out on such samples. Simple theoretical model neglecting effect of interdiffusion allowed for correlation between quantum dot size and photoluminescence emission energy only in the case of dots covered by cap layers grown at the lower temperature. For dots covered by layers grown at the higher temperature such correlation was possible only when strong interdiffusion was assumed. (author)

  7. Method to grow group III-nitrides on copper using passivation layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiming; Wang, George T; Figiel, Jeffrey T

    2014-06-03

    Group III-nitride epilayers can be grown directly on copper substrates using intermediate passivation layers. For example, single crystalline c-plane GaN can be grown on Cu (110) substrates with MOCVD. The growth relies on a low temperature AlN passivation layer to isolate any alloying reaction between Ga and Cu.

  8. Symmetry Breaking in Few Layer Graphene Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostwick, A.; Ohta, T.; McChesney, J.L.; Emtsev, K.; Seyller,Th.; Horn, K.; Rotenberg, E.

    2007-05-25

    Recently, it was demonstrated that the quasiparticledynamics, the layer-dependent charge and potential, and the c-axisscreening coefficient could be extracted from measurements of thespectral function of few layer graphene films grown epitaxially on SiCusing angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). In this articlewe review these findings, and present detailed methodology for extractingsuch parameters from ARPES. We also present detailed arguments againstthe possibility of an energy gap at the Dirac crossing ED.

  9. Layer-by-layer assembly of thin film oxygen barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Woo-Sik; Rawson, Ian; Grunlan, Jaime C.

    2008-01-01

    Thin films of sodium montmorillonite clay and cationic polyacrylamide were grown on a polyethylene terephthalate film using layer-by-layer assembly. After 30 clay-polymer layers are deposited, with a thickness of 571 nm, the resulting transparent film has an oxygen transmission rate (OTR) below the detection limit of commercial instrumentation ( 2 /day/atm). This low OTR, which is unprecedented for a clay-filled polymer composite, is believed to be due to a brick wall nanostructure comprised of completely exfoliated clay in polymeric mortar. With an optical transparency greater than 90% and potential for microwaveability, this thin composite is a good candidate for foil replacement in food packaging and may also be useful for flexible electronics packaging

  10. Vertical single- and double-walled carbon nanotubes grown from modified porous anodic alumina templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschmann, Matthew R; Franklin, Aaron D; Amama, Placidus B; Zakharov, Dmitri N; Stach, Eric A; Sands, Timothy D; Fisher, Timothy S

    2006-01-01

    Vertical single-walled and double-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT and DWNT) arrays have been grown using a catalyst embedded within the pore walls of a porous anodic alumina (PAA) template. The initial film structure consisted of a SiO x adhesion layer, a Ti layer, a bottom Al layer, a Fe layer, and a top Al layer deposited on a Si wafer. The Al and Fe layers were subsequently anodized to create a vertically oriented pore structure through the film stack. CNTs were synthesized from the catalyst layer by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The resulting structure is expected to form the basis for development of vertically oriented CNT-based electronics and sensors

  11. Rare-earth-ion doped KY(WO4)2 optical waveguides grown by liquid-phase epitaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romanyuk, Y.E.; Apostolopoulos, V.; Utke, U.; Pollnau, Markus

    High-quality KY(WO4)2 thin layers doped with rare-earth-ions were grown using liquid-phase epitaxy. A low-temperature mixture of chlorides was used as the flux and undoped KY(WO4)2 crystals as substrates. The crystalline layers possessed thicknesses up to 10 µm. Passive and active planar waveguiding

  12. High-efficiency supercapacitor electrodes of CVD-grown graphenes hybridized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalam, Amir Abul; Bae, Joon Ho [Dept. of Nano-physics, Gachon University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo Bin; Seo, Yong Ho [Nanotechnology and Advanced Material Engineering, HMC, and GRI, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    We demonstrate, for the first time, high-efficiency supercapacitors by utilizing chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphenes hybridized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A single-layer graphene was grown by simple CVD growth method, and transferred to polyethylene terephthalate substrates. The bare graphenes were further hybridized with multiwalled CNTs by drop-coating CNTs on graphenes. The supercapacitors using bare graphenes and graphenes with CNTs revealed that graphenes with CNTs resulted in enhanced supercapacitor performances of 2.2- (the mass-specific capacitance) and 4.4-fold (the area-specific capacitance) of those of bare graphenes. Our strategy to improve electrochemical performance of CVD-grown graphenes is advantageous for large-scale graphene electrodes due to high electrical conductivity of CVD-grown graphenes and cost-effectiveness of using multiwalled CNTs as compared to conventional employment of single-walled CNTs.

  13. High-efficiency supercapacitor electrodes of CVD-grown graphenes hybridized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalam, Amir Abul; Bae, Joon Ho; Park, Soo Bin; Seo, Yong Ho

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, high-efficiency supercapacitors by utilizing chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphenes hybridized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A single-layer graphene was grown by simple CVD growth method, and transferred to polyethylene terephthalate substrates. The bare graphenes were further hybridized with multiwalled CNTs by drop-coating CNTs on graphenes. The supercapacitors using bare graphenes and graphenes with CNTs revealed that graphenes with CNTs resulted in enhanced supercapacitor performances of 2.2- (the mass-specific capacitance) and 4.4-fold (the area-specific capacitance) of those of bare graphenes. Our strategy to improve electrochemical performance of CVD-grown graphenes is advantageous for large-scale graphene electrodes due to high electrical conductivity of CVD-grown graphenes and cost-effectiveness of using multiwalled CNTs as compared to conventional employment of single-walled CNTs

  14. Developmental, nutritional and hormonal anomalies of weightlessness-grown wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, J. G.; Hole, P.; Salisbury, F. B.; Bingham, G. E.

    2015-07-01

    The behavior of water in weightlessness, as occurs in orbiting spacecraft, presents multiple challenges for plant growth. Soils remain saturated, impeding aeration, and leaf surfaces remain wet, impeding gas exchange. Herein we report developmental and biochemical anomalies of "Super Dwarf" wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown aboard Space Station Mir during the 1996-97 "Greenhouse 2" experiment. Leaves of Mir-grown wheat were hyperhydric, senesced precociously and accumulated aromatic and branched-chain amino acids typical of tissues experiencing oxidative stress. The highest levels of stress-specific amino acids occurred in precociously-senescing leaves. Our results suggest that the leaf ventilation system of the Svet Greenhouse failed to remove sufficient boundary layer water, thus leading to poor gas exchange and onset of oxidative stress. As oxidative stress in plants has been observed in recent space-flight experiments, we recommend that percentage water content in apoplast free-spaces of leaves be used to evaluate leaf ventilation effectiveness. Mir-grown plants also tillered excessively. Crowns and culms of these plants contained low levels of abscisic acid but high levels of cytokinins. High ethylene levels may have suppressed abscisic acid synthesis, thus permitting cytokinins to accumulate and tillering to occur.

  15. Low temperature grown GaNAsSb: A promising material for photoconductive switch application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, K. H.; Yoon, S. F.; Wicaksono, S.; Loke, W. K.; Li, D. S. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Saadsaoud, N.; Tripon-Canseliet, C. [Laboratoire d' Electronique et Electromagnétisme, Pierre and Marie Curie University, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Lampin, J. F.; Decoster, D. [Institute of Electronics, Microelectronics and Nanotechnology (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Chazelas, J. [Thales Airborne Systems, 2 Avenue Gay Lussac, 78852 Elancourt (France)

    2013-09-09

    We report a photoconductive switch using low temperature grown GaNAsSb as the active material. The GaNAsSb layer was grown at 200 °C by molecular beam epitaxy in conjunction with a radio frequency plasma-assisted nitrogen source and a valved antimony cracker source. The low temperature growth of the GaNAsSb layer increased the dark resistivity of the switch and shortened the carrier lifetime. The switch exhibited a dark resistivity of 10{sup 7} Ω cm, a photo-absorption of up to 2.1 μm, and a carrier lifetime of ∼1.3 ps. These results strongly support the suitability of low temperature grown GaNAsSb in the photoconductive switch application.

  16. Enhancement of optical properties of InAs quantum dots grown by using periodic arsine interruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jungsub; Yang, Changjae; Sim, Uk; Lee, Jaeyel; Yoon, Euijoon; Lee, Youngsoo

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the morphological and optical properties of InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown by using periodic arsine interruption (PAI) and compared them with QDs grown conventionally. In the conventional growth, the formation of large islands was observed, which suppresses the nucleation and growth of QDs. Furthermore, the growth of capping layers was significantly degraded by these large islands. On the other hand, in the PAI growth, the formation of large islands was completely suppressed, resulting in the increase of the density and aspect ratio of QDs and the uniform growth of capping layers. As a result of photoluminescence (PL) measurements, we found that the emission efficiency was enhanced and the full-width-half-maximum was reduced to 32 meV. The temperature dependence of these optical properties also revealed the enhancement of the uniformity of QDs grown by the PAI method.

  17. Structural and magnetic properties of Gd/Fe multilayers grown by pulsed laser deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kant, K. Mohan; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Pryds, Nini

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates the structural and the magnetic properties of Gd/Fe multilayered thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition onto Si (001) substrates at room temperature. he Fe layer thickness is varied from 70 to 150 nm and its effect on the structural and magnetic properties of Fe/Gd/Fe ...

  18. Heterojunction oxide thin-film transistors with unprecedented electron mobility grown from solution

    KAUST Repository

    Faber, Hendrik; Das, Satyajit; Lin, Yen-Hung; Pliatsikas, Nikos; Zhao, Kui; Kehagias, Thomas; Dimitrakopulos, George; Amassian, Aram; Patsalas, Panos A.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2017-01-01

    with the extrinsic electron transport properties of the often defect-prone oxides. We overcome this limitation by replacing the single-layer semiconductor channel with a low-dimensional, solution-grown In2O3/ZnO heterojunction. We find that In2O3/ZnO transistors

  19. Competitiveness of organically grown cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Jánský

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is aimed at the assessment of recommended crop management practices of chosen cereals for organic farming. To increase competitiveness, these practices are modified depending on soil and climatic conditions, and on a way of production use. Furthermore, impacts of the recommended crop management practices on economics of growing chosen cereals are evaluated and compared with economic results obtained under conventional farming. It is assumed that achieved results will contribute to the increase in proportion of arable crops in the Czech Republic where organic production offer does not meet current demands.When evaluating results of growing individual cereal species in a selective set of organic farms, triticale, spelt and spring barley (in this ranking can be considered as profitable crops. Moreover, triticale and spelt have even higher gross margin under organic farming than under conventional farming (by 62 % in triticale. Oat brings losses, however, it is important for livestock production. Winter wheat seems to be also unprofitable since less grain is produced at lower imputs per hectare and only part of it is produced in quality “bio”, i.e. marketed for higher prices. Rye also brings losses under organic farming, particularly due to lower yields, similarly to the other mentioned cereals. Special cereal species that are still neglected in organic farming systems are of potential use. Durum wheat has vitreous kernels with a high content of quality gluten which is used for pasta production. It can be grown in the maize production area on fertile soils only.

  20. Graphene grown out of diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Changzhi; Li, Wuxia; Xu, Jing; Xu, Shicong; Lu, Chao; Xu, Lifang; Li, Junjie; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-10-01

    Most applications of graphene need a suitable support substrate to present its excellent properties. But transferring graphene onto insulators or growing graphene on foreign substrates could cause properties diminishing. This paper reports the graphene growth directly out of diamond (111) by B doping, guided by first-principles calculations. The spontaneous graphene formation occurred due to the reconstruction of the diamond surface when the B doping density and profile are adequate. The resulting materials are defect free with high phase purity/carrier mobility, controllable layer number, and good uniformity, which can be potentially used directly for device fabrication, e.g., high-performance devices requiring good thermal conductivity.

  1. Growth and properties of epitaxial iron oxide layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, F.C; Fujii, T; Hibma, T; Zhang, G.L.; Smulders, P.J M

    1996-01-01

    Epitaxial layers of iron oxides have been grown on a MgO(001) substrate by evaporating natural Fe or Fe-57 from Knudsen cells in the presence of a NO2 flow directed to the substrate. The resulting layers have been investigated in situ with LEED, RHEED, AES and XPS and ex situ with GEMS and ion beam

  2. Dynamics of phosphorus fractions in the rhizosphere of fababean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) grown in calcareous and acid soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, G.; Li, Haigang; Leffelaar, P.A.; Shen, J.; Zhang, F.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of soil phosphorus (P) fractions were investigated, in the rhizosphere of fababean (Vicia faba L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) grown in calcareous and acid soils. Plants were grown in a mini-rhizotron with a thin (3 mm) soil layer, which was in contact with the root-mat, and considered as

  3. Layered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David; Clarke, Simon; Wiley, John; Koumoto, Kunihito

    2014-06-01

    Layered compounds, materials with a large anisotropy to their bonding, electrical and/or magnetic properties, have been important in the development of solid state chemistry, physics and engineering applications. Layered materials were the initial test bed where chemists developed intercalation chemistry that evolved into the field of topochemical reactions where researchers are able to perform sequential steps to arrive at kinetically stable products that cannot be directly prepared by other approaches. Physicists have used layered compounds to discover and understand novel phenomena made more apparent through reduced dimensionality. The discovery of charge and spin density waves and more recently the remarkable discovery in condensed matter physics of the two-dimensional topological insulating state were discovered in two-dimensional materials. The understanding developed in two-dimensional materials enabled subsequent extension of these and other phenomena into three-dimensional materials. Layered compounds have also been used in many technologies as engineers and scientists used their unique properties to solve challenging technical problems (low temperature ion conduction for batteries, easy shear planes for lubrication in vacuum, edge decorated catalyst sites for catalytic removal of sulfur from oil, etc). The articles that are published in this issue provide an excellent overview of the spectrum of activities that are being pursued, as well as an introduction to some of the most established achievements in the field. Clusters of papers discussing thermoelectric properties, electronic structure and transport properties, growth of single two-dimensional layers, intercalation and more extensive topochemical reactions and the interleaving of two structures to form new materials highlight the breadth of current research in this area. These papers will hopefully serve as a useful guideline for the interested reader to different important aspects in this field and

  4. P-N junction solar cell grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazrati Fard, M.

    2001-01-01

    Growth of GaAs epilayers by Molecular Beam Epitaxy was accomplished for the first time in Iran. The layers were grown on GaAs (001) substrates (p+ wafer) with Si impurity for p n junction solar cell fabrication at a rate of nearly one micron per hour and 0.25 micron per quarter. Crystalline quality of grown layers had been monitored during growth by Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction system. Doping profile and layer thickness was assessed by electrochemical C-V profiling method. Then Hall measurements were conducted on small samples both in room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature so giving average carrier concentration and compensation ratio. The results as like: V oc , I sc , F F, η were comparable with other laboratory reports. information for obtaining good and repeatable growths was collected. Therefore, the conditions of repeatable quality growth p n junction solar cells onto GaAs (001) substrates were determined

  5. Use of Kelvin probe force microscopy for identification of CVD grown graphene flakes on copper foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Mehta, B. R.; Kanjilal, D.

    2017-05-01

    Graphene flakes have been grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method on Cu foils. The obtained graphene flakes have been characterized by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The graphene flakes grown on Cu foil comprise mainly single layer graphene and confirm that the nucleation for graphene growth starts very quickly. Moreover, KPFM has been found to be a valuable technique to differentiate between covered and uncovered portion of Cu foil by graphene flakes deposited for shorter duration. The results show that KPFM can be a very useful technique in understanding the mechanism of graphene growth.

  6. Organic solar cells using CVD-grown graphene electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hobeom; Han, Tae-Hee; Lim, Kyung-Geun; Lee, Tae-Woo; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) incorporating graphene sheets synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as transparent conducting electrodes on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. A key barrier that must be overcome for the successful fabrication of OSCs with graphene electrodes is the poor-film properties of water-based poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) when coated onto hydrophobic graphene surfaces. To form a uniform PEDOT:PSS film on a graphene surface, we added perfluorinated ionomers (PFI) to pristine PEDOT:PSS to create ‘GraHEL’, which we then successfully spin coated onto the graphene surface. We systematically investigated the effect of number of layers in layer-by-layer stacked graphene anode of an OSC on the performance parameters including the open-circuit voltage (V oc ), short-circuit current (J sc ), and fill factor (FF). As the number of graphene layers increased, the FF tended to increase owing to lower sheet resistance, while J sc tended to decrease owing to the lower light absorption. In light of this trade-off between sheet resistance and transmittance, we determined that three-layer graphene (3LG) represents the best configuration for obtaining the optimal power conversion efficiency (PCE) in OSC anodes, even at suboptimal sheet resistances. We finally developed efficient, flexible OSCs with a PCE of 4.33%, which is the highest efficiency attained so far by an OSC with CVD-grown graphene electrodes to the best of our knowledge. (paper)

  7. Dislocations limited electronic transport in hydride vapour phase epitaxy grown GaN templates: A word of caution for the epitaxial growers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Abhishek, E-mail: cabhishek@rrcat.gov.in; Khamari, Shailesh K.; Kumar, R.; Dixit, V. K.; Oak, S. M.; Sharma, T. K., E-mail: tarun@rrcat.gov.in [Semiconductor Physics and Devices Laboratory, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2015-01-12

    GaN templates grown by hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE) and metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) techniques are compared through electronic transport measurements. Carrier concentration measured by Hall technique is about two orders larger than the values estimated by capacitance voltage method for HVPE templates. It is learnt that there exists a critical thickness of HVPE templates below which the transport properties of epitaxial layers grown on top of them are going to be severely limited by the density of charged dislocations lying at layer-substrate interface. On the contrary MOVPE grown templates are found to be free from such limitations.

  8. Insitu CCVD grown bilayer graphene transistors for applications in nanoelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessely, Pia Juliane; Schwalke, Udo

    2014-01-01

    We invented a method to fabricate graphene field effect transistors (GFETs) on oxidized silicon wafers in a Silicon CMOS compatible process. The graphene layers needed are grown in situ by means of a transfer-free catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) process directly on silicon dioxide. Depending on the process parameters the fabrication of single, double or multi-layer graphene FETs (GFETs) is possible. The produced graphene layers have been characterized by SEM, TEM, TEM-lattice analysis as well as Raman-Spectroscopy. Directly after growth, the fabricated GFETs are electrically functional and can be electrically characterized via the catalyst metals which are used as contact electrodes. In contrast to monolayer graphene FETs, the fabricated bilayer graphene FETs (BiLGFETs) exhibit unipolar p-type MOSFET behavior. Furthermore, the on/off current-ratio of 10 4 up to several 10 7 at room temperature of the fabricated BiLGFETs allows their use in digital logic applications [1]. In addition, a stable hysteresis of the GFETs enables their use as memory devices without the need of storage capacitors and therefore very high memory device-densities are possible. The whole fabrication process is fully Si-CMOS compatible, enabling the use of hybrid silicon/graphene electronics.

  9. Electrochemical Characterization of TiO 2 Blocking Layers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kavan, Ladislav; Té treault, Nicolas; Moehl, Thomas; Grä tzel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Thin compact layers of TiO2 are grown by thermal oxidation of Ti, by spray pyrolysis, by electrochemical deposition, and by atomic layer deposition. These layers are used in dye-sensitized solar cells to prevent recombination of electrons from

  10. Multilayer porous structures of HVPE and MOCVD grown GaN for photonic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braniste, T.; Ciers, Joachim; Monaico, Ed.; Martin, D.; Carlin, J.-F.; Ursaki, V. V.; Sergentu, V. V.; Tiginyanu, I. M.; Grandjean, N.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we report on a comparative study of electrochemical processes for the preparation of multilayer porous structures in hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) and metal organic chemical vapor phase deposition (MOCVD) grown GaN. It was found that in HVPE-grown GaN, multilayer porous structures are obtained due to self-organization processes leading to a fine modulation of doping during the crystal growth. However, these processes are not totally under control. Multilayer porous structures with a controlled design have been produced by optimizing the technological process of electrochemical etching in MOCVD-grown samples, consisting of five pairs of thin layers with alternating-doping profiles. The samples have been characterized by SEM imaging, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and micro-reflectivity measurements, accompanied by transfer matrix analysis and simulations by a method developed for the calculation of optical reflection spectra. We demonstrate the applicability of the produced structures for the design of Bragg reflectors.

  11. Effects of irrigation strategies and soils on field grown potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2011-01-01

    Root distribution of field grown potatoes (cv. Folva) was studied in 4.32m2 lysimeters and subjected to full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation strategies. Drip irrigation was applied for all irrigations. Irrigations were run in three different soils: coarse sand......, loamy sand, and sandy loam. Irrigation treatments started after tuber bulking and lasted until final harvest with PRD and DI receiving 65% of FI. Potatoes irrigated with water-saving irrigation techniques (PRD and DI) did not show statistically different dry root mass and root length density (RLD, cm...... density in the furrow. Most roots accumulated in the surface layers of coarse sand as compared to the other soil types. In the deep soil profile (30–70 cm) a higher root density was found in loamy sand compared with the sandy loam and coarse sand. Approximately twice the amounts of roots were found below...

  12. Relaxor properties of barium titanate crystals grown by Remeika method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Michel; Tiagunov, Jenia; Dul'kin, Evgeniy; Mojaev, Evgeny

    2017-06-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT) crystals have been grown by the Remeika method using both the regular KF and mixed KF-NaF (0.6-0.4) solvents. Typical acute angle "butterfly wing" BT crystals have been obtained, and they were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (including energy dispersive spectroscopy), conventional dielectric and acoustic emission methods. A typical wing has a triangular plate shape which is up to 0.5 mm thick with a 10-15 mm2 area. The plate has a (001) habit and an atomically smooth outer surface. Both K+ and F- solvent ions are incorporated as dopants into the crystal lattice during growth substituting for Ba2+ and O2- ions respectively. The dopants' distribution is found to be inhomogeneous, their content being almost an order of magnitude higher (up to 2 mol%) at out surface of the plate relatively to the bulk. A few μm thick surface layer is formed where a multidomain ferroelectric net is confined between two≤1 μm thick dopant-rich surfaces. The layer as a whole possess relaxor ferroelectric properties, which is apparent from the appearance of additional broad maxima, Tm, in the temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity around the ferroelectric phase transition. Intense acoustic emission responses detected at temperatures corresponding to the Tm values allow to observe the Tm shift to lower temperatures at higher frequencies, or dispersion, typical for relaxor ferroelectrics. The outer surface of the BT wing can thus serve as a relaxor thin film for various electronic application, such as capacitors, or as a substrate for BT-based multiferroic structure. Crystals grown from KF-NaF fluxes contain sodium atoms as an additional impurity, but the crystal yield is much smaller, and while the ferroelectric transition peak is diffuse it does not show any sign of dispersion typical for relaxor behavior.

  13. Amorphous-tetrahedral diamondlike carbon layered structures resulting from film growth energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, M. P.; Barbour, J. C.; Provencio, P. N.; Tallant, D. R.; Friedmann, T. A.

    1998-08-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) shows that amorphous-tetrahedral diamondlike carbon (a-tC) films grown by pulsed-laser deposition on Si(100) consist of three-to-four layers, depending on the growth energetics. We estimate the density of each layer using both HRTEM image contrast and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The first carbon layer and final surface layer have relatively low density. The bulk of the film between these two layers has higher density. For films grown under the most energetic conditions, there exists a superdense a-tC layer between the interface and bulk layers. The density of all four layers, and the thickness of the surface and interfacial layers, correlate well with the energetics of the depositing carbon species.

  14. Preservation of the Pt(100) surface reconstruction after growth of a continuous layer of graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Louis; Andersen, Mie; Bjerre, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy shows that a layer of graphene can be grown on the hex-reconstructed Pt(100) surface and that the reconstruction is preserved after growth. A continuous sheet of graphene can be grown across domain boundaries and step edges without loss of periodicity or change in di...

  15. Structural and physical properties of InAlAs quantum dots grown on GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, B. S.; Daly, A. Ben; Craciun, D.; Alexandrou, I.; Lazar, S.; Lemaître, A.; Maaref, M. A.; Iacomi, F.; Craciun, V.

    2018-04-01

    Quantum dots (QDs), which have particular physical properties due to the three dimensions confinement effect, could be used in many advanced optoelectronic applications. We investigated the properties of InAlAs/AlGaAs QDs grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs/Al0.5Ga0.5As layers. The optical properties of QDs were studied by low-temperature photoluminescence (PL). Two bandgap transitions corresponding to the X-Sh and X-Ph energy structure were observed. The QDs structure was investigated using high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). HRXRD investigations showed that the layers grew epitaxially on the substrate, with no relaxation. HRTEM investigations confirmed the epitaxial nature of the grown structures. In addition, it was revealed that the In atoms aggregated in some prismatic regions, forming areas of high In concentration, that were still in perfect registry with the substrate.

  16. Wavelength tuning of InAs quantum dots grown on InP (100) by chemical-beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Q.; Noetzel, R.; Veldhoven, P.J. van; Eijkemans, T.J.; Wolter, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    We report on an effective way to continuously tune the emission wavelength of InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown on InP (100) by chemical-beam epitaxy. The InAs QD layer is embedded in a GaInAsP layer lattice matched to InP. With an ultrathin GaAs layer inserted between the InAs QD layer and the GaInAsP buffer, the peak wavelength from the InAs QDs can be continuously tuned from above 1.6 μm down to 1.5 μm at room temperature. The major role of the thin GaAs layer is to greatly suppress the As/P exchange during the deposition of InAs and subsequent growth interruption under arsenic flux, as well as to consume the segregated surface In layer floating on the GaInAsP buffer layer

  17. Efficiency enhancement of solid-state PbS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells with Al2O3 barrier layer

    KAUST Repository

    Brennan, Thomas P.; Trejo, Orlando; Roelofs, Katherine E.; Xu, John; Prinz, Fritz B.; Bent, Stacey F.

    2013-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to grow both PbS quantum dots and Al2O3 barrier layers in a solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC). Barrier layers grown prior to quantum dots resulted in a near-doubling of device efficiency (0.30% to 0.57%) whereas barrier layers grown after quantum dots did not improve efficiency, indicating the importance of quantum dots in recombination processes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Dynamical x-ray diffraction studies of interfacial strain in superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, J.M.; Chu, S.N.G.; Hamm, R.A.; Panish, M.B.; Ritter, D.; Mancrander, A.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on dynamical X-ray diffraction studies that have been carried out for lattice-matched InGaAs/InP superlattices grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) techniques. The (400) X-ray satellite pattern, which is predominantly affected by the strain modulation, was analyzed. The strain and thickness of the actual layers including the presence of strained interfacial regions were determined

  19. Positron mobility in thermally grown SiO2 measured by Doppler broadening technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Y.; Leung, T.C.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Nielsen, B.; Lynn, K.G.

    1991-01-01

    The positron mobility in thermally grown SiO 2 is deduced from Doppler broadening lineshape data on a metal-oxide-semiconductor sample for positrons implanted into the oxide layer. The fitted mobility is ∼13(10)x10 -3 cm 2 /s V. This value is between that of the electron and hole mobilities in the same system and is two orders of magnitude smaller than the previous estimate from positron measurements

  20. CONSUMER ATTITUDES TOWARD ORGANICALLY GROWN LETTUCE

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Marianne McGarry; Johnson, Bradey; Cochran, Kerry; Hamilton, Lynn L.

    2002-01-01

    This research shows that approximately 29 percent of lettuce purchases in California expect to purchase an organically grown lettuce product in the future. Organic lettuce purchasers are more likely to be female, have a higher household income and a higher level of education. Consumers are concerned with the freshness, quality, price, and environmental impact of the lettuce they purchase.

  1. Recrystallization phenomena of solution grown paraffin dendrites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, F.F.A.; Hollander, F.; Stasse, O.; van Suchtelen, J.; van Enckevort, W.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Paraffin crystals were grown from decane solutions using a micro-Bridgman set up for in-situ observation of the morphology at the growth front. It is shown that for large imposed velocities, dendrites are obtained. After dendritic growth, aging or recrystallization processes set in rather quickly,

  2. Structural, electrical and luminescent characteristics of ultraviolet light emitting structures grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Polyakov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrical and luminescent properties of near-UV light emitting diode structures (LEDs prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE were studied. Variations in photoluminescence and electroluminescence efficiency observed for LEDs grown under nominally similar conditions could be attributed to the difference in the structural quality (dislocation density, density of dislocations agglomerates of the GaN active layers, to the difference in strain relaxation achieved by growth of AlGaN/AlGaN superlattice and to the presence of current leakage channels in current confining AlGaN layers of the double heterostructure.

  3. Defect Structure of High-Temperature-Grown GaMnSb/GaSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanowski, P.; Bak-Misiuk, J.; Dynowska, E.; Domagala, J.Z.; Wojciechowski, T.; Jakiela, R.; Sadowski, J.; Barcz, A.; Caliebe, W.

    2010-01-01

    GaMnSb/GaSb(100) layers with embedded MnSb inclusions have been grown at 720 K using MBE technique. This paper presents the investigation of the defect structure of Ga1-xMnxSb layers with different content of manganese (up to x = 0.07). X-ray diffraction method using conventional and synchrotron radiation was applied. Dimensions and shapes of inclusions were detected by scanning electron microscopy. Depth profiles of elements were measured using secondary ion mass spectroscopy technique. (authors)

  4. LSMO-STO(110) multilayered structure grown by metalorganic aerosol deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapoval, Oleg; Belenchuk, Alexander; Canter, Valeriu; Zasavitsky, Efim; Moshnyaga, Vasily

    2013-01-01

    La 0.67 Sr 0.33 MnO 3 -SrTiO 3 multilayered structure was grown on SrTiO 3 (110) substrates by metalorganic aerosol deposition technique. The crystal structure was examined by X-ray analysis including simulation of diffraction and reflection patterns. The magneto transport properties of superlattice are presented. The critical thickness of (110)-oriented LSMO layers is lower than 7 perovskite unite cells. The oxygen stoichiometry provided due to high gas pressure conditions is responsible for reducing of critical thickness of LSMO layers at LSMO-STO(110) interfaces. (authors)

  5. Hydroxyapatite growth on multiwall carbon nanotubes grown on titanium fibers from a titanium sheet

    KAUST Repository

    Chetibi, Loubna

    2013-09-27

    Nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) was grown on functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) deposited on TiO2 nanofibers (NFs) that were hydrothermally grown on Ti metal sheets. The HA was electrochemically grown on the MWCNTs/TiO2 porous layer. It was found that the HA grows on the MWCNTs/TiO2 NFs in the form of dense coating with nanorice grain-shaped. The incorporation of MWCNTs between HA and TiO2 NFs has led to higher adhesion strength as measured by micro-scratching test indicating the benefit of MWCNTs on the improving the bonding strength of HA layer. The obtained coatings exhibit excellent corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid. It is expected that this simple route for preparing the new HA/MWCNTs/TiO2/Ti-layered structure might be used not only in the biomedical field, but also in catalysis and biological sensing among others. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  6. Hydroxyapatite growth on multiwall carbon nanotubes grown on titanium fibers from a titanium sheet

    KAUST Repository

    Chetibi, Loubna; Achour, Amine; Peszke, Jerzy; Hamana, Djamel; Achour, Slimane

    2013-01-01

    Nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) was grown on functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) deposited on TiO2 nanofibers (NFs) that were hydrothermally grown on Ti metal sheets. The HA was electrochemically grown on the MWCNTs/TiO2 porous layer. It was found that the HA grows on the MWCNTs/TiO2 NFs in the form of dense coating with nanorice grain-shaped. The incorporation of MWCNTs between HA and TiO2 NFs has led to higher adhesion strength as measured by micro-scratching test indicating the benefit of MWCNTs on the improving the bonding strength of HA layer. The obtained coatings exhibit excellent corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid. It is expected that this simple route for preparing the new HA/MWCNTs/TiO2/Ti-layered structure might be used not only in the biomedical field, but also in catalysis and biological sensing among others. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  7. DETERMINATION OF VICKERS MICROHARDNESS IN β-Ga2O3 SINGLE CRYSTALS GROWN FROM THEIR OWN MELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Guzilova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The results of microhardness measurements of β-Ga2O3 single crystals for (001 crystallographic face are reported. The crystals were grown by the free crystallization with the "Garnet-2M" equipment. Microhardness values ​​ were determined by the Vickers method at varying loads. A four-sided diamond pyramid was used as an indenter. The average value of gallium oxide microhardness was equal to 8.91 GPa. We have carried out comparison of the values ​​obtained with the microhardness for the other wide bandgap semiconductors - epitaxial GaN layers grown on 6H-SiC and GaP layers grown on GaP:S. The findings are usable for machining process development of β-Ga2O3 single crystal substrates. In particular, silicon carbide and electrocorundum may be recommended for β-Ga2O3 machine processing.

  8. RHEED oscillations in spinel ferrite epitaxial films grown by conventional planar magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, T.; Tainosho, T.; Sharmin, S.; Yanagihara, H.

    2018-04-01

    Real-time in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) observations of Fe3O4, γ-Fe2O3, and (Co,Fe)3O4 films on MgO(001) substrates grown by a conventional planar magnetron sputtering was studied. The change in periodical intensity of the specular reflection spot in the RHEED images of three different spinel ferrite compounds grown by two different sputtering systems was examined. The oscillation period was found to correspond to the 1/4 unit cell of each spinel ferrite, similar to that observed in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) experiments. This suggests that the layer-by-layer growth of spinel ferrite (001) films is general in most physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes. The surfaces of the films were as flat as the surface of the substrate, consistent with the observed layer-by-layer growth process. The observed RHEED oscillation indicates that even a conventional sputtering method can be used to control film thickness during atomic layer depositions.

  9. Effects of substrate material on carbon films grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, M.; Xu, X.Y.; Man, B.Y.; Kong, D.M.; Xu, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We prepared tri-layers by laser molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) on sapphire substrate. ► We found that the formation of the graphene film has a strong relation to the structure and properties of the substrate. ► The different carbon film formation mechanism of the buffer layers can affect the morphology of the film. - Abstract: The carbon thin films were grown on different substrates with different buffer layers by laser molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) with a high purity graphite carbon target. A UV pulsed KrF excimer laser with a wavelength of 248 nm was used as laser source. The structure, surface morphology and other properties of the carbon thin films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the properties of the carbon thin films and the formation of the graphene film have a strong relation to the structure and properties of the substrate. The substrate with a hexagonal wurtzite structure which is similar to the hexagonal honeycomb structure of the carbon atoms arranged in the graphene is more beneficial for the formation of the graphene thin film. In our experiment conditions, the carbon films grown on sapphire substrates with different buffer layers have an ordered structure and a smooth surface, and form high quality tri-layer graphene films.

  10. RHEED oscillations in spinel ferrite epitaxial films grown by conventional planar magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ojima

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Real-time in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED observations of Fe3O4, γ-Fe2O3, and (Co,Fe3O4 films on MgO(001 substrates grown by a conventional planar magnetron sputtering was studied. The change in periodical intensity of the specular reflection spot in the RHEED images of three different spinel ferrite compounds grown by two different sputtering systems was examined. The oscillation period was found to correspond to the 1/4 unit cell of each spinel ferrite, similar to that observed in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE and pulsed laser deposition (PLD experiments. This suggests that the layer-by-layer growth of spinel ferrite (001 films is general in most physical vapor deposition (PVD processes. The surfaces of the films were as flat as the surface of the substrate, consistent with the observed layer-by-layer growth process. The observed RHEED oscillation indicates that even a conventional sputtering method can be used to control film thickness during atomic layer depositions.

  11. Optical and structural characterisation of epitaxial nanoporous GaN grown by CVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Josué; Carvajal, Joan J; Martínez, Oscar; Jiménez, Juan; Zubialevich, Vitaly Z; Parbrook, Peter J; Diaz, Francesc; Aguiló, Magdalena

    2017-09-15

    In this paper we study the optical properties of nanoporous gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial layers grown by chemical vapour deposition on non-porous GaN substrates, using photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence, and resonant Raman scattering, and correlate them with the structural characteristic of these films. We pay special attention to the analysis of the residual strain of the layers and the influence of the porosity in the light extraction. The nanoporous GaN epitaxial layers are under tensile strain, although the strain is progressively reduced as the deposition time and the thickness of the porous layer increases, becoming nearly strain free for a thickness of 1.7 μm. The analysis of the experimental data point to the existence of vacancy complexes as the main source of the tensile strain.

  12. Controlling the resistivity gradient in aluminum-doped zinc oxide grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponomarev, M.; Verheijen, M.A.; Keuning, W.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Creatore, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) generally exhibit a major drawback, i.e., a gradient in resistivity extending over a large range of film thickness. The present contribution addresses the plasma-enhanced CVD deposition of ZnO:Al layers by focusing on the control

  13. Structural properties of In0.53Ga0.47As epitaxial films grown on Si (111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Fangliang; Wen, Lei; Zhang, Xiaona; Guan, Yunfang; Li, Jingling; Zhang, Shuguang; Li, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As epitaxial films are grown on 2-inch diameter Si (111) substrates by growing a low-temperature In 0.4 Ga 0.6 As buffer layer using molecular beam epitaxy. The effect of the buffer layer thickness on the as-grown In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As films is characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is revealed that the crystalline quality and surface morphology of as-grown In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As epilayer are strongly affected by the thickness of the In 0.4 Ga 0.6 As buffer layer. From TEM investigation, we understand that the type and the distribution of dislocations of the buffer layer and the as-grown In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As film are different. We have demonstrated that the In 0.4 Ga 0.6 As buffer layer with a thickness of 12 nm can advantageously release the lattice mismatch stress between the In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As and Si substrate, ultimately leading to a high-quality In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As epitaxial film with low surface roughness. - Highlights: • We provide a simple approach to achieve high-quality In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As films on Si. • An appropriate thickness of In 0.4 Ga 0.6 As buffer layer can release mismatch strain. • High-quality In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As film is grown on Si using 12-nm-thick buffer layer. • Smooth surface In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As film is grown on Si using 12-nm-thick buffer layer

  14. Preparation and properties of thick not intentionally doped GaInP(As)/GaAs layers

    CERN Document Server

    Nohavica, D; Zdansky, K

    1999-01-01

    We report on liquid-phase epitaxial growth of thick layers of GaInP(As), lattice matched to GaAs. Layers with thicknesses up to 10 mu m were prepared in a multi-melt bin, step-cooling, one-phase configuration. Unintentionally doped layers, grown from moderate purity starting materials, show a significant decrease in the residual impurity level when erbium is added to the melt. Fundamental electrical and optical properties of the layers were investigated. (author)

  15. Layering and Ordering in Electrochemical Double Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yihua [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Kawaguchi, Tomoya [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Pierce, Michael S. [Rochester Institute of Technology, School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester, New York 14623, United States; Komanicky, Vladimir [Faculty of Science, Safarik University, 041 54 Kosice, Slovakia; You, Hoydoo [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States

    2018-02-26

    Electrochemical double layers (EDL) form at electrified interfaces. While Gouy-Chapman model describes moderately charged EDL, formation of Stern layers was predicted for highly charged EDL. Our results provide structural evidence for a Stern layer of cations, at potentials close to hydrogen evolution in alkali fluoride and chloride electrolytes. Layering was observed by x-ray crystal truncation rods and atomic-scale recoil responses of Pt(111) surface layers. Ordering in the layer is confirmed by glancing-incidence in-plane diffraction measurements.

  16. Atmospheric spatial atomic layer deposition of Zn(O,S) buffer layer for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijters, C.H.; Poodt, P.; Illeberi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxysulfide has been grown by spatial atomic layer deposition (S-ALD) and successfully applied as buffer layer in Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells. S-ALD combines high deposition rates (up to nm/s) with the advantages of conventional ALD, i.e. excellent control of film composition and superior

  17. Effect of post-growth annealing on secondary phase formation in low-temperature-grown Mn-doped GaAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovács, A.; Sadowski, J.; Kasama, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    The microstructures of annealed GaAs layers containing 0.1%, 0.5% and 2% Mn are studied using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy at 270 °C. After heat treatment at 400, 560 and 630 °C, they are found to contain precipitate...... in annealed GaMnAs layers doped with low Mn concentrations is proposed....

  18. Analysis of Strain and Intermixing in a Single Layer Ge/Si dots using polarized Raman Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    PEROVA, TANIA; MOORE, ROBERT

    2006-01-01

    PUBLISHED The built-in strain and composition of as-grown and Si-capped single layers of Ge?Si dots grown at various temperatures (460?800 ?C) are studied by a comparative analysis of the Ge-Ge and Si-Ge modes in the polarized Raman spectra of the dots. A pronounced reduction of the strain and Ge content in the dots after deposition of the cap layer at low temperatures is observed, indicating that strain-induced Si diffusion from the cap layer is occurring. For large dots grown at 700?800...

  19. Growth and characterization of molecular beam epitaxial GaAs layers on porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. L.; Liu, J. K.; Sadwick, L.; Wang, K. L.; Kao, Y. C.

    1987-01-01

    GaAs layers have been grown on porous silicon (PS) substrates with good crystallinity by molecular beam epitaxy. In spite of the surface irregularity of PS substrates, no surface morphology deterioration was observed on epitaxial GaAs overlayers. A 10-percent Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy minimum channeling yield for GaAs-on-PS layers as compared to 16 percent for GaAs-on-Si layers grown under the same condition indicates a possible improvement of crystallinity when GaAs is grown on PS. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the dominant defects in the GaAs-on-PS layers are microtwins and stacking faults, which originate from the GaAs/PS interface. GaAs is found to penetrate into the PS layers. n-type GaAs/p-type PS heterojunction diodes were fabricated with good rectifying characteristics.

  20. Lethal photosensitization of biofilm-grown bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael

    1997-12-01

    Antibacterial agents are increasingly being used for the prophylaxis and treatment of oral diseases. As these agents can be rendered ineffective by resistance development in the target organisms there is a need to develop alternative antimicrobial approaches. Light-activated antimicrobial agents release singlet oxygen and free radicals which can kill adjacent bacteria and a wide range of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic bacteria has been shown to be susceptible to such agents. In the oral cavity these organisms are present as biofilms (dental plaques) which are less susceptible to traditional antimicrobial agents than bacterial suspensions. The results of these studies have shown that biofilm-grown oral bacteria are also susceptible to lethal photosensitization although the light energy doses required are grater than those needed to kill the organisms when they are grown as aqueous suspensions.

  1. Surface characterization of low-temperature grown yttrium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Mirosław; Lisowski, Wojciech; Pisarek, Marcin; Nikiforow, Kostiantyn; Jablonski, Aleksander

    2018-04-01

    The step-by-step growth of yttrium oxide layer was controlled in situ using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The O/Y atomic concentration (AC) ratio in the surface layer of finally oxidized Y substrate was found to be equal to 1.48. The as-grown yttrium oxide layers were then analyzed ex situ using combination of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), elastic-peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to characterize their surface chemical composition, electron transport phenomena and surface morphology. Prior to EPES measurements, the Y oxide surface was pre-sputtered by 3 kV argon ions, and the resulting AES-derived composition was found to be Y0.383O0.465C0.152 (O/Y AC ratio of 1.21). The SEM images revealed different surface morphology of sample before and after Ar sputtering. The oxide precipitates were observed on the top of un-sputtered Y oxide layer, whereas the oxide growth at the Ar ion-sputtered surface proceeded along defects lines normal to the layer plane. The inelastic mean free path (IMFP) characterizing electron transport was evaluated as a function of energy in the range of 0.5-2 keV from the EPES method. Two reference materials (Ni and Au) were used in these measurements. Experimental IMFPs determined for the Y0.383O0.465C0.152 and Y2O3 surface compositions, λ, were uncorrected for surface excitations and approximated by the simple function λ = kEp at electron energies E between 500 eV and 2000 eV, where k and p were fitted parameters. These values were also compared with IMFPs resulting from the TPP-2 M predictive equation for both oxide compositions. The fitted functions were found to be reasonably consistent with the measured and predicted IMFPs. In both cases, the average value of the mean percentage deviation from the fits varied between 5% and 37%. The IMFPs measured for Y0.383O0.465C0.152 surface composition were found to be similar to the IMFPs for Y2O3.

  2. Optical and Electrical Characteristics of Graphene Double Layer Formed by a Double Transfer of Graphene Single Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jun; Bae, Gi Yoon; Chun, Sungwoo; Park, Wanjun

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate formation of double layer graphene by means of a double transfer using two single graphene layers grown by a chemical vapor deposition method. It is observed that shiftiness and broadness in the double-resonance of Raman scattering are much weaker than those of bilayer graphene formed naturally. Transport characteristics examined from transmission line measurements and field effect transistors show the similar behavior with those of single layer graphene. It indicates that interlayer separation, in electrical view, is large enough to avoid correlation between layers for the double layer structure. It is also observed from a transistor with the double layer graphene that molecules adsorpted on two inner graphene surfaces in the double layered structure are isolated and conserved from ambient environment.

  3. Mineral composition of organically grown tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, consumer concerns on environmental and health issues related to food products have increased and, as a result, the demand for organically grown production has grown. Results indicate that consumers concerned about healthy diet and environmental degradation are the most likely to buy organic food, and are willing to pay a high premium. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the produce, especially for highly consumed products. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. It is also widely used by the food industries as a raw material for the production of derived products such as purees or ketchup. Consequently, many investigations have addressed the impact of plant nutrition on the quality of tomato fruit. The concentrations of minerals (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) were determined in tomatoes grown organically in East Georgia, Marneuli District. The contents of minerals and Mn seem to be in the range as shown in literature. Cu and Zn were found in considerably high amounts in comparison to maximum permissible values established in Georgia. Some correlations were observed between the minerals and trace elements studied. K and Mg were strongly correlated with Cu and Zn. Statistically significant difference have shown also P, K and Mg based between period of sampling.

  4. The characteristics of carbon nanotubes grown at low temperature for electronic device application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Seob [Department of Photoelectronics Information, Chosun College of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Junsin [School of Information and Communications Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440–746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaehyeong, E-mail: jaehyeong@skku.edu [School of Information and Communications Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440–746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    For the application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in flexible electronic devices, the CNTs were grown on Corning 1737 glass substrate by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) method. To deposit the catalyst layer, TiN buffer layer of 200 nm thickness and Ni catalyst layer of 60 nm were first deposited on the glass by r.f. magnetron sputtering method. The CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2} gases are used as the synthesis gas of CNTs and the working pressure was about 2.13 kPa, and the substrate bias was about − 200 V. The growth time was from 2 min to 5 min and the microwave power was about 800 W. The substrate temperature as the main parameter was changed from 400 °C to 550 °C. The structural properties of CNTs synthesized with the substrate temperature were investigated using Raman, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy methods. The surface and electrical properties of CNTs grown by MPECVD method were studied by scanning probe microscopy and four-point probe methods. We obtained the multi-walled CNTs (MW-CNTs). Multi-walled CNTs were vertically grown on Ni/TiN/glass substrates below 500 °C without any glass deformations. As the substrate temperature was increased, the crystallinity of CNTs was improved. Ni catalyst was found at the tip of CNT by the TEM observation and the grown CNTs were found to have a multi-walled with bamboo like structure. - Highlights: • Synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. • Effects of substrate temperature on carbon nanotubes properties. • Improvement of the crystallinity with increasing substrate temperature. • Reduction of sheet resistance with increasing substrate temperature.

  5. Stress evolution of GaN/AlN heterostructure grown on 6H-SiC substrate by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, M.; Ravikiran, L.; Dharmarasu, N.; Radhakrishnan, K.; Karthikeyan, G. S.; Zheng, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The stress evolution of GaN/AlN heterostructure grown on 6H-SiC substrate by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) has been studied. AlN nucleation layer and GaN layer were grown as a function of III/V ratio. GaN/AlN structure is found to form buried cracks when AlN is grown in the intermediate growth regime(III/V˜1)and GaN is grown under N-rich growth regime (III/VHEMT) heterostructure was demonstrated on 2-inch SiC that showed good two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) properties with a sheet resistance of 480 Ω/sq, mobility of 1280 cm2/V.s and sheet carrier density of 1×1013 cm-2.

  6. Atmospheric spatial atomic-layer-deposition of Zn(O, S) buffer layer for flexible Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cells: From lab-scale to large area roll to roll processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijters, C.H.; Bolt, P.J.; Poodt, P.W.G.; Knaapen, R.; Brink, J. van den; Ruth, M.; Bremaud, D.; Illiberi, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this manuscript we present the first successful application of a spatial atomic-layer-deposition process to thin film solar cells. Zn(O,S) has been grown by spatial atomic layer deposition (S-ALD) at atmospheric pressure and applied as buffer layer in rigid and flexible CIGS cells by a lab-scale

  7. Impact of GaN transition layers in the growth of GaN epitaxial layer on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Danmei; Zhao Degang; Jiang Desheng; Liu Zongshun; Zhu Jianjun; Chen Ping; Liu Wei; Li Xiang; Shi Ming

    2015-01-01

    A method for growing GaN epitaxial layer on Si (111) substrate is investigated. Due to the large lattice mismatch between GaN and AlN, GaN grown directly above an AlN buffer layer on the Si substrate turns out to be of poor quality. In this study, a GaN transition layer is grown additionally on the AlN buffer before the GaN epitaxial growth. By changing the growth conditions of the GaN transition layer, we can control the growth and merging of islands and control the transfer time from 3D to 2D growth mode. With this method, the crystalline quality of the GaN epitaxial layer can be improved and the crack density is reduced. Here, we have investigated the impact of a transition layer on the crystalline quality and stress evolution of a GaN epitaxial layer with methods of X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and in situ reflectivity trace. With the increasing thickness of transition layer, the crack decreases and the crystalline quality is improved. But when the transition layer exceeds a critical thickness, the crystalline quality of the epilayer becomes lower and the crack density increases. (paper)

  8. Atomic layer deposition of W - based layers on SiO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwkasteele-Bystrova, Svetlana Nikolajevna; Holleman, J.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Aarnink, Antonius A.I.

    2003-01-01

    W and W1-xNx , where x= 15- 22 at%, thin films were grown using the ALD (Atomic Layer Deposition) principle. Growth rate of W films is about 4- 5 monolayers/ cycle at 300- 350 ºC. Growth rate of W1-xNx is 0.5 monolayer/cycle at 325- 350 ºC. Standard Deviation (STDV) of thickness is about 2%

  9. Spatial Atomic Layer Deposition of transparent conductive oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illiberi, A.; Scherpenborg, R.; Poodt, P.; Roozeboom, F.

    2013-01-01

    Undoped and indium doped ZnO films have been grown by Spatial Atomic Layer Deposition at atmospheric pressure. The electrical properties of ZnO films are controlled by varying the indium content in the range from 0 to 15 %. A minimum resistivity value of 3 mΩ•cm is measured in 180 nm thick films for

  10. Effect of growth temperature on defects in epitaxial GaN film grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kushvaha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the effect of growth temperature on defect states of GaN epitaxial layers grown on 3.5 μm thick GaN epi-layer on sapphire (0001 substrates using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The GaN samples grown at three different substrate temperatures at 730, 740 and 750 °C were characterized using atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The atomic force microscopy images of these samples show the presence of small surface and large hexagonal pits on the GaN film surfaces. The surface defect density of high temperature grown sample is smaller (4.0 × 108 cm−2 at 750 °C than that of the low temperature grown sample (1.1 × 109 cm−2 at 730 °C. A correlation between growth temperature and concentration of deep centre defect states from photoluminescence spectra is also presented. The GaN film grown at 750 °C exhibits the lowest defect concentration which confirms that the growth temperature strongly influences the surface morphology and affects the optical properties of the GaN epitaxial films.

  11. Investigation on nonlinear optical properties of MoS2 nanoflakes grown on silicon and quartz substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayesteh, Samaneh; Zahra Mortazavi, Seyedeh; Reyhani, Ali

    2018-05-01

    In this study, MoS2 nanoflakes were directly grown on different substrates—Si/SiO2 and quartz—by one-step thermal chemical vapor deposition using MoO3 and sulfide powders as precursors. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction patterns demonstrated the formation of MoS2 structures on both substrates. Moreover, UV-visible and photoluminescence analysis confirmed the formation of MoS2 few-layer structures. According to Raman spectroscopy, by assessment of the line width and frequency shift differences between the and A 1g, it was inferred that the MoS2 grown on the silicon substrate was monolayer and that grown on the quartz substrate was multilayer. In addition, open-aperture and close-aperture Z-scan techniques were employed to study the nonlinear optical properties including nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of the grown MoS2. All experiments were performed using a diode laser with a wavelength of 532 nm as the light source. It is noticeable that both samples demonstrate obvious self-defocusing behavior. The monolayer MoS2 grown on the silicon substrate displayed considerable two-photon absorption while, the multilayer MoS2 synthesized on the quartz exhibited saturable absorption. In general, few-layered MoS2 would be useful for the development of nanophotonic devices like optical limiters, optical switchers, etc.

  12. Characterization of InSb layers on GaAs substrates using infrared reflectance and a modified oscillator formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrecht, J.A.A., E-mail: Japie.Engelbrecht@nmmu.ac.z [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Wagener, M.C. [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2009-12-01

    InSb epilayers on GaAs substrates are analyzed using infrared reflectance spectroscopy, but employing a modified Drude oscillator formula. The modified formula enables the determination of 13 parameters: six dielectric parameters for both layer and substrate separately, as well as the thickness of the layer. The formula is tested against previously published data, and to characterize layers grown in this laboratory.

  13. Characterization of InSb layers on GaAs substrates using infrared reflectance and a modified oscillator formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelbrecht, J.A.A.; Wagener, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    InSb epilayers on GaAs substrates are analyzed using infrared reflectance spectroscopy, but employing a modified Drude oscillator formula. The modified formula enables the determination of 13 parameters: six dielectric parameters for both layer and substrate separately, as well as the thickness of the layer. The formula is tested against previously published data, and to characterize layers grown in this laboratory.

  14. Influence of substrate quality on structural properties of AlGaN/GaN superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, F. [NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzer Straße 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Merkel, U.; Schmult, S. [TU Dresden, Institute of Semiconductors and Microsystems, Nöthnitzer Straße 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Mikolajick, T. [NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzer Straße 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden, Institute of Semiconductors and Microsystems, Nöthnitzer Straße 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-02-28

    Short-period AlGaN/GaN superlattices were established as versatile test structures to investigate the structural properties of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown GaN and AlGaN layers and their dependence on the GaN substrate quality. X-ray diffractometry data of the investigated superlattices allow access to relevant structural parameters such as aluminum mole fraction and layer thicknesses. The occurrence of theoretically predicted intense high-order satellite peaks and pronounced interface fringes in the diffraction pattern reflects abrupt interfaces and perfect 2-dimensional growth resulting in smooth surfaces. The data unambiguously demonstrate that the structural quality of the MBE grown layers is limited by the structural properties of the GaN substrate.

  15. Superconductivity in few-layer stanene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Menghan; Zang, Yunyi; Guan, Zhaoyong; Li, Haiwei; Gong, Yan; Zhu, Kejing; Hu, Xiao-Peng; Zhang, Ding; Xu, Yong; Wang, Ya-Yu; He, Ke; Ma, Xu-Cun; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Xue, Qi-Kun

    2018-04-01

    A single atomic slice of α-tin—stanene—has been predicted to host the quantum spin Hall effect at room temperature, offering an ideal platform to study low-dimensional and topological physics. Although recent research has focused on monolayer stanene, the quantum size effect in few-layer stanene could profoundly change material properties, but remains unexplored. By exploring the layer degree of freedom, we discover superconductivity in few-layer stanene down to a bilayer grown on PbTe, while bulk α-tin is not superconductive. Through substrate engineering, we further realize a transition from a single-band to a two-band superconductor with a doubling of the transition temperature. In situ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) together with first-principles calculations elucidate the corresponding band structure. The theory also indicates the existence of a topologically non-trivial band. Our experimental findings open up novel strategies for constructing two-dimensional topological superconductors.

  16. Interfacial stability of CoSi2/Si structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, T.; Fathauer, R. W.

    1992-01-01

    The stability of CoSi2/Si interfaces was examined in this study using columnar silicide structures grown on (111) Si substrates. In the first set of experiments, Co and Si were codeposited using MBE at 800 C and the resulting columnar silicide layer was capped by epitaxial Si. Deposition of Co on the surface of the Si capping layer at 800 C results in the growth of the buried silicide columns. The buried columns grow by subsurface diffusion of the deposited Co, suppressing the formation of surface islands of CoSi2. The column sidewalls appear to be less stable than the top and bottom interfaces, resulting in preferential lateral growth and ultimately in the coalescence of the columns to form a continuous buried CoSi2 layer. In the second set of experiments, annealing of a 250 nm-thick buried columnar layer at 1000 C under a 100 nm-thick Si capping layer results in the formation of a surface layer of CoSi2 with a reduction in the sizes of the CoSi2 columns. For a sample having a thicker Si capping layer the annealing leads to Ostwald ripening producing buried equiaxed columns. The high CoSi2/Si interfacial strain could provide the driving force for the observed behavior of the buried columns under high-temperature annealing.

  17. As-Grown Gallium Nitride Nanowire Electromechanical Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Joshua R.

    Technological development in recent years has led to a ubiquity of micro- and nano-scale electromechanical devices. Sensors for monitoring temperature, pressure, mass, etc., are now found in nearly all electronic devices at both the industrial and consumer levels. As has been true for integrated circuit electronics, these electromechanical devices have continued to be scaled down in size. For many nanometer-scale structures with large surface-to-volume ratio, dissipation (energy loss) becomes prohibitively large causing a decreasing sensitivity with decreasing sensor size. In this work, gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires are investigated as singly-clamped (cantilever) mechanical resonators with typical mechanical quality factors, Q (equal to the ratio of resonance frequency to peak full-width-at-half-maximum-power) and resonance frequencies, respectively, at or above 30,000, and near 1 MHz. These Q values---in vacuum at room temperature---indicate very low levels of dissipation; they are essentially the same as those for bulk quartz crystal resonators that form the basis of simple clocks and mass sensors. The GaN nanowires have lengths and diameters, respectively, of approximately 15 micrometers and hundreds of nanometers. As-grown GaN nanowire Q values are larger than other similarly-sized, bottom-up, cantilever resonators and this property makes them very attractive for use as resonant sensors. We demonstrate the capability of detecting sub-monolayer levels of atomic layer deposited (ALD) films, and the robust nature of the GaN nanowires structure that allows for their 'reuse' after removal of such layers. In addition to electron microscope-based measurement techniques, we demonstrate the successful capacitive detection of a single nanowire using microwave homodyne reflectometry. This technique is then extended to allow for simultaneous measurements of large ensembles of GaN nanowires on a single sample, providing statistical information about the distribution of

  18. All-MOCVD-grown BH laser on P-InP substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Tadashi; Ishimura, E.; Nakajima, Yasuo; Tada, Hitoshi; Kimura, T.; Ohkura, Y.; Goto, Katsuhiko; Omura, Etsuji; Aiga, Masao

    1993-07-01

    A very low cw threshold current of 2.5 mA ( 25 degree(s)C) and 8.0 mA ( 80 degree(s)C) with high reliability has been realized in the all-MOCVD grown BH lasers on p-InP substrates. A strained MQW active layer of 1.3 micrometers wavelength and the precise carrier confinement buried structure by MOCVD is employed for the BH lasers. The excellent potential of long lifetime of the all-MOCVD grown laser has also been confirmed. After the high temperature and the high current (100 degree(s)C, 200 mA) aging test, no significant degradation is observed which is comparable with the well-established LPE grown lasers. The BH laser is also operating stably over 3700 hrs under the APC condition of 50 degree(s)C, 10 mW. Finally, an extremely uniform 10-element all-MOCVD grown LD array is demonstrated, which has the threshold current uniformity of 2.4 +/- 0.1 mA ( 25 degree(s)C) and 9.2 +/- 0.2 mA ( 80 degree(s)C). The growth mechanism in the MOCVD is also described.

  19. Direct transfer of multilayer graphene grown on a rough metal surface using PDMS adhesion engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Heejun; Kang, Il-Suk; Lee, Youngbok; Cha, Yun Jeong; Yoon, Dong Ki; Ahn, Chi Won; Lee, Wonhee

    2016-09-01

    The direct transfer of graphene using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamping has advantages such as a ‘pick-and-place’ capability and no chemical residue problems. However, it is not easy to apply direct PDMS stamping to graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition on rough, grainy metal surfaces due to poor contact between the PDMS and graphene. In this study, graphene consisting of a mixture of monolayers and multiple layers grown on a rough Ni surface was directly transferred without the use of an adhesive layer. Liquid PDMS was cured on graphene to effect a conformal contact with the graphene. A fast release of graphene from substrate was achieved by carrying out wet-etching-assisted mechanical peeling. We also carried out a thermal post-curing of PDMS to control the level of adhesion between PDMS and graphene and hence facilitate a damage-free release of the graphene. Characterization of the transferred graphene by micro-Raman spectroscopy, SEM/EDS and optical microscopy showed neither cracks nor contamination from the transfer. This technique allows a fast and simple transfer of graphene, even for multilayer graphene grown on a rough surface.

  20. Photovoltaic device comprising compositionally graded intrinsic photoactive layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffbauer, Mark A; Williamson, Todd L

    2013-04-30

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making photovoltaic devices comprising at least one compositionally graded photoactive layer, said method comprising providing a substrate; growing onto the substrate a uniform intrinsic photoactive layer having one surface disposed upon the substrate and an opposing second surface, said intrinsic photoactive layer consisting essentially of In.sub.1-xA.sub.xN,; wherein: i. 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1; ii. A is gallium, aluminum, or combinations thereof; and iii. x is at least 0 on one surface of the intrinsic photoactive layer and is compositionally graded throughout the layer to reach a value of 1 or less on the opposing second surface of the layer; wherein said intrinsic photoactive layer is isothermally grown by means of energetic neutral atom beam lithography and epitaxy at a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less using neutral nitrogen atoms having a kinetic energy of from about 1.0 eV to about 5.0 eV, and wherein the intrinsic photoactive layer is grown at a rate of from about 5 nm/min to about 100 nm/min.

  1. Photoluminescence characteristics of InAs quantum dots grown by STM/MBE site-control technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, S.; Kohmoto, S.; Nakamura, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Asakawa, K.; Wada, O. [Femtosecond Technology Research Association, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). FESTA Lab.

    2001-03-08

    This paper describes micro-photoluminescence (PL) analysis of site-controlled QDs (SCQDs) grown using a novel in-situ MBE growth technique in which sites of self-assembled InAs QDs are controlled by forming nanometer deposits using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) probe. We found from the temperature dependence of PL that the carrier collection at QDs at low temperature is limited by carrier diffusion in the wetting layer. The analysis of PL data considering this effect has indicated that individual QDs grown have high crystalline quality in spite of the addition of an artificial STM process during growth. (orig.)

  2. Diode behavior in ultra-thin low temperature ALD grown zinc-oxide on silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazek El-Atab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A thin-film ZnO(n/Si(p+ heterojunction diode is demonstrated. The thin film ZnO layer is deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD at different temperatures on a p-type silicon substrate. Atomic force microscopy (AFM AC-in-Air method in addition to conductive AFM (CAFM were used for the characterization of ZnO layer and to measure the current-voltage characteristics. Forward and reverse bias n-p diode behavior with good rectification properties is achieved. The diode with ZnO grown at 80°C exhibited the highest on/off ratio with a turn-on voltage (VON ∼3.5 V. The measured breakdown voltage (VBR and electric field (EBR for this diode are 5.4 V and 3.86 MV/cm, respectively.

  3. Structural and optical features of InGaAs quantum dots grown on Si(001) substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Vdovin, V I; Rzaev, M M; Burbaev, T M

    2002-01-01

    A multilayer GaAs/SiGe/Si heterostructure with InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a GaAs layer was grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on a Si(001) substrate. A step-graded Si sub 1 sub - sub x Ge sub x (0 <= x <= 1) buffer layer and a GaAs layer with In sub y Ga sub 1 sub sub - sub y As (y approx 0.5) QDs were deposited consecutively in two different MBE systems. The heterostructure exhibits intense photoluminescence in the region of 1.3 mu m at room temperature. Perfect crystal InGaAs islands with height less than 10 nm are the sources of this radiation.

  4. Characterization of homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial ZnO films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.Q. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)]. E-mail: chenzq@taka.jaeri.go.jp; Yamamoto, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Kawasuso, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Xu, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Sekiguchi, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2005-05-15

    Homo- and heteroepitaxial ZnO films were grown on ZnO (0001) and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1-bar 1-bar 2-bar -bar 0) substrates by using pulsed laser deposition. The X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements for these films show good correspondence with the bulk ZnO substrate, which confirms successful growth of c-axis oriented ZnO layer. Strong UV emission was also observed in these films, indicating good optical quality. However, the surface roughness differs very much for the homo- and heteroepitaxial film, that is, much less for the homoepitaxial layer. Positron annihilation measurements reveal a higher vacancy concentration in the homoepitaxial layer.

  5. Multiple delta doping of single crystal cubic boron nitride films heteroepitaxially grown on (001)diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, H.; Ziemann, P.

    2014-06-01

    Phase pure cubic boron nitride (c-BN) films have been epitaxially grown on (001) diamond substrates at 900 °C. The n-type doping of c-BN epitaxial films relies on the sequential growth of nominally undoped (p-) and Si doped (n-) layers with well-controlled thickness (down to several nanometer range) in the concept of multiple delta doping. The existence of nominally undoped c-BN overgrowth separates the Si doped layers, preventing Si dopant segregation that was observed for continuously doped epitaxial c-BN films. This strategy allows doping of c-BN films can be scaled up to multiple numbers of doped layers through atomic level control of the interface in the future electronic devices. Enhanced electronic transport properties with higher hall mobility (102 cm2/V s) have been demonstrated at room temperature as compared to the normally continuously Si doped c-BN films.

  6. Enhanced quantum efficiency for CsI grown on a graphite-based substrate coating

    CERN Document Server

    Friese, J; Homolka, J; Kastenmüller, A; Maier-Komor, P; Peter, M; Zeitelhack, K; Kienle, P; Körner, H J

    1999-01-01

    Quantum efficiencies (QE) in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelength region have been measured for solid CsI layers on various substrates. The CsI films were deposited applying electron beam evaporation. The QE measurements were performed utilizing synchrotron radiation as well as light from a deuterium lamp. A GaAsP diode with a sensitivity calibration traceable to a primary radiation standard was used for normalization. For CsI layers grown on resin-stabilized graphite films a significant enhancement of QE was observed. Substrates suitable for gas detector applications and aging properties were investigated. The procedures to prepare and reproduce high quantum efficient CsI layers are described.

  7. Improvement of GaN epilayer by gradient layer method with molecular-beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yen-Liang; Lo, Ikai; Gau, Ming-Hong; Hsieh, Chia-Ho; Sham, Meng-Wei; Pang, Wen-Yuan; Hsu, Yu-Chi; Tsai, Jenn-Kai; Schuber, Ralf; Schaadt, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrated a molecular beam epitaxy method to resolve the dilemma between structural and morphological quality in growth of the GaN epilayer. A gradient buffer layer was grown in such a way that the N/Ga ratio was gradually changed from nitrogen-rich to gallium-rich. The GaN epitaxial layer was then grown on the gradient buffer layer. In the X-ray diffraction analysis of GaN(002) rocking curves, we found that the full width at half-maximum was improved from 531.69″ to 59.43″ for the sample with a gradient buffer layer as compared to a purely gallium-rich grown sample. Atomic force microscopy analysis showed that the root-mean-square roughness of the surface was improved from 18.28 nm to 1.62 nm over an area of 5 × 5 μm 2 with respect to a purely nitrogen-rich grown sample. Raman scattering showed the presence of a slightly tilted plane in the gradient layer. Furthermore we showed that the gradient layer can also slash the strain force caused by either Ga-rich GaN epitaxial layer or AlN buffer layer. - Highlights: ► The samples were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. ► The GaN epilayer was grown on sapphire substrate. ► The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. ► The sample quality was improved by gradient buffer layer.

  8. Improvement of GaN epilayer by gradient layer method with molecular-beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yen-Liang [Department of Physics, Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lo, Ikai, E-mail: ikailo@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, ROC (China); Gau, Ming-Hong; Hsieh, Chia-Ho; Sham, Meng-Wei; Pang, Wen-Yuan; Hsu, Yu-Chi [Department of Physics, Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tsai, Jenn-Kai [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Formosa University, Hu-Wei, Yun-Lin County 63208, Taiwan, ROC (China); Schuber, Ralf; Schaadt, Daniel [Institute of Applied Physics/DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-07-31

    We demonstrated a molecular beam epitaxy method to resolve the dilemma between structural and morphological quality in growth of the GaN epilayer. A gradient buffer layer was grown in such a way that the N/Ga ratio was gradually changed from nitrogen-rich to gallium-rich. The GaN epitaxial layer was then grown on the gradient buffer layer. In the X-ray diffraction analysis of GaN(002) rocking curves, we found that the full width at half-maximum was improved from 531.69 Double-Prime to 59.43 Double-Prime for the sample with a gradient buffer layer as compared to a purely gallium-rich grown sample. Atomic force microscopy analysis showed that the root-mean-square roughness of the surface was improved from 18.28 nm to 1.62 nm over an area of 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 {mu}m{sup 2} with respect to a purely nitrogen-rich grown sample. Raman scattering showed the presence of a slightly tilted plane in the gradient layer. Furthermore we showed that the gradient layer can also slash the strain force caused by either Ga-rich GaN epitaxial layer or AlN buffer layer. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The GaN epilayer was grown on sapphire substrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sample quality was improved by gradient buffer layer.

  9. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Final samples from Mir and Earth appeared histologically cartilaginous throughout their entire cross sections (5-8 mm thick), with the exception of fibrous outer capsules. Constructs grown on Earth (A) appeared to have a more organized extracellular matrix with more uniform collagen orientation as compared with constructs grown on Mir (B), but the average collagen fiber diameter was similar in the two groups (22 +- 2 nm) and comparable to that previously reported for developing articular cartilage. Randomly oriented collagen in Mir samples would be consistent with previous reports that microgravity disrupts fibrillogenesis. These are transmission electron micrographs of constructs from Mir (A) and Earth (B) groups at magnifications of x3,500 and x120,000 (Inset). The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  10. Recent results in characterization of melt-grown and quench-melt- grown YBCO superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, U.; Poeppel, R.B.; Gangopadhyay, A.K.

    1992-02-01

    From the standpoint of applications, melt-grown (MG) and quench-melt-grown (QMG) bulk YBCO superconductors are of considerable interest. In this paper, we studied the intragranular critical current density (J c ), the apparent pinning potential (U o ), and the irreversibility temperature (T irr ) of MG and QMG samples and compared the results to those for conventionally sintered YBCO. A systematic increase in U o and a slower drop in J c with temperature indicate a systematic improvement in flux-pinning properties in progressing from the sintered YBCO to QMG and MG samples. Weaker pinning is observed in the QMG YBCO than in the MG samples

  11. Investigations on the growth of a-oriented layers of high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodtke, E.

    1992-10-01

    The properties of a-oriented YBaCuO and PrBaCuO layers were investigated. The layers are grown in a modified template method and analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and Hall measurements. (WL)

  12. Fabrication of magnetic tunnel junctions with epitaxial and textured ferromagnetic layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. Austin; Yang, Jianhua Joshua

    2008-11-11

    This invention relates to magnetic tunnel junctions and methods for making the magnetic tunnel junctions. The magnetic tunnel junctions include a tunnel barrier oxide layer sandwiched between two ferromagnetic layers both of which are epitaxial or textured with respect to the underlying substrate upon which the magnetic tunnel junctions are grown. The magnetic tunnel junctions provide improved magnetic properties, sharper interfaces and few defects.

  13. ZnO homoepitaxy on the O polar face of hydrothermal and melt-grown substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, D.J. [Nanovation SARL, Orsay (France); Technical Univ. of Troyes (France); CNRS, Troyes (France); Hosseini Teherani, F. [Nanovation SARL, Orsay (France); Largeteau, A.; Demazeau, G. [ICMCB-CNRS, Bordeaux 1 University (Science and Technology), Pessac (France); Moisson, C.; Turover, D. [Novasic, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat. 4, BP 267, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Nause, J. [Cermet Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Garry, G. [Thales Research, Domaine de Corbeville, Orsay (France); Kling, R.; Gruber, T. [Ulm University, Department of Semiconductor Physics, Ulm (Germany); Waag, A. [Braunschweig Technical University, Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Braunschweig (Germany); Jomard, F.; Galtier, P.; Lusson, A. [LPSC-CNRS, Meudon (France); Monteiro, T.; Soares, M.J.; Neves, A.; Carmo, M.C.; Peres, M. [University of Aveiro, Physics Department, Aveiro (Portugal); Lerondel, G.; Hubert, C. [Technical University of Troyes-CNRS (FRE2671), 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, Troyes (France)

    2007-07-15

    2 cm diameter hydrothermal ZnO crystals were grown and then made into substrates using both mechanical and chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP). CMP polishing showed superior results with an (0002) {omega} scan full width half maximum (FWHM) of 67 arcsec and an root mean square (RMS) roughness of 2 Aa. In comparison, commercial melt-grown substrates exhibited broader X-ray diffraction (XRD) linewidths with evidence of sub-surface crystal damage due to polishing, including a downward shift of c-lattice parameter. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy revealed strong Li, Fe, Co, Al and Si contamination in the hydrothermal crystals as opposed to the melt-grown substrates, for which glow discharge mass spectroscopy studies had reported high levels of Pb, Fe, Cd and Si. Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) studies indicated that the hydrothermal crystal had high defect and/or impurity concentrations compared with the melt-grown substrate. The dominant bound exciton for the melt-grown substrate was indexed to Al. ZnO films were grown using pulsed laser deposition. The melt-grown substrates gave superior results with XRD (0002) {omega} and 2{theta}/{omega} WHM of 124 and 34 arcsec, respectively. Atomic force microscope measurements indicated a low RMS roughness (1.9 nm) as confirmed by fringes in the XRD 2{theta}/{omega} scan. It was suggested that the improvement in XRD response relative to the substrate might be due to ''healing'' of sub-surface polishing damage due to the elevated T{sub s} used for the growth. Indeed the c-lattice parameter for the homoepitaxial layer on the melt-grown substrate had become that which would be expected for strain-free ZnO. Furthermore, the stability of the PL peak positions relative to bulk ZnO, confirmed that the films appear practically strain free. (orig.)

  14. Textured YBCO films grown on wires: application to superconducting cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechoux, N; Jiménez, C; Chaudouët, P; Rapenne, L; Sarigiannidou, E; Robaut, F; Petit, S; Garaudée, S; Porcar, L; Soubeyroux, J L; Odier, P; Bruzek, C E; Decroux, M

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to fabricate superconducting wires made of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) on La 2 Zr 2 O 7 (LZO) buffered and biaxially textured Ni-5 at.%W (NiW) are described. Wires were manually shaped from LZO buffered NiW tapes. Different diameters were produced: 1.5, 2 and 3 mm. The wires were further covered with YBCO grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We developed an original device in which the round substrate undergoes an alternated rotation of 180° around its axis in addition to a reel-to-reel translation. This new approach allows covering the whole circumference of the wire with a YBCO layer. This was confirmed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis coupled to a scanning electron microscope (SEM). For all wire diameters, the YBCO layer thickness varied from 300 to 450 nm, and the cationic composition was respected. Electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) measurements were performed directly on an as-deposited wire without surface preparation allowing the investigation of the crystalline quality of the film surface. Combining EBSD with XRD results we show that YBCO grows epitaxially on the LZO buffered NiW wires. For the first time, superconductive behaviors have been detected on round substrates in both the rolling and circular direction. J c reached 0.3 MA cm −2 as measured at 77 K by transport and third-harmonic detection. Those preliminary results confirm the effectiveness of the MOCVD for complex geometries, especially for YBCO deposition on small diameter wires. This approach opens huge perspectives for the elaboration of a new generation of YBCO-based round conductors. (paper)

  15. Photoluminescence properties of ZnO thin films grown by using the hydrothermal technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Trilochan; Jang, Leewoon; Jeon, Juwon; Kim, Myoung; Kim, Jinsoo; Lee, Inhwan; Kwak, Joonseop; Lee, Jaejin

    2010-01-01

    The photoluminescence properties of zinc-oxide thin films grown by using the hydrothermal technique have been investigated. Zinc-oxide thin films with a wurtzite symmetry and c-axis orientation were grown in aqueous solution at 90 .deg. C on sapphire substrates with a p-GaN buffer layer by using the hydrothermal technique. The low-temperature photoluminescence analysis revealed a sharp bound-exciton-related luminescence peak at 3.366 eV with a very narrow peak width. The temperature-dependent variations of the emission energy and of the integrated intensity were studied. The activation energy of the bound exciton complex was calculated to be 7.35 ± 0.5 meV from the temperature dependent quenching of the integral intensities.

  16. Investigation of in-pile grown corrosion films on zirconium-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhardt, O.; Hermann, A.; Bart, G.; Blank, H.; Ray, I.L.F.

    1996-01-01

    In-pile grown corrosion films on different fuel rod claddings (standard Zircaloy-4, extra low tin Zircaloy (ELS), and Zr2.5Nb) have been studied using a variety of experimental techniques. The aim of the investigations was to find out common features and differences between the corrosion layers grown on zirconium alloys having different composition. Methods applied were scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and electrochemical anodization. The morphological differences have been observed between the specimens that could explain the irradiation enhancement of corrosion of Zircaloy-4. The features of the compact oxide close to the oxide/metal interface have been characterized by electrochemical methods. The relationship between the thickness of this protective oxide and the overall oxide thickness has been investigated by EIS. It was found that this relation is dependent on the location of the oxide along the fuel rod and on the corrosion rate

  17. Enhanced electrochemical activity using vertically aligned carbon nanotube electrodes grown on carbon fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Augusto de Morais

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes were successfully grown on flexible carbon fibers by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The diameter of the CNT is controllable by adjusting the thickness of the catalyst Ni layer deposited on the fiber. Vertically aligned nanotubes were grown in a Plasma Enhanced Chemical Deposition system (PECVD at a temperature of 630 ºC, d.c. bias of -600 V and 160 and 68 sccm flow of ammonia and acetylene, respectively. Using cyclic voltammetry measurements, an increase of the surface area of our electrodes, up to 50 times higher, was observed in our samples with CNT. The combination of VACNTs with flexible carbon fibers can have a significant impact on applications ranging from sensors to electrodes for fuel cells.

  18. Change of Surface Roughness and Planetary Boundary Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto

    1978-01-01

    The ratio between upstream and far downstream surface friction velocities relative to a change in surface roughness is given on the basis of results from surface Rossby number similarity theory. By simple theories for the internal boundary layer, which are found to compare quite well with recent...... numerical results from higher-order closure models, it is found that, even at a downwind distance such that the internal boundary layer has grown to the full height of the planetary boundary layers, the surface stress still considerably exceeds the equilibrium value...

  19. Phytochemical phenolics in organically grown vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Janice E; Zhao, Xin; Carey, Edward E; Welti, Ruth; Yang, Shie-Shien; Wang, Weiqun

    2005-12-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake is inversely correlated with risks for several chronic diseases in humans. Phytochemicals, and in particular, phenolic compounds, present in plant foods may be partly responsible for these health benefits through a variety of mechanisms. Since environmental factors play a role in a plant's production of secondary metabolites, it was hypothesized that an organic agricultural production system would increase phenolic levels. Cultivars of leaf lettuce, collards, and pac choi were grown either on organically certified plots or on adjacent conventional plots. Nine prominent phenolic agents were quantified by HPLC, including phenolic acids (e. g. caffeic acid and gallic acid) and aglycone or glycoside flavonoids (e. g. apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, and quercetin). Statistically, we did not find significant higher levels of phenolic agents in lettuce and collard samples grown organically. The total phenolic content of organic pac choi samples as measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, however, was significantly higher than conventional samples (p lettuce and collards, the organic system provided an increased opportunity for insect attack, resulting in a higher level of total phenolic agents in pac choi.

  20. Synthesis and microstructural characterization of growth direction controlled ZnO nanorods using a buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dong Jun; Kim, Dong Chan; Lee, Jeong Yong; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2006-01-01

    The growth direction and morphology of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures grown by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) were modulated by changing the growth temperature of previously deposited ZnO buffer layers that were used as a template. The ZnO nanorods grown on the low-temperature deposited buffer layer were regularly inclined with respect to the substrate surface and show in-plane alignment with azimuthally six-fold symmetry. In contrast, deposition of the buffer layer at higher growth temperature led to the formation of vertically well-aligned ZnO nanorods. In addition, the ZnO nanorods grown on the buffer layer deposited at low growth temperature show a growth direction of [1 0 1-bar 0], unlike the conventional ZnO nanorods showing a growth direction of [0001]. The microstructural analysis and atomic modelling of the formation of regularly inclined nanorods using transmission electron microscopy are presented

  1. Fourfold magnetic anisotropy, coercivity and magnetization reversal of Co/V bilayers grown on MgO(0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calleja, J F; Muro, M GarcIa del; Presa, B; Matarranz, R; Corrales, J A; Labarta, A; Contreras, M C

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic anisotropy and magnetization reversal of Al/Co/V/MgO(0 0 1) thin films have been investigated. The films were fabricated by magnetron sputtering. The roles of both Co and V layers thicknesses have been studied. Magnetic characterization has been carried out by transverse susceptibility (TS) measurements and hysteresis loops. Cobalt is grown in the hcp structure on V with the c axis parallel to the film plane. Two types of hcp Co crystal are grown with the c axes perpendicular to each other. This structure gives rise to a fourfold magnetic anisotropy. When the V layer thickness is below 40 A a superimposed uniaxial anisotropy develops, the effect of which is a depression in the TS, in agreement with theoretical calculations. This uniaxial anisotropy is induced by the substrate and due to a discontinuous growth of the V layer. For hcp Co grown on V, the magnetic anisotropy rapidly increases with Co layer thickness. In this case, unexpected shifted hysteresis loops along the hard axes were observed when the films were not saturated. This has been explained by taking into account the magnetization reversal along the hard axis: it proceeds via magnetization rotation of some portions of the film at high fields, and by domain wall motion of the rest of the film at lower field values

  2. Fourfold magnetic anisotropy, coercivity and magnetization reversal of Co/V bilayers grown on MgO(0 0 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja, J F [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Muro, M GarcIa del [Departament de Fisica Fonamental and Institut de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia IN2UB de la Universitat de Barcelona, MartIi Franques, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Presa, B [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Matarranz, R [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Corrales, J A [Departmento de Informatica, Universidad de Oviedo, Edificio Departamental 1, Campus de Viesques s/n, 33204 Gijon (Spain); Labarta, A [Departament de Fisica Fonamental and Institut de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia IN2UB de la Universitat de Barcelona, MartIi Franques, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Contreras, M C [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2007-11-21

    Magnetic anisotropy and magnetization reversal of Al/Co/V/MgO(0 0 1) thin films have been investigated. The films were fabricated by magnetron sputtering. The roles of both Co and V layers thicknesses have been studied. Magnetic characterization has been carried out by transverse susceptibility (TS) measurements and hysteresis loops. Cobalt is grown in the hcp structure on V with the c axis parallel to the film plane. Two types of hcp Co crystal are grown with the c axes perpendicular to each other. This structure gives rise to a fourfold magnetic anisotropy. When the V layer thickness is below 40 A a superimposed uniaxial anisotropy develops, the effect of which is a depression in the TS, in agreement with theoretical calculations. This uniaxial anisotropy is induced by the substrate and due to a discontinuous growth of the V layer. For hcp Co grown on V, the magnetic anisotropy rapidly increases with Co layer thickness. In this case, unexpected shifted hysteresis loops along the hard axes were observed when the films were not saturated. This has been explained by taking into account the magnetization reversal along the hard axis: it proceeds via magnetization rotation of some portions of the film at high fields, and by domain wall motion of the rest of the film at lower field values.

  3. Vertical and lateral ordering of Ge islands grown on Si(001): theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalenti, F; Marzegalli, A; Capellini, G; Seta, M De; Miglio, Leo

    2007-01-01

    A set of recent results concerning lateral and vertical ordering of Ge islands grown on Si(001) is reviewed. Experimental data generated by chemical vapour deposition and analysed by atomic force microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy are compared with computer simulations and modelling based on atomistic approaches and continuum theory. In particular, we show that it is possible to probe experimentally the detailed strain field generated by buried Ge islands at the surface of the Si capping layer. The observed arrangement of small Ge islands grown over the capping layer is demonstrated to be very close to the one predicted by a simple model where the local chemical potential is inferred from the strain field at the atomic scale, as given by Tersoff-potential molecular dynamics simulations. Moreover, we review recent experimental evidence for lateral ordering, triggered by partial Si capping, in the first layer of Ge islands on Si(001). Theoretical support is given by showing that when two islands lie in close proximity the elastic field is likely to generate a flow of atoms leading to an effective gliding motion along opposite directions of both islands, eventually stopped by the presence of further neighbouring islands

  4. Microstructure of oxides in thermal barrier coatings grown under dry/humid atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhaohui; Guo Hongbo; Wang Juan; Abbas, Musharaf; Gong Shengkai

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The presence of water vapor promoted the formation of spinels in the TBC. Highlights: → Thermal barrier coatings are produced by electron beam physical vapour deposition. → Oxidation behaviour of the coatings at 1100 deg. C has been investigated in dry/humid O 2 . → Thermally grown oxides formed in the coatings are characterized. → The presence of water vapour promotes the formation of spinel in the TBCs. - Abstract: The microstructure of thermally grown oxide (TGO) in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) oxidized under dry/humid atmosphere at 1100 deg. C has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy. A thin and continuous oxide layer is formed in the as-deposited TBCs produced by electron beam physical vapor deposition. The TGO formed in dry atmosphere consists of an outer layer of fine α-alumina, zirconia grains and an inner layer of columnar α-alumina grains. However, a small amount of spinel is observed in the TGO under humid atmosphere. The presence of water vapour promotes the formation of spinel.

  5. MBE growth and characterization of GaAs1-x Sb x epitaxial layers on Si (0 0 1) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, T.; Nishino, F.; Kato, A.; Kambayashi, T.; Jinbo, Y.; Uchitomi, N.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the growth of GaAs 1- x Sb x (x=1.0, 0.82, 0.69, 0.44, 0.0) layers on Si (0 0 1) substrates using AlSb as a buffer layer. Epilayers were grown as a function of As beam equivalent pressure (BEP) under a constant Sb BEP, and they were then characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and micro-Raman scattering analysis. We confirmed that GaAs 1- x Sb x layers have been successfully grown on Si substrates by introducing AlSb layers

  6. Optical and electrical properties of semiconducting BaSi2 thin films on Si substrates grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, K.; Inomata, Y.; Suemasu, T.

    2006-01-01

    The electrical properties and optical absorption (OA) spectra of undoped BaSi 2 films grown by molecular beam epitaxy were investigated The electron density and mobility of BaSi 2 grown epitaxially on Si(111) were 5 x 10 15 cm -3 and 820 cm 2 /V.s at room temperature, respectively. The conduction-band discontinuity at the BaSi 2 /Si heterojunction was estimated to be 0.7 eV from the current-voltage characteristics of n-BaSi 2 /n-Si isotype diodes. OA spectra were measured on polycrystalline BaSi 2 films grown on transparent fused silica substrates with predeposited polycrystalline Si layer. The indirect absorption edge was derived to be 1.3 eV, and the optical absorption coefficient reached 10 5 cm -1 at 1.5 eV

  7. Photoluminescence investigation of thick GaN films grown on Si substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M.; Ahn, H. S.; Chang, J. H.; Yi, S. N.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, S. W.

    2003-01-01

    The optical properties of thick GaN films grown by hydried vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) using a low-temperature intermediate GaN buffer layer grown on a (111) Si substrate with a ZnO thin film were investigated by using photoluminescence (PL) measurement at 300 K and 77 K. The strong donor bound exciton (DBE) at 357 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 15 meV was observed at 77 K. The value of 15 meV is extremely narrow for GaN grown on Si substrate by HVPE. An impurity-related peak was also observed at 367 nm. The origin of impurity was investigated using Auger spectroscopy.

  8. Structural and electrical properties of Ge(111) films grown on Si(111) substrates and application to Ge(111)-on-Insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawano, K., E-mail: sawano@tcu.ac.jp [Advanced Research Laboratories, Tokyo City University, 8-15-1 Todoroki, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Hoshi, Y.; Kubo, S. [Advanced Research Laboratories, Tokyo City University, 8-15-1 Todoroki, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Arimoto, K.; Yamanaka, J.; Nakagawa, K. [Center for Crystal Science and Technology, University of Yamanashi, 7 Miyamae-cho, Kofu (Japan); Hamaya, K. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Miyao, M. [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka (Japan); Shiraki, Y. [Advanced Research Laboratories, Tokyo City University, 8-15-1 Todoroki, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-08-31

    Structural and electrical properties of a Ge(111) layer directly grown on a Si(111) substrate are studied. Via optimized two-step growth manner, we form a high-quality relaxed Ge layer, where strain-relieving dislocations are confined close to a Ge/Si interface. Consequently, a density of holes, which unintentionally come from crystal defects, is highly suppressed below 4 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3}, which leads to significantly high hole Hall mobility exceeding 1500 cm{sup 2}/Vs at room temperature. By layer transfer of the grown Ge layer, we also fabricate a Ge(111)-on-Insulator, which is a promising template for high-performance Ge-based electronic and photonic devices. - Highlights: • A high-quality Ge layer is epitaxially grown on a Si(111) by two-step growth manner. • Growth conditions, such as growth temperatures, are optimized. • Very high hole mobility is obtained from Ge(111) grown on Si(111). • High-quality thin Ge-on-Insulator with (111) orientation is obtained.

  9. Productivity correlated to photobiochemical performance of Chlorella mass cultures grown outdoors in thin-layer cascades

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Masojídek, Jiří; Kopecký, Jiří; Giannelli, L.; Torzillo, G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 2 (2011), s. 307-317 ISSN 1367-5435 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/09/0656 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Freshwater microalga Chlorella * Chlorophyll-fluorescence quenching * Photochemical activity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.735, year: 2011

  10. Diamond-like carbon layers grown by electrochemical method-structural study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulesza, S.; Szatkowski, J.; Lulinska, E.; Kozanecki, M.

    2008-01-01

    A simple method of production of diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films on various substrates by means of electrolysis of liquid hydrocarbons under ambient conditions is described in the paper. The amount of sp 3 -hybridized carbon clusters within deposited films is a key parameter of their structural quality, and is investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy. Obtained results indicate that although the electrolysis generally leads to granular DLC films contaminated with graphitic inclusions, providing current density larger than 520 mA cm -2 at 1700 V, sp 3 -rich microcrystals with sharp edges can be found as well. Micro-Raman spectroscopic data strongly suggest that these microcrystals are minute diamonds, which eventually opens up a new perspective for a low-temperature synthesis of diamond-related materials

  11. Ce and Yb doped InP layers grown for radiation detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zavadil, Jiří; Procházková, Olga; Žďánský, Karel; Gladkov, Petar

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2007), s. 1444-1447 ISSN 1610-1634. [EXMATEC 2006 - International Workshop on Expert Evaluation & Control of Compound Semiconductor Materials & Technologies /8./. Cádiz, 14.05.2006-17.05.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/06/0153 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : semiconductors * photoluminescence * galvanomagnetic effects Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  12. Surface reconstruction processes in MO VPE grown GaAs layers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nohavica, Dušan

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 50, 2/s (1999), s. 24-25 ISSN 1335-3632. [Development of Materials Science in Research and Education - DMS -RE 1998 /8./. Zlenice, 08.09.1998-10.09.1998] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2067901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : epitaxial growth * surface reconstruction Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  13. Enhancement of grain size and crystallinity of thin layers of pentacene grown under magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, Kenichi [Division of Materials Science, Faculty of pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Yamamoto, Yohei, E-mail: yamamoto@ims.tsukuba.ac.jp [Division of Materials Science, Faculty of pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Tsukuba Research Center for Interdisciplinary Materials Science (TIMS), Faculty of pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Center for Integrated Research in Fundamental Science and Technology (CiRfSE), University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan)

    2016-03-31

    Field-effect mobilities (μ) of pentacene films, prepared by a thermal deposition under a magnetic field (H-field), were largely enhanced, in comparison with that prepared without an H-field. Under a perpendicular H-field with respect to the substrate surface, the crystallinity of the edge-on pentacene orientation is enhanced, resulting in the 9-fold enhancement of μ. Furthermore, under parallel H-field with respect to the substrate surface, μ of the pentacene films were 23-fold greater than that prepared without the H-field. The surface morphology studies by atomic force microscopy of the ultra thin films of pentacene clarified that the grain size of the pentacene at the interface with the substrate is larger for films under parallel H-field than that prepared without an H-field. The simple and effective method for enhancing the semiconducting properties of the organic thin films gives high technological impact in its application to organic electronics. - Highlights: • Magnetic-field effect on the crystallinity of pentacene thin films • Magnetic-field effect on the morphology of pentacene thin films • Enhanced field-effect charge carrier mobility of pentacene thin films.

  14. Enhancement of grain size and crystallinity of thin layers of pentacene grown under magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabata, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Yohei

    2016-01-01

    Field-effect mobilities (μ) of pentacene films, prepared by a thermal deposition under a magnetic field (H-field), were largely enhanced, in comparison with that prepared without an H-field. Under a perpendicular H-field with respect to the substrate surface, the crystallinity of the edge-on pentacene orientation is enhanced, resulting in the 9-fold enhancement of μ. Furthermore, under parallel H-field with respect to the substrate surface, μ of the pentacene films were 23-fold greater than that prepared without the H-field. The surface morphology studies by atomic force microscopy of the ultra thin films of pentacene clarified that the grain size of the pentacene at the interface with the substrate is larger for films under parallel H-field than that prepared without an H-field. The simple and effective method for enhancing the semiconducting properties of the organic thin films gives high technological impact in its application to organic electronics. - Highlights: • Magnetic-field effect on the crystallinity of pentacene thin films • Magnetic-field effect on the morphology of pentacene thin films • Enhanced field-effect charge carrier mobility of pentacene thin films

  15. TEM and XANES study of MOVPE grown InAIN layers with different indium content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kret, S; Wolska, A; Klepka, M T; Letrouit, A; Ivaldi, F; Szczepańska, A; Carlin, J-F; Kaufmann, N A K; Grandjean, N

    2011-01-01

    We present structure and spatially resolved composition studies by TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) and XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) of InAIN MOVPE (Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy) epilayers containing 16-27 at% of indium. Investigations of the In L 3 edge by synchrotron radiation absorption show a significant change of the post-edge structure depending on the indium content. We attribute this to the solubility limit and phase separation in this system. Our measurements suggest that the critical composition is 18% for our growth conditions. HRTEM cross-sectional and EDX investigations confirm such phase separation as well as the changing of the structure from 2D growth to columnar like growth for the sample with the highest indium content.

  16. Creep properties of a thermally grown alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, K.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Kwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kjkang@chonnam.ac.kr; Mercer, C. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5050 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    A unique test system has been developed to measure creep properties of actual thermally grown oxides (TGO) formed on a metal foil. The thickness of TGO, load and displacement can be monitored in situ at high temperature. Two batches of FeCrAlY alloys which differ from each other in contents of yttrium and titanium were selected as the {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} TGO forming materials. The creep tests were performed on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} of thickness 1-4 {mu}m, thermally grown at 1200 deg. C in air. The strength of the substrate was found to be negligible, provided that the TGO and substrate thickness satisfy: h{sub TGO} > 1 {mu}m and H{sub sub} {<=} 400 {mu}m. The steady-state creep results for all four TGO thicknesses obtained on batch I reside within a narrow range, characterized by a parabolic creep relation. It is nevertheless clear that the steady-state creep rates vary with TGO thickness: decreasing as the thickness increases. For batch II, the steady-state creep rates are higher and now influenced more significantly by TGO thickness. In comparison with previous results of the creep properties for bulk polycrystalline {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at a grain size of {approx}2 {mu}m, the creep rates for the TGO were apparently higher, but both were significantly affected by yttrium content. The higher creep rate and dependency on the TGO thickness led to a hypothesis that the deformation of the TGO under tensile stress at high temperature was not a result of typical creep mechanisms such as diffusion of vacancies or intra-granular motion of dislocations, but a result of inter-grain growth of TGO. Results also indicate that the amount of yttrium may influence the growth strain as well as the creep rate.

  17. Fabrication of heterojunction solar cells by improved tin oxide deposition on insulating layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tom; Ghosh, Amal K.

    1980-01-01

    Highly efficient tin oxide-silicon heterojunction solar cells are prepared by heating a silicon substrate, having an insulating layer thereon, to provide a substrate temperature in the range of about 300.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C. and thereafter spraying the so-heated substrate with a solution of tin tetrachloride in a organic ester boiling below about 250.degree. C. Preferably the insulating layer is naturally grown silicon oxide layer.

  18. Transfer printing of graphene strip from the graphene grown on copper wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Ching-Yuan; Fu Dongliang; Lu, Ang-Yu; Liu, Keng-Ku; Xu Yanping; Juang, Zhen-Yu; Li, Lain-Jong

    2011-01-01

    A simple, cost-effective and lithography-free fabrication of graphene strips for device applications is demonstrated. The graphene thin layers were directly grown on Cu wires, followed by Cu etching and transfer printing to arbitrary substrates by a PDMS stamp. The Cu wires can be arranged on the PDMS stamp in a desired pattern; hence, the substrates can receive graphene strips with the same pattern. Moreover, the preparation of graphene strips does not involve conventional lithography; therefore, the surface of the graphene strip is free of residual photoresists, which may be useful for studies requiring clean graphene surfaces.

  19. Carbon nanofibers grown on activated carbon fiber fabrics as electrode of supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, T-H; Hung, K-H; Tzeng, S-S; Shen, J-W; Hung, C-H

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were grown directly on activated carbon fiber fabric (ACFF), which was then used as the electrode of supercapacitors. Cyclic voltammetry and ac impedance were used to characterize the electrochemical properties of ACFF and CNF/ACFF electrodes in both aqueous and organic electrolytes. ACFF electrodes show higher specific capacitance than CNF/ACFF electrodes due to larger specific surface area. However, the spaces formed between the CNFs in the CNF/ACFF electrodes are more easily accessed than the slit-type pores of ACFF, and much higher electrical-double layer capacitance was obtained for CNF/ACFF electrodes

  20. Optical characterization of a-Si:H thin films grown by Hg-Photo-CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barhdadi, A.; Karbal, S.; M'Gafad, N.; Benmakhlouf, A.; Chafik El Idrissi, M.; Aka, B.M.

    2006-08-01

    Mercury-Sensitized Photo-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (Hg-Photo-CVD) technique opens new possibilities for reducing thin film growth temperature and producing novel semiconductor materials suitable for the future generation of high efficiency thin film solar cells onto low cost flexible plastic substrates. This paper provides some experimental data resulting from the optical characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films grown by this deposition technique. Experiments have been performed on both as-deposited layers and thermal annealed ones. (author) [fr

  1. Gold coated metal nanostructures grown by glancing angle deposition and pulsed electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüner, Christoph; Reeck, Pascal; Jacobs, Paul-Philipp; Liedtke, Susann; Lotnyk, Andriy; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2018-05-01

    Nickel based nanostructures are grown by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) on flat and pre-patterned substrates. These fabricated porous thin films were subsequently coated by pulsed electroplating with gold. The morphology and conformity of the gold coating were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Controlled growth of closed gold layers on the nanostructures could be achieved, while the open-pore structure of the nanosculptured thin films was preserved. Such gold coated nanostructures are a candidate for optical sensing and catalysis applications. The demonstrated method can be applied for numerous material combinations, allowing to provide GLAD thin films with new surface properties.

  2. Covalent functionalization of carbon nanotube forests grown in situ on a metal-silicon chip

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Johan R.

    2012-03-12

    We report on the successful covalent functionalization of carbon nanotube (CNT) forests, in situ grown on a silicon chip with thin metal contact film as the buffer layer between the CNT forests and the substrate. The CNT forests were successfully functionalized with active amine and azide groups, which can be used for further chemical reactions. The morphology of the CNT forests was maintained after the functionalization. We thus provide a promising foundation for a miniaturized biosensor arrays system that can be easily integrated with Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology.

  3. Covalent functionalization of carbon nanotube forests grown in situ on a metal-silicon chip

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Johan R.; Bosaeus, Niklas; Kann, Nina; Å kerman, Bjö rn; Nordé n, Bengt; Khalid, Waqas

    2012-01-01

    We report on the successful covalent functionalization of carbon nanotube (CNT) forests, in situ grown on a silicon chip with thin metal contact film as the buffer layer between the CNT forests and the substrate. The CNT forests were successfully functionalized with active amine and azide groups, which can be used for further chemical reactions. The morphology of the CNT forests was maintained after the functionalization. We thus provide a promising foundation for a miniaturized biosensor arrays system that can be easily integrated with Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology.

  4. Nucleation and Early Stages of Layer-by-Layer Growth of Metal Organic Frameworks on Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    High resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to resolve the evolution of crystallites of a metal organic framework (HKUST-1) grown on Au(111) using a liquid-phase layer-by-layer methodology. The nucleation and faceting of individual crystallites is followed by repeatedly imaging the same submicron region after each cycle of growth and we find that the growing surface is terminated by {111} facets leading to the formation of pyramidal nanostructures for [100] oriented crystallites, and triangular [111] islands with typical lateral dimensions of tens of nanometres. AFM images reveal that crystallites can grow by 5–10 layers in each cycle. The growth rate depends on crystallographic orientation and the morphology of the gold substrate, and we demonstrate that under these conditions the growth is nanocrystalline with a morphology determined by the minimum energy surface. PMID:26709359

  5. Electrical and piezoelectric properties of BiFeO3 thin films grown on SrxCa1−xRuO3-buffered SrTiO3 substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yingbang; Chen, Long; Wang, Zhihong; Alshareef, Husam N.; Zhang, Xixiang

    2012-01-01

    on SrRuO 3-buffer layers exhibited minimal electrical leakage while films grown on Sr 0.33Ca 0.67RuO 3-buffer layers had the largest piezoelectric response. The origin of this difference is discussed. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  6. VSWI Wetlands Advisory Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset represents the DEC Wetlands Program's Advisory layer. This layer makes the most up-to-date, non-jurisdictional, wetlands mapping avaiable to the public...

  7. Growth of Cu thin films by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindroos, S.; Ruuskanen, T.; Ritala, M.; Leskelae, M.

    2004-01-01

    Copper thin films were grown on reduced indium tin oxide, molybdenum and polymer substrates using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. Copper films were grown sequentially in a controlled way using simple copper salt and basic solution of formaldehyde as precursors. The copper films were polycrystalline with no preferred orientation as characterised by X-ray diffraction. On all substrates, the growth was clearly island growth in the beginning but after the whole surface was covered, the growth was more homogeneous

  8. Characteristics of the surface layer of barium strontium titanate thin films deposited by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craciun, V.; Singh, R. K.

    2000-01-01

    Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 TiO 3 (BST) thin films grown on Si by an in situ ultraviolet-assisted pulsed laser deposition (UVPLD) technique exhibited significantly higher dielectric constant and refractive index values and lower leakage current densities than films grown by conventional PLD under similar conditions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) investigations have shown that the surface layer of the grown films contained, besides the usual BST perovskite phase, an additional phase with Ba atoms in a different chemical state. PLD grown films always exhibited larger amounts of this phase, which was homogeneously mixed with the BST phase up to several nm depth, while UVPLD grown films exhibited a much thinner (∼1 nm) and continuous layer. The relative fraction of this phase was not correlated with the amount of C atoms present on the surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy did not find any BaCO 3 contamination layer, which was believed to be related to this new phase. X-ray diffraction measurement showed that although PLD grown films contained less oxygen atoms, the lattice parameter was closer to the bulk value than that of UVPLD grown films. After 4 keV Ar ion sputtering for 6 min, XPS analysis revealed a small suboxide Ba peak for the PLD grown films. This finding indicates that the average Ba-O bonds are weaker in these films, likely due to the presence of oxygen vacancies. It is suggested here that this new Ba phase corresponds to a relaxed BST surface layer. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  9. Characteristics of the surface layer of barium strontium titanate thin films deposited by laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, V.; Singh, R. K.

    2000-04-01

    Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 (BST) thin films grown on Si by an in situ ultraviolet-assisted pulsed laser deposition (UVPLD) technique exhibited significantly higher dielectric constant and refractive index values and lower leakage current densities than films grown by conventional PLD under similar conditions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) investigations have shown that the surface layer of the grown films contained, besides the usual BST perovskite phase, an additional phase with Ba atoms in a different chemical state. PLD grown films always exhibited larger amounts of this phase, which was homogeneously mixed with the BST phase up to several nm depth, while UVPLD grown films exhibited a much thinner (˜1 nm) and continuous layer. The relative fraction of this phase was not correlated with the amount of C atoms present on the surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy did not find any BaCO3 contamination layer, which was believed to be related to this new phase. X-ray diffraction measurement showed that although PLD grown films contained less oxygen atoms, the lattice parameter was closer to the bulk value than that of UVPLD grown films. After 4 keV Ar ion sputtering for 6 min, XPS analysis revealed a small suboxide Ba peak for the PLD grown films. This finding indicates that the average Ba-O bonds are weaker in these films, likely due to the presence of oxygen vacancies. It is suggested here that this new Ba phase corresponds to a relaxed BST surface layer.

  10. Bismuth iron oxide thin films using atomic layer deposition of alternating bismuth oxide and iron oxide layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttaswamy, Manjunath; Vehkamäki, Marko [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kukli, Kaupo, E-mail: kaupo.kukli@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, W. Ostwald 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia); Dimri, Mukesh Chandra [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, EE-12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Kemell, Marianna; Hatanpää, Timo; Heikkilä, Mikko J. [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Mizohata, Kenichiro [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Stern, Raivo [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, EE-12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-07-29

    Bismuth iron oxide films with varying contributions from Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared using atomic layer deposition. Bismuth (III) 2,3-dimethyl-2-butoxide, was used as the bismuth source, iron(III) tert-butoxide as the iron source and water vapor as the oxygen source. The films were deposited as stacks of alternate Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers. Films grown at 140 °C to the thickness of 200–220 nm were amorphous, but crystallized upon post-deposition annealing at 500 °C in nitrogen. Annealing of films with intermittent bismuth and iron oxide layers grown to different thicknesses influenced their surface morphology, crystal structure, composition, electrical and magnetic properties. Implications of multiferroic performance were recognized in the films with the remanent charge polarization varying from 1 to 5 μC/cm{sup 2} and magnetic coercivity varying from a few up to 8000 A/m. - Highlights: • Bismuth iron oxide thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition at 140 °C. • The major phase formed in the films upon annealing at 500 °C was BiFeO{sub 3}. • BiFeO{sub 3} films and films containing excess Bi favored electrical charge polarization. • Slight excess of iron oxide enhanced saturative magnetization behavior.

  11. Layer-by-layer cell membrane assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matosevic, Sandro; Paegel, Brian M.

    2013-11-01

    Eukaryotic subcellular membrane systems, such as the nuclear envelope or endoplasmic reticulum, present a rich array of architecturally and compositionally complex supramolecular targets that are as yet inaccessible. Here we describe layer-by-layer phospholipid membrane assembly on microfluidic droplets, a route to structures with defined compositional asymmetry and lamellarity. Starting with phospholipid-stabilized water-in-oil droplets trapped in a static droplet array, lipid monolayer deposition proceeds as oil/water-phase boundaries pass over the droplets. Unilamellar vesicles assembled layer-by-layer support functional insertion both of purified and of in situ expressed membrane proteins. Synthesis and chemical probing of asymmetric unilamellar and double-bilayer vesicles demonstrate the programmability of both membrane lamellarity and lipid-leaflet composition during assembly. The immobilized vesicle arrays are a pragmatic experimental platform for biophysical studies of membranes and their associated proteins, particularly complexes that assemble and function in multilamellar contexts in vivo.

  12. Topographic and spectroscopic characterization of electronic edge states in CVD grown graphene nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Minghu; Girão, E Costa; Jia, Xiaoting; Bhaviripudi, Sreekar; Li, Qing; Kong, Jing; Meunier, V; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2012-04-11

    We used scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/S) techniques to analyze the relationships between the edge shapes and the electronic structures in as-grown chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). A rich variety of single-layered graphene nanoribbons exhibiting a width of several to 100 nm and up to 1 μm long were studied. High-resolution STM images highlight highly crystalline nanoribbon structures with well-defined and clean edges. Theoretical calculations indicate clear spin-split edge states induced by electron-electron Coulomb repulsion. The edge defects can significantly modify these edge states, and different edge structures for both sides of a single ribbon produce asymmetric electronic edge states, which reflect the more realistic features of CVD grown GNRs. Three structural models are proposed and analyzed to explain the observations. By comparing the models with an atomic resolution image at the edge, a pristine (2,1) structure was ruled out in favor of a reconstructed edge structure composed of 5-7 member rings, showing a better match with experimental results, and thereby suggesting the possibility of a defective morphology at the edge of CVD grown nanoribbons. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  13. Extended defects in MBE-grown CdTe-based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichrowska, Karolina; Wosinski, Tadeusz; Kret, Slawomir; Chusnutdinow, Sergij; Karczewski, Grzegorz [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Rawski, Michal [Analytical Laboratory, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin (Poland); Yastrubchak, Oksana [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin (Poland)

    2015-08-15

    Extended defects in the p -ZnTe/n -CdTe heterojunctions grown by the molecular-beam epitaxy technique on two different substrates, GaAs and CdTe, have been investigated by deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Four hole traps, called H1 to H4, and one electron trap, called E3, have been revealed in the DLTS spectra measured for the heterojunctions grown on the GaAs substrates. The H1, H3, H4 and E3 traps have been attributed to the electronic states of dislocations on the ground of their logarithmic capture kinetics. The DLTS peaks associated with the H1 and E3 traps were not observed in the DLTS spectra measured for the heterojunction grown on the CdTe substrate. They are most likely associated with threading dislocations generated at the mismatched interface with the GaAs substrate. Cross-sectional TEM images point out that they are dislocations of the 60 -type. In both the types of heterojunctions the H4 trap was observed only under forward-bias filling pulse, suggesting that this trap is associated with the CdTe/ZnTe interface. In addition, TEM images revealed also the presence of intrinsic and extrinsic stacking faults in the CdTe layers, which may considerably affect their electronic properties. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Residual carrier density in GaSb grown on Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Gozu, Shin-ichiro; Ueta, Akio; Ohtani, Naoki

    2006-01-01

    The relationships between the densities of residual carriers and those of dislocation in GaSb films grown on Si substrates were investigated. Dislocation density was evaluated by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM images indicated that the dislocation density after a 5-μm-thick GaSb film was grown was below 1 x 10 8 /cm 2 although the density near the interface between the Si substrate and the GaSb film was about 3 x 10 9 /cm 2 . Forming a dislocation loop by growing a thick GaSb layer may decrease the dislocation density. The density and mobility of the residual carrier were investigated by Hall measurement using the van der Pauw method. The residual carriers in GaSb grown on Si substrates were holes, and their densities decreased significantly from 4.2 x 10 18 to 1.4 x 10 17 /cm 3 as GaSb thickness was increased from 500 to 5500 nm

  15. Comparison of the quality of single-crystal diamonds grown on two types of seed substrates by MPCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun; Guo, Yanzhao; Lin, Liangzhen; Zheng, Yuting; Hei, Lifu; Liu, Jinlong; Wei, Junjun; Chen, Liangxian; Li, Chengming

    2018-06-01

    Microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) was used to grow single-crystal diamonds on two types of single-crystal diamond seed substrates prepared by high-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods. The quality of diamonds grown on the different seed substrates was compared. Fluorescence characteristics showed that the sectors of the HPHT seed substrates were obviously partitioned. Raman and absorption spectra showed that the CVD seed substrate produced higher-quality crystals with fewer nitrogen impurities. X-ray topography showed that the HPHT seed substrate had obvious growth sector boundaries, inclusions, dislocations, and stacking faults. The polarization characteristics of HPHT seed substrate were obvious, and the stress distribution was not uniform. When etching HPHT and CVD seed substrates using the same parameters, the etching morphology and extent of different growth sectors of the two substrates differed. Although extended defects were inevitably formed at the interface and propagated in the CVD layer, the dislocation density of a 1 mm-thick CVD layer grown on a CVD seed substrate was only half that of a 1 mm-thick CVD layer grown on an HPHT seed substrate. Therefore, the use of CVD seed substrate enabled the growth of a relatively higher-quality CVD single-crystal diamond.

  16. Morphological dependent Indium incorporation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells structure grown on 4° misoriented sapphire substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The epitaxial layers of InGaN/GaN MQWs structure were grown on both planar and vicinal sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. By comparing the epitaxial layers grown on planar substrate, the sample grown on 4° misoriented from c-plane toward m-plane substrate exhibited many variations both on surface morphology and optical properties according to the scanning electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence (CL spectroscopy results. Many huge steps were observed in the misoriented sample and a large amount of V-shape defects located around the boundary of the steps. Atoms force microscopy images show that the steps were inclined and deep grooves were formed at the boundary of the adjacent steps. Phase separation was observed in the CL spectra. CL mapping results also indicated that the deep grooves could effectively influence the localization of Indium atoms and form an In-rich region.

  17. Interface amorphization in hexagonal boron nitride films on sapphire substrate grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Nitta, Shugo; Pristovsek, Markus; Liu, Yuhuai; Nagamatsu, Kentaro; Kushimoto, Maki; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) films directly grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by pulsed-mode metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy exhibit an interlayer for growth temperatures above 1200 °C. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy shows that this interlayer is amorphous, while the crystalline h-BN layer above has a distinct orientational relationship with the sapphire substrate. Electron energy loss spectroscopy shows the energy-loss peaks of B and N in both the amorphous interlayer and the overlying crystalline h-BN layer, while Al and O signals are also seen in the amorphous interlayer. Thus, the interlayer forms during h-BN growth through the decomposition of the sapphire at elevated temperatures.

  18. Optical and structural properties of MOVPE-grown GaInSb/GaSb quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagener, Viera, E-mail: viera.wagener@nmmu.ac.z [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Olivier, E.J.; Botha, J.R. [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2009-12-15

    This paper reports on the optical and structural properties of strained type-I Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}Sb quantum wells embedded in GaSb from a metal-organic vapour phase epitaxial growth perspective. Photoluminescence measurements and transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the effect of the growth temperature on the quality of Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}Sb strained layers with varied alloy compositions and thicknesses. Although the various factors contributing to the overall quality of the strained layers are difficult to separate, the quantum well characteristics are significantly altered by the growth temperature. Despite the high growth rates (approx2 nm/s), quantum wells grown at 607 deg. C display photoluminescence emissions with full-width at half-maximum of 3.5-5.0 meV for an indium solid content (x) up to 0.15.

  19. AlGaInN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipshidze, G.; Kuryatkov, V.; Borisov, B.; Holtz, M.; Nikishin, S.; Temkin, H.

    2002-01-01

    Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si(111) by gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy with ammonia are described. The layers are composed of superlattices of AlGaN/GaN and AlN/AlGaInN. The layers are doped n and p type with Si and Mg, respectively. Hole concentration of 4x10 17 cm -3 , with a mobility of 8 cm2/Vs, is measured in Al 0.4 Ga 0.6 N/GaN. We demonstrate effective n- and p-type doping of structures based on AlN/AlGaInN. Light-emitting diodes based on these structures show light emission between 290 and 334 nm

  20. Surface and interfacial structural characterization of MBE grown Si/Ge multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Biswajit; Sharma, Manjula; Sarma, Abhisakh; Rath, Ashutosh; Satyam, P.V.; Chakraborty, Purushottam; Sanyal, Milan K.

    2009-01-01

    Si/Ge multilayer structures have been grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on Si (1 1 1) and (1 0 0) substrates and were characterized by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), high-depth-resolution secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and cross-section high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A reasonably good agreement has been obtained for layer thickness, interfacial structure and diffusion between SIMS and HRTEM measurements. Epitaxial growth and crystalline nature of the individual layer have been probed using cross-sectional HRTEM and XRD measurements. Surface and interface morphological studies by AFM and HRTEM show island-like growth of both Si and Ge nanostructures.

  1. Thermal characterization of polycrystalline diamond thin film heat spreaders grown on GaN HEMTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Ramaneti, Rajesh; Anaya, Julian; Korneychuk, Svetlana; Derluyn, Joff; Sun, Huarui; Pomeroy, James; Verbeeck, Johan; Haenen, Ken; Kuball, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) was grown onto high-k dielectric passivated AlGaN/GaN-on-Si high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures, with film thicknesses ranging from 155 to 1000 nm. Transient thermoreflectance results were combined with device thermal simulations to investigate the heat spreading benefit of the diamond layer. The observed thermal conductivity (κDia) of PCD films is one-to-two orders of magnitude lower than that of bulk PCD and exhibits a strong layer thickness dependence, which is attributed to the grain size evolution. The films exhibit a weak temperature dependence of κDia in the measured 25-225 °C range. Device simulation using the experimental κDia and thermal boundary resistance values predicts at best a 15% reduction in peak temperature when the source-drain opening of a passivated AlGaN/GaN-on-Si HEMT is overgrown with PCD.

  2. Aluminum Gallium Nitride Alloys Grown via Metalorganic Vapor-Phase Epitaxy Using a Digital Growth Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, L. E.; Korakakis, D.

    2011-04-01

    This work investigates the use of a digital growth technique as a viable method for achieving high-quality aluminum gallium nitride (Al x Ga1- x N) films via metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. Digital alloys are superlattice structures with period thicknesses of a few monolayers. Alloys with an AlN mole fraction ranging from 0.1 to 0.9 were grown by adjusting the thickness of the AlN layer in the superlattice. High-resolution x-ray diffraction was used to determine the superlattice period and c-lattice parameter of the structure, while reciprocal-space mapping was used to determine the a-lattice parameter and evaluate growth coherency. A comparison of the measured lattice parameter with both the nominal value and also the underlying buffer layer is discussed.

  3. Optical and structural properties of MOVPE-grown GaInSb/GaSb quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagener, Viera; Olivier, E.J.; Botha, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the optical and structural properties of strained type-I Ga 1-x In x Sb quantum wells embedded in GaSb from a metal-organic vapour phase epitaxial growth perspective. Photoluminescence measurements and transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the effect of the growth temperature on the quality of Ga 1-x In x Sb strained layers with varied alloy compositions and thicknesses. Although the various factors contributing to the overall quality of the strained layers are difficult to separate, the quantum well characteristics are significantly altered by the growth temperature. Despite the high growth rates (∼2 nm/s), quantum wells grown at 607 deg. C display photoluminescence emissions with full-width at half-maximum of 3.5-5.0 meV for an indium solid content (x) up to 0.15.

  4. Electrical and piezoelectric properties of BiFeO3 thin films grown on SrxCa1−xRuO3-buffered SrTiO3 substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yingbang

    2012-06-01

    (001)-oriented BiFeO 3 (BFO) thin films were grown on Sr xCa 1-xRuO 3- (SCRO; x = 1, 0.67, 0.33, 0) buffered SrTiO 3 (001) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The microstructural, electrical, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of the thin films were considerably affected by the buffer layers. The interface between the BFO films and the SCRO-buffer layer was found to play a dominant role in determining the electrical and piezoelectric behaviors of the films. We found that films grown on SrRuO 3-buffer layers exhibited minimal electrical leakage while films grown on Sr 0.33Ca 0.67RuO 3-buffer layers had the largest piezoelectric response. The origin of this difference is discussed. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  5. Analysis of Side-Wall Structure of Grown-in Twin-Type Octahedral Defects in Czochralski Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Takemi; Itsumi, Manabu; Takeda, Tadao

    1998-04-01

    We analyzed the side-wall structure of grown-in octahedral defects in Czochralski silicon standard wafers for large-scale integrated circuits. There are two types of twin octahedral defects: an overlapping type and an adjacent type. In the twin octahedral defects of the overlapping type, a hole is formed in the connection part. The side-wall layer in the hole part is formed continually and is the same thickness as the side-wall layers of both octahedrons. In the twin octahedral defects of the adjacent type, a partition layer is formed in the connection part. Our electron energy-loss spectroscopy analyses identified that the side-wall layer includes SiO2.

  6. Enhanced electrical properties of dual-layer channel ZnO thin film transistors prepared by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijin; Han, Dedong; Dong, Junchen; Yu, Wen; Liang, Yi; Luo, Zhen; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi

    2018-05-01

    The thin film transistors (TFTs) with a dual-layer channel structure combing ZnO thin layer grown at 200 °C and ZnO film grown at 120 °C by atomic layer deposition are fabricated. The dual-layer channel TFT exhibits a low leakage current of 2.8 × 10-13 A, Ion/Ioff ratio of 3.4 × 109, saturation mobility μsat of 12 cm2 V-1 s-1, subthreshold swing (SS) of 0.25 V/decade. The SS value decreases to 0.18 V/decade after the annealing treatment in O2 due to the reduction of the trap states at the channel/dielectric interface and in the bulk channel layer. The enhanced performance obtained from the dual-layer channel TFTs is due to the ability of maintaining high mobility and suppressing the increase in the off-current at the same time.

  7. 76 FR 16323 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ...; FV11-946-1 CR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural... conducted among eligible Washington potato growers to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington. DATES: The referendum will be...

  8. Leaf anatomy of genotypes of banana plant grown under coloured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of spectral light quality on different anatomical features of banana tree plantlets grown under coloured shade nets. Banana plants of five genotypes obtained from micropropagation, were grown under white, blue, red and black nets, with shade of 50%, in a completely randomized ...

  9. Influence of shading on container-grown flowering dogwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bare root dogwoods can be successfully grown when transplanted into a container production system. Shade treatments regardless of color or density did have an effect on the plant growth of Cherokee Brave™ and Cherokee Princess dogwood. Plants grown under 50% black and 50% white shade had more heigh...

  10. Structural Reliability of the Nigerian Grown Abura Timber Bridge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structural reliability analysis was carried out on the Nigerian grown Abura timber, to ascertain its structural performance as timber bridge beams. Samples of the Nigerian grown Abura timber were bought from timber market, seasoned naturally and their structural/strength properties were determined at a moisture content of ...

  11. Growth and characterization of semi-insulating carbon-doped/undoped GaN multiple-layer buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Seok; Won, Chul-Ho; Kang, Hee-Sung; Kim, Young-Jo; Kang, In Man; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kim, Yong Tae

    2015-01-01

    We have proposed a new semi-insulating GaN buffer layer, which consists of multiple carbon-doped and undoped GaN layer. The buffer layer showed sufficiently good semi-insulating characteristics, attributed to the depletion effect between the carbon-doped GaN and the undoped GaN layers, even though the thickness of the carbon-doped GaN layer in the periodic structure was designed to be very thin to minimize the total carbon incorporation into the buffer layer. The AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure grown on the proposed buffer exhibited much better electrical and structural properties than that grown on the conventional thick carbon-doped semi-insulating GaN buffer layer, confirmed by Hall measurement, x-ray diffraction, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The fabricated device also showed excellent buffer breakdown characteristics. (paper)

  12. Structural and electrical properties of epitaxial Si layers prepared by E-beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, P. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Kekulestr. 5, 12489 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: pinar.dogan@hmi.de; Rudigier, E.; Fenske, F.; Lee, K.Y.; Gorka, B.; Rau, B.; Conrad, E.; Gall, S. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Kekulestr. 5, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2008-08-30

    In this work, we present structural and electrical properties of thin Si films which are homoepitaxially grown at low substrate temperatures (T{sub s} 450-700 deg. C) by high-rate electron beam evaporation. As substrates, monocrystalline Si wafers with (100) and (111) orientations and polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) seed layers on glass were used. Applying Secco etching, films grown on Si(111) wafers exhibit a decreasing etch pit density with increasing T{sub s}. The best structural quality of the films was obtained on Si(100) wafers. Defect etching on epitaxially grown poly-Si absorbers reveal regions with different crystalline quality. Solar cells have been prepared on both wafers and seed layers. Applying Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) and Hydrogen plasma passivation an open circuit voltage of 570 mV for wafer based and 346 mV for seed layer based solar cells have been reached.

  13. Epitaxial Growth of Hard Ferrimagnetic Mn3Ge Film on Rhodium Buffer Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Sugihara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mn\\(_3\\Ge has a tetragonal Heusler-like D0\\(_{22}\\ crystal structure, exhibiting a large uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and small saturation magnetization due to its ferrimagnetic spin structure; thus, it is a hard ferrimagnet. In this report, epitaxial growth of a Mn\\(_3\\Ge film on a Rh buffer layer was investigated for comparison with that of a film on a Cr buffer layer in terms of the lattice mismatch between Mn\\(_3\\Ge and the buffer layer. The film grown on Rh had much better crystalline quality than that grown on Cr, which can be attributed to the small lattice mismatch. Epitaxial films of Mn\\(_3\\Ge on Rh show somewhat small coercivity (\\(H_{\\rm c}\\ = 12.6 kOe and a large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (\\(K_{\\rm u}\\ = 11.6 Merg/cm\\(^3\\, comparable to that of the film grown on Cr.

  14. Double layers in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-07-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. We briefly discuss the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Author)

  15. Double layers in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-01-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. The author briefly discusses the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Auth.)

  16. Positron annihilation spectroscopy for the determination of thickness and defect profile in thin semiconductor layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubiaga, A.; García, J. A.; Plazaola, F.; Tuomisto, F.; Zúñiga-Pérez, J.; Muñoz-Sanjosé, V.

    2007-05-01

    We present a method, based on positron annihilation spectroscopy, to obtain information on the defect depth profile of layers grown over high-quality substrates. We have applied the method to the case of ZnO layers grown on sapphire, but the method can be very easily generalized to other heterostructures (homostructures) where the positron mean diffusion length is small enough. Applying the method to the ratio of W and S parameters obtained from Doppler broadening measurements, W/S plots, it is possible to determine the thickness of the layer and the defect profile in the layer, when mainly one defect trapping positron is contributing to positron trapping at the measurement temperature. Indeed, the quality of such characterization is very important for potential technological applications of the layer.

  17. Composition of Whiskers Grown on Copper in Repository Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermansson, Hans-Peter; Tarkpea, Peeter; Holgersson, Stellan

    2001-11-01

    There is a hypothesis that a special family of local attack on copper based on growth of whiskers of sulfide, oxide/hydroxide and also carbonate/malachite could appear in the repository environment. It was earlier demonstrated that such whiskers could grow in a laboratory simulated repository environment, containing sulfide. A suggested composition of whiskers has earlier been forwarded but was not demonstrated. In the present work whiskers and their substrates were grown and characterized by investigations with a combination of SEM-EDS, XRD and LRS (Laser Raman Spectroscopy) techniques. SEM-EDS was used to determine the morphology and an elemental composition and distribution of whiskers and their substrate. A special effort was made to find out if the whisker growth is of a local or global character. The phase status could be determined locally and globally by combining XRD and LRS techniques on whiskers and substrates. Ideally, LRS gives a phase resolution down to a radius of 1 μm on the sample surface. This is of great value as it is of interest to study if there are phase differences in different parts of a whisker. Such information is important to understand the whisker growth mechanism. Cylindrical samples of pure copper were prepared and exposed to the selected de-aerated model groundwater containing, among other ions, chloride and sulfide. Exposure was performed in sealed glass flasks under de-aerated conditions. After exposure the copper sample was investigated on the surface, in cross section and on whiskers using the mentioned techniques. The results show that a black, easily detached layer of corrosion products is formed on the sample surface. The corrosion layer was subdivided into at least five parallel strata (probably more) of different composition. Numerous small pits and shallow pitting attacks with a larger radius were observed in the copper metal and the metal surface was in general very rough. A multitude of very easily detached whiskers or

  18. Stacking faults and phase changes in Mg-doped InGaN grown on Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna; Yu, Kin M.; Reichertz, Lothar A.; Ager, Joel W.; Walukiewicz, Wladek; Schaff, William J.; Hawkridge, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    We report evidence for the role of Mg in the formation of basal stacking faults and a phase transition in In x Ga 1-x N layers doped with Mg grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates with AlN buffer layers. Several samples with varying In content between x∝0.1 and x∝0.3 are examined by transmission electron microscopy and other techniques. High densities of basal stacking faults are observed in the central region of the InGaN layer away from the substrate or layer surface, but at varying depths within this region. Selected area diffraction patterns show that while the InGaN layer is initially in the wurtzite phase (and of good quality) AlN buffer layer, there is a change to the zinc blende phase in the upper part of the InGaN layer. SIMS measurements show that the Mg concentration drops from a maximum to a steady concentration coinciding with the presence of the basal stacking faults. There is little change in In or Ga concentrations in the same area. High-resolution electron microscopy from the area of the stacking faults confirms that the change to the cubic phase is abrupt across one such fault. These results indicate that Mg plays a role in the formation of stacking faults and the phase change observed in In x Ga 1-x N alloys. We also consider the role of In in the formation of these defects. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Carbon nanotube forests growth using catalysts from atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Bingan; Zhang, Can; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Xie, Rongsi; Zhong, Guofang; Robertson, John [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Bhardwaj, Sunil [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR Laboratorio TASC, s.s. 14, km 163.4, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Sincrotone Trieste S.C.p.A., s.s. 14, km 163.4, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Cepek, Cinzia [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR Laboratorio TASC, s.s. 14, km 163.4, I-34012 Trieste (Italy)

    2014-04-14

    We have grown carbon nanotubes using Fe and Ni catalyst films deposited by atomic layer deposition. Both metals lead to catalytically active nanoparticles for growing vertically aligned nanotube forests or carbon fibres, depending on the growth conditions and whether the substrate is alumina or silica. The resulting nanotubes have narrow diameter and wall number distributions that are as narrow as those grown from sputtered catalysts. The state of the catalyst is studied by in-situ and ex-situ X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. We demonstrate multi-directional nanotube growth on a porous alumina foam coated with Fe prepared by atomic layer deposition. This deposition technique can be useful for nanotube applications in microelectronics, filter technology, and energy storage.

  20. Heterojunction oxide thin-film transistors with unprecedented electron mobility grown from solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Hendrik; Das, Satyajit; Lin, Yen-Hung; Pliatsikas, Nikos; Zhao, Kui; Kehagias, Thomas; Dimitrakopulos, George; Amassian, Aram; Patsalas, Panos A; Anthopoulos, Thomas D

    2017-03-01

    Thin-film transistors made of solution-processed metal oxide semiconductors hold great promise for application in the emerging sector of large-area electronics. However, further advancement of the technology is hindered by limitations associated with the extrinsic electron transport properties of the often defect-prone oxides. We overcome this limitation by replacing the single-layer semiconductor channel with a low-dimensional, solution-grown In 2 O 3 /ZnO heterojunction. We find that In 2 O 3 /ZnO transistors exhibit band-like electron transport, with mobility values significantly higher than single-layer In 2 O 3 and ZnO devices by a factor of 2 to 100. This marked improvement is shown to originate from the presence of free electrons confined on the plane of the atomically sharp heterointerface induced by the large conduction band offset between In 2 O 3 and ZnO. Our finding underscores engineering of solution-grown metal oxide heterointerfaces as an alternative strategy to thin-film transistor development and has the potential for widespread technological applications.