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Sample records for lpg peak shaving

  1. Report of study group 3.3 ''LNG and LPG peak shaving and satellite plants''; Rapport du groupe d'etude 3.3 ''usines d'ecretement de pointes et stations satellites GNL et GPL''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein Nagelvoort, R.

    2000-07-01

    This report presents a world-wide overview of LNG and LPG Peak Shaving and Satellite Plants, compiled by the study group 3.3 of the International Gas Union. The scope of the work of the study group includes: - LPG peak shavers (LPG + air, N{sub 2}) in gas distribution networks; - LPG peak shavers for start-up and back-up fuel for LNG terminals and power stations; - LNG peak shavers for gas distribution networks; - Small-scale liquefaction plants for distribution to satellites and dedicated consumers (e.g. power generators, chemical plants, trucking companies etc.); - LNG peak shavers as back-up for large consumers; - Alternative liquefaction technologies for LNG and LPG (e.g. refrigeration cycles, supersonic expansion, thermo-acoustic designs); - Alternative storage tank designs for LNG and LPG. The report presents an overview of current installations world-wide and considers the prospects of technological developments with respect to equipment, remote operations and safety constraints. It also includes where possible a review of capital and operating costs, regulations, and an identification of opportunities and trends. The report collates the information available to the study group at the time of the writing, which may explain some heterogeneity in the document. (author)

  2. Peak Shaving Considering Streamflow Uncertainties | Iwuagwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main thrust of this paper is peak shaving with a Stochastic hydro model. In peak sharing, the amount of hydro energy scheduled may be a minimum but it serves to replace less efficient thermal units. The sample system is die Kainji hydro plant and the thermal units of the National Electric Power Authority. The random ...

  3. Practical load management - Peak shaving using photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, W.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at how photovoltaic (PV) power generation can be used in a practical way to meet peak demands for electricity. Advice is provided on how photovoltaics can provide peak load 'shaving' through the correlation between its production and the peak loads encountered during the day. The situation regarding feed-in tariffs in Italy is discussed, as are further examples of installations in Germany and Austria. Further, an initiative of the American Southern California Edison utility is discussed which foresees the installation of large PV plant on the roofs of commercial premises to provide local generation of peak energy and thus relieve demands on their power transportation network.

  4. Robust peak-shaving for a neighborhood with electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Hurink, Johann L.

    2016-01-01

    Demand Side Management (DSM) is a popular approach for grid-aware peak-shaving. The most commonly used DSM methods either have no look ahead feature and risk deploying flexibility too early, or they plan ahead using predictions, which are in general not very reliable. To counter this, a DSM approach

  5. Peak-load shaving in smart homes via online scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Kheir, J.; Guchuan Zhu

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of load-shaving in Smart Homes in view of improving energy efficiency in Smart Grids. An architecture of home power management systems, allowing the separation of domestic power load control from grid dynamics, is introduced. In this framework, the operation...

  6. An Auto Tuning Substation Peak Shaving Controller for Congestion Management Using Flexible Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Marinelli, Mattia

    2013-01-01

    A closed loop substation peak shaving/congestion management controller for radial distribution networks is presented. The controller it uses an individual control signal in order to shift the consumption of a population of demand side resources, DSRs. The controller auto tunes its parameters on...

  7. Battery Peak Power Shaving Strategy to Prolong Battery Life for Electric Buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.H.; Rosea, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a battery peak power shaving strategy for battery electric buses. The developed strategy restricts the battery charge/discharge power when the propulsion power demand is high to avoid high deterioration of the battery capacity during operation. Without reducing the propulsion

  8. Storage coordination and peak-shaving operation in urban areas with high renewable penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Voulis, N.; Warnier, Martijn; Brazier, F.M.

    2017-01-01

    As renewable power generation gains importance, balancing of power demand and supply becomes more and more challenging. This paper addresses this challenge by exploring the potential of individually-owned storage units in decentralised power systems with a high share of renewables. The focus is on the influence of coordination and peak-shaving operation of these individual units in realistic urban areas. Currently extensive amount of research exits on specific applications related to storage ...

  9. Break-Even Points of Battery Energy Storage Systems for Peak Shaving Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rahmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, several investigations have been carried out in the field of optimal sizing of energy storage systems (ESSs at both the transmission and distribution levels. Nevertheless, most of these works make important assumptions about key factors affecting ESS profitability such as efficiency and life cycles and especially about the specific costs of the ESS, without considering the uncertainty involved. In this context, this work aims to answer the question: what should be the costs of different ESS technologies in order to make a profit when considering peak shaving applications? The paper presents a comprehensive sensitivity analysis of the interaction between the profitability of an ESS project and some key parameters influencing the project performance. The proposed approach determines the break-even points for different ESSs considering a wide range of life cycles, efficiencies, energy prices, and power prices. To do this, an optimization algorithm for the sizing of ESSs is proposed from a distribution company perspective. From the results, it is possible to conclude that, depending on the values of round trip efficiency, life cycles, and power price, there are four battery energy storage systems (BESS technologies that are already profitable when only peak shaving applications are considered: lead acid, NaS, ZnBr, and vanadium redox.

  10. Research on Double Price Regulations and Peak Shaving Reserve Mechanism in Coal-Electricity Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The game models were used to study the mechanism of coal-electricity price conflict under conditions of double price regulations of coal and electricity. Based on this, the peak shaving reserve mechanism was designed to probe into the countermeasures against the coal-electricity price conflicts. The study revealed that in the boom seasons of coal demand, the initiatives of the coal enterprises to supply thermal coal and the electricity enterprises to order thermal coal are reduced under conditions of double price regulations. However, under the circumstances of coal price marketization, in the boom seasons of coal demand the thermal coal price may go up obviously, the initiatives of the coal enterprises to supply thermal coal are increased, and meanwhile the initiatives of the power enterprises to order thermal coal are decreased dramatically. The transportation capacity constraint of coal supply leads to the evident decrease of the initiatives of coal enterprises for the thermal coal supply. The mechanism of peak shaving reserve of thermal coal may not only reduce the price of coal market but also increase the enthusiasm of the power enterprises to order more thermal coal and the initiatives of the coal enterprises to supply more thermal coal.

  11. Smart households: Dispatch strategies and economic analysis of distributed energy storage for residential peak shaving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Menglian; Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cost-effectiveness of building-based storage for peak shaving has hitherto not been well understood. • Several existing storage technologies are shown to provide cost-effective peak shaving. • Setting grid demand targets rather than hard demand limits improves economics. • Accounting for seasonal demand variations in storage dispatch strategy improves economics further. • Total-energy-throughput approach is used to determine storage lifetimes. - Abstract: Meeting time-varying peak demand poses a key challenge to the U.S. electricity system. Building-based electricity storage – to enable demand response (DR) without curtailing actual appliance usage – offers potential benefits of lower electricity production cost, higher grid reliability, and more flexibility to integrate renewables. DR tariffs are currently available in the U.S. but building-based storage is still underutilized due to insufficiently understood cost-effectiveness and dispatch strategies. Whether DR schemes can yield a profit for building operators (i.e., reduction in electricity bill that exceeds levelized storage cost) and which particular storage technology yields the highest profit is yet to be answered. This study aims to evaluate the economics of providing peak shaving DR under a realistic tariff (Con Edison, New York), using a range of storage technologies (conventional and advanced batteries, flywheel, magnetic storage, pumped hydro, compressed air, and capacitors). An agent-based stochastic model is used to randomly generate appliance-level demand profiles for an average U.S. household. We first introduce a levelized storage cost model which is based on a total-energy-throughput lifetime. We then develop a storage dispatch strategy which optimizes the storage capacity and the demand limit on the grid. We find that (i) several storage technologies provide profitable DR; (ii) annual profit from such DR can range from 1% to 39% of the household’s non-DR electricity

  12. Opportunities for peak shaving the energy demand of ship-to-shore quay cranes at container terminals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Geerlings; Robert Heij; dr. J.H.R. van Duin

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of both a qualitative and a quantitative study on the possibilities for peak shaving the energy demand of ship-to-shore (STS) cranes at container terminals. The objective is to present an energy consumption model that visualizes the energy demand of STS cranes and to

  13. Opportunities for peak shaving the energy demand of ship-to-shore quay cranes at container terminals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, Harry; van Duin, Ron

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of both a qualitative and a quantitative study on
    the possibilities for peak shaving the energy demand of ship-to-shore (STS) cranes at container terminals. The objective is to present an energy consumption model that visualizes the energy demand of STS cranes and

  14. Future needs for dry or peak shaved dry/wet cooling and significance to nuclear power plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clukey, H.V.; McNelly, M.J.; Mitchell, R.C.

    1976-02-01

    U.S. requirements for uncommitted nuclear installations in water scarce areas that might require dry cooling tower systems are minimal through the year 2000 (6 to 23 GWe). In these areas it appears that peak-shaved dry/wet cooling systems are more attractive than all-dry tower cooling unless water costs were to approach the high level of several cents per gallon. The differential cooling system evaluated cost of peak-shaved dry/wet cooling systems above wet towers is typically $20 to $30/kWe for steam turbines; whereas, dry towers can represent an incremental burden of as much as $80/kWe. Gas turbine (Brayton Cycle) systems show similar benefits from an evaporative heat sink to those for steam turbine cycles--lower cooling system evaluated costs for peak-shaved dry/wet cooling systems than for conventional wet towers. These cooling system cost differentials do not reflect total costs for Brayton Cycle gas turbine plants. Together these added costs and uncertainties may substantially exceed the dollar incentives available for development of the Brayton Cycle for power generation needs for water deficient sites

  15. Flue gas recovery system for natural gas combined heat and power plant with distributed peak-shaving heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiling; Fu, Lin; Wang, Xiaoyin; Sun, Tao; Wang, Jingyi; Zhang, Shigang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A flue gas recovery system with distributed peak-shaving heat pumps is proposed. • The system can improve network transmission and distribution capacity. • The system is advantageous in energy saving, emission reduction and economic benefits. - Abstract: District heating systems use distributed heat pump peak-shaving technology to adjust heat in secondary networks of substations. This technology simultaneously adjusts the heat of the secondary network and reduces the return-water temperature of the primary network by using the heat pump principle. When optimized, low temperature return-water is able to recycle more waste heat, thereby further improving the heating efficiency of the system. This paper introduces a flue gas recovery system for a natural gas combined heat and power plant with distributed peak-shaving heat pumps. A pilot system comprising a set of two 9F gas-steam combined cycle-back pressure heating units was used to analyse the system configuration and key parameters. The proposed system improved the network transmission and distribution capacity, increased heating capacity, and reduced heating energy consumption without compromising heating safety issues. As such, the proposed system is advantageous in terms of energy saving, emission reduction, and economic benefits.

  16. Evaluation of the Effects of Nationwide Conservation Voltage Reduction on Peak-Load Shaving Using SOMAS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Ryul Nam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new method to evaluate the effects of nationwide conservation voltage reduction (CVR on peak-load shaving, using substation operating results management system (SOMAS data. Its evaluation is based on a national CVR factor, which is defined as the weighted average of CVR factors associated with all transformer banks and weighting coefficients are determined by the reconstructed loads corresponding to each transformer bank. To make use of the data resulting from nationwide CVR without installing additional measuring devices, we adopt a linearized static-load model with a linearizing parameter. SOMAS data are used to evaluate the effects of nationwide CVR on peak-load shaving in the Korean power system. Evaluation results show that the national CVR factor of the Korean power system has small values in the summer season and large values in the winter season. This means that the effect of nationwide CVR on peak-load shaving in the Korean power system presents stronger benefits during winter months.

  17. Storage Operation for Peak Shaving of Distributed PV and Wind Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nykamp, Stefan; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2013-01-01

    The integration of fluctuating power generation based on renewable energy systems (RES-E) in distribution grids require grid reinforcement resulting from high feed-in peaks. Introducing storage assets can decrease these peaks. For this, storage technologies need to be chosen and dimensioned

  18. Minimization of Impact from Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment to the Electric Grid Using a Dynamically Controlled Battery Bank for Peak Load Shaving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castello, Charles C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    This research presents a comparison of two control systems for peak load shaving using local solar power generation (i.e., photovoltaic array) and local energy storage (i.e., battery bank). The purpose is to minimize load demand of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) on the electric grid. A static and dynamic control system is compared to decrease demand from EVSE. Static control of the battery bank is based on charging and discharging to the electric grid at fixed times. Dynamic control, with 15-minute resolution, forecasts EVSE load based on data analysis of collected data. In the proposed dynamic control system, the sigmoid function is used to shave peak loads while limiting scenarios that can quickly drain the battery bank. These control systems are applied to Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL) solar-assisted electric vehicle (EV) charging stations. This installation is composed of three independently grid-tied sub-systems: (1) 25 EVSE; (2) 47 kW photovoltaic (PV) array; and (3) 60 kWh battery bank. The dynamic control system achieved the greatest peak load shaving, up to 34% on a cloudy day and 38% on a sunny day. The static control system was not ideal; peak load shaving was 14.6% on a cloudy day and 12.7% on a sunny day. Simulations based on ORNL data shows solar-assisted EV charging stations combined with the proposed dynamic battery control system can negate up to 89% of EVSE load demand on sunny days.

  19. LPG fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagnas, F.X.; Jeuland, N.; Fouquet, J.P.; Lauraire, S.; Coroller, P.

    2005-01-01

    LPG fuel has become frequently used through a distribution network with 2 000 service stations over the French territory. LPG fuel ranks number 3 world-wide given that it can be used on individual vehicles, professional fleets, or public transport. What is the environmental benefit of LPG fuel? What is the technology used for these engines? What is the current regulation? Government commitment and dedication on support to promote LPG fuel? Car makers projects? Actions to favour the use of LPG fuel? This article gathers 5 presentations about this topic given at the gas conference

  20. PEAK SHAVING CONSIDERING STREAMFLOW UNCERTAINTIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The random nature of the system load is re-organized by using a Markov load model. The results include a ... has received a considerable attention among optimisation problems. ... the dynamic programming theory used in this work is given ...

  1. Chiral separation of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) enantiomers using batch chromatography with peak shaving recycling and its effects on oxidative stress status in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Tiago C; Bósio, Graziela C; Cassiano, Neila M; Cass, Quezia B; Moreau, Regina L M

    2013-01-25

    This work reports the multimiligram separation of 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) enantiomers using batch chromatography with peak shaving recycling. The effect of both enantiomers compared to the racemic mixture was examined on the oxidative stress status of rat liver. The enantiomeric purification was performed using a based cyclodextrin chiral selector and methanol:ammonium acetate buffer (pH 6.0, 100mM) (30:70, v/v) as mobile phase. The average mass rate obtained was 40.0mg/day, providing 45.0mg of the (R)-(-)-MDMA (e.r. 99.0%) and 75.0mg (e.r. 96.0%) of (S)-(+)-MDMA. Racemic MDMA and both enantiomers were administered per orally to Wistar rats and oxidative stress status parameters, as liver total glutathione levels and malondialdehyde (MDA) production in liver were evaluated. There was a significant decrease in hepatic glutathione content in the racemic MDMA and the (R)-(-)-MDMA-treated rats when compared to the control and to (S)-(+)-MDMA. These results demonstrate that the R-enantiomer is the enantiomer that contributes to the depletion of hepatic glutathione induced by the racemic mixture. The high reactivity of the R-enantiomer of MDMA in the liver can also be observed in animals treated with (R)-(-)-MDMA. The production of malondialdehyde (MDA) by (R)-(-)-MDMA was significantly higher when compared to the other treated groups and control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Green LPG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulteberg, Christian; Brandin, Jan; Leveau, Andreas (Biofuel-Solution AB, Limhamn (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The use of energy gases with renewable origins will become important with diminishing fossil resources. This as the infrastructure of the gaseous fuels is well built out and the distribution networks already exist. LPG is one of the most versatile fuels around, perfect for rural areas and in many other applications. The fossil origin of the fuel will, in today's climate and environmental debate, however position it as a thing of the past and not part of the future energy supply. The technology and development performed under this and previous programs with the Swedish Gas Centre will however suggest a way to bridge this conception and make LPG a part of the future energy mix. This report constitutes the results from the development performed under the SGC program 210 and is aimed at verifying the results from the previous SGC program 198, proving the concept for producing propane from renewable glycerol. Attractive and potentially profitable LPG premium segments that can be reached by producing bio-propane would be the autogas market. Another attractive segment to target is the outdoor and camping segment, where there already exist awareness for nature and the environment. A third interesting segment is in small-scale heat or combined heat and power generation, where a premium price can be reaped for renewable energy as well as the addition of LPG to biogas. Another important aspect of the renewable LPG is that it motivates external stakeholders, such as local, regional, national and international governments as well as environmental and other lobby groups to consider LPG a part of the future energy mix and not a thing of the past. A good starting point for two and three carbon energy gases is glycerine, with its three carbon backbone. The reason for focusing on glycerine is its benign chemical nature, it is: - Harmless from a toxic standpoint; - Chemically inert; - Non-corrosive; - Relatively high energy density; - Zero carbon dioxide emissions. It is also

  3. Japan and LPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    About 20 million metric tonnes of Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) are consumed each year in Japan, of which 14,5 million metric tonnes are imported from Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. This paper presents LPG industry in Japan and gives informations on the present status: supply and demand, imports, market, distribution

  4. The worldwide LPG market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermont, V.

    1998-01-01

    The market of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) concerns mainly the domestic uses (space and sanitary heating, cooking) but also some small industries, the agriculture and chemistry sectors and the transportation sector. This paper analyzes the European demand of LPG fuels by sector. (J.S.)

  5. The Italian LPG market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    As happened in other European countries, the Italian LPG consumption market narrowed in 1997 for climatic reasons. Still, with some 3,5 million tones it is the first LPG market in Europe thanks to automotive LPG which represents some 1,2 million tones, for 1,4 million tones for the bulk and 760, 000 tonnes for bottled products. Another characteristic of the Italian market: demand is slightly lowering in the North while increasing in the South and in the large islands. (author)

  6. Flammability characteristics of LPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardillo, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    The use of LPG is continuous increase not only in the domestic field but also in the field of the transports. Consequently, there is a renewed interest for its flammability characteristics in order to decide the necessary conditions of safety. The main components of LPG are hydrocarbons containing three or four carbon atoms. The normal components of LPG are propane and butane; small concentrations of other hydrocarbons (isobutene, propylene, butane, ethane, pentane) may also be present. Different mixtures of LGP have different and physical characteristics with a different behavior during the use. Also flammability characteristics can be different according to the composition. In this paper at firsts the flammability characteristics of the main components of LGP, taken singularly, are examinated; subsequently some examples of calculation of the flammability limits of different mixture are reported [it

  7. The LPG-fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The LPG-fuel industry comprises several professionals from various domains such as assembly shops for vehicles transformation, materials manufacturers for public distribution stations and companies which produce and commercialize the LPG-fuel. This paper summarizes the administrative and technical liabilities of these professionals, with the technical qualification required, the regulations concerning the official approval of transformation kits and pressure tanks. The French network of public distribution stations for LPG-fuel is shared between five independent dispensers with their own economic policy which represents about 700 LPG-stations. However, the safety regulations concerning LPG-fuels considerably limit the installation of LPG facilities in urban areas. A cost-benefit comparison between LPG and other liquid fuels is given in inset and takes into account the transformation costs of the vehicle. (J.S.)

  8. LPG world supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    Over the course of this decade, the global LPG market has moved from being tight, where supply barely exceeded non-price sensitive demand, to the current market situation where supply growth has outstripped demand growth to such an extent that current fundamentals suggest that considerable length will prevail in the market over the near term. As is the case for many other energy commodity markets, the LPG industry has experienced a considerable transformation over the last five years with many new LPG supply projects coming on-stream and demand growth in many developing markets slowing in response to higher energy prices. The near term challenge for LPG producers will be securing outlets for output as the market becomes increasingly oversupplied. With expanding LPG supply and a worldwide tightness in the naphtha market, it is expected that petrochemical consumers will favor relatively low priced LPG over naphtha and the resulting increase in LPG cracking rates will go some way to reducing the expected supply surplus. However, the timing of several new LPG supply projects and the start-up of LPG-based petrochemical plants in the Middle-East are expected to impact global LPG trade and pricing over the next few years. Thus, at this point in time, the global LPG market has a high degree of uncertainty with questions remaining over the impact of high energy (and LPG) prices on traditional and developing market demand, the timing of new supply projects and the combined effect of these two factors on international LPG prices. World LPG production has been rising in nearly every region of the world over the last few years and totaled about 229 million tons in 2007, which is some 30 million tons per year higher than in 2000. The exception is North America which accounts for the largest share of global LPG supply at about 24% but production there has remained relatively flat in recent years. Strong LPG production growth in the Middle-East which contributed to about 19% of

  9. Domestic LPG interventions in South Africa: Challenges and lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimemia, David; Annegarn, Harold

    2016-01-01

    A majority of grid-connected households in South Africa use electricity for cooking and heating tasks. This thermal intensive use of electricity has a high load factor and is a contributory factor of electricity demand outstripping supply at peak demand periods. The government has promoted liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as an alternative thermal energy source for household cooking and heating. This study evaluates the long-term successes, challenges and social impacts of an LPG intervention project that was piloted in Atteridgeville Township, a typical low-income suburb. The data was gathered through one-on-one household interviews with a sample of the beneficiaries. The results indicate that seven years after the LPG intervention, about 70% of the beneficiaries continue to use LPG and report that the intervention has improved their welfare. Fast cooking is cited as the key tangible benefit of LPG technology in households, followed by saving on electricity bills. The project would have achieved more success through better community engagement, including strict beneficiary selection criteria; a long-term LPG distribution and maintenance plan; and inclusion of recurring monthly LPG subsidies for indigent households. The study discusses the subset of factors necessary for successful rollouts of similar energy projects. - Highlights: •LPG has replaced earlier combustion fuels as preferred energy for cooking. •Fast cooking, cleanliness and saving on electricity bills are the key benefits. •The demand for LPG has stimulated economic models for supply and delivery. •Periodic shortages and non-adherence to price caps deter market expansion.

  10. European strategic issues for LPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    A Strategic Team was set up at the AEGPL to: define an energy long term scenario, formulate a LPG road map, identify a positioning for LPG and determine a new image and a new name for the Association. The project will be presented in October, said Main De Greve (SHV) during the AEGPL Congress in Istanbul, where he presented a very interesting analysis on the LPG social and business environment. We publish this text below. (authors)

  11. RECYCLING OF FERROUS METAL SHAVINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most advanced and universal way of chips recycling of ferrous metals is the technology of direct chips remelting in rotational tilting furnaces (RBF directly at the enterprises-sources of waste generation. However common practice of iron and steel chips recycling is based on its briquetting and subsequent remelting in traditional furnaces.For cost reduction when chip briquetting and organization of hot briquetting sections in places of its formation highly efficient equipment – rotational dryer and RBF is proposed. The possibility and effectiveness of developed furnaces for lowand high-temperature chip heating in briquetting lines is proved. Thermal efficiency of such furnaces when dispersed materials heating is much higher than drum or feed-through furnaces. Hot briquetting of shavings reduces the pressing force, which reduces the specific energy consumption. The use of rotary kilns can reduce technological operations and equipment of production sites for the manufacture of briquettes

  12. What is LPG-fuel?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The LPG-f (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) fuels are better known by the public users for their domestic applications (cooking, sanitary water heating and building heating). This paper describes the chemical composition and properties of LPG fuels together with their environmental advantages (low S content and NOx and CO emissions, no particulates) with respect to other fossil fuels. Advantages for vehicle engines (cleaner combustion, no dilution of the engine lubricant) and passengers (reduction of noise pollution) are summarized. The worldwide production/consumption of LPG is given. (J.S.)

  13. Pain recurrence after shaving of rectovaginal endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Mathias Gottschalck; Forman, Axel

    Background: Surgical treatment of rectovaginal endometriosis varies from shaving of the nodule off the rectal wall without perforation, over discoid excision to routine rectal resection. Of these methods, shaving involves the lowest rate of serious complications but leaves endometriosis tissue...... on the bowel with risk of recurrence. This could motivate a change into more radical surgery. In the present study we therefore assessed recurrence of pain after shaving of rectovaginal endometriosis performed 2001-2009. Methods: Retrospective follow-up study. Questionnaires were sent to 212 women of whom 174...... OCs and gestagen IUD showed a trend towards a protective effect against menstrual pain (p=0.06). There was found no significant association between recurrence of pain and anterior rectal wall involvement. Conclusion: Shaving of rectovaginal endometriosis shows a high risk of postoperative pain...

  14. The European automotive LPG market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    The European automotive LPG market could reach at least 4 % of the European fuel market in 2005 versus 1 % in 1990. This would represent a rise of about 35 % in automotive LPG sales (from 2,4 million tonnes in 1997 to 7 million tonnes estimated for 2005). This was underlined by Alain Deleuse, Primagaz group's Marketing Director, in the paper he delivered at the AEGPL Budapest Convention. We publish large excepts of this paper. (author)

  15. A stronger perfume for LPG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcox, C.K.

    1996-11-01

    The odorisation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is undertaken to improve the safe use and transport of this popular fuel. Effective LPG odorisation should enable leaks to be detected by any person with a normal sense of smell before gas concentrations reach a hazardous level. The objective is identical to that for odorising natural gas. However, the physical characteristics of propane and butane present particular difficulties. These do not occur with natural gas, which has a dynamic, flowing, simple-phase system. (author)

  16. A stronger perfume for LPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willcox, C.K.

    1996-01-01

    The odorisation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is undertaken to improve the safe use and transport of this popular fuel. Effective LPG odorisation should enable leaks to be detected by any person with a normal sense of smell before gas concentrations reach a hazardous level. The objective is identical to that for odorising natural gas. However, the physical characteristics of propane and butane present particular difficulties. These do not occur with natural gas, which has a dynamic, flowing, simple-phase system. (author)

  17. Dechlorination of Hexachloroethane in Water Using Iron Shavings and Amended Iron Shavings: Kinetics and Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to previous studies which employed zero-valent iron powder, this paper investigated reductive dechlorination of hexachloroethane (HCA using iron shavings and bimetallic iron shavings modified with Cu, Ag, or Pd. Results clearly show that iron shavings offer superior reductive dechlorination of HCA. In addition, surface-normalized pseudo first-order dechlorination rates of 0.0073 L·m−2·h−1, 0.0136 L·m−2·h−1, 0.0189 L·m−2·h−1, and 0.0084 L·m−2·h−1 were observed in the presence of iron shavings (Fe0 and the bimetallic iron shavings Cu/Fe, Ag/Fe, and Pd/Fe, respectively. Bimetallic iron shavings consisting of Cu/Fe and Ag/Fe could greatly enhance the reductive reaction rate; Pd/Fe was used to achieve complete dechlorination of HCA within 5 hours. The additives of Ag and Pd shifted product distributions, and the reductive dechlorination of HCA occurred via β reductive elimination and sequential hydrogenolysis in the presence of all iron shavings. This study consequently designed a reaction pathway diagram which reflected the reaction pathway and most prevalent dechlorination products. Iron shavings are a common byproduct of mechanical processing plants. While the purity of such Fe metals may be low, these shavings are readily available at low costs and could potentially be used in engineering applications such as contamination control technologies.

  18. Performance and emissions of a heavy-duty diesel/LPG dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaberg, Paul [Sasol Technology, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes an investigation into the combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions of a heavy-duty truck engine which has been equipped with an aftermarket conversion kit to enable operation as a diesel/LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) dual fuel engine. During operation diesel fuel is displaced by LPG which is vaporised and metered into the inlet manifold by means of solenoid injectors. It was found that, as the LPG fuelling rate is increased, the cylinder pressure rise rates and peak cylinder pressures increase, as do the carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. At higher loads it was found that the LPG autoignites independently of the diesel fuel, resulting in very high rates of cylinder pressure rise. Particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions remain largely unchanged, and carbon dioxide emissions are reduced due to the lower carbon content of the LPG fuel. Different LPG compositions were also investigated and it was found that the LPG properties that have the most significant effect on combustion and emissions were the autoignition and volatility characteristics. (orig.)

  19. [Arsenical keratosis treated by dermatome shaving].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerkegaard, Ulrik Knap; Heje, Jens Martin; Vestergaard, Christian; Stausbøl-Grøn, Birgitte; Stolle, Lars Bjørn

    2014-05-05

    Cutaneous malignancy in association with arsenic exposure is a rare but well-documented phenomenon. Signs of chronic arsenic exposure are very rare in Denmark today. However, arsenic was used in the medical treatment of psoriasis vulgaris up till the 1980's and several patients suffer from this arsenic treatment today. This case report shows that arsenical keratosis can be treated by dermatome shaving, a superficial destructive therapy.

  20. The significance of LPG in Turkish vehicular transportation: liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) in fueled systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balat, Mustafa [Besikduzu, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2005-04-15

    Liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) are in widespread use in homes, industry and agriculture. Among the many uses of these gases are heating and refrigeration, as a supplement for natural gas, as fuel for industrial equipment and mobile homes, in the manufacture of ethylene, and as a solvent. Worldwide LPG production is limited to about 10% of total gasoline and diesel fuel consumption and is used to a great extent for domestic and industrial purposes. Since LPG burns cleaner with less carbon build-up and oil contamination, engine wear is reduced and the life of some components, such as rings and bearings, is much longer than with gasoline. The high octane of LPG also minimizes wear from engine knock. The rapid development of LPG technology, including ease of vehicular conversion and estimations of increased LPG availability, suggest LPG will soon be recognized as a premium automotive fuel. (Author)

  1. The American Liquefied Petroleum Gases market (LPG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.N.

    1993-01-01

    The United States is the leading LPG producer and consumer in the world: fuel applications are mainly in the form of propane, the fourth-ranked US source of energy. The US LPG industry serves more than 20 million customers, mainly on the residential, commercial and agricultural markets. 5 tabs., 6 photos

  2. Controlling LPG temperature for SI engine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceviz, Mehmet Akif; Kaleli, Alirıza; Güner, Erdoğan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of the LPG temperature on the engine performance and the exhaust emission characteristics have been investigated experimentally on an SI engine. In conventional injection systems, the LPG temperature increases excessively during the phase change in pressure regulator, and reduces the engine volumetric efficiency. According to the test results, engine performance and NO emission characteristics can be improved by controlling the LPG temperature before injecting to the engine intake manifold. A new control system taking into account the results of the study has been developed and tested. In order to control the LPG temperature, the coolant flow rate in pressure regulator circuit was arranged by using a control valve activated by a PID controller unit. Results of the study showed that the engine brake power loss can be increased by about 1.85% and NO emissions can be decreased by about 2% as compared to the operation with the original LPG injection system. - Highlights: • Effects of the LPG temperature have been examined. • Engine performance characteristics and exhaust emissions have been studied. • Results reveal that the LPG temperature should be kept in a range. • A prototype LPG temperature control system has been successfully developed

  3. Briquetting of titanium shavings with using of short electrical pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramova, K.B.; Samujlov, S.D.; Filin, Yu.A.

    1998-01-01

    It is proposed and tested a new technology of briquetting of metallic shavings. The technology includes pressing of shavings with comparatively low pressure and processing it by means of short pulse of high density electrical current. Strength of the briquette arrears as a result of the sport electric welding of the contacts between the shaving particles. The technology permits: to produce firm briquettes from the shavings or other scrap of any metal or alloy, for example from titanium; to produce briquettes practically of any porosity; to decrease the compression and abandon heating almost for high-strength alloy in comparison with existing methods [ru

  4. Dysplastic naevi: to shave, or not to shave? A retrospective study of the use of the shave biopsy technique in the initial management of dysplastic naevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Katherine; Mann, Stephen; Lee, Stephen

    2005-05-01

    The management of dysplastic naevi is a controversial subject. This study sought to assess the usefulness of the shave biopsy technique in the initial management of dysplastic naevi, and to demonstrate the advantages over the punch biopsy technique. We report a retrospective observational study of histopathology specimens examined in one histopathology practice over a 14-month period. Patients who had a clinical diagnosis of 'dysplastic naevus', which had initially been biopsied using either a shave or punch biopsy, and then followed up with a full-thickness elliptical excision, were included in the study. Histopathological concordance between the shave and punch biopsy specimens and their respective follow-up elliptical excisions was compared. We found that 21 of 22 (95.5%) shave biopsies were concordant with their respective excision specimens, and that 29 of 41 (70.7%) punch biopsies were concordant with their respective elliptical excision specimens. Of the shave biopsy specimens reviewed, 66% showed that the dysplastic naevi were completely excised with the initial biopsy, compared with 21.2% of the punch biopsy specimens. These findings confirm that shave biopsies provide accurate diagnostic information in the assessment of dysplastic naevi. Shave biopsies enable the entire lesion to be submitted for histopathological assessment, improving the chances of an accurate diagnosis.

  5. The LPG industry road-map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the challenges of LPG industry in contributing to the economic and social growth in Europe for the coming decades: due to its specific characteristics - both as a product and an industry - LPG can make a meaningful contribution to meeting the Europe's 3 objectives of sustainability, security of supply and competitiveness both now and in the future. LPG industry wants to reinforce its role in meeting some of the world's most pressing challenges: reducing human impact on the environment, protecting human health, and ensuring a secure energy supply. Doubling LPG's contribution to the energy mix in Europe will significantly boost the positive impact of LPG on its users and society as a whole. The LPG industry can play also an important role in the indoor applications sector. Industry estimates suggest that this sector could grow by 55% between 2001 and 2030. However, to transform this potential into a reality, a series of conditions, notably the improvement of existing applications, support in terms of R and D for the development of new applications and an enhanced degree of cooperation with innovative renewable energies, need to be met. As such, it is vital to put a structure in place to promote cooperation and exchanges between public authorities and relevant industrial actors. There are three key type of initiative to be taken: encouraging consumers to switch from conventional fuels to clean alternatives such as LPG, stimulating the modification (retrofitting) of existing vehicles from petrol-fuelled to LPG-fuelled, and encouraging car-makers to place new vehicles powered by LPG, mono-fuel, bi-fuel (LPG/petrol, LPG/biofuel) or hybrid (LPG/electric) on the market. Taken as a whole, the measures outlined above would yield numerous benefits, not only in terms of protecting the environment and human health, but also providing a valuable contribution to rural development in Europe. Expanding the role of LPG in industry throughout the EU yields the

  6. Africa gaining importance in world LPG trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haun, R.R.; Otto, K.W.; Whitley, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    Major LPG projects planned or under way in Africa will increase the importance of that region's presence in world LPG trade. Supplies will nearly double between 1995 and 2005, at which time they will remain steady for at least 10 years. At the same time that exports are leveling, however, increasing domestic demand for PG is likely to reduce export-market participation by Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, and Libya. The growth of Africa's participation in world LPG supply is reflected in comparisons for the next 15--20 years. Total world supply of LPG in 1995 was about 165 million metric tons (tonnes), of which Africans share was 7.8 million tonnes. By 2000, world supply will grow to slightly more than 200 million tonnes, with Africa's share expected to increase to 13.2 million tonnes (6.6%). And by 2005, world LPG supply will reach nearly 230 million tonnes; Africa's overall supply volumes by that year will be nearly 16.2 million tonnes (7%). World LPG supply for export in 1995 was on order of 44 million tonnes with Africa supply about 4 million tonnes (9%). By 2005, world export volumes of LPG will reach nearly 70 million tonnes; Africa's share will have grown by nearly 10 million tonnes (14.3%)

  7. LPG fuels in France in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    This short note gives a statement of the sales of butane, propane and LPG fuels in France during the year 1997. Details are given for conditioned butane and propane products, cylinders and fixed reservoirs. (J.S.)

  8. Anthrax in Vintage Animal-hair Shaving Brushes

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-08-08

    Dr. Kate Hendricks, a CDC anthrax expert, discusses anthrax in vintage shaving brushes.  Created: 8/8/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/8/2017.

  9. Anthrax Cases Associated with Animal-Hair Shaving Brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szablewski, Christine M; Hendricks, Kate; Bower, William A; Shadomy, Sean V; Hupert, Nathaniel

    2017-05-01

    During the First World War, anthrax cases in the United States and England increased greatly and seemed to be associated with use of new shaving brushes. Further investigation revealed that the source material and origin of shaving brushes had changed during the war. Cheap brushes of imported horsehair were being made to look like the preferred badger-hair brushes. Unfortunately, some of these brushes were not effectively disinfected and brought with them a nasty stowaway: Bacillus anthracis. A review of outbreak summaries, surveillance data, and case reports indicated that these cases originated from the use of ineffectively disinfected animal-hair shaving brushes. This historical information is relevant to current public health practice because renewed interest in vintage and animal-hair shaving brushes has been seen in popular culture. This information should help healthcare providers and public health officials answer questions on this topic.

  10. Perspectives of the LPG-fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    In today's context of environment protection cares and in agreement with the actions carried out by the local authorities and organizations, the LPG-fuel appears in the media with a reviving good and credible reputation. However, one can ask about its real perspectives of development. This short paper analyses the conditions for this development at the international and at the national scale. LPG-fuel is the most used and most performing alternative fuel in the world and can contribute to the energy independence of the countries with national LPG resources. Its technological mastery leads progressively the car manufacturers to propose vehicles already equipped with dual-fuel engines, but to reach its expected success, LPG-fuel needs a financial aid from the national authorities in the form of taxes reduction. Its privileged markets are the taxicabs, the public transportation systems and the fleets of intervention vehicles. In France, the network of LPG distribution stations is progressively reinforcing but a revision of the legal texts concerning the training of personnel and the approval of repair shops must be updated. (J.S.)

  11. Environmental consequences of parallel marketing of LPG in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, T.K.; Deb, C.; Jash, T.

    2000-01-01

    In 1993, the government of India introduced a parallel marketing system for petroleum products, particularly for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). LPG, under the parallel marketing system, is distributed at higher price without any subsidy. The government distributors, however, distribute LPG at subsidized rate. The consumers who get LPG at higher price, therefore, opt for a mixed energy use. The present study, based on a field survey, deals with the pattern of this mixed energy use and its environmental consequences. (author)

  12. Conformity checking of LPG Transportation Trucks by Modelling and Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Gallab , Maryam; Bouloiz , Hafida; Tkiouat , Mohamed; Garbolino , Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    International audience; LPG Loading /unloading site is considered as a dangerous environment of significant risk, especially during LPG transfer operations. These risks may cause catastrophic dangers such as BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion), UVCE (Unconfined Vapour Cloud Explosion), etc. The site consists of a tank (RST) containing LPG and threetransfer posts. Two posts allow loading of small carrier tankers 6 tons. The other one transfer post transfer LPG contained injumbo t...

  13. Safety considerations on LPG storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paff, R.

    1993-01-01

    The safety of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage tanks, in refineries, petrochemicals plants, or distribution storage, is an important concern. Some serious accidents in recent years, have highlighted the need for a good safety policy for such equipment. Accidents in LPG storage are mainly due to losses of containment of the LPG. Formation of a cloud can lead to a ''Unconfined Vapor Cloud Explosion'' (UVCE). Liquid leakage can lead to pool fires in the retention area. In some circumstances the heat input of the tank, combined with the loss of mechanical resistance of the steel under high temperature, can lead to a BLEVE ''Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion''. It is obvious that such equipment needs a proper design, maintenance and operating policy. The details to be considered are set out. (4 figures). (Author)

  14. Vienna: a capital transported by LPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    For more than 30 years the Austrian capital has chosen the LPG-fuel for its public transportation systems. This choice was advised by the environmental necessity to reduce the emissions of particulates from diesel engines and by the economical will of having a competitive fuel source with respect to diesel fuel. This paper recalls first the historical evolution of Vienna's buses progressively equipped with dual-fuel engines, and since 1976 with LPG fuel engines only. Today's the LPG buses fleet represents about 80% of the Vienna Transport buses. Then, the economical (fuel consumption, investment, exploitation and maintenance costs) and environmental (particulates and CO emissions) balance-sheet of this evolution is analysed. Since 1988, the use of catalytic converters for exhaust systems has allowed a 80% reduction of NOx emissions. (J.S.)

  15. LPG market in sub Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belguedj, M.

    1999-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the current state of the liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) market in sub Saharan Africa (SSA) and analyses the supply and demand patterns, the constraints on supply imposed by the insufficient output from refineries unable to meet the increasing demand, and institutional and regulatory issues. Details are given of the pricing policies, the economic benefits that could be obtained by increasing the scale of operations, the use of subsidies, private sector participation, and LPG activities in Angola, Cameroon, the Congo, and the Ivory Coast. The role of the World Bank in the Africa Gas Initiative to promote the use of natural gas reserves in SSA, and requirements for developing the LPG market are discussed

  16. LPG based all plastic pressure sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundalo, Ivan-Lazar; Lwin, R.; Leon-Saval, S.

    2015-01-01

    A prototype all-plastic pressure sensor is presented and characterized for potential use as an endoscope. The sensor is based on Long Period Gratings (LPG) inscribed with a CO2 laser in 6-ring microstructured PMMA fiber. Through a latex coated, plastic 3D-printed transducer pod, external pressure...... is converted to longitudinal elongation of the pod and therefore of the fiber containing the LPG. The sensor has been characterised for pressures of up to 160 mBar in an in-house built pressure chamber. Furthermore, the influence of the fiber prestrain, fiber thickness and the effect of different glues...

  17. Analysis of an LPG accidental release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demichela, M.; Piccinini, N.; Poggio, A.

    2004-03-01

    An industrial LPG storage accident due to the release of propane from a tanker is described in this paper and the sequence of events that led to the collapse of a storage tank is examined using simulation software. A model taking both released flows into account as a radiant thermal contribution in the presence of flames is presented. The progression of the accident is assessed through digitalization and processing of the film of the fireball produced by about 500 L of LPG, whose diameter was calculated as approximately 50 m. (author)

  18. LPG a clean and efficient motor fuel: regulated and non-regulated emissions of a commercial attractive LPG vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollemans, B.H.

    1996-01-01

    Excise and other duties measures in Europe, threaten to affect the low price of LPG as a car fuel. As a result, this less polluting fuel would lose position. For this reason the Netherlands LPG industry commissioned TNO to undertake a study which would clearly demonstrate the advantages of LPG. The

  19. Power and LPG production with LNG import

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, J.Y.

    2004-01-01

    When used in power cogeneration, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is both energy efficient and can eliminate seawater or fuel gas consumption as well as the associated environmental impacts of conventional regasification processes. However, some liquefied natural gas (LNG) sources have heating values higher than current North American natural gas pipelines can allow for. LNG from these cannot be injected into gas pipelines without several heating control processing steps. This paper outlines two new technologies developed to address this issue. The first is a power cogeneration process using LNG as a heat sink. The second technology involves a fractionation process removing Liquid Propane Gas (LPG) components from imported LNG, thereby controlling heat value. Both technologies are applicable in grassroots installations as well as being suitable for retrofitting to existing LNG regasification for power generation and LPG production. It was concluded that power cogeneration with a mixed fluid power cycle recovered a significant portion of energy in LNG liquefaction plants. Additionally, it was also possible to fractionate high quality LPG from LNG at a low cost, with the residue being further re-condensed and re-utilized for power generation. It was also concluded that the LNG fractionation process would add flexibility to the LNG receiving terminals, allowing the import of lower quality LNG to North America, while also generating additional revenues from LPG production. 3 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  20. France: freeing the block on auto Lpg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Can it be hoped, when business starts again this september, that the right conditions will finally exist for LPG motor car fuel in France to get off the ground ? In any case the context seems to lend itself to that end more so than in previous years. Perhaps because measures in favour of a tax incentive - tirelessly sought by the LPG industry with the backing of a large car manufacturer and the support of the 'technical' ministers - have met with powerful trends this time, backed up by public opinion worried at the levels of atmospheric pollution reached in July and August. Perhaps too because all the main players in the sector are ready to rise to the challenge: equipment suppliers offer new, high-performance materials, a manufacturer of Renault's declares itself convinced of the advantages of LPG fuel, while distributors of the product declare themselves ready to accompany tax exemption with an effort regarding tax-free pricing. As elected representatives and societies (one on behalf of the users of LPG, the other for the protection of the environment) have shown equally their support, the components are nearly all assembled. One should guard against premature optimism, however: only the draft finance law for 1996, presented in the Council of Ministers around the 20th September, will tell if the Finance ministry shows itself aware of the arguments put forward. (authors). 3 figs., 1 tab

  1. Badger hair in shaving brushes comes from protected Eurasian badgers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domingo-Roura, X.; Marmi, J.; Ferrando, A.; López-Giráldez, F.; Macdonald, D.W.; Jansman, H.A.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Eurasian badger (Meles meles) is included in Appendix III of the Bern Convention and protected by national laws in many European countries. Badger hair is used to manufacture luxury shaving brushes, although it is frequently argued that the hog badger (Arctonyx collaris), which in Europe is an

  2. CFBP and LPG market in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    The French butane and propane committee (CFBP) has presented its activities in liquefied petroleum gases in its 2004 annual report. The success of its initiatives of promotion during the year 2004 has led the CFBP to launch a new campaign of advertisement since January 31, 2005. In its report, the CFBP stresses on the re-start up of the LPG fuel market. The sales of propane gas in tanks have raised by 5.2% between 2003 and 2004. The decay of the traditional market of gas cylinders has been practically stopped thanks to the sales dynamism of small (5-6 kg) cylinders and to the innovations added by some retailers on the 13 kg cylinders (level indicator). The sales of automotive LPG fuels have shown a slower decay during 2004. (J.S.)

  3. Transient evaluation for LPG and oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meliande, Patricia; Do Nascimento, Elson Antonio; Fernandes Lacerda, Rogerio [Federal Fluminense University, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    In the last decades, the offshore industry has expanded thanks to the development of equipment for subsea operation. In such installations, protection equipment can be adapted to the installation's design in order to avoid surge pressure effects and ensure safety and integrity of the system, predicting transient effect is therefore very important. The purpose of this study is to predict the surge pressure on refrigerated LPG and gasoline pipelines during unpredicted closure of valves. Flowmaster software was used to carry out the simulations and its results were then validated with a methodology that applied the characteristics method based on Wylie and Streeter assumptions. Results showed that surge pressures during transient effect for both refrigerated LPG and Gasoline pipeline systems were less than the maximum allowable operating pressure and therefore no control dispositive installations are geeded. This study showed that the use of these computer models can ensure the optimization of the system and provide cost effective solutions.

  4. Daur ulang limbah shaving industri penyamakan kulit untuk kertas seni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sutyasmi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A research has been done on recycling of shavings waste for art paper. The aim of this research was to utilize shaving waste from tanning industry for making art paper in order not to pollute the environment, and to add raw materials to the manufacture of art paper. In this study the majority of shaving waste was used as a motif (20% and partly made ​of pulp (10% together with paper waste (newspaper. As the materials starch and resin adhesive (fox used was (1% that served as an adhesive. Dyes were used to the beauty of the appearance of art paper. There were two stages of the paper making, first made ​from waste paper pulp added with the waste shaving, then printing given motives shaving motive of waste too. Part of the sheet of paper were pressed (about half, and the other parts were not pressed. They were then tested on gramatur art paper, tear index, tensile index, and the fracture index. The test results showed that pressed art paper had -3 a tear index, tensile index and the fracture index (3.85; 0.59; 8.4 x 10 , and the impressed was -3 (3.57; 0.52; 6.9 x 10 respectively the art paper that used fox adhesive on the pressed (15,545; -1 -1 0,76; 3528 x 10 , and on impressed (16,366; 0,80; 3549 x 10 . The overall appearance of art paper results could still compete with the art of paper are the market.

  5. Direct injection of gaseous LPG in a two-stroke SI engine for improved performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep, V.; Bakshi, Shamit; Ramesh, A.

    2015-01-01

    Improvements in a two-stroke, spark-ignition (2S–SI) engine can be realized by curtailing short-circuiting losses effectively through direct injection of the fuel. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is an alternative transportation fuel that is used in several countries. However, limited information is available on LPG fuelled direct injected engines. Hence, there is a need to study these systems as applied to 2S–SI engines in order to bring out their potential benefits. A manifold injected 2S–SI engine is modified for direct injection of LPG, in gaseous form, from the cylinder head. This engine is evaluated for performance, emission and combustion. Evaluation at various throttle positions and constant speed showed that this system can significantly improve the thermal efficiency and lower the hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. Up to 93% reduction in HC emissions and improved combustion rates are observed compared to the conventional manifold injection system with LPG. CO emissions are higher and peak NO emissions are lower with this system due to the presence of richer in–cylinder trapped mixtures and charge stratification. This system can operate with similar injection timings at different throttle positions which make electronic control simpler. It can work with low injection pressures in the range of 4–5 bars. All these advantages are attractive for commercial viability of this engine. - Highlights: • Energy saving, low pressure, direct gaseous LPG injection in engine. • Significant reduction in HC emissions at all operating conditions. • No significant changes in injection timings for different throttle positions.

  6. Analisa Pembuatan Tabung Gas Lpg 3 Kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa -

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Program konversi minyak tanah ke LPG merupakan program pemerintah yang bertujuan untuk mengurangisubsidi BBM, dengan mengalihkan pemakaian minyak tanah ke LPG. Tujuan analisa untuk mengetahui proses pembuatantabung gas, proses deep drawing dan metode pengelasan yang baik. Karena masih banyak orang yang takut memakai bahanbakar LPG tersebut karena takut meledak akibat kualitasnya yang kurang bagus. Deep Drawing atau biasa disebut drawingadalah salah satu jenis proses pembentukan logam, dimana bentuk pada umumnya berupa silinder dan selalu mempunyaikedalaman tertentu. Pada proses pembuatan tabung gas elpiji untuk mendisain suatu proses pembentukan logam , sepertipenarikan (drawing. Salah satu pekerjaan yang harus kita lakukan adalah menentukan atau memilih kapasitas mesin(energi, gaya, torsi serta perkakas dan peralatan yang akan digunakan untuk proses tersebut. Pada proses deep drawingdengan kecepatan tekan yang telah ditentukan (sesuai tabel daya tekan maksimal tidak boleh melebihi: 167,330 kg. Padaproses pengelasan circum, tegangan normal mencapai 61.16 kg/cm2, karena masih diatas uji ketahanan hidrostastik, makamasih dalam batas aman.

  7. LPG Dependence after a Suicide Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Aldemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhalant abuse is a problem that is getting more common all around the world. The increase in prevalence of inhalant abuse escalates morbidity and mortality rates. About 22% of people using inhalant have died at their first attempt. Particularly propane, butane, or propane-butane mixture has highest mortality rates. Sudden sniffing death syndrome, cardiomyopathy, central nervous system toxicity, hematological abnormalities, kidney toxicity, and hepatocellular toxicities are the major complications of inhalant abuse. Herein we present a patient with inhalant use disorder. At the age of 19, after a stressful life event he had unsuccessfully tried to suicide by inhaling LPG (liquefied petroleum gas, a mixture of butane and propane gases. After he realized that he had hallucinations and felt better during the inhalation, he started to abuse it. He was addicted to LPG for 10 years at the time of admission. Besides being dangerous for the society security, this intense level of LPG inhalation (12 liters a day not giving any physical harm makes this case interesting.

  8. CONVERSION OF DIESEL ENGINE INTO SPARK IGNITION ENGINE TO WORK WITH CNG AND LPG FUELS FOR MEETING NEW EMISSION NORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Kaleemuddin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating fuel prices and associated pollution problems of largely exploited petroleum liquid fuel has stimulated the research on abundantly available gaseous fuels to keep the mobility industry intact. In the present work an air cooled diesel engine was modified suitably into a spark ignition engine incorporating electronic ignition and variable speed dependant spark timing to accommodate both LPG and CNG as fuels. Engine was optimized for stoichiometric operation on engine dynamometer. Materials of a few intricate engine components were replaced to suit LPG and CNG application. Ignition timing was mapped to work with gaseous fuels for different speeds. Compensation was done for recovering volumetric efficiency when operated with CNG by introducing more volume of air through resonator. Ignition timing was observed to be the pertinent parameter in achieving good performance with gaseous fuels under consideration. Performance and emission tests were carried out on engine dynamometer and chassis dynamometer. Under wide open throttle and at rated speed condition, it was observed that the peak pressure with LPG was lying between diesel fuel and CNG fuel operation due to slow burning nature of gaseous fuels. As compression ratio was maintained same for LPG and CNG fuel operation, low CO emissions were observed with LPG where as HC + NOx emissions were lower with CNG fuel operation. Chassis dynamometer based emission tests yielded lower CO2 levels with CNG operation.

  9. The performances of the LPG-fueled vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Todays, LPG-fueled vehicles are simply equipped with transformed classical petrol engines. The LPG consumption is greater but the emission of pollutants is greatly reduced (from 40 to 98% for the CO and from 30 to 80% for the HC and NOx, depending on the temperature of use). This short paper summarizes the environmental advantages of the LPG-fueled vehicles and the forthcoming technological evolutions expected in Europe, Japan and the USA. (J.S.)

  10. Environmental payoffs of LPG cooking in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D.; Pachauri, S.; Zerriffi, H.

    2017-11-01

    Over two-thirds of Indians use solid fuels to meet daily cooking energy needs, with associated negative environmental, social, and health impacts. Major national initiatives implemented by the Indian government over the last few decades have included subsidies for cleaner burning fuels like liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and kerosene to encourage a transition to these. However, the extent to which these programs have affected net emissions from the use of these improved fuels has not been adequately studied. Here, we estimate the amount of fuelwood displaced and its net emissions impact due to improved access to LPG for cooking in India between 2001 and 2011 using nationally representative household expenditure surveys and census datasets. We account for a suite of climate-relevant emissions (Kyoto gases and other short-lived climate pollutants) and biomass renewability scenarios (a fully renewable and a conservative non-renewable case). We estimate that the national fuelwood displaced due to increased LPG access between 2001 and 2011 was approximately 7.2 million tons. On aggregate, we estimate a net emissions reduction of 6.73 MtCO2e due to the fuelwood displaced from increased access to LPG, when both Kyoto and non-Kyoto climate-active emissions are accounted for and assuming 0.3 as the fraction of non-renewable biomass (fNRB) harvested. However, if only Kyoto gases are considered, we estimate a smaller net emissions decrease of 0.03 MtCO2e (assuming fully renewable biomass harvesting), or 3.05 MtCO2e (assuming 0.3 as the fNRB). We conclude that the transition to LPG cooking in India reduced pressures on forests and achieved modest climate benefits, though uncertainties regarding the extent of non-renewable biomass harvesting and suite of climate-active emissions included in such an estimation can significantly influence results in any given year and should be considered carefully in any analysis and policy-making.

  11. The impact of waterborne LPG imports on US markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, L.

    1994-01-01

    After a winter like most of the US has gone through this year it is certainly apropos to discuss the effect of waterborne LPG imports on the market. Due to time constraints this paper will be limited to global LPG activity as it relates to the US. To provide some credibility to the following comments, it should be stated that Commercial Services Company tracks every large LPG carrier in the world from the LPG lifting point to it's discharge destination and the commercial activity involved in the delivery

  12. Shave-off depth profiling: Depth profiling with an absolute depth scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, M.; Maekawa, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Tomiyasu, B.; Sakamoto, T.; Owari, M.; Nihei, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Shave-off depth profiling provides profiling with an absolute depth scale. This method uses a focused ion beam (FIB) micro-machining process to provide the depth profile. We show that the shave-off depth profile of a particle reflected the spherical shape of the sample and signal intensities had no relationship to the depth. Through the introduction of FIB micro-sampling, the shave-off depth profiling of a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) tip was carried out. The shave-off profile agreed with a blue print from the manufacturing process. Finally, shave-off depth profiling is discussed with respect to resolutions and future directions

  13. Leishmania major glycosylation mutants require phosphoglycans (lpg2- but not lipophosphoglycan (lpg1- for survival in permissive sand fly vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Svárovská

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sand fly species able to support the survival of the protozoan parasite Leishmania have been classified as permissive or specific, based upon their ability to support a wide or limited range of strains and/or species. Studies of a limited number of fly/parasite species combinations have implicated parasite surface molecules in this process and here we provide further evidence in support of this proposal. We investigated the role of lipophosphoglycan (LPG and other phosphoglycans (PGs in sand fly survival, using Leishmania major mutants deficient in LPG (lpg1(-, and the phosphoglycan (PG-deficient mutant lpg2(-. The sand fly species used were the permissive species Phlebotomus perniciosus and P. argentipes, and the specific vector P. duboscqi, a species resistant to L. infantum development.The lpg2(- mutants did not survive well in any of the three sand fly species, suggesting that phosphoglycans and/or other LPG2-dependent molecules are required for parasite development. In vitro, all three L. major lines were equally resistant to proteolytic activity of bovine trypsin, suggesting that sand fly-specific hydrolytic proteases or other factors are the reason for the early lpg2(- parasite killing. The lpg1(- mutants developed late-stage infections in two permissive species, P. perniciosus and P. argentipes, where their infection rates and intensities of infections were comparable to the wild type (WT parasites. In contrast, in P. duboscqi the lpg1(- mutants developed significantly worse than the WT parasites.In combination with previous studies, the data establish clearly that LPG is not required for Leishmania survival in permissive species P. perniciosus and P. argentipes but plays an important role in the specific vector P. duboscqi. With regard to PGs other than LPG, the data prove the importance of LPG2-related molecules for survival of L. major in the three sand fly species tested.

  14. Analysis of the vaporization of the liquefied gas of the petroleum (LPG) in tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzate Espinosa, Guillermo A; Jaraba V, Xavier F

    2005-01-01

    Putting together thermodynamics (phase behavior), heat transfer and mass transfer fundamentals; it was possible to structure a mathematical and numerical model to simulate the vaporization process of LPG in tanks. The simulation model allows studying any feeding process with gaseous LPG to an appliance, and therefore, to follow changes inside the LPG tank related with LPG composition and its properties, temperature and pressure. A continuous or by cycles supplying process of gaseous LPG from a tank to any appliance promotes a reduction of liquid LPG temperature, an increase on specific gravity of LPG in both phases, and also an increasing in the value calorific of gaseous LPG

  15. French Committee of Butane and Propane. 2015 activity report. Butane, propane, LPG - Immediately available solutions for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-05-01

    This document presents the 2015 highlights of the French LPG fuels industry: 1 - 2015 LPG market; 2 - CFBP missions and 2015 highlights: promotion of LPG industry and uses, contribution to standards development, safety of industrial sites, promoting LPG specificities, safety of LPG transports and training, ensuring clients' installations safety, promoting LPG in the energy mix, promoting LPGc potential, public information

  16. Modeling the performance of coated LPG tanks engulfes in fires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozzani, V.; Landucci, G.; Molag, M. (Menso)

    2009-01-01

    The improvement of passive fire protection of storage vessels is a key factor to enhance safety among the LPG distribution chain. A thermal and mechanical model based on finite elements simulations was developed to assess the behaviour of full size tanks used for LPG storage and transportation in

  17. LPG and NH3 Sensing Properties of SnO2 Thick Film Resistors Prepared by Screen Printing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. GARDE

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The gas sensing behavior of SnO2 thick film resistors deposited on alumina substrates has been investigated for LPG and NH3 gas. The standard screen printing technology was used to prepare the thick films. The films were fired at optimized temperature of 780 0C for 30 minutes. The material characterization was performed by XRD, SEM, FTIR, UV and EDAX for elemental analysis. IR spectroscopy analysis at 2949.26 cm-1 showed the peak assigned to the –Sn-H vibration due to the effect of hybridization i.e. sp3 and the sharp peak at 3734.31 cm-1 assigned to –Sn-OH stretching vibration due to hydrogen bonding. The variation of D.C electrical resistance of SnO2 film samples was measured in air as well as in LPG and NH3 gas atmosphere as a function of temperature. The SnO2 film samples show negative temperature coefficient of résistance. The SnO2 film samples showed the highest sensitivity to 600 ppm of LPG at 230 0C and NH3 at 370 0C. The effect of microstructure on sensitivity, response time and recovery time of the sensor in the presence of LPG and NH3 gases were studied and discussed.

  18. Reductie BLEVE-frequentie van een LPG-tankauto op een autotankstation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, O.M.P.; Pietersen, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Uit de LPG-Integraalstudie [4] blijkt dat de BLEVE van de LPG-Tankauto het risico van het autotankstation domineert (bij ondergrondse opslagtank). In deze studie is nagegaan wat de invloed is van een aantal mogelijk te treffen voorzieníngen aan de LPG-tankauto en het LPG-autotankstation op de

  19. Simultaneous Imbalance Reduction and Peak Shaving using a Field Operational Virtual Power Plant with Pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruissen, O.P. van; Kok, J.K.; Eisma, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch electricity infrastructure is challenged by the deployment of large numbers of heat pumps in newly-built domestic residences. An example is the apartment complex of Couperus in The Hague where 300 apartments are heated by individual heat pumps. This building was operated as a Virtual Power

  20. Peak Shaving and Alternative Power: A Question of Economy, Quality of Life and Quality of Electricity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, David

    1999-01-01

    .... Fuel cells offer a variety of options for co-generation and power management. A prudent use of the by-products of electric generation from a fuel cell could increase efficiency of the plant and provide cost savings to the user...

  1. Storage coordination and peak-shaving operation in urban areas with high renewable penetration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voulis, N.; Warnier, Martijn; Brazier, F.M.

    2017-01-01

    As renewable power generation gains importance, balancing of power demand and supply becomes more and more challenging. This paper addresses this challenge by exploring the potential of individually-owned storage units in decentralised power systems with a high share of renewables. The focus is

  2. Emissions from ethanol- and LPG-fueled vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the United States. Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the United States for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the United States, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing U.S. interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat-ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles, and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG, will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat-ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural impacts from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG as compared with other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat-ethanol-fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG-fueled vehicles

  3. Rancang Bangun Sistem Pengaman Kebocoran Gas LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) Menggunakan Mikrokontroler

    OpenAIRE

    Ismai, Reza Lutfi; Suseno, Jatmiko Endro; Suryono, Suryono

    2017-01-01

    Design of LPG gas leakage safety system using microcontroller has been made in this research. The purpose of this research is to make LPG gas sensor circuit to detect LPG gas concentration and make automation systems for LPG gas leakage protection. LPG gas leakage protection system can be applied for the use of LPG gas safely. Component to detect LPG gas concentration use sensor MQ 5 which can gives resistance as the output value which can be converted into voltage through the voltage devider...

  4. Simulation for thermal response of a spherical LPG tank; Kyukei LPG chozo tanku no netsuoto kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hsi-jen; Lin, Mann-hsing; Chao, Fu-yuan [Tamkang University, Tamsui (Taiwan). Department of Chemical Engineering

    1999-03-05

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a very important fuel and chemical feed stock as well; however, the hydrocarbon has been involved in many major fires and explosions. One of these accidents is boiling-liquid, expanding-vapor explosion (BLEVE). It is a phenomenon that results from the sudden release from confinement of a liquid at a temperature above its atmospheric-pressure boiling point. The sudden decrease in pressure results in the explosive vaporization of a fraction of the liquid and a cloud of vapor and mist with the accompanying blast effects. Most BLEVEs involve flammable liquids, and most BLEVE releases are ignited by a surrounding fire and result in a fireball. The primary objective of this paper is to develop a computer model in order to determine the thermal response of a spherical LPG tank involved in fire engulfment accidents. The assessment of the safety spacing between tanks was also discussed. (author)

  5. The worldwide market will not be short of LPG fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is a synthesis of an internal note of the French Butane and Propane Committee (CFBP) about the perspectives of the worldwide market of LPG fuels. The conclusion of this study is that the market will not be short of LPG, in particular the French market and the automotive fuels. The consumption of LPG fuels for vehicles in France is growing up rapidly (about 100% in 1997 with respect to 1996: 90000 t consumed in 1997 by 70000 vehicles) and the resource remains important and can reach 3 millions of tons per year. (J.S.)

  6. RANCANG BANGUN PROTOTYPE PENANGANAN DINI DAN PENDETEKSI KEBOCORAN LPG BERBASIS MIKROKONTROLER MELALUI SMS

    OpenAIRE

    Iksal, Iksal; Sumiati, Sumiati; Harizal, Harizal

    2017-01-01

    Masalah keamanan dalam pemakaian Gas LPG belakangan ini mendapat perhatian serius, banyak diberitakan terjadinya kebakaran akibat ledakan dari kebcoran Gas LPG. Mengingat mobilitas manusia semakin meningkat yang menuntut mereka tidak berada di dalam ruangan tempat penyimpanan Gas LPG untuk mengawasinya sepanjang waktu. Dibutuhkan sistem yang dapat memonitoring pemakaian Gas LPG secara realtime. Sehingga dapat meminimalisir tingkat kelalaian dalam terjadinya kebocoran Gas LPG.  Berdasarkan lat...

  7. Risk assessment of LPG automotive refuelling facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchers, R.E. [University of Newcastle, Newcastle (Australia). Dept. of Civil, Surveying and Enviromental Engineering; Feutrill, W.R. [Wesfarmers Kleenheat Gas Pty. Ltd., Perth (Australia)

    2001-12-01

    Quantified risk analysis (QRA) was used for the revision of regulatory separation distances associated with medium size liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) refuelling facilities used in automotive service (gas) stations. Typically these facilities consist of a 7.5 kl pressure vessel, pump, pipework, dispensing equipment and safety equipment. Multi-tank installations are relatively uncommon. This paper describes the hazard scenarios considered, the risk analysis procedure and the selection and application of data for initiating events and for rates of failure of mechanical components and of the pressure vessel. Human errors and intervention possibilities were also considered. Because of the inapplicability of established consequence models and the relatively small scale of the facilities, a number of tests were performed to estimate flame length, flame impingement effects, ignition probabilities and the effectiveness of screening devices. (author)

  8. Management for the LPG downstream business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, C.

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally the LPG business is regarded as a low-tech area. Safety has always been top priority, but the applied technology in production as well as distribution has by and large not changed much in the course of the business' 60-year-history. Only few has realised that changes are the necessary mark of the future for this business. Internal and external requirements to the management demand a much higher level of information. The trend dictates a future demand for documented safety. This documentation will only become available through introduction of the latest technology in the business. A technology that also provides decision-making tools for the management to ensure the continued optimum operation of the business. (au)

  9. Pemanfaatan kembali krom limbah shaving untuk penyamakan kulit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sutyasmi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the extent of chrome in shaving waste that can be recovered and reused for tanning the leather and to reduce environmental pollution. Three kg of chrome shaving waste was hydrolyzed with NaOH by variation of 1, 2 and 3 % respectively in 10 liters of water, at temperature of 100oC for 1 hour. The results solution was then filtered to separate the chrome from the collagen protein . The filtered solids chrome was recovery by concentrated using sulfuric acid. The resulting chrome has Cr2O3 about 11 g/kg of chromium with utiluzation of 2 % NaOH. The recovered chrome was used for tanning goat skin with variation of 0, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 100% respectively from total chrome used for tanning leather. Test result showed that the variation of 60 % met the standard of SNI 0253-2009: Upper leather footwear-goat. The use of recovered chrome reduce environmental pollution.

  10. Chromatographic characterization of products isolated from chrome shavings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivaldo E Garcia

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Gel permeation chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were employed for separation and chemical characterization of products isolated from chrome shavings. After enzymatic hydrolysis, the products isolated were peptides of higher molecular weight. Peptides of lower molecular weight and free aminoacids were the main products using sulfuric acid in chrome shavings solubilization. Glycine (17% , glutamic acid (10.6% , alanine (9.2% , and arginine (8.2% were the principal amino acids found. Phenylalanine(1.8% was the main aromatic amino acid , while tryptophane was completely absent.A cromatografia de permeação em gel e a cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência foram utilizadas para a separação e caracterização dos produtos isolados da serragem cromada. Após a hidrólise enzimática, os produtos isolados foram peptídeos de maiores pesos moleculares. Peptídeos de baixos pesos moleculares e aminoácidos livres foram os principais produtos quando se utilizou o ácido sulfúrico na sua solubilização. Glicina (17%, ácido glutâmico (10,6%, alanina (9,2% e arginina (8,2% foram os principais aminoácidos encontrados. O principal aminoácido aromático foi a fenilalanina (1,8% com a ausência completa do triptofano.

  11. Early structure of LPG partially premixed conically stabilized flames

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental investigation of LPG partially premixed turbulent flames stabilized within a conical nozzle burner under constant degree of partial premixing. The stability limits and mean flame structure are presented based

  12. LPG markets face upheaval as buyers press for change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Paul

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on the system used for selling liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) where the sellers set the market price with Saudi Arabia dominating the market. The introduction and acceptance of a new method for setting the export price in relation to the spot price, the production of more LPG for export than forecast, the impact on the Saudi Arabian methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) industry of California's banning MTBE additives to petrol,and the possibility of Asian buyers renegotiating the supply agreements are discussed. Details of Saudi Arabia's petrochemical plants planning to use LPG and world LPG production for 1998 are tabulated. The US market, and new systems for trading and pricing are considered. (UK)

  13. LPG as a Fuel for Diesel Engines-Experimental Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristian Nutu, Nikolaos; Pana, Constantin; Negurescu, Niculae; Cernat, Alexandru; Mirica, Ionel

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of the paper is to reduce the pollutant emissions of a compression ignition engine, fuelling the engine with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), aiming to maintain the energetic performances of the engine. To optimise the engine operation a corelation between the substitute ratio of the diesel fuel with LPG and the adjustments for the investigated regimens must be made in order to limit the maximum pressure and smoke level, knock and rough engine functioning, fuel consumption and the level of the pollutant emissions. The test bed situated in the Thermotechnics, Engines, Thermal Equipments and Refrigeration Instalations Department was adapted to be fuelled with liquefied petroleum gas. A conventional LPG fuelling instalation was adopted, consisting of a LPG tank, a vaporiser, conections between the tank and the vaporiser and a valve to adjust the gaseous fuel flow. Using the diesel-gas methode, in the intake manifold of the engine is injected LPG in gaseous aggregation state and the airr-LPG homogeneous mixture is ignited from the flame appeared in the diesel fuel sprays. To maintain the engine power at the same level like in the standard case of fuelling only with diesel fuel, for each investigated operate regimen the diesel fuel dose was reduced, being energetically substituted with LPG. The engine used for experimental investigations is a turbocharged truck diesel engine with a 10.34 dm3 displacement. The investigated working regimen was 40% load and 1750 rpm and the energetic substitute ratios of the diesel fuel with LPG was situated between [0-25%].

  14. LPG diesel dual fuel engine – A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ashok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The engine, which uses both conventional diesel fuel and LPG fuel, is referred to as ‘LPG–diesel dual fuel engines’. LPG dual fuel engines are modified diesel engines which use primary fuel as LPG and secondary fuel as diesel. LPG dual fuel engines have a good thermal efficiency at high output but the performance is less during part load conditions due to the poor utilization of charges. This problem can be overcome by varying factors such as pilot fuel quantity, injection timing, composition of the gaseous fuel and intake charge conditions, for improving the performance, combustion and emissions of dual fuel engines. This article reviews about the research work done by the researchers in order to improve the performance, combustion and emission parameters of a LPG–diesel dual fuel engines. From the studies it is shown that the use of LPG in diesel engine is one of the capable methods to reduce the PM and NOx emissions but at same time at part load condition there is a drop in efficiency and power output with respect to diesel operation.

  15. Poitiers and automotive LPG; Poitiers: la municipalite et le district croient au GPL carburant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-04-01

    Looking for a reduction in its fuel expenses and a reduction in urban air pollution, Poitiers' local authorities ordered 15 LPG fuelled vehicles some 20 years ago. They ran solely with LPG. Today, some 115 vehicles, including two machines for floor cleaning, one for preparation of skating rings and a forklift, run on LPG. These last machines expected, all vehicles can run on LPG or gasoline. (authors)

  16. Assessment of research and development (R and D) needs in LPG safety and environmental control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, J.G.

    1982-05-01

    The report characterizes the LPG industry covering all operations from production to end use, reviews current knowledge of LPG release phenomenology, summarizes the status of current LPG release prevention and control methodology, and identifies any remaining safety and environmental problems and recommends R and D strategies that may mitigate these problems. (ACR)

  17. Risk comparison of LPG and petrol vehicles in public car parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molag, M.; Steen, M. van der

    1998-01-01

    LPG is generally considered as a clean fuel for cars in comparison with petrol. Although from an environmentally point of view LPG may be favoured, a further introduction of the use of the fuel is hindered by legislative measures. In some countries cars running on LPG are not allowed to enter public

  18. PENGUJIAN MESIN DIESEL YANG DIMODIFIKASI MENJADI BERBAHAN BAKAN GAS LPG

    OpenAIRE

    Himsar Ambarita

    2017-01-01

    Pada penelitian ini dilakukan modifikasi pada sebuah mesin diesel yang awalnya digerakkan dengan menggunakan bahan bakar diesel menjadi berbahan bakar LPG. Telah dirancang suatu alat uji yang menggunakan sebuah mesin diesel silinder tunggal dengan daya 2,5 kW dan 2,8 kW pada putaran mesin 3000 dan 3600 rpm. Kinerja mesin diesel kecil telah diuji dalam dua bahan bakar berbeda yaitu solar dan LPG. Pada penggunaan bahan bakar solar tidak ada perubahan yang dilakukan pada mesin disel. Pada penggu...

  19. A comparison of sawdust and wood shavings as litter materials for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -Amponsem, A Osei-Somuah. Abstract. The suitability of sawdust as litter material for broilers was assessed by comparing broiler performance on it with performance on wood shavings in a 49-day trial. Criteria for assessment included body ...

  20. Speciation of Chromium in Bottom Ash Obtained by the Incineration of the Leather Waste Shavings

    OpenAIRE

    k. louhab; H. Assas

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of bottom ash morphology and chromium metals behavior during incineration of a leather waste shavings at different incineration temperature have been studied. The Cr, Ca, Mg, Cl rates in bottom ashes, flay ashes and emitted gases in different incineration temperature of the tannery wastes are also determined. The morphology of the bottom ashes obtained by incineration at different temperature from the leather waste shavings was examined by MEB. The result sho...

  1. Experimental analysis on a spark ignition petrol engine fuelled with LPG (liquefied petroleum gas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masi, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The use of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) as alternative fuel to petrol is common practise in spark ignition engines. While the main driving force to the use of LPG still remains the low cost for the end user, its favourable pollutant emissions, in particular carbon dioxide, will in the middle term probably increase interest in LPG as an IC engine fuel. In addition, there are both theoretical and technical reasons to consider LPG as an attractive fuel also in terms of engine performance. Despite the continuously increasing stock production of dual-fuel (petrol–LPG) passenger car models, doubts still exist about both real engine performance in LPG operation and the reliability of the dual-fuel feeding system. This paper deals with the theoretical advantages of using LPG as fuel for SI engines. Brake performance tests of a passenger car engine fed with petrol and LPG are analysed and compared. The stock engine has been equipped with a “third-generation” standard kit for dual-fuel operation. The performance reductions in LPG operation are discussed in both steady state and transient condition. The results of some modifications to the set-up of both the petrol and LPG metering devices, designed for a better justification of the measured performance, are also presented. -- Highlights: ► Experimental research on the actual performances of an SI engine fed with petrol and gaseous LPG. ► Theoretical advantages and drawbacks of fuelling SI ICE’s with LPG. ► Brake performance analysis shows a noticeable gap between LPG and petrol operation. ► Local measurements confirm that the thermodynamic operation of the evaporator-pressure reducer device is crucial for the engine performance. ► The performance of the up-to-date kit for petrol–LPG dual-fuel operation is greatly affected by the settings of the mechanical components of the LPG evaporator device.

  2. Flame stability and emission characteristics of turbulent LPG IDF in a backstep burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Mahesh; D.P. Mishra [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India). Combustion Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering

    2008-09-15

    The stability characteristics and emissions from turbulent LPG inverse diffusion flame (IDF) in a backstep burner are reported in this paper. The blow-off velocity of turbulent LPG IDF is observed to increase monotonically with fuel jet velocity. In contrast to normal diffusion flames (NDF), the flame in the present IDF burner gets blown out without getting lifted-off from the burner surface. The soot free length fraction, SFLF, defined as the ratio of visible premixing length, H{sub p}, to visible flame length, H{sub f}, is used for qualitative estimation of soot reduction in this IDF burner. The SFLF is found to increase with central air jet velocity indicating the occurrence of extended premixing zone in the vicinity of flame base. Interestingly, the soot free length fraction (SFLF) is found to be correlated well with the newly devised parameter, global momentum ratio. The peak value of EINOX happens to occur closer to stoichiometric overall equivalence ratio. 16 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Influence of cooled exhaust gas recirculation on performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of LPG fuelled lean burn SI engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, K.; Pradeep Bhasker, J.; Alexander, Jim; Porpatham, E.

    2017-11-01

    On fuel perspective, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) provides cleaner emissions and also facilitates lean burn signifying less fuel consumption and emissions. Lean burn technology can attain better efficiencies and lesser combustion temperatures but this temperature is quite sufficient to facilitate formation of nitrogen oxide (NOx). Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) for NOx reduction has been considered allover but extremely little literatures exist on the consequence of EGR on lean burn LPG fuelled spark ignition (SI) engine. The following research is carried out to find the optimal rate of EGR addition to reduce NOx emissions without settling on performance and combustion characteristics. A single cylinder diesel engine is altered to operate as LPG fuelled SI engine at a compression ratio of 10.5:1 and arrangements to provide different ratios of cooled EGR in the intake manifold. Investigations are done to arrive at optimum ratio of the EGR to reduce emissions without compromising on performance. Significant reductions in NOx emissions alongside HC and CO emissions were seen. Higher percentages of EGR further diluted the charge and lead to improper combustion and thus increased hydrocarbon emissions. Cooled EGR reduced the peak in-cylinder temperature which reduced NOx emissions but lead to misfire at lower lean limits.

  4. 33 CFR 165.103 - Safety and Security Zones; LPG Vessel Transits in Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... within a 500-yard radius of any Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) vessel while it is moored at the LPG... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; LPG... and Security Zones; LPG Vessel Transits in Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone, Portsmouth...

  5. Fire safety of LPG in marine transportation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsen, W.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cargo. Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations for ships unloading at receiving terminals, and barges loading or unloading at a terminal. Major safety systems, including emergency shutdown systems, hazard detection systems, and fire extinguishment and control systems were included in the analysis. Spill probabilities were obtained from fault tree analyses utilizing composite LPG tank ship and barge designs. Failure rates for hardware in the analyses were generally taken from historical data on similar generic classes of hardware, there being very little historical data on the specific items involved. Potential consequences of cargo spills of various sizes are discussed and compared to actual LPG vapor cloud incidents. The usefulness of hazard mitigation systems (particularly dry chemical fire extinguishers and water spray systems) in controlling the hazards posed by LPG spills and spill fires is also discussed. The analysis estimates the probability of fatality for a terminal operator is about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ per cargo transfer operation. The probability of fatality for the general public is substantially less.

  6. Conformity checking of LPG Transportation Trucks by Modelling and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallab Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available LPG Loading /unloading site is considered as a dangerous environment of significant risk, especially during LPG transfer operations. These risks may cause catastrophic dangers such as BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion, UVCE (Unconfined Vapour Cloud Explosion, etc. The site consists of a tank (RST containing LPG and threetransfer posts. Two posts allow loading of small carrier tankers 6 tons. The other one transfer post transfer LPG contained injumbo tankers 20 tons inside the tank. The industrial site at risks chooses to demonstrate the need for a modelling-simulation approach. The aim is to check first compliance and authorization of the truck when it enters the site for loading /unloading, to verify the authorization to make the transfer, and then, to identify the driver and his training to ensure that the transfer operations are going to take place without incident. Sometimes, it may happen that Consignment Operator (CO is busy orabsent and thus the driver operates alone without being authorized, in this case the site risks a loss of control due to a lack of resources. The modelling-simulation will be done using multi-agent systems that will present the drivers, trucks, PO and loading unloading posts as agents in order to have a model facilitating this checking.

  7. LPG ammonia and nitrogen dioxide gas sensing properties of nanostructured polypyrrole thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagul, Sagar B.; Upadhye, Deepak S.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured Polypyrrole thin film was synthesized by easy and economic chemical oxidative polymerization technique on glass at room temperature. The prepared thin film of Polypyrrole was characterized by optical absorbance study by UV-visible spectroscopy and electrical study by I-V measurement system. The optical absorbance spectrum of Polypyrrole shows two fundamental peaks in region of 420 and 890 nm, which confirms the formation of Polypyrrole on glass substrate. The I-V graph of nanostructured Polypyrrole represents the Ohmic nature. Furthermore, the thin film of Polypyrrole was investigated by Scanning electron microscopy for surface morphology study. The SEM micrograph represents spherical nanostructured morphology of Polypyrrole on glass substrate. In order to investigate gas sensing properties, 100 ppm of LPG, Ammonia and Nitrogen Dioxide were injected in the gas chamber and magnitude of resistance has been recorded as a function of time in second. It was observed that nanostructured Polypyrrole thin film shows good sensing behavior at room temperature.

  8. A simulation for predicting potential cooling effect on LPG-fuelled vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyo, M.; Soeparman, S.; Wahyudi, S.; Hamidi, N.

    2016-03-01

    Liquefied Petroleum Gas vehicles (LPG Vehicles) provide a potential cooling effect about 430 kJ/kg LPG consumption. This cooling effect is obtained from the LPG phase change from liquid to vapor in the vaporizer. In the existing system, energy to evaporate LPG is obtained from the coolant which is circulated around the vaporizer. One advantage is that the LPG (70/30 propane / butane) when expanded from 8 bar to at 1.2 bar, the temperature is less than -25 °C. These conditions provide opportunities to evaporate LPG with ambient air flow, then produce a cooling effect for cooling car's cabin. In this study, some LPG mix was investigated to determine the optimum condition. A simulation was carried out to estimate potential cooling effects of 2000 cc engine from 1000 rpm to 6000 rpm. In this case, the mass flow rate of LPG is a function of fuel consumption. The simulation result shows that the LPG (70/30 propane/butane) provide the greatest cooling effect compared with other mixtures. In conclusion, the 2000 cc engine fueled LPG at 3000 rpm provides potential cooling effect more than 1.3 kW, despite in the low engine speed (1000 rpm) only provides about 0.5 kW.

  9. Introduction of dermatome shaving as first line treatment of chronic tattoo reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Mitra; Jørgensen, Bo; Serup, Jørgen

    2015-10-01

    Chronic tattoo reactions requiring treatment have increased. Laser removal is not ideal for removal of allergic reactions. Surgical removal of culprit pigment situated in the outer dermis by dermatome shaving is rational and need to be revisited. Fifty four tattoos with chronic reactions in 50 patients were treated with dermatome shaving. Tattoos with red/red nuances dominated the material. In total, 52 operations were performed in infiltration and 2 in general anaesthesia. Shaving was performed to the level in the dermis free of tattoo pigment as assessed visually by the surgeon. Operative complications were few. Healing occurred over weeks as normal for this procedure. On a rating scale from 0 to 4, 4 as most severe, the patient's severity rating of symptoms in their tattoo declined from 3.2 pre-operatively to 1.0, 0.8 and 0.7 after 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. Burden of operation was rated low. Patient satisfaction was high. Dermatome shaving is efficient and with few complications, and is proposed as first line treatment of chronic tattoo reactions. Shaving of such reactions apparently has been neglected during enthusiastic introduction of laser approaches, which in the treatment of allergic tattoo reactions may be relatively contra indicated and of special risk.

  10. Thermal Response Analyses of Spherical LPG Storage Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hsijen.; Lin, Mannhsing.; Chao, Fuyuan

    1999-02-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a very important fuel and chemical feed stock as well; however, the hydrocarbon has been involved in many major fires and explosions. One of these accidents is boiling-liquid, expanding-vapor explosion (BLEVE). It is a phenomenon that results from the sudden release form confinement of a liquid at a temperature above its atmospheric-pressure boiling point. The sudden decrease in pressure results in the explosive vaporization of a fraction of the liquid and a cloud of vapor and mist with the accompanying blast effects. Most BLEVEs involve flammable liquids, and most BELEVE releases are ignited by a surrounding fire and result in a fireball. The primary objective of this paper is to develop a computer model in order to determine the thermal response of a spherical LPG tank involved in fire engulfment accidents. The assessment of the safety spacing between tanks was also discussed. (author)

  11. Introduction of dermatome shaving as first line treatment of chronic tattoo reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sepehri, Mitra; Jørgensen, Bo; Serup, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic tattoo reactions requiring treatment have increased. Laser removal is not ideal for removal of allergic reactions. Surgical removal of culprit pigment situated in the outer dermis by dermatome shaving is rational and need to be revisited. MATERIALS/METHODS: Fifty four...... tattoos with chronic reactions in 50 patients were treated with dermatome shaving. Tattoos with red/red nuances dominated the material. In total, 52 operations were performed in infiltration and 2 in general anaesthesia. Shaving was performed to the level in the dermis free of tattoo pigment as assessed...... visually by the surgeon. RESULTS: Operative complications were few. Healing occurred over weeks as normal for this procedure. On a rating scale from 0 to 4, 4 as most severe, the patient's severity rating of symptoms in their tattoo declined from 3.2 pre-operatively to 1.0, 0.8 and 0.7 after 3, 6 and 12...

  12. LNG and LPG total involvement of Pullman Kellogg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    A discussion of Pullman Kellogg activity covers a new LNG terminal in Belgium; construction of LNG 2 for Sonatrach in Algeria; an LPG recovery system in Kuwait; the Trunkline Gas Co. LNG project at Lake Charles, La.; and the Cove Point, Md., facility for Columbia Gas System Inc. and Consolidated Natural Gas Co., which will be capable of mooring two 750,000 bbl LNG tankers simultaneously.

  13. Designing a Prototype LPG Injection Electronic Control Unit for a Carburetted Gasoline Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış ERKUŞ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the originally carburetted gasoline engine was converted to gas-phase liquefied petroleum gas (LPG injection engine by using an after market LPG conversion kit's components except the electronic control unit (ECU. Instead of after market LPG injection ECU, the ECU which was designed considering the effects of  electromagnetic interference (EMI, was used for controlling injection. The designed ECU was tested in terms of EMI while the engine was being run and it was detected that the EMI noises could be suppressed as possible by taken measures. Designed ECU was used in performance tests at different engine conditions and the results obtained with LPG injection were compared with the results obtained with LPG carburetion. According to the performance test results, LPG injection ECU designed in this study could help to achieve low exhaust emissions and high engine performance.  

  14. Far East LPG sales will grow faster than in West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    LPG sales through 2010 in regions east of the Suez Canal (East of Suez) will grow at more than twice those in regions west of the canal. East-of-Suez sales will grow at more than 4.0%/year, compared to slightly less than 2.0%/year growth in sales West of Suez. East-of-Suez sales will reach 92 million tons/year (tpy) by 2010, accounting for 39% of the worldwide total. This share was 31% in1995 and only 27% in 1990. LPG sales worldwide will reach 192 million tons in 2000 and 243 million tpy by 2010. In 1995, they were 163 million tons. These are some of the major conclusions of a recent study by Frank R. Spadine, Christine Kozar, and Rudy Clark of New York City-based consultant Poten and Partners Inc. Details of the study are in the fall report ''World Trade in LPG 1990--2010''. This paper discusses demand segments, seaborne balance, Western sources, largest trading region, North American supplies, and other supplies

  15. Analisis Pengaruh Konsentrasi Gas LPG Menggunakan Sensor TGS 2610 Berbasis Mikrokontroler AVR ATMega8535

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhalimah

    2011-01-01

    Telah dilakukan analisis kuantitatif gas dalam LPG. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengukur konsentrasi gas LPG terhadap sensor. Metoda yang digunakan untuk mengukur konsentrasi gas LPG yaitu sensor gas semikonduktor jenis TGS 2610 keluaran Figaro yang digunakan untuk mendeteksi keberadaan gas. Sementara yang menjadi pusat pengendalian dari seluruh alat yang dirancang digunakan mikrokontroler AVR ATMega8535. Selain itu sistem yang dirancang dilengkapi LCD sebagai tampilan nilai konsentrasi ga...

  16. Deteksi Kebocoran Gas LPG Menggunakan Detektor Arduino dengan Algoritma Fuzzy Logic Mandani

    OpenAIRE

    Hakim, Lukman; Yonatan, Vidi

    2017-01-01

    Bencana kebakaran yang diakibatkan oleh kebocoran gas LPG (Liquid  Petroleum   Gas) mengalami kenaikan setiap tahun dari tahun 2011 sampai 2015 diantaranya 17% diakibatkan oleh kebocoran gas. Penggunaan detektor kebocoran gas LPG menggunakan arduino yang dilengkapi sensor gas dan suhu memberikan kemudahan untuk deteksi secara awal terjadinya kebocoran dan kebakaran. Perancangan detektor kebocoran gas LPG menggunakan algoritma fuzzy logic mandani, dilengkapi dengan informasi mel...

  17. Deteksi Kebocoran Gas LPG Menggunakan Detektor Arduino dengan Algoritma Fuzzy Logic Mandani

    OpenAIRE

    Lukman Hakim; Vidi Yonatan

    2017-01-01

    Bencana kebakaran yang diakibatkan oleh kebocoran gas LPG (Liquid  Petroleum   Gas) mengalami kenaikan setiap tahun dari tahun 2011 sampai 2015 diantaranya 17% diakibatkan oleh kebocoran gas. Penggunaan detektor kebocoran gas LPG menggunakan arduino yang dilengkapi sensor gas dan suhu memberikan kemudahan untuk deteksi secara awal terjadinya kebocoran dan kebakaran. Perancangan detektor kebocoran gas LPG menggunakan algoritma fuzzy logic mandani, dilengkapi dengan informasi melalui Short Mess...

  18. Spark Ignition LPG for Hydrogen Gas Combustion the Reduction Furnace ME-11 Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad Suntoro

    2007-01-01

    Reverse engineering method for automatic spark-ignition system of LPG to burn hydrogen gaseous in the reducing process of ME-11 furnace has been successfully implemented using local materials. A qualitative study to the initial behaviour of the LPG flame system has created an idea by modification to install an automatic spark-ignition of the LPG on the reducing furnace ME-11. The automatic spark-ignition system has been tested and proved working well. (author)

  19. Kecamatan Tampan oleh Dinas Perindustrian dan Perdagangan Kota Pekanbaru (Studi Kasus: Pangkalan Lpg 3 Kg)

    OpenAIRE

    Faisal, Andini; Yuliani, Febri

    2015-01-01

    LPG 3 kg has become a very important requirement. It can be seen from the demand for LPG 3 kg is increasing every year, both in use for households or for the development of micro enterprises. The purpose of this research was to determine how the LPG 3 kg distribution control in the Kelurahan Sidomulyo Barat Kecamatan Tampan by the Department of Industry and Trade of Pekanbaru City (case study: Sub Distributor LPG 3 kg) and to determine the factors that affect the control in the distribution o...

  20. Asia, North America lead way in growth of NGL, LPG trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, K.; Gist, R.; Whitley, C.; Haun, R.

    1998-01-01

    Recent analyses of world NGL trade indicate that important changes in LPG supply and demand are under way in Asia and North America. LPG markets in the 1990s reflect a rapidly shifting balance between East-of-Suez and West-of-Suez markets. This shift has increased concern about availability of future LPG supplies for Asia. The paper discusses world developments, East versus West of Suez, end uses and supplies in Asia, Canadian ethane, propane, butane, and natural gasoline, Mexican ethane, LPG, and natural gasoline, US ethane, propane, butanes, and iso-C 4 and C 5

  1. A forum on LPG vehicles and leasing; Un forum sur les vehicules GPL et la LLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridman, G.

    1999-04-01

    As a specialist of vehicle leasing, Axus France cooperated with Arthur Andersen, Butagaz and Volvo to promote the LPG solution to managers. Axus France offers with LPG vehicles leasing a range of tailor made products and services. Thus, the company estimates that LPG economics applied through vehicle leasing are not sufficiently large from Diesel (its calculation gives only 2 %) on some utilizations. This is why Axus offers an extra incitement to its customers, by keeping the financial risk linked to the LPG vehicle resale. (authors)

  2. Real time NO emissions measurement during cold start in LPG SI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Gong; Liu, Zhimin; Li, Zhilong; Qiu, Dongping; Li, Liguang

    2007-01-01

    To identify combustion occurrence is very important. Traditionally, cylinder pressure has been used as a criterion of combustion occurrence, but it can be unreliable when identifying lean mixture combustion (there is little difference in the cylinder pressure trace between the firing cycle and motoring cycles at the lean combustion limit). This is particularly important for fuels like LPG, which have a good capacity for lean combustion. In this study, a fast response NO detector, CambustionfNOx400, based on the chemiluminescence method, was used to measure real time NO emissions in order to evaluate the technique as a criterion for establishing combustion occurrence. At the same time, this paper presents an investigation of the characteristics of real time NO emissions of the first firing cycle during cold start in a LPG SI engine to determine the optimal excess air factor of the first firing cycle, and the cylinder pressure and crank shaft speed of the engine were measured and recorded. Test results show that the excess air ratio directly influences the cylinder pressure, engine speed and NO emissions of the first firing cycle. As the excess air coefficient is reduced from the lean misfiring limit, NO emissions increase quickly, then reduce quickly and then reduce slowly. NO emissions generally increase with peak cylinder pressure, even at constant excess air coefficient. Real time NO emissions can be used to identify cylinder combustion and misfire occurrence during engine cranking, even at the dilute combustion limit, and real time NO emission can be used to understand the combustion and misfire occurrence. (author)

  3. Thermal behaviour of chrome shavings and of sludges recovered after digestion of tanned solid wastes with calcium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahiri, S.; Albizane, A.; Messaoudi, A.; Azzi, M.; Bennazha, J.; Younssi, S. Alami; Bouhria, M.

    2007-01-01

    The thermal behaviour of chrome shavings and of sludges recovered after digestion of tanned wastes with Ca(OH) 2 was studied. Ashes obtained after incineration of wastes at various temperatures were analysed by X-ray diffraction and EDX method. The main crystallized phases present in the ash obtained at 600 deg. C are Cr 2 O 3 and NaCl. The diffractograms revealed an increase in the intensities of the chromium oxide peaks and a very notable decrease of the amount of sodium chloride at 1100 deg. C. EDX analysis revealed a total disappearance of the chlorine peak at this temperature. Scanning electron micrographs show that the waste lost its fibrous aspect when the temperature increases. Formation of aggregates was noted after 550 deg. C. Combustion of organic matters and decarbonation phenomenon are the main stages observed on GTA and DTA curves of sludges. These phenomena are, respectively, exothermic and endothermic. The diffractogram of sludges recorded at 550 deg. C, in the presence of a constant oxygen surplus, revealed the presence of CaCrO 4 and CaCO 3

  4. Dorsal shaving affects concentrations of faecal cortisol metabolites in lactating golden hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrnberger, Sarah A.; Brinkmann, Katharina; Palme, Rupert; Valencak, Teresa G.

    2018-02-01

    Breeding of golden hamsters is classically performed at thermal conditions ranging from 20 to 24 °C. However, growing evidence suggests that lactating females suffer from heat stress. We hypothesised that shaving females dorsally to maximise heat dissipation may reduce stress during reproduction. We thus compared faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) from shaved golden hamster mothers with those from unshaved controls. We observed significantly lower FCM levels in the shaved mothers ( F 1,22 = 8.69, p = 0.0075) pointing to lower stress due to ameliorated heat dissipation over the body surface. In addition, we observed 0.4 °C lower mean subcutaneous body temperatures in the shaved females, although this effect did not reach significance ( F 1,22 = 1.86, p = 0.18). Our results suggest that golden hamsters having body masses being more than four times that of laboratory mice provide a very interesting model to study aspects of lactation and heat production at the same time.

  5. 'Peak oil' or 'peak demand'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, Bruno; Moncomble, Jean-Eudes; Sigonney, Pierre; Vially, Rolland; Bosseboeuf, Didier; Chateau, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a workshop which addressed several energy issues like the objectives and constraints of energy mix scenarios, the differences between the approaches in different countries, the cost of new technologies implemented for this purposes, how these technologies will be developed and marketed, which will be the environmental and societal acceptability of these technical choices. Different aspects and issues have been more precisely presented and discussed: the peak oil, development of shale gases and their cost (will non conventional hydrocarbons modify the peak oil and be socially accepted?), energy efficiency (its benefits, its reality in France and other countries, its position in front of the challenge of energy transition), and strategies in the transport sector (challenges for mobility, evolution towards a model of sustainable mobility)

  6. Fuel switching from wood to LPG can benefit the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nautiyal, Sunil; Kaechele, Harald

    2008-01-01

    The Himalaya in India is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Various scientific studies have reported and proven that many factors are responsible for the tremendous decline of the Himalayan forests. Extraction of wood biomass from the forests for fuel is one of the factors, as rural households rely entirely on this for their domestic energy. Efforts continue for both conservation and development of the Himalayan forests and landscape. It has been reported that people are still looking for more viable solutions that could help them to improve their lifestyle as well as facilitate ecosystem conservation and preservation of existing biodiversity. In this direction, we have documented the potential of the introduction of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which is one of the solutions that have been offered to the local people as a substitute for woodfuel to help meet their domestic energy demand. The results of the current study found dramatic change in per capita woodfuel consumption in the last two decades in the villages where people are using LPG. The outcome showed that woodfuel consumption had been about 475 kg per capita per year in the region, but after introduction of LPG, this was reduced to 285 kg per capita per year in 1990-1995, and was further reduced to 46 kg per capita per year in 2000-2005. Besides improving the living conditions of the local people, this transformation has had great environmental consequences. Empirical evidence shows that this new paradigm shift is having positive external effects on the surrounding forests. Consequently, we have observed a high density of tree saplings and seedlings in adjacent forests, which serves as an assessment indicator of forest health. With the help of the current study, we propose that when thinking about a top-down approach to conservation, better solutions, which are often ignored, should be offered to local people

  7. LPG Maruziyeti Sonucu Ölüm Olgu Sunumu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Kurtuluş

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available LPG (liquefied petrol gases- sıvılaştırılmış petrol gazları, basınç altında sıvı hale getirilmiş hafif alifatik hidrokarbon olan bütan (C4H10 ve propan (CjHg karışımından oluşan renksiz ve hafif bir kokuya sahip bir gazdır. LPG kaynaklı ölümler genellikle kazaya bağlı olarak karşımıza çıkmakta ve intihar daha seyrek görülmektedir. Bütan ve propana bağlı ölümün asfiksi, vagal inhibisyon, respiratuar depresyon ve aritmiler olmak üzere dört mekanizma ile meydana gelebileceği belirtilmektedir. Bu çalışmada, vücudunun tamamını battaniye ile örtüp, açık mutfak tüpünden uzanan hortumun ucunu battaniyenin altına sokarak özel düzenek hazırlayan ve bu düzenekle yatağında intihar eden 64 yaşmda bir erkek olgu sunulmuştur. Seyrek görülen bu olguya ait bulgular, literatür eşliğinde tartışılmıştır. Anahtar kelimeler:LPG, bütan, propan, intihar

  8. Pengaruh Perubahan Saat Penyalaan (Ignition Timing) Terhadap Prestasi Mesin Pada Sepeda Motor 4 Langkah Dengan Bahan Bakar Lpg

    OpenAIRE

    Yunianto, Bambang

    2010-01-01

    Bahan bakar LPG merupakan bahan bakar gas yang ramah lingkungan, sehingga dapat dijadikan bahan bakar alternatif selain bahan bakar bensin Performa Mesin bensin yang dioperasikan dengan menggunakan bahan bakar gas LPG mengalami penurunan. Penurunan ini terjadi dikarenakan karakteristik sifat bahan bakar bensin berbeda dengan LPG. Hal ini dapat diatasi dengan mengatur saat penyalaan sehingga lebih sesuai dengan karakteristik gas LPG. Dari hasil pengujian diperoleh bahwa dengan pengaturan saat ...

  9. Energy poverty reduction by fuel switching. Impact evaluation of the LPG conversion program in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andadari, R.K.; Mulder, P.; Rietveld, P.

    2014-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) can be an attractive alternative to the widespread use of traditional kerosene. Not only is LPG a relatively clean, safe and cost-effective fuel for households, its large-scale adoption also reduces the heavy burden of kerosene

  10. Photovoltaic systems coupled with batteries that are optimally sized for household self-consumption : Assessment of peak shaving potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, Wouter L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/180644092; Lampropoulos, Ioannis|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411295187; van Sark, Wilfried G.J.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526

    2018-01-01

    As the share of renewable energy sources in the energy mix is increasing, new challenges arise regarding the grid integration. This research focuses on a solution for one of these challenges, namely the employment of batteries to address the mismatch in electrical power between electricity supply

  11. An experimental study on load-peak shaving in smart homes by means of online admission control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Zhu, Guchuan

    2012-01-01

    and appliances' operation is modeled as a finite state machine, which enables an efficient load control using scheduling techniques borrowed from real-time computing systems. In this study the Admission Control, which is the bottom layer of the presented architecture interacting in real-time with physical...... equipments, is addressed and the real-time power consumption management in a residential dwelling is implemented and tested in a real office building. The experimental results provide a proof of concept for the proposed architecture and demonstrate the applicability of the on-line scheduling approach...

  12. Effects of peak shaving technologies in the residential and commercial sector; Minsei bumon no fuka heijunka gijutsu no donyu koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Y. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Takahashi, M.; Uchiyama, Y. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    This paper analyzes how much of the power demand could be reduced in the future by improving efficiencies of electric power utilizing appliances used in the residential and commercial sector. It discusses whether the reduction would lead to load leveling. Annual load rate in the power demand is continuing to decrease because of power demand increase in the residential and commercial sector, and increase in demand for air conditioning in summer. If a technology to improve electric appliance efficiency is proliferated to its maximum scope, the annual load rate in fiscal 2014 may be improved by 1.1 percent point. Since the improvement allows new power generation facility installation cost to be deferred, the power generation unit cost can be reduced by 0.11 yen per kwh. If a heat storage type air conditioning technology is proliferated to its maximum scope, the annual load rate in fiscal 2014 can be improved by 1.8 percent point, and the power generation cost may also be reduced. If the device efficiency improving technology and the heat storage type air conditioning technology are introduced to their maximum simultaneously, the annual load rate in fiscal 2014 can be improved by 2.5 percent point, and the power generation cost may also be reduced by 0.24 yen per kwh. If a promotion policy is taken on proliferation of a specific device efficiency improving technology having excellent economic performance by providing subsidy, the reduction amount of cumulative power generation expense will be much greater than the required subsidy amount. 10 refs., 9 figs., 22 tabs.

  13. NUMERICAL STUDY ON COOLING EFFECT POTENTIAL FROM VAPORIZER DEVICE OF LPG VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUJI SETIYO

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Over fuel consumption and increased exhaust gas due to the A/C system have become a serious problem. On the other hand, the LPG-fueled vehicle provides potential cooling from LPG phase changes in the vaporizer. Therefore, this article presents the potential cooling effect calculation from 1998 cm3 spark ignition (SI engine. A numerical study is used to calculate the potential heat absorption of latent and sensible heat transfer during LPG is expanded in the vaporizer. Various LPG compositions are also simulated through the engine speed range from 1000 to 6000 rpm. The result shows that the 1998 cm3 engine capable of generating the potential cooling effect of about 1.0 kW at 1000 rpm and a maximum of up to 1.8 kW at 5600 rpm. The potential cooling effects from the LPG vaporizer contributes about 26% to the A/C system works on eco-driving condition.

  14. Preliminary study on the combustion and emission in a direct injection LPG spark ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Seungmook; Lee, Seokhwan [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    In the energy sector, with the implementation of stringent regulations on combustion emissions and the depletion of conventional fuels, there is an important need for low carbon fuel and advanced engine technology. Korea is the country with the most LPG vehicles in the world and the aim of this study, performed by the Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, is to compare the performance of LPG direct injection spark ignition (DISI) with gasoline DISI. Heat release analyses were conducted to determine the combustion characteristics of both systems and experiments were performed to determine gaseous and nanoparticle emissions. Results showed that LPG provides a better thermal efficiency than gasoline and that THC, NOx, and particulate emissions were lower for LPG than for gasoline. This study demonstrated that LPG DISI can provide better combustion efficiency and lower emissions than gasoline DISI.

  15. Modelling the pressurization induced by solar radiation on above ground installations of LPG pipeline systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leporini, M.; Terenzi, A.; Marchetti, B.; Giacchetta, G.; Polonara, F.; Corvaro, F.; Cocci Grifoni, R.

    2017-11-01

    Pipelining Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is a mode of LPG transportation more environmentally-friendly than others due to the lower energy consumption and exhaust emissions. Worldwide, there are over 20000 kilometers of LPG pipelines. There are a number of codes that industry follows for the design, fabrication, construction and operation of liquid LPG pipelines. However, no standards exist to modelling particular critical phenomena which can occur on these lines due to external environmental conditions like the solar radiation pressurization. In fact, the solar radiation can expose above ground pipeline sections at pressure values above the maximum Design Pressure with resulting risks and problems. The present work presents an innovative practice suitable for the Oil & Gas industry to modelling the pressurization induced by the solar radiation on above ground LPG pipeline sections with the application to a real case.

  16. Energy poverty reduction by fuel switching. Impact evaluation of the LPG conversion program in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andadari, Roos Kities; Mulder, Peter; Rietveld, Piet

    2014-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) can be an attractive alternative to the widespread use of traditional kerosene. Not only is LPG a relatively clean, safe and cost-effective fuel for households, its large-scale adoption also reduces the heavy burden of kerosene consumption subsidies on government budgets. Against this background, we evaluate the impact of a large government program to substitute LPG for kerosene in Indonesia. Using a household survey across urban, suburban and rural regions we find that this program was very effective in causing a large scale shift from kerosene to LPG. This shift was positively influenced by level of education, household size and household income. Contradicting the energy-ladder model, the LPG program, reinforced by an increase in the price of kerosene, led to increased stacking of fuels, including increasing consumption of both electricity and traditional biomass. In addition, our analysis shows that the LPG program failed to substantially reduce the overall number of energy-poor people, but it has been effective in alleviating extreme energy-poverty. Finally, we find that medium and higher income households in suburban areas benefitted most from the LPG program. - Highlights: • Impact evaluation of a government program to substitute LPG for kerosene in Indonesia. • The program caused a large scale shift from kerosene to LPG. • Contradicting the energy-ladder model, the program led to increased stacking of fuels. • The program did not substantially reduce overall energy poverty, but alleviated extreme energy-poverty. • Medium and higher income households in suburban areas benefitted most from the LPG program

  17. Design and Performance of LPG Fuel Mixer for Dual Fuel Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrial; Saputro, W.; Garcia, P. P.

    2018-05-01

    Small horizontal diesel engines are commonly used for agricultural machinery, however, availability of diesel fuel become one of big problems especially in remote area. Conversely, in line with government policy for conversion of kerosene into LPG for cooking, then LPG become more popular and available even in remote area. Therefore, LPG is potential fuel to replace the shortage of diesel fuel for operating diesel engine in remote area. The purpose of this study was to design mixing device for using dual fuel i.e. LPG and diesel fuel and evaluate its performance accordingly. Simulation by using CFD was done in order to analyze mixture characteristics of LPG in air intake manifold. The performance test was done by varying the amount of LPG injected in intake air at 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, until 40%, respectively. Result of CFD contour simulation showed the best combination when mixing 30% LPG into the intake air. Performance test of this research revealed that mixing LPG in air intake can reduce the diesel fuel consumption about 0.7 l/hour (without load) and 1.14 l/hour (with load). Diesel engine revolution increases almost 300 rpm faster than when using diesel fuel only. Based on economic analysis, using the fuel combination (diesel fuel – LPG) is not recommended in the area near SPBU where the price of diesel fuel is standard. However, using the fuel combination LPG-diesel fuel is highly recommended in the remote areas in Indonesia where price of diesel fuel is comparatively expensive which will provide cheaper total fuel cost for diesel engine operation.

  18. Performance evaluation of reverse logistics: A case of LPG agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottala Sri Yogi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Majority of the manufacturing companies are incorporating the practice of reverse logistics in their value chain. In manufacturing processes, the concept of reverse logistics plays a vital role in enhancing the company’s profit margin for sustainable business growth. For every company, there is a need of performance measurement system to be established as successful business tool. However to predict better results, how smartly the inputs for the transformation or business process are being effectively and efficiently used has to be analyzed. Drawing attention to the growing popularity in adapting the best practices of reverse logistics among different manufacturing industries, this paper aims to build a methodology in order to measure the performance of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG agencies. To do so, it has undertaken the Asian emerging market-India as a case study and improved the understanding of performance measurement in reverse logistics to refilling LPG cylinders. Further, it has suggested a framework affecting the implementation of reverse logistics activities and its network.

  19. Feasibility study for bottled gas and LPG in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    With a total population of ca. 40 million, Poland has an annual consumption of liquefied petroleum gas amounting to 180,000 tons, used by 2.5 million bottled-gas consumers. The consumer pattern is expected to change, with an increasing market for gas for industrial purposes and for heating. Distribution systems will also change to include tank installations in many sizes and transport with large tank lorries. LPG is estimated to be competitive with other forms of energy, and the market is expected to increase to up to ca. 500,000 tons per year. Restricting factors are shortage of supply and lack of approved applications, transport equipment and tank facilities. A list of existing bottle gas companies and evaluation of the technical facilities in the Polish Oil and Gas Company in Gydnia are included. Bottled gas is currently distributed under normal conditions and, market prices for LPG have remained stable in Poland. Detailed studies of the current distribution network in the Suwalki area are given. It should be possible to extend the existing distribution network. A proposal for the establishment of standard tank installations and the gas supply for the town of Augustow is presented. Considerable investments will have to be made in terminals, tank plants and transport equipment, and international oil companies are expected to play an important role in this market. The European Bank for Restructuring and Development could possibly contribute to the financing of the pipe network. (AB)

  20. Modeling the performance of coated LPG tanks engulfed in fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landucci, Gabriele [CONPRICI - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Chimica Industriale e Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Pisa, via Diotisalvi n.2, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Molag, Menso [Nederlandse Organisatie voor toegepast-natuurwetenschappelijk onderzoek TNO, Princetonlaan 6, 3584 CB Utrecht (Netherlands); Cozzani, Valerio, E-mail: valerio.cozzani@unibo.it [CONPRICI - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Mineraria e delle Tecnologie Ambientali, Alma Mater Studiorum - Universita di Bologna, Via Terracini 28 - 40131 Bologna (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    The improvement of passive fire protection of storage vessels is a key factor to enhance safety among the LPG distribution chain. A thermal and mechanical model based on finite elements simulations was developed to assess the behaviour of full size tanks used for LPG storage and transportation in fire engulfment scenarios. The model was validated by experimental results. A specific analysis of the performance of four different reference coating materials was then carried out, also defining specific key performance indicators (KPIs) to assess design safety margins in near-miss simulations. The results confirmed the wide influence of coating application on the expected vessel time to failure due to fire engulfment. A quite different performance of the alternative coating materials was evidenced. General correlations were developed among the vessel time to failure and the effective coating thickness in full engulfment scenarios, providing a preliminary assessment of the coating thickness required to prevent tank rupture for a given time lapse. The KPIs defined allowed the assessment of the available safety margins in the reference scenarios analyzed and of the robustness of thermal protection design.

  1. New pemex agency, smog checks greet Mexican LPG vehicle users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the relaxation of prohibitions on the use of propane as a motor fuel has spurred sizeable business activity in carburetion and higher demand for LPG throughout Mexico and particularly in Mexico City. However, a number of unforeseen problems have developed that required tough, immediate solutions. After the alternative fuels project began at city hall in Mexico City, publicity spread nationwide, reportedly spurring conversion activity in many other cities. That led to additional demand for fuel of a magnitude that few people had anticipated. In order to assume control of the situation, the national oil company, Pemex, established an official LPG Motor Fuel Department on June 1. Operating in conjunction with the Ministry of Industry, the new department has been busy registering every major propane-powered fleet in the country. Most important, the rate of conversion work must now be pegged to the availability of fuel. It is believed that conversion activity has become more evenly paced since the new Pemex agency took over.over

  2. Modeling the performance of coated LPG tanks engulfed in fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landucci, Gabriele; Molag, Menso; Cozzani, Valerio

    2009-01-01

    The improvement of passive fire protection of storage vessels is a key factor to enhance safety among the LPG distribution chain. A thermal and mechanical model based on finite elements simulations was developed to assess the behaviour of full size tanks used for LPG storage and transportation in fire engulfment scenarios. The model was validated by experimental results. A specific analysis of the performance of four different reference coating materials was then carried out, also defining specific key performance indicators (KPIs) to assess design safety margins in near-miss simulations. The results confirmed the wide influence of coating application on the expected vessel time to failure due to fire engulfment. A quite different performance of the alternative coating materials was evidenced. General correlations were developed among the vessel time to failure and the effective coating thickness in full engulfment scenarios, providing a preliminary assessment of the coating thickness required to prevent tank rupture for a given time lapse. The KPIs defined allowed the assessment of the available safety margins in the reference scenarios analyzed and of the robustness of thermal protection design.

  3. PENGARUH PERUBAHAN SAAT PENYALAAN (IGNITION TIMING TERHADAP PRESTASI MESIN PADA SEPEDA MOTOR 4 LANGKAH DENGAN BAHAN BAKAR LPG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yunianto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bahan bakar LPG merupakan bahan bakar gas yang ramah lingkungan, sehingga dapat dijadikan bahan bakar alternatif selain bahan bakar bensin Performa Mesin bensin yang dioperasikan dengan menggunakan bahan bakar gas LPG mengalami penurunan. Penurunan ini terjadi dikarenakan karakteristik sifat bahan bakar bensin berbeda dengan LPG. Hal ini dapat diatasi dengan mengatur saat penyalaan sehingga lebih sesuai dengan karakteristik gas LPG. Dari hasil pengujian diperoleh bahwa dengan pengaturan saat penyalaan 11° sebelum TMA, menghasilkan prestasi (Torsi dan Daya yang dekat dengan prestasi motor bensin yaitu hanya selisih 3 %. Prestasi terbaik pada mesin bahan bakar bensin ataupun LPG berkisar pada putaran 4000 s.d 5000 rpm

  4. Separation of motor oils, oily wastes and hydrocarbons from contaminated water by sorption on chrome shavings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammoun, A; Tahiri, S; Albizane, A; Azzi, M; Moros, J; Garrigues, S; de la Guardia, M

    2007-06-25

    In this paper, the ability of chrome shavings to remove motor oils, oily wastes and hydrocarbons from water has been studied. To determine amount of hydrocarbons sorbed on tanned wastes, a FT-NIR methodology was used and a multivariate calibration based on partial least squares (PLS) was employed for data treatment. The light density, porous tanned waste granules float on the surface of water and remove hydrocarbons and oil films. Wastes fibers from tannery industry have high sorption capacity. These tanned solid wastes are capable of absorbing many times their weight in oil or hydrocarbons (6.5-7.6g of oil and 6.3g of hydrocarbons per gram of chrome shavings). The removal efficiency of the pollutants from water is complete. The sorption of pollutants is a quasi-instantaneous process.

  5. Antioxidant Capacities of Fractions of Bamboo Shaving Extract and Their Antioxidant Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jinyan; Huang, Jun; Xiao, Gongnian; Chen, Feng; Lee, Bolim; Ge, Qing; You, Yuru; Liu, Shiwang; Zhang, Ying

    2016-07-30

    This research was conducted for evaluation of antioxidant activities of four fractions from bamboo shavings extract (BSE) and their antioxidant components. The antioxidant capacities of BSE and four fractions on ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and total antioxidant capacity assays exhibited the following descending order: DF > n-butanol fraction (BF) > BSE ≈ ethyl acetate fraction (AF) > water fraction (WF). Among the identified phenolic compounds, caffeic acid exhibited the highest antioxidant capacities on DPPH, FRAP and total antioxidant capacity assays. An extremely significant positive correlation between the antioxidant activities with the contents of total flavonoids, total phenolic acids, or total phenolics was observed in this study. The result indicated that the bamboo shaving extract and its solvent fractions could act as natural antioxidants in light of their potent antioxidant activities.

  6. Flow split, pressure drop, and mixing experiments in a 61-pin shaved-wire blanket assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.F.; Rohsenow, W.M.; Todreas, N.E.

    1981-10-01

    The experimental results of a series of hydraulic tests on a shaved-wire 61-pin blanket assembly are presented and compared to previously published MIT results for full-wire tests. The reduction of the wall subchannel flow area by incorporating the shaved-wire reduced the flow in edge and corner subchannels by 4.5 to 16.5% and 1.5%, respectively. The swirl velocity in the wall subchannels was reduced by 50%. The bundle average friction factor, the turbulent subchannel friction factors, and the mixing parameter and laminar/transition friction factors in the interior subchannels remained unchanged. However, the laminar/transition friction factors in the edge subchannels were significantly increased. These effects generally cannot be predicted by the current flow split, friction factor, and mixing parameter correlations

  7. Postoperative Verlaufskontrollen beim Ulcus cruris nach Shave-Operation und Hauttransplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Pantelaki, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    \\(\\bf Hintergrund:\\) Die Arbeit hat das Ziel die Shave-Operation mit Meshgraft-Deckung hinsichtlich der Einheilungsrate und der Schmerzreduktion zu untersuchen. \\(\\bf Methoden:\\) 56 Patienten mit einem Ulcus cruris unterzogen sich dem genannten Eingriff. Vor und 6 Monate nach der Operation wurden die Ulkusgröße, die bakterielle Besiedlung und die Schmerzintensität analysiert. \\(\\bf Ergebnis:\\) Bei 42,86% der Patienten konnte eine Abheilung erreicht werden, wobei die Ergebnisse hoch sign...

  8. Cow comfort in tie-stalls: increased depth of shavings or straw bedding increases lying time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, C B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Beauchemin, K A

    2009-06-01

    Over half of US dairy operations use tie-stalls, but these farming systems have received relatively little research attention in terms of stall design and management. The current study tested the effects of the amount of 2 bedding materials, straw and shavings, on dairy cattle lying behavior. The effects of 4 levels of shavings, 3, 9, 15, and 24 kg/stall (experiment 1, n = 12), and high and low levels of straw in 2 separate experiments: 1, 3, 5, and 7 kg/stall (experiment 2, n = 12) and 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 kg/stall (experiment 3, n = 12) were assessed. Treatments were compared using a crossover design with lactating cows housed in tie-stalls fitted with mattresses. Treatments were applied for 1 wk. Total lying time, number of lying bouts, and the length of each lying bout was recorded with data loggers. In experiment 1, cows spent 3 min more lying down for each additional kilogram of shavings (11.0, 11.7, 11.6, and 12.1 +/- 0.24 h/d for 3, 9, 15, and 24 kg/stall shavings, respectively). In experiment 2, cows increased lying time by 12 min for every additional kilogram of straw (11.2, 12.0, 11.8, and 12.4 +/- 0.24 h/d for 1, 3, 5, and 7 kg/stall of straw, respectively). There were no differences in lying behavior among the lower levels of straw tested in experiment 3 (11.7 +/- 0.32 h/d). These results indicated that additional bedding above a scant amount improves cow comfort, as measured by lying time, likely because a well-bedded surface is more compressible.

  9. A Feasibility Study on LPG as Marine Fuel; En foerstudie paa gasol som marint braensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjartansson, Sveinbjoern

    2012-06-15

    With the upcoming stricter emission rules fast approaching and the requirements for higher quality fuel, it is inevitable that there will be a change of fuel from HFO to cleaner options. These changes are driven by the knowledge of the health problems associated with emissions from ships in coastal areas. One viable option for meeting these demands for reduced emission is to utilize LPG as a marine fuel. This thesis investigates the harmful chemicals that are present in the exhaust gases, followed by an introduction on LPG as marine fuel. Transport options for LPG and existing engine technology is presented and the feasibility of LPG as a fuel option on the European / Swedish market is studied. The conclusion from this study is that sufficient infrastructure for distribution of LPG is in place to serve potential marine market demand. Engine technology for using LPG as fuel has been developed for a wide range of power outputs. The economic incentive in the fuel price difference alone is likely to attract ship owners to invest in LPG fueled fleets.

  10. Conceptual Model of Supply Chain Structure Mapping - A Case of Subsidized LPG Commodity in Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistio, Joko; Thoif, Afifuddin; Fitri Alindira, Aulia

    2016-01-01

    — In 2007, the government launched a conversion program of kerosene to LPG by issuing a Presidential Regulation No. 104/2007 on Supply, Distribution and Pricing LPG 3 Kg. Article 2 on the regulation says that setting the supply, distribution, and pricing of LPG 3 Kg include planning an annual sales volume of enterprises, the reference price and the retail price and conditions of export and import of LPG 3 Kg in order to reduce subsidies Kerosene especially to divert the use of kerosene according to government policy. In principle, the purpose of this policy is to reduce energy subsidies on commodities, especially Kerosene. Although the government claimed the conversion program is success, there are few problems arising from conversion program. In 2014, many scarcity and high price of LPG 3 Kg were reported. In this case, Pertamina was given full authority to manage all supply chain and distribution. Because the root of the problem of scarcity that occurred in the supply chain system has not been explained, the proposed solutions will also be partial and not comprehensive. Thus, this research will build a structural map of the causes of supply chain system LPG 3 Kg, as well as providing a comprehensive picture of system dynamics of LPG 3 Kg supply chain system which applied in Indonesia. And the result is expected as in form of Causal Loop Diagram of supply chain system.

  11. Bi-fuel System - Gasoline/LPG in A Used 4-Stroke Motorcycle - Fuel Injection Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthisripok, Tongchit; Phusakol, Nachaphat; Sawetkittirut, Nuttapol

    2017-10-01

    Bi-fuel-Gasoline/LPG system has been effectively and efficiently used in gasoline vehicles with less pollutants emission. The motorcycle tested was a used Honda AirBlade i110 - fuel injection type. A 3-litre LPG storage tank, an electronic fuel control unit, a 1-mm LPG injector and a regulator were securely installed. The converted motorcycle can be started with either gasoline or LPG. The safety relief valve was set below 48 kPa and over 110 kPa. The motorcycle was tuned at the relative rich air-fuel ratio (λ) of 0.85-0.90 to attain the best power output. From dynamometer tests over the speed range of 65-100 km/h, the average power output when fuelling LPG was 5.16 hp; dropped 3.9% from the use of gasoline91. The average LPG consumption rate from the city road test at the average speed of 60 km/h was 40.1 km/l, about 17.7% more. This corresponded to lower LPG’s energy density of about 16.2%. In emission, the CO and HC concentrations were 44.4% and 26.5% lower. Once a standard gas equipment set with ECU and LPG injector were securely installed and the engine was properly tuned up to suit LPG’s characteristics, the converted bi-fuel motorcycle offers efficiently, safely and economically performance with environmental friendly emission.

  12. Scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 laser, and perfluoropropane (C 3 F 8 for retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Chaturvedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To review the characteristics and outcomes of patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV with scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 degree peripheral endolaser, and 14% C3F8 gas for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD. Materials and Methods : A retrospective review of a consecutive series of patients who underwent primary repair of RRD by PPV with scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 degree peripheral endolaser, and 14% perfluoropropane (C 3 F 8 was conducted. Patients with less than 3 months follow-up, previous retinal surgery, and higher than grade B proliferative vitreoretinopathy were excluded. Results : Ninety-one eyes were included in the study. The mean age was 60.1 years. The mean follow-up was 13.7 months. The macula was detached in 63% (58/91 of the eyes. The reattachment rate after one surgical procedure was 95% (86/91 while overall reattachment rate was 100%. There was no statistically significant difference between reattachment rates of superior, nasal/temporal, or inferior RRDs. The mean final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 20/40. Of all the patients, 66% of patients with macula-off RRDs had a final BCVA of 20/40 or better. Conclusions: PPV with scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 degree peripheral endolaser, and 14% C 3 F 8 leads to successful anatomical reattachment with visual improvement in patients with primary RRD.

  13. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) poisoning: report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, T; Yamamoto, H; Tanegashima, A; Yamamoto, Y; Nishi, K

    1996-10-25

    Two autopsy cases of men who died while connecting a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) pipe are reported. Their blood concentrations of propane (the main content of LPG) were 0.12 and 3.40 mg/100 g, respectively. The cause of death after exposure of LPG has generally been considered to be asphyxia from hypoxia. The large differences in the blood propane levels found here and reported in the literature, however, suggest that direct toxic effects of propane poisoning may be the cause of death in some cases. Propane concentrations and the cause of death are reviewed and discussed.

  14. Study of the cycle variability at an automotive diesel engine fuelled with LPG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemoianu Liviu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid Petroleum Gas is a viable alternative fuel for diesel engines due to its ability of emissions and fuel consumption reduction. Combustion variability at LPG diesel engine is analysed for maximum pressure, maximum pressure angle and indicated mean effective pressure. Combustion variability is influenced by the increase of LPG cycle dose which lead to the increase of the cycle variability coefficients values, but without exceeding the admitted values that provide diesel engine reliability. Analysis of COV values establishes the maximum admitted values of LPG cycle.

  15. A comparative analysis of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and kerosene related burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Rajeev B; Dash, Jayant K; Shrivastava, Prabhat

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies from our department reflected a trend of decreasing incidence of burns culminating from rising income levels, which were bringing about a change in the cooking fuel in many urban households [1,2]. These studies also indicated a changing scenario of increased incidence of burns from LPG mishaps [2]. In the absence of much information on the subject we felt it rather imperative to comparatively study the pattern of burn injuries resulting from LPG and kerosene. This prospective study was conducted on the clinical database of consecutive patients admitted with burns sustained due to LPG and kerosene from 1st January 2009 to 31st May 2010 (17 months). Data recorded for each patient included; age, gender, religion, socioeconomic status, literacy level, type of family unit, marital status, type of dwelling unit, mode of injury and its exact mechanism, place of incident, level of cooking stove, extent of burns (%TBSA), presence of features of inhalation injury, number of patients affected in a single mishap, size of LPG cylinder used, length of hospital stay and mortality. Of 731 flame burn patients in this study, 395 (54%) were due to kerosene burns and 200 (27.4%) from LPG mishaps. Significantly, the majority of injuries, in both the groups, occurred in lower middle class families living as nuclear units, in a single room dwelling, without a separate kitchen. Majority of LPG burns (70.5%, 141 patients) resulted from a gas leak and 25.5% were from cooking negligence (51 patients). 50.5% of kerosene accidents were from 'stove mishaps' and 49% due to cooking negligence. In all kerosene accidents the stove was kept at floor level but in LPG group 20.6% had the stove placed on a platform. There was a slight difference in mean TBSA burns; 51% in kerosene group compared to 41.5% TBSA in LPG group. There were nine episodes in LPG group in which there were more than three burn victims admitted for treatment. Very importantly, 77% patients in LPG group were from

  16. LPG ammonia and nitrogen dioxide gas sensing properties of nanostructured polypyrrole thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagul, Sagar B., E-mail: nano.sbbagul@gmail.com; Upadhye, Deepak S.; Sharma, Ramphal, E-mail: rps.phy@gmail.com [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Nanotechnology, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad (India)

    2016-05-06

    Nanostructured Polypyrrole thin film was synthesized by easy and economic chemical oxidative polymerization technique on glass at room temperature. The prepared thin film of Polypyrrole was characterized by optical absorbance study by UV-visible spectroscopy and electrical study by I-V measurement system. The optical absorbance spectrum of Polypyrrole shows two fundamental peaks in region of 420 and 890 nm, which confirms the formation of Polypyrrole on glass substrate. The I-V graph of nanostructured Polypyrrole represents the Ohmic nature. Furthermore, the thin film of Polypyrrole was investigated by Scanning electron microscopy for surface morphology study. The SEM micrograph represents spherical nanostructured morphology of Polypyrrole on glass substrate. In order to investigate gas sensing properties, 100 ppm of LPG, Ammonia and Nitrogen Dioxide were injected in the gas chamber and magnitude of resistance has been recorded as a function of time in second. It was observed that nanostructured Polypyrrole thin film shows good sensing behavior at room temperature.

  17. Design Guidelines for Bus Transit Systems Using Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) as an Alternative Fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The use of alternative fuels to power transit buses is steadily increasing. Several fuels, including Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), and Methanol/Ethanol, are already being used in buses. At present, there do not exist co...

  18. Kecepatan Pembakaran Premixed Campuran Minyak Jarak - Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG pada Circular Tube Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defmit B.N. Riwu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the characteristics of premixed combustion of a mixture of castor oil - LPG on a circular tube burner. Percentage of LPG fuel in a mixture of jatropha curcas oil - LPG varied as much as 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% of the mass flow jatropha curcas oil vapor. Considering the flame of fire there are two angles formed which describe burning velocity. Also there are formed two cones of fire where the bright blue inside cone is a premixed flame, while the outer blue white cone is flame a diffusion flame. An increase in the percentage of LPG makes the value of top and bottom angle increase. So that the burning velocity on the upper angle decrease whilst on bottom angle increase.

  19. Deteksi Kebocoran Gas LPG Menggunakan Detektor Arduino dengan Algoritma Fuzzy Logic Mandani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Hakim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bencana kebakaran yang diakibatkan oleh kebocoran gas LPG (Liquid  Petroleum   Gas mengalami kenaikan setiap tahun dari tahun 2011 sampai 2015 diantaranya 17% diakibatkan oleh kebocoran gas. Penggunaan detektor kebocoran gas LPG menggunakan arduino yang dilengkapi sensor gas dan suhu memberikan kemudahan untuk deteksi secara awal terjadinya kebocoran dan kebakaran. Perancangan detektor kebocoran gas LPG menggunakan algoritma fuzzy logic mandani, dilengkapi dengan informasi melalui Short Message Service (SMS dan Buzzer. Detektor kebocoran gas LPG dapat melakukan indikasi terjadinya bocor pada konsentrasi gas rata-rata 456 ppm dari 10 pengujian dan indikasi api merah 23,30 dapat mengenal terjadinya kebakaran, detektor mengirimkan SMS kepada pemilik rumah dan pemadam kebakaran.

  20. PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN FROM THE STEAM AND OXIDATIVE REFORMING OF LPG: THERMODYNAMIC AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe objective of this paper was to use a thermodynamic analysis to find operational conditions that favor the production of hydrogen from steam and oxidative reforming of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG. We also analyzed the performance of a catalyst precursor, LaNiO3, in order to compare the performance of the obtained catalyst with the thermodynamic equilibrium predictions. The results showed that it is possible to produce high concentrations of hydrogen from LPG reforming. The gradual increase of temperature and the use of high water concentrations decrease the production of coke and increase the formation of H2. The reaction of oxidative reforming of LPG was more suitable for the production of hydrogen and lower coke formation. Furthermore the use of an excess of water (H2O/LPG =7.0 and intermediate temperatures (973 K are the most suitable conditions for the process.

  1. Influence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on LPG fuel performance evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Muhammad Saad, E-mail: iqbalmouj@gmail.com; Ahmed, Iqbal, E-mail: iqbalmouj@gmail.com; Mutalib, Mohammad Ibrahim bin Abdul, E-mail: iqbalmouj@gmail.com; Nadeem, Saad, E-mail: iqbalmouj@gmail.com; Ali, Shahid, E-mail: iqbalmouj@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    The objective of this mode of combustion is to insertion of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) to the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) combustion on spark plug ignition engines. The addition of hydrogen peroxide may probably decrease the formation of NO{sub x}, CO{sub x} and unburned hydrocarbons. Hypothetically, Studies have shown that addition of hydrogen peroxide to examine the performance of LPG/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} mixture in numerous volumetric compositions starting from lean LPG until obtaining a better composition can reduce the LPG fuel consumption. The theory behind this idea is that, the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} can cover the lean operation limit, increase the lean burn ability, diminution the burn duration along with controlling the exhaust emission by significantly reducing the greenhouse gaseous.

  2. Influence of H2O2 on LPG fuel performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Muhammad Saad; Ahmed, Iqbal; Mutalib, Mohammad Ibrahim bin Abdul; Nadeem, Saad; Ali, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this mode of combustion is to insertion of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) to the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) combustion on spark plug ignition engines. The addition of hydrogen peroxide may probably decrease the formation of NO x , CO x and unburned hydrocarbons. Hypothetically, Studies have shown that addition of hydrogen peroxide to examine the performance of LPG/H 2 O 2 mixture in numerous volumetric compositions starting from lean LPG until obtaining a better composition can reduce the LPG fuel consumption. The theory behind this idea is that, the addition of H 2 O 2 can cover the lean operation limit, increase the lean burn ability, diminution the burn duration along with controlling the exhaust emission by significantly reducing the greenhouse gaseous

  3. Explosion accident at LPG storage in Mexico. Bleve of PEMEX Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai Yoshio (The Yasuda Fire and Marine Insurance Co., Ltd., Tokyo, (Japan))

    1989-09-01

    This paper reports the BLEVE (Boiling Expanding Vapor Explosion) which occurred at LPG storage-supply plant of PEMEX Co. (Petroles Mexicanos Co.) in San Juan Ixhuatepec, Mexico on 19th of Nov., 1984. As the actual spot of the explosion is close to residential areas, 50 persons died, 200 was missing, and 723 were injured. Another adjacent LPG storage burned down by the spreading fire, and 200,000 residents retired to safety places. A part of the LPG supply Pipes was destroyed, from where LPG leaked and ignited. During one hour and a half, 15 violent explosions occurred, 9 of which were recorded by the seismometer set up at University of Mexico, about 10km apart. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Support to the electric power, natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document brings together the different financial incentives proposed to the acquisition and utilization of electric power, natural gas or LPG vehicles. The financial assistance of the ADEME, the fiscal incentives and other proposals are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  5. Cooking Fuels in Lagos, Nigeria: Factors Associated with Household Choice of Kerosene or Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obianuju B. Ozoh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cooking with dirty-burning fuels is associated with health risk from household air pollution. We assessed the prevalence of and factors associated with the use of cooking fuels, and attitudes and barriers towards use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG. This was a cross-sectional, population-based survey conducted in 519 households in Lagos, Nigeria. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain information regarding choice of household cooking fuel and the attitudes towards the use of LPG. Kerosene was the most frequently used cooking fuel (n = 475, 91.5%; primary use n = 364, 70.1% followed by charcoal (n = 159, 30.6%; primary use n = 88, 17% and LPG (n = 86, 16.6%; primary use n = 63, 12.1%. Higher level of education, higher income and younger age were associated with LPG vs. kerosene use. Fuel expenditure on LPG was significantly lower than for kerosene ( N (Naira 2169.0 ± 1507.0 vs. N 2581.6 ± 1407.5. Over 90% of non-LPG users were willing to switch to LPG but cited safety issues and high cost as potential barriers to switching. Our findings suggest that misinformation and beliefs regarding benefits, safety and cost of LPG are important barriers to LPG use. An educational intervention program could be a cost-effective approach to improve LPG adoption and should be formally addressed through a well-designed community-based intervention study.

  6. Cooking Fuels in Lagos, Nigeria: Factors Associated with Household Choice of Kerosene or Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozoh, Obianuju B; Okwor, Tochi J; Adetona, Olorunfemi; Akinkugbe, Ayesha O; Amadi, Casmir E; Esezobor, Christopher; Adeyeye, Olufunke O; Ojo, Oluwafemi; Nwude, Vivian N; Mortimer, Kevin

    2018-03-31

    Cooking with dirty-burning fuels is associated with health risk from household air pollution. We assessed the prevalence of and factors associated with the use of cooking fuels, and attitudes and barriers towards use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). This was a cross-sectional, population-based survey conducted in 519 households in Lagos, Nigeria. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain information regarding choice of household cooking fuel and the attitudes towards the use of LPG. Kerosene was the most frequently used cooking fuel ( n = 475, 91.5%; primary use n = 364, 70.1%) followed by charcoal ( n = 159, 30.6%; primary use n = 88, 17%) and LPG ( n = 86, 16.6%; primary use n = 63, 12.1%). Higher level of education, higher income and younger age were associated with LPG vs. kerosene use. Fuel expenditure on LPG was significantly lower than for kerosene ( N (Naira) 2169.0 ± 1507.0 vs. N 2581.6 ± 1407.5). Over 90% of non-LPG users were willing to switch to LPG but cited safety issues and high cost as potential barriers to switching. Our findings suggest that misinformation and beliefs regarding benefits, safety and cost of LPG are important barriers to LPG use. An educational intervention program could be a cost-effective approach to improve LPG adoption and should be formally addressed through a well-designed community-based intervention study.

  7. Differential Impact of LPG-and PG-Deficient Leishmania major Mutants on the Immune Response of Human Dendritic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A Favila

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania major infection induces robust interleukin-12 (IL12 production in human dendritic cells (hDC, ultimately resulting in Th1-mediated immunity and clinical resolution. The surface of Leishmania parasites is covered in a dense glycocalyx consisting of primarily lipophosphoglycan (LPG and other phosphoglycan-containing molecules (PGs, making these glycoconjugates the likely pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS responsible for IL12 induction.Here we explored the role of parasite glycoconjugates on the hDC IL12 response by generating L. major Friedlin V1 mutants defective in LPG alone, (FV1 lpg1-, or generally deficient for all PGs, (FV1 lpg2-. Infection with metacyclic, infective stage, L. major or purified LPG induced high levels of IL12B subunit gene transcripts in hDCs, which was abrogated with FV1 lpg1- infections. In contrast, hDC infections with FV1 lpg2- displayed increased IL12B expression, suggesting other PG-related/LPG2 dependent molecules may act to dampen the immune response. Global transcriptional profiling comparing WT, FV1 lpg1-, FV1 lpg2- infections revealed that FV1 lpg1- mutants entered hDCs in a silent fashion as indicated by repression of gene expression. Transcription factor binding site analysis suggests that LPG recognition by hDCs induces IL-12 in a signaling cascade resulting in Nuclear Factor κ B (NFκB and Interferon Regulatory Factor (IRF mediated transcription.These data suggest that L. major LPG is a major PAMP recognized by hDC to induce IL12-mediated protective immunity and that there is a complex interplay between PG-baring Leishmania surface glycoconjugates that result in modulation of host cellular IL12.

  8. Antargaz: 1. independent French LPG marketer; Antargaz: 1. destributeur francais independant de GPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-04-01

    Francois Varagne, recently appointed President and General Manager of Antargaz, displayed on 12 April in Paris the configuration and the ambitions of the company. A major player on the French LPG market, Antargaz makes today a new start. On the basis of its 744 000 tonnes (around 400 millions gallons) sold in 2000, Antargaz ranks as the second LPG distributor in France with a share of some 24%. Antargaz is now the first independent marketer in France, ahead of the other French independent actors: Primagaz France (around 20% of the market) and Vitogaz (some 3.5%). Thus, key factors changed in the French LPG sector. If we except marketers under 5%, there were last year one large independent (Primagaz) and three LPG marketers linked to refiners: Butagaz (as Shell affiliate + BP's French LPG output), Elf Antargaz (as Elf Aquitaine's affiliate) and Totalgaz (as TotalFina's affiliate). Today, again without counting marketers under 5%, there are two LPG marketers linked to refiners (Butagaz and Totalgaz) and two large independents. Antargaz's strategy is focused on existing markets as well as new ones and new applications: in the domestic and commercial sectors, in industry, auto-gas, mains distribution, in the leisure sector, in agriculture. It has also a role to play in Europe.

  9. LPG consumption in the long term: supply, pricing demand with particular reference to the petrochemical sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shammas, P.

    1996-01-01

    Supply of LPG is forecast to grow over the next decade from the present level of 180 million t/y to about 185-190 million t/y, depending on demand in Asia which is rising rapidly and on new LPG export projects. Most of the increase in supply will come from new gas and crude oil production, from new LPG ventures, and from refineries reducing the n-butane content of motor gasoline. Pricing will remain volatile as a result of crude oil price volatility, variations in the winter weather in the Northern Hemisphere, and as result of competition between ethane, PPG, naphtha and condensate as ethylene cracker feedstocks. Demand for LPG in OECD countries will continue to show steady growth. The increase in demand will be more rapid in the relatively less developed OECD countries, as the trend in Spain has shown in recent years. Provided that the LPG price is competitive, demand in China, South-East Asia and the Indian sub-continent could grow beyond current projections. Consumption in these countries will depend on the installation of distribution facilities and the rate at which LPG can substitute for traditional fuels and kerosene as well as compete for limited disposable incomes. (author)

  10. Early Leakage Protection System of LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) Based on ATMega 16 Microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwati; Ikhsan Ilahi, Nur; Musrawati; Baco, Syarifuddin; Suyuti'Andani Achmad, Ansar; Umrianah, Ejah

    2018-04-01

    LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas). LPG is a hydrocarbon gas production from refineries and gas refinery with the major components of propane gas (C3H8) and butane (C4H10). Limit flame (Flammable Range) or also called gas with air. Value Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) is the minimum limit of the concentration of fuel vapor in the air which if there is no source of fire, the gas will be burned. While the value of the Upper Explosive Limit (UEL), which limits the maximum concentration of fuel vapor in the air, which if no source of fire, the gas will be burned. Protection system is a defend mechanism of human, equipment, and buildings around the protected area. Goals to be achieved in this research are to design a protection system against the consequences caused by the leakage of LPG gas based on ATmega16 microcontroller. The method used in this research is to reduce the levels of leaked LPG and turned off the power source when the leakage of LPG is on the verge of explosive limit. The design of this protection system works accurately between 200 ppm up to 10000 ppm, which is still below the threshold of explosive. Thus protecting the early result of that will result in the leakage of LPG gas.

  11. Impact of transportation and distribution factors on LPG supplies and prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprea, G

    1980-01-01

    A predicted world LPG surplus of 14-20 million tons/y in the 1980's will not be absorbed even by the US and Japan, which are now the largest LPG consumers, unless market prices and return on investments are favorable enough to justify the investments required for the associated transportation and distribution facilities for new uses for LPG, e.g., as petrochemical feedstock, heating fuel, automotive fuel, or feedstock for the manufacture of high-octane additives. For the petrochemical industry, this implies new technologies and investments to optimize the equilibrium of the plants in connection with the market demand for ethylene, propylene, butadiene, and aromatic feedstocks. World LPG trade should rise from 13 million tons in 1979 to 40 million tons by 1985, of which 17 million tons will be moved on the Japanese captive market, up from about 10 million tons in 1979. The increased use of LPG in 1979 already boosted freight rates, which made shipowners consider new tonnage investment. The need for long-term supplier-user agreements as to LPG supplies and prices is discussed.

  12. Grizzli mobile systems and LPG delivery management; Grizzli mobile systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-07-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Grizzli Mobile Systems (and its sister companies) specialists in data communications and system solutions, offer their complete management solution for LPG deliveries, right through from remote reading of the gas level in the tank, through route management, management of the delivery itself and finally on-site invoicing and payment. The system permits a supplier to really differentiate itself from its competitors in terms of customer service and control of its operations. Domestic gas tanks are often difficult to access; visual reading of the gauge is not always easy and often leads to the customer re-ordering in panic mode. The supplier has also to react in panic mode to the customer. Grizzli Mobile Systems has developed a radio module that is fitted to the gas tank that calls, at regular set intervals with the tank level to a Call Rider gateway plug. The Call Rider is a small box plugged into the regular telephone socket (also supplying multiple operator telephony and other home automation services). As soon as the gas level reaches a predetermined minimum level, this radio information is relayed via the Internet to the LPG supplier. The supplier can then arrange (in non-panic mode) to deliver gas to the customer, via conventional means or by use of an interactive radio display (attached to a refrigerator or similar by magnets) that communicates with the Call Rider by radio. Once a delivery date has been set, a Grizzli Mobile Systems' dispatch system, installed at the supplier's headquarters creates and transfers routes via GSM communications to its fleet of delivery vehicles. A main-frame mapping software provides real-time follow-up and status checks of the vehicles using the GPS functionality and imports data back from the vehicles and updates databases. The driver is also assisted in localizing delivery sites. Inside the cabin of the vehicle the driver has available a Fujitsu PenCentra pen computer, a Microsoft

  13. Chrome-tanned leather shavings as a filler of butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przepiórkowska, A; Chrońska, K; Zaborski, M

    2007-03-06

    The noxious wastes from the tanning industry such as chrome-tanned leather shavings were used as the only filler of rubber mixes containing carboxylated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (XNBR) or butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), and a dispersing agent Limanol PEV (Schill & Seilacher). The best form addition of leather powder to the rubber mixes is mixed the waste protein with zinc oxide. The leather powder added to the rubber mixes improves the mechanical properties: tensile strength (T(s)), elongation at break (epsilon(b)) and increase the cross-linking density of carboxylated XNBR and NBR rubber mixes. Satisfactory results of these studies are presented in this work.

  14. Texas LPG fuel cell development and demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2004-07-26

    The State Energy Conservation Office has executed its first Fuel Cell Project which was awarded under a Department of Energy competitive grant process. The Texas LPG Fuel Processor Development and Fuel Cell Demonstration Program is a broad-based public/private partnership led by the Texas State Energy Conservation Office (SECO). Partners include the Alternative Fuels Research and Education Division (AFRED) of the Railroad Commission of Texas; Plug Power, Inc., Latham, NY, UOP/HyRadix, Des Plaines, IL; Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), San Antonio, TX; the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC), and the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT). The team proposes to mount a development and demonstration program to field-test and evaluate markets for HyRadix's LPG fuel processor system integrated into Plug Power's residential-scale GenSys(TM) 5C (5 kW) PEM fuel cell system in a variety of building types and conditions of service. The program's primary goal is to develop, test, and install a prototype propane-fueled residential fuel cell power system supplied by Plug Power and HyRadix in Texas. The propane industry is currently funding development of an optimized propane fuel processor by project partner UOP/HyRadix through its national checkoff program, the Propane Education and Research Council (PERC). Following integration and independent verification of performance by Southwest Research Institute, Plug Power and HyRadix will produce a production-ready prototype unit for use in a field demonstration. The demonstration unit produced during this task will be delivered and installed at the Texas Department of Transportation's TransGuide headquarters in San Antonio, Texas. Simultaneously, the team will undertake a market study aimed at identifying and quantifying early-entry customers, technical and regulatory requirements, and other challenges and opportunities that need to be addressed in planning commercialization of the units

  15. Peculiarities of the Assembling Structure of the Novel "Shaved Man" by A. Marienhof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Yu. Belash

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the characteristics of various embodiments of assembling techniques in the context of the narrative structure of the novel by A. Marienhof «The shaved man». The writer’s prose is distinguished by the non-linearity of the composition and the fragmentation of the text. Great influence on the work of the author made the art of cinema that was actively developed in the early XX century. The novel «The shaved man» is a kind of game, and a continuous experiment with various techniques of installation proposed by S. Eisenstein, L. Kuleshov, Pudovkin, etc. Within this text it is enumerated not only the main assembling methods, but also revealed the specifics of their influence on the formation of various meanings. Thanks to the assembling of heterogeneous and diverse objects Marienhof managed to portray in detail both the fate of the characters and the history of the turning epoch the early XX century as a whole.

  16. Comparison of Performance Characteristics of LPG and Gasoline - Fuelled Single Cylinder SI Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Abdul Qadir Abdul Azeez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigations have been concentrated on decreasing fuel consumption by using alternative fuels and on lowering the concentration of toxic  components in combustion products. LPG as an alternative to gasoline  has  emerged  as  a  solution  to  the  deteriorating  urban  air  quality  problem,  especially  in  an  oil country like Iraq. LPG has already been used as cooking fuel in Iraq. In the present paper  practical tests of various operating parameters and concerns have been prepared for better understanding of operating conditions and constrains for a LPG fueled internal combustion engine.The results show that HUCR for gasoline was 8:1, and for LPG was 10:1. bsfc reduced by using LPG at its HUCR, while at CR=8:1 it became higher than that for gasoline. Volumetric efficiency reduced by using  LPG  due  to  its  gaseous  nature,  but  it  was  improved  when  the  engine  was  run  at  HUCR.  Brake thermal efficiency depends  on bsfc and bp, so LPG preceded gasoline at medium speeds and torques. Exhaust gas temperatures reduced by using LPG, the minimum values were when the engine operated at CR= 8:1. The maximum values were for gasoline share.

  17. Experimental study of dual fuel engine performance using variable LPG composition and engine parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnajjar, Emad; Selim, Mohamed Y.E.; Hamdan, Mohammad O.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of using variable LPG is studied. • Five fuels with propane to butane % volume ratio are: 100-70-55-25-0. • 100% Propane composition shows the highest noise levels with similar performance. • At 45° BTDC injection timing 55% Propane LPG the only fuel experience knocking. • LPG fuels gave similar engine performance, with differences in levels of noise. - Abstract: The present work investigates experimentally the effect of LPG fuel with different composition and engine parameters on the performance of a dual compression engine. Five different blends of LPG fuels are used with Propane to Butane volume ratio of 100:0, 70:30, 55:45, 25:75, and 0:100. A single cylinder, naturally aspirated, four strokes, indirectly injected, water cooled modified Ricardo E6 engine, is used in this study. The study is carried out by measuring the cylinder pressure, engine load, engine speed, crank angle, and the fuel’s flow rate. The engine performance under variable LPG fuel composition, engine load, pilot fuel injection timing, compression ratio, pilot fuel mass and engine speed, are estimated by comparing the following engine parameters: the cylinder maximum pressure, the indicated mean effective pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, and the thermal efficiency. The experimental data indicates that the engine parameters are playing a major role on the engine’s performance. Different LPG fuel composition did not show a major effect on the engine efficiency but directly impacted the levels of generated combustion noise

  18. Preparation of high exhaust chrome from leather shavings and hydrocarbons with its application in leather processing for green tanning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, H.R.; Solangi, B.A.; Nadeem, U.; Zehra, B.

    2010-01-01

    The use of chrome in tanning has made the remarkable advances to achieve the best quality and quantity of leather. But the chrome tanning process is associated with the generation of heavy metal containing solid wastes and toxic effluents. To solve the environmental issues we emphasized on the development of high exhaust chrome complex from chrome containing leather wastes that could minimize the toxic effluents up to negligible limit. Therefore in the synthetic process of chrome tanning material, the chrome shavings and the hydrocarbons have been utilized as a reductant as well as the potential masking intermediates. These chrome tanning materials have been prepared using leather shavings alone in product A, partial replacement of shavings by hydrocarbons for product B and then replacement of hydrocarbons by molasses for product C. The materials have been employed for the tanning of goat skins parallel to the commercial basic chromium sulfate (BCS). (author)

  19. Sistem Monitoring Pendeteksi Kebocoran LPG berbasis Mikrokontroller ATmega16 menggunakan RF APC220

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATNA SUSANA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penggunaan LPG sebagai bahan bakar alternatif pengganti bahan bakar minyak dirasakan lebih efektif dan praktis. Namun kandungan senyawa di dalamnya memiliki efek yang negatif jika menguap di udara bebas. Sistem detektor gas LPG dapat menjadi salah satu solusi untuk mengetahui lebih dini terjadinya kebocoran gas. Implementasi sistem detektor gas LPG pada penelitian ini berupa sistem monitoring nirkabel yang dilengkapi alarm sebagai indikasi jika terjadi kebocoran gas. Sistem terdiri dari bagian Remote Controller dan Master Controller. Remote Controller menggunakan mikrokontroler ATMega16 yang terintegrasi dengan sensor MQ5, LCD dan transceiver RF APC220. Sedangkan Master Controller berupa komputer (PC yang dapat menampilkan kondisi ruangan yang dideteksi oleh bagian Remote Controller. Sistem berhasil mendeteksi gas LPG dan menampilkan kadar konsentrasinya dalam rentang 200 sampai dengan 1000 ppm. Ketika kadar konsentrasi gas mencapai 5000 ppm, alarm aktif secara otomatis dan memberikan status waspada. Pengiriman data secara nirkabel dengan adanya sejumlah penghalang berhasil dilakukan sampai jarak 200 m. Kata kunci: Sistem Monitoring, Remote Controller, Master Controller, LPG, RF APC220   Abstract The use of LPG as a fuel alternative to fossil fuels may be more effective and practical. Neverfluless its compound has a negative effect if it evaporates to the air. LPG gas detector system may be one solution to determine the early occurrence of gas leak. The detector system implementation in this study was a wireless monitoring system that had alarm to indicate if there was the gas leak. The system consisted of the Remote Controller and the Master Controller. Remote Controller used ATmega16 microcontroller integrated with MQ5 sensor, LCD and RF transceiver APC220. While the Master Controller in the form of a computer (PC that could display a room condition was detected by the Remote Controller section. LPG gas system successfully detected

  20. Particle and carbon dioxide emissions from passenger vehicles operating on unleaded petrol and LPG fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristovski, Z.D.; Jayaratne, E.R.; Morawska, L.; Ayoko, G.A.; Lim, M.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the particle and carbon dioxide emissions from a fleet of six dedicated liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) powered and five unleaded petrol (ULP) powered new Ford Falcon Forte passenger vehicles was carried out on a chassis dynamometer at four different vehicle speeds-0 (idle), 40, 60, 80 and 100 km h -1 . Emission factors and their relative values between the two fuel types together with a statistical significance for any difference were estimated for each parameter. In general, LPG was found to be a 'cleaner' fuel, although in most cases, the differences were not statistically significant owing to the large variations between emissions from different vehicles. The particle number emission factors ranged from 10 11 to 10 13 km -1 and was over 70% less with LPG compared to ULP. Corresponding differences in particle mass emission factor between the two fuels were small and ranged from the order of 10 μg km -1 at 40 to about 1000 μg km -1 at 100 km h -1 . The count median particle diameter (CMD) ranged from 20 to 35 nm and was larger with LPG than with ULP in all modes except the idle mode. Carbon dioxide emission factors ranged from about 300 to 400 g km -1 at 40 km h -1 , falling with increasing speed to about 200 g km -1 at 100 km h -1 . At all speeds, the values were 10% to 18% greater with ULP than with LPG

  1. Co-firing used engine lubrication oil with LPG in furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Omari, S.A.-B.; Shaheen, A.; Al Fakhr, A.; Al-Hosani, A.; Al Yahyai, M.

    2010-01-01

    Combustion and heat transfer characteristics obtained based co-firing LPG with used engine oils (UEO) in a furnace, are investigated experimentally. In an attempt to assess UEO as a fuel, the UEO-based results are compared with results obtained using two other fuels, namely diesel, and a used cooking oil (UCkO). To ease its admission to the furnace and its subsequent vaporization and combustion, UEO is preheated by allowing it to flow upwardly in a vertical pipe surrounded by hot gases generated from LPG combustion. UEO that reaches the tip of the pipe un-vaporized, spills and hence has the chance to further heatup and vaporize as it exchanges heat with the upwardly flowing LPG combustion gases, in a counter flow process. Runs are divided into three groups based on the mass ratio of the liquid-fuel/LPG and the mass flow rate of the LPG supplied to the furnace. Ranges of these quantities over which UEO qualify as a good fuel and/or good promoter to radiation have been identified.

  2. Co-firing used engine lubrication oil with LPG in furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Omari, S.A.-B.; Shaheen, A.; Al Fakhr, A.; Al-Hosani, A.; Al Yahyai, M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, UAE University, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2010-06-15

    Combustion and heat transfer characteristics obtained based co-firing LPG with used engine oils (UEO) in a furnace, are investigated experimentally. In an attempt to assess UEO as a fuel, the UEO-based results are compared with results obtained using two other fuels, namely diesel, and a used cooking oil (UCkO). To ease its admission to the furnace and its subsequent vaporization and combustion, UEO is preheated by allowing it to flow upwardly in a vertical pipe surrounded by hot gases generated from LPG combustion. UEO that reaches the tip of the pipe un-vaporized, spills and hence has the chance to further heatup and vaporize as it exchanges heat with the upwardly flowing LPG combustion gases, in a counter flow process. Runs are divided into three groups based on the mass ratio of the liquid-fuel/LPG and the mass flow rate of the LPG supplied to the furnace. Ranges of these quantities over which UEO qualify as a good fuel and/or good promoter to radiation have been identified. (author)

  3. NKT cell activation by Leishmania mexicana LPG: Description of a novel pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Chimal, Jaime; Fernández-Figueroa, Edith A; Ruiz-Remigio, Adriana; Wilkins-Rodríguez, Arturo A; Delgado-Domínguez, José; Salaiza-Suazo, Norma; Gutiérrez-Kobeh, Laila; Becker, Ingeborg

    2017-02-01

    NKT cells have been associated with protection against Leishmania donovani, yet their role in infections with Leishmania mexicana has not been addressed, nor has the activation pathway been defined after stimulation with Leishmania mexicana lipophosphoglycan (LPG). We analyzed the activation of NKT cells and their cytokine production in response to Leishmania mexicana LPG. Additionally we compared NKT-cell numbers and cytokine profile in lymph nodes of skin lesions induced by Leishmania mexicana in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. We show that LPG activates NKT cells primarily through the indirect pathway, initiating with TLR2 stimulation of dendritic cells (DC), thereby enhancing TLR2, MHC II, and CD86 expressions and IL-12p70 production. This leads to IFN-γ production by NKT cells. C57BL/6 mice showed enhanced DC activation, which correlated with augmented IFN-γ production by NKT cells. Additionally, infected C57BL/6 mice showed elevated percentages of NKT cells with higher IFN-γ and IL-4 production in lymph nodes. We conclude that the response of NKT cells towards Leishmania mexicana LPG initiates with the indirect activation, after binding of LPG to TLR2 in DC. This indirect activation pathway enables NKT cells to produce IFN-γ during the innate phase of Leishmania infection, the magnitude of which differs between mouse strains. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of variation in LPG composition on emissions and performance in a dual fuel diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.E. Saleh [Mattaria, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt). Department of Mechanical Power Engineering

    2008-10-15

    This paper investigates the effect of variation in LPG composition on emissions and performance characteristics in a dual fuel engine run on diesel fuel and five gaseous fuel of LPG with different composition. To quantify the best LPG composition for dual fuel operation especially in order to improve the exhaust emissions quality while maintaining high thermal efficiency comparable to a conventional diesel engine, a two-cylinder, naturally aspirated, four-stroke, DI diesel engine converted to run as pilot-injected dual fuel engine. The tests and data collection were performed under various conditions of load at constant engine speed. From the results, it is observed that the exhaust emissions and fuel conversion efficiency of the dual fuel engine are found to be affected when different LPG composition is used as higher butane content lead to lower NOx levels while higher propane content reduces CO levels. Fuel No. 3 (70% propane, 30% butane) with mass fraction 40% substitution of the diesel fuel was the best LPG composition in the dual fuel operation except that at part loads. Also, tests were made for fuel No. 3-diesel blend in the dual fuel operation at part loads to improve the engine performances and exhaust emissions by using the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) method. 26 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. GlidArc-assisted production of synthesis gas from LPG (Propane)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czernichowski, A.; Czernichowski, P.; Czernichowski, M.

    2003-01-01

    Small and medium size reformers that run on widely available Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG, containing mostly the propane) can provide Synthesis Gas (or Hydrogen extracted from it) to some Fuel Cell powered cars, boats, homes, farms etc. reducing therefore costs of the pure Hydrogen distribution. We contribute to such idea realization through our simply, plasma-assisted reformer avoiding a need of poison resistant catalysts or prior LPG desulfurizer. In fact, any level of sulphur in LPG is accepted for our non-catalytic reformer based on high-voltage discharges (called GlidArc). The discharges catalytically assist the exothermic partial oxidation process. Electric power assistance is less than 2% of the Lower Heating Value (LHV) of produced SynGas. Recycling such a small portion of the energy is therefore an acceptable compromise. The unique oxidant source is air. This contribution presents our expanded tests with commercial LPG in a 1-L reactor working at atmospheric pressure. At a 0.1 kW electric power assistance we produce a Nitrogen-diluted SynGas containing up to 45% of H 2 +CO at the output flow rate corresponding up to 2.7 m 3 (n)/h of pure H 2 +CO mixture that is equivalent to LHV output power of 8.6 kW. The LPG is totally reformed at more than 70% energetic efficiency and at the total absence of soot. (author)

  6. Efficacy of water spray protection against propane and butane jet fires impinging on LPG storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvill, L.C. [Shell Global Solutions (UK), Chester (United Kingdom)

    2004-03-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage tanks are often provided with water sprays to protect them in the event of a fire. This protection has been shown to be effective in a hydrocarbon pool fire but uncertainties remained regarding the degree of protection afforded in a jet fire resulting from a liquid or two-phase release of LPG. Two projects, sponsored by the Health and Safety Executive, have been undertaken to study, at full scale, the performance of a water spray system on an empty 13 tonne LPG vessel under conditions of jet fire impingement from nearby releases of liquid propane and butane. The results showed that a typical water deluge system found on an LPG storage vessel cannot be relied upon to maintain a water film over the whole vessel surface in an impinging propane or butane jet fire scenario. The deluge affects the fire itself, reducing the luminosity and smoke, resulting in a lower rate of wall temperature rise at the dry patches, when compared with the undeluged case. The results of these studies will be used by the HSE in assessing the risk of accidental fires on LPG installations leading to boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE) incidents. (Author)

  7. Explosion hazards of LPG-air mixtures in vented enclosure with obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Wang, Yaxing; Lian, Zhen

    2017-07-15

    Numerical simulations were performed to study explosion characteristics of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) explosion in enclosure with a vent. Unlike explosion overpressure and dynamic pressure, explosion temperature of the LPG-air mixture at a given concentration in a vented enclosure has very little variation with obstacle numbers for a given blockage ratio. For an enclosure without obstacle, explosion overpressures for the stoichiometric mixtures and the fuel-lean mixtures reach their maximum within the vent and that for fuel-rich mixture reaches its maximum beyond and near the vent. Dynamic pressures produced by an indoor LPG explosion reach their maximum always beyond the vent no matter obstacles are present or not in the enclosure. A LPG explosion in a vented enclosure with built-in obstacles is strong enough to make the brick and mortar wall with a thickness of 370mm damaged. If there is no obstacle in the enclosure, the lower explosion pressure of several kPa can not break the brick and mortar wall with a thickness of 370mm. For a LPG explosion produced in an enclosure with a vent, main hazards, within the vent, are overpressure and high temperature. However main hazards are dynamic pressure, blast wind, and high temperature beyond the vent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. CdO necklace like nanobeads decorated with PbS nanoparticles: Room temperature LPG sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonawane, N.B. [Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon, 425001 M.S. (India); K.A.M.P. & N.K.P. Science College, Pimpalner, Sakri, Dhule, M.S. (India); Baviskar, P.K. [Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon, 425001 M.S. (India); Ahire, R.R. [S.G. Patil Science, Sakri, Dhule, M.S. (India); Sankapal, B.R., E-mail: brsankapal@gmail.com [Nano Materials and Device Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, South Ambazari Road, Nagpur, 440010 M.S. (India)

    2017-04-15

    Simple chemical route has been employed to grow interconnected nanobeads of CdO having necklace like structure through air annealing of cadmium hydroxide nanowires. This nanobeads of n-CdO with high surface area has been decorated with p-PbS nanoparticles resulting in the formation of nano-heterojunction which has been utilized effectively as room temperature liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensor. The room temperature gas response towards C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH, Cl{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, CO{sub 2} and LPG was investigated, among which LPG exhibits significant response. The maximum gas response of 51.10% is achieved with 94.54% stability upon exposure of 1176 ppm concentration of LPG at room temperature (27 °C). The resulting parameters like gas response, response and recovery time along with stability studies has been studied and results are discussed herein. - Highlights: • Conversion of Cd(OH){sub 2} nanowires to CdO nanonecklace by air annealing at 290 °C. • Decoration of PbS nanoparticles over CdO nanobeads by SILAR method. • Formation of n-CdO/p-PbS nano-heterojunction as room temperature LPG sensor. • Maximum gas response of 51.10% with 94.54% stability.

  9. Formulation and Characterization of Cu Doped ZnO Thick Films as LPG Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. PATIL

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Thick films of pure and various concentrations (1 wt. %, 3 wt. %, 5 wt. %, 7 wt. % and 10 wt. % of Cu-doped ZnO were prepared on alumina substrates using a screen printing technique. These films were fired at a temperature of 700ºC for two hours in an air atmosphere. Morphological, compositional and structural properties of the samples were obtained using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX and X-ray diffraction techniques respectively. The LPG gas sensing properties of these thick films were investigated at different operating temperatures and LPG gas concentrations. The surface resistance of thick films decreases when exposed to LPG gas. The Cu doped films show significant sensitivity to LPG gas than pure ZnO film. 5 wt. % Cu-doped ZnO film was found to be more sensitive (87.3 % to LPG gas exposed at 300 oC than other doping concentrations with fast response and recovery time.

  10. Early structure of LPG partially premixed conically stabilized flames

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental investigation of LPG partially premixed turbulent flames stabilized within a conical nozzle burner under constant degree of partial premixing. The stability limits and mean flame structure are presented based on the mean gas temperature and the concentration of CO, O 2, NO, and HC at the flame early region of reaction. The investigation covered the influence of the nozzle cone angle, the jet exit velocity and the jet equivalence ratio. The stability results show that the flames with cone are more stable than those without cone. For conical stabilized flames, the stability results exhibit three different sensitivity regions between the jet velocity and equivalence ratio. The inflame measurements prove that the flame stability could be attributed to the triple flame structure at the flame leading edge. The data show that the triple flame structure is influenced by cone angle, the jet velocity and the equivalence ratio. The flame is believed to be controlled by the recirculation flow inside the cone. Increasing the cone angle induced higher air entrainment to the reaction zone as depicted by a higher O 2 concentration within the flame leading edge. Increasing the jet velocity to a certain limit enhances the intensity of combustion at the flame leading edge, while excessive increase in jet velocity reduces this intensity. At a fixed jet velocity the higher the equivalence ratio, the higher the amount of fuel diffused and engulfed to the reaction zone, the more delay of the combustion completion and the higher the emission concentrations of the flame. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  11. LPG in the Totalfina-Elf merger; Le GPL dans la fusion Totalfina-Elf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-04-01

    Elf Aquitaine's take-over by TotalFina was approved on February 9, by the European Commission, with substantial changes to the project initially submitted. One of the main changes involves the sale of Elf Antargaz and of a part of Elf's associated LPG logistics. Rumors say that a dozen of potential buyers were on the ranks in February to acquire this company which is the second French LPG marketer. The sale seems to question the LPG scheme set by TotalFina at the end of 1999. We published in our previous issue this scheme which was designed to give a larger span to the product, with its own management apart from other specialties. (authors)

  12. Experimental and analytical investigation of thermal coating effectiveness for 3 m3 LPG tanks engulfed by fire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landucci, G.; Molag, M.; Reinders, J.; Cozzani, V.

    2009-01-01

    Two large-scale diesel pool fire engulfment tests were carried out on LPG tanks protected with intumescing materials to test the effectiveness of thermal coatings in the prevention of hot BLEVE accidental scenarios in the road and rail transport of LPG. A specific test protocol was defined to

  13. Improved accuracy of cell surface shaving proteomics in Staphylococcus aureus using a false-positive control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solis, Nestor; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Cordwell, Stuart J

    2010-01-01

    Proteolytic treatment of intact bacterial cells is an ideal means for identifying surface-exposed peptide epitopes and has potential for the discovery of novel vaccine targets. Cell stability during such treatment, however, may become compromised and result in the release of intracellular proteins...... that complicate the final analysis. Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen, causing community and hospital-acquired infections, and is a serious healthcare concern due to the increasing prevalence of multiple antibiotic resistances amongst clinical isolates. We employed a cell surface "shaving" technique...... to trypsin and three identified in the control. The use of a subtracted false-positive strategy improved enrichment of surface-exposed peptides in the trypsin data set to approximately 80% (124/155 peptides). Predominant surface proteins were those associated with methicillin resistance-surface protein SACOL...

  14. Cavity Shaving plus Lumpectomy versus Lumpectomy Alone for Patients with Breast Cancer Undergoing Breast-Conserving Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Wang

    Full Text Available The margin status is a well-established prognostic predictor for patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery (BCS. Recent data suggested that cavity shaving in addition to lumpectomy might be a promising approach for improving the clinical outcomes. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety between cavity shaving plus lumpectomy and lumpectomy alone with a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases for studies comparing cavity shaving with lumpectomy before June 10, 2016. Both comparative studies and self-control studies were included. A random-effects model was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs for positive margin rate, reoperation rate, recurrence rate, and weighted mean difference (WMD for excised tissue volume. Twenty-six studies were included in the meta-analysis. The cavity shaving group had a significantly lower positive margin rate than the BCS-alone group (16.4% vs. 31.9%; OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.32-0.53, P < 0.05. Cavity shaving was associated with a significantly decreased rate of reoperation (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.30-0.59, P < 0.05. The overall locoregional rate was low for cavity shaving and BCS-alone (3% vs. 4%. Cavity shaving had no significant effect on the risk of locoregional recurrence (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.32-2.35; P = 0.78. The excised tissue volume did not differ substantially between cavity shaving and BCS alone (WMD = -23.88, 95% CI -55.20 to 7.44, P = 0.14. For patients undergoing BCS, additional cavity shaving was an effective method to decrease the positive margin rate and avoid reoperation. The addition of cavity shaving did not appear to have excessive excised tissue volume compared with partial mastectomy alone.

  15. LPG and NH3 sensing characteristics of DC electrochemically deposited Co3O4 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelke, P. N.; Khollam, Y. B.; Gunjal, S. D.; Koinkar, P. M.; Jadkar, S. R.; Mohite, K. C.

    2015-03-01

    Present communication reports the LPG and NH3 sensing properties of Co3O4 films prepared on throughly cleaned stainless steel (SS) and copper (CU) substrates by using DC electrochemical deposition method followed by air annealing at 350°C/2 h. The resultant films are characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The LPG and NH3 gas sensing properties of these films are measured at room temperature (RT) by using static gas sensing system at different concentrations of test gas ranging from 25 ppm to 350 ppm. The XRD and Raman spectroscopy studies clearly indicated the formation of pure cubic spinel Co3O4 in all films. The LPG and NH3 gas sensing properties of films showed (i) the increase in sensitivity factor (S.F.) with gas concentrations and (ii) more sensibility to LPG as compared to NH3 gas. In case of NH3 gas (conc. 150 ppm) and LPG gas (conc. 60 ppm) sensing, the maximum S.F. = 270 and 258 are found for the films deposited on CU substrates, respectively. For all films, the response time (3-5 min.) is found to be much higher than the recovery time (30-50 sec). For all films, the response and recovery time are found to be higher for LPG as compared to NH3 gas. Further, repeatability-reproducibility in gas sensing properties is clearly noted by analysis of data for number of cycles recorded for all films from different set of depositions.

  16. Minimal Subdermal Shaving by Means of Sclerotherapy Using Absolute Ethanol: A New Method for the Treatment of Axillary Osmidrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung­Sup Shim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Axillary osmidrosis is characterized by unpleasant odors originating from the axillary apocrine glands, resulting in psychosocial stress. The main treatment modality is apocrine gland removal. Until now, of the various surgical techniques have sometimes caused serious complications. We describe herein the favorable outcomes of a new method for ablating apocrine glands by minimal subdermal shaving using sclerotherapy with absolute ethanol.Methods A total of 12 patients underwent the procedure. The severity of osmidrosis was evaluated before surgery. Conventional subdermal shaving was performed on one side (control group and ablation by means of minimal subdermal shaving and absolute ethanol on the other side (study group. Postoperative outcomes were compared between the study and control groups.Results The length of time to removal of the drain was 1 day shorter in the study group than in the control group. There were no serious complications, such as hematoma or seroma, in either group, but flap margin necrosis and flap desquamation occurred in the control group, and were successfully managed with conservative treatment. Six months after surgery, we and our patients were satisfied with the outcomes.Conclusions Sclerotherapy using absolute ethanol combined with minimal subdermal shaving may be useful for the treatment of axillary osmidrosis. It can reduce the incidence of seroma and hematoma and allow the skin flap to adhere to its recipient site. It can degrade and ablate the remaining apocrine glands and eliminate causative organisms. Furthermore, since this technique is relatively simple, it takes less time than the conventional method.

  17. Is dermatome shaving a potential treatment for actinic keratosis in organ transplant recipients? A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjerkegaard, Ulrik Knap; Bischoff-Mikkelsen, Morten; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg

    2014-01-01

    skin lesions were lower in the donor area compared to both of the control areas (Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test, p = 0.024, respectively, p = 0.019). Conclusions Dermatome shaving reduced the occurrence of keratotic skin lesions in OTRs and might prevent the development of field cancerization...

  18. Random Shift and XOR of Unequal-sized Packets (RaSOR) to Shave off Transmission Overhead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghouti, Maroua; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank Hanns Paul

    2017-01-01

    We propose the design of a novel coding scheme of unequal-sized packets. Unlike the conventional wisdom that consists of brute-force zero-padding in Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC), we exploit this heterogeneity to shave off this trailing overhead and transmit considerably less coded packets....

  19. Kajian Eksperimental Perbandingan Performansi Mesin Otto Bahan Bakar Premium dengan Bahan Bakar LPG

    OpenAIRE

    Sitorus, Jefferson

    2013-01-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels led to a variety of ideas how to solve this problem. LPG (Liquefied petroleum gas) is one alternative fuel that can be used in trending engine, one of which is a gasoline engine generator sets in 4-stroke. By modifying the carburetor so the engine can work as when using gasoline. Although the performance of the machine tends to not give optimal results such as engine performance when using gasoline, but has the advantage of LPG fuel, the emissions p...

  20. Local health care system utilizing the LPG (liquid propane gas) network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, T; Hoshi, H; Tsuda, M; Horio, S; Itou, N; Neriki, T

    1998-07-01

    JAC's LPG monitoring network system is mainly provided in mountain villages. However, by using this system, it will be possible to start a Digital Network Program for the Elderly while maintaining superior economic feasibility and public benefit using existing information infrastructures. This project also has the capabilities for the creation of a fire/disaster monitoring system, as well as a health care system by using conventional LPG monitoring systems. Telemedicine is an option for the future, as well, by connecting medical equipment and a tele-conferencing system.

  1. Investigating the influences of liquid LPG injection on spark ignition (SI engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukiman Mohd Mustaqim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG is one of the alternative fuels that becoming popular to be use in spark ignition engine (SI. This paper briefly presents the influence of energy content to the engine output of 1.6L SI engine of Proton Gen 2. The engine was coupled to a chassis dynamometer and few related apparatus were employed in determine the engine behavior. All data collected were illustrated in graph for further analysis. The engine shows comparable engine output, however, the engine requires some tuning in order to fully utilize the energy content of LPG.

  2. Petroleum products. LPG-c is taking off; Produits petroliers. Le decollage du GPL-c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    A strong tax reduction and other financial incentives for liquefied petroleum gas, have stimulated LPG consumption in France, with a 60 pc increase between 1995 and 1996. LPG fuels allow for an important reduction in polluting emissions. Other news are presented, which concern the French Petroleum Institute strategy and financing, European regulations on fuel quality, the issue of the decreasing number of service stations in France, new production sites for bio-fuels, issues with petroleum investment international embargoes, the privatization of Elf-Aquitaine, the 1996 truck driver strike, and the Goa international conference between energy producer and user countries

  3. Prediction of electricity and lpg consumption in a hotel using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero, L Reiners; Perez T, Carlos; Gongora L, Ever; Marrero, R Secundino

    2009-01-01

    This work was developed in order to improve the current tools for energy planning. This makes possible to predict electricity and LPG consumption in a tourist facility with accuracy higher than 90% by using Artificial Neuronal Networks (ANN) as fitting and predictive models. Local climatology and occupational patterns were used as entering variables for the models. Parametric modeling was performed as starting conditions and then improved with ANN. Matlab tools were used for calculations. The average deviation when predicting electricity consumption was 0.6% with a standard deviation of 4%. For LPG consumption the average deviation was less than 1% with a standard deviation of 1.3%.

  4. Petroleum products. LPG-c is taking off; Produits petroliers. Le decollage du GPL-c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    A strong tax reduction and other financial incentives for liquefied petroleum gas, have stimulated LPG consumption in France, with a 60 pc increase between 1995 and 1996. LPG fuels allow for an important reduction in polluting emissions. Other news are presented, which concern the French Petroleum Institute strategy and financing, European regulations on fuel quality, the issue of the decreasing number of service stations in France, new production sites for bio-fuels, issues with petroleum investment international embargoes, the privatization of Elf-Aquitaine, the 1996 truck driver strike, and the Goa international conference between energy producer and user countries

  5. LPG in large pipelines; Operacao com GLP em oleodutos de grande extensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Celio Pereira dos; Agostineti, Antonio [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    OSBRA Pipeline is the largest pipeline of the Brazil. It has its beginning in the Refinery REPLAN, in Sao Paulo and it is going to Brasilia, in the Distrito Federal traveling 980 kilometers through three states and Distrito Federal. Flow rate inferior to one of the project, alterations in the specification of the quality for sale and operational deficiencies contributed to the difficulty of maintenance of the quality of LPG with relationship to the oleaginous residue. A Batch Test was idealized to trace of the possible points of contamination along the pipeline under controlled conditions. Pig separator was used in the interface among the gasoline and LPG, and adopted new procedure, for the operator of the control center, to avoid the start of the pumps that were with its internal lines filled with other product. The results showed viability of the operation with LPG in the OSBRA pipeline, even without need of alterations in the current physical facilities. Some improvements in facilities, as well as, new technologies of pig separator can improve the maintenance of the quality of LPG reducing possibilities of contamination, and also reducing the volume of the interface. (author)

  6. Regulated and unregulated exhaust gas components from LD vehicles on petrol, diesel, LPG and CNG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, P.; Rijkeboer, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Four fuels (petrol, LPG, CNG and diesel) are compared on passenger cars and lighter vans. The comparisons are made for the usual regulated components, but also for a number of unregulated components. The project was financed by the Dutch government, the association of gas suppliers, a number of

  7. Synthesis of ZnO nanopencils using wet chemical method and its investigation as LPG sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimpi, Navinchandra G.; Jain, Shilpa; Karmakar, Narayan; Shah, Akshara; Kothari, D.C.; Mishra, Satyendra

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis using a simple and cost-effective wet chemical process. • Uniform, monodispersed and pure nanoparticles. • Pencil shaped rods with sharp tips. • Understanding of Growth mechanism. • Efficient LPG sensing with high response. • Morphology dependent sensing. - Abstract: ZnO nanopencils (NPCs) were prepared by a novel wet chemical process, using triethanolamine (TEA) as a mild base, which is relatively simple and cost effective method as compared to hydrothermal method. ZnO NPCs were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy in mid-IR and far-IR regions, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy, room temperature Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). ZnO NPCs obtained, were highly pure, uniform and monodispersed.XRD pattern indicated hexagonal unit cell structure with preferred orientation along the c-axis. Sensing behaviour of ZnO NPCs was studied towards Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) at different operating temperatures. The study shows that ZnO NPCs were most sensitive and promising candidate for detection of LPG at 250 °C with gas sensitivity > 60%. The high response towards LPG is due to high surface area of ZnO NPCs and their parallel alignment.

  8. Dual-fuel HCCI operation with DME/LPG/gasoline/hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, C.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines include usage of the different type of fuels, ultra low nitrogen oxide and particulate matter emissions and improved fuel economy. Disadvantages include an excessive combustion rate, engine noise, and hydrocarbon and carbon emissions. An experiment on dual-fuel HCCI operation with dimethyl ether (DME)/liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)/gasoline/hydrogen was presented. The advantages and disadvantages were first presented and the dual-fuel HCCI combustion engine was illustrated through an experimental apparatus. The experimental conditions were also presented in terms of engine speed, DME injection quantity, LPC injection quantity, and LPC composition. Experimental results were discussed for output performance and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). It was concluded that the effect of LPG composition in a DME-LPG dual-fueled HCCI engine at various injection quantity and injective timing were observed. Specifically, it was found that propane was a more effective way to increase IMEP in this study, and that in a DME HCCI engine, higher load limit was extended by using LPG as an ignition inhibitor. tabs., figs.

  9. The determination of aldehydes in the exhaust gases of LPG fuelled engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, G.A.F.M.; Burtner, C.W.J.; Visser, H.; Rijks, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The exhaust gas of a LPG fuelled engine is drawn through two bubblers in series in an ice bath, and filled with saturated 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine in 2M HCl. After heating the derivatives are extracted with toluene-cyclohexane and 1l samples injected on-column on a OV1 capillary column. Using an

  10. ENERGY EFFICIENCY, ENERGY SAVING POTENTIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT RESEARCH OF LPG CARRIER REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. О. Bedrosov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays energy efficiency improvement and global warming are issues of current interest because of the natural resources depletion and extreme climate change. Thus, the problem of formation of strict regulations regarding emissions into the air arises. This paper presents the study of cascade refrigeration system for re-condensing of associated petroleum gas during sea transportation for LPG carrier. The structural optimization has been performed. LPG gas carriers with 266 000 m3 ethane capacity require 15 MW cascade refrigeration system for re-condensing if the temperature in the coastal LPG storage is -70°C, and the temperature for transported Ethan is maintained at  -75°C. For current storage conditions the required system cooling capacity is only 1,078 MW intended for the heat gain rejection from the environment during Ethane transportation. The replacement of ozone-depleting refrigerant R22 to alternative agents: R407C, R404A, R402A, R717, R290, R1270 was estimated. The results of analysis have shown that the proposed improvements can be used to optimize the LPG carrier cascade refrigeration system

  11. Underground rock storage concepts for natural gas and LPG in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saerkkae, P.

    1990-01-01

    Natural gas storage concepts are developed in Finland for both deep, unlined rock storages and cryogenic lined, near-surface storages. For butane and propane, Neste Oy has two unlined rock storages in Porvoo. Up to now, experiences are good on storage of LPG in rock temperature and higher than hydrostatic pressure. (author). 3 refs, 8 figs

  12. Risk reduction in road and rail LPG transportation bij passive fire protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molag e.a., M. (Menso)

    2009-01-01

    The potential reduction of risk in LPG (Liquified Petroleum Gas) road transport due to the adoption of passive fire protectionswas investigated. Experimental data available for small scale vessels fully engulfed by a fire were extended to real scale road and rail tankers through a finite elements

  13. Kinetic modeling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) reduction of titania in MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tan Wei; Ramakrishnan, Sivakumar; Rezan, Sheikh Abdul; Noor, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd; Izah Shoparwe, Noor; Alizadeh, Reza; Roohi, Parham

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, reduction of Titania (TiO2) by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)-hydrogen-argon gas mixture was investigated by experimental and kinetic modelling in MATLAB. The reduction experiments were carried out in the temperature range of 1100-1200°C with a reduction time from 1-3 hours and 10-20 minutes of LPG flowing time. A shrinking core model (SCM) was employed for the kinetic modelling in order to determine the rate and extent of reduction. The highest experimental extent of reduction of 38% occurred at a temperature of 1200°C with 3 hours reduction time and 20 minutes of LPG flowing time. The SCM gave a predicted extent of reduction of 82.1% due to assumptions made in the model. The deviation between SCM and experimental data was attributed to porosity, thermodynamic properties and minute thermal fluctuations within the sample. In general, the reduction rates increased with increasing reduction temperature and LPG flowing time.

  14. Synthesis of ZnO nanopencils using wet chemical method and its investigation as LPG sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimpi, Navinchandra G., E-mail: navin_shimpi@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Santacruz (East), Mumbai-400098 (India); Jain, Shilpa [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Santacruz (East), Mumbai-400098 (India); Karmakar, Narayan [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Santacruz (East), Mumbai-400098 (India); Shah, Akshara [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Santacruz (East), Mumbai-400098 (India); Kothari, D.C. [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Santacruz (East), Mumbai-400098 (India); National Centre for Nanosciences & Nanotechnology, University of Mumbai, Santacruz (East), Mumbai-400098 (India); Mishra, Satyendra [University Institute of Chemical Technology, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon (India)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Synthesis using a simple and cost-effective wet chemical process. • Uniform, monodispersed and pure nanoparticles. • Pencil shaped rods with sharp tips. • Understanding of Growth mechanism. • Efficient LPG sensing with high response. • Morphology dependent sensing. - Abstract: ZnO nanopencils (NPCs) were prepared by a novel wet chemical process, using triethanolamine (TEA) as a mild base, which is relatively simple and cost effective method as compared to hydrothermal method. ZnO NPCs were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy in mid-IR and far-IR regions, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy, room temperature Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). ZnO NPCs obtained, were highly pure, uniform and monodispersed.XRD pattern indicated hexagonal unit cell structure with preferred orientation along the c-axis. Sensing behaviour of ZnO NPCs was studied towards Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) at different operating temperatures. The study shows that ZnO NPCs were most sensitive and promising candidate for detection of LPG at 250 °C with gas sensitivity > 60%. The high response towards LPG is due to high surface area of ZnO NPCs and their parallel alignment.

  15. Evaluation of the environmental impact of modern passenger cars on petrol, diesel, automotive LPG and CNG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, P.; Vermeulen, R.J.; Rijkeboer, R.C.; Bremmers, D.A.C.M.; Smokers, R.T.M.; Winkel, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    The project reported here concerns an investigation into the environmental performance of modern passenger cars on four different fuels: petrol, diesel, automotive LPG and CNG. The objectives of the project were twofold: - To make a valid and useful comparison between modern vehicles fuelled by

  16. A study to design the emergency reaction plan for LPG tanks in 5 th ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... On the other hand, today, with increased density and proximity of industrial units, the adverse consequences ... This study aims to identify the risks in LPG storage unit, 5th South Pars Gas Refinery and possible events ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  17. Risk reduction in road and rail LPG transportation by passive fire protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paltrinieri, N.; Landucci, G.; Molag, M.; Bonvicini, S.; Spadoni, G.; Cozzani, V.

    2009-01-01

    The potential reduction of risk in LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) road transport due to the adoption of passive fire protections was investigated. Experimental data available for small scale vessels fully engulfed by a fire were extended to real scale road and rail tankers through a finite elements

  18. Ethanol and LPG sensing characteristics of SnO2 activated Cr2 O3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    between neighbouring grains in a material is an important factor, which determines sensitivity of the .... O2 (gas) f O2 (ads),. (3). Figure 4. Temperature dependence of conductance of pure and activated Cr2O3 sensors. Figure 5. Sensing response to ethanol (a–f) and LPG (g) for different dopant concentrations (0⋅5%) at ...

  19. Effectiveness of replacing catalytic converters in LPG-fueled vehicles in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Lyu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many taxis and public buses are powered by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG in Hong Kong. With more vehicles using LPG, they have become the major contributor to ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs in Hong Kong. An intervention program which aimed to reduce the emissions of VOCs and nitrogen oxides (NOx from LPG-fueled vehicles was implemented by the Hong Kong government in September 2013. Long-term real-time measurements indicated that the program was remarkably effective in reducing LPG-related VOCs, NOx and nitric oxide (NO in the atmosphere. Receptor modeling results further revealed that propane, propene, i-butane, n-butane and NO in LPG-fueled vehicle exhaust emissions decreased by 40.8 ± 0.1, 45.7 ± 0.2, 35.7 ± 0.1, 47.8 ± 0.1 and 88.6 ± 0.7 %, respectively, during the implementation of the program. In contrast, despite the reduction of VOCs and NOx, O3 following the program increased by 0.40 ± 0.03 ppbv (∼  5.6 %. The LPG-fueled vehicle exhaust was generally destructive to OH and HO2. However, the destruction effect weakened for OH and it even turned to positive contribution to HO2 during the program. These changes led to the increases of OH, HO2 and HO2 ∕ OH ratio, which might explain the positive O3 increment. Analysis of O3–VOCs–NOx sensitivity in ambient air indicated VOC-limited regimes in the O3 formation before and during the program. Moreover, a maximum reduction percentage of NOx (i.e., 69 % and the lowest reduction ratio of VOCs ∕ NOx (i.e., 1.1 in LPG-fueled vehicle exhaust were determined to give a zero O3 increment. The findings are of great help to future formulation and implementation of control strategies on vehicle emissions in Hong Kong, and could be extended to other regions in China and around the world.

  20. Technical evaluation and assessment of CNG/LPG bi-fuel and flex-fuel vehicle viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinor, J. E.

    1994-05-01

    This report compares vehicles using compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and combinations of the two in bi-fuel or flex-fuel configurations. Evidence shows that environmental and energy advantages can be gained by replacing two-fuel CNG/gasoline vehicles with two-fuel or flex-fuel systems to be economically competitive, it is necessary to develop a universal CNG/LPG pressure-regulator-injector and engine control module to switch from one tank to the other. For flex-fuel CNG/LPG designs, appropriate composition sensors, refueling pumps, fuel tanks, and vaporizers are necessary.

  1. Adsorption of leather dyes on activated carbon from leather shaving wastes: kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manera, Christian; Tonello, Andrezza Piroli; Perondi, Daniele; Godinho, Marcelo

    2018-03-23

    In this work, the adsorption of Acid Black 210 (AB210) and Acid Red 357 (AR357) onto activated carbon prepared from leather shaving wastes (ACLW) was investigated. The activated carbon presented a surface area of 800.4 m²/g with an average pore size of 1.27 nm. The kinetic study showed that the adsorption of both dyes followed the Elovich kinetic model while the AB210 and AR357 isotherm data were well described by the Langmuir and BET models, respectively. Furthermore, the Boyd plot revealed that the adsorption of the leather dyes on activated carbon was mainly governed by film diffusion. The pH had a strong influence on the adsorption, and the higher amounts of dye adsorbed were obtained at pH 2. The obtained activated carbon exhibited a high monolayer adsorption capacity of 573.9 and 204.4 mg/g for AB210 and AR357, respectively. Its high capacity is mainly attributed to its basicity (0.17 mmol/g) and high surface area. Desorption efficiency of the spent activated carbon was found to be 54.3% and 43.0% for AB210 and AR357, respectively. The spontaneity of the process was demonstrated by the negative values of the Gibbs free energy change.

  2. Outpatient-based scalp surgery without shaving and allowing use of shampoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sun-Chul; Kim, Soon-Kwon; Park, Kwan-Woong; Im, Soo-Bin; Shin, Won-Han; Kim, Bum-Tae

    2012-02-01

    To assess the authors' experience of wound management following scalp mass surgery after introducing a policy of leaving hair unshaved and allowing patients to use shampoo. The authors retrospectively reviewed 93 patients who underwent outpatient-based excision of a scalp or skull mass. Surgical complications, mass depth, and maximal mass size were analyzed. All of the surgeries were performed without shaving around the lesion; the hair was simply parted along the proposed incision, and the parting was maintained using adhesive plasters. Routine antiseptic scalp preparations, skin closure with staples after mass excision, and topical ointment on the day following surgery were used, and use of shampoo was allowed. The staples were removed on postoperative days 7-10. The masses were located in the skin (23 cases), subcutaneously (64 cases), and subgaleally (6 cases). All patients except one had satisfactory wound healing. No infections occurred. Leaving hair unshaved and allowing patients to use shampoo can be applied in wound management after scalp mass surgery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [An historical, sociocultural view and in the fiction literature of Bacillus anthracis cases by shaving brushes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Espinosa, E; Laganà, C; Vazquez, F

    2018-06-01

    In the period from 1915 to 1924 anthrax outbreaks were described by Bacillus anthracis due to the contamination of razor brushes that reached Europe and the United States from areas such as Japan, China or Russia. The brushes were made with badger hair, and then, to reduce the cost with horse hair and other animals. World War I supoosed that the traffics of these brushes, that passed through Europe, changed and the processes of sterilization of the same were deficient giving rise to these outbreaks, that in a percentage of 20% produced the death of the users. The impact of the fashion of wearing a beard, the presence of these cases in the press, in the society of that period, and literature are studied through the work of Agatha Christie who wrote, in 1936, the Hercules Poirot´s novel Cards on the table, and where she describes the murder of one of the characters with the shaving brush contaminated with Bacillus anthracis spores. ©The Author 2018. Published by Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).

  4. Minimal Subdermal Shaving by Means of Sclerotherapy Using Absolute Ethanol: A New Method for the Treatment of Axillary Osmidrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Sup Shim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAxillary osmidrosis is characterized by unpleasant odors originating from the axillary apocrine glands, resulting in psychosocial stress. The main treatment modality is apocrine gland removal. Until now, of the various surgical techniques have sometimes caused serious complications. We describe herein the favorable outcomes of a new method for ablating apocrine glands by minimal subdermal shaving using sclerotherapy with absolute ethanol.MethodsA total of 12 patients underwent the procedure. The severity of osmidrosis was evaluated before surgery. Conventional subdermal shaving was performed on one side (control group and ablation by means of minimal subdermal shaving and absolute ethanol on the other side (study group. Postoperative outcomes were compared between the study and control groups.ResultsThe length of time to removal of the drain was 1 day shorter in the study group than in the control group. There were no serious complications, such as hematoma or seroma, in either group, but flap margin necrosis and flap desquamation occurred in the control group, and were successfully managed with conservative treatment. Six months after surgery, we and our patients were satisfied with the outcomes.ConclusionsSclerotherapy using absolute ethanol combined with minimal subdermal shaving may be useful for the treatment of axillary osmidrosis. It can reduce the incidence of seroma and hematoma and allow the skin flap to adhere to its recipient site. It can degrade and ablate the remaining apocrine glands and eliminate causative organisms. Furthermore, since this technique is relatively simple, it takes less time than the conventional method.

  5. Scenario of the emerging shift from gasoline to LPG fuelled cars in Ghana: A case study in Ho Municipality, Volta Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscoff, Robert; Akple, Maxwell; Turkson, Richard; Klomegah, Wise

    2012-01-01

    The use of LPG as automotive fuel is on the increase worldwide. In developing countries such as Ghana, the rudimental way of operating LPG cars is of a national concern since there is no clear cut framework within which they function. This paper presents a scenario of development from conversion of gasoline to LPG fuelling system in cars in Ho, Ghana. Data were collected through survey (100 questionnaires), in-depth interviews (2), Focus Group Discussions (3) and direct observations. The result shows LPG conversion is carried out by the local informally trained mechanics especially for Taxis because of its low consumption resulting in more profit. Conversion takes 1–2 day with an average estimated cost of GH□ 450 cedis ($300). The LPG policy in Ghana focuses on domestic purposes hence the fuel being heavily subsidised. Challenges' being faced by the autogas market in Ghana includes; no clear cut policy, low number of refuelling stations, lack of standard conversion and installation kits and unprofessional LPG installers. In order for government to benefit from LPG as automotive fuel, coherent autogas policy should be formulated ensuring the availability of the LPG with price affordability as in the case of gasoline and diesel. - Highlights: ► Cars are converted to LPG system locally because of economic gains relative to emission reduction. ► LPG fuelled cars makes twice profit as compared to gasoline cars. ► Conversion to LPG system takes 1–2 day with an average cost of GH 450 cedis ($300). ► LPG policy in Ghana focus on domestic purposes not for commercial hence heavily subsidised. ► Ghana Government should formulate clear policy on LPG use in cars.

  6. Perspectives of supply of LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gases) in Brazil; Perespectivas de suprimento de GLP no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Luis Sebastiao [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Costa, Gildo Gabriel da; Moreira, Jose Guilherme de Souza [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work presents the indicative planning of the expansion of the infrastructure from liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) in the five years (2002-07). With base in the forecast of the demand - using the data of the offer, consumption, stock and the evaluation of the existent infrastructure (ports, terminals, tanks etc.) - it is evaluated the storage need and movement of the product. Compared to the period 1998-2003, a decrease was verified accentuated in the very superior consumption to the projected value. One of the causes was the increase in the price of LPG; other, the reduction in the number of the homes with LPG. Being considered the sceneries of LPG in this five years and the number of families, the perspective is the reduction of 5,6% in the consumption of LPG, being reached 6.307 thousand tons in 2007. For the period for an increase of 20% is waited in the offer it interns of the product that, together with the smallest demand, it will provoke a reduction of more than a fourth of the imports: 1.763 kt in 2002, for 403 kt in 2007. In spite of the reduction in the consumption and maintenance of the stock, the estimate of LPG will only increase of 20,6 days for 21,8 days, however the Brazil will be self-sufficient. (author)

  7. Nanostructured ZnO films for potential use in LPG gas sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latyshev, V. M.; Berestok, T. O.; Opanasyuk, A. S.; Kornyushchenko, A. S.; Perekrestov, V. I.

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the work was to obtain ZnO nanostructures with heightened surface area and to study relationship between formation method and gas sensor properties towards propane-butane mixture (LPG). In order to synthesize ZnO nanostructures chemical and physical formation methods have been utilized. The first one was chemical bath deposition technology and the second one magnetron sputtering of Zn followed by oxidation. Optimal method and technological parameters corresponding to formation of material with the highest sensor response have been determined experimentally. Dynamical gas sensor response at different temperature values and dependencies of the sensor sensitivity on the temperature at different LPG concentrations in air have been investigated. It has been found, that sensor response depends on the sample morphology and has the highest value for the structure consisting of thin nanowires. The factors that lead to the decrease in the gas sensor operating temperature have been determined.

  8. Novel sensing approach for LPG leakage detection: Part I: Operating Mechanism and Preliminary Results

    KAUST Repository

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas

    2015-10-30

    Gas sensing technology has been among the topical research work for quite some time. This paper showcases the research done on the detection mechanism of leakage of domestic cooking gas at ambient conditions. MEMS-based interdigital sensors were fabricated on oxidized single crystal silicon surfaces by maskless photolithography technique. The electrochemical impedance analysis of these sensors was done to detect liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) with and without coated particles of tin oxide (SnO2) in form of thin layer.A thin-film of SnO2 was spin-coated on the sensing surface of the interdigital sensor to induce selectivity to LPG that consists of a 60/40 mixture of propane and butane respectively. The paper reports a novel strategy for gas detection under ambient temperature and humidity conditions. The response time of the coated sensor was encouraging and own a promising potential to the development of a complete efficient gas sensing system.

  9. Thermal balance of a LPG fuelled, four stroke SI engine with water addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, Hakan; Soeylemez, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of water injection on a spark ignition engine thermal balance and performance has been experimentally investigated. A four stroke, four cylinder conventional engine was used with LPG (liquid petroleum gas) as fuel. Different water to fuel ratios by mass were used with variable engine speed ranging from 1000 to 4500 rpm. The results showed that as the water injection level to the engine increased, the percentage of useful work increased, while the losses other than unaccounted losses decreased. Additionally, the specific fuel consumption decreases, while the engine thermal efficiency increases. The average increase in the brake thermal efficiency for a 0.5 water to fuel mass ratio is approximately 2.7% over the use of LPG alone for the engine speed range studied

  10. Novel sensing approach for LPG leakage detection: Part I: Operating Mechanism and Preliminary Results

    KAUST Repository

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Nag, Anindya; Zia, Asif; Li, Xie; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    Gas sensing technology has been among the topical research work for quite some time. This paper showcases the research done on the detection mechanism of leakage of domestic cooking gas at ambient conditions. MEMS-based interdigital sensors were fabricated on oxidized single crystal silicon surfaces by maskless photolithography technique. The electrochemical impedance analysis of these sensors was done to detect liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) with and without coated particles of tin oxide (SnO2) in form of thin layer.A thin-film of SnO2 was spin-coated on the sensing surface of the interdigital sensor to induce selectivity to LPG that consists of a 60/40 mixture of propane and butane respectively. The paper reports a novel strategy for gas detection under ambient temperature and humidity conditions. The response time of the coated sensor was encouraging and own a promising potential to the development of a complete efficient gas sensing system.

  11. The influence of using LPG device on the CO2 emissions from personal passenger cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viliam Carach

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Traffic, mostly the air and car traffic is the biggest producer of CO2 (51% at present. CO2 is one of the most important greenhouse gases with more than 50 % of emissions contributing to this major global ecological problem. A rising concetration of CO2 in the atmosphere leads to higher global temperatures. The main problem is the rise of CO2 emissions in most developed countries despite international undertakings accepted in 80´s. This is the main reason for finding solutions to reduce the amount of CO2 emissions in the traffic. One of many solutions is the use of LPG fuel. The purpose of this article is to quantify the efficiency of using LPG in personal passenger cars.

  12. Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) and the fight against deforestation: the Senegal example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boubacar, B.

    1993-01-01

    Domestic LPG consumption in Senegal is over 40,000 tonnes in 1992, thus preserving more than 33,000 hectares of forest. Three reasons explain the success of the 'butanization' policy implemented by the country in its fight against deforestation: political desire, constant cooperation between the public authorities and distributors, but also a supply of gas and inexpensive cookers. The penetration of these butane cookers on the market occurred mainly in urban areas (it is the leading household appliance of urban families in Senegal), but it is also quite visible in rural areas as well, explained Mr. Boubacar Barry General Manager of Totalgaz Senegal in his speech 'How to fight the Growing Desert with Simple Means and a little imagination' during the 6th World LPG Meeting last October in Marrakech. 2 figs., 3 photos

  13. An assessment of the market for LPG and CNG in Peru's transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boykiw, A. L.

    1999-01-01

    This is an abridged version of the report prepared by Boykiw and Company Limited to provide a technical, statistical and financial assessment of potential sales of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) or propane, and compressed natural gas (CNG) to the transportation sector in Peru. Results show that use of CNG and LPG in Peru's transportation sector will primarily be a function of the counrty's vehicle population, the economics of conversion and the availability of infrastructure. With regard to conversion, the fact that 62 per cent of the nation's one million vehicles are located in Lima, combined with their age, the prospects appear to be very favourable. Changing to LPG will also benefit the environment since carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides emissions will be significantly reduced. Similar environmental benefits are expected from the use of CNG. Assuming that low cost first generation conversion kits can be made available, in combination with the growing refueling infrastructure ( from one in 1994 to 9 by the end of 1999, and an additional five in 2000) should result in a dramatic increase in the number of vehicles using LPG. By contrast, the prospect for CNG as vehicle fuel is less favourable because of the much more complex and costly refuelling station required to make it practicable. Based on very incomplete information on the Lima fleet of vehicles and their operating characteristics, the total number of CNG-fuelled vehicles five years after CNG becomes available in Lima, is estimated at between 2,000 and 3,000, and CNG requirements of between 800,000 and 1,500,000 cubic feet per day

  14. Analysis of the carbon monoxide emission by internal combustion engines using LPG as a fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrovski, Mile

    2002-01-01

    In this paper a description of the toxic emission reduction as well as a reduction of the toxic components presence in exhaust gases is presented. The analysis of the alternative gaseous fuels application as one of the possibilities for a toxic emission reduction is given. In addition, the results of the CO concentration measurements for two cases: first using gasoline, than liquefied petrol gas (LPG) as a fuel are presented. (Author)

  15. Radiological health implications of lead-210 and polonium-210 accumulations in LPG refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summerlin, J. Jr.; Prichard, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Radon-222, a naturally occurring radioactive noble gas, is often a contaminant in natural gas. During fractionation at processing plants, Radon tends to be concentrated in the Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) product stream. Radon-222 decays into a number of radioactive metallic daughters which can plate out on the interior surfaces of plant machinery. The hazards associated with gamma-emitting short-lived radon daughters have been investigated previously. The present work reports an analysis of the hazards associated with the long-lived daughters; Pb-210, Bi-210, and Po-210. These nuclides do not emit appreciable penetrating radiation, and hence do not represent a hazard as long as they remain on the inside surfaces of equipment. However, when equipment that has had prolonged exposure to an LPG stream is disassembled for repair or routine maintenance, opportunities for exposure to radioactive materials can occur. A series of measurements made on an impeller taken from a pump in an LPG facility is reported. Alpha spectroscopy revealed the presence of Po-210, and further measurements showed that the amount on the impeller surface was well above the exempt quantity. Breathing zone measurements made in the course of cleaning the impeller showed that an inhalation exposure equivalent to breathing Po-210 at the Maximum Permissible Concentration (MPC) for 60 hours could be delivered in less than half an hour. It was concluded that maintenance and repair work on LPG and derivitive product stream equipment must be carried out with the realization that a potential radiological health problem exists

  16. LPG sensing characteristics of electrospray deposited SnO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gürbüz, Mevlüt; Günkaya, Göktuğ; Doğan, Aydın

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SnO 2 nanopowder was deposited on conductive substrates using ESD technique. • Solution flow rate, coating time, substrate–nozzle distance and solid/alcohol ratio were studied to optimize SnO 2 film structure. • The gas sensing properties of tin oxide films were investigated using LPG. • The sensitivity of the films was increased with operating temperature. • The best sensitivity was observed for 20 LEL LPG at 450 °C operating temperature. - Abstract: In this study, SnO 2 films were fabricated on conductive substrate such as aluminum and platinum coated alumina using electro-spray deposition (ESD) method for gas sensor applications. Solution flow rate, coating time, substrate–nozzle distance and solid/alcohol ratio were studied to optimize SnO 2 film structure. The morphology of the deposited films was characterized by stereo and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The gas sensing properties of tin oxide films were investigated using liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for various lower explosive limit (LEL). The results obtained from microscopic analyses show that optimum SnO 2 films were evaluated at flow rate of 0.05 ml/min, at distance of 6 cm, for 10 min deposition time, for 20 gSnO 2 /L ethanol ratio and at 7 kV DC electric field. By the results obtained from the gas sensing behavior, the sensitivity of the films was increased with operating temperature. The films showed better sensitivity for 20 LEL LPG concentration at 450 °C operating temperature

  17. Analysis of tank safety with propane-butane on LPG distribution station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysiak Zbigniew

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the risk of failure in the safety valve – tank with propane-butane (LPG system has been conducted. An uncontrolled outflow of liquid LPG, caused by a failure of the above mentioned system has been considered as a threat. The main research goal of the study is the hazardous analysis of propane-butane gas outflow for the safety valve – LPG tank system. The additional goal is the development of an useful method to fast identify the hazard of a mismatched safety valve. The results of the research analysis have confirmed that safety valves are basic protection of the installation (tank against failures that can lead to loss of life, material damage and further undesired costs of their unreliability. That is why a new, professional computer program has been created that allows for the selection of safety valves or for the verification of a safety valve selection in installations where any technical or technological changes have been made.

  18. Electrophoretic Deposition of SnO2 Nanoparticles and Its LPG Sensing Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göktuğ Günkaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Homogenized SnO2 nanoparticles (60 nm in acetylacetone mediums, both with and without iodine, were deposited onto platinum coated alumina substrate and interdigital electrodes using the electrophoretic deposition (EPD method for gas sensor applications. Homogeneous and porous film layers were processed and analyzed at various coating times and voltages. The structure of the deposited films was characterized by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The gas sensing properties of the SnO2 films were investigated using liquid petroleum gas (LPG for various lower explosive limits (LEL. The results showed that porous, crack-free, and homogeneous SnO2 films were achieved for 5 and 15 sec at 100 and 150 V EPD parameters using an iodine-free acetylacetone based SnO2 suspension. The optimum sintering for the deposited SnO2 nanoparticles was observed at 500°C for 5 min. The results showed that the sensitivity of the films was increased with the operating temperature. The coated films with EPD demonstrated a better sensitivity for the 20 LEL LPG concentrations at a 450°C operating temperature. The maximum sensitivity of the SnO2 sensors at 450°C to 20 LEL LPG was 30.

  19. ANALYSIS OF OPERATING PARAMETERS AND INDICATORS OF A COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE FUELLED WITH LPG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof GARBALA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the possibilities for using alternative fuels to power vehicles equipped with compression ignition (CI engines (diesel. Systems for using such fuels have been discussed. Detailed analysis and research covered the LPG STAG autogas system, which is used to power dual-fuel engine units (LPG+diesel. A description of the operation of the autogas system and installation in a vehicle has been presented. The basic algorithms of the controller, which is an actuating element of the whole system, have been discussed. Protection systems of a serial production engine unit to guarantee its factorycontrolled durability standards have been presented. A long-distance test drive and examinations of the engine over 150,000 km in a Toyota Hilux have been performed. Operating parameters and performance indicators of the engine with STAG LPG+diesel fuelling have been verified. Directions and perspectives for the further development of such a system in diesel-powered cars have been also indicated.

  20. Nautical studies for new LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gases) in Barra do Riacho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Anderson B.A.; Biolchini, Luiz C.A. [Petroleo do Brasil S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Antunes, Felippe L. [Petrobras Transporte S/A (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vieira Neto, Tancredo [Poyry Technology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    PETROBRAS is developing projects to increase the natural gas production, supply and allow transportation to the market. LPG and natural gasoline produced in Cacimbas (ES) will be transferred through pipelines to under construction Barra do Riacho Terminal, to be stored and loaded on ships. In Barra do Riacho, a municipality of Aracruz on the northern coast of the Espirito Santo state, a pulp specialized terminal already operates. The new PETROBRAS terminal will monthly load about 30,000 t of refrigerated LPG and 90,000 m{sup 3} of natural gasoline through a new pier with two berths. This pier will be able to receive tankers up to 60,000 dwt. With the challenge to safely maneuver and berth vessels of this size in a restricted area with operating facilities, PETROBRAS developed a basic design with the support of contracted companies to evaluate the minimum area needed to assure operation and design the best location, minimizing wave disturbance over the new jetty as well as over the existing above mentioned berths. This paper presents the port issues analyzed during the basic design of the new marine refrigerated LPG terminal to be located at Barra do Riacho Port. (author)

  1. Synthesis, characterization and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensing properties of WO3 nano-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Subhash; Majumder, S. B.

    2018-05-01

    Metal oxide sensors, such as ZnO, SnO2, and WO3 etc. have been utilized for several decades for low-costd etection of combustible and toxic gases. In the present work tungsten oxide (WO3) nanoparticles have been prepared by using an economic wet chemical synthesis route. To understand the phase formation behavior of the synthesized powders, X-ray diffraction analysis has been performed. The microstructure evolution of the synthesized powders was characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The calcined phase pure WO3 nanoparticles are investigated in terms of LPG gas sensing properties. The gas sensing measurements has been done in two different mode of operation (namely static and dynamic measurements). The degree of oxygen deficiency in the WO3 sensor also affected the sensor properties and the optimum oxygen content of WO3 was necessary to get high sensitivity for LPG. The WO3 sensor shows the excellent sensor properties for LPG at the operating temperature of 250°C.

  2. Peak Experience Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel G.; Evans, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This paper emerges from the continued analysis of data collected in a series of international studies concerning Childhood Peak Experiences (CPEs) based on developments in understanding peak experiences in Maslow's hierarchy of needs initiated by Dr Edward Hoffman. Bridging from the series of studies, Canadian researchers explore collected…

  3. Disminución de Demanda en Horario Punta (Peak Shaving) Mediante el Uso de un Generador en Sitio, Utilizando Diesel y Biodiesel B20

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco Cuevas, Humberto

    2005-01-01

    En la actualidad, la energía eléctrica es un servicio del cuál muy difícilmente podemos prescindir, nos hemos acostumbrado a depender de ella de tal manera que en el momento que no la tenemos se vuelve un problema el realizar nuestras actividades más elementales. Imaginemos por un momento que sÚbitamente una ciudad se queda sin energía eléctrica: los semáforos inoperantes generarían un caos vial, las oficinas sin aire acondicionado y computadoras serían insoportables, las industrias no podría...

  4. Peak Operation of Cascaded Hydropower Plants Serving Multiple Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjian Shen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The bulk hydropower transmission via trans-provincial and trans-regional power networks in China provides great operational flexibility to dispatch power resources between multiple power grids. This is very beneficial to alleviate the tremendous peak load pressure of most provincial power grids. This study places the focus on peak operations of cascaded hydropower plants serving multiple provinces under a regional connected AC/DC network. The objective is to respond to peak loads of multiple provincial power grids simultaneously. A two-stage search method is developed for this problem. In the first stage, a load reconstruction strategy is proposed to combine multiple load curves of power grids into a total load curve. The purpose is to deal with different load features in load magnitudes, peaks and valleys. A mutative-scale optimization method is then used to determine the generation schedules of hydropower plants. In the second stage, an exterior point search method is established to allocate the generation among multiple receiving power grids. This method produces an initial solution using the load shedding algorithm, and further improves it by iteratively coordinating the generation among different power grids. The proposed method was implemented to the operations of cascaded hydropower plants on Xin-Fu River and another on Hongshui River. The optimization results in two cases satisfied the peak demands of receiving provincial power grids. Moreover, the maximum load difference between peak and valley decreased 12.67% and 11.32% in Shanghai Power Grid (SHPG and Zhejiang Power Grid (ZJPG, exceeding by 4.85% and 6.72% those of the current operational method, respectively. The advantage of the proposed method in alleviating peak-shaving pressure is demonstrated.

  5. 1.5 GeV/c multiturn shaving extraction and its transport line for the Brookhaven AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.; Blumberg, L.N.; Gill, E.; Soukas, A.; Witkover, R.L.; Egleman, E.; LoSecco, J.; Sulak, L.

    1979-01-01

    A system for fast shaving extraction at 1.5 GeV/c is implemented to extract the circulating beam in five turns. A numerical simulation is first carried out to determine the emittance and the rf structure of the extracted beam. This is followed by several machine study sessions which establish the optimal extraction configuration, confirm the emittance, and modify the transport line for low energy beam. Finally, a one-week run for the Neutrino Oscillation experiment demonstrates that the system is very stable and capable of delivering 7.5 x 10 12 p/sec with 70% extraction efficiency and 95% transport efficiency

  6. Peak-interviewet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raalskov, Jesper; Warming-Rasmussen, Bent

    Peak-interviewet er en særlig effektiv metode til at gøre ubevidste menneskelige ressourcer bevidste. Fokuspersonen (den interviewede) interviewes om en selvvalgt, personlig succesoplevelse. Terapeuten/coachen (intervieweren) spørger ind til processen, som ledte hen til denne succes. Herved afdæk...... fokuspersonen ønsker at tage op (nye mål eller nye processer). Nærværende workingpaper beskriver, hvad der menes med et peak-interview, peakinterviwets teoretiske fundament samt metodikken til at foretage et tillidsfuldt og effektiv peak-interview....

  7. An analysis on LPG storage capability and rotation periods in Southern China; Analyse de la capacite de stockage des LPG et des frequences de rotation des navires dans le Sud de la Chine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuankai, L. [Shenzhen Gas Corporation Ltd (China)

    2000-07-01

    The rapidly improving infrastructure and fast growing economic strengths of cities along the Pearl River in southern China is key to the soaring LPG consumption, and also provided great potential for further development In both LPG and LNG businesses in view of a population of 70 million with a only a 40% gas coverage. The existing local pressurized storage tanks lag behind the demand, but planed and projected refrigerating storage facilities and pressurized storage tanks far exceed the future demands by the next decade. To avoid redundancy and excess density, measures has been proposed of West and East evacuation by way of rivers and reopening of railways to ship LPG from south to North regions. It is advisable to keep in mind the following points in making further investments in LPG facilities: rotation periods should be strictly observed, Full play should be brought to the local storage terminals, Economic sustainability and market saturation should be given full consideration, Complementability of LPG storage facilities and LNG receiving Terminals. (author)

  8. Peak power ratio generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  9. Peak Oil, Peak Coal and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. W.

    2009-05-01

    Research on future climate change is driven by the family of scenarios developed for the IPCC assessment reports. These scenarios create projections of future energy demand using different story lines consisting of government policies, population projections, and economic models. None of these scenarios consider resources to be limiting. In many of these scenarios oil production is still increasing to 2100. Resource limitation (in a geological sense) is a real possibility that needs more serious consideration. The concept of 'Peak Oil' has been discussed since M. King Hubbert proposed in 1956 that US oil production would peak in 1970. His prediction was accurate. This concept is about production rate not reserves. For many oil producing countries (and all OPEC countries) reserves are closely guarded state secrets and appear to be overstated. Claims that the reserves are 'proven' cannot be independently verified. Hubbert's Linearization Model can be used to predict when half the ultimate oil will be produced and what the ultimate total cumulative production (Qt) will be. US oil production can be used as an example. This conceptual model shows that 90% of the ultimate US oil production (Qt = 225 billion barrels) will have occurred by 2011. This approach can then be used to suggest that total global production will be about 2200 billion barrels and that the half way point will be reached by about 2010. This amount is about 5 to 7 times less than assumed by the IPCC scenarios. The decline of Non-OPEC oil production appears to have started in 2004. Of the OPEC countries, only Saudi Arabia may have spare capacity, but even that is uncertain, because of lack of data transparency. The concept of 'Peak Coal' is more controversial, but even the US National Academy Report in 2007 concluded only a small fraction of previously estimated reserves in the US are actually minable reserves and that US reserves should be reassessed using modern methods. British coal production can be

  10. KAJIAN TEKNIS DAN EKONOMIS PENGGUNAAN DUAL FUEL SYSTEM (LPG-SOLAR PADA MESIN DIESEL KAPAL NELAYAN TRADISIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Pujo Mulyatno

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pengembangan bahan bakar alternatif dalam rangka mengurangi ketergantungan terhadap bahan bakar minyak (BBM, telah menjadi agenda penting  pemerintah. Penggunaan LPG (Liquefied Petrolium Gas pada mesin diesel kapal nelayan tradisional didasarkan pada keberhasilan penggunaan LPG pada kendaraan-kendaraan darat. Penggunaan LPG pada mesin diesel dilakukan secara dual fuel. Penelitian dual fuel system pada mesin diesel kapal nelayan tradisional bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan bahan bakar dual fuel terhadap kinerja mesin dan sistem penggeraknya, meliputi konsumsi bahan bakar, daya, kecepatan kapal, serta efisiensi pada sistem penggerak kapal. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan DongFeng ZS-1100 dengan tiga putaran mesin yang berbeda yaitu 1000rpm, 1250 rpm dan 1500 rpm. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini, penggunaan LPG secara dual fuel mampu menggantikan konsumsi solar hingga 71% dari konsumsi solar seluruhnya selama satu jam. Komposisi LPG yang dihasilkan mencapai lebih dari 60%  dari total pemakaian bahan bakar saat dual fuel. Kecepatan dan jarak tempuh saat menggunakan solar seluruhnya mencapai 5% lebih tinggi dibandingkan dual fuel. Daya dan torsi saat menggunakan dual fuel mencapai 9,8 % lebih tinggi dibandingkan solar seluruhnya. Penggunaan dual fuel mampu mengurangi biaya operasional penangkapan ikan hingga 24,6%, namun dengan waktu tempuh 1,3% lebih lama dari solar seluruhnya. Efisiensi propulsi solar seluruhnya 6% lebih besar dibandingkan efisiensi propulsi dual fuel.

  11. Predicting the performances of a CAMPRO engine retrofitted with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG system using 1-dimensional software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaruddin M. Hazeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the depletion of petroleum resources and the impact of exhaust emission caused by combustion towards environmental has been forced to all researchers to come out with an alternative ways to prevent this situation become worse. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG is the most compatible and have a potential to become a source of energy for internal combustion engine. Unfortunately, the investigation of LPG in internal combustion engine among researcher still have a gap in research. Thus, in this study a 1-Dimensional simulation CAMPRO 1.6L engine model using GT-Power is developed to predict the performances of engines that using LPG as a fuel for internal combustion engine. The constructed model simulation will throughout the validation process with the experimental data to make sure the precision of this model. The validation process shows that the results have a good agreement between the simulation model and the experimental data. As a result, the performance of LPG simulation model shows that a Brake Torque (BT, Brake Power (BP and Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP were significantly improved in average of 7% in comparison with gasoline model. In addition, Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC also shows an improvement by 5%, which is become more economic. Therefore, the developed GT-Power model offer a successful fuel conversion to LPG systems via retrofit technology to provide comprehensive support for implementation of energy efficient and environmental friendly vehicles.

  12. Full-Thickness Excision versus Shaving by Laparoscopy for Intestinal Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis: Rationale and Potential Treatment Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Simone Laganà

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial mucosa (glands and stroma abnormally implanted in locations other than the uterine cavity. Deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE is considered the most aggressive presentation of the disease, penetrating more than 5 mm in affected tissues, and it is reported in approximately 20% of all women with endometriosis. DIE can cause a complete distortion of the pelvic anatomy and it mainly involves uterosacral ligaments, bladder, rectovaginal septum, rectum, and rectosigmoid colon. This review describes the state of the art in laparoscopic approach for DIE with a special interest in intestinal involvement, according to recent literature findings. Our attention has been focused particularly on full-thickness excision versus shaving technique in deep endometriosis intestinal involvement. Particularly, the aim of this paper is clarifying from the clinical and methodological points of view the best surgical treatment of deep intestinal endometriosis, since there is no standard of care in the literature and in different surgical settings. Indeed, this review tries to suggest when it is advisable to manage the full-thickness excision or the shaving technique, also analyzing perioperative management, main complications, and surgical outcomes.

  13. Studies on the determination of mercury in human beard shavings by neutron-activation and γ-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, J.G.; Saied, S.O.

    1986-01-01

    The determination of mercury by instrumental neutron-activation analysis has been studied with particular emphasis on hair as the matrix. The well known analytical standards orchard leaves and Bowen's kale have been compared and the value 0.164 +-0.013 p.p.m. found for the level of mercury in Bowen's kale. Hence, the likely accuracy is +- 8% when matrices similar to Bowen's kale are analysed for mercury by the method described. All factors affecting the precision are discussed. Powdered hair and the standards were shown to be easily homogenisable; however, beard shavings were found to be generally inhomogeneous with respect to mercury distribution, especially when the mercury content was much in excess of ca. 2 p.p.m. owing to exposure of subjects to mercury in the professional working environment. The beard shavings of non-occupationally exposed human beings contained 0.1 to 1.5 p.p.m. of mercury. Difficulties with the establishment of a mercury mass standard for use with the method are discussed. (author)

  14. Peak regulation right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Z. |; Ren, Z.; Li, Z.; Zhu, R.

    2005-01-01

    A peak regulation right concept and corresponding transaction mechanism for an electricity market was presented. The market was based on a power pool and independent system operator (ISO) model. Peak regulation right (PRR) was defined as a downward regulation capacity purchase option which allowed PRR owners to buy certain quantities of peak regulation capacity (PRC) at a specific price during a specified period from suppliers. The PRR owner also had the right to decide whether or not they would buy PRC from suppliers. It was the power pool's responsibility to provide competitive and fair peak regulation trading markets to participants. The introduction of PRR allowed for unit capacity regulation. The PRR and PRC were rated by the supplier, and transactions proceeded through a bidding process. PRR suppliers obtained profits by selling PRR and PRC, and obtained downward regulation fees regardless of whether purchases are made. It was concluded that the peak regulation mechanism reduced the total cost of the generating system and increased the social surplus. 6 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  15. AT on Buried LPG Tanks Over 13 m3: An Innovative and Practical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fratta, Crescenzo; Ferraro, Antonio; Tscheliesnig, Peter; Lackner, Gerald; Correggia, Vincenzo; Altamura, Nicola

    In Italy, since 2005, techniques based on Acoustic Emission have been introduced for testing of underground LPG tanks up to 13 m3, according to the European standard EN 12818:2004. The testing procedure for these tanks plans to install one or more pairs of sensors inside the "dome" suited for the access to the valves and fittings of the tank, directly on the accessible metal shell. This methodology is not applicable for the underground LPG buried tanks, where it is necessary to install a larger number of AE sensors, in order to cover at 100% the whole tank shell, even at very deep positions. Already in 2004, the European standard EN 12820 (Appendix C - Informative)give the possibility to use Acoustic Emission testing of LPG underground or buried tanks with a capacity exceeding 13 m3, but no technique was specified for the application. In 2008, TÜV AUSTRIA ITALIA - BLU SOLUTIONS srl - Italian company of TÜV AUSTRIA Group - has developed a technique to get access at tank shell, where tank capacity is greater than 13 m3 and its' diameter greater than 3,5 m. This methodology was fully in comply with the provisions of the European Standard EN 12819:2010, becoming an innovative solution widely appreciated and is used in Italy since this time. Currently, large companies and petrochemical plants, at the occurrence of the tank's requalification, have engaged TÜV AUSTRIA ITALIA - BLU SOLUTIONS to install such permanent predispositions, which allow access to the tank shell - test object - with diameters from 4 to 8 m. Through this access, you can install the AE sensors needed to cover at 100% the tank surface and then to perform AE test. In an economic crisis period, this technique is proving a valid and practically applicable answer, in order to reduce inspection costs and downtime by offering a technically advanced solution (AT), increasing the safety of the involved operators, protecting natural resources and the environment.

  16. Make peak flow a habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma - make peak flow a habit; Reactive airway disease - peak flow; Bronchial asthma - peak flow ... 2014:chap 55. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program website. How to use a peak flow meter. ...

  17. Automated asteroseismic peak detections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Montellano, Andres Garcia Saravia Ortiz; Hekker, S.; Themessl, N.

    2018-01-01

    Space observatories such as Kepler have provided data that can potentially revolutionize our understanding of stars. Through detailed asteroseismic analyses we are capable of determining fundamental stellar parameters and reveal the stellar internal structure with unprecedented accuracy. However......, such detailed analyses, known as peak bagging, have so far been obtained for only a small percentage of the observed stars while most of the scientific potential of the available data remains unexplored. One of the major challenges in peak bagging is identifying how many solar-like oscillation modes are visible...... of detected oscillation modes. The algorithm presented here opens the possibility for detailed and automated peak bagging of the thousands of solar-like oscillators observed by Kepler....

  18. Effect of initialization time on application potentiality of a ZnO thin film based LPG sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parta Mitra

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A prototype electronic LPG (Liquid Petroleum Gas sensor based on zinc oxide (ZnO film has been fabricated. The objective of the present work was to investigate the importance of initialization time (also called warm-up time on the application potentiality of the ZnO based alarm. The role of sensor geometry on initialization time is presented. The electronic circuitry of the prototype LPG device alarm is discussed. It is shown that that the initialization time depends on the switch off time (or the time for which the sensor was kept idle. The resistive mode sensors can be fixed at 40% LEL (Lower Explosive Limit of LPG for safe operation.

  19. The cost-effectiveness of a steel tube or a buffer zone for mitigating blast effects on a building spanning an underpass with transport of LPG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suddle, S.I.; Weerheijm, J.; Berg, A.C. van den

    2010-01-01

    The use of space is being intensified near and above transport routes of hazardous materials. In The Netherlands, some buildings are even realized above infrastructure with transport of hazardous materials like LPG. An accident with an LPG-tank may result in a BLEVE, causing injuries and large

  20. Relations between retail market and distribution in LPG range: analyzing the cooperation and alliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Alves

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to proceed with the evaluation of relationship between retail market and distribution in liquefied petroleum gas range (LPG, according to Network Theory. This is an exploratory research, with qualitative characteristic, about the dynamics of cooperation relations. The results, although could not be considered as conclusive, by reason of the study of only one case, shows that an alliance with relationship problems and competition, between point-of-sale and resale, probably will be dissolved as soon as the retailer become a reseller.

  1. Karakterisasi Sensor Gas Lpg (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) Dari Bahan Komposit Semikonduktor Tio2(cuo)

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi, Ratna Sari; -, Elvaswer

    2015-01-01

    The Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG's) sensor in the form of composite has been characterized. The steps of manufacturing processes are the mixing of materials, calcinations at 500ºC for 4 hours, blended, compacted and sintered at 700ºC for 4 hours. The sensor was tested at room temperature through current (I)-voltage (V) characteristics, sensitivity, and conductivity. Based on measurement I-V characteristic it's known that sample with 10% addition of CuO have sensitivity of 10 at 10 volt vol...

  2. Recent developments with ALIBI, a model for site specific prediction of LPG tank BLEVE frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goose, M.H. [Health and Safety Executive, Bootle (United Kingdom). Major Hazards Assessment Unit

    1995-12-31

    The concept behind the ALIBI model was first introduced to a technical audience in 1988 at the European Seminar on the Pressurised Storage of Flammable Liquids in London. Since that time it has been developed by SRD (now AEA Technology Consultancy Services) on behalf of HSE (MHAU). Although the structure of the model has remained largely unchanged, efforts have been made to refine the modelling within it. The main effort in refining the modelling has been with the response of LPG tanks to jet flame impingement, and this is described in the paper. (author)

  3. The analysis of risks at LPG depots: a tool for decision makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-10-01

    At the Tokyo congress of the World LPG Forum, Mr Patrick Mayras, Technical Director at Butagaz, presented a study on the probability of the occurrence of a major accident which this company has undertaken with Cremer Warner on its storage and filling site in Montereau, together with the key prevention principles which have resulted from this study and which have been applied to all their installations. The study shows that the probability of a BLEVE is 1 in a thousand million years per sphere or, for the 60 storage sites belonging to Butagaz, that the probability of a BLEVE in its installations is 1 every 16 million years. If every company in the profession had this level of standards on an international scale, the probability of a BLEVE occurring in the world would be, again according to Butagaz calculations, of the order of 1 every 100.000 years or, at a really conservative estimate, of the order of 1 every 10.000 years (based on: one storage site for 10.000 t sold/year). This report was received with a great deal of interest in Tokyo and it is certain that this probability-based approach will constitute hence-forth a reference both on a national and an international scale. As Mr Mayras underlined at the end of his presentation, although a zero risk does not exist, there is a socially acceptable risk which is used implicitly by governmental authorities for certain human or industrial activities for certain human or industrial activities which have an accident occurrence probability which is much higher than that run by LPG storage sites. Conversely, the determinist and calculated approach applied in France presents a high cost to society due to the freezing of all land around the sites. The probability-based approach, which can be systematized to all LPG professionals, could, therefore, allow for a relaxation of the constraints weighing on the environment of storage sites and could place LPG on an equal footing with other types of energy. (Abstract Truncated)

  4. Feasibility study of a hybrid plants (photovoltaic–LPG generator system for rural electrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adouane Mabrouk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the possibility of using a stand-alone photovoltaic/LPG (liquid petroleum gas generator hybrid power system for low-cost electricity production which can satisfy the energy load requirements of a typical remote and isolated rural area. In this context, the optimal dimensions to improve the technical and economical performances of the hybrid system are determined according to the load energy requirements. The proposed system's installation and operating costs are simulated using the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER, the solar radiation and the system components costs as inputs; and then compared with those of other supply options such as diesel generation.

  5. p-PEDOT:PSS as a heterojunction partner with n-ZnO for detection of LPG at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladhe, R.D. [Thin Film and Nano Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425 001 (M.S.) (India); Gurav, K.V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Pawar, S.M. [Solar Cell Laboratory, LG Components R and D Center, 1271, Sa-Dong, Sanggrok-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Sankapal, B.R., E-mail: brsankapal@rediffmail.com [Thin Film and Nano Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425 001 (M.S.) (India)

    2012-02-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of heterojunction n-ZnO and p-PEDOT:PSS at room temperature (27 Degree-Sign C). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of this heterojunction as room temperature LPG sensor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Remarkable gas response with good stability of the sensing device. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of heterojunction could offer cost-effective LPG sensor that is ecological-friendly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mass production using scalable room temperature chemical deposition process. - Abstract: Investigation towards the performance of room temperature (27 Degree-Sign C) liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensor based on the heterojunction between p-PEDOT:PSS and n-type ZnO is reported. The junction was developed by using chemically deposited ZnO film on to fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate followed by coating of thin slurry layer of PEDOT:PSS by using spin coating technique. Both these methods are simple, inexpensive and suitable for large area applications. Different characterization techniques were used to characterize structural, surface morphological and compositional of the material deposited. LPG sensing behavior of the heterojunction was studied at room temperature along with the stability studies. At room temperature, the heterojunction showed 58.8% sensitivity upon exposure to 1000 ppm of LPG with good response and recovery time like 225 s and 190 s, respectively. Furthermore, the LPG sensor reported is cost-effective, user friendly, and easy to fabricate using low cost chemical methods at room temperature.

  6. Automated asteroseismic peak detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Saravia Ortiz de Montellano, Andrés; Hekker, S.; Themeßl, N.

    2018-05-01

    Space observatories such as Kepler have provided data that can potentially revolutionize our understanding of stars. Through detailed asteroseismic analyses we are capable of determining fundamental stellar parameters and reveal the stellar internal structure with unprecedented accuracy. However, such detailed analyses, known as peak bagging, have so far been obtained for only a small percentage of the observed stars while most of the scientific potential of the available data remains unexplored. One of the major challenges in peak bagging is identifying how many solar-like oscillation modes are visible in a power density spectrum. Identification of oscillation modes is usually done by visual inspection that is time-consuming and has a degree of subjectivity. Here, we present a peak-detection algorithm especially suited for the detection of solar-like oscillations. It reliably characterizes the solar-like oscillations in a power density spectrum and estimates their parameters without human intervention. Furthermore, we provide a metric to characterize the false positive and false negative rates to provide further information about the reliability of a detected oscillation mode or the significance of a lack of detected oscillation modes. The algorithm presented here opens the possibility for detailed and automated peak bagging of the thousands of solar-like oscillators observed by Kepler.

  7. The risks of Bobtail truck LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gases) distribution in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Cesar A. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Oslo (Norway)], e-mail: cesar.leal@dnv.com

    2008-07-01

    The use of 'Bobtail' trucks (6 and 9 ton) for distribution of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) in Brazilian cities represents a new and mobile source of risk. In this paper, it will be presented a discussion about some of the possible accident scenarios that can occur with this kind of vehicle, with emphasis on the possible consequences (BLEVE/fireball). The goal is to spread information and call attention of Government Authorities and gas distribution companies, as well as the general public, about this source of risk. In the case of a 9 ton fireball, fatalities could be expected up to 176 m, according to TNO models. Collapse of the tank engulfed in fire is expected in 10 to 20 minutes, a too short time interval for the arrival of a fire brigade and control of the situation. Suggestions are presented for the use of insulating coating in the tanks capable of withstanding an external fire for two hours without collapsing and the realization of a risk study for estimation of the impact of the use of insulation in terms of risk reduction for the population and a comparison of risks associated to the two forms of LPG distribution. (author)

  8. Investigating the effects of LPG on spark ignition engine combustion and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayraktar, Hakan; Durgun, Orhan

    2005-01-01

    A quasi-dimensional spark ignition (SI) engine cycle model is used to predict the cycle, performance and exhaust emissions of an automotive engine for the cases of using gasoline and LPG. Governing equations of the mathematical model mainly consist of first order ordinary differential equations derived for cylinder pressure and temperature. Combustion is simulated as a turbulent flame propagation process and during this process, two different thermodynamic regions consisting of unburned gases and burned gases that are separated by the flame front are considered. A computer code for the cycle model has been prepared to perform numerical calculations over a range of engine speeds and fuel-air equivalence ratios. In the computations performed at different engine speeds, the same fuel-air equivalence ratios are selected for each fuel to make realistic comparisons from the fuel economy and fuel consumption points of view. Comparisons show that if LPG fueled SI engines are operated at the same conditions with those of gasoline fueled SI engines, significant improvements in exhaust emissions can be achieved. However, variations in various engine performance parameters and the effects on the engine structural elements are not promising

  9. Mode group specific amplification length in an asymmetric LPG assisted few-mode EDFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Vipul; Gaur, Ankita; Aschieri, Pierre; Dussardier, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a scheme for few-mode EDFA, which allows to choose independent amplification lengths for different mode groups. The EDF is a dual concentric core fiber, where the central core is connected to the line FMF and the ring core is doped with erbium to provide amplification. The modes of FMF are launched into the central core of the EDF, are converted into ring modes using LPG for amplification and then converted back into central core modes using another LPG. The distance between the LPGs determines the amplification length. The amplification length, can thus, be chosen for a given mode group. We demonstrate the working of this concept by choosing LP11 and LP21 mode groups of the FMF and show that a suitable choice of amplification lengths for the two mode groups can tailor the differential modal gain (DMG) to any desired value. We demonstrate achieving zero DMG among all the mode of LP11 and LP21 mode groups using this concept while having gain in excess of 20 dB. The study should be useful for optical fiber communication system employing space-division multiplexing (SDM).

  10. Patch test results with patients' own perfumes, deodorants and shaving lotions: results of the IVDK 1998-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uter, W; Geier, J; Schnuch, A; Frosch, P J

    2007-03-01

    Assessment of the value of patch testing patients' own perfumes, eau de toilette, deodorants and shaving lotions with regard to diagnosing contact allergy to fragrances, and an analysis of the spectrum of concurrent patch test reactions to single fragrance allergens. Data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK; http://www.ivdk.org) regarding patch test results with above products brought in by the patient, considered as possible cause of contact dermatitis, were retrospectively analysed. Between 1998 and 2002, 1468 patients were patch tested with 2557 single products (deodorants, n = 1094; eau de toilette, n = 598; perfume, n = 530; and pre- or after-shave, n = 325; remainder not classifiable), mostly 'as is'. Positive reactions were observed in 129 patients (to 191 products). In 58 of these patients, no further patch test reactions to the fragrance mix (FM-I), Myroxylon pereirae resin (balsam of Peru) or 4-(4-hydroxy-4-methyl-pentyl)-3-cyclohexencarboxaldehyde (e.g. Lyral(R)) were found. A strong association between contact sensitivity to the above commercial allergens and positive reactions to products was observed. Some single compounds such as ylang-ylang oil, propolis and especially oak moss absolute are important allergens in the 'perfume-positive' subgroup, but less in a subgroup positive to own deodorants. Patch testing this scope of products, brought in by the patient, can be regarded as a simple, safe and effective method to diagnose clinically relevant contact sensitization - the more so, as the composition of such products is ever-changing, and the sensitivity of established 'screening allergens' is thus insufficient.

  11. Room temperature LPG resistive sensor based on the use of a few-layer graphene/SnO2 nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutham, Solleti; Bykkam, Satish; Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar; Kumar, Devarai Santhosh; Ahmadipour, Mohsen; Ahmad, Zainal Arifin; Rao, Kalagadda Venkateswara

    2017-12-20

    A nanocomposite consisting of a few layers of graphene (FLG) and tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) was prepared by ultrasound-assisted synthesis. The uniform SnO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) on the FLG were characterized by X-ray diffraction in terms of lattice and phase structure. The functional groups present in the composite were analyzed by FTIR. Electron microscopy (HR-TEM and FE-SEM) was used to study the morphology. The effect of the fraction of FLG present in the nanocomposite was investigated. Sensitivity, selectivity and reproducibility towards resistive sensing of liquid propane gas (LPG) was characterized by the I-V method. The sensor with 1% of FLG on SnO 2 operated at a typical voltage of 1 V performs best in giving a rapid and sensitive response even at 27 °C. This proves that the operating temperature of such sensors can be drastically decreased which is in contrast to conventional metal oxide LPG sensors. Graphical abstract Schematic of a room temperature gas sensor for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). It is based on the use of a few-layered graphene (1 wt%)/SnO 2 nanocomposite that was deposited on an interdigitated electrode (IDEs). A sensing mechanism for LPG detection has been established.

  12. 78 FR 42889 - Pipeline Safety: Reminder of Requirements for Utility LP-Gas and LPG Pipeline Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 192 [Docket No. PHMSA-2013-0097] Pipeline Safety: Reminder of Requirements for Utility LP-Gas and LPG Pipeline Systems AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION...

  13. Risk assessment of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG storage tanks in the process industries using the Bowtie technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mirzaei aliabadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: LPG storage tanks contain of large volumes of flammable and pressurized gases. Release of these fluids can lead to disastrous accidents such BLEVE, fiery explosion. Therefore, identifying the causes, consequences, probabilities and scenarios of accidents using Bowtie technique, that is combination of Fault Tree Analyses (FTA and Event Tree Analyses (ETA, is imperative and the purpose of this study. Methods: The hazards of the mentioned in Tehran Refinery LPG tanks were identified by Fault Tree Analyses and the consequences of the top event were predicted by Event Tree Analyses. Then probabilities of the events were calculated and the accident route, from causes phase to consequences phase, was drawn by Bowtie diagram. Results: In total, 21 events and 11 minimal cut sets with their occurrence probabilities and importance measure were determined at the left side of the Bowtie diagram. Also 9 consequences and scenarios of the top event were determined at the right side of the diagram. The occurrence probability of the top event (LPG release of spherical tanks was calculated 3.45×10-2. Conclusion: All factors involved in the occurrence of accidents and their consequences are showed in the Bowtie diagram. According to the obtained data, failure of cathodic protection systems and instrumentation, and overflow of tanks are included as important defects of the LPG tanks. Due to the high probability of the consequences, preventing systems such as cooling systems and Fire stop systems are required for installing in the studied unit to reduce the consequences of accidents.

  14. Fast-LPG Sensors at Room Temperature by α-Fe2O3/CNT Nanocomposite Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Chaitongrat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present performance of a room temperature LPG sensor based on α-Fe2O3/CNT (carbon nanotube nanocomposite films. The nanocomposite film was fabricated via the metallic Fe catalyst particle on CNTs in which both the catalyst particles and the CNT were simultaneously synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD synthesis and were subsequently annealed in air to create α-Fe2O3. These methods are simple, inexpensive, and suitable for large-scale production. The structure, surface morphologies, and LPG response of nanocomposite films were investigated. Raman spectroscopy and XPS analysis showed the formation of α-Fe2O3 on small CNTs (SWNTs. Morphological analysis using FE-SEM and AFM revealed the formation of the porous surface along with roughness surface. Additionally, the sensing performance of α-Fe2O3/CNTs showed that it could detect LPG concentration at lower value than 25% of LEL with response/recovery time of less than 30 seconds at room temperature. These results suggest that the α-Fe2O3/CNTs films are challenging materials for monitoring LPG operating at room temperature.

  15. Use of CFD for calculation of dispersion of LPG along rail transport routes situated above or below ground level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijssenaar-Buhre, I.J.M.; Reinders, J.E.A.

    2010-01-01

    The use and transport of dangerous substances may pose a risk to people present in the vicinity. Well known examples of dangerous substances are the very toxic chemical chlorine and the extremely flammable Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). The adverse effects of accidental releases of such materials

  16. Detecting Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) at Room Temperature Using ZnSnO3/ZnO Nanowire Piezo-Nanogenerator as Self-Powered Gas Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yongming; Nie, Yuxin; Zhao, Yayu; Wang, Penglei; Xing, Lili; Zhang, Yan; Xue, Xinyu

    2015-05-20

    High sensitivity, selectivity, and reliability have been achieved from ZnSnO3/ZnO nanowire (NW) piezo-nanogenerator (NG) as self-powered gas sensor (SPGS) for detecting liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) at room temperature (RT). After being exposed to 8000 ppm LPG, the output piezo-voltage of ZnSnO3/ZnO NW SPGS under compressive deformation is 0.089 V, much smaller than that in air ambience (0.533 V). The sensitivity of the SPGS against 8000 ppm LPG is up to 83.23, and the low limit of detection is 600 ppm. The SPGS has lower sensitivity against H2S, H2, ethanol, methanol and saturated water vapor than LPG, indicating good selectivity for detecting LPG. After two months, the decline of the sensing performance is less than 6%. Such piezo-LPG sensing at RT can be ascribed to the new piezo-surface coupling effect of ZnSnO3/ZnO nanocomposites. The practical application of the device driven by human motion has also been simply demonstrated. This work provides a novel approach to fabricate RT-LPG sensors and promotes the development of self-powered sensing system.

  17. Report of working committee 3 ''liquefied gases''; Rapport du comite de travail 3 ''gaz liquefies''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudino, M

    2000-07-01

    Working Committee 3's report concerns the evolution of the liquefied gas industry: both liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied petroleum gases (LPG). Given the current state of the LNG market the Committee decided to concentrate on this area in particular. A number of aspects have been identified which the Committee has been looking at, while others have been given to Study Groups set up specifically for the purpose. The first aspects regard: - the development of LNG and LPG, new installations, future chains and relevant statistical data; - the role of LNG and LPG in starting up a gas industry; - operating and technological improvements in the LNG industry; - energy savings, cold utilization and reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. The Study Groups which were set up dealt with the following subjects: Technological and Economical Developments for cost Reduction of LNG/LPG Facilities. Small Scale LNG Projects and Modular Systems. LNG/LPG Peak Shaving and Satellite Plants. LNG versus Pipeline Infrastructure. (author)

  18. Peak reading detector circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtin, E.; Grund, K.; Traub, S.; Zeeb, H.

    1975-01-01

    The peak reading detector circuit serves for picking up the instants during which peaks of a given polarity occur in sequences of signals in which the extreme values, their time intervals, and the curve shape of the signals vary. The signal sequences appear in measuring the foetal heart beat frequence from amplitude-modulated ultrasonic, electrocardiagram, and blood pressure signals. In order to prevent undesired emission of output signals from, e. g., disturbing intermediate extreme values, the circuit consists of the series connections of a circuit to simulate an ideal diode, a strong unit, a discriminator for the direction of charging current, a time-delay circuit, and an electronic switch lying in the decharging circuit of the storage unit. The time-delay circuit thereby causes storing of a preliminary maximum value being used only after a certain time delay for the emission of the output signal. If a larger extreme value occurs during the delay time the preliminary maximum value is cleared and the delay time starts running anew. (DG/PB) [de

  19. Chemically designed Pt/PPy nano-composite for effective LPG gas sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Namrata; Bhanoth, Sreenu; More, Priyesh V; Jain, G H; Khanna, P K

    2014-03-07

    Simultaneous in situ reduction of hexachloroplatinic acid by the amine group in the pyrrole monomer and oxidation of pyrrole to form polypyrrole (PPy) was examined. The reactions were performed at various temperatures to understand the degree of reduction of platinum precursor as well as doping of polypyrrole with Pt(II) chloro-complex. Spectroscopic images revealed different morphologies for the Pt/PPy nano-composite prepared at various temperatures. The as-prepared Pt/PPy nano-composite samples were tested for their ability to sense liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) which resulted in excellent sensing at relatively low temperature. The porous nature and ohmic contact between the PPy and platinum nanoparticles makes the as-prepared Pt/PPy nano-composite highly useful for sensors as well as electronic applications.

  20. Effect of Baffles on the Sloshing in Road Tankers Carrying LPG: A Comparative Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Bautista-Jacobo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a comparative numerical study of the effect of using baffles, and its design, on the behavior of sloshing in a partially filled road tanker carrying LPG. Navier-Stokes equations and standard k-ε turbulence model are used to simulate fluid movement; the Volume of Fluid (VOF method is used to track the liquid-gas interface. Velocity distributions, sloshing stabilization times, and contours of turbulent kinetic energy, which are of high importance in choosing the best design of baffles, are shown. The results show sloshing stabilization times of 22 and 21 s for road tankers with cross-shaped (Type I and X-shaped (Type II baffles, respectively, finding lower values of turbulent kinetic energy for Type II design, being, therefore, the best design of baffles for damping of sloshing and vehicle control among studied ones.

  1. Numerical Modeling of a Jet Ignition Direct Injection (JI DI LPG Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Boretti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents indirectly validated simulations of the operation of a LPG engine fitted with Direct Injection (DI and Jet Ignition (JI. It is demonstrated that the engine may have diesel like efficiencies and load control by quantity of fuel injected.  As the liquid propane quickly evaporates after injection in the main chamber, the main chamber mixture may be much closer to stoichiometry than a diesel for a better specific power at low engine speeds. This design also works at the high engine speeds impossible for the diesel, as combustion within the main chamber is controlled by the turbulent mixing rather than the vaporization and diffusion processes of the injected fuel of the diesel. 

  2. Ferrite thin films: Synthesis, characterization and gas sensing properties towards LPG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Pratibha; Godbole, R.V. [Department of Physics, Abasaheb Garware College, Karve Road, Pune 411 004 (India); Phase, D.M. [UGC-DAE CSR Centre, Indore (India); Chikate, R.C. [Department of Chemistry, Abasaheb Garware College, Karve Road, Pune 411 004 (India); Bhagwat, Sunita, E-mail: smb.agc@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Abasaheb Garware College, Karve Road, Pune 411 004 (India)

    2015-01-15

    Nanocrystalline (Co, Cu, Ni, Zn) ferrite thin films have been deposited onto the Si (100) and alumina substrates by spray pyrolysis deposition technique. Respective metal chlorides and iron chloride were used as precursors. The structural properties of (Co, Cu, Ni, Zn) ferrite thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique which confirms polycrystalline nature and single phase spinel structure. The surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which reveals spherical morphology for these films except NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} films that exhibit petal like structure. The optical transmittance and reflectance measurements were recorded using a double beam spectrophotometer. The optical studies reveal that the transition is direct band gap energy. The VSM analyzes reveal the predominant ferrimagnetic nature for CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} films. The gas sensing properties towards Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) revealed that ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} films are sensitive at lower temperature while NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} films show steep rise at higher temperature. - Highlights: • (Co, Cu, Ni, Zn) ferrite thin films are synthesized by simple spray pyrolysis technique. • Homogenization of substituent within ferrite structure. • CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} film exhibits predominantly ferrimagnetic nature. • LPG sensing at lower temperature for ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} film. • High sensitivity for NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} film at higher temperature due to defects created in the structure.

  3. A review on management of chrome-tanned leather shavings: a holistic paradigm to combat the environmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Anupama; Chaudhary, Rubina; Subramani, Saravanabhavan

    2014-10-01

    Raw hide/skins come to the tanners as a by-product of meat industry which is converted into value-added leather as product for fashion market. Leather manufacturing is a chemical process of natural biological matrix. It employs a huge quantity of water and inorganic and organic chemicals for processing and thereby discharges solid and liquid wastes into the environment. One of the potential solid wastes generated from leather industry is chrome-tanned leather shavings (CTLSs), and its disposal is increasingly becoming a huge challenge on disposal to tanners due to presence of heavy metal chromium. Hence, finding a sustainable solution to the CTLS disposal problem is a prime challenge for global tanners and researchers. This paper aims to the deeper review of various disposal methods on CTLS such as protein, chromium, and energy recovery processes and its utilization methodologies. Sustainable technologies have been developed to overcome CTLS solid wastes emanating from leather processing operations. Further, this review paper brings a broader classification of developed methodologies for treatment of CTLSs.

  4. Component-wise exergy and energy analysis of vapor compression refrigeration system using mixture of R134a and LPG as refrigerant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jatinder; Singh, Jagdev

    2017-11-01

    In this work, the experimental examination was carried out using a mixture of R134a and LPG refrigerant (consisting of R134a and LPG in a proportion of 28:72 by weight) as a replacement for R134a in a vapor compression refrigeration system. Exergy and energy tests were carried out at different evaporator and condenser temperatures with controlled environmental conditions. The results showed that the exergy destruction in the compressor, condenser, evaporator, and a capillary tube of the R134a / LPG refrigeration system was found lower by approximately 11.13-3.41%, 2.24-3.43%, 12.02-13.47% and 1.54-5.61% respectively. The compressor exhibits the highest level of destruction, accompanied by a condenser, an evaporator and a capillary tube in refrigeration systems. The refrigeration capacity, COP and power consumption of the compressor of the R134a /LPG refrigeration system were detected higher and lower compared to the R134a refrigeration system by about 7.04-11.41%, 15.1-17.82%, and 3.83-8.08% respectively. Also, the miscibility of R134a and LPG blend with mineral oil discovered good. The R134a and LPG refrigerant mixture proposed in this study perform superior to R134a from component-wise exergy and energy analyses under similar experimental conditions.

  5. Component-wise exergy and energy analysis of vapor compression refrigeration system using mixture of R134a and LPG as refrigerant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jatinder; Singh, Jagdev

    2018-05-01

    In this work, the experimental examination was carried out using a mixture of R134a and LPG refrigerant (consisting of R134a and LPG in a proportion of 28:72 by weight) as a replacement for R134a in a vapor compression refrigeration system. Exergy and energy tests were carried out at different evaporator and condenser temperatures with controlled environmental conditions. The results showed that the exergy destruction in the compressor, condenser, evaporator, and a capillary tube of the R134a / LPG refrigeration system was found lower by approximately 11.13-3.41%, 2.24-3.43%, 12.02-13.47% and 1.54-5.61% respectively. The compressor exhibits the highest level of destruction, accompanied by a condenser, an evaporator and a capillary tube in refrigeration systems. The refrigeration capacity, COP and power consumption of the compressor of the R134a /LPG refrigeration system were detected higher and lower compared to the R134a refrigeration system by about 7.04-11.41%, 15.1-17.82%, and 3.83-8.08% respectively. Also, the miscibility of R134a and LPG blend with mineral oil discovered good. The R134a and LPG refrigerant mixture proposed in this study perform superior to R134a from component-wise exergy and energy analyses under similar experimental conditions.

  6. Energy and exergy analysis of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) as a drop in replacement for R134a in domestic refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Morsi, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a comparison of energetic and exergetic performance of a vapour compression refrigeration system using pure HC (hydrocarbon) refrigerants. In this study, three different pure HCs propane (R290), butane (R600) and commercial LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) are used in the theoretical analysis. R134a is also used in the analysis as a reference refrigerant. The evaporator temperature ranges from −30 to 0 °C while the condenser ranges from 30 to 50 °C. MATLAB software is used for solving the thermodynamic equations, while the thermo-physical properties are calculated using REFPROP software. The results show that R600 has the highest COP c and exergetic efficiency, while LPG has the lowest. When compared to R134a, the COP c for R134a is higher than that for LPG by 10%. Also, the exergetic efficiency is higher by 5%. However, LPG has the advantage of being not expensive, available in large amounts and zero ozone depletion potential and low global warming potential. - Highlights: • The results show that R600 has the highest COP c & exergy efficiency, and the lowest irreversibility. • LPG has the lowest COP c & exergy efficiency, and the highest irreversibility. • Compared to R134a, LPG has a lower COP c and exergy efficiency by an average of 10% and 5%, respectively

  7. Analysis of Engine Parameters at Using Diesel-LPG and Diesel-CNG Mixture in Compression-ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Jukl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed on influence of diesel engine parameters that is used with mixture of gas and diesel fuel. The first part of the article describes diesel fuel systems where small part of diesel fuel is replaced by LPG or CNG fuel. These systems are often called as Diesel-Gas systems. Next part of the article focuses on tested car and measurement equipment. Measurement was performed by common-rail diesel engine in Fiat Doblň. Tests were carried out in laboratories of the Department of Engineering and Automobile Transport at the Mendel University in Brno. They were observed changes between emissions of used fuels – diesel without addition of gas, diesel + LPG and diesel + CNG mixture. It was found that that the addition of gas had positive effect on the performance parameters and emissions.

  8. Theoretical and experimental investigations on the performance of dual fuel diesel engine with hydrogen and LPG as secondary fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lata, D.B.; Misra, Ashok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi 835215 (India)

    2010-11-15

    The mathematical models to predict pressure, net heat release rate, mean gas temperature, and brake thermal efficiency for dual fuel diesel engine operated on hydrogen, LPG and mixture of LPG and hydrogen as secondary fuels are developed. In these models emphasis have been given on spray mixing characteristics, flame propagation, equilibrium combustion products and in-cylinder processes, which were computed using empirical equations and compared with experimental results. This combustion model predicts results which are in close agreement with the results of experiments conducted on a multi cylinder turbocharged, intercooled gen-set diesel engine. The predictions are also in close agreement with the results on single cylinder diesel engine obtained by other researchers. A reasonable agreement between the predicted and experimental results reveals that the presented model gives quantitatively and qualitatively realistic prediction of in-cylinder processes and engine performances during combustion. (author)

  9. A study on damage effect from boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion(Believe) of LPG charging facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Sam Kew; Ham, Eun Gu [Dept. of Architectural Engineering, Kwangwoon University (Korea); Kim, Tae Hwan [Automation System Research Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    The LPG refueling station's explosion at Bucheon city was a major accident which with rare frequency of occurrence and large damage effect. Therefore, to prevent similar accident in the future from LPG charging stations which located in urban area. It needs to identify the damage effects of such facilities by comparing theoretically quantities risk and actual damage. The BLEVE effects from the accident showed similar damage effect in case of heat flux, however, the overpressure level reflected at the reduced distance by 15%. The structure damage to the near by area showed comparatively large heat radiation damage to the concrete structure strength and shape changes through heat flux while the overpressure effect was small. 13 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Women with shaved heads: western Buddhist nuns and Haredi Jewish wives: polysemy, universalism and misinterpretations of hair symbolism in pluralistic societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Niculescu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on female hair, or rather the absence of hair: it compares the symbols attached to shaved heads for Western Buddhist nuns and for Jewish married women from various Haredi or ‘ultra-orthodox’ groups, and the (mainly negative representations of these in the external, secular society.The comparison is based on fieldwork research undertaken by the author. When interviewing Western nuns of Jewish origin, it appeared that their shaved heads had been very difficult to cope with for their families, to whom it was a reminder of the Holocaust. The same body treatment can thus represent, on one side, bliss (for the Buddhist nun for whom it is a symbol of libertation and spiritual engagement, and on the other side, horror (for her family and sometimes, out of a Buddhist context, society. Also, the same body treatment can be used to express celibacy for the Buddhist nun, or marriage for the Haredi, or ultra-orthodox woman. Therefore the meaning of head shaving seems to be fluctuating and contextual: it can mean either­ religious commitment, or punishment, or disease.

  11. Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patinkin, L.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

  12. Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Welded High Strength Steel Plate Using SMAW and SAW Method for LPG Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarto, Winarto; Riastuti, Rini; Kumeidi, Nur

    2018-03-01

    Indonesian government policy to convert energy consumption for domestic household from kerosene to liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) may lead to the increasing demand for LPG storage tank. LPG storage tank with a large capacity generally used the HSLA steel material of ASTM A516 Grade 70 joined by SMAW or combination between SMAW and SAW method. The heat input can affect the microstructure and mechanical properties of the weld area. The input heat is proportional to the welding current and the arc voltage, but inversely proportional to its welding speed. The result shows that the combination of SMAW-SAW process yield the lower hardness in the HAZ and the fusion zone compared to the singe SMAW process. PWHT mainly applied to reduce residual stress of welded joint. The result shows that PWHT can reduce the hardness in the HAZ and the fusion zone in comparing with the singe SMAW process. The microstructure of weld joint shows a coarser structure in the combined welding process (SMAW-SAW) comparing with the single welding process (SMAW).

  13. Experimental and analytical investigation of thermal coating effectiveness for 3 m{sup 3} LPG tanks engulfed by fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landucci, Gabriele [CONPRICI - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Chimica Industriale e Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Pisa, via Diotisalvi n.2, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Molag, Menso; Reinders, Johan [Nederlandse Organisatie voor toegepast-natuurwetenschappelijk onderzoek TNO, Laan van Westenenk 501, P.O. Box 342, 7300 AH Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Cozzani, Valerio [CONPRICI - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Mineraria e delle Tecnologie Ambientali, Alma Mater Studiorum, Universita di Bologna, via Terracini n.28, 40131 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: valerio.cozzani@unibo.it

    2009-01-30

    Two large-scale diesel pool fire engulfment tests were carried out on LPG tanks protected with intumescing materials to test the effectiveness of thermal coatings in the prevention of hot BLEVE accidental scenarios in the road and rail transport of LPG. A specific test protocol was defined to enhance reproducibility of experimental tests. The geometrical characteristics of the test tanks were selected in order to obtain shell stresses similar to those present in full-size road tankers complying to ADR standards. In order to better understand the stress distribution on the vessel and to identify underlying complicating phenomena, a finite element model was also developed to better analyze the experimental data. A non-homogeneous and time-dependent effectiveness of the fire protection given by the intumescing coating was evidenced both by finite element simulations and by the analysis of the coating after the tests. The results of the fire tests pointed out that the coating assured an effective protection of the tanks, consistently increasing the expected time to failure. The data obtained suggest that the introduction of fire protection coatings may be a viable route to improve the safety of the LPG distribution chain.

  14. A study on the criterions of lean burn limit for an LPG EFI engine. Paper no. IGEC-1-140

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, Z.; Wang, H.; Deng, B.; Su, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Based on electronic low-pressure gaseous injection, the comparing analysis of several methods for the criterions of lean burn limit in an LPG engine is presented. Experiments are carried out in a single cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled, 125cc engine with electronic LPG injection. According to the analysis of multi-parameters in and out cylinder, it shows that variation coefficient of indicated pressure which is the classical judgment of lean burn limit, the HC emission, HC emission rising gradient, the misfiring rate and the variation coefficient of the crank angle of the maximum combustion pressure can be as the criterions for lean burn limit. For the test engine, 15% as variation coefficient of indicative mean pressure, 500 x 10 -6 as HC emission, 2000 x 10 -6 as HC emission rising ratio, 1% as misfiring rate and 50% as variation coefficient of the crank angle of the maximum combustion pressure can be as the judgment criterions of LPG lean burn limits. (author)

  15. The tragedy of San Juanico--the most severe LPG disaster in history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arturson, G

    1987-04-01

    During the early morning of Monday, 19 November 1984, one of the largest disasters in industrial history occurred in the Mexico City Area, causing the greatest rescue effort to assist population in an emergency ever undertaken. The tragic catastrophe started in a large LPG (Liquid Petroleum Gas) storage and distribution centre in San Juan Ixhuatepec, 20 km north of Mexico City. The facilities, owned by the Pemex State Oil Company, consisted of six spherical storage tanks (four with a volume of 1600 m3 and two with a volume of 2400 m3) and 48 horizontal cylindrical bullet tanks of different sizes. At the time of the disaster the storage tanks contained 11,000 m3 of a mixture of propane and butane. The inhabitants of San Juan Ixhuatepec numbered about 40,000, and a further 60,000 lived in the hills surrounding the village. The majority were poor country people living in one-story houses constructed of concrete pillars filled in with bricks and with roofs of iron sheets. The disaster started due to LPG leakage, probably a pipe leakage or rupture due to excess pressure. A vapour cloud built up and was slowly moved by the north-east wind towards the ground-placed flare pit located in the western part of the plant. The vapour cloud was ignited around 5:40 a.m. and was followed by an extensive fire at the plant area. The first explosion was registered on the seismograph at the University of Mexico at 05 h 44 min 52 s and was followed by a dozen explosions within the next hour, some of them of BLEVE type (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion) due to rupture of one or more storage tanks. Two of the explosions had an intensity of 0.5 on the Richter scale. Unburned and burning gas entered the houses south of the plant area and set fire to everything. Blast waves from the explosions not only destroyed a number of houses but also shifted several cylindrical tanks from their supports and added more gas to the fire. The smaller spheres and some of the cylinders exploded and

  16. POLA PENGELUARAN, PERSEPSI, DAN KEPUASAN KELUARGA TERHADAP PERUBAHAN PENGGUNAAN ENERGI DARI MINYAK TANAH KE LPG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megawati Simanjuntak

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to analyze the expenses pattern, perception, and satisfaction level of families among fuel conversion. This research was conducted in two villages, namely Cikarawang Village and Situ Gede Village, District of Bogor on October 2008. Total sample were 30 households consisted of fifteen samples in each village that chosen purposively. The average of expenses of families per month for buying fuel, after the fuel conversion program had been conducted tend to decreased from IDR 96.500,00 per month to IDR 58.800,00 per month after the program or saved the family expenses for IDR 37.700,00 per month. Most of respondents stated agreed that conversion program could decreased the family expenses. The gas gave more advantage compared to kerosene, accepted gas as replacement of kerosene, and there was no force in conducting the conversion program. The satisfaction level showed that, respondents felt saver using kerosene and viewed from the cost to buy fuel, few respondents felt heavy for the gas price. Otherwise, the using of LPG was felt more efisien in time, cleaner, and more practice than kerosene.

  17. Modeling the release, spreading, and burning of LNG, LPG, and gasoline on water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, David W.; Cornwell, John B.

    2007-01-01

    Current interest in the shipment of liquefied natural gas (LNG) has renewed the debate about the safety of shipping large volumes of flammable fuels. The size of a spreading pool following a release of LNG from an LNG tank ship has been the subject of numerous papers and studies dating back to the mid-1970s. Several papers have presented idealized views of how the LNG would be released and spread across a quiescent water surface. There is a considerable amount of publicly available material describing these idealized releases, but little discussion of how other flammable fuels would behave if released from similar sized ships. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether the models currently available from the United States Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) can be used to simulate the release, spreading, vaporization, and pool fire impacts for materials other than LNG, and if so, identify which material-specific parameters are required. The review of the basic equations and principles in FERC's LNG release, spreading, and burning models did not reveal a critical fault that would prevent their use in evaluating the consequences of other flammable fluid releases. With the correct physical data, the models can be used with the same level of confidence for materials such as LPG and gasoline as they are for LNG

  18. Operation and management of United Central Piping LPG supply stations in Shenzhen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai Yankai

    1997-11-01

    Shenzhen has based its city gas development project on the eventual conversion to natural gas supply by way of central piping LPG supply stations. To fully exploit the potential gas supply capability of every central piping station and cut down the total running cost, we have been connecting the existing supply stations and their piping system into a network, which not only provided a more reliable gas supply performance, but can greatly simplify the evacuation of gas stations from the ever-expanding downtown areas to suburbs. Through this way, the periodic gas stock held by individual stations can be transferred to storage terminal or stations of enough holding capability; the supplying distance has been much lengthened and the gas volume held in the piping system increased; gas supply covered by small stations has been shifted to new and large stations. By linking these stations, we are able to provide pipeline LP gas supply for a large area, and in the same time lay down the pipeline infrastructure for the upcoming LNG supply so that an easy conversion to LNG supply can be secured as soon as the projected LNG terminal is put to service. (au)

  19. Experimental studies of flame stability and emission characteristics of simple LPG jet diffusion flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.Y. Kiran; D.P. Mishra [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur (India). Combustion Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering

    2007-07-15

    In the present study, experiments were carried out to measure the lift-off height, H{sub L}; flame length, L{sub f} and blow-off velocity for a simple LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) jet diffusion flames. It is observed that lift-off height is proportional to the fuel exit velocity, U{sub f}. A semi-empirical correlation between lift-off height and global strain rate, U{sub f}/D{sub f} is proposed. Two regimes identified either as buoyancy or momentum dominated were characterized by Froude number, Fr. For momentum dominated jet diffusion flames, L{sub f}/D{sub f} remains almost constant and therefore is independent of the Froude number. The NOx emissions, expressed in terms of emission index, EINOx is found to decrease with U{sub f}. This decreasing trend is consistent with the concept that increasing jet velocity reduces the residence time as reported in the literature. The present data is also compared with the available data of propane gas and found to be in good agreement well particularly in trend wise. Besides these data, EINOx scaling law is also reported in the present study. 20 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Experimental investigation of laminar LPG-H{sub 2} jet diffusion flame with preheated reactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.P. Mishra; P. Kumar [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India). Combustion Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering

    2008-10-15

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of the effect of H{sub 2} addition on flame length, soot free length fraction (SFLF), flame radiant fraction, gas temperature and emission level in LPG-H{sub 2} composite fuel jet diffusion flame for two preheated cases namely, (i) preheated air and (ii) preheated air and fuel. Results show that the H{sub 2} addition leads to a reduction in flame length which may be caused due to an increased gas temperature. Besides this, the flame length is also observed to be reduced with increasing reactants temperature. The soot free length fraction (SFLF) increases as H{sub 2} is added to fuel stream. This might have been caused by decrease in the C/H ratio in the flame and is favorable to attenuate PAH formation rate. Interestingly, the SFLF is observed to be reduced with increasing reactants temperature that may be due to reduction in induction period of soot formation caused by enhanced flame temperature. Moreover, the decreased radiant heat fraction with hydrogen addition is pertinent with the reduction in soot concentration level. The reduction in NOx emission level with H{sub 2} addition to the fuel stream is also observed. On the contrary, NOx emission level is found to be enhanced significantly with reactant temperature that can be attributed to the increase in thermal NOx through Zeldovich mechanism. 31 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. A heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing model for solving the LPG distribution problem: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onut, S; Kamber, M R; Altay, G

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is an important management problem in the field of distribution and logistics. In VRPs, routes from a distribution point to geographically distributed points are designed with minimum cost and considering customer demands. All points should be visited only once and by one vehicle in one route. Total demand in one route should not exceed the capacity of the vehicle that assigned to that route. VRPs are varied due to real life constraints related to vehicle types, number of depots, transportation conditions and time periods, etc. Heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing problem is a kind of VRP that vehicles have different capacity and costs. There are two types of vehicles in our problem. In this study, it is used the real world data and obtained from a company that operates in LPG sector in Turkey. An optimization model is established for planning daily routes and assigned vehicles. The model is solved by GAMS and optimal solution is found in a reasonable time

  2. A heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing model for solving the LPG distribution problem: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onut, S.; Kamber, M. R.; Altay, G.

    2014-03-01

    Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is an important management problem in the field of distribution and logistics. In VRPs, routes from a distribution point to geographically distributed points are designed with minimum cost and considering customer demands. All points should be visited only once and by one vehicle in one route. Total demand in one route should not exceed the capacity of the vehicle that assigned to that route. VRPs are varied due to real life constraints related to vehicle types, number of depots, transportation conditions and time periods, etc. Heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing problem is a kind of VRP that vehicles have different capacity and costs. There are two types of vehicles in our problem. In this study, it is used the real world data and obtained from a company that operates in LPG sector in Turkey. An optimization model is established for planning daily routes and assigned vehicles. The model is solved by GAMS and optimal solution is found in a reasonable time.

  3. Investigation of soot formation and temperature field in laminar diffusion flames of LPG-air mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahad, Haroun A.K.; Mohammed, Yassar K.A. [Babylon Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Babylon (Israel)

    2000-11-01

    Soot formation and burnout were studied at atmospheric pressure in co-flowing, axisymmetric buoyant laminar diffusion flames and double flames of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)-air mixtures. In diffusion flames, two different fuel flow rates were examined. In double flames, three different primary air flow rates were examined. A soot sampling probe and a thermocouple were used to measure the local soot mass concentration and flame temperature, respectively. Flame residence time was predicted using a uniformly accelerated motion model as function of axial distance of the flame. The increase of primary air flow rate was found to suppress the energy transfer from the annular region, at which the soot is produced, to the flame axis. The time required to initiate soot formation at the flame axis becomes longer as the primary air is increased. The trend rate of soot formation was found to be similar along the flame axis in all tested diffusion flames. The increase of primary air by 10% of the stoichiometric air requirement of the fuel results in a 70% reduction in maximum soot concentration. The final exhaust of soot, which is determined by the net effect of soot formation and burnout, is much lower in double flames than that in diffusion flames. (Author)

  4. Providing cleaner energy access in Indonesia through the megaproject of kerosene conversion to LPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budya, Hanung; Yasir Arofat, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 Indonesia undertook a massive energy program to convert its primary cooking fuel from kerosene to LPG in more than 50 million households. This megaproject, to be completed in late 2011, provided an improved household cooking fuel, with its associated benefits in user costs, cleanliness, convenience, and environment, and reduced the government's huge subsidy for petroleum fuels. Presented from the perspective of Pertamina, Indonesia's sole NOC, and the program implementer, this paper describes the background of the fuels situation, the planning stages, including the preparatory analytical work, targeted market surveys and tests, and the subsequent building of the financial, technical, and institutional models for carrying out the program on an expeditious schedule. It presents the project's major execution steps, results of the program to date, and the unique institutional roles of each party, including the activities and benefits for the government, Pertamina, the public, the industry, and the crucial agents in the fuel supply chains. Finally there is a retrospective policy analysis and a discussion of key factors and challenges in the execution of Indonesia's largest-ever energy initiative to provide improved cooking fuel.

  5. The Study on the Quantitative Analysis in LPG Tank's Fire and Explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, S.J.; Kim, B.J. [Department of chemical Engineering, Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    Chemical plant's fire and explosion does not only damage to the chemical plants themselves but also damage to people in or near of the accident spot and the neighborhood of chemical plant. For that reason, Chemical process safety management has become important. One of safety management methods is called 'the quantitative analysis', which is used to reduce and prevent the accident. The results of the quantitative analysis could be used to arrange the equipments, evaluate the minimum safety distance, prepare the safety equipments. In this study we make the computer program to make easy to do quantitative analysis of the accident. The output of the computer program is the magnitude of fire(pool fire and fireball) and explosion (UVCE and BLEVE) effects. We used the thermal radiation as a measure of fire magnitude and used the overpressure as a measure of explosion magnitude. In case of BLEVE, the fly distance of fragment can be evaluated. Also probit analysis was done in every case. As the case study, Buchun LPG explosion accident in Korea was analysed by the program developed. The simulation results showed that the permissible distance was 800m and probit analysis showed that 1st degree burn, 2nd degree burn, and death distances are 450, 280, 260m, respectively. the simulation results showed the good agreement with the result from SAFER PROGRAM made by DuPont. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Opportunities and Challenges for Petroleum and LPG Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum products are the lifeblood of the economies of all Sub-Saharan African countries. They are key fuels used in road transport and power generation. Households use kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for lighting and cooking. In this era of high oil prices, if the product is state-subsidized, the government budget bears the brunt of price increases. If the price changes are passed through to consumers, the household budgets are impacted directly. The countries most vulnerable to oil price shocks are the low-income oil importers which are disproportionately concentrated in Sub-Saharan Africa. End user prices are affected by several factors: market size and economies of scale, mode of product transport, controlled pricing, protection of inefficient domestic suppliers, degree of competition, clear and stable legal framework, effective monitoring and disclosure of industry statistics. This paper is based on two recent studies of the oil sectors of several countries in Sub-Saharan Africa which posed the following questions: Is each stage in the supply chain, from import of crude oil or refined products to retail, efficiently run and are the efficiency gains passed on to end-users? If not, what are the potential causes and possible means of remedying the problems? - Highlights: • Examines comparative efficiencies of oil product supply chains in twelve sub-Saharan countries. • Identifies areas for improvement towards “best practice”. • Objective is to reduce differential between international reference prices and consumer prices

  7. Development of a 2kWe LPG fuel processor for PEFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipiti, F.; Pino, L.; Vita, A.; Cordaro, M.; Lagana, M.; Recupero, V.

    2004-01-01

    The successful development of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (PEFC's) for stationary and/or transportation purposes is strictly dependent on the choice of a proper fuel processor. This paper covers the in progress activities performed at CNR-ITAE on the development of a 2 kWequivalent hydrogen generator unit, (under testing) feed by LPG (propane). The main issues that should be satisfied by the hydrogen generator will be high fuel conversion, stable performance for repeated start-up and shut-down cycles, capability to process different hydrocarbons, etc. The actual unit, is constituted by an autothermal reactor (ATR) with a proprietary CNR/ITAE catalyst, an intermediate water gas shift (ITS) and a CO preferential oxidation (PROX) reactors containing commercial catalysts; the system includes heat exchangers, manual and automatic valves, pressure regulators and transducers, flow meters and ancillaries. External heating is supplied only during the start-up; on regime operations the global heat balance is smoothly exothermic. The main objectives of the experimental tests are: evaluation of reactors and system performance (in steady state and in transient response), identification of main operating limits of the reactors, to validate heat and mass balance. Preliminary results, for the 2 kW prototype, are presented. (author)

  8. Using Geographic Information System - GIS - for pipeline management: case of Urucu-Coari LPG pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furquim, Maysa P.O. [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This technical paper seeks to demonstrate the stages run during the GIS - Geographic Information System accomplishment as for the follow-up of a pipeline work. The GLPDUTO (LPG Pipeline) Urucu-Coari work shall be the focus of this paper. The main challenges in the compilation of data generated in the work site will be presented, as well the importance for the definition of which data should be relevant, so that the construction company and PETROBRAS could follow up its evolution. The GIS development has been performed since January 2007 and should be finished by the first semester of 2009. The following stages for GIS definition for the work management will be presented: brief history of the project - project conception, purpose, structure implemented and accomplishment expectations; survey data in loco - raw data obtained directly during the carrying out of the work and generated in the project and implantation stage; treated data - data resulting from raw data, but already treated as for the GIS environment; routines developed - specific tools created for the consolidation of the data to be manipulated on GIS in an optimized and functional way; result presented - GIS in its final conception, developed and input with the routines and data regarding the project. (author)

  9. Growth and yield of tomato cultivated on composted duck excreta enriched wood shavings and source-separated municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Zoes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of growth substrates, made with duck excreta enriched wood shaving compost (DMC and the organic fraction of source-separated municipal solid waste (MSW compost, on the growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. cv. Campbell 1327. Substrate A consisted of 3:2 (W/W proportion of DMC and MSW composts. Substrates B and C were the same as A but contained 15% (W/W ratio of brick dust and shredded plastic, respectively. Three control substrates consisted of the commercially available peat-based substrate (Pr, an in-house sphagnum peat-based substrate (Gs, and black earth mixed with sandy loam soil (BE/S in a 1:4 (W/W ratio. Substrates (A, B, C and controls received nitrogen (N, phosphate (P and potassium (K at equivalent rates of 780 mg/pot, 625 mg/pot, and 625 mg/pot, respectively, or were used without mineral fertilizers. Compared to the controls (Pr, Gs and BE/S, tomato plants grown on A, B, and C produced a greater total number and dry mass of fruits, with no significant differences between them. On average, total plant dry-matter biomass in substrate A, B, and C was 19% lower than that produced on Pr, but 28% greater than biomass obtained for plant grown, on Gs and BE/S. Plant height, stem diameter and chlorophyll concentrations indicate that substrates A, B, and C were particularly suitable for plant growth. Although the presence of excess N in composted substrates favoured vegetative rather than reproductive growth, the continuous supply of nutrients throughout the growing cycle, as well as the high water retention capacity that resulted in a reduced watering by 50%, suggest that substrates A, B, and C were suitable growing mixes, offering environmental and agronomic advantages.

  10. How to Shave

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy ... strictly prohibited without prior written permission. AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2017 American Academy ...

  11. Handling wood shavings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-09-18

    Details of bulk handling equipment suitable for collection and compressing wood waste from commercial joinery works are discussed. The Redler Bin Discharger ensures free flow of chips from storage silo discharge prior to compression into briquettes for use as fuel or processing into chipboard.

  12. Measuring Motivation for Appetitive Behaviour: Food-Restricted Broiler Breeder Chickens Cross a Water Barrier to Forage in an Area of Wood Shavings without Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Laura M.; Brocklehurst, Sarah; Sandilands, Vicky; Bateson, Melissa; Tolkamp, Bert J.; D'Eath, Rick B.

    2014-01-01

    Broiler breeders (parents of meat chickens) are selected for fast growth and become obese if fed ad libitum. To avoid this and maintain good health and reproductive ability, they are feed restricted to about 1/3 of what they would eat ad libitum. As a result, they experience chronic hunger and exhibit abnormal behaviour patterns that may indicate stress and frustration. One approach to measuring hunger is to observe how much birds will work, such as pecking a key, for access to more or different types of food. However, the sight, smell, and feedback from consumption of the feed reward changes the context and may artificially raise feeding motivation. To avoid this, we tested broiler breeders in an apparatus in which they could work for access to a wooden platform covered in wood shavings by crossing a water runway which increased in length and depth in 8 successive tests. In the wood shavings area, they could perform exploratory and foraging behaviour (the appetitive phase of feeding) but were never rewarded with feed. Sixty birds were divided into three feed quantity treatments: commercial restriction (R), and twice (2R) or three times (3R) this amount. Overall, birds fed R worked harder to reach the wood shavings area (reached it in a larger number of tests) than 2R and 3R birds (P2R>3R). This indicates that restricted-fed birds were hungry and willing to work for the opportunity to forage even though food was never provided, suggesting that their motivation to perform the appetitive component of feeding behaviour (foraging/food searching) was sufficient to sustain their response. Thus food restriction in broiler breeders is a welfare concern. However these methods could be used to test alternative feeding regimes to attempt to find ways of alleviating hunger while still maintaining healthy growth and reproduction in these birds. PMID:25068283

  13. Effects of N2 gas on preheated laminar LPG jet diffusion flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, D.P.; Kumar, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of the inert gas effect on flame length, NO x and soot free length fraction (SFLF) in a laminar LPG diffusion flame. Besides this, flame radiant fraction and temperature are also measured to explain observed NO x emission and SFLF. The inert is added to both air and fuel stream at each base line condition by maintaining a constant mass flow rate in each stream. Results indicate that inert addition leads to a significant enhancement in flame length for air-diluted stream than fuel-diluted stream. However, the flame length is observed to reduce with increasing reactant temperature. It is also observed that the SFLF increases with addition of N 2 for fuel-diluted stream. In contrast, SFLF remains almost constant when N 2 is added to air stream. The decrease in fuel concentration and gas temperature caused by inert addition leads to reduction in soot volume fraction and hence enhances SFLF. Interestingly, the SFLF reduces with increasing reactant temperature, due to reduction in induction period of soot formation caused by enhanced flame temperature. Besides this, the reduction in NO x emission level with inert addition is also observed. For all the three cases, the air dilution proved to be much efficient in reducing NO x emission level as compared to fuel dilution. This can be attributed to the differences in reduced gas temperature and residence time between air and fuel-diluted streams. On the contrary, NO x emission level enhances significantly with increasing reactant temperature as a result of increase in thermal NO x through Zeldovich mechanism.

  14. Effects of N{sub 2} gas on preheated laminar LPG jet diffusion flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, D.P.; Kumar, P. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016 (India)

    2010-11-15

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of the inert gas effect on flame length, NO{sub x} and soot free length fraction (SFLF) in a laminar LPG diffusion flame. Besides this, flame radiant fraction and temperature are also measured to explain observed NO{sub x} emission and SFLF. The inert is added to both air and fuel stream at each base line condition by maintaining a constant mass flow rate in each stream. Results indicate that inert addition leads to a significant enhancement in flame length for air-diluted stream than fuel-diluted stream. However, the flame length is observed to reduce with increasing reactant temperature. It is also observed that the SFLF increases with addition of N{sub 2} for fuel-diluted stream. In contrast, SFLF remains almost constant when N{sub 2} is added to air stream. The decrease in fuel concentration and gas temperature caused by inert addition leads to reduction in soot volume fraction and hence enhances SFLF. Interestingly, the SFLF reduces with increasing reactant temperature, due to reduction in induction period of soot formation caused by enhanced flame temperature. Besides this, the reduction in NO{sub x} emission level with inert addition is also observed. For all the three cases, the air dilution proved to be much efficient in reducing NO{sub x} emission level as compared to fuel dilution. This can be attributed to the differences in reduced gas temperature and residence time between air and fuel-diluted streams. On the contrary, NO{sub x} emission level enhances significantly with increasing reactant temperature as a result of increase in thermal NO{sub x} through Zeldovich mechanism. (author)

  15. Characterization of bluff-body stabilized LPG jet diffusion flame with N{sub 2} dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P.; Mishra, D.P. [Combustion Lab, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208 016 (India)

    2008-10-15

    Measurements of several parameters like flame length, soot free length fraction (SFLF), radiant fraction, gas temperature and emission levels are performed in coaxial LPG jet diffusion flame to provide an insight into the effect of lip thickness and inert addition on flame characteristics. The present measurements reveal that the visible flame length is found to be reduced with increase in lip thickness. In contrast, the flame length for all lip thicknesses gets enhanced by inert addition to the fuel stream, which can be attributed to the reduced diffusivity of the mixture gases. The SFLF is seen to be enhanced with N{sub 2} addition due to decrease in the fuel concentration and flame temperature. However, the SFLF is reduced with increasing lip thickness of the bluff-body which is caused due to the reduction in induction period of soot formation. For all lip thickness, the NO{sub x} emission level is observed to be attenuated with inert (N{sub 2}) addition, which can be ascribed to reduction in residence time of gas mixture. Besides this, NO{sub x} emission level is enhanced with increasing lip thickness. The emission index of CO is found to be increased with nitrogen addition; in contrast, the EICO{sub 2} is seen to be reduced, for all lip thickness. This can be attributed to attrition in residence time with inert addition that tends to inhibit the conversion of CO to CO{sub 2}. Moreover, EICO is also observed to be attenuated while EICO{sub 2} gets enhanced, with increasing lip thickness which might be due to the increased residence time of mixture gases. (author)

  16. Characterization of bluff-body stabilized LPG jet diffusion flame with N2 dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P.; Mishra, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of several parameters like flame length, soot free length fraction (SFLF), radiant fraction, gas temperature and emission levels are performed in coaxial LPG jet diffusion flame to provide an insight into the effect of lip thickness and inert addition on flame characteristics. The present measurements reveal that the visible flame length is found to be reduced with increase in lip thickness. In contrast, the flame length for all lip thicknesses gets enhanced by inert addition to the fuel stream, which can be attributed to the reduced diffusivity of the mixture gases. The SFLF is seen to be enhanced with N 2 addition due to decrease in the fuel concentration and flame temperature. However, the SFLF is reduced with increasing lip thickness of the bluff-body which is caused due to the reduction in induction period of soot formation. For all lip thickness, the NO x emission level is observed to be attenuated with inert (N 2 ) addition, which can be ascribed to reduction in residence time of gas mixture. Besides this, NO x emission level is enhanced with increasing lip thickness. The emission index of CO is found to be increased with nitrogen addition; in contrast, the EICO 2 is seen to be reduced, for all lip thickness. This can be attributed to attrition in residence time with inert addition that tends to inhibit the conversion of CO to CO 2 . Moreover, EICO is also observed to be attenuated while EICO 2 gets enhanced, with increasing lip thickness which might be due to the increased residence time of mixture gases

  17. Enzymatic shaving of the tegument surface of live schistosomes for proteomic analysis: a rational approach to select vaccine candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Castro-Borges

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The membrane-associated and membrane-spanning constituents of the Schistosoma mansoni tegument surface, the parasite's principal interface with the host bloodstream, have recently been characterized using proteomic techniques. Biotinylation of live worms using membrane-impermeant probes revealed that only a small subset of the proteins was accessible to the reagents. Their position within the multilayered architecture of the surface has not been ascertained.An enzymatic shaving approach on live worms has now been used to release the most accessible components, for analysis by MS/MS. Treatment with trypsin, or phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PiPLC, only minimally impaired membrane integrity. PiPLC-enriched proteins were distinguished from those released in parasite vomitus or by handling damage, using isobaric tagging. Trypsin released five membrane proteins, Sm200, Sm25 and three annexins, plus host CD44 and the complement factors C3 and C4. Nutrient transporters and ion channels were absent from the trypsin fraction, suggesting a deeper location in the surface complex; surprisingly, two BAR-domain containing proteins were released. Seven parasite and two host proteins were enriched by PiPLC treatment, the vaccine candidate Sm29 being the most prominent along with two orthologues of human CD59, potentially inhibitors of complement fixation. The enzymes carbonic anhydrase and APD-ribosyl cyclase were also enriched, plus Sm200 and alkaline phosphatase. Host GPI-anchored proteins CD48 and CD90, suggest 'surface painting' during worm peregrination in the portal system.Our findings suggest that the membranocalyx secreted over the tegument surface is not the inert barrier previously proposed, some tegument proteins being externally accessible to enzymes and thus potentially located within it. Furthermore, the detection of C3 and C4 indicates that the complement cascade is initiated, while two CD59 orthologues suggest a potential

  18. The Effects of Land Configuration and Wood-Shavings Mulch on the Properties of a Sandy Loam Soil in Northeast Nigeria. 2. Changes in Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiroma, AM.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mulching and ridge tillage are proven technologies for improving soil productivity in semi-arid regions. Yet data quantifying the combined influences of these practices are limited. Our objectives were to determine the changes in selected physical properties of a sandy loam after 4-years of annual tillage and wood-shavings mulching. The tillage and wood-shavings treatments consisted of: Flat bed (FB, Open ridge (OR, Tiedridge (TR, FBM, ORM and TRM were same as FB, OR and TR, respectively except that wood-shavings at a rate of 10 t/ha were surface applied ≈ 2 weeks after sowing each year to serve as both a mulch and an organic amendment. At the end of the trial in 2002, bulk density, penetration resistance, total porosity and soil water content from each of 0-0.075, 0.075-0.15 and 0.15-0.30 m depths were determined. Composite samples from the surface (0.075 and 0.075-0.15 m layers from 3 replicates of each treatment were also collected for the determination of wet aggregate stability and from 0-0.15 m and 0.15-0.30 m layers for determination of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat. After 4 years of annual tillage and addition of woodshavings, soil bulk density and penetration resistance were consistently lower and total porosity higher in the FBM, ORM and TRM treatments than in the FB, OR and TR treatments. Penetration resistance in all treatments was strongly related to soil water content. A 'hoe pan' was established below 0.15 m depth beneath the furrows of the ridged treatments. This could be attributed to human traffic during field operations and ponding of water, which occurred in the furrows following heavy rains. Wet aggregate stability estimated as the proportion of aggregates of size > 0.25 mm (macro-aggregates in the 0-0.15 m layer were significantly (P< 0.05 higher under FBM, ORM and TRM than under FB, OR or TR treatments. Ksat was not influenced by either tillage or wood-shavings treatments but were higher for the mulched plots

  19. Modeling the potential health benefits of lower household air pollution after a hypothetical liquified petroleum gas (LPG) cookstove intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenland, Kyle; Pillarisetti, Ajay; Kirby, Miles; Peel, Jennifer; Clark, Maggie; Checkley, Will; Chang, Howard H; Clasen, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Improved biomass and advanced fuel cookstoves can lower household air pollution (HAP), but levels of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) often remain above the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended interim target of 35μg/m 3 . Based on existing literature, we first estimate a range of likely levels of personal PM 2.5 before and after a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) intervention. Using simulations reflecting uncertainty in both the exposure estimates and exposure-response coefficients, we estimate corresponding expected health benefits for systolic blood pressure (SBP) in adults, birthweight, and pneumonia incidence among children LPG stove intervention would decrease personal PM 2.5 exposure from approximately 270μg/m 3 to approximately 70μg/m 3 , due to likely continued use of traditional open-fire stoves. We estimate that this decrease would lead to a 5.5mmHg lower SBP among women over age 50, a 338g higher birthweight, and a 37% lower incidence of severe childhood pneumonia. We estimate that decreased SBP, if sustained, would result in a 5%-10% decrease in mortality for women over age 50. We estimate that higher birthweight would reduce infant mortality by 4 to 11 deaths per 1000 births; for comparison, the current global infant mortality rate is 32/1000 live births. Reduced exposure is estimated to prevent approximately 29 cases of severe pneumonia per year per 1000 children under 2, avoiding approximately 2-3 deaths/1000 per year. However, there are large uncertainties around all these estimates due to uncertainty in both exposure estimates and in exposure-response coefficients; all health effect estimates include the null value of no benefit. An LPG stove intervention, while not likely to lower exposure to the WHO interim target level, is still likely to offer important health benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of film thickness and Fe doping on LPG sensing properties of Mn3O4 thin film grown by SILAR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhedkar, M. R.; Ubale, A. U.

    2018-05-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe doped and undoped Mn3O4 thin films have been deposited by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method onto glass substrates using MnCl2 and NaOH as cationic and anionic precursors. The grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM)) have been carried out to analyze structural and surface morphological properties of the films. The LPG sensing performance of Mn3O4thin films have been studied by varying temperature, concentration of LPG, thickness of the film and doping percentage of Fe. The LPG response of the Mn3O4thin films were found to be enhances with film thickness and decreases with increased Fe doping (0 to 8 wt. %) at 573 K temperature.

  1. Upper limit of peak area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helene, O.A.M.

    1982-08-01

    The determination of the upper limit of peak area in a multi-channel spectra, with a known significance level is discussed. This problem is specially important when the peak area is masked by the background statistical fluctuations. The problem is exactly solved and, thus, the results are valid in experiments with small number of events. The results are submitted to a Monte Carlo test and applied to the 92 Nb beta decay. (Author) [pt

  2. Development of the auto gas and LPG-powered vehicle sector in Turkey: A statistical case study of the sector for Bursa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamangil, M. Ihsan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the development of LPG-powered vehicle sector in Turkey and the policies applied by the Turkish Government as well as the total fleet of LPG-powered vehicles in Bursa province, which is assumed as typical district to represent whole Turkey, are analyzed. We also tried to point out economical losses and applicational problems caused by wrong energy and environmental policies in Turkey. We aimed to focus a guiding light on the newly developing auto gas markets in different countries through the problems resulting from the fast growth of the sector and the experiences in Turkish application

  3. Peak Oil and other threatening peaks-Chimeras without substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radetzki, Marian

    2010-01-01

    The Peak Oil movement has widely spread its message about an impending peak in global oil production, caused by an inadequate resource base. On closer scrutiny, the underlying analysis is inconsistent, void of a theoretical foundation and without support in empirical observations. Global oil resources are huge and expanding, and pose no threat to continuing output growth within an extended time horizon. In contrast, temporary or prolonged supply crunches are indeed plausible, even likely, on account of growing resource nationalism denying access to efficient exploitation of the existing resource wealth.

  4. Electricity Portfolio Management: Optimal Peak / Off-Peak Allocations

    OpenAIRE

    Huisman, Ronald; Mahieu, Ronald; Schlichter, Felix

    2007-01-01

    textabstractElectricity purchasers manage a portfolio of contracts in order to purchase the expected future electricity consumption profile of a company or a pool of clients. This paper proposes a mean-variance framework to address the concept of structuring the portfolio and focuses on how to allocate optimal positions in peak and off-peak forward contracts. It is shown that the optimal allocations are based on the difference in risk premiums per unit of day-ahead risk as a measure of relati...

  5. Ultrasonic Transducer Peak-to-Peak Optical Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skarvada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible optical setups for measurement of the peak-to-peak value of an ultrasonic transducer are described in this work. The Michelson interferometer with the calibrated nanopositioner in reference path and laser Doppler vibrometer were used for the basic measurement of vibration displacement. Langevin type of ultrasonic transducer is used for the purposes of Electro-Ultrasonic Nonlinear Spectroscopy (EUNS. Parameters of produced mechanical vibration have to been well known for EUNS. Moreover, a monitoring of mechanical vibration frequency shift with a mass load and sample-transducer coupling is important for EUNS measurement.

  6. Synthesis of nano-structured tin oxide thin films with faster response to LPG and ammonia by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    PrasannaKumari, K.; Thomas, Boben

    2018-01-01

    Nanostructured SnO2 thin film have been efficiently fabricated by spray pyrolysis using atomizers of different types. The structure and morphology of as-prepared samples are investigated by techniques such as x-ray diffraction, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Significant morphological changes are observed in films by modifying the precursor atomization as a result of change of spray device. The optical characterization indicates that change in atomization, affects the absorbance and the band gap, following the varied crystallite size. Gas sensing investigations on ultrasonically prepared tin oxide films show NH3 response at operating temperatures lower down to 50 °C. For 1000 ppm of LPG the response at 350 °C for air blast atomizer film is about 99%, with short response and recovery times. The photoluminescence emmision spectra reveal the correlation between atomization process and the quantity of oxygen vacancies present in the samples. The favorable size reduction in microstructure with good crystallinity with slight change in lattice properties suggest their scope in gas sensing applications. On the basis of these characterizations, the mechanism of LPG and NH3 gas sensing of nanostructured SnO2 thin films has been proposed.

  7. Characterization of performance-emission indices of a diesel engine using ANFIS operating in dual-fuel mode with LPG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Amitav; Roy, Sumit; Banerjee, Rahul

    2018-03-01

    This experimental work highlights the inherent capability of an adaptive-neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based model to act as a robust system identification tool (SIT) in prognosticating the performance and emission parameters of an existing diesel engine running of diesel-LPG dual fuel mode. The developed model proved its adeptness by successfully harnessing the effects of the input parameters of load, injection duration and LPG energy share on output parameters of BSFCEQ, BTE, NOX, SOOT, CO and HC. Successive evaluation of the ANFIS model, revealed high levels of resemblance with the already forecasted ANN results for the same input parameters and it was evident that similar to ANN, ANFIS also has the innate ability to act as a robust SIT. The ANFIS predicted data harmonized the experimental data with high overall accuracy. The correlation coefficient (R) values are stretched in between 0.99207 to 0.999988. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) tallies were recorded in the range of 0.02-0.173% with the root mean square errors (RMSE) in acceptable margins. Hence the developed model is capable of emulating the actual engine parameters with commendable ranges of accuracy, which in turn would act as a robust prediction platform in the future domains of optimization.

  8. Structural, Morphological, and LPG Sensing Properties of Al-Doped ZnO Thin Film Prepared by SILAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shampa Mondal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Undoped and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO thin films were deposited on glass substrates by successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR technique from ammonium zincate complex. The thin films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM for their structural and morphological studies. Both undoped and Al-doped film show strong preferred c-axis orientation. The texture coefficient (TC of the film along (002 direction increases due to Al incorporation. SEM micrograph shows round shaped particles for pure ZnO. However AZO films show particles with off spherical shape and compact interconnected grains. Sensitivity of the film in presence of 80% LEL (lower explosive limit of LPG increases with temperature and is maximum at 325°C. Significantly high sensitivity of 87% with reasonably fast response was observed for 1% Al-doped ZnO (AZO film in presence of 1.6 vol% LPG at 325°C.

  9. Effects of spark plug configuration on combustion and emission characteristics of a LPG fuelled lean burn SI engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, K.; Khan, Manazir Ahmed; Pradeep Bhasker, J.; Porpatham, E.

    2017-11-01

    Introduction of technological innovation in automotive engines in reducing pollution and increasing efficiency have been under contemplation. Gaseous fuels have proved to be a promising way to reduce emissions in Spark Ignition (SI) engines. In particular, LPG settled to be a favourable fuel for SI engines because of their higher hydrogen to carbon ratio, octane rating and lower emissions. Wide ignition limits and efficient combustion characteristics make LPG suitable for lean burn operation. But lean combustion technology has certain drawbacks like poor flame propagation, cyclic variations etc. Based on copious research it was found that location, types and number of spark plug significantly influence in reducing cyclic variations. In this work the influence of single and dual spark plugs of conventional and surface discharge electrode type were analysed. Dual surface discharge electrode spark plug enhanced the brake thermal efficiency and greatly reduced the cyclic variations. The experimental results show that rate of heat release and pressure rise was more and combustion duration was shortened in this configuration. On the emissions front, the NOx emission has increased whereas HC and CO emissions were reduced under lean condition.

  10. Peaking-factor of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Noboru; Kato, Yasuji; Yokoi, M.

    1975-01-01

    Output peaking factor often plays an important role in the safety and operation of nuclear reactors. The meaning of the peaking factor of PWRs is categorized into two features or the peaking factor in core (FQ-core) and the peaking factor on the basis of accident analysis (or FQ-limit). FQ-core is the actual peaking factor realized in nuclear core at the time of normal operation, and FQ-limit should be evaluated from loss of coolant accident and other abnormal conditions. If FQ-core is lower than FQ-limit, the reactor may be operated at full load, but if FQ-core is larger than FQ-limit, reactor output should be controlled lower than FQ-limit. FQ-core has two kinds of values, or the one on the basis of nuclear design, and the other actually measured in reactor operation. The first FQ-core should be named as FQ-core-design and the latter as FQ-core-measured. The numerical evaluation of FQ-core-design is as follows; FQ-core-design of three-dimensions is synthesized with FQ-core horizontal value (X-Y) and FQ-core vertical value, the former one is calculated with ASSY-CORE code, and the latter one with one dimensional diffusion code. For the evaluation of FQ-core-measured, on-site data observation from nuclear reactor instrumentation or off-site data observation is used. (Iwase, T.)

  11. How to use your peak flow meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meter - how to use; Asthma - peak flow meter; Reactive airway disease - peak flow meter; Bronchial asthma - peak ... 2014:chap 55. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program website. How to use a peak flow meter. ...

  12. Peak effect in twinned superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larkin, A.I.; Marchetti, M.C.; Vinokur, V.M.

    1995-01-01

    A sharp maximum in the critical current J c as a function of temperature just below the melting point of the Abrikosov flux lattice has recently been observed in both low- and high-temperature superconductors. This peak effect is strongest in twinned crystals for fields aligned with the twin planes. We propose that this peak signals the breakdown of the collective pinning regime and the crossover to strong pinning of single vortices on the twin boundaries. This crossover is very sharp and can account for the steep drop of the differential resistivity observed in experiments. copyright 1995 The American Physical Society

  13. Hubbert's Peak -- A Physicist's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Richard

    2011-04-01

    Oil, as used in agriculture and transportation, is the lifeblood of modern society. It is finite in quantity and will someday be exhausted. In 1956, Hubbert proposed a theory of resource production and applied it successfully to predict peak U.S. oil production in 1970. Bartlett extended this work in publications and lectures on the finite nature of oil and its production peak and depletion. Both Hubbert and Bartlett place peak world oil production at a similar time, essentially now. Central to these analyses are estimates of total ``oil in place'' obtained from engineering studies of oil reservoirs as this quantity determines the area under the Hubbert's Peak. Knowing the production history and the total oil in place allows us to make estimates of reserves, and therefore future oil availability. We will then examine reserves data for various countries, in particular OPEC countries, and see if these data tell us anything about the future availability of oil. Finally, we will comment on synthetic oil and the possibility of carbon-neutral synthetic oil for a sustainable future.

  14. Emission Studies in CI Engine using LPG and Palm Kernel Methyl Ester as Fuels and Di-ethyl Ether as an Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dora, Nagaraju; Jothi, T. J. Sarvoththama

    2018-05-01

    The present study investigates the effectiveness of using di-ethyl ether (DEE) as the fuel additive in engine performance and emissions. Experiments are carried out in a single cylinder four stroke diesel engine at constant speed. Two different fuels namely liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and palm kernel methyl ester (PKME) are used as primary fuels with DEE as the fuel additive. LPG flow rates of 0.6 and 0.8 kg/h are considered, and flow rate of DEE is varied to maintain the constant engine speed. In case of PKME fuel, it is blended with diesel in the latter to the former ratio of 80:20, and DEE is varied in the volumetric proportion of 1 and 2%. Results indicate that for the engine operating in LPG-DEE mode at 0.6 kg/h of LPG, the brake thermal efficiency is lowered by 26%; however, NOx is subsequently reduced by around 30% compared to the engine running with only diesel fuel at 70% load. Similarly, results of PKME blended fuel showed a drastic reduction in the NOx and CO emissions. In these two modes of operation, DEE is observed to be significant fuel additive regarding emissions reduction.

  15. SPANISH PEAKS PRIMITIVE AREA, MONTANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, James A.; Pattee, Eldon C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Spanish Peaks Primitive Area, Montana, disclosed a small low-grade deposit of demonstrated chromite and asbestos resources. The chances for discovery of additional chrome resources are uncertain and the area has little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources. A reevaluation, sampling at depth, and testing for possible extensions of the Table Mountain asbestos and chromium deposit should be undertaken in the light of recent interpretations regarding its geologic setting.

  16. Neurofeedback training for peak performance

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Graczyk; Maria Pąchalska; Artur Ziółkowski; Grzegorz Mańko; Beata Łukaszewska; Kazimierz Kochanowicz; Andrzej Mirski; Iurii D. Kropotov

    2014-01-01

    [b]aim[/b]. One of the applications of the Neurofeedback methodology is peak performance in sport. The protocols of the neurofeedback are usually based on an assessment of the spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG in resting state conditions. The aim of the paper was to study whether the intensive neurofeedback training of a well-functioning Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport, could change the brain functioning reflected in changes in spontaneou...

  17. Power peaking nuclear reliability factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.A.; Pegram, J.W.; Mays, C.W.; Romano, J.J.; Woods, J.J.; Warren, H.D.

    1977-11-01

    The Calculational Nuclear Reliability Factor (CNRF) assigned to the limiting power density calculated in reactor design has been determined. The CNRF is presented as a function of the relative power density of the fuel assembly and its radial local. In addition, the Measurement Nuclear Reliability Factor (MNRF) for the measured peak hot pellet power in the core has been evaluated. This MNRF is also presented as a function of the relative power density and radial local within the fuel assembly

  18. Evaluation of concurrent peak responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P.C.; Curreri, J.; Reich, M.

    1983-01-01

    This report deals with the problem of combining two or more concurrent responses which are induced by dynamic loads acting on nuclear power plant structures. Specifically, the acceptability of using the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) value of peak values as the combined response is investigated. Emphasis is placed on the establishment of a simplified criterion that is convenient and relatively easy to use by design engineers

  19. Finding two-dimensional peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silagadze, Z.K.

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional generalization of the original peak finding algorithm suggested earlier is given. The ideology of the algorithm emerged from the well-known quantum mechanical tunneling property which enables small bodies to penetrate through narrow potential barriers. We merge this 'quantum' ideology with the philosophy of Particle Swarm Optimization to get the global optimization algorithm which can be called Quantum Swarm Optimization. The functionality of the newborn algorithm is tested on some benchmark optimization problems

  20. Drivers of peak sales for pharmaceutical brands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Marc; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Peak sales are an important metric in the pharmaceutical industry. Specifically, managers are focused on the height-of-peak-sales and the time required achieving peak sales. We analyze how order of entry and quality affect the level of peak sales and the time-to-peak-sales of pharmaceutical brands.

  1. EFFECT OF INJECTOR OPENING PRESSURE ON PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION OF LPG - METHYL ESTER OF MAHUA OIL DUAL FUEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kapilan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of variables, which affect the performance and emission of dual fuel engine is injection pressure. Hence in the present work, effect of Injector opening pressure on the performance of the engine was studied.  A four stroke single cylinder engine was modified to work in dual fuel mode. Three injector opening pressures (180 bar, 200 bar and 220 bar were considered for the present work. Methyl ester of mahua oil was used as pilot fuel and LPG was used as primary fuel.    From the test results, it was observed that the injector opening pressure of 200 bar results in higher brake thermal efficiency. The higher injector opening pressure results in better atomization and peneatration of methyl ester of mahua oil. The exhaust emissions such as Smoke, unburnt hydro carbon and carbon monoxide of 200 bar is lower than other pressures.

  2. The 2003 guidebook of petroleum, gas and LPG. Every professional and web site in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legros, E.

    2003-01-01

    This guidebook is a joint special issue of 'Petrole et Gaz Informations' and 'GPL Actualites' journals. It is a complete and practical information tool which takes stock of: the economical activity during 2001 and 2002 (exploration/production, deep offshore activities, maritime transport and tanker-ships, European refining and new specifications, automotive fuels and future engines, lubricants, maritime transport of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), storage facilities and capacity, new standards for bitumen binders, natural gas prospects, sustainable development and ethical investment, air pollution abatement etc..); the 2002 economical key-data of oil and gas summarized in an atlas of maps and statistical tables; a list of public organizations and associations, and of oil and gas companies settled in France; a list of companies involved in oil and gas equipments, services and products sorted by sector; and a yearbook of the oil and gas professionals with their corporate and web sites. (J.S.)

  3. Viability of LPG use in low-power outboard engines for reduction in consumption and pollutant emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murillo, S.; Miguez, J.L.; Porteiro, J.; Hernandez, J.J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    This study presents the viability of the use of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) dosage systems in order to solve the fuel supply in four-stroke outboard engines in compliance with regulations concerning emissions of immediate application pollutants. Results obtained show an important decrease in specific fuel consumption (nearly 20%) provoking a small power loss (about 5%), with an extra saving when making use of bottled fuel, which does not suffer spills in the bunkers and maintenance operations. Laboratory tests have been carried out on 8 and 15 HP Yamaha outboard engines, obtaining reductions in pollutants (CO, HC and NO x ) of 60% and of 95% for each power, respectively. These trials have been contrasted with tests carried out in the Vigo estuary and the river Milno waterways, both located in the South of Galicia (Spain). (Author)

  4. Spatial peak-load pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano, M. Soledad; Serra, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    This article extends the traditional electricity peak-load pricing model to include transmission costs. In the context of a two-node, two-technology electric power system, where suppliers face inelastic demand, we show that when the marginal plant is located at the energy-importing center, generators located away from that center should pay the marginal capacity transmission cost; otherwise, consumers should bear this cost through capacity payments. Since electric power transmission is a natural monopoly, marginal-cost pricing does not fully cover costs. We propose distributing the revenue deficit among users in proportion to the surplus they derive from the service priced at marginal cost. (Author)

  5. Economic effects of peak oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, Christian; Lehr, Ulrike; Wiebe, Kirsten S.

    2012-01-01

    Assuming that global oil production peaked, this paper uses scenario analysis to show the economic effects of a possible supply shortage and corresponding rise in oil prices in the next decade on different sectors in Germany and other major economies such as the US, Japan, China, the OPEC or Russia. Due to the price-inelasticity of oil demand the supply shortage leads to a sharp increase in oil prices in the second scenario, with high effects on GDP comparable to the magnitude of the global financial crises in 2008/09. Oil exporting countries benefit from high oil prices, whereas oil importing countries are negatively affected. Generally, the effects in the third scenario are significantly smaller than in the second, showing that energy efficiency measures and the switch to renewable energy sources decreases the countries' dependence on oil imports and hence reduces their vulnerability to oil price shocks on the world market. - Highlights: ► National and sectoral economic effects of peak oil until 2020 are modelled. ► The price elasticity of oil demand is low resulting in high price fluctuations. ► Oil shortage strongly affects transport and indirectly all other sectors. ► Global macroeconomic effects are comparable to the 2008/2009 crisis. ► Country effects depend on oil imports and productivity, and economic structures.

  6. Decree 234/003. Is derogate decree 317/987, from the date of entry into force the safe exercise regulation of the packing activities and the distribution of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) that will dictate the URSEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This decree allows the entry into force the safe exercise regulation of the packing activities and the distribution of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) that will dictate the URSEA (The regulatory unit of energy and water service)

  7. PENGEMBANGAN ENERGI TERBARUKAN MELALUI EVALUASI PROGRAM KONVERSI MINYAK TANAH KE LPG DI PULAU GILI RAJA-SUMENEP (Developing Renewable Energy Through An Evaluation for A Program of Kerosene Conversion to LPG in Gili Raja Island - Sumenep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian Riawati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini mengevaluasi program konversi minyak tanah ke Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG pada kelompok sasaran di pulau Gili Raja kabupaten Sumenep Jawa Timur. Kajian sebelumnya terhadap program ini masih bersifat formatif dengan fokus efisiensi dan efektivitas implementasi. Dengan menggunakan metode Minimum Evaluation Procedure (MEP penelitian ini mempertanyakan implementasi program secara runtut, mulai output, outcome sampai impact. Melalui pendekatan kualitatif penelitian ini dapat mendeskripsikan konteks dan setting secara alamiah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya pungutan dalam proses distribusi paket program, rendahnya akses atau penggunaan paket program serta tidak adanya dampak program. Selain itu, ditemukan adanya potensi lokal berupa kotoran ternak yang dapat dikembangkan menjadi sumber daya energi terbarukan. Berdasarkan hal itu, disarankan sebuah program dapat dikembangkan secara asimetris sesuai dengan kondisi lokasi dan kelompok sasaran, terjadinya komunikasi intensif antara pelaksana program dengan kelompok sasaran serta stakeholders lainnya. Berdasarkan potensi kelompok sasaran di pulau Gili Raja, hendaknya dikembangkan kebijakan energi alternatif biogas untuk memenuhi kebutuhan energi masyarakat serta mendukung pencapaian tujuan kebijakan energi nasional.   ABSTRACT The purpose of this research is to evaluate the conversion programfrom kerosene to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG on a target group in Gili Raja island of SumenepMunicipal, East Java. Previous study on this program was quite formative one and focusing on the efficiency and the effectiveness of the program implementation. In addition, by applying Minimum Evaluation Procedure’s (MEP method, this research questioned the implementation of the program consecutively from the output, the outcome as well as the impact. Furthermore, through a qualitative approach, this research will be able to describe context and setting naturally. Result of the research shows

  8. CdO nanosheet film with a (200)-preferred orientation with sensitivity to liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) at low-temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guangliang; Li, Zimeng; Gao, Liang; Zhang, Mingzhe

    2012-12-21

    CdO nanosheet film can be synthesized by electrochemical deposition in an ultra-thin liquid layer by using Cd(NO(3))(2) and HNO(3) as source materials for Cd and oxygen respectively. HNO(3) is also used to adjust the pH of the electrolyte. Studies on the detailed structure indicate that the synthesized CdO nanosheet film has a face-centered cubic structure with (200)-preferred orientation. The response of the CdO nanosheet film to liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) at low temperature has been significantly improved by the novel structure of film. It has exhibited excellent sensitivity and selectivity to LPG at low temperature. A new growth mechanism of electrochemical deposition has been proposed to elaborate the formation of nanosheet in an ultra-thin liquid layer. The self-oscillation of potential in the growth interface and intermediate hydroxide are responsible for the formation of nanosheets.

  9. Lessons of the Past. Development of an alternative fuel infrastructure. The case of LPG/CNG in the Netherlands and other countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backhaus, J.; Bunzeck, I.G.

    2010-04-01

    The introduction of an alternative transport fuel always bears a challenge that is often referred to as a 'chicken and egg' problem: while people will only become interested in and start switching to a new fuel if sufficient refuelling stations are available, industry will only start investing in the development of a refuelling infrastructure if the market is sufficiently developed and existing stations are economically viable. Governments have a variety of, for example, fiscal or regulatory measures at hand to facilitate and support the introduction of an alternative transport fuel. This report describes and analyses the introduction of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or compressed natural gas (CNG) in the Netherlands, Germany, Poland, Canada and Argentina. In particular, the report pays attention to the development of station coverage and vehicle numbers for these alternative fuels. Drivers and barriers to the introduction of LPG or CNG, such as fuel price developments, supporting policy instruments or a lack thereof were identified. Main focus are the Netherlands where LPG was introduced in the mid-1950s. A comparison of developments in the Netherlands with the other four countries reveals that well concerted efforts by policy makers and industry supporting a parallel development of vehicle uptake and refuelling station availability may lead to the firm establishment of an alternative fuel market. The report concludes with lessons learned for the introduction of hydrogen as an alternative transport fuel.

  10. Role of LPG as an energy substitute in Algeria; Role des G.P.L. comme energie de substitution en Algerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukadoum, Abdelhamid; Houghlaouene, Samir

    2010-09-15

    Algeria is a leader country in LPG industry. The availability of resources and the upstream production development efforts have oriented the large energy choices in terms of domestic market need satisfaction. LPG (propane and butane) plays a massive role in the change towards clean energy (case of LPG versus gas) and towards more practical energy (i.e. the case of bulk propane versus the packed butane, or versus natural gas). [French] L'Algerie est un pays leader dans l'industrie des GPL. La disponibilite des ressources et les efforts de developpement de la production en amont ont oriente les grands choix energetiques en matiere de satisfaction des besoins du marche domestique. En effet, les GPL (propane et butane) jouent un role majeur dans la substitution vers les sources d'energie propres (cas du GPL/C par rapport aux essences) et vers des energies plus commodes (par exemple le cas du propane vrac par rapport au butane conditionne, voire par rapport au gaz naturel).

  11. Establishment of peak bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Stefano; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2003-03-01

    Among the main areas of progress in osteoporosis research during the last decade or so are the general recognition that this condition, which is the cause of so much pain in the elderly population, has its antecedents in childhood and the identification of the structural basis accounting for much of the differences in bone strength among humans. Nevertheless, current understanding of the bone mineral accrual process is far from complete. The search for genes that regulate bone mass acquisition is ongoing, and current results are not sufficient to identify subjects at risk. However, there is solid evidence that BMD measurements can be helpful for the selection of subjects that presumably would benefit from preventive interventions. The questions regarding the type of preventive interventions, their magnitude, and duration remain unanswered. Carefully designed controlled trials are needed. Nevertheless, previous experience indicates that weight-bearing activity and possibly calcium supplements are beneficial if they are begun during childhood and preferably before the onset of puberty. Modification of unhealthy lifestyles and increments in exercise or calcium assumption are logical interventions that should be implemented to improve bone mass gains in all children and adolescents who are at risk of failing to achieve an optimal peak bone mass.

  12. Neurofeedback training for peak performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Graczyk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]aim[/b]. One of the applications of the Neurofeedback methodology is peak performance in sport. The protocols of the neurofeedback are usually based on an assessment of the spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG in resting state conditions. The aim of the paper was to study whether the intensive neurofeedback training of a well-functioning Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport, could change the brain functioning reflected in changes in spontaneous EEG and event related potentials (ERPs. [b]case study[/b]. The case is presented of an Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport. He wanted to resume his activities by means of neurofeedback training. His QEEG/ERP parameters were assessed before and after 4 intensive sessions of neurotherapy. Dramatic and statistically significant changes that could not be explained by error measurement were observed in the patient. [b]conclusion[/b]. Neurofeedback training in the subject under study increased the amplitude of the monitoring component of ERPs generated in the anterior cingulate cortex, accompanied by an increase in beta activity over the medial prefrontal cortex. Taking these changes together, it can be concluded that that even a few sessions of neurofeedback in a high performance brain can significantly activate the prefrontal cortical areas associated with increasing confidence in sport performance.

  13. Reactor power peaking information display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, T.L.; Kochendarfer, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a system for monitoring operating conditions within a nuclear reactor. The system consists of a method for measuring the operating parameters within the nuclear reactor, including the position of axial power shaping rods and regulating control rod. It also includes a method for determining from the operating parameters the operating limits before a power peaking condition exists within the nuclear reactor, and a method for displaying the operating limits which consists of a visual display permitting the continuous monitoring of the operating conditions within the nuclear reactor as a graph of the shaping rod position vs the regulating rod position having a permissible area and a restricted area. The permissible area is further divided into a recommended operating area for steady state operation and a cursor located on the graph to indicate the present operating condition of the nuclear reactor to allow an operator to view any need for corrective action based on the movement of the cursor out of the recommended operating area and to take any corrective transient action within the permissible area

  14. Neurofeedback training for peak performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Marek; Pąchalska, Maria; Ziółkowski, Artur; Mańko, Grzegorz; Łukaszewska, Beata; Kochanowicz, Kazimierz; Mirski, Andrzej; Kropotov, Iurii D

    2014-01-01

    One of the applications of the Neurofeedback methodology is peak performance in sport. The protocols of the neurofeedback are usually based on an assessment of the spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG in resting state conditions. The aim of the paper was to study whether the intensive neurofeedback training of a well-functioning Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport, could change the brain functioning reflected in changes in spontaneous EEG and event related potentials (ERPs). The case is presented of an Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport. He wanted to resume his activities by means of neurofeedback training. His QEEG/ERP parameters were assessed before and after 4 intensive sessions of neurotherapy. Dramatic and statistically significant changes that could not be explained by error measurement were observed in the patient. Neurofeedback training in the subject under study increased the amplitude of the monitoring component of ERPs generated in the anterior cingulate cortex, accompanied by an increase in beta activity over the medial prefrontal cortex. Taking these changes together, it can be concluded that that even a few sessions of neurofeedback in a high performance brain can significantly activate the prefrontal cortical areas associated with increasing confidence in sport performance.

  15. Predictors and respiratory depositions of airborne endotoxin in homes using biomass fuels and LPG gas for cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Bijaya K; Adhikari, Atin; Satapathy, Prakasini; Patra, Alok K; Chandel, Dinesh; Panigrahi, Pinaki

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the presence of endotoxin in indoor air and its role in respiratory morbidities. Burning of household fuels including unprocessed wood and dried animal dung could be a major source of endotoxin in homes. We measured endotoxin levels in different size fractions of airborne particles (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1), and estimated the deposition of particle-bound endotoxin in the respiratory tract. The study was carried out in homes burning solid biomass fuel (n=35) and LPG (n=35). Sample filters were analyzed for endotoxin and organic carbon (OC) content. Household characteristics including temperature, relative humidity, and carbon dioxide levels were also recorded. Multivariate regression models were used to estimate the contributing factors for airborne endotoxin. Respiratory deposition doses were calculated using a computer-based model. We found a higher endotoxin concentration in PM2.5 fractions of the particle in both LPG (median: 110, interquartile range (IQR) 100-120 EU/m 3 ) and biomass (median: 350, IQR: 315-430 EU/m 3 ) burning homes. In the multivariate-adjusted model, burning of solid biomass fuel (β: 67; 95% CI: 10.5-124) emerged as the most significant predictor followed by OC (β: 4.7; 95% CI: 2.7-6.8), RH (β: 1.6; 95% CI: 0.76-2.4), and PM2.5 (β: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.11-0.78) for airborne endotoxin (P<0.05). We also observed an interaction between PM organic carbon content and household fuel in predicting the endotoxin levels. The model calculations showed that in biomass burning homes, total endotoxin deposition was higher among infants (59%) than in adult males (47%), of which at least 10% of inhaled endotoxin is deposited in the alveolar region of the lung. These results indicate that fine particles are significant contributors to the deposition of endotoxin in the alveolar region of the lung. Considering the paramount role of endotoxin exposure, and the source and timing of exposure on respiratory health, additional

  16. METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATION OF STATIONARY AND DYNAMIC PARAMETERS FOR LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG RE-LIQUEFACTION IN SPHERICAL STORAGE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mendoza-Acosta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Temperature difference between the environment and the liquid contained in the liquefied petroleum gas storage spheres produces: net inward heat flow, increase in stored fuel temperature, LPG partial vaporization and consequently an increase in storage pressure. In order to maintain adequate safety conditions, since uncontrolled pressure increases could lead to risky situations and economic losses, re-liquefaction systems, consisting on auto refrigeration units, are installed; this system extracts the evaporated gas, compress it and then condense it again in a closed cooling cycle. Frequently these systems are designed using heuristic criteria, without considering the calculations necessary for correct equipment sizing; this results in costly modifications or in oversized equipment. In the present article, a simple but effective methodology for the calculation of thermal loads, daily temperature increase rate and pressure accumulation and restore times is presented, the methodology was compared with real data, through data acquisition and processing during the summer months of 2015 and 2016 for 12 storage spheres in a gas company located in a coastal state of Mexico, finding that the values predicted for the rate of daily temperature increase and recovery times are statistically consistent with the experimental data.

  17. Subaquatic, pressure vessels and LPG storage spheres internal inspection; Inspecao interna de esfera utilizando mergulho como acesso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filgueira Filho, Rafael; Monteiro, Ayres [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Minimizing shut-down costs is a widespread target in the oil and gas industry. The use of new inspection techniques is one of the ways for that. This work presents a new procedure for internal inspections in pressure vessels by the non destructive testing - NDT, ACFM, using industrial diving techniques. As a pioneer experience, this method was applied in the inspection of the internal parts of the LPG sphere tank 5101 at PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO, in Jequie's Terminal, in the state of Bahia, in december, 2003. This new method allows the reduction of indirect costs related to operational unavailability of the equipment, by the reduction of the shut-down time in approximately 50%, when compared to the demanded shut down time, when using scaffolds for accessing the internal parts. Despite of direct costs are still higher with the new methodology, this paper demonstrates the economical feasibility of this new method, based on the savings obtained with the fastest return of the equipment to operation. (author)

  18. Effect of CuO nanolubricant on compressor characteristics and performance of LPG based refrigeration cycle: experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravinder; Singh, Jagdev; Kundal, Pankaj

    2017-11-01

    Refrigeration, Ventilation and Air Conditioning system is the largest reason behind the increasing demand of energy consumption in the world and saving that energy through some innovative methods becomes a large issue for the researchers. Compressor is a primary component of the refrigeration cycle. The application of nanoparticles in refrigeration cycle overcomes the energy consumption issue by improving the compressor suction and discharge characteristics. In this paper, an experimental study is carried out to investigate the effect of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles on different parameters of the refrigeration cycle. CuO particles are appended with the system refrigerant through lubricating oil of the compressor. Further, the viscosity measurements and friction coefficient analysis of compressor lubricant for different fractions of nanoparticles has been investigated. The results showed that both the suction and discharge characteristics of the compressor were enhanced with the utilization of nanolubricant in LPG based refrigeration cycle. Nanoparticles additive in lubricant increases the viscosity which lead to a significant decrease in friction coefficient. The COP of the cycle was improved by 46%, as the energy consumption of the compressor was decreased by 7%.

  19. Effect of CuO nanolubricant on compressor characteristics and performance of LPG based refrigeration cycle: experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravinder; Singh, Jagdev; Kundal, Pankaj

    2018-05-01

    Refrigeration, Ventilation and Air Conditioning system is the largest reason behind the increasing demand of energy consumption in the world and saving that energy through some innovative methods becomes a large issue for the researchers. Compressor is a primary component of the refrigeration cycle. The application of nanoparticles in refrigeration cycle overcomes the energy consumption issue by improving the compressor suction and discharge characteristics. In this paper, an experimental study is carried out to investigate the effect of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles on different parameters of the refrigeration cycle. CuO particles are appended with the system refrigerant through lubricating oil of the compressor. Further, the viscosity measurements and friction coefficient analysis of compressor lubricant for different fractions of nanoparticles has been investigated. The results showed that both the suction and discharge characteristics of the compressor were enhanced with the utilization of nanolubricant in LPG based refrigeration cycle. Nanoparticles additive in lubricant increases the viscosity which lead to a significant decrease in friction coefficient. The COP of the cycle was improved by 46%, as the energy consumption of the compressor was decreased by 7%.

  20. Risk assessment and consequence modeling of BLEVE explosion wave phenomenon of LPG spherical tank in a refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kamaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although human industrial activities are as a part of efforts to achieve greater prosperity, the risks related to these activities are also expanding. Hazard identification and risk assessment in the oil and gas industries are essential to reduce the frequency and severity of accidents and minimize damage to people and property before their occurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the liquefied and pressurized petroleum gas spherical tanks in a refinery and assessing the risks of Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (BLEVE phenomenon. Material and Method: In this study, the risks of BLEVE phenomenon were assessed, using the Bowtie method. The consequences of explosion wave phenomenon and the resulting wave quantity and its impacts on the neighboring machineries and equipment were analyzed. PHAST software version 6.54 has been used for modeling the BLEVE phenomenon. Result: In this evaluation, generally five causes and two consequences were identified for BLEVE phenomenon. In order to reduce its consequences, forty-three controlling measures were introduced to prevent the BLEVE phenomenon and the impacts of 31 control measures were identified. According to the conducted analysis, it was found that the spherical tank blast wave caused by LPG can lead to explosion of close located tanks which can create a chain of explosions. Conclusion: The results of modeling and risk assessment can be used to identify the BLEVE phenomenon causes and its effects on nearby people and equipment. Based on these results, preventive controlling measures can be implemented and also be determined by adopting proper design and layout, margin of safety for personnel, equipment and accessories.

  1. Performance and emission characteristics of LPG powered four stroke SI engine under variable stroke length and compression ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, Hakan; Yamin, Jehad A.A.

    2008-01-01

    A computer simulation of a variable stroke length, LPG fuelled, four stroke, single cylinder, water cooled spark ignition engine was done. The engine capacity was varied by varying the stroke length of the engine, which also changed its compression ratio. The simulation model developed was verified with experimental results from the literature for both constant and variable stroke engines. The performance of the engine was simulated at each stroke length/compression ratio combination. The simulation results clearly indicate the advantages and utility of variable stroke engines in fuel economy and power issues. Using the variable stroke technique has significantly improved the engine's performance and emission characteristics within the range studied. The brake torque and power have registered an increase of about 7-54% at low speed and 7-57% at high speed relative to the original engine design and for all stroke lengths and engine speeds studied. The brake specific fuel consumption has registered variations from a reduction of about 6% to an increase of about 3% at low speed and from a reduction of about 6% to an increase of about 8% at high speed relative to the original engine design and for all stroke lengths and engine speeds studied. On the other hand, an increase of pollutants of about 0.65-2% occurred at low speed. Larger stroke lengths resulted in a reduction of the pollutants level of about 1.5% at higher speeds. At lower stroke lengths, on the other hand, an increase of about 2% occurred. Larger stroke lengths resulted in increased exhaust temperature and, hence, make the exhaust valve work under high temperature

  2. Passive radio frequency peak power multiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Zoltan D.; Wilson, Perry B.

    1977-01-01

    Peak power multiplication of a radio frequency source by simultaneous charging of two high-Q resonant microwave cavities by applying the source output through a directional coupler to the cavities and then reversing the phase of the source power to the coupler, thereby permitting the power in the cavities to simultaneously discharge through the coupler to the load in combination with power from the source to apply a peak power to the load that is a multiplication of the source peak power.

  3. The geomorphic structure of the runoff peak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rigon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a theoretical framework to investigate the core dependence of peak flows on the geomorphic properties of river basins. Based on the theory of transport by travel times, and simple hydrodynamic characterization of floods, this new framework invokes the linearity and invariance of the hydrologic response to provide analytical and semi-analytical expressions for peak flow, time to peak, and area contributing to the peak runoff. These results are obtained for the case of constant-intensity hyetograph using the Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF curves to estimate extreme flow values as a function of the rainfall return period. Results show that, with constant-intensity hyetographs, the time-to-peak is greater than rainfall duration and usually shorter than the basin concentration time. Moreover, the critical storm duration is shown to be independent of rainfall return period as well as the area contributing to the flow peak. The same results are found when the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion are accounted for. Further, it is shown that, when the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion are negligible, the basin area contributing to the peak discharge does not depend on the channel velocity, but is a geomorphic propriety of the basin. As an example this framework is applied to three watersheds. In particular, the runoff peak, the critical rainfall durations and the time to peak are calculated for all links within a network to assess how they increase with basin area.

  4. [A peak recognition algorithm designed for chromatographic peaks of transformer oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Linjun; Cao, Jian

    2014-09-01

    In the field of the chromatographic peak identification of the transformer oil, the traditional first-order derivative requires slope threshold to achieve peak identification. In terms of its shortcomings of low automation and easy distortion, the first-order derivative method was improved by applying the moving average iterative method and the normalized analysis techniques to identify the peaks. Accurate identification of the chromatographic peaks was realized through using multiple iterations of the moving average of signal curves and square wave curves to determine the optimal value of the normalized peak identification parameters, combined with the absolute peak retention times and peak window. The experimental results show that this algorithm can accurately identify the peaks and is not sensitive to the noise, the chromatographic peak width or the peak shape changes. It has strong adaptability to meet the on-site requirements of online monitoring devices of dissolved gases in transformer oil.

  5. Comparative analysis by simulation for behavior of a spark-ignition engine fueled with gasoline and LPG in the transient regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisulescu, Valentin; Ivan, Florian; Iozsa, Daniel; Banca, Gheorghe

    2017-10-01

    It is known that current vehicles must meet stringent demands on pollution limits but also must meet and the dynamical and economical performances. In this context the transient regimes are those affecting this performances, in this paper are presenting the results of the simulations for these regimes using a vehicle powered with two energy sources gasoline and LPG. Have been selected the transient regimes characteristic for NMVEG cycle (New Motor Vehicle Emissions Group). The simulation is performed using AMESim platform and the results have allowed meticulous interpretations for the 16 regimes of acceleration. The results obtained from the simulation will be validated experimentally.

  6. Employer Attitudes towards Peak Hour Avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.M.; Annema, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Peak Hour Avoidance is a relatively new Dutch mobility management measure. To reduce congestion frequent car drivers are given a financial reward for reducing the proportion of trips that they make during peak hours on a specific motorway section. Although previous studies show that employers are

  7. Employer attitudes towards peak hour avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordegraaf, D.M.V.; Annema, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Peak Hour Avoidance is a relatively new Dutch mobility management measure. To reduce congestion frequent car drivers are given a financial reward for reducing the proportion of trips that they make during peak hours on a specific motorway section. Although previous studies show that employers are

  8. Peak load pricing lowers generation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lande, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Before a utility implements peak load pricing for different classes of consumers, the costs and the benefits should be compared. The methodology described enables a utility to determine whether peak load pricing should be introduced for specific users. Cost-benefit analyses for domestic consumers and commercial/industrial consumers, showing break-even points are presented. (author)

  9. The peak in neutron powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laar, B. van; Yelon, W.B.

    1984-01-01

    For the application of Rietveld profile analysis to neutron powder diffraction data a precise knowledge of the peak profile, in both shape and position, is required. The method now in use employs a Gaussian shaped profile with a semi-empirical asymmetry correction for low-angle peaks. The integrated intensity is taken to be proportional to the classical Lorentz factor calculated for the X-ray case. In this paper an exact expression is given for the peak profile based upon the geometrical dimensions of the diffractometer. It is shown that the asymmetry of observed peaks is well reproduced by this expression. The angular displacement of the experimental profile with respect to the nominal Bragg angle value is larger than expected. Values for the correction to the classical Lorentz factor for the integrated intensity are given. The exact peak profile expression has been incorporated into a Rietveld profile analysis refinement program. (Auth.)

  10. Peak tree: a new tool for multiscale hierarchical representation and peak detection of mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Houqiang; Wang, Honghui; Wong, Stephen T C; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2011-01-01

    Peak detection is one of the most important steps in mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. However, the detection result is greatly affected by severe spectrum variations. Unfortunately, most current peak detection methods are neither flexible enough to revise false detection results nor robust enough to resist spectrum variations. To improve flexibility, we introduce peak tree to represent the peak information in MS spectra. Each tree node is a peak judgment on a range of scales, and each tree decomposition, as a set of nodes, is a candidate peak detection result. To improve robustness, we combine peak detection and common peak alignment into a closed-loop framework, which finds the optimal decomposition via both peak intensity and common peak information. The common peak information is derived and loopily refined from the density clustering of the latest peak detection result. Finally, we present an improved ant colony optimization biomarker selection method to build a whole MS analysis system. Experiment shows that our peak detection method can better resist spectrum variations and provide higher sensitivity and lower false detection rates than conventional methods. The benefits from our peak-tree-based system for MS disease analysis are also proved on real SELDI data.

  11. Multiscale peak detection in wavelet space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Min; Tong, Xia; Peng, Ying; Ma, Pan; Zhang, Ming-Jin; Lu, Hong-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2015-12-07

    Accurate peak detection is essential for analyzing high-throughput datasets generated by analytical instruments. Derivatives with noise reduction and matched filtration are frequently used, but they are sensitive to baseline variations, random noise and deviations in the peak shape. A continuous wavelet transform (CWT)-based method is more practical and popular in this situation, which can increase the accuracy and reliability by identifying peaks across scales in wavelet space and implicitly removing noise as well as the baseline. However, its computational load is relatively high and the estimated features of peaks may not be accurate in the case of peaks that are overlapping, dense or weak. In this study, we present multi-scale peak detection (MSPD) by taking full advantage of additional information in wavelet space including ridges, valleys, and zero-crossings. It can achieve a high accuracy by thresholding each detected peak with the maximum of its ridge. It has been comprehensively evaluated with MALDI-TOF spectra in proteomics, the CAMDA 2006 SELDI dataset as well as the Romanian database of Raman spectra, which is particularly suitable for detecting peaks in high-throughput analytical signals. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves show that MSPD can detect more true peaks while keeping the false discovery rate lower than MassSpecWavelet and MALDIquant methods. Superior results in Raman spectra suggest that MSPD seems to be a more universal method for peak detection. MSPD has been designed and implemented efficiently in Python and Cython. It is available as an open source package at .

  12. Effect of Syngas Moisture Content on the Emissions of Micro-Gas Turbine Fueled with Syngas/LPG in Dual Fuel Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadig Hussain

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Syngas produced by gasification has a potential to be one of the fueling solutions for gas turbines in the future. In addition to the combustible constituents and inert gases, syngas derived by gasification contains a considerable amount of water vapor which effect on syngas combustion behaviour. In this work, a micro-gas turbine with a thermal capacity of 50 kW was simulated using ASPEN Plus. The micro gas turbine system emissions were characterized using dry syngas fuels with a different composition, syngas 1 (10.53% H2, 24.94% CO, 2.03% CH4, 12.80% CO2, and 49.70% N2 and syngas 2 (21.62% H2, 32.48% CO, 3.72% CH4, 19.69% CO2, and 22.49% N2 mixed with LPG in a dual fueling mode. The effect of syngas moisture content was then studied by testing the system with moist syngas/LPG with a moisture content ranging from 0 to 20% by volume. The study demonstrates that the syngas moisture content has high influence on nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide emissions. It’s found that for 5% syngas moisture content, the NOx emission were reduced by 75.5% and 83% for Syngas 1 and Syngas 2 respectively. On carbon monoxide emissions and for same moisture content ratio, the reduction was found to be 43% and 57% for syngas1 and syngas 2 respectively.

  13. Improving the performance of dual fuel engines running on natural gas/LPG by using pilot fuel derived from jojoba seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E. [Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, UAE University, Jimmi, Al-Ain, P.O. Box 17555, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Radwan, M.S.; Saleh, H.E. [Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering at Mattaria, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-06-15

    The use of jojoba methyl ester as a pilot fuel was investigated for almost the first time as a way to improve the performance of dual fuel engine running on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) at part load. The dual fuel engine used was Ricardo E6 variable compression diesel engine and it used either compressed natural gas (CNG) or LPG as the main fuel and jojoba methyl ester as a pilot fuel. Diesel fuel was used as a reference fuel for the dual fuel engine results. During the experimental tests, the following have been measured: engine efficiency in terms of specific fuel consumption, brake power output, combustion noise in terms of maximum pressure rise rate and maximum pressure, exhaust emissions in terms of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, knocking limits in terms of maximum torque at onset of knocking, and cyclic variability data of 100 engine cycles in terms of maximum pressure and its pressure rise rate average and standard deviation. The tests examined the following engine parameters: gaseous fuel type, engine speed and load, pilot fuel injection timing, pilot fuel mass and compression ratio. Results showed that using the jojoba fuel with its improved properties has improved the dual fuel engine performance, reduced the combustion noise, extended knocking limits and reduced the cyclic variability of the combustion. (author)

  14. Effect of Steam Deactivation Severity of ZSM-5 Additives on LPG Olefins Production in the FCC Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Andrey A; Psarras, Antonios C; Triantafyllidis, Konstantinos S; Lappas, Angelos A; Diddams, Paul A

    2017-10-21

    ZSM-5-containing catalytic additives are widely used in oil refineries to boost light olefin production and improve gasoline octanes in the Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process. Under the hydrothermal conditions present in the FCC regenerator (typically >700 °C and >8% steam), FCC catalysts and additives are subject to deactivation. Zeolites (e.g., Rare Earth USY in the base catalyst and ZSM-5 in Olefins boosting additives) are prone to dealumination and partial structural collapse, thereby losing activity, micropore surface area, and undergoing changes in selectivity. Fresh catalyst and additives are added at appropriate respective levels to the FCC unit on a daily basis to maintain overall targeted steady-state (equilibrated) activity and selectivity. To mimic this process under accelerated laboratory conditions, a commercial P/ZSM-5 additive was hydrothermally equilibrated via a steaming process at two temperatures: 788 °C and 815 °C to simulate moderate and more severe equilibration industrial conditions, respectively. n -Dodecane was used as probe molecule and feed for micro-activity cracking testing at 560 °C to determine the activity and product selectivity of fresh and equilibrated P-doped ZSM-5 additives. The fresh/calcined P/ZSM-5 additive was very active in C 12 cracking while steaming limited its activity, i.e., at catalyst-to-feed (C/F) ratio of 1, about 70% and 30% conversion was obtained with the fresh and steamed additives, respectively. A greater activity drop was observed upon increasing the hydrothermal deactivation severity due to gradual decrease of total acidity and microporosity of the additives. However, this change in severity did not result in any selectivity changes for the LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) olefins as the nature (Brønsted-to-Lewis ratio) of the acid/active sites was not significantly altered upon steaming. Steam deactivation of ZSM-5 had also no significant effect on aromatics formation which was enhanced at higher

  15. Effect of Steam Deactivation Severity of ZSM-5 Additives on LPG Olefins Production in the FCC Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Gusev

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ZSM-5-containing catalytic additives are widely used in oil refineries to boost light olefin production and improve gasoline octanes in the Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC process. Under the hydrothermal conditions present in the FCC regenerator (typically >700 °C and >8% steam, FCC catalysts and additives are subject to deactivation. Zeolites (e.g., Rare Earth USY in the base catalyst and ZSM-5 in Olefins boosting additives are prone to dealumination and partial structural collapse, thereby losing activity, micropore surface area, and undergoing changes in selectivity. Fresh catalyst and additives are added at appropriate respective levels to the FCC unit on a daily basis to maintain overall targeted steady-state (equilibrated activity and selectivity. To mimic this process under accelerated laboratory conditions, a commercial P/ZSM-5 additive was hydrothermally equilibrated via a steaming process at two temperatures: 788 °C and 815 °C to simulate moderate and more severe equilibration industrial conditions, respectively. n-Dodecane was used as probe molecule and feed for micro-activity cracking testing at 560 °C to determine the activity and product selectivity of fresh and equilibrated P-doped ZSM-5 additives. The fresh/calcined P/ZSM-5 additive was very active in C12 cracking while steaming limited its activity, i.e., at catalyst-to-feed (C/F ratio of 1, about 70% and 30% conversion was obtained with the fresh and steamed additives, respectively. A greater activity drop was observed upon increasing the hydrothermal deactivation severity due to gradual decrease of total acidity and microporosity of the additives. However, this change in severity did not result in any selectivity changes for the LPG (liquefied petroleum gas olefins as the nature (Brønsted-to-Lewis ratio of the acid/active sites was not significantly altered upon steaming. Steam deactivation of ZSM-5 had also no significant effect on aromatics formation which was enhanced at

  16. Isotope resolution of the iron peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, R.P.; Benton, E.V.

    1977-01-01

    A stack of Lexan detectors from the Apollo 17 mission has been analyzed to obtain Z measurements of sufficient accuracy to resolve the iron peak into its isotopic components. Within this distribution several peaks are present. With the centrally located, most populated peak assumed to be 56 Fe, the measurements imply that the abundances of 54 Fe and 58 Fe are appreciable fractions of the 56 Fe abundance. This result is in agreement with those of Webber et al. and Siegman et al. but in disagreement with the predictions of Tsao et al. (Auth.)

  17. Peak load arrangements : Assessment of Nordel guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Two Nordic countries, Sweden and Finland, have legislation that empowers the TSO to acquire designated peak load resources to mitigate the risk for shortage situations during the winter. In Denmark, the system operator procures resources to maintain a satisfactory level of security of supply. In Norway the TSO has set up a Regulation Power Option Market (RKOM) to secure a satisfactory level of operational reserves at all times, also in winter with high load demand. Only the arrangements in Finland and Sweden fall under the heading of Peak Load Arrangements defined in Nordel Guidelines. NordREG has been invited by the Electricity Market Group (EMG) to evaluate Nordel's proposal for 'Guidelines for transitional Peak Load Arrangements'. The EMG has also financed a study made by EC Group to support NordREG in the evaluation of the proposal. The study has been taken into account in NordREG's evaluation. In parallel to the EMG task, the Swedish regulator, the Energy Markets Inspectorate, has been given the task by the Swedish government to investigate a long term solution of the peak load issue. The Swedish and Finnish TSOs have together with Nord Pool Spot worked on finding a harmonized solution for activation of the peak load reserves in the market. An agreement accepted by the relevant authorities was reached in early January 2009, and the arrangement has been implemented since 19th January 2009. NordREG views that the proposed Nordel guidelines have served as a starting point for the presently agreed procedure. However, NordREG does not see any need to further develop the Nordel guidelines for peak load arrangements. NordREG agrees with Nordel that the market should be designed to solve peak load problems through proper incentives to market players. NordREG presumes that the relevant authorities in each country will take decisions on the need for any peak load arrangement to ensure security of supply. NordREG proposes that such decisions should be

  18. Automated Peak Picking and Peak Integration in Macromolecular NMR Spectra Using AUTOPSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koradi, Reto; Billeter, Martin; Engeli, Max; Güntert, Peter; Wüthrich, Kurt

    1998-12-01

    A new approach for automated peak picking of multidimensional protein NMR spectra with strong overlap is introduced, which makes use of the program AUTOPSY (automatedpeak picking for NMRspectroscopy). The main elements of this program are a novel function for local noise level calculation, the use of symmetry considerations, and the use of lineshapes extracted from well-separated peaks for resolving groups of strongly overlapping peaks. The algorithm generates peak lists with precise chemical shift and integral intensities, and a reliability measure for the recognition of each peak. The results of automated peak picking of NOESY spectra with AUTOPSY were tested in combination with the combined automated NOESY cross peak assignment and structure calculation routine NOAH implemented in the program DYANA. The quality of the resulting structures was found to be comparable with those from corresponding data obtained with manual peak picking.

  19. Bayesian Peak Picking for NMR Spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yichen

    2014-02-01

    Protein structure determination is a very important topic in structural genomics, which helps people to understand varieties of biological functions such as protein-protein interactions, protein–DNA interactions and so on. Nowadays, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has often been used to determine the three-dimensional structures of protein in vivo. This study aims to automate the peak picking step, the most important and tricky step in NMR structure determination. We propose to model the NMR spectrum by a mixture of bivariate Gaussian densities and use the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm as the computational tool to solve the problem. Under the Bayesian framework, the peak picking problem is casted as a variable selection problem. The proposed method can automatically distinguish true peaks from false ones without preprocessing the data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort in the literature that tackles the peak picking problem for NMR spectrum data using Bayesian method.

  20. Peak-Seeking Control for Trim Optimization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovators have developed a peak-seeking algorithm that can reduce drag and improve performance and fuel efficiency by optimizing aircraft trim in real time. The...

  1. Instream flow needs below peaking hydroelectric projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milhous, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a method developed to assist in the determination of instream flow needs below hydroelectric projects operated in a peaking mode. Peaking hydroelectric projects significantly change streamflow over a short period of time; consequently, any instream flow methodology must consider the dual flows associated with peaking projects. The dual flows are the lowest flow and the maximum generation flow of a peaking cycle. The methodology is based on elements of the Physical Habitat Simulation System of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and uses habitat, rather than fish numbers or biomas, as at basic response variable. All aquatic animals are subject to the rapid changes in streamflow which cause rapid swings in habitat quality. Some aquatic organisms are relatively fixed in location in the stream while others can move when flows change. The habitat available from a project operated in peaking mode is considered to be the minimum habitat occurring during a cycle of habitat change. The methodology takes in to consideration that some aquatic animals can move and others cannot move during a peaking cycle

  2. National arrangements in favour of the alternative vehicles: electrical , natural gas (NGV) and liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) vehicles; Dispositions nationales en faveur des vehicules alternatifs: vehicules electriques, au gaz naturel (GNv) et au gaz de petrole liquefie (GPLc)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The public will find in this document all the financial assistances concerning the acquisition and the maintenance of an alternative vehicle, at the date of january 2000. The vehicles concerned are: all type of electrical vehicles, NGV vehicles and LPG vehicles. (A.L.B.)

  3. Limitation of peak fitting and peak shape methods for determination of activation energy of thermoluminescence glow peaks

    CERN Document Server

    Sunta, C M; Piters, T M; Watanabe, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper shows the limitation of general order peak fitting and peak shape methods for determining the activation energy of the thermoluminescence glow peaks in the cases in which retrapping probability is much higher than the recombination probability and the traps are filled up to near saturation level. Right values can be obtained when the trap occupancy is reduced by using small doses or by post-irradiation partial bleaching. This limitation in the application of these methods has not been indicated earlier. In view of the unknown nature of kinetics in the experimental samples, it is recommended that these methods of activation energy determination should be applied only at doses well below the saturation dose.

  4. Report of working committee 3 ''liquefied gases''; Rapport du comite de travail 3 ''gaz liquefies''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudino, M.

    2000-07-01

    Working Committee 3's report concerns the evolution of the liquefied gas industry: both liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied petroleum gases (LPG). Given the current state of the LNG market the Committee decided to concentrate on this area in particular. A number of aspects have been identified which the Committee has been looking at, while others have been given to Study Groups set up specifically for the purpose. The first aspects regard: - the development of LNG and LPG, new installations, future chains and relevant statistical data; - the role of LNG and LPG in starting up a gas industry; - operating and technological improvements in the LNG industry; - energy savings, cold utilization and reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. The Study Groups which were set up dealt with the following subjects: Technological and Economical Developments for cost Reduction of LNG/LPG Facilities. Small Scale LNG Projects and Modular Systems. LNG/LPG Peak Shaving and Satellite Plants. LNG versus Pipeline Infrastructure. (author)

  5. Statistics of peaks of Gaussian random fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, J.M.; Bond, J.R.; Kaiser, N.; Szalay, A.S.; Stanford Univ., CA; California Univ., Berkeley; Cambridge Univ., England; Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A set of new mathematical results on the theory of Gaussian random fields is presented, and the application of such calculations in cosmology to treat questions of structure formation from small-amplitude initial density fluctuations is addressed. The point process equation is discussed, giving the general formula for the average number density of peaks. The problem of the proper conditional probability constraints appropriate to maxima are examined using a one-dimensional illustration. The average density of maxima of a general three-dimensional Gaussian field is calculated as a function of heights of the maxima, and the average density of upcrossing points on density contour surfaces is computed. The number density of peaks subject to the constraint that the large-scale density field be fixed is determined and used to discuss the segregation of high peaks from the underlying mass distribution. The machinery to calculate n-point peak-peak correlation functions is determined, as are the shapes of the profiles about maxima. 67 references

  6. Peak Oil, threat or energy worlds' phantasm?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favennec, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The concept of Peak Oil is based on the work of King Hubbert, a petroleum geologist who worked for Shell in the USA in the 1960's. Based on the fact that discoveries in America reached a maximum in the 1930's, he announced that American production would reach a maximum in 1969, which did actually occur. Geologists members of the Association for the Study of Peak Oil have extrapolated this result to a worldwide scale and, since oil discoveries reached a peak in the 1960's, argued that production will peak in the very near future. It is clear that hydrocarbon reserves are finite and therefore exhaustible. But little is known regarding the level of ultimate (i.e. total existing) reserves. There are probably very large reserves of non conventional oil in addition to the reserves of conventional oil. An increasing number of specialists put maximum production at less than 100 Mb/d more for geopolitical than physical reasons. Attainable peak production will probably vary from year to year and will depend on how crude oil prices develop

  7. Electric peak power forecasting by year 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsayegh, O.A.; Al-Matar, O.A.; Fairouz, F.A.; Al-Mulla Ali, A.

    2005-01-01

    Peak power demand in Kuwait up to the year 2025 was predicted using an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of air conditioning (A/C) units on long-term power demand. Five socio-economic factors were selected as inputs for the simulation: (1) gross national product, (2) population, (3) number of buildings, (4) imports of A/C units, and (5) index of industrial production. The study used socio-economic data from 1978 to 2000. Historical data of the first 10 years of the studied time period were used to train the ANN. The electrical network was then simulated to forecast peak power for the following 11 years. The calculated error was then used for years in which power consumption data were not available. The study demonstrated that average peak power rates increased by 4100 MW every 5 years. Various scenarios related to changes in population, the number of buildings, and the quantity of A/C units were then modelled to estimate long-term peak power demand. Results of the study demonstrated that population had the strongest impact on future power demand, while the number of buildings had the smallest impact. It was concluded that peak power growth can be controlled through the use of different immigration policies, increased A/C efficiency, and the use of vertical housing. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  8. Electric peak power forecasting by year 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsayegh, O.A.; Al-Matar, O.A.; Fairouz, F.A.; Al-Mulla Ali, A. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Kuwait City (Kuwait). Div. of Environment and Urban Development

    2005-07-01

    Peak power demand in Kuwait up to the year 2025 was predicted using an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of air conditioning (A/C) units on long-term power demand. Five socio-economic factors were selected as inputs for the simulation: (1) gross national product, (2) population, (3) number of buildings, (4) imports of A/C units, and (5) index of industrial production. The study used socio-economic data from 1978 to 2000. Historical data of the first 10 years of the studied time period were used to train the ANN. The electrical network was then simulated to forecast peak power for the following 11 years. The calculated error was then used for years in which power consumption data were not available. The study demonstrated that average peak power rates increased by 4100 MW every 5 years. Various scenarios related to changes in population, the number of buildings, and the quantity of A/C units were then modelled to estimate long-term peak power demand. Results of the study demonstrated that population had the strongest impact on future power demand, while the number of buildings had the smallest impact. It was concluded that peak power growth can be controlled through the use of different immigration policies, increased A/C efficiency, and the use of vertical housing. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  9. SPANISH PEAKS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budding, Karin E.; Kluender, Steven E.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and geochemical investigation and a survey of mines and prospects were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Spanish Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, in south-central Colorado. Anomalous gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in rocks and in stream sediments from drainage basins in the vicinity of the old mines and prospects on West Spanish Peak indicate a substantiated mineral-resource potential for base and precious metals in the area surrounding this peak; however, the mineralized veins are sparse, small in size, and generally low in grade. There is a possibility that coal may underlie the study area, but it would be at great depth and it is unlikely that it would have survived the intense igneous activity in the area. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of oil and gas because of the lack of structural traps and the igneous activity.

  10. Analysis of fuel end-temperature peaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Jiang, Q.; Lai, L.; Shams, M. [CANDU Energy Inc., Fuel Engineering Dept., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    During normal operation and refuelling of CANDU® fuel, fuel temperatures near bundle ends will increase due to a phenomenon called end flux peaking. Similar phenomenon would also be expected to occur during a postulated large break LOCA event. The end flux peaking in a CANDU fuel element is due to the fact that neutron flux is higher near a bundle end, in contact with a neighbouring bundle or close to heavy water coolant, than in the bundle mid-plane, because of less absorption of thermal neutrons by Zircaloy or heavy water than by the UO{sub 2} material. This paper describes Candu Energy experience in analysing behaviour of bundle due to end flux peaking using fuel codes FEAT, ELESTRES and ELOCA. (author)

  11. Osteoporosis: Peak Bone Mass in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone density are seen even during childhood and adolescence. Hormonal factors. The hormone estrogen has an effect on peak bone mass. For example, women who had their first menstrual cycle at an early age and those who use oral contraceptives, which contain estrogen, often have high bone mineral ...

  12. Facility Location with Double-peaked Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsikas, Aris; Li, Minming; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    ; this makes the problem essentially more challenging. As our main contribution, we present a simple truthful-in-expectation mechanism that achieves an approximation ratio of 1+b=c for both the social and the maximum, cost, where b is the distance of the agent from the peak and c is the minimum cost...

  13. Robust Peak Recognition in Intracranial Pressure Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergsneider Marvin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The waveform morphology of intracranial pressure pulses (ICP is an essential indicator for monitoring, and forecasting critical intracranial and cerebrovascular pathophysiological variations. While current ICP pulse analysis frameworks offer satisfying results on most of the pulses, we observed that the performance of several of them deteriorates significantly on abnormal, or simply more challenging pulses. Methods This paper provides two contributions to this problem. First, it introduces MOCAIP++, a generic ICP pulse processing framework that generalizes MOCAIP (Morphological Clustering and Analysis of ICP Pulse. Its strength is to integrate several peak recognition methods to describe ICP morphology, and to exploit different ICP features to improve peak recognition. Second, it investigates the effect of incorporating, automatically identified, challenging pulses into the training set of peak recognition models. Results Experiments on a large dataset of ICP signals, as well as on a representative collection of sampled challenging ICP pulses, demonstrate that both contributions are complementary and significantly improve peak recognition performance in clinical conditions. Conclusion The proposed framework allows to extract more reliable statistics about the ICP waveform morphology on challenging pulses to investigate the predictive power of these pulses on the condition of the patient.

  14. Liquid waste processing at Comanche Peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes-Edwards, L.M.; Edwards, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the radioactive waste processing at Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station. Topics covered are the following: Reduction of liquid radioactive discharges (system leakage, outage planning); reduction of waste resin generation (waste stream segregation, processing methodology); reduction of activity released and off-site dose. 8 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Avoiding the False Peaks in Correlation Discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awwal, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Fiducials imprinted on laser beams are used to perform video image based alignment of the 192 laser beams in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In many video images, matched filtering is used to detect the location of these fiducials. Generally, the highest correlation peak is used to determine the position of the fiducials. However, when the signal to-be-detected is very weak compared to the noise, this approach totally breaks down. The highest peaks act as traps for false detection. The active target images used for automatic alignment in the National Ignition Facility are examples of such images. In these images, the fiducials of interest exhibit extremely low intensity and contrast, surrounded by high intensity reflection from metallic objects. Consequently, the highest correlation peaks are caused by these bright objects. In this work, we show how the shape of the correlation is exploited to isolate the valid matches from hundreds of invalid correlation peaks, and therefore identify extremely faint fiducials under very challenging imaging conditions

  16. Hubbert's Peak: the Impending World oil Shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffeyes, K. S.

    2004-12-01

    Global oil production will probably reach a peak sometime during this decade. After the peak, the world's production of crude oil will fall, never to rise again. The world will not run out of energy, but developing alternative energy sources on a large scale will take at least 10 years. The slowdown in oil production may already be beginning; the current price fluctuations for crude oil and natural gas may be the preamble to a major crisis. In 1956, the geologist M. King Hubbert predicted that U.S. oil production would peak in the early 1970s.1 Almost everyone, inside and outside the oil industry, rejected Hubbert's analysis. The controversy raged until 1970, when the U.S. production of crude oil started to fall. Hubbert was right. Around 1995, several analysts began applying Hubbert's method to world oil production, and most of them estimate that the peak year for world oil will be between 2004 and 2008. These analyses were reported in some of the most widely circulated sources: Nature, Science, and Scientific American.2 None of our political leaders seem to be paying attention. If the predictions are correct, there will be enormous effects on the world economy. Even the poorest nations need fuel to run irrigation pumps. The industrialized nations will be bidding against one another for the dwindling oil supply. The good news is that we will put less carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The bad news is that my pickup truck has a 25-gallon tank.

  17. Prediction of peak overlap in NMR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hefke, Frederik; Schmucki, Roland; Güntert, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peak overlap is one of the major factors complicating the analysis of biomolecular NMR spectra. We present a general method for predicting the extent of peak overlap in multidimensional NMR spectra and its validation using both, experimental data sets and Monte Carlo simulation. The method is based on knowledge of the magnetization transfer pathways of the NMR experiments and chemical shift statistics from the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank. Assuming a normal distribution with characteristic mean value and standard deviation for the chemical shift of each observable atom, an analytic expression was derived for the expected overlap probability of the cross peaks. The analytical approach was verified to agree with the average peak overlap in a large number of individual peak lists simulated using the same chemical shift statistics. The method was applied to eight proteins, including an intrinsically disordered one, for which the prediction results could be compared with the actual overlap based on the experimentally measured chemical shifts. The extent of overlap predicted using only statistical chemical shift information was in good agreement with the overlap that was observed when the measured shifts were used in the virtual spectrum, except for the intrinsically disordered protein. Since the spectral complexity of a protein NMR spectrum is a crucial factor for protein structure determination, analytical overlap prediction can be used to identify potentially difficult proteins before conducting NMR experiments. Overlap predictions can be tailored to particular classes of proteins by preparing statistics from corresponding protein databases. The method is also suitable for optimizing recording parameters and labeling schemes for NMR experiments and improving the reliability of automated spectra analysis and protein structure determination.

  18. The peak in anomalous magnetic viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collocott, S.J.; Watterson, P.A.; Tan, X.H.; Xu, H.

    2014-01-01

    Anomalous magnetic viscosity, where the magnetization as a function of time exhibits non-monotonic behaviour, being seen to increase, reach a peak, and then decrease, is observed on recoil lines in bulk amorphous ferromagnets, for certain magnetic prehistories. A simple geometrical approach based on the motion of the state line on the Preisach plane gives a theoretical framework for interpreting non-monotonic behaviour and explains the origin of the peak. This approach gives an expression for the time taken to reach the peak as a function of the applied (or holding) field. The theory is applied to experimental data for bulk amorphous ferromagnet alloys of composition Nd 60−x Fe 30 Al 10 Dy x , x = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4, and it gives a reasonable description of the observed behaviour. The role played by other key magnetic parameters, such as the intrinsic coercivity and fluctuation field, is also discussed. When the non-monotonic behaviour of the magnetization of a number of alloys is viewed in the context of the model, features of universal behaviour emerge, that are independent of alloy composition. - Highlights: • Development of a simple geometrical model based on the Preisach model which gives a complete explanation of the peak in the magnetic viscosity. • Geometrical approach is extended by considering equations that govern the motion of the state line. • The model is used to deduce the relationship between the holding field and the time it takes to reach the peak. • The model is tested with experimental results for a range of Nd–Fe–Al–Dy bulk amorphous ferromagnets. • There is good agreement between the model and the experimental data

  19. The spatial resolution of epidemic peaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet L Mills

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of novel respiratory pathogens can challenge the capacity of key health care resources, such as intensive care units, that are constrained to serve only specific geographical populations. An ability to predict the magnitude and timing of peak incidence at the scale of a single large population would help to accurately assess the value of interventions designed to reduce that peak. However, current disease-dynamic theory does not provide a clear understanding of the relationship between: epidemic trajectories at the scale of interest (e.g. city; population mobility; and higher resolution spatial effects (e.g. transmission within small neighbourhoods. Here, we used a spatially-explicit stochastic meta-population model of arbitrary spatial resolution to determine the effect of resolution on model-derived epidemic trajectories. We simulated an influenza-like pathogen spreading across theoretical and actual population densities and varied our assumptions about mobility using Latin-Hypercube sampling. Even though, by design, cumulative attack rates were the same for all resolutions and mobilities, peak incidences were different. Clear thresholds existed for all tested populations, such that models with resolutions lower than the threshold substantially overestimated population-wide peak incidence. The effect of resolution was most important in populations which were of lower density and lower mobility. With the expectation of accurate spatial incidence datasets in the near future, our objective was to provide a framework for how to use these data correctly in a spatial meta-population model. Our results suggest that there is a fundamental spatial resolution for any pathogen-population pair. If underlying interactions between pathogens and spatially heterogeneous populations are represented at this resolution or higher, accurate predictions of peak incidence for city-scale epidemics are feasible.

  20. Avaliação de materiais alternativos em substituição à maravalha como cama de aviário Alternative material to replace wood shavings as broiler litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Silveira de Avila

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de testar materiais alternativos para cama de aviário na criação de frangos de corte, foram alojados seis lotes consecutivos, cada um contendo 5.600 aves, apenas fêmeas, distribuídas em 35 boxes. Os tratamentos consistiram de sete tipos de material para cama (maravalha; casca de arroz; sabugo de milho triturado; capim-cameron picado; palhada de soja picada; resto da cultura do milho picado; e serragem, cada um com cinco repetições. Avaliaram-se nas aves o peso corporal médio e o consumo médio de ração e, nas camas, os teores de N, Ca, P e pH. Observaram-se ainda a presença de salmonela, a contagem de oocistos de eimeria na cama e o escore de lesões no intestino das aves ao abate. A utilização dos materiais alternativos avaliados como cama de aviário, por seis lotes consecutivos, como alternativas à maravalha não prejudicou o desempenho de frangos de corte. Esses materiais, após o descarte, por apresentarem valor em minerais superior ao da maravalha, podem ser utilizados na adubação de culturas.Aiming to evaluate alternative materials to be used as broiler litter reutilization, six consecutive lots of 5,600 female broilers were allocated to 35 pens. The treatments consisted of seven types of litter materials: wood shavings, rice husk, ground corncob, chopped camerongrass, chopped soybean straw, chopped corn stalk and sawdust, each one with five replications. In the birds, it was evaluated the average body weight, feed consumption and in the litter, it was evaluated the contents of N, Ca, P and pH. The presence of salmoella, the eimeria oocists counting in the litter, and the gut birds lesions score at slaughter were also observed. The use of alternative materials evaluated as litter, per six concecutive lots, as a alternative for wood shavings did no prejudice the performance of broilers. These materials, by presenting mineral values higher than wood shavings, after discarding, could be used as culture

  1. Stereotactic Bragg peak proton radiosurgery method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellberg, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the technical aspects of a stereotactic Bragg peak proton radiosurgical method for the head is presented. The preparatory radiographic studies are outlined and the stereotactic instrument and positioning of the patient are described. The instrument is so calibrated that after corrections for soft tissue and bone thickness, the Bragg peak superimposes upon the intracranial target. The head is rotated at specific intervals to allow predetermined portals of access for the beam path, all of which converge on the intracranial target. Normally, portals are arranged to oppose and overlap from both sides of the head. Using a number of beams (in sequence) on both sides of the head, the target dose is far greater than the path dose. The procedure normally takes 3/2-2 hours, following which the patient can walk away. (Auth./C.F.)

  2. Central peaking of magnetized gas discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Francis F.; Curreli, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Partially ionized gas discharges used in industry are often driven by radiofrequency (rf) power applied at the periphery of a cylinder. It is found that the plasma density n is usually flat or peaked on axis even if the skin depth of the rf field is thin compared with the chamber radius a. Previous attempts at explaining this did not account for the finite length of the discharge and the boundary conditions at the endplates. A simple 1D model is used to focus on the basic mechanism: the short-circuit effect. It is found that a strong electric field (E-field) scaled to electron temperature T e , drives the ions inward. The resulting density profile is peaked on axis and has a shape independent of pressure or discharge radius. This “universal” profile is not affected by a dc magnetic field (B-field) as long as the ion Larmor radius is larger than a

  3. Peak Oil, Food Systems, and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Cindy L.; Kirschenmann, Frederick L.; Tinch, Jennifer; Lawrence, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Peak oil is the phenomenon whereby global oil supplies will peak, then decline, with extraction growing increasingly costly. Today's globalized industrial food system depends on oil for fueling farm machinery, producing pesticides, and transporting goods. Biofuels production links oil prices to food prices. We examined food system vulnerability to rising oil prices and the public health consequences. In the short term, high food prices harm food security and equity. Over time, high prices will force the entire food system to adapt. Strong preparation and advance investment may mitigate the extent of dislocation and hunger. Certain social and policy changes could smooth adaptation; public health has an essential role in promoting a proactive, smart, and equitable transition that increases resilience and enables adequate food for all. PMID:21778492

  4. Hanford Site peak gust wind speeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1998-01-01

    Peak gust wind data collected at the Hanford Site since 1945 are analyzed to estimate maximum wind speeds for use in structural design. The results are compared with design wind speeds proposed for the Hanford Site. These comparisons indicate that design wind speeds contained in a January 1998 advisory changing DOE-STD-1020-94 are excessive for the Hanford Site and that the design wind speeds in effect prior to the changes are still appropriate for the Hanford Site

  5. Commodity hydrogen from off-peak electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrow, K.; Biederman, N.; Konopka, A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper considers the use of off-peak electrical power as an energy source for the electrolytic production of hydrogen. The present industrial uses for hydrogen are examined to determine if hydrogen produced in this fashion would be competitive with the industry's onsite production or existing hydrogen prices. The paper presents a technical and economic feasibility analysis of the various components required and of the operation of the system as a whole including production, transmission, storage, and markets.

  6. Some practical aspects of peak kilovoltage measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irfan, A.Y.; Pugh, V.I.; Jeffery, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The peak kilovoltage (kVsub(p)) across the X-ray tube electrodes in diagnostic X-ray machines is a most important parameter, affecting both radiation output and beam quality. Four commercially available non-invasive devices used for kVsub(p) measurement were tested using a selection of generator waveforms. The majority of the devices provided satisfactory measurements of the kVsub(p) to within approximately +- kV provided certain operating conditions are observed. (U.K.)

  7. METing SUSY on the Z peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenboim, G.; Bernabeu, J.; Vives, O. [Universitat de Valencia, Departament de Fisica Teorica, Burjassot (Spain); Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Parc Cientific U.V., IFIC, Paterna (Spain); Mitsou, V.A.; Romero, E. [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Parc Cientific U.V., IFIC, Paterna (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Recently the ATLAS experiment announced a 3 σ excess at the Z-peak consisting of 29 pairs of leptons together with two or more jets, E{sub T}{sup miss} > 225 GeV and HT > 600 GeV, to be compared with 10.6 ± 3.2 expected lepton pairs in the Standard Model. No excess outside the Z-peak was observed. By trying to explain this signal with SUSY we find that only relatively light gluinos, m{sub g} or similar 400 GeV decaying predominantly to Z-boson plus a light gravitino, such that nearly every gluino produces at least one Z-boson in its decay chain, could reproduce the excess. We construct an explicit general gauge mediation model able to reproduce the observed signal overcoming all the experimental limits. Needless to say, more sophisticated models could also reproduce the signal, however, any model would have to exhibit the following features: light gluinos, or heavy particles with a strong production cross section, producing at least one Z-boson in its decay chain. The implications of our findings for the Run II at LHC with the scaling on the Z peak, as well as for the direct search of gluinos and other SUSY particles, are pointed out. (orig.)

  8. Acquisition of peak responding: what is learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Fuat; Gallistel, Charles R; Allen, Brian D; Frank, Krystal M; Gibson, Jacqueline M; Brunner, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how the common measures of timing performance behaved in the course of training on the peak procedure in C3H mice. Following fixed interval (FI) pre-training, mice received 16 days of training in the peak procedure. The peak time and spread were derived from the average response rates while the start and stop times and their relative variability were derived from a single-trial analysis. Temporal precision (response spread) appeared to improve in the course of training. This apparent improvement in precision was, however, an averaging artifact; it was mediated by the staggered appearance of timed stops, rather than by the delayed occurrence of start times. Trial-by-trial analysis of the stop times for individual subjects revealed that stops appeared abruptly after three to five sessions and their timing did not change as training was prolonged. Start times and the precision of start and stop times were generally stable throughout training. Our results show that subjects do not gradually learn to time their start or stop of responding. Instead, they learn the duration of the FI, with robust temporal control over the start of the response; the control over the stop of response appears abruptly later.

  9. METing SUSY on the Z peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barenboim, G.; Bernabeu, J.; Vives, O.; Mitsou, V.A.; Romero, E.

    2016-01-01

    Recently the ATLAS experiment announced a 3 σ excess at the Z-peak consisting of 29 pairs of leptons together with two or more jets, E T miss > 225 GeV and HT > 600 GeV, to be compared with 10.6 ± 3.2 expected lepton pairs in the Standard Model. No excess outside the Z-peak was observed. By trying to explain this signal with SUSY we find that only relatively light gluinos, m g or similar 400 GeV decaying predominantly to Z-boson plus a light gravitino, such that nearly every gluino produces at least one Z-boson in its decay chain, could reproduce the excess. We construct an explicit general gauge mediation model able to reproduce the observed signal overcoming all the experimental limits. Needless to say, more sophisticated models could also reproduce the signal, however, any model would have to exhibit the following features: light gluinos, or heavy particles with a strong production cross section, producing at least one Z-boson in its decay chain. The implications of our findings for the Run II at LHC with the scaling on the Z peak, as well as for the direct search of gluinos and other SUSY particles, are pointed out. (orig.)

  10. Monitoring device for local power peaking coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihashi, Ishi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To determine and monitor the local power peaking coefficients by a method not depending on the combination of fuel types. Constitution: Representative values for the local power distribution can be obtained by determining corresponding burn-up degrees based on the burn-up degree of each of fuel assembly segments obtained in a power distribution monitor and by the interpolation and extrapolation of void coefficients. The typical values are multiplied with compensation coefficients for the control rod effect and coefficients for compensating the effect of adjacent fuel assemblies in a calculation device to obtain typical values for the present local power distribution compensated with all of the effects. Further, the calculation device compares them with typical values of the present local power distribution to obtain an aimed local power peaking coefficient as the maximum value thereof. According to the present invention, since the local power peaking coefficients can be determined not depending on the combination of the kind of fuels, if the combination of fuel assemblies is increased upon fuel change, the amount of operation therefor is not increased. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. Chinese emissions peak: Not when, but how

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Thomas; Colombier, Michel; Wang, Xin; Sartor, Oliver; Waisman, Henri

    2016-07-01

    It seems highly likely that China will overachieve its 2020 and 2030 targets, and peak its emissions before 2030 and possibly at a lower level than often assumed. This paper argues that the debate on the timing of the peak is misplaced: what matters is not when by why. For the peak to be seen as a harbinger of deep transformation, it needs to be based on significant macro-economic reform and restructuring, with attendant improvement in energy intensity. The Chinese economic model has been extraordinarily investment and resource intensive, and has driven the growth in GHG emissions. That model is no longer economically or environmentally sustainable. Therefore Chinese policy-makers are faced with a trade-off between slower short-term growth and economic reform, versus supporting short-term growth but slowing economic reform. The outcome will be crucial for the transition to a low-carbon economy. Overall, the 13. FYP (2016-2020) gives the impression of a cautious reflection of the new normal paradigm on the economic front, and a somewhat conservative translation of this shift into the energy and climate targets. Nonetheless, the 13. FYP targets set China well on the way to overachieving its 2020 pledge undertaken at COP15 in Copenhagen, and to potentially overachieving its INDC. It thus seems likely that China will achieve its emissions peak before 2030. However, the crucial question is not when China peaks, but whether the underlying transformation of the Chinese economy and energy system lays the basis for deep decarbonization thereafter. Thorough assessments of the implications of the 'new normal' for Chinese emissions and energy system trajectories, taking into account the link with the Chinese macro-economy, are needed. Scenarios provide a useful framework and should focus on a number of short-term uncertainties. Most energy system and emissions scenarios published today assume a continuity of trends between 2010-2015 and 2015-2020, which is at odds with clear

  12. Viability of drying coffee using liquefied petroleum gas-LPG, firewood eucalyptus and husks of coffee; Viabilidade da secagem do cafe usando GLP, lenha de eucalipto e palha de cafe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrinho, J.C.; Silva, J.N. da; Silva, J.S.; Lacerda Filho, A.F. de [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola]. E-mail: jcardoso@alunos.ufv.br; jadir@mail.ufv.br; desousae@mail.ufv.br; alacerda@mail.ufv.br

    2000-07-01

    An analysis of the specific consumption of energy and of the comparative costs of the use of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), eucalyptus firewood and coffee husks as sources of energy in the drying of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) was done. Dryers of intermittent crossed flows were used with temperature of the drying air of 60 deg C. The drying in yard was used as witness. It is ended that the use in the different form of energy did not alter the final quality of the product, and that LPG is more efficient in terms of specific consumption of energy that the husks of coffee and eucalyptus firewood, even so, of cost approximately four times or more higher than that of the other fuels. (author)

  13. Particle creation by peak electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorno, T.C. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Gavrilov, S.P. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Department of General and Experimental Physics, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gitman, D.M. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, CP 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    The particle creation by the so-called peak electric field is considered. The latter field is a combination of two exponential parts, one exponentially increasing and another exponentially decreasing. We find exact solutions of the Dirac equation with the field under consideration with appropriate asymptotic conditions and calculate all the characteristics of particle creation effect, in particular, differential mean numbers of created particle, total number of created particles, and the probability for a vacuum to remain a vacuum. Characteristic asymptotic regimes are discussed in detail and a comparison with the pure asymptotically decaying field is considered. (orig.)

  14. Octant vectorcardiography - the evaluation by peaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufberger, V

    1982-01-01

    From the Frank lead potentials a computer prints out an elementary table. Therein, the electrical space of left ventricle depolarization is divided into eight spatial parts labelled by numbers 1-8 and called octants. Within these octants six peaks are determined labelled with letters ALPR-IS. Their localization is described by six-digit topograms characteristic for each patient. From 300 cases of patients after myocardial infarction, three data bases were compiled enabling every case to be classified into classes, subclasses and types. The follow up of patients according to these principles gives an objective and detailed image about the progress of coronary artery disease.

  15. Energy peaks: A high energy physics outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    Energy distributions of decay products carry information on the kinematics of the decay in ways that are at the same time straightforward and quite hidden. I will review these properties and discuss their early historical applications, as well as more recent ones in the context of (i) methods for the measurement of masses of new physics particle with semi-invisible decays, (ii) the characterization of Dark Matter particles produced at colliders, (iii) precision mass measurements of Standard Model particles, in particular of the top quark. Finally, I will give an outlook of further developments and applications of energy peak method for high energy physics at colliders and beyond.

  16. Method and apparatus for current-output peak detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2017-01-24

    A method and apparatus for a current-output peak detector. A current-output peak detector circuit is disclosed and works in two phases. The peak detector circuit includes switches to switch the peak detector circuit from the first phase to the second phase upon detection of the peak voltage of an input voltage signal. The peak detector generates a current output with a high degree of accuracy in the second phase.

  17. The Risk of Striking Accidents During LPG Ships Passage in Ports in Respect to Technical Failures based on Real Time Simulations in Szczecin-Świnoujście Waterway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bąk Andrzej

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The method of risk assessment based on ship systems technical failures during the passage in the region of Świnoujście of the large LPG (liquefied petroleum gas tanker is presented. The statistical reliability indicators and the simulation model of ships manoeuvring. The researches carried out within this paper let to determine the safety level and necessary tug escort service during the passage of the ship with the hazardous cargo in the port area.

  18. Computation of peak discharge at culverts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rolland William

    1957-01-01

    Methods for computing peak flood flow through culverts on the basis of a field survey of highwater marks and culvert geometry are presented. These methods are derived from investigations of culvert flow as reported in the literature and on extensive laboratory studies of culvert flow. For convenience in computation, culvert flow has been classified into six types, according to the location of the control section and the relative heights of the head-water and tail-water levels. The type of flow which occurred at any site can be determined from the field data and the criteria given in this report. A discharge equation has been developed for each flow type by combining the energy and continuity equations for the distance between an approach section upstream from the culvert and a terminal section within the culvert barrel. The discharge coefficient applicable to each flow type is listed for the more common entrance geometries. Procedures for computing peak discharge through culverts are outlined in detail for each of the six flow types.

  19. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Glaucia Nency; Ruas, Gualberto; Pessoa, Bruna Varanda; Jamami, Luciana Kawakami; Di Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires; Jamami, Mauricio

    2010-05-01

    To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF) from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone, Assess, Galemed, Personal Best and Vitalograph peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (pmeters were 428 (263-688 L/min), 450 (350-800 L/min), 420 (310-720 L/min), 380 (300-735 L/min), 400 (310-685 L/min) and 415 (335-610 L/min), respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone(R) (pmeters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  20. Monitoring device for local power peaking coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, Ishi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To monitor the local power peaking coefficients obtained by the method not depending on the combination of fuel types. Method: A plurality of representative values for the local power distribution determined by the nuclear constant calculation for one fuel assembly are memorized regarding each of the burn-up degree and the void coefficient on every positions and fuel types in fuel rod assemblies. While on the other hand, the representative values for the local power distribution as described above are compensated by a compensation coefficient considering the effect of adjacent segments and a control rod compensation coefficient considering the effect due to the control rod insertion relative to the just-mentioned compensation coefficient. Then, the maximum value among them is selected to determine the local power peaking coefficient at each of the times and each of the segments, which is monitored. According to this system, the calculation and the working required for the fitting work depending on the combination of fuel types are no more required at all to facilitate the maintenance as well. (Horiuchi, T.)

  1. Peak capacity and peak capacity per unit time in capillary and microchip zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Joe P; Blackney, Donna M; Ennis, Erin J

    2017-11-10

    The origins of the peak capacity concept are described and the important contributions to the development of that concept in chromatography and electrophoresis are reviewed. Whereas numerous quantitative expressions have been reported for one- and two-dimensional separations, most are focused on chromatographic separations and few, if any, quantitative unbiased expressions have been developed for capillary or microchip zone electrophoresis. Making the common assumption that longitudinal diffusion is the predominant source of zone broadening in capillary electrophoresis, analytical expressions for the peak capacity are derived, first in terms of migration time, diffusion coefficient, migration distance, and desired resolution, and then in terms of the remaining underlying fundamental parameters (electric field, electroosmotic and electrophoretic mobilities) that determine the migration time. The latter expressions clearly illustrate the direct square root dependence of peak capacity on electric field and migration distance and the inverse square root dependence on solute diffusion coefficient. Conditions that result in a high peak capacity will result in a low peak capacity per unit time and vice-versa. For a given symmetrical range of relative electrophoretic mobilities for co- and counter-electroosmotic species (cations and anions), the peak capacity increases with the square root of the electric field even as the temporal window narrows considerably, resulting in a significant reduction in analysis time. Over a broad relative electrophoretic mobility interval [-0.9, 0.9], an approximately two-fold greater amount of peak capacity can be generated for counter-electroosmotic species although it takes about five-fold longer to do so, consistent with the well-known bias in migration time and resolving power for co- and counter-electroosmotic species. The optimum lower bound of the relative electrophoretic mobility interval [μ r,Z , μ r,A ] that provides the maximum

  2. Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III

    2010-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed of the day is an important forecast element in the 45th Weather Squadron's (45 WS) daily 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts. The forecasts are used for ground and space launch operations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45 WS also issues wind advisories for KSC/CCAFS when they expect wind gusts to meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt thresholds at any level from the surface to 300 ft. The 45 WS forecasters have indicated peak wind speeds are challenging to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October - April. In Phase I of this task, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a tool to help the 45 WS forecast non-convective winds at KSC/CCAFS for the 24-hour period of 0800 to 0800 local time. The tool was delivered as a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI displayed the forecast of peak wind speed, 5-minute average wind speed at the time of the peak wind, timing of the peak wind and probability the peak speed would meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt. For the current task (Phase II ), the 45 WS requested additional observations be used for the creation of the forecast equations by expanding the period of record (POR). Additional parameters were evaluated as predictors, including wind speeds between 500 ft and 3000 ft, static stability classification, Bulk Richardson Number, mixing depth, vertical wind shear, temperature inversion strength and depth and wind direction. Using a verification data set, the AMU compared the performance of the Phase I and II prediction methods. Just as in Phase I, the tool was delivered as a Microsoft Excel GUI. The 45 WS requested the tool also be available in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS). The AMU first expanded the POR by two years by adding tower observations, surface observations and CCAFS (XMR) soundings for the cool season months of March 2007 to April 2009. The POR was expanded

  3. Emissions Scenarios and Fossil-fuel Peaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecha, R.

    2008-12-01

    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emissions scenarios are based on detailed energy system models in which demographics, technology and economics are used to generate projections of future world energy consumption, and therefore, of greenhouse gas emissions. Built into the assumptions for these scenarios are estimates for ultimately recoverable resources of various fossil fuels. There is a growing chorus of critics who believe that the true extent of recoverable fossil resources is much smaller than the amounts taken as a baseline for the IPCC scenarios. In a climate optimist camp are those who contend that "peak oil" will lead to a switch to renewable energy sources, while others point out that high prices for oil caused by supply limitations could very well lead to a transition to liquid fuels that actually increase total carbon emissions. We examine a third scenario in which high energy prices, which are correlated with increasing infrastructure, exploration and development costs, conspire to limit the potential for making a switch to coal or natural gas for liquid fuels. In addition, the same increasing costs limit the potential for expansion of tar sand and shale oil recovery. In our qualitative model of the energy system, backed by data from short- and medium-term trends, we have a useful way to gain a sense of potential carbon emission bounds. A bound for 21st century emissions is investigated based on two assumptions: first, that extractable fossil-fuel resources follow the trends assumed by "peak oil" adherents, and second, that little is done in the way of climate mitigation policies. If resources, and perhaps more importantly, extraction rates, of fossil fuels are limited compared to assumptions in the emissions scenarios, a situation can arise in which emissions are supply-driven. However, we show that even in this "peak fossil-fuel" limit, carbon emissions are high enough to surpass 550 ppm or 2°C climate protection guardrails. Some

  4. Peak Electric Load Relief in Northern Manhattan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildegaard D. Link

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aphorism “Think globally, act locally,” attributed to René Dubos, reflects the vision that the solution to global environmental problems must begin with efforts within our communities. PlaNYC 2030, the New York City sustainability plan, is the starting point for this study. Results include (a a case study based on the City College of New York (CCNY energy audit, in which we model the impacts of green roofs on campus energy demand and (b a case study of energy use at the neighborhood scale. We find that reducing the urban heat island effect can reduce building cooling requirements, peak electricity loads stress on the local electricity grid and improve urban livability.

  5. Tim Peake and Britain's road to space

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This book puts the reader in the flight suit of Britain’s first male astronaut, Tim Peake. It chronicles his life, along with the Principia mission and the down-to-the-last-bolt descriptions of life aboard the ISS, by way of the hurdles placed by the British government and the rigors of training at Russia’s Star City military base. In addition, this book discusses the learning curves required in astronaut and mission training and the complexity of the technologies required to launch an astronaut and keep them alive for months on end. This book underscores the fact that technology and training, unlike space, do not exist in a vacuum; complex technical systems, like the ISS, interact with the variables of human personality, and the cultural background of the astronauts. .

  6. Complex behavior of elevators in peak traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2003-08-01

    We study the dynamical behavior of elevators in the morning peak traffic. We present a stochastic model of the elevators to take into account the interactions between elevators through passengers. The dynamics of the elevators is expressed in terms of a coupled nonlinear map with noises. The number of passengers carried by an elevator and the time-headway between elevators exhibit the complex behavior with varying elevator trips. It is found that the behavior of elevators exhibits a deterministic chaos even if there are no noises. The chaotic motion depends on the loading parameter, the maximum capacity of an elevator, and the number of elevators. When the loading parameter is superior to the threshold, each elevator carries a full load of passengers throughout its trip. The dependence of the threshold (transition point) on the elevator capacity is clarified.

  7. Equivalence principle and the baryon acoustic peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Tobias; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Simonović, Marko; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2015-08-01

    We study the dominant effect of a long wavelength density perturbation δ (λL) on short distance physics. In the nonrelativistic limit, the result is a uniform acceleration, fixed by the equivalence principle, and typically has no effect on statistical averages due to translational invariance. This same reasoning has been formalized to obtain a "consistency condition" on the cosmological correlation functions. In the presence of a feature, such as the acoustic peak at ℓBAO, this naive expectation breaks down for λLexplicitly applied to the one-loop calculation of the power spectrum. Finally, the success of baryon acoustic oscillation reconstruction schemes is argued to be another empirical evidence for the validity of the results.

  8. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Nency Takara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. METHODS: Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (p<0.05, Spearman's correlation test and Bland-Altman's agreement test. RESULTS: The median and interquartile ranges for the spirometric values and the Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® meters were 428 (263-688 L/min, 450 (350-800 L/min, 420 (310-720 L/min, 380 (300-735 L/min, 400 (310-685 L/min and 415 (335-610 L/min, respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone® (p<0.001 and Galemed ® (p<0.01 meters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed® meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone® meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  9. Thermodynamic modeling of LPG combustion in dual-fuel engines; Modelisation thermodynamique de la combustion du GPL dans les moteurs dual-fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilcan, A.; Le Corre, O.; Tazerout, M. [Ecole des Mines de Nantes, 44 (France); Ramesh, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras (India)

    2002-07-01

    Dual-fuel engines are modified diesel engines burning simultaneously two fuels inside the cylinder: a gaseous one, called the primary fuel and a liquid one, called the pilot fuel. The thermal efficiency of the dual-fuel engine and of the diesel engine are comparable; the level of emissions is lower compared to the diesel one. This article presents a new procedure for the combustion modeling in a LPG-diesel dual-fuel engine. The procedures deals with the ignition delay period and with the rate of heat release inside the cylinder. This procedure is validated using experimental data issued front a collaboration with the Indian Institute of Technology from Madras, India. The used engine is a single-cylinder one, air-cooled. The pilot fuel is direct injected inside the cylinder The engine was run at constant load and with different diesel substitutions, i.e. for different air to fuel ratios of the primary fuel-air mixture. The general error of the procedure is below 10%. (authors)

  10. Depicting mass flow rate of R134a /LPG refrigerant through straight and helical coiled adiabatic capillary tubes of vapor compression refrigeration system using artificial neural network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jatinder; Singh, Jagdev

    2018-07-01

    In this work, an experimental investigation is carried out with R134a and LPG refrigerant mixture for depicting mass flow rate through straight and helical coil adiabatic capillary tubes in a vapor compression refrigeration system. Various experiments were conducted under steady-state conditions, by changing capillary tube length, inner diameter, coil diameter and degree of subcooling. The results showed that mass flow rate through helical coil capillary tube was found lower than straight capillary tube by about 5-16%. Dimensionless correlation and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models were developed to predict mass flow rate. It was found that dimensionless correlation and ANN model predictions agreed well with experimental results and brought out an absolute fraction of variance of 0.961 and 0.988, root mean square error of 0.489 and 0.275 and mean absolute percentage error of 4.75% and 2.31% respectively. The results suggested that ANN model shows better statistical prediction than dimensionless correlation model.

  11. Usage of laser techniques and digital aerial coverage as a layer for as-built applied to the LPG pipeline Urucu-Coari right-of-way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furquim, Antonio J. [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The usage of taking of digital aerial images is a reality worldwide, but in Brazil there is few sensors in use available, which makes recognize the pioneer aspect of the technique. Something similar also occurs with the airborne LASER scanning, whose technique has been applied for more time, used in the obtaining of digital terrain models. The use of digital imaging along with the LASER survey can offer an option for the generation of high quality products in a very fast and efficient way, aiming at numberless applications. Among such applications, the generation of cartographic products for the implantation of pipelines, as well as the as-built drawings of these same rights-of-ways after the implantation can be highlighted. The pipeline sector has been the focus of great investments and keeps on presenting demand for new projects and implantations. That allows to deduce that the speed in the generation of accurate bases for such purpose shall progress towards the continuous development of such aerial survey techniques. This paper presents the application of images and LASER survey to obtain ortho photos of Urucu-Coari liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) pipeline. (author)

  12. Norwegian hydropower a valuable peak power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brekke, Hermod

    2010-07-01

    given on a possible increase of the Norwegian hydropower peak power production to meet the growing the European demand for peak power caused by the growing non stationary production from wind mills and ocean energy from waves and sea current. Also building of reversible pump turbine power plants will be discussed even if approximately 10% power will be consumed by loss in the pumping phase compared to direct use of the water from reservoirs. (Author)

  13. Can You Hear That Peak? Utilization of Auditory and Visual Feedback at Peak Limb Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, Tristan; de Grosbois, John; Tremblay, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: At rest, the central nervous system combines and integrates multisensory cues to yield an optimal percept. When engaging in action, the relative weighing of sensory modalities has been shown to be altered. Because the timing of peak velocity is the critical moment in some goal-directed movements (e.g., overarm throwing), the current study…

  14. OccuPeak: ChIP-Seq peak calling based on internal background modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Bouke A.; van Duijvenboden, Karel; van den Boogaard, Malou; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Barnett, Phil; Ruijter, Jan M.

    2014-01-01

    ChIP-seq has become a major tool for the genome-wide identification of transcription factor binding or histone modification sites. Most peak-calling algorithms require input control datasets to model the occurrence of background reads to account for local sequencing and GC bias. However, the

  15. Prediction of iodine activity peak during refuelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozer, Z.; Vajda, N.

    2001-01-01

    The increase of fission product activities in the primary circuit of a nuclear power plant indicates the existence of defects in some fuel rods. The power change leads to the cooling down of the fuel and results in the fragmentation of the UO 2 pellets, which facilitates the release of fission products from the intergranular regions. Furthermore the injection of boric acid after shutdown will increase the primary activity, due to the solution of deposited fission products from the surface of the core components. The calculation of these phenomena usually is based on the evaluation of activity measurements and power plant data. The estimation of iodine spiking peak during reactor transients is based on correlation with operating parameters, such as reactor power and primary pressure. The approach used in the present method was applied for CANDU reactors. The VVER-440 specific correlations were determined using the activity measurements of the Paks NPP and the data provided by the Russian fuel supplier. The present method is used for the evaluation of the iodine isotopes, as well as the noble gases. A numerical model has been developed for iodine spiking simulation and has been validated against several shutdown transients, measured at Paks NPP. (R.P.)

  16. Fast clustering using adaptive density peak detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Yifan

    2017-12-01

    Common limitations of clustering methods include the slow algorithm convergence, the instability of the pre-specification on a number of intrinsic parameters, and the lack of robustness to outliers. A recent clustering approach proposed a fast search algorithm of cluster centers based on their local densities. However, the selection of the key intrinsic parameters in the algorithm was not systematically investigated. It is relatively difficult to estimate the "optimal" parameters since the original definition of the local density in the algorithm is based on a truncated counting measure. In this paper, we propose a clustering procedure with adaptive density peak detection, where the local density is estimated through the nonparametric multivariate kernel estimation. The model parameter is then able to be calculated from the equations with statistical theoretical justification. We also develop an automatic cluster centroid selection method through maximizing an average silhouette index. The advantage and flexibility of the proposed method are demonstrated through simulation studies and the analysis of a few benchmark gene expression data sets. The method only needs to perform in one single step without any iteration and thus is fast and has a great potential to apply on big data analysis. A user-friendly R package ADPclust is developed for public use.

  17. Research Opportunities at Storm Peak Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I. B.

    2006-12-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) operates a high elevation facility, Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL), located on the west summit of Mt. Werner in the Park Range near Steamboat Springs, Colorado at an elevation of 3210 m MSL (Borys and Wetzel, 1997). SPL provides an ideal location for long-term research on the interactions of atmospheric aerosol and gas- phase chemistry with cloud and natural radiation environments. The ridge-top location produces almost daily transition from free tropospheric to boundary layer air which occurs near midday in both summer and winter seasons. Long-term observations at SPL document the role of orographically induced mixing and convection on vertical pollutant transport and dispersion. During winter, SPL is above cloud base 25% of the time, providing a unique capability for studying aerosol-cloud interactions (Borys and Wetzel, 1997). A comprehensive set of continuous aerosol measurements was initiated at SPL in 2002. SPL includes an office-type laboratory room for computer and instrumentation setup with outside air ports and cable access to the roof deck, a cold room for precipitation and cloud rime ice sample handling and ice crystal microphotography, a 150 m2 roof deck area for outside sampling equipment, a full kitchen and two bunk rooms with sleeping space for nine persons. The laboratory is currently well equipped for aerosol and cloud measurements. Particles are sampled from an insulated, 15 cm diameter manifold within approximately 1 m of its horizontal entry point through an outside wall. The 4 m high vertical section outside the building is capped with an inverted can to exclude large particles.

  18. Peak MSC—Are We There Yet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. Olsen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs are a critical raw material for many regenerative medicine products, including cell-based therapies, engineered tissues, or combination products, and are on the brink of radically changing how the world of medicine operates. Their unique characteristics, potential to treat many indications, and established safety profile in more than 800 clinical trials have contributed to their current consumption and will only fuel future demand. Given the large target patient populations with typical dose sizes of 10's to 100's of millions of cells per patient, and engineered tissues being constructed with 100's of millions to billions of cells, an unprecedented demand has been created for hMSCs. The fulfillment of this demand faces an uphill challenge in the limited availability of large quantities of pharmaceutical grade hMSCs for the industry—fueling the need for parallel rapid advancements in the biomanufacturing of this living critical raw material. Simply put, hMSCs are no different than technologies like transistors, as they are a highly technical and modular product that requires stringent control over manufacturing that can allow for high quality and consistent performance. As hMSC manufacturing processes are optimized, it predicts a future time of abundance for hMSCs, where scientists and researchers around the world will have access to a consistent and readily available supply of high quality, standardized, and economical pharmaceutical grade product to buy off the shelf for their applications and drive product development—this is “Peak MSC.”

  19. Peak-valley-peak pattern of histone modifications delineates active regulatory elements and their directionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pundhir, Sachin; Bagger, Frederik Otzen; Lauridsen, Felicia Kathrine Bratt

    2016-01-01

    Formation of nucleosome free region (NFR) accompanied by specific histone modifications at flanking nucleosomes is an important prerequisite for enhancer and promoter activity. Due to this process, active regulatory elements often exhibit a distinct shape of histone signal in the form of a peak......-valley-peak (PVP) pattern. However, different features of PVP patterns and their robustness in predicting active regulatory elements have never been systematically analyzed. Here, we present PARE, a novel computational method that systematically analyzes the H3K4me1 or H3K4me3 PVP patterns to predict NFRs. We show...... four ENCODE cell lines and four hematopoietic differentiation stages, we identified several enhancers whose regulatory activity is stage specific and correlates positively with the expression of proximal genes in a particular stage. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that PVP patterns delineate...

  20. Characteristic of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xinwei; Han Jia

    2006-01-01

    The basic characteristic of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar was studied. The experimental result indicates the longevity of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar is about 2 h under 30 degree C. The thermoluminescence peak moves to the high temperature when the heating speed increasing. The intensity of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar is directly proportional to radiation dose under 15 Gy. (authors)

  1. Assessing peak aerobic capacity in Dutch law enforcement officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, Harriet; Takken, Tim; de Groot, Janke; Reneman, Michiel; Peters, Roelof; Vanhees, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To cross-validate the existing peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO2peak) prediction equations in Dutch law enforcement officers and to determine whether these prediction equations can be used to predict VO2peak for groups and in a single individual. A further objective was to report

  2. Determination of the upper limit of a peak area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helene, O.

    1990-03-01

    This paper reports the procedure to extract an upper limit of a peak area in a multichannel spectrum. This procedure takes into account the finite shape of the peak and the uncertanties in the background and in the expected position of the peak. (author) [pt

  3. PEAK TRACKING WITH A NEURAL NETWORK FOR SPECTRAL RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    COENEGRACHT, PMJ; METTING, HJ; VANLOO, EM; SNOEIJER, GJ; DOORNBOS, DA

    1993-01-01

    A peak tracking method based on a simulated feed-forward neural network with back-propagation is presented. The network uses the normalized UV spectra and peak areas measured in one chromatogram for peak recognition. It suffices to train the network with only one set of spectra recorded in one

  4. Assessing peak aerobic capacity in Dutch law enforcement officers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, H.; Takken, T.; Groot, J.F. de; Reneman, M.; Peters, R.; Vanhees, L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To cross-validate the existing peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO2peak) prediction equations in Dutch law enforcement officers and to determine whether these prediction equations can be used to predict VO2peak for groups and in a single individual. A further objective was to report

  5. 7 CFR 457.163 - Nursery peak inventory endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nursery peak inventory endorsement. 457.163 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.163 Nursery peak inventory endorsement. Nursery Crop Insurance Peak Inventory Endorsement This endorsement is not continuous and must be...

  6. Bayesian approach for peak detection in two-dimensional chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vivó-Truyols, G.

    2012-01-01

    A new method for peak detection in two-dimensional chromatography is presented. In a first step, the method starts with a conventional one-dimensional peak detection algorithm to detect modulated peaks. In a second step, a sophisticated algorithm is constructed to decide which of the individual

  7. Determination of the upper limit of a peak area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helene, O.

    1991-01-01

    This article reports the procedure to extract an upper limit of a peak area in a multichannel spectrum. This procedure takes into account the finite shape of the peak and the uncertainties both in the background and in the expected position of the peak. (orig.)

  8. Facile preparation of large-scale α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorod/SnO{sub 2} nanorod composites and their LPG-sensing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuong, Dang Duc [School of Engineering Physics, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No. 1, Dai Co Viet Road, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Trung, Khuc Quang [University of Fire Fighting and Protection, No. 243, Khuat Duy Tien Street, Thanh Xuan District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hung, Nguyen Hoang [School of Engineering Physics, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No. 1, Dai Co Viet Road, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hieu, Nguyen Van [International Training Institute for Materials Science, Hanoi University of Science and Technology (Viet Nam); Chien, Nguyen Duc, E-mail: chien.nguyenduc@hust.edu.vn [School of Engineering Physics, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No. 1, Dai Co Viet Road, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2014-06-25

    Highlights: • A simple method was used for synthesis of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorod/SnO{sub 2} nanorod composites. • LPG-sensing properties of the composites were studied and explained consistently. • The results demonstrate a potential method for the mass production of gas sensors. - Abstract: α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods (NRs) with length and diameter of 300 and 50 nm, and SnO{sub 2} NRs with length and diameter of 30 and 10 nm, respectively, were prepared through hydrothermal treatment method. Morphologies of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SnO{sub 2} NRs and their composites with different weight ratios were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SEM and TEM images showed SnO{sub 2} NRs attached on (branch onto) the surface of the α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NRs. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)-sensing properties of films with bare α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SnO{sub 2} NRs, and their composite NRs were investigated. The composite of 75 wt% α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/25 wt% SnO{sub 2} exhibits the highest response to LPG at optimum operating temperature of 370 °C. The improvement in the gas-sensing characteristics of the composite NRs compared with bare NRs is attributed to the formation of hetero-junctions in α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NRs/SnO{sub 2} NRs and to their porous structure.

  9. Peak-by-peak correction of Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectra for photopeaks from background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutshall, N.H.; Larsen, I.L.

    1980-01-01

    Background photopeaks can interfere with accurate measurement of low levels of radionuclides by gamma-ray spectrometry. A flowchart for peak-by-peak correction of sample spectra to produce accurate results is presented. (orig.)

  10. Peak-by-peak correction of Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectra for photopeaks from background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutshall, N H; Larsen, I L [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1980-12-01

    Background photopeaks can interfere with accurate measurement of low levels of radionuclides by gamma-ray spectrometry. A flowchart for peak-by-peak correction of sample spectra to produce accurate results is presented.

  11. Contribution to the study of an lpg jet in the combustion chamber of a spark-ignition engine; Contribution a l'etude d'un jet de gpl dans la chambre de combustion d'un moteur a allumage commande, pour differentes strategies d'injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duong Viet, D.

    2002-07-01

    It appears tempting to combine the less polluting combustion of LPG with the energy performances of a direct injection spark-ignition engine. To this aim the study of high pressure injection of a liquid LPG jet, directly inside the combustion chamber of an engine was performed in two ways: Experimental studies: one with fast cinematography and another with the method of Doppler phases in an one-cylinder 'transparent' engine for various conditions of injection and without combustion. They respectively deliver empirical laws for the jet development and some informations about size and speed of the droplets of LPG. A modeling of the jet could then be made on the basis of a turbulent and deviated jet the parameters of which could be adjusted using results of the preceding experimental study. (author)

  12. Automatic Peak Selection by a Benjamini-Hochberg-Based Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Abbas, Ahmed; Kong, Xin-Bing; Liu, Zhi; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    A common issue in bioinformatics is that computational methods often generate a large number of predictions sorted according to certain confidence scores. A key problem is then determining how many predictions must be selected to include most of the true predictions while maintaining reasonably high precision. In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based protein structure determination, for instance, computational peak picking methods are becoming more and more common, although expert-knowledge remains the method of choice to determine how many peaks among thousands of candidate peaks should be taken into consideration to capture the true peaks. Here, we propose a Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H)-based approach that automatically selects the number of peaks. We formulate the peak selection problem as a multiple testing problem. Given a candidate peak list sorted by either volumes or intensities, we first convert the peaks into p-values and then apply the B-H-based algorithm to automatically select the number of peaks. The proposed approach is tested on the state-of-the-art peak picking methods, including WaVPeak [1] and PICKY [2]. Compared with the traditional fixed number-based approach, our approach returns significantly more true peaks. For instance, by combining WaVPeak or PICKY with the proposed method, the missing peak rates are on average reduced by 20% and 26%, respectively, in a benchmark set of 32 spectra extracted from eight proteins. The consensus of the B-H-selected peaks from both WaVPeak and PICKY achieves 88% recall and 83% precision, which significantly outperforms each individual method and the consensus method without using the B-H algorithm. The proposed method can be used as a standard procedure for any peak picking method and straightforwardly applied to some other prediction selection problems in bioinformatics. The source code, documentation and example data of the proposed method is available at http://sfb.kaust.edu.sa/pages/software.aspx. © 2013

  13. Automatic Peak Selection by a Benjamini-Hochberg-Based Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Abbas, Ahmed

    2013-01-07

    A common issue in bioinformatics is that computational methods often generate a large number of predictions sorted according to certain confidence scores. A key problem is then determining how many predictions must be selected to include most of the true predictions while maintaining reasonably high precision. In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based protein structure determination, for instance, computational peak picking methods are becoming more and more common, although expert-knowledge remains the method of choice to determine how many peaks among thousands of candidate peaks should be taken into consideration to capture the true peaks. Here, we propose a Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H)-based approach that automatically selects the number of peaks. We formulate the peak selection problem as a multiple testing problem. Given a candidate peak list sorted by either volumes or intensities, we first convert the peaks into p-values and then apply the B-H-based algorithm to automatically select the number of peaks. The proposed approach is tested on the state-of-the-art peak picking methods, including WaVPeak [1] and PICKY [2]. Compared with the traditional fixed number-based approach, our approach returns significantly more true peaks. For instance, by combining WaVPeak or PICKY with the proposed method, the missing peak rates are on average reduced by 20% and 26%, respectively, in a benchmark set of 32 spectra extracted from eight proteins. The consensus of the B-H-selected peaks from both WaVPeak and PICKY achieves 88% recall and 83% precision, which significantly outperforms each individual method and the consensus method without using the B-H algorithm. The proposed method can be used as a standard procedure for any peak picking method and straightforwardly applied to some other prediction selection problems in bioinformatics. The source code, documentation and example data of the proposed method is available at http://sfb.kaust.edu.sa/pages/software.aspx. © 2013

  14. Gamma-Ray Peak Integration: Accuracy and Precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard M. Lindstrom

    2000-01-01

    The accuracy of singlet gamma-ray peak areas obtained by a peak analysis program is immaterial. If the same algorithm is used for sample measurement as for calibration and if the peak shapes are similar, then biases in the integration method cancel. Reproducibility is the only important issue. Even the uncertainty of the areas computed by the program is trivial because the true standard uncertainty can be experimentally assessed by repeated measurements of the same source. Reproducible peak integration was important in a recent standard reference material certification task. The primary tool used for spectrum analysis was SUM, a National Institute of Standards and Technology interactive program to sum peaks and subtract a linear background, using the same channels to integrate all 20 spectra. For comparison, this work examines other peak integration programs. Unlike some published comparisons of peak performance in which synthetic spectra were used, this experiment used spectra collected for a real (though exacting) analytical project, analyzed by conventional software used in routine ways. Because both components of the 559- to 564-keV doublet are from 76 As, they were integrated together with SUM. The other programs, however, deconvoluted the peaks. A sensitive test of the fitting algorithm is the ratio of reported peak areas. In almost all the cases, this ratio was much more variable than expected from the reported uncertainties reported by the program. Other comparisons to be reported indicate that peak integration is still an imperfect tool in the analysis of gamma-ray spectra

  15. Relationships between electroencephalographic spectral peaks across frequency bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Jennifer Van Albada

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The degree to which electroenencephalographic (EEG spectral peaks are independent, and the relationships between their frequencies have been debated. A novel fitting method was used to determine peak parameters in the range 2–35 Hz from a large sample of eyes-closed spectra, and their interrelationships were investigated. Findings were compared with a mean-field model of thalamocortical activity, which predicts near-harmonic relationships between peaks. The subject set consisted of 1424 healthy subjects from the Brain Resource International Database. Peaks in the theta range occurred on average near half the alpha peak frequency, while peaks in the beta range tended to occur near twice and three times the alpha peak frequency on an individual-subject basis. Moreover, for the majority of subjects, alpha peak frequencies were significantly positively correlated with frequencies of peaks in the theta and low and high beta ranges. Such a harmonic progression agrees semiquantitatively with theoretical predictions from the mean-field model. These findings indicate a common or analogous source for different rhythms, and help to define appropriate individual frequency bands for peak identification.

  16. Relationships between Electroencephalographic Spectral Peaks Across Frequency Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Albada, S. J.; Robinson, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which electroencephalographic spectral peaks are independent, and the relationships between their frequencies have been debated. A novel fitting method was used to determine peak parameters in the range 2–35 Hz from a large sample of eyes-closed spectra, and their interrelationships were investigated. Findings were compared with a mean-field model of thalamocortical activity, which predicts near-harmonic relationships between peaks. The subject set consisted of 1424 healthy subjects from the Brain Resource International Database. Peaks in the theta range occurred on average near half the alpha peak frequency, while peaks in the beta range tended to occur near twice and three times the alpha peak frequency on an individual-subject basis. Moreover, for the majority of subjects, alpha peak frequencies were significantly positively correlated with frequencies of peaks in the theta and low and high beta ranges. Such a harmonic progression agrees semiquantitatively with theoretical predictions from the mean-field model. These findings indicate a common or analogous source for different rhythms, and help to define appropriate individual frequency bands for peak identification. PMID:23483663

  17. Particle in cell simulation of peaking switch for breakdown evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umbarkar, Sachin B.; Bindu, S.; Mangalvedekar, H.A.; Saxena, A.; Singh, N.M., E-mail: sachin.b.umbarkar@gmail.com [Department of Electric Engineering, Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Mumbai (India); Sharma, Archana; Saroj, P.C.; Mittal, K.C. [Accelerator Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-07-01

    Marx generator connected to peaking capacitor and peaking switch can generate Ultra-Wideband (UWB) radiation. A new peaking switch is designed for converting the existing nanosecond Marx generator to a UWB source. The paper explains the particle in cell (PIC) simulation for this peaking switch, using MAGIC 3D software. This peaking switch electrode is made up of copper tungsten material and is fixed inside the hermitically sealed derlin material. The switch can withstand a gas pressure up to 13.5 kg/cm{sup 2}. The lower electrode of the switch is connected to the last stage of the Marx generator. Initially Marx generator (without peaking stage) in air; gives the output pulse with peak amplitude of 113.75 kV and pulse rise time of 25 ns. Thus, we design a new peaking switch to improve the rise time of output pulse and to pressurize this peaking switch separately (i.e. Marx and peaking switch is at different pressure). The PIC simulation gives the particle charge density, current density, E counter plot, emitted electron current, and particle energy along the axis of gap between electrodes. The charge injection and electric field dependence on ionic dissociation phenomenon are briefly analyzed using this simulation. The model is simulated with different gases (N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and Air) under different pressure (2 kg/cm{sup 2}, 5 kg/cm{sup 2}, 10 kg/cm{sup 2}). (author)

  18. QRS peak detection for heart rate monitoring on Android smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pambudi Utomo, Trio; Nuryani, Nuryani; Darmanto

    2017-11-01

    In this study, Android smartphone is used for heart rate monitoring and displaying electrocardiogram (ECG) graph. Heart rate determination is based on QRS peak detection. Two methods are studied to detect the QRS complex peak; they are Peak Threshold and Peak Filter. The acquisition of ECG data is utilized by AD8232 module from Analog Devices, three electrodes, and Microcontroller Arduino UNO R3. To record the ECG data from a patient, three electrodes are attached to particular body’s surface of a patient. Patient’s heart activity which is recorded by AD8232 module is decoded by Arduino UNO R3 into analog data. Then, the analog data is converted into a voltage value (mV) and is processed to get the QRS complex peak. Heart rate value is calculated by Microcontroller Arduino UNO R3 uses the QRS complex peak. Voltage, heart rate, and the QRS complex peak are sent to Android smartphone by Bluetooth HC-05. ECG data is displayed as the graph by Android smartphone. To evaluate the performance of QRS complex peak detection method, three parameters are used; they are positive predictive, accuracy and sensitivity. Positive predictive, accuracy, and sensitivity of Peak Threshold method is 92.39%, 70.30%, 74.62% and for Peak Filter method are 98.38%, 82.47%, 83.61%, respectively.

  19. Efeito da substituição do milho pela farinha da apara de mandioca em rações para poedeiras comerciais Effect of corn replacement with cassava shaving flour in commercial laying hen diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank George Guimarães Cruz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os desempenhos produtivo e econômico da substituição do milho pela farinha da apara de mandioca em rações para poedeiras. Foram utilizadas 200 poedeiras Lohmann LSL com 46 semanas de idade, distribuídas em 25 gaiolas. O delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições de oito aves por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco níveis (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% de substituição do milho pela farinha da apara de mandioca. O consumo diário de ração apresentou efeito quadrático, com médias de 100,68; 101,00; 100,72; 99,42 e 99,50 g, nos respectivos níveis de substituição. A viabilidade, a produção de ovos e a conversão alimentar (kg/dz e kg/kg não diferiram significativamente entre os tratamentos. O peso do ovo, os percentuais de albúmen e da casca, a espessura da casca e a gravidade específica do ovo foram alterados pelos tratamentos, apresentando efeito quadrático. A massa de ovo e o percentual de gema não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos. O tratamento com 50% de substituição do milho, embora tenha proporcionado maior peso do ovo, resultou em menor percentual de casca. A coloração da gema foi alterada pelos tratamentos, reduzindo linearmente (7,84; 7,52; 7,35; 5,32 e 5,12 à medida que se aumentou o nível de substituição do milho. Economicamente, o tratamento com 100% de substituição do milho pela farinha da apara de mandioca apresentou maior diferença no custo por quilo de ração, por dúzia de ovo e por caixa de ovo em relação aos demais. A substituição de até 100% do milho pela farinha da apara da mandioca não influencia a produção de ovos e a conversão alimentar. Entretanto, para substituição, deve-se considerar o custo desse resíduo em relação ao milho e dos pigmentantes a serem utilizados para corrigir a pigmentação da gema.The economic and productive performances of the dietary corn replacement with cassava shavings

  20. Estimation of the peak factor based on watershed characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, Jean; Nolin, Simon; Ruest, Benoit [BPR Inc., Quebec, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Hydraulic modeling and dam structure design require the river flood flow as a primary input. For a given flood event, the ratio of peak flow over mean daily flow defines the peak factor. The peak factor value is dependent on the watershed and location along the river. The main goal of this study consisted in finding a relationship between watershed characteristics and this peak factor. Regression analyses were carried out on 53 natural watersheds located in the southern part of the province of Quebec using data from the Centre d'expertise hydrique du Quebec (CEHQ). The watershed characteristics included in the analyses were the watershed area, the maximum flow length, the mean slope, the lake proportion and the mean elevation. The results showed that watershed area and length are the major parameters influencing the peak factor. Nine natural watersheds were also used to test the use of a multivariable model in order to determine the peak factor for ungauged watersheds.

  1. Evaluation of peak power prediction equations in male basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Lyons, Mark; Nevill, Alan M

    2008-07-01

    This study compared peak power estimated using 4 commonly used regression equations with actual peak power derived from force platform data in a group of adolescent basketball players. Twenty-five elite junior male basketball players (age, 16.5 +/- 0.5 years; mass, 74.2 +/- 11.8 kg; height, 181.8 +/- 8.1 cm) volunteered to participate in the study. Actual peak power was determined using a countermovement vertical jump on a force platform. Estimated peak power was determined using countermovement jump height and body mass. All 4 prediction equations were significantly related to actual peak power (all p jump prediction equations, 12% for the Canavan and Vescovi equation, and 6% for the Sayers countermovement jump equation. In all cases peak power was underestimated.

  2. Peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Christina; Lyke, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Maslow (1970) defined peak experiences as the most wonderful experiences of a person's life, which may include a sense of awe, well-being, or transcendence. Furthermore, recent research has suggested that psilocybin can produce experiences subjectively rated as uniquely meaningful and significant (Griffiths et al. 2006). It is therefore possible that psilocybin may facilitate or change the nature of peak experiences in users compared to non-users. This study was designed to compare the peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users, to evaluate the frequency of peak experiences while under the influence of psilocybin, and to assess the perceived degree of alteration of consciousness during these experiences. Participants were recruited through convenience and snowball sampling from undergraduate classes and at a musical event. Participants were divided into three groups, those who reported a peak experience while under the influence of psilocybin (psilocybin peak experience: PPE), participants who had used psilocybin but reported their peak experiences did not occur while they were under the influence of psilocybin (non-psilocybin peak experience: NPPE), and participants who had never used psilocybin (non-user: NU). A total of 101 participants were asked to think about their peak experiences and complete a measure evaluating the degree of alteration of consciousness during that experience. Results indicated that 47% of psilocybin users reported their peak experience occurred while using psilocybin. In addition, there were significant differences among the three groups on all dimensions of alteration of consciousness. Future research is necessary to identify factors that influence the peak experiences of psilocybin users in naturalistic settings and contribute to the different characteristics of peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users.

  3. Extragalactic Peaked-spectrum Radio Sources at Low Frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callingham, J. R.; Gaensler, B. M.; Sadler, E. M.; Lenc, E. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Ekers, R. D.; Bell, M. E. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science (CASS), Marsfield, NSW 2122 (Australia); Line, J. L. B.; Hancock, P. J.; Kapińska, A. D.; McKinley, B.; Procopio, P. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) (Australia); Hurley-Walker, N.; Tingay, S. J.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Morgan, J. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102 (Australia); Dwarakanath, K. S. [Raman Research Institute (RRI), Bangalore 560080 (India); For, B.-Q. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Hindson, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Offringa, A. R., E-mail: joseph.callingham@sydney.edu.au [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Dwingeloo (Netherlands); and others

    2017-02-20

    We present a sample of 1483 sources that display spectral peaks between 72 MHz and 1.4 GHz, selected from the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array (GLEAM) survey. The GLEAM survey is the widest fractional bandwidth all-sky survey to date, ideal for identifying peaked-spectrum sources at low radio frequencies. Our peaked-spectrum sources are the low-frequency analogs of gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) and compact-steep spectrum (CSS) sources, which have been hypothesized to be the precursors to massive radio galaxies. Our sample more than doubles the number of known peaked-spectrum candidates, and 95% of our sample have a newly characterized spectral peak. We highlight that some GPS sources peaking above 5 GHz have had multiple epochs of nuclear activity, and we demonstrate the possibility of identifying high-redshift ( z > 2) galaxies via steep optically thin spectral indices and low observed peak frequencies. The distribution of the optically thick spectral indices of our sample is consistent with past GPS/CSS samples but with a large dispersion, suggesting that the spectral peak is a product of an inhomogeneous environment that is individualistic. We find no dependence of observed peak frequency with redshift, consistent with the peaked-spectrum sample comprising both local CSS sources and high-redshift GPS sources. The 5 GHz luminosity distribution lacks the brightest GPS and CSS sources of previous samples, implying that a convolution of source evolution and redshift influences the type of peaked-spectrum sources identified below 1 GHz. Finally, we discuss sources with optically thick spectral indices that exceed the synchrotron self-absorption limit.

  4. The sharp peak-flat trough pattern and critical speculation

    OpenAIRE

    Roehner, B. M.; Sornette, D.

    1998-01-01

    We find empirically a characteristic sharp peak-flat trough pattern in a large set of commodity prices. We argue that the sharp peak structure reflects an endogenous inter-market organization, and that peaks may be seen as local ``singularities'' resulting from imitation and herding. These findings impose a novel stringent constraint on the construction of models. Intermittent amplification is not sufficient and nonlinear effects seem necessary to account for the observations.

  5. Gamma-ray peak shapes from cadmium zinc telluride detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namboodiri, M.N.; Lavietes, A.D.; McQuaid, J.H.

    1996-09-01

    We report the results of a study of the peak shapes in the gamma spectra measured using several 5 x 5 x 5 mm{sup 3} cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors. A simple parameterization involving a Gaussian and an exponential low energy tail describes the peak shapes sell. We present the variation of the parameters with gamma energy. This type of information is very useful in the analysis of complex gamma spectra consisting of many peaks.

  6. Statistics of peaks in cosmological nonlinear density fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suginohara, Tatsushi; Suto, Yasushi.

    1990-06-01

    Distribution of the high-density peaks in the universe is examined using N-body simulations. Nonlinear evolution of the underlying density field significantly changes the statistical properties of the peaks, compared with the analytic results valid for the random Gaussian field. In particular, the abundances and correlations of the initial density peaks are discussed in the context of biased galaxy formation theory. (author)

  7. Environmental impacts of public transport. Why peak-period travellers cause a greater environmental burden than off-peak travellers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rietveld, P.

    2002-01-01

    Given the difference between peak and off-peak occupancy rates in public transport, emissions per traveller kilometre are lower in the peak than in the off-peak period, whereas the opposite pattern is observed for cars. It is argued that it is much more fruitful to analyse environmental effects in marginal terms. This calls for a careful analysis of capacity management policies of public transport suppliers that are facing increased demand during both peak and off-peak periods. A detailed analysis of capacity management by the Netherlands Railways (NS) revealed that off-peak capacity supply is mainly dictated by the demand levels during the peak period. The analysis included the effects of increased frequency and increased vehicle size on environmental impacts, while environmental economies of vehicle size were also taken into account. The main conclusion is that the marginal environmental burden during the peak hours is much higher than is usually thought, whereas it is almost zero during the off-peak period. This implies a pattern that is the precise opposite of the average environmental burden. Thus, an analysis of environmental effects of public transport based on average performance would yield misleading conclusions [nl

  8. The dislocation-internal friction peak γ in tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, J.; Benoit, W.; Schultz, H.

    1989-01-01

    Torsion-pendulum measurements were carried out on high-purity single crystal specimens of tantalum, having extremely low oxygen contents ( 2 peak, which appears close to γ is small traces of oxygen are presents. The γ 2 peak was formerly explained as a ''dislocation-enhanced Snoek peak''. The γ peak recovers at the peak temperature, whereas the γ 2 peak is more stable. On the basis of their results, and making use of earlier investigations of Rodrian and Schultz, the authors suggest that γ 2 is modified γ relaxation, related to screw-dislocation segments, stabilized by oxygen-decorated kinks. The stability of the γ 2 peak allows an accurate determination of the activation energy, found to be 1.00 +- 0.03 eV. This value is distinctly lower than the activation energy of the oxygen Snoek effect (1.10 eV) and is related here to the mechanism of ''kink-pair formation'' in screw dislocations, as the original γ peak. The numerical value is compatible with recent values derived from flow-stress measurements. The peak γ 2 shows increasing stability with increasing oxygen content. This is explained by single- and multi-decorated kinks

  9. Evaluation of peak-fitting software for gamma spectrum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahn, Guilherme S.; Genezini, Frederico A.; Moralles, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    In all applications of gamma-ray spectroscopy, one of the most important and delicate parts of the data analysis is the fitting of the gamma-ray spectra, where information as the number of counts, the position of the centroid and the width, for instance, are associated with each peak of each spectrum. There's a huge choice of computer programs that perform this type of analysis, and the most commonly used in routine work are the ones that automatically locate and fit the peaks; this fit can be made in several different ways - the most common ways are to fit a Gaussian function to each peak or simply to integrate the area under the peak, but some software go far beyond and include several small corrections to the simple Gaussian peak function, in order to compensate for secondary effects. In this work several gamma-ray spectroscopy software are compared in the task of finding and fitting the gamma-ray peaks in spectra taken with standard sources of 137 Cs, 60 Co, 133 Ba and 152 Eu. The results show that all of the automatic software can be properly used in the task of finding and fitting peaks, with the exception of GammaVision; also, it was possible to verify that the automatic peak-fitting software did perform as well as - and sometimes even better than - a manual peak-fitting software. (author)

  10. Individual vision and peak distribution in collective actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng

    2017-06-01

    People make decisions on whether they should participate as participants or not as free riders in collective actions with heterogeneous visions. Besides of the utility heterogeneity and cost heterogeneity, this work includes and investigates the effect of vision heterogeneity by constructing a decision model, i.e. the revised peak model of participants. In this model, potential participants make decisions under the joint influence of utility, cost, and vision heterogeneities. The outcomes of simulations indicate that vision heterogeneity reduces the values of peaks, and the relative variance of peaks is stable. Under normal distributions of vision heterogeneity and other factors, the peaks of participants are normally distributed as well. Therefore, it is necessary to predict distribution traits of peaks based on distribution traits of related factors such as vision heterogeneity and so on. We predict the distribution of peaks with parameters of both mean and standard deviation, which provides the confident intervals and robust predictions of peaks. Besides, we validate the peak model of via the Yuyuan Incident, a real case in China (2014), and the model works well in explaining the dynamics and predicting the peak of real case.

  11. Bayesian approach for peak detection in two-dimensional chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivó-Truyols, Gabriel

    2012-03-20

    A new method for peak detection in two-dimensional chromatography is presented. In a first step, the method starts with a conventional one-dimensional peak detection algorithm to detect modulated peaks. In a second step, a sophisticated algorithm is constructed to decide which of the individual one-dimensional peaks have been originated from the same compound and should then be arranged in a two-dimensional peak. The merging algorithm is based on Bayesian inference. The user sets prior information about certain parameters (e.g., second-dimension retention time variability, first-dimension band broadening, chromatographic noise). On the basis of these priors, the algorithm calculates the probability of myriads of peak arrangements (i.e., ways of merging one-dimensional peaks), finding which of them holds the highest value. Uncertainty in each parameter can be accounted by adapting conveniently its probability distribution function, which in turn may change the final decision of the most probable peak arrangement. It has been demonstrated that the Bayesian approach presented in this paper follows the chromatographers' intuition. The algorithm has been applied and tested with LC × LC and GC × GC data and takes around 1 min to process chromatograms with several thousands of peaks.

  12. Assessing peak aerobic capacity in Dutch law enforcement officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Wittink

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To cross-validate the existing peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO2peak prediction equations in Dutch law enforcement officers and to determine whether these prediction equations can be used to predict VO2peak for groups and in a single individual. A further objective was to report normative absolute and relative VO2peak values of a sample of law enforcement officers in the Netherlands. Material and Methods: The peak rate of oxygen consumption (ml×kg–1×min–1 was measured using a maximal incremental bicycle test in 1530 subjects, including 1068 male and 461 female police officers. Validity of the prediction equations for groups was assessed by comparing predicted VO2peak with measured VO2peak using paired t-tests. For individual differences limits of agreement (LoA were calculated. Equations were considered valid for individuals when the difference between measured and predicted VO2peak did not exceed ±1 metabolic equivalent (MET in 95% of individuals. Results: None of the equations met the validity criterion of 95% of individuals having ±1 MET difference or less than the measured value. Limits of agreement (LoAs were large in all predictions. At the individual level, none of the equations were valid predictors of VO2peak (ml×kg–1×min–1. Normative values for Dutch law enforcement officers were presented. Conclusions: Substantial differences between measured and predicted VO2peak (ml×kg–1×min–1 were found. Most tested equations were invalid predictors of VO2peak at group level and all were invalid at individual levels.

  13. Constraining the shape of the CMB: A peak-by-peak analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oedman, Carolina J.; Hobson, Michael P.; Lasenby, Anthony N.; Melchiorri, Alessandro

    2003-01-01

    The recent measurements of the power spectrum of cosmic microwave background anisotropies are consistent with the simplest inflationary scenario and big bang nucleosynthesis constraints. However, these results rely on the assumption of a class of models based on primordial adiabatic perturbations, cold dark matter and a cosmological constant. In this paper we investigate the need for deviations from the Λ-CDM scenario by first characterizing the spectrum using a phenomenological function in a 15 dimensional parameter space. Using a Monte Carlo Markov chain approach to Bayesian inference and a low curvature model template we then check for the presence of new physics and/or systematics in the CMB data. We find an almost perfect consistency between the phenomenological fits and the standard Λ-CDM models. The curvature of the secondary peaks is weakly constrained by the present data, but they are well located. The improved spectral resolution expected from future satellite experiments is warranted for a definitive test of the scenario

  14. Limitations of middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case of a mother with severe pre-eclampsia at 32 weeks' gestation and non-immune fetal hydrops without obvious cause. Since the. MCA peak systolic velocity (PSV) was ... Limitations of middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity .... [7] found MCA PSV of value in 9 women with chronic abruption, but in 5.

  15. Daily Nigerian peak load forecasting using artificial neural network ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A daily peak load forecasting technique that uses artificial neural network with seasonal indices is presented in this paper. A neural network of relatively smaller size than the main prediction network is used to predict the daily peak load for a period of one year over which the actual daily load data are available using one ...

  16. Diffraction peaks in x-ray spectroscopy: Friend or foe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot, R.G.; Goehner, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    Diffraction peaks can occur as unidentifiable peaks in the energy spectrum of an x-ray spectrometric analysis. Recently, there has been increased interest in oriented polycrystalline films and epitaxial films on single crystal substrates for electronic applications. Since these materials diffract x-rays more efficiently than randomly oriented polycrystalline materials, diffraction peaks are being observed more frequently in x-ray fluorescent spectra. In addition, micro x-ray spectrometric analysis utilizes a small, intense, collimated x-ray beam that can yield well defined diffraction peaks. In some cases these diffraction peaks can occur at the same position as elemental peaks. These diffraction peaks, although a possible problem in qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis, can give very useful information about the crystallographic structure and orientation of the material being analyzed. The observed diffraction peaks are dependent on the geometry of the x-ray spectrometer, the degree of collimation and the distribution of wavelengths (energies) originating from the x-ray tube and striking the sample

  17. Quality Assurance in the Determination of Overlapping Peak Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, L.H.; Heydorn, K.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of different computer programs to yield accurate peak areas in statistical control in the case of partially overlapping photopeaks has been tested by the Analysis of Precision. A modified Covell method, two commercially available peak-fitting programs from Nuclear Data and Ortec, and ...

  18. Peak effect in surface resistance at microwave frequencies in Dy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the measurements at both frequencies the induced microwave current was always less than the critical current of the films. The reason for observation of this peak effect in these films has been explained in our earlier publication [5]. Comparing figures 1 and 2, it is observed that the peaks in sample S1 are broader and.

  19. Peak heart rate decreases with increasing severity of acute hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Araoz, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2001-01-01

    , 459, and 404 mmHg) in a hypobaric chamber and while breathing 9% O(2) in N(2). These conditions were equivalent to altitudes of 3300, 4300, 5300, and 6300 m above sea level, respectively. At 4300 m, maximal exercise was also repeated after 4 and 8 h. Peak heart rate (HR) decreased from 191 (182......-202) (mean and range) at sea level to 189 (179-200), 182 (172-189), 175 (166-183), and 165 (162-169) in the acute hypoxic conditions. Peak HR did not decrease further after 4 and 8 h at 4300 m compared to the acute exposure at this altitude. Between barometric pressures of 518 and 355 mmHg (approximately...... 3300 and 6300 m), peak HR decreased linearly: peak HR(hypobaria) = peak HR(sea level) - 0.135 x [hypobaria(3100) - hypobaria (mmHg)]; or peak HR(altitude) = peak HR(sea level) - 0.15 x (altitude - 3100 m). This corresponds to approximately 1-beat x min(-1) reduction in peak HR for every 7-mmHg decrease...

  20. Determination of gaussian peaks in gamma spectra by iterative regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordemann, D.J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The parameters of the peaks in gamma-ray spectra are determined by a simple iterative regression method. For each peak, the parameters are associated with a gaussian curve (3 parameters) located above a linear continuum (2 parameters). This method may produces the complete result of the calculation of statistical uncertainties and an accuracy higher than others methods. (author) [pt

  1. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate In Cigarette Smokers | Ukoli | Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare lung function between smokers and non-smokers using Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR). Methods: This study examines the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of three hundred and forty cigarette smokers, age and sex-matched with PEFR of equal number of non-smokers. Results: The mean PEFR of ...

  2. Online junction temperature measurement using peak gate current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A new method for junction temperature measurement of MOS-gated power semiconductor switches is presented. The measurement method involves detecting the peak voltage over the external gate resistor of an IGBT or MOSFET during turn-on. This voltage is directly proportional to the peak gate current...

  3. Psychological Preparation for Peak Performance in Sports Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohuruogu, Ben; Jonathan, Ugwuanyi I.; Ikechukwu, Ugwu Jude

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempts to make an overview of various techniques, sport psychologist adopt in psychological preparation of athletes for peak performance. To attain peak performance in sports competitions, coaches and athletes should not base their prospect on physical training on sport skills alone rather should integrate both the mental and physical…

  4. Identification of peaks in multidimensional coincidence {gamma}-ray spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morhac, Miroslav E-mail: fyzimiro@savba.sk; Kliman, Jan; Matousek, Vladislav; Veselsky, Martin; Turzo, Ivan

    2000-03-21

    In the paper a new algorithm to find peaks in two, three and multidimensional spectra, measured in large multidetector {gamma}-ray arrays, is derived. Given the dimension m, the algorithm is selective to m-fold coincidence peaks. It is insensitive to intersections of lower-fold coincidences, hereinafter called ridges.

  5. Identification of peaks in multidimensional coincidence γ-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morhac, Miroslav; Kliman, Jan; Matousek, Vladislav; Veselsky, Martin; Turzo, Ivan

    2000-01-01

    In the paper a new algorithm to find peaks in two, three and multidimensional spectra, measured in large multidetector γ-ray arrays, is derived. Given the dimension m, the algorithm is selective to m-fold coincidence peaks. It is insensitive to intersections of lower-fold coincidences, hereinafter called ridges

  6. Probabilistic peak detection for first-order chromatographic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopatka, M.; Vivó-Truyols, G.; Sjerps, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for probabilistic peak detection in first-order chromatographic data. Unlike conventional methods that deliver a binary answer pertaining to the expected presence or absence of a chromatographic peak, our method calculates the probability of a point being affected by

  7. A new automatic fixed peak technology of microcontroller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Liguo; Wang Dequan; Zhang Damin; Li Jun; Liu Yuwen; Guo Qingxue; Wang Guifeng

    1999-01-01

    The microcontroller automatic fixed peak technology which differs from fashion half channel fixed peak is described. It bases on the principles of selecting double single channel and readjusting the voltage of power source. This technology is suitable to the industrial isotope instruments with various radioactive sources

  8. Impact of Smart Grid Technologies on Peak Load to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The IEA's Smart Grids Technology Roadmap identified five global trends that could be effectively addressed by deploying smart grids. These are: increasing peak load (the maximum power that the grid delivers during peak hours), rising electricity consumption, electrification of transport, deployment of variable generation technologies (e.g. wind and solar PV) and ageing infrastructure. Along with this roadmap, a new working paper -- Impact of Smart Grid Technologies on Peak Load to 2050 -- develops a methodology to estimate the evolution of peak load until 2050. It also analyses the impact of smart grid technologies in reducing peak load for four key regions; OECD North America, OECD Europe, OECD Pacific and China. This working paper is a first IEA effort in an evolving modelling process of smart grids that is considering demand response in residential and commercial sectors as well as the integration of electric vehicles.

  9. Peak broadening in paper chromatography and related techniques : III. Peak broadening in thin-layer chromatography on cellulose powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligny, C.L. de; Remijnse, A.G.

    1968-01-01

    The mechanism of peak broadening in thin-layer chromatography on cellulose powder was investigated by comparing the peak widths obtained in chromatography with those caused only by diffusion in the cellulose powder, for a set of amino acids of widely differing RF values and six kinds of cellulose

  10. Evaluation of different time domain peak models using extreme learning machine-based peak detection for EEG signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Asrul; Ibrahim, Zuwairie; Mokhtar, Norrima; Shapiai, Mohd Ibrahim; Cumming, Paul; Mubin, Marizan

    2016-01-01

    Various peak models have been introduced to detect and analyze peaks in the time domain analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. In general, peak model in the time domain analysis consists of a set of signal parameters, such as amplitude, width, and slope. Models including those proposed by Dumpala, Acir, Liu, and Dingle are routinely used to detect peaks in EEG signals acquired in clinical studies of epilepsy or eye blink. The optimal peak model is the most reliable peak detection performance in a particular application. A fair measure of performance of different models requires a common and unbiased platform. In this study, we evaluate the performance of the four different peak models using the extreme learning machine (ELM)-based peak detection algorithm. We found that the Dingle model gave the best performance, with 72 % accuracy in the analysis of real EEG data. Statistical analysis conferred that the Dingle model afforded significantly better mean testing accuracy than did the Acir and Liu models, which were in the range 37-52 %. Meanwhile, the Dingle model has no significant difference compared to Dumpala model.

  11. System dynamics model of Hubbert Peak for China's oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Zaipu; Li Mingyu

    2007-01-01

    American geophysicist M. King Hubbert in 1956 first introduced a logistic equation to estimate the peak and lifetime production for oil of USA. Since then, a fierce debate ensued on the so-called Hubbert Peak, including also its methodology. This paper proposes to use the generic STELLA model to simulate Hubbert Peak, particularly for the Chinese oil production. This model is demonstrated as being robust. We used three scenarios to estimate the Chinese oil peak: according to scenario 1 of this model, the Hubbert Peak for China's crude oil production appears to be in 2019 with a value of 199.5 million tonnes, which is about 1.1 times the 2005 output. Before the peak comes, Chinese oil output will grow by about 1-2% annually, after the peak, however, the output will fall. By 2040, the annual production of Chinese crude oil would be equivalent to the level of 1990. During the coming 20 years, the crude oil demand of China will probably grow at the rate of 2-3% annually, and the gap between domestic supply and total demand may be more than half of this demand

  12. Core fueling to produce peaked density profiles in large tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; McGuire, K.M.; Schmidt, G.L.; Zweben, S.J.

    1994-06-01

    Peaking the density profile increases the usable bootstrap current and the average fusion power density; this could reduce the current drive power and increase the net output of power producing tokamaks. The use of neutral beams and pellet injection to produce peaked density profiles is assessed. We show that with radially ''hollow'' diffusivity profiles (and no particle pinch) moderately peaked density profiles can be produced by particle source profiles which are peaked off-axis. The fueling penetration requirements can therefore be relaxed and this greatly improves the feasibility of generating peaked density profiles in large tokamaks. In particular, neutral beam fueling does not require MeV particle energy. Even with beam voltages of ∼200 keV, however, exceptionally good particle confinement, τ p much-gt τ E is required to achieve net electrical power generation. In system with no power production requirement (e.g., neutron sources) neutral beam fueling should be capable of producing peaked density profiles in devices as large as ITER. Fueling systems with low energy cost per particle (such as cryogenic pellet injection) must be used in power producing tokamaks when τ p ∼ τ E . Simulations with pellet injection speeds of 7 km/sec show the peaking factor, n eo /left-angle n e right-angle, approaching 2

  13. Probabilistic peak detection for first-order chromatographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatka, M; Vivó-Truyols, G; Sjerps, M J

    2014-03-19

    We present a novel algorithm for probabilistic peak detection in first-order chromatographic data. Unlike conventional methods that deliver a binary answer pertaining to the expected presence or absence of a chromatographic peak, our method calculates the probability of a point being affected by such a peak. The algorithm makes use of chromatographic information (i.e. the expected width of a single peak and the standard deviation of baseline noise). As prior information of the existence of a peak in a chromatographic run, we make use of the statistical overlap theory. We formulate an exhaustive set of mutually exclusive hypotheses concerning presence or absence of different peak configurations. These models are evaluated by fitting a segment of chromatographic data by least-squares. The evaluation of these competing hypotheses can be performed as a Bayesian inferential task. We outline the potential advantages of adopting this approach for peak detection and provide several examples of both improved performance and increased flexibility afforded by our approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Core fuelling to produce peaked density profiles in large tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; McGuire, K.M.; Schmidt, G.L.; Zweben, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Peaking the density profile increases the usable bootstrap current and the average fusion power density; this could reduce the current drive power and increase the net output of power producing tokamaks. The use of neutral beams and pellet injection to produce peaked density profiles is assessed. It is shown that with radially 'hollow' diffusivity profiles (and no particle pinch) moderately peaked density profiles can be produced by particle source profiles that are peaked off-axis. The fuelling penetration requirements can therefore be relaxed and this greatly improves the feasibility of generating peaked density profiles in large tokamaks. In particular, neutral beam fuelling does not require Megavolt particle energies. Even with beam voltages of ∼ 200 keV, however, exceptionally good particle confinement is needed to achieve net electrical power generation. The required ratio of particle to thermal diffusivities is an order of magnitude outside the range reported for tokamaks. In a system with no power production requirement (e.g., neutron sources) neutral beam fuelling should be capable of producing peaked density profiles in devices as large as ITER. Fuelling systems with low energy cost per particle - such as cryogenic pellet injection - must be used in power producing tokamaks when τ P ∼ τ E . Simulations with pellet injection speeds of 7 km/s show that the peaking factor, n e0 / e >, approaches 2. (author). 65 refs, 8 figs

  15. Peak loads and network investments in sustainable energy transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blokhuis, Erik, E-mail: e.g.j.blokhuis@tue.nl [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Architecture, Building and Planning, Vertigo 8.11, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Brouwers, Bart [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Architecture, Building and Planning, Vertigo 8.11, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Putten, Eric van der [Endinet, Gas and Electricity Network Operations, P.O. Box 2005, 5600CA Eindhoven (Netherlands); Schaefer, Wim [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Architecture, Building and Planning, Vertigo 8.11, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    Current energy distribution networks are often not equipped for facilitating expected sustainable transitions. Major concerns for future electricity networks are the possibility of peak load increases and the expected growth of decentralized energy generation. In this article, we focus on peak load increases; the effects of possible future developments on peak loads are studied, together with the consequences for the network. The city of Eindhoven (the Netherlands) is used as reference city, for which a scenario is developed in which the assumed future developments adversely influence the maximum peak loads on the network. In this scenario, the total electricity peak load in Eindhoven is expected to increase from 198 MVA in 2009 to 591-633 MVA in 2040. The necessary investments for facilitating the expected increased peak loads are estimated at 305-375 million Euros. Based upon these projections, it is advocated that - contrary to current Dutch policy - choices regarding sustainable transitions should be made from the viewpoint of integral energy systems, evaluating economic implications of changes to generation, grid development, and consumption. Recently applied and finished policies on energy demand reduction showed to be effective; however, additional and connecting policies on energy generation and distribution should be considered on short term. - Highlights: > Sustainable energy transitions can result in major electricity peak load increases. > Introduction of heat pumps and electrical vehicles requires network expansion. > Under worst case assumptions, peak loads in Eindhoven increase with 200% until 2040. > The necessary investment for facilitating this 2040 peak demand is Euro 305-375 million. > Future policy choices should be made from the viewpoint of the integral energy system.

  16. Peak loads and network investments in sustainable energy transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhuis, Erik; Brouwers, Bart; Putten, Eric van der; Schaefer, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Current energy distribution networks are often not equipped for facilitating expected sustainable transitions. Major concerns for future electricity networks are the possibility of peak load increases and the expected growth of decentralized energy generation. In this article, we focus on peak load increases; the effects of possible future developments on peak loads are studied, together with the consequences for the network. The city of Eindhoven (the Netherlands) is used as reference city, for which a scenario is developed in which the assumed future developments adversely influence the maximum peak loads on the network. In this scenario, the total electricity peak load in Eindhoven is expected to increase from 198 MVA in 2009 to 591-633 MVA in 2040. The necessary investments for facilitating the expected increased peak loads are estimated at 305-375 million Euros. Based upon these projections, it is advocated that - contrary to current Dutch policy - choices regarding sustainable transitions should be made from the viewpoint of integral energy systems, evaluating economic implications of changes to generation, grid development, and consumption. Recently applied and finished policies on energy demand reduction showed to be effective; however, additional and connecting policies on energy generation and distribution should be considered on short term. - Highlights: → Sustainable energy transitions can result in major electricity peak load increases. → Introduction of heat pumps and electrical vehicles requires network expansion. → Under worst case assumptions, peak loads in Eindhoven increase with 200% until 2040. → The necessary investment for facilitating this 2040 peak demand is Euro 305-375 million. → Future policy choices should be made from the viewpoint of the integral energy system.

  17. Relaxation peak near 200 K in NiTi alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J. S.; Schaller, R.; Benoit, W.

    1989-10-01

    Internal friction (IF), frequency ( f), electrical resistance ( R) and zero point movement of the torsion pendulum (ɛ) have been measured in near equi-atomic NiTi alloy in order to clarify the mechanism for the relaxation peak near 200 K. The height of the relaxation peak decreases successively with thermal cycling and settles down to a lower stable value in running 15 cycles. However, the electrical resistance of the sample shows a variation in contrast with the internal friction. Both of them will return to the initial state after a single annealing at 773 K for 1 h. The probable mechanism of this relaxation peak was discussed.

  18. National energy peak leveling program (NEPLP). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    This three-volume report is responsive to the requirements of Contract E (04-3)-1152 to provide a detailed methodology, to include management, technology, and socio-economic aspects, of a voluntary community program of computer-assisted peak load leveling and energy conservation in commercial community facilities. The demonstration project established proof-of-concept in reducing the kW-demand peak by the unofficial goal of 10%, with concurrent kWh savings. This section of the three volume report is a final report appendix with information on the National Energy Peak Leveling Program (NEPLP).

  19. The environmental impacts of peaking at hydropower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halleraker, Jo Halvard

    2001-01-01

    A recent energy act in Norway allows hydropower plants to be operated so that hydro peaking is permitted. However, it is uncertain how fish react to the variations in discharge and depth that follow hydro peaking. SINTEF Energy Research is cooperating with other research institutions to investigate the consequences of these variations on the biota. Among the research tools is an aqua channel which is an indoor laboratory flume where fish behaviour can be studied in detail. It has been constructed to provide the hydropower industry and public authorities with means of better determining the effects of hydro peaking. (author)

  20. PolyaPeak: Detecting Transcription Factor Binding Sites from ChIP-seq Using Peak Shape Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Ji, Hongkai

    2014-01-01

    ChIP-seq is a powerful technology for detecting genomic regions where a protein of interest interacts with DNA. ChIP-seq data for mapping transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) have a characteristic pattern: around each binding site, sequence reads aligned to the forward and reverse strands of the reference genome form two separate peaks shifted away from each other, and the true binding site is located in between these two peaks. While it has been shown previously that the accuracy and resolution of binding site detection can be improved by modeling the pattern, efficient methods are unavailable to fully utilize that information in TFBS detection procedure. We present PolyaPeak, a new method to improve TFBS detection by incorporating the peak shape information. PolyaPeak describes peak shapes using a flexible Pólya model. The shapes are automatically learnt from the data using Minorization-Maximization (MM) algorithm, then integrated with the read count information via a hierarchical model to distinguish true binding sites from background noises. Extensive real data analyses show that PolyaPeak is capable of robustly improving TFBS detection compared with existing methods. An R package is freely available. PMID:24608116