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Sample records for loxosceles gaucho gertsch

  1. Postembryonic development of Loxosceles intermedia Mello-Leitão, 1934, L. laeta (Nicolet, 1849 and L. gaucho Gertsch, 1967 (Araneae; Sicariidae breeding under conditions of monospecific diet

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    Emanuel Marques da Silva

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of monospecific feeding on the post-embryonic development of L. intermedia, L. laeta and L. gaucho was evaluated. Two hundred and ten spiderlings were individualized in containers (120 ml, 105 being fed with Tenebrio molitor larvae and 105 with Pycnoscelus surinamensis nymphs. In the three species, the number of molts varied according to the diet. The number of spiders that reached maturity was lower in L. gaucho. In L. intermedia, the duration of the post-embryonic period was greater when larvae are fed. Mortality was higher in the second instar in the three species, the highest frequency being registered for L. gaucho. The data provided evidence that monospecific feeding influenced the post-embryonic development of the studied species. This influence might intensified by specific characteristics such as origin, habits and habitats.

  2. Loxosceles gaucho venom-induced acute kidney injury--in vivo and in vitro studies.

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    Rui V Lucato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accidents caused by Loxosceles spider may cause severe systemic reactions, including acute kidney injury (AKI. There are few experimental studies assessing Loxosceles venom effects on kidney function in vivo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to test Loxosceles gaucho venom (LV nephrotoxicity and to assess some of the possible mechanisms of renal injury, rats were studied up to 60 minutes after LV 0.24 mg/kg or saline IV injection (control. LV caused a sharp and significant drop in glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow and urinary output and increased renal vascular resistance, without changing blood pressure. Venom infusion increased significantly serum creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase. In the LV group renal histology analysis found acute epithelial tubular cells degenerative changes, presence of cell debris and detached epithelial cells in tubular lumen without glomerular or vascular changes. Immunohistochemistry disclosed renal deposition of myoglobin and hemoglobin. LV did not cause injury to a suspension of fresh proximal tubules isolated from rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Loxosceles gaucho venom injection caused early AKI, which occurred without blood pressure variation. Changes in glomerular function occurred likely due to renal vasoconstriction and rhabdomyolysis. Direct nephrotoxicity could not be demonstrated in vitro. The development of a consistent model of Loxosceles venom-induced AKI and a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the renal injury may allow more efficient ways to prevent or attenuate the systemic injury after Loxosceles bite.

  3. Sistematização da Assistência de Enfermagem: acidente por Loxosceles gaucho Sistematización de la Asistencia de Enfermería: accidente por Loxosceles gaucho Nursing Care Sistematization: accident by Loxosceles gaucho

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    Helayne Mika Kamimura

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Relato de experiência realizado em um hospital de ensino, com uma paciente vítima de acidente por aranha do gênero Loxosceles gaucho. Este tipo de acidente pode ser classificado como leve, moderado e grave, o que dependerá do tempo entre o ocorrido e o atendimento. Objetivou-se aplicar a sistematização da assistência de enfermagem de forma integralizada e humanizada. Foram estabelecidos os seguintes diagnósticos de enfermagem: dor aguda, integridade da pele prejudicada, riscos para infecção, constipação e baixa auto-estima. O relacionamento terapêutico favoreceu as interações aluna/paciente e possibilitou o reconhecimento das necessidades que mereciam intervenções de enfermagem. O processo de enfermagem foi um instrumento valioso e trouxe elementos importantes para a evolução diária da paciente e adequação do planejamento, priorizando a qualidade dos cuidados.Relato de experiencia realizado en un hospital de enseñanza, con una paciente víctima de accidente causado por araña del género Loxosceles gaucho. Este accidente puede ser clasificado como leve, moderado o grave, lo que dependerá del tiempo entre el suceso y la atención. Se pretendió aplicar la sistematización de la asistencia de enfermería de forma integral y humanizada. Se establecieron los siguientes diagnósticos de enfermería: dolor agudo, integridad de la piel perjudicada, riesgos de infección, constipación y baja autoestima; la relación terapéutica favoreció las interacciones alumna/paciente y posibilitó el reconocimiento de las necesidades que merecían intervenciones de enfermería. El proceso de enfermería fue un instrumento valioso y trajo elementos importantes para la evolución diaria de la paciente y adecuación de la planificación, lo que prioriza la calidad de los cuidados.Experience report carried out at a university hospital involving a patient victimized by an accident with a spider of the Loxosceles gaucho genus. This type of

  4. A new species of Loxosceles (Araneae, Sicariidae from Tunisia

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    Carles Ribera

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the spider genus Loxosceles, L. mrazig sp. n., found in Tunisia is described and illustrated. The male bulb shows a high degree of morphological similarity to that of L. gaucho from Brazil, but the proportions of the palpal segments and the general colouration of the body reveal significant differences between the two species. A distance analysis of the sequences of the mitochondrial gene cox1 reveals that the specimen from Tunisia shows high genetic distance from L. gaucho (more than 20%. The American species L. gaucho and L. laeta form a sister group to the Mediterranean representatives (L. rufescens and the Tunisian specimen.

  5. Brown spider (Loxosceles genus) venom toxins: Evaluation of biological conservation by immune cross-reactivity.

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    Buch, Daniela Regina; Souza, Fernanda Nunes; Meissner, Gabriel Otto; Morgon, Adriano Marcelo; Gremski, Luiza Helena; Ferrer, Valéria Pereira; Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Matsubara, Fernando Hitomi; Boia-Ferreira, Mariana; Sade, Youssef Bacila; Chaves-Moreira, Daniele; Gremski, Waldemiro; Veiga, Silvio Sanches; Chaim, Olga Meiri; Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea

    2015-12-15

    Loxosceles spiders are responsible for serious human envenomations worldwide. The collection of symptoms found in victims after accidents is called loxoscelism and is characterized by two clinical conditions: cutaneous loxoscelism and systemic loxocelism. The only specific treatment is serum therapy, in which an antiserum produced with Loxosceles venom is administered to the victims after spider accidents. Our aim was to improve our knowledge, regarding the immunological relationship among toxins from the most epidemiologic important species in Brazil (Loxosceles intermedia, Loxosceles gaucho and Loxosceles laeta). Immunoassays using spider venoms and L. intermedia recombinant toxins were performed and their cross-reactivity assessed. The biological conservation of the main Loxosceles toxins (Phospholipases-D, Astacin-like metalloproteases, Hyaluronidase, ICK-insecticide peptide and TCTP-histamine releasing factor) were investigated. An in silico analysis of the putative epitopes was performed and is discussed on the basis of the experimental results. Our data is an immunological investigation in light of biological conservation throughout the Loxosceles genus. The results bring out new insights on brown spider venom toxins for study, diagnosis and treatment of loxoscelism and putative biotechnological applications concerning immune conserved features in the toxins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. On Chilean Loxosceles (Araneae: Sicariidae: first description of the males of L. surca and L. coquimbo, new records of L. laeta and three remarkable new species from coastal deserts

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    Antonio D. Brescovit

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Loxosceles Heineken & Lowe, 1832 spiders are infamous for their medical importance, but a taxonomic picture of the genus is still far from complete. In this study, the Chilean species of Loxosceles are described and mapped. The males of Loxosceles surca Gertsch, 1967 and L. coquimbo Gertsch, 1967 are described for the first time. Three new species with narrow distributions are described from central and northern Chile: Loxosceles diaguita sp. nov. from the Antofagasta Region, L. pallalla sp. nov. from Coquimbo and L. vallenar sp. nov. from Atacama. The first two species are remarkable in their morphology and do not fit into any of Gertsch’s species groups, suggesting that Chile still harbours an undiscovered phylogenetic diversity of the genus. New distribution records for Loxosceles laeta (Nicolet, 1849 are provided throughout Chile.

  7. Methemoglobinemia associated with loxoscelism Meta-hemoglobinemia associada ao loxoscelismo

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    Orlando C. de O. Barreto

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available In twenty five patients who presented the cutaneous form of loxoscelism, serum haptoglobin and lactic dehydrogenase, erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, methemoglobin, bilirubin and reticulocytes were investigated after bite. No hemolysis was detected but an increase in methemoglobin was found in 54% of the cases; in 7% it was between 1.1% and 2%, in 27% it ranged from 2.1% to 4%, and in 20% from 4.1% to 8%. Blood samples of a normal, blood group 0 individual and of a patient who exhibited methemoglobinemia after Loxosceles bite were incubated separately with antisera against Loxosceles gaucho, Crotalus terrificus, Bothrops jararaca, with Loxosceles gaucho venom and 0.3% phenol. No methemoglobin was found after 1, 4,8 and 15 days in both sets of samples. At the 25th day all the samples, including the controls, exhibited similar methemoglobin reductase decrease. The data suggest that the methemoglobinemia which occurs in 50% of the patients probably arises from in vivo venom metabolism, inasmuch as the crude venom does not induce methemoglobinemia.Vinte e cinco pacientes que apresentaram a forma cutânea do loxoscelismo foram estudados após a picada, determinando-se a glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase, glutationa redutase e glutationa peroxidase eritrocitárias, haptoglobina e latico desidrogenase séricas, bilirrubina, reticulócitos e meta-hemoglobina. Não foi observada hemólise aumentada, mas foi detectado aumento da meta-hemoglobina em 54% dos casos: em 7% entre 1,1% e 2%, em 27% variou de 2,1% a 4%, e em 20% de 4,1 a 8%. Amostras de sangue de um indivíduo normal do grupo 0 de uma paciente que exibiu meta-hemoglobina após picada por Loxosceles foram incubadas separadamente com anti-soros contra Loxosceles gancho, Crotalus terrificus e Bothrops jararaca, com veneno de Loxosceles gaucho e fenol a 3%, e não se detectou aumento de meta-hemoglobina depois de 1, 4, 8 e 15 dias em todas

  8. Influence of spider silk on refugia preferences of the recluse spiders Loxosceles reclusa and Loxosceles laeta (Araneae: Sicariidae).

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    Vetter, Richard S; Rust, Michael K

    2010-06-01

    In a previous experimental study, recluse spiders Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch and Mulaik and Loxosceles laeta (Nicolet) (Araneae: Sicariidae) preferred small cardboard refugia covered with conspecific silk compared with never-occupied refugia. Herein, we investigated some factors that might be responsible for this preference using similar cardboard refugia. When the two Loxosceles species were given choices between refugia previously occupied by their own and by the congeneric species, neither showed a species-specific preference; however, each chose refugia coated with conspecific silk rather than those previously inhabited by a distantly related cribellate spider, Metaltella simoni (Keyserling). When L. laeta spiders were offered refugia that were freshly removed from silk donors compared with heated, aged refugia from the same silk donor, older refugia were preferred. Solvent extracts of L. laeta silk were chosen approximately as often as control refugia when a range of solvents (methylene chloride:methanol, water, and hexane) were used. However, when acetone was used on similar silk, there was a statistical preference for the control, indicating that there might be a mildly repellent aspect to acetone-washed silk. Considering the inability to show attraction to chemical aspects of fresh silk, it seems that physical attributes may be more important for selection and that there might be repellency to silk of a recently vacated spider. These findings are discussed in regard to pest management strategies to control recluse spiders.

  9. Recombinant Protein Containing B-Cell Epitopes of Different Loxosceles Spider Toxins Generates Neutralizing Antibodies in Immunized Rabbits.

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    Lima, Sabrina de Almeida; Guerra-Duarte, Clara; Costal-Oliveira, Fernanda; Mendes, Thais Melo; Figueiredo, Luís F M; Oliveira, Daysiane; Machado de Avila, Ricardo A; Ferrer, Valéria Pereira; Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Veiga, Silvio S; Minozzo, João C; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Loxoscelism is the most important form of araneism in South America. The treatment of these accidents uses heterologous antivenoms obtained from immunization of production animals with crude loxoscelic venom. Due to the scarcity of this immunogen, new alternatives for its substitution in antivenom production are of medical interest. In the present work, three linear epitopes for Loxosceles astacin-like protease 1 (LALP-1) (SLGRGCTDFGTILHE, ENNTRTIGPFDYDSIMLYGAY, and KLYKCPPVNPYPGGIRPYVNV) and two for hyaluronidase (LiHYAL) (NGGIPQLGDLKAHLEKSAVDI and ILDKSATGLRIIDWEAWR) from Loxosceles intermedia spider venom were identified by SPOT-synthesis technique. One formerly characterized linear epitope (DFSGPYLPSLPTLDA) of sphingomyelinase D (SMase D) SMase-I from Loxosceles laeta was also chosen to constitute a new recombinant multiepitopic protein. These epitopes were combined with a previously produced chimeric multiepitopic protein (rCpLi) composed by linear and conformational B-cell epitopes from SMase D from L. intermedia venom, generating a new recombinant multiepitopic protein derived from loxoscelic toxins (rMEPLox). We demonstrated that rMEPLox is non-toxic and antibodies elicited in rabbits against this antigen present reactivity in ELISA and immunoblot assays with Brazilian L. intermedia, L. laeta, L. gaucho , and L. similis spider venoms. In vivo and in vitro neutralization assays showed that anti-rMEPLox antibodies can efficiently neutralize the sphingomyelinase, hyaluronidase, and metalloproteinase activity of L. intermedia venom. This study suggests that this multiepitopic protein can be a suitable candidate for experimental vaccination approaches or for antivenom production against Loxosceles spp. venoms.

  10. Recombinant Protein Containing B-Cell Epitopes of Different Loxosceles Spider Toxins Generates Neutralizing Antibodies in Immunized Rabbits

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    Lima, Sabrina de Almeida; Guerra-Duarte, Clara; Costal-Oliveira, Fernanda; Mendes, Thais Melo; Figueiredo, Luís F. M.; Oliveira, Daysiane; Machado de Avila, Ricardo A.; Ferrer, Valéria Pereira; Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Veiga, Silvio S.; Minozzo, João C.; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Loxoscelism is the most important form of araneism in South America. The treatment of these accidents uses heterologous antivenoms obtained from immunization of production animals with crude loxoscelic venom. Due to the scarcity of this immunogen, new alternatives for its substitution in antivenom production are of medical interest. In the present work, three linear epitopes for Loxosceles astacin-like protease 1 (LALP-1) (SLGRGCTDFGTILHE, ENNTRTIGPFDYDSIMLYGAY, and KLYKCPPVNPYPGGIRPYVNV) and two for hyaluronidase (LiHYAL) (NGGIPQLGDLKAHLEKSAVDI and ILDKSATGLRIIDWEAWR) from Loxosceles intermedia spider venom were identified by SPOT-synthesis technique. One formerly characterized linear epitope (DFSGPYLPSLPTLDA) of sphingomyelinase D (SMase D) SMase-I from Loxosceles laeta was also chosen to constitute a new recombinant multiepitopic protein. These epitopes were combined with a previously produced chimeric multiepitopic protein (rCpLi) composed by linear and conformational B-cell epitopes from SMase D from L. intermedia venom, generating a new recombinant multiepitopic protein derived from loxoscelic toxins (rMEPLox). We demonstrated that rMEPLox is non-toxic and antibodies elicited in rabbits against this antigen present reactivity in ELISA and immunoblot assays with Brazilian L. intermedia, L. laeta, L. gaucho, and L. similis spider venoms. In vivo and in vitro neutralization assays showed that anti-rMEPLox antibodies can efficiently neutralize the sphingomyelinase, hyaluronidase, and metalloproteinase activity of L. intermedia venom. This study suggests that this multiepitopic protein can be a suitable candidate for experimental vaccination approaches or for antivenom production against Loxosceles spp. venoms. PMID:29666624

  11. Tetracycline Reduces Kidney Damage Induced by Loxosceles Spider Venom

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    Cinthya Kimori Okamoto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Envenomation by Loxosceles spider can result in two clinical manifestations: cutaneous and systemic loxoscelism, the latter of which includes renal failure. Although incidence of renal failure is low, it is the main cause of death, occurring mainly in children. The sphingomyelinase D (SMase D is the main component in Loxosceles spider venom responsible for local and systemic manifestations. This study aimed to investigate the toxicity of L. intermedia venom and SMase D on kidney cells, using both In vitro and in vivo models, and the possible involvement of endogenous metalloproteinases (MMP. Results demonstrated that venom and SMase D are able to cause death of human kidney cells by apoptosis, concomitant with activation and secretion of extracellular matrix metalloproteases, MMP-2 and MMP-9. Furthermore, cell death and MMP synthesis and secretion can be prevented by tetracycline. In a mouse model of systemic loxoscelism, Loxosceles venom-induced kidney failure was observed, which was abrogated by administration of tetracycline. These results indicate that MMPs may play an important role in Loxosceles venom-induced kidney injury and that tetracycline administration may be useful in the treatment of human systemic loxoscelism.

  12. [Cutaneo-viscero-hemolytic loxoscelism with acute renal failure].

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    Alfaro, Flavia V; Dotto, Beatriz; Sesin, Ana M; Prettini, Viviana; Sesin, Jorge; Aliciardi, Enrique; Vergottini, Juan C; Gonzalez, Mauricio

    2008-01-01

    The Loxoscelism is caused by the bite of spider Loxosceles laeta gender, of worldwide distribution. The poisoning can cause lesions dermonecrotic and less frequently a systemic illness that can be fatal. The mechanism of venom action is multifactorial. The characteristic dermonecrotic lesion results from the direct effects of the venom on the celular and basal membrane components, as well as the extracelular matrix. The initial interaction between the poison and tissues, causes complement activation, migration of polymorphic neutrophils, liberation of proteolytic enzymes, cytoquines, aggregation platelet, and blood flow alterations that result in edema and ischemia, with development of necrosis. There is no a definitive treatment for loxoscelism. However, the value of specific antivenom, to decrease lesion size and limit systemic illness even when such administration is delayed. We present a case of cutaneous-visceral loxoscelismo with unfavorable evolution.

  13. Gaucho primero, después hombre, después negro”. Identidad y relaciones en la pieza teatral El gaucho negro

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    Matías Emiliano Casas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The semantic of the word "gaucho" has been attributed with many meanings in different fields of study and artistic productions. The word's new signification and etymology and the gaucho participation in the economic development of Argentina, among other questions, have been the subject of dispute since the first studies about Independence until today. The play The Gaucho Black of Claudio Martínez Payva, premiered in 1927 at the National Theatre in Buenos Aires, revealed a series of problems, such as: the link with foreign settlers, the construction of identity through the gaucho figure and the relationship with black people. This study provides new tools to analyze the Rioplatense society and culture in the early Twentieth Century.

  14. Gauchos que lloran: masculinidades sentimentales en el imaginario criollista / Gauchos who Cry: Sentimental Masculinities in Criollo Imaginary

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    Ana Peluffo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper studies a canonical text in Argentinean literature, the Martín Fierro (1872-1878, by José Hernández. The objective is to explore, based on a debate on masculinity and nation,the sentimental side of criollo culture. Although Hernández’s gaucho is usually thought of as the archetype of a stoic masculinity that represses its emotions in order to fight wars at the border, this paper will show how that predominating notion undermines the tearful affective excesses constantly taking place in the text.

  15. A new species of jumping spider Neonella Gertsch, with notes on the genus and male identification key (Araneae, Salticidae)

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    Rubio, Gonzalo D.; Argañaraz, Carina I.; Gleiser, Raquel M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The American genus Neonella Gertsch, 1936 consists of very small jumping spiders whose biology is not well known. The genus currently includes eleven valid species, of which eight are known from both sexes and two are only known from one sex. This paper describes and illustrates a new species Neonella acostae sp. n., demonstrates male palpal variation in Neonella montana Galiano, 1988, and provides some information on the ecology of three sympatric species. New records of Neonella montana and Neonella minuta Galiano, 1965 are reported. Because the previously described species of Neonella were well illustrated and diagnosed, a dichotomous key to males is given along with genital illustrations of both sexes for all known species. PMID:26692804

  16. Mediterranean Recluse Spider, Loxosceles rufescens (Araneae: Sicariidae from Charkhab Cave, Southern Iran

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    Saber Sadeghi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The best-known dangerous spiders belong to the six genera. The genus Loxosceles or violin spiders are well known for their ability to cause skin necrosis or loxoscelism. All Loxosceles species have medical im­portance due to their necrotizing venom. The present article reports the occurrence of L. rufescens in Charkhab Cave, south of Iran (Larestan.Methods: The specimens were collected from the Charkhab Cave using handling forceps, paintbrush and aspirator and preserved in 96% ethanol.Results: Loxosceles rufescens, a medically important spider, is recorded from Charkhab Cave in Fars Province (southwest of Iran. Identification of L. rufescens was performed based on external morphology and the features of male genitalia.Conclusion: Presence of L. rufescens in south of Iran especially in a cave confirmed that this species is a widely distributed species in Iran. Therefore, cavers or cave visitors should be aware of this poisonous spider in caves.

  17. The gendered writing of gaucho in Silvina Ocampo's transgressive narratives

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    Rafael Eisinger Guimarães

    2014-06-01

    This paper addresses the narrative work of Argentinean writer Silvina Ocampo, proposing a critical reading of the tales in which she portrays the figure and customs of the man from the Pampa – the gaucho – by means of strategies of representation that disrupts the mimetic tradition. The main objective of this analysis is to demonstrate how Ocampo’s narrative operates a rupture in the canon of Gauchesca that overcomes the innovations presented by the literary works classified as plastic regionalism by Angel Rama, by means ofa writing strongly marked by gender. Therefore, this work appropriates theoretical frameworks of contemporary feminist criticism, in particular the discussions raised by Hélène Cixous, Alicia Ostriker e Nelly Richard. Based on the theoretical framework outlined, this paper makes a critical reading of the tales "La hija del toro", published in Las invitadas; and “La muñeca”, published in Los días de la noche, with special attention to the aesthetic and thematic aspects of these texts.

  18. Inactivation of complement by Loxosceles reclusa spider venom.

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    Gebel, H M; Finke, J H; Elgert, K D; Cambell, B J; Barrett, J T

    1979-07-01

    Zymosan depletion of serum complement in guinea pigs rendered them highly resistant to lesion by Loxosceles reclusa spider venom. Guinea pigs deficient in C4 of the complement system are as sensitive to the venom as normal guinea pigs. The injection of 35 micrograms of whole recluse venom intradermally into guinea pigs lowered their complement level by 35.7%. Brown recluse spider venom in concentrations as slight as 0.02 micrograms protein/ml can totally inactivate one CH50 of guinea pig complement in vitro. Bee, scorpion, and other spider venoms had no influence on the hemolytic titer of complement. Fractionation of recluse spider venom by Sephadex G-200 filtration separated the complement-inactivating property of the venom into three major regions which could be distinguished on the basis of heat stability as well as size. None was neutralized by antivenom. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of venom resolved the complement inactivators into five fractions. Complement inactivated by whole venom or the Sephadex fractions could be restored to hemolytic activity by supplements of fresh serum but not by heat-inactivated serum, pure C3, pure C5, or C3 and C5 in combination.

  19. Control and monitoring of On-line Trigger Algorithms using gaucho

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    Van Herwijnen, Eric

    2005-01-01

    In the LHCb experiment, the trigger decisions are computed by Gaudi (the LHCb software framework) algorithms running on an event filter farm of around 2000 PCs. The control and monitoring of these algorithms has to be integrated in the overall experiment control system (ECS). To enable and facilitate this integration Gaucho, the GAUdi Component Helping Online, was developed. Gaucho consists of three parts: a C++ package integrated with Gaudi, the communications package DIM, and a set of PVSS panels and libraries. PVSS is a commercial SCADA system chosen as toolkit and framework for the LHCb controls system. The C++ package implements monitor service interface (IMonitorSvc) following the Gaudi specifications, with methods to declare variables and histograms for monitoring. Algorithms writers use them to indicate which quantities should be monitored. Since the interface resides in the GaudiKernel the code does not need changing if the monitoring services are not present. The Gaudi main job implements a state ma...

  20. Tropical House Gecko (Hemidactylus mabouia predation on brown spiders (Loxosceles intermedia

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    E.N. Ramires

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown spiders (Loxosceles spp. are venomous arachnids, successfully adapted to urban habitats in Brazil. Loxoscelism became a serious public health problem in Paraná State, especially at the capital Curitiba, where the most abundant species is Loxosceles intermedia. Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae lizards are synanthropic predators of arthropods. In this paper, we describe the predatory behavior of the Tropical House Gecko H. mabouia on L. intermedia under laboratory conditions. Twelve geckos were observed, and all of them fed on brown spiders (n=123 observations. The attack consisted of a fast run followed by one bite on the spider’s abdomen or legs. The geckos did not attack L. intermedia anterior body parts, probably due to the fangs present in this region. Two Hemidactylus individuals were killed by L. intermedia bites: during a predatory encounter, and by an induced bite on a restrained lizard. The observations summarized in this paper show that H. mabouia could be used in the biological control of Loxosceles populations in human dwellings. However, additional field studies are necessary to quantify the impact of H. mabouia predation on urban populations of L. intermedia and other species of the same genus.

  1. Brown Spider (Loxosceles genus Venom Toxins: Tools for Biological Purposes

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    Andrea Senff-Ribeiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Venomous animals use their venoms as tools for defense or predation. These venoms are complex mixtures, mainly enriched of proteic toxins or peptides with several, and different, biological activities. In general, spider venom is rich in biologically active molecules that are useful in experimental protocols for pharmacology, biochemistry, cell biology and immunology, as well as putative tools for biotechnology and industries. Spider venoms have recently garnered much attention from several research groups worldwide. Brown spider (Loxosceles genus venom is enriched in low molecular mass proteins (5–40 kDa. Although their venom is produced in minute volumes (a few microliters, and contain only tens of micrograms of protein, the use of techniques based on molecular biology and proteomic analysis has afforded rational projects in the area and permitted the discovery and identification of a great number of novel toxins. The brown spider phospholipase-D family is undoubtedly the most investigated and characterized, although other important toxins, such as low molecular mass insecticidal peptides, metalloproteases and hyaluronidases have also been identified and featured in literature. The molecular pathways of the action of these toxins have been reported and brought new insights in the field of biotechnology. Herein, we shall see how recent reports describing discoveries in the area of brown spider venom have expanded biotechnological uses of molecules identified in these venoms, with special emphasis on the construction of a cDNA library for venom glands, transcriptome analysis, proteomic projects, recombinant expression of different proteic toxins, and finally structural descriptions based on crystallography of toxins.

  2. Evaluation of the efficacy of vacuum cleaners for the integrated control of brown spider Loxosceles intermedia

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    E. N. Ramires

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Some venomous spiders of the genus Loxosceles can reach high population densities inside and around houses. In Brazil, most spider accidents are related to Loxosceles intermedia. Control of loxoscelism should utilize integrated pest management tools, such as vacuum cleaners, to eliminate egg sacs, webs and spiders. The present study tested the efficacy of one type of vacuum cleaner (for professional and domestic use in the control of L. intermedia populations. Cockroaches (Pycnoscelus surinamensis were used in some tests for comparison. Vacuuming using standard accessories or a paper tube resulted in the death of all female (n=60, male (n=60, young (n=60 and just-hatched (n=60 L. intermedia, and all egg sacs (n=5 were destroyed. The removal of the plastic plate present at the bottom of the vacuuming tube inside the machine allowed some spiders to survive the vacuuming process. When kept inside a vacuum bag full of dust and debris, adult females (n=10 survived for 10 days; however, significant mortality was observed among male (n=10 and young individuals (n=10. Addition of cornstarch to the vacuum bag did not affect the spiders (n=20. Vacuum cleaners, such as the one used in the present investigation, are promising tools for integrated management of L. intermedia and other spiders in domestic environments.

  3. Successful use of plasma exchange for profound hemolysis in a child with loxoscelism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Ahmed; Hmiel, Paul; Goldsmith, Matthew; Dietzen, Dennis; Hartman, Mary E

    2014-11-01

    We describe a 6-year-old boy who presented with massive hemolysis, shock, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, and acute renal failure after loxosceles envenomation. In this patient, plasma exchange therapy (PEX) successfully cleared the plasma from an initial hemolytic index of 2000 (equivalent to 2 g/dL hemoglobin, where optimetric laboratory evaluation is impossible) to an index of impossible. In this setting, PEX can be used to clear the plasma, restoring the ability to perform routine laboratory assessments. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. A Novel Hyaluronidase from Brown Spider (Loxosceles intermedia) Venom (Dietrich's Hyaluronidase): From Cloning to Functional Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Valéria Pereira; de Mari, Thiago Lopes; Gremski, Luiza Helena; Trevisan Silva, Dilza; da Silveira, Rafael Bertoni; Gremski, Waldemiro; Chaim, Olga Meiri; Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Veiga, Silvio Sanches

    2013-01-01

    Loxoscelism is the designation given to clinical symptoms evoked by Loxosceles spider's bites. Clinical manifestations include skin necrosis with gravitational spreading and systemic disturbs. The venom contains several enzymatic toxins. Herein, we describe the cloning, expression, refolding and biological evaluation of a novel brown spider protein characterized as a hyaluronidase. Employing a venom gland cDNA library, we cloned a hyaluronidase (1200 bp cDNA) that encodes for a signal peptide and a mature protein. Amino acid alignment revealed a structural relationship with members of hyaluronidase family, such as scorpion and snake species. Recombinant hyaluronidase was expressed as N-terminal His-tag fusion protein (∼45 kDa) in inclusion bodies and activity was achieved using refolding. Immunoblot analysis showed that antibodies that recognize the recombinant protein cross-reacted with hyaluronidase from whole venom as well as an anti-venom serum reacted with recombinant protein. Recombinant hyaluronidase was able to degrade purified hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS), while dermatan sulfate (DS) and heparan sulfate (HS) were not affected. Zymograph experiments resulted in ∼45 kDa lytic zones in hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) substrates. Through in vivo experiments of dermonecrosis using rabbit skin, the recombinant hyaluronidase was shown to increase the dermonecrotic effect produced by recombinant dermonecrotic toxin from L. intermedia venom (LiRecDT1). These data support the hypothesis that hyaluronidase is a “spreading factor”. Recombinant hyaluronidase provides a useful tool for biotechnological ends. We propose the name Dietrich's Hyaluronidase for this enzyme, in honor of Professor Carl Peter von Dietrich, who dedicated his life to studying proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans. PMID:23658852

  5. The effect of two pesticides (Vitavax-300 and Gaucho on rhizobia and on the nodulation of four legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. MIETTINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of seed-protecting pesticides is often a prerequisite for raising legumes in the tropics. However, these chemicals may influence the development of root nodule symbiosis. In the present study, high concentrations of Gaucho insecticide (imidacloprid and Vitavax-300 fungicide (carboxin and captan clearly inhibited the growth of root nodule bacterium under laboratory conditions. However, they did not effect to the nodulation or biomass production of Arachis pintoi, Arachis hypogaea, Mucuna pruriens or Desmodium ovalifolium raised in a green house in eastern Costa Rica. Explanations for these results are discussed.;

  6. The effect of two pesticides (Vitavax-300 and Gaucho on rhizobia and on the nodulation of four legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasi Miettinen

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of seed-protecting pesticides is often a prerequisite for raising legumes in the tropics. However, these chemicals may influence the development of root nodule symbiosis. In the present study, high concentrations of Gaucho insecticide (imidacloprid and Vitavax-300 fungicide (carboxin and captan clearly inhibited the growth of root nodule bacterium under laboratory conditions. However, they did not effect to the nodulation or biomass production of Arachis pintoi, Arachis hypogaea, Mucuna pruriens or Desmodium ovalifolium raised in a green house in eastern Costa Rica. Explanations for these results are discussed.

  7. MARTÍN FIERRO PARA LA NIÑEZ ARGENTINA: LA PEDAGOGÍA DEL GAUCHO EN LA ESCUELA PRIMARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Emiliano Casas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Las recurrentes apelaciones a la función patriótica de las escuelas argentinas establecieron los parámetros que contextualizaron la circulación de la cultura gaucha en las aulas a partir de la década del treinta. En este ensayo, la atención se focaliza en la utilización del Martín Fierro y las adaptaciones operadas sobre las características del personaje original para que resultara “maestro legítimo” de los niños escolares. También se abordan las actividades propuestas a partir de la literatura gauchesca en pos de ejercitar distintos contenidos. Desde las políticas educativas, la figura del gaucho resultaba un recurso fundamental para promover una serie de valores estudiantiles. Ese posicionamiento implicó determinadas reconfiguraciones al gaucho para que el otrora considerado matrero y bandolero sea reconocido ahora como docente moralizador y ejemplo de patriotismo.

  8. Expert explanations of honeybee losses in areas of extensive agriculture in France: Gaucho compared with other supposed causal factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxim, L [Institut des Sciences de la Communication, CNRS UPS 3088, 27 Rue Damesme, 75013 Paris (France); Van der Sluijs, J P, E-mail: laura.maxim@iscc.cnrs.f, E-mail: J.P.vanderSluijs@uu.n [Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Department of Science, Technology and Society, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    Debates on causality are at the core of controversies as regards environmental changes. The present paper presents a new method for analyzing controversies on causality in a context of social debate and the results of its empirical testing. The case study used is the controversy as regards the role played by the insecticide Gaucho, compared with other supposed causal factors, in the substantial honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) losses reported to have occurred in France between 1994 and 2004. The method makes use of expert elicitation of the perceived strength of evidence regarding each of Bradford Hill's causality criteria, as regards the link between each of eight possible causal factors identified in attempts to explain each of five signs observed in honeybee colonies. These judgments are elicited from stakeholders and experts involved in the debate, i.e., representatives of Bayer Cropscience, of the Ministry of Agriculture, of the French Food Safety Authority, of beekeepers and of public scientists. We show that the intense controversy observed in confused and passionate public discourses is much less salient when the various arguments are structured using causation criteria. The contradictions between the different expert views have a triple origin: (1) the lack of shared definition and quantification of the signs observed in colonies; (2) the lack of specialist knowledge on honeybees; and (3) the strategic discursive practices associated with the lack of trust between experts representing stakeholders having diverging stakes in the case.

  9. Expert explanations of honeybee losses in areas of extensive agriculture in France: Gaucho compared with other supposed causal factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxim, L; Van der Sluijs, J P

    2010-01-01

    Debates on causality are at the core of controversies as regards environmental changes. The present paper presents a new method for analyzing controversies on causality in a context of social debate and the results of its empirical testing. The case study used is the controversy as regards the role played by the insecticide Gaucho, compared with other supposed causal factors, in the substantial honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) losses reported to have occurred in France between 1994 and 2004. The method makes use of expert elicitation of the perceived strength of evidence regarding each of Bradford Hill's causality criteria, as regards the link between each of eight possible causal factors identified in attempts to explain each of five signs observed in honeybee colonies. These judgments are elicited from stakeholders and experts involved in the debate, i.e., representatives of Bayer Cropscience, of the Ministry of Agriculture, of the French Food Safety Authority, of beekeepers and of public scientists. We show that the intense controversy observed in confused and passionate public discourses is much less salient when the various arguments are structured using causation criteria. The contradictions between the different expert views have a triple origin: (1) the lack of shared definition and quantification of the signs observed in colonies; (2) the lack of specialist knowledge on honeybees; and (3) the strategic discursive practices associated with the lack of trust between experts representing stakeholders having diverging stakes in the case.

  10. Matching global and regional distribution models of the recluse spider Loxosceles rufescens: to what extent do these reflect niche conservatism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taucare-Ríos, A; Nentwig, W; Bizama, G; Bustamante, R O

    2018-06-08

    The Mediterranean recluse spider, Loxosceles rufescens (Dufour, 1820) (Araneae: Sicariidae) is a cosmopolitan spider that has been introduced in many parts of the world. Its bite can be dangerous to humans. However, the potential distribution of this alien species, which is able to spread fairly quickly with human aid, is completely unknown. Using a combination of global and regional niche models, it is possible to analyse the spread of this species in relation to environmental conditions. This analysis found that the successful spreading of this species varies according to the region invaded. The majority of populations in Asia are stable and show niche conservatism, whereas in North America this spider is expected to be less successful in occupying niches that differ from those in its native region and that do not support its synanthropic way of living. © 2018 The Royal Entomological Society.

  11. Martín Fierro para la niñez argentina: la pedagogía del Gaucho en la escuela primaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Casas, Matías

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Las recurrentes apelaciones a la función patriótica de las escuelas argentinas establecieron los parámetros que contextualizaron la circulación de la cultura gaucha en las aulas a partir de la década del treinta. En este ensayo, la atención se focaliza en la utilización del Martín Fierro y las adaptaciones operadas sobre las características del personaje original para que resultara “maestro legítimo” de los niños escolares. También se abordan las actividades propuestas a partir de la literatura gauchesca en pos de ejercitar distintos contenidos. Desde las políticas educativas, la figura del gaucho resultaba un recurso fundamental para promover una serie de valores estudiantiles. Ese posicionamiento implicó determinadas reconfiguraciones al gaucho para que el otrora considerado matrero y bandolero sea reconocido ahora como docente moralizador y ejemplo de patriotismo.

  12. Characterization of a Gene Coding for the Complement System Component FB from Loxosceles laeta Spider Venom Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myamoto, Daniela Tiemi; Pidde-Queiroz, Giselle; Gonçalves-de-Andrade, Rute Maria; Pedroso, Aurélio; van den Berg, Carmen W; Tambourgi, Denise V

    2016-01-01

    The human complement system is composed of more than 30 proteins and many of these have conserved domains that allow tracing the phylogenetic evolution. The complement system seems to be initiated with the appearance of C3 and factor B (FB), the only components found in some protostomes and cnidarians, suggesting that the alternative pathway is the most ancient. Here, we present the characterization of an arachnid homologue of the human complement component FB from the spider Loxosceles laeta. This homologue, named Lox-FB, was identified from a total RNA L. laeta spider venom gland library and was amplified using RACE-PCR techniques and specific primers. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence and the domain structure showed significant similarity to the vertebrate and invertebrate FB/C2 family proteins. Lox-FB has a classical domain organization composed of a control complement protein domain (CCP), a von Willebrand Factor domain (vWFA), and a serine protease domain (SP). The amino acids involved in Mg2+ metal ion dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) found in the vWFA domain in the vertebrate C2/FB proteins are well conserved; however, the classic catalytic triad present in the serine protease domain is not conserved in Lox-FB. Similarity and phylogenetic analyses indicated that Lox-FB shares a major identity (43%) and has a close evolutionary relationship with the third isoform of FB-like protein (FB-3) from the jumping spider Hasarius adansoni belonging to the Family Salcitidae.

  13. A multi-protease, multi-dissociation, bottom-up-to-top-down proteomic view of the Loxosceles intermedia venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Bednaski, Aline V.; Fischer, Juliana S.G.; Veiga, Silvio S.; Bandeira, Nuno; Guthals, Adrian; Marchini, Fabricio K.; Leprevost, Felipe V.; Barbosa, Valmir C.; Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea; Carvalho, Paulo C.

    2017-01-01

    Venoms are a rich source for the discovery of molecules with biotechnological applications, but their analysis is challenging even for state-of-the-art proteomics. Here we report on a large-scale proteomic assessment of the venom of Loxosceles intermedia, the so-called brown spider. Venom was extracted from 200 spiders and fractioned into two aliquots relative to a 10 kDa cutoff mass. Each of these was further fractioned and digested with trypsin (4 h), trypsin (18 h), pepsin (18 h), and chymotrypsin (18 h), then analyzed by MudPIT on an LTQ-Orbitrap XL ETD mass spectrometer fragmenting precursors by CID, HCD, and ETD. Aliquots of undigested samples were also analyzed. Our experimental design allowed us to apply spectral networks, thus enabling us to obtain meta-contig assemblies, and consequently de novo sequencing of practically complete proteins, culminating in a deep proteome assessment of the venom. Data are available via ProteomeXchange, with identifier PXD005523. PMID:28696408

  14. Characterization of a Gene Coding for the Complement System Component FB from Loxosceles laeta Spider Venom Glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Tiemi Myamoto

    Full Text Available The human complement system is composed of more than 30 proteins and many of these have conserved domains that allow tracing the phylogenetic evolution. The complement system seems to be initiated with the appearance of C3 and factor B (FB, the only components found in some protostomes and cnidarians, suggesting that the alternative pathway is the most ancient. Here, we present the characterization of an arachnid homologue of the human complement component FB from the spider Loxosceles laeta. This homologue, named Lox-FB, was identified from a total RNA L. laeta spider venom gland library and was amplified using RACE-PCR techniques and specific primers. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence and the domain structure showed significant similarity to the vertebrate and invertebrate FB/C2 family proteins. Lox-FB has a classical domain organization composed of a control complement protein domain (CCP, a von Willebrand Factor domain (vWFA, and a serine protease domain (SP. The amino acids involved in Mg2+ metal ion dependent adhesion site (MIDAS found in the vWFA domain in the vertebrate C2/FB proteins are well conserved; however, the classic catalytic triad present in the serine protease domain is not conserved in Lox-FB. Similarity and phylogenetic analyses indicated that Lox-FB shares a major identity (43% and has a close evolutionary relationship with the third isoform of FB-like protein (FB-3 from the jumping spider Hasarius adansoni belonging to the Family Salcitidae.

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a class II phospholipase D from Loxosceles intermedia venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Anwar; Giuseppe, Priscila Oliveira de; Murakami, Mario Tyago; Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Wille, Ana Carolina Martins; Chaves-Moreira, Daniele; Gremski, Luiza Helena; Silveira, Rafael Bertoni da; Sennf-Ribeiro, Andrea; Chaim, Olga Meiri; Veiga, Silvio Sanches; Arni, Raghuvir Krishnaswamy

    2011-01-01

    Wild-type and H12A-mutant class II phospholipase D from L. intermedia venom were crystallized; the crystals diffracted to maximum resolutions of 1.95 and 1.60 Å, respectively. Phospholipases D are the major dermonecrotic component of Loxosceles venom and catalyze the hydrolysis of phospholipids, resulting in the formation of lipid mediators such as ceramide-1-phosphate and lysophosphatidic acid which can induce pathological and biological responses. Phospholipases D can be classified into two classes depending on their catalytic efficiency and the presence of an additional disulfide bridge. In this work, both wild-type and H12A-mutant forms of the class II phospholipase D from L. intermedia venom were crystallized. Wild-type and H12A-mutant crystals were grown under very similar conditions using PEG 200 as a precipitant and belonged to space group P12 1 1, with unit-cell parameters a = 50.1, b = 49.5, c = 56.5 Å, β = 105.9°. Wild-type and H12A-mutant crystals diffracted to maximum resolutions of 1.95 and 1.60 Å, respectively

  16. Expression and immunological cross-reactivity of LALP3, a novel astacin-like metalloprotease from brown spider (Loxosceles intermedia) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgon, Adriano M; Belisario-Ferrari, Matheus R; Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Meissner, Gabriel O; Vuitika, Larissa; Marin, Brenda; Tashima, Alexandre K; Gremski, Luiza H; Gremski, Waldemiro; Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea; Veiga, Silvio S; Chaim, Olga M

    2016-01-01

    Loxosceles spiders' venom comprises a complex mixture of biologically active toxins, mostly consisting of low molecular mass components (2-40 kDa). Amongst, isoforms of astacin-like metalloproteases were identified through transcriptome and proteome analyses. Only LALP1 (Loxosceles Astacin-Like protease 1) has been characterized. Herein, we characterized LALP3 as a novel recombinant astacin-like metalloprotease isoform from Loxosceles intermedia venom. LALP3 cDNA was cloned in pET-SUMO vector, and its soluble heterologous expression was performed using a SUMO tag added to LALP3 to achieve solubility in Escherichia coli SHuffle T7 Express LysY cells, which express the disulfide bond isomerase DsbC. Protein purification was conducted by Ni-NTA Agarose resin and assayed for purity by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. Immunoblotting analyses were performed with specific antibodies recognizing LALP1 and whole venom. Western blotting showed linear epitopes from recombinant LALP3 that cross-reacted with LALP1, and dot blotting revealed conformational epitopes with native venom astacins. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the recombinant expressed protein is an astacin-like metalloprotease from L. intermedia venom. Furthermore, molecular modeling of LALP3 revealed that this isoform contains the zinc binding and Met-turn motifs, forming the active site, as has been observed in astacins. These data confirmed that LALP3, which was successfully obtained by heterologous expression using a prokaryote system, is a new astacin-like metalloprotease isoform present in L. intermedia venom. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  17. Dressing up (in stories: fragments from the patrimonialisation process of the clothing collection from the Traditionalist Gaucho Movement (Movimento Tradicionalista Gaúcho, MTG in Porto Alegre - RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Muller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This text presents stories about the patrimonialisation process of the clothing collection from the Traditionalist Gaucho Movement (Movimento Tradicionalista Gaúcho, MTG, located in the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. The collection is described by the interlocutors who narrate their daily experiences as participants in the process. This set of information weaves a form of storytelling, whose intention is not to rebuild the narratives in a linear and chronological way, but in a way that is plural, multiple and fragmented. Still, the research is based on written sources, such as documents, photographic records and field Journals accessed during the empirical research conducted in the years 2014 and 2015. By highlighting the memories, the knowledge and the trajectories from the interlocutors at the collection, it was possible to understand that the clothing is a part of who they are and it sets out to open their ideals and wills

  18. Technetium-99m radiolabeling of a recombinant dermonecrotic protein (recLiD1) from the Loxosceles venom for biodistribution study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valadares, D.; Felicori, L.; Olortegui, C.C.; Simal, C.; Gouvea dos Santos, R.

    2007-01-01

    In the present study the recombinant form (recLiD1) of a dermonecrotic protein present in the Brazilian brown spider Loxosceles intermedia venom was labeled with technetium-99m using stannous chloride and sodium borohydride as reducing agents. 99mTc-recLiD 1 kept its biological activity evoking dermonecrotic activity in rabbits. In vivo biodistribution in mice with the radiolabeled recLiD 1 showed high kidney uptake followed by stomach and liver uptakes. Also, we can see that 20% of toxin remaining in the skin after 120 min and once absorbed, 99mTc-recLiD 1 is rapidly cleared from the blood with long-lasting. We also observed one displacement of 99mTc-recLiD 1 by one monoclonal antibody raised against L. intermedia venom that indicates specific interaction with kidney tissue. (author)

  19. Loxoscelismo en Chile: estudios epidemiológicos, clínicos y experimentales Loxoscelism in Chile: epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies

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    Hugo Schenone

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un enfoque panorámico de estudios epidemiológicos, clínicos y experimentales referentes a Loxosceles laeta y loxoscelismo efectuados en 1955-1988 en Santiago, Chile. Se estudiaron 216 casos de loxoscelismo. Los hechos más relevantes fueron: 52,8% correspondió a mujeres; edad entre 7 meses y 78 años; 84,3% fué loxoscelismo cutáneo (LO y 15,7% loxoscelismo cutáneo-visceral (LCV; 73,6% sucedió en época calurosa; en 86,6% el accidente ocurrió en la vivienda, especialmente en dormitorios, mientras la persona dormía o se vestía. La araña fué vista en 60,2% de los casos e identificada en laboratorio como L. laeta en 17,7% (10,6% de los 216 casos. Los sitios más frecuen temente afectados fueron las extremidades con 67,6%, lancetazo urente fué el síntoma inicial más frecuente. Dolor, edema y placa livedoide, la cual posteriormente se transformaría en escara necrótica, fueron las manifestaciones locales predominantes. En LCV hematuria y hemoglobinuria fueron constantes, ictericia, fiebre y compromiso de conciencia se presentaron en la mayoría de los casos. Tratamiento: LC con antihistamínicos o corticoides inyectables, LCV con corti-coides inyectables. La condición de los pacientes en el último control fué: curación completa en 75,5%, curación con secuela cicatrizal en 8,3%, muerte en 3,7% (todos con LCV y abandono en 12,5%. Adicionalmente, se ha efectuado una serie de estudios experimentales, tanto in vivo como in vitro para esclarecer aspectos básicos sobre el veneno de L. laeta y el tratamiento del loxoscelismo.A panoramic sight of epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies, referring to Loxosceles laeta and loxoscelism, carried out in 1955-1988, in Santiago, Chile is presented. Two-hundred and sixteen cases of loxosce lism were studied. The most relevant features were: 84.3% corresponded to cutaneous loxosce lism (CD and 15.7% to viscerocutaneous loxos celism (VCD; 73.6% ocurred in hot season; in 86

  20. “A por gauchos in chiripá...”. Expresiones criollistas en el teatro ídish argentino (1910-1930

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    Susana Skura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En Argentina, entre 1890 y 1920, se desarrolló el fenómeno criollista, consistente en la difusión del gusto por lo gaucho como moda popular de consumos y usos culturales. Coincidió con el auge del proceso inmigratorio y atravesó los debates sobre el primer nacionalismo cultural y los festejos del centenario patrio. A partir del reciente hallazgo de una colección de textos dramáticos escritos en ídish con abundantes préstamos del español rioplatense trasliterados, y reunidos por la Fundación Iwo de Buenos Aires, se explora la inclusión de prácticas y terminología de la cultura dominante en un teatro escrito y actuado en la lengua de inmigración, como un aspecto del proceso de transculturación de los inmigrantes ashkenazíes y de las primeras generaciones nacidas en las colonias agrícolas judías argentinas.

  1. Um toque na masculinidade: a prevenção do câncer de próstata em gaúchos tradicionalistas Un toque a la masculinidad: la prevención del cáncer de próstata en gauchos tradicionalistas A touch on masculinity: prostate cancer prevention in traditionalist Gauchos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luccas Melo de Souza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudo transversal, com abordagem quantitativa, realizado com 88 gaúchos tradicionalistas participantes do Acampamento Farroupilha de 2009. Objetivou-se verificar a adesão desses gaúchos tradicionalistas aos exames preventivos de câncer de próstata, analisando, também, quais variáveis influenciam na adesão ao exame de toque retal. Os entrevistados possuíam média de idade de 58,5 anos, com alto salário e elevada escolaridade. Grande parte (92% residiu maior tempo em zona urbana, fazia acompanhamento de saúde em instituição particular (70,5% e realizou algum exame preventivo para o câncer de próstata (83%. Os que fizeram exame preventivo possuíam maior escolaridade, renda e consultavam em instituição particular. Houve menor procura aos exames preventivos por aqueles que moraram a maior parte da sua vida em zona rural. Contudo, não houve relação do local onde residiu o maior tempo com a adesão ao exame de toque retal. Os achados indicam semelhança na adesão aos exames preventivos a outros estudos realizados no Brasil.Este estudio transversal y cuantitativo fue realizado con 88 gauchos tradicionalistas que participaron del Campamento Farroupilha en 2009. Se verificó la adhesión de los participantes a los exámenes preventivos del cáncer de próstata, analizando, también, cuales variables influyen en la adhesión al examen de tacto rectal. Los encuestados tenían edad media de 58,5 años, con altos salarios y nivel de escolaridad. Gran parte (92% había residido mayor tiempo en las zonas urbanas, hacía acompañamiento de salud en instituciones privadas (70,5% e hizo algún examen preventivo de cáncer de próstata (83%. Los que han realizado examen preventivo tenían mayor nivel de escolaridad, renta y atención de salud en institución privada. Hubo menos demanda de exámenes preventivos por los que habían vivido más tiempo en la zona rural. Sin embargo, no hubo relación entre el lugar de residencia y la adhesión al

  2. La identidad nacional de los estados brasileño y argentino como construcción literaria a través de las figuras del bandeirante y del gaucho * A identidade nacional dos estados brasileiro e argentino como construção literária através das figuras do...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL ARRIETA DOMÍNGUEZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Gran parte de las obras literarias sobre el bandeirante brasileño y el gaucho argentino se ha escrito con posterioridad a la extinción de tales modos de vida, pero han generado sendos mitos literarios relacionados con la creación del estado moderno y el establecimiento de sus fronteras, especialmente en el siglo XIX. La visión épica y la supuesta democratización de los elementos componentes de las bandeiras así como el enfoque, ya romántico, ya eurocentrista en la caracterización del gaucho argentino en la literatura, muestran una imagen demasiado simplista cuando no folclórica de la realidad de las empresas de exploración paulista y del papel del gaucho en las zonas de frontera. Este trabajo se propone mostrar las similitudes y diferencias entre ambos procesos de mitificación literarios, así como su grado de éxito en la construcción de una identidad nacional.Palabras-clave: Gaucho – Bandeirante – Mito Literario. Resumo: Uma parte importante das obras literárias sobre o bandeirante brasileiro e o gaucho argentino foi escrita após a extinção de seus estilos de vida; porém, foram gerados dois mitos literários em relação com a criação do estado moderno e o estabelecimento das suas fronteiras, especialmente no século XIX. A visão épica e a suposta democratização dos elementos componentes das bandeiras, mais o enfoque, já romântico, já eurocentrista na caracterização do gaúcho argentino na literatura, aportam uma imagem muito simplista além de folclórica em relação com a realidade das empresas de exploração paulista e o papel do gaúcho nas zonas de fronteira. Este trabalho se propõe mostrar as similitudes e diferenças entre os dois processos de mitificação literária no contexto histórico em que são produzidos, refletindo sobre seu grado de sucesso na construção duma identidade nacional.Palavras-chave: Gaúcho – Bandeirante – Mito Literário.

  3. Scavenging by spiders (Araneae) and its relationship to pest management of the brown recluse spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S

    2011-06-01

    Experiments reported in Sandidge (2003; Nature 426: 30) indicated that the brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch & Mulaik, preferred to scavenge dead prey over live prey and that the spiders were not detrimentally affected when fed insecticide-killed crickets. Extrapolations made in subsequent media coverage disseminating the results of this research made counter-intuitive statements that pesticide treatment in houses would increase brown recluse populations in homes. This information was presented as if the scavenging behavior was specialized in the brown recluse; however, it was more likely that this behavior has not been well studied in other species. To provide a comparison, the current laboratory study examined the likelihood of non-Loxosceles spiders to scavenge dead prey. Of 100 non-Loxosceles spiders that were tested (from 11 families, 24 genera, and at least 29 species from a variety of spider hunting guilds), 99 scavenged dead crickets when offered in petri dishes. Some of the spiders were webspinners in which real-world scavenging of dead prey is virtually impossible, yet they scavenge when given the opportunity. Therefore, scavenging is a flexible opportunistic predatory behavior that is spread across a variety of taxa and is not a unique behavior in brown recluses. These findings are discussed in relation to pest management practices.

  4. Análise da consistência interna e fatorial confirmatório do IMPRAFE-126 com praticantes de atividades físicas gaúchos Reliability and confirmatory factorial analysis of the IMPRAFE-126 with gauchos' practitioners of physical activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Alencar Abaide Balbinotti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, a motivação é entendida à luz da teoria da Autodeterminação. O objetivo deste estudo é verificar os índices de consistência interna e fatorial confirmatório do IMPRAFE-126. Utilizou-se uma amostra de 1.377 sujeitos, gaúchos, de ambos os sexos e com idades variando de 13 a 83 anos. Os resultados dos índices alfa de Cronbach (superiores a 0,89 foram satisfatórios. A adequação do modelo em seis dimensões foi testada e a validade confirmatória foi assumida para a amostra geral (x2/gl=2,520; GFI=0,859; AGFI=0,854; RMSEA=0,065 e para os sexos masculino (x2/gl=3,905; GFI=0,885; AGFI=0,881; RMSEA=0,066 e feminino (x2/gl=4,337; GFI=0,840; AGFI=0,831; RMSEA=0,068. Esses resultados indicam que o IMPRAFE-126 é um instrumento promissor e que pode ser oportunamente utilizado por psicólogos do esporte ou educadores físicos, aqueles particularmente interessados em avaliar os níveis de motivação de atletas ou praticantes de atividade física e esporte em geral. Entretanto, outros estudos de validade, fidedignidade e de normas devem ser conduzidos a fim de poder-se publicá-los em um futuro próximo.In this study, motivation is understood in the context of Self-determination theory. This study aims to verify the index of reliability and confirmatory factorial validity of the IMPRAFE-126. A sample of 1.377 gauchos' practitioners of physical activities, both sexes with ages between 13 and 83 years old, was used. The results of Cronbach's alpha index (.89 to .94 had been satisfactory. The adequacy to the six-dimension model was tested and the construct confirmatory validity for the general sample was assumed (x2/gl=2,520; GFI=0,859; AGFI=0,854; RMSEA=0,065, as so as for both sexes (masculine: x2/gl=3,905; GFI=0,885; AGFI=0,881; RMSEA=0,066; feminine: x2/gl=4,337; GFI=0,840; AGFI=0,831; RMSEA=0,068. These results indicate the IMPRAFE-126 is a promising tool that can be used by sports psychologists or personal trainers particularly

  5. Utilização dos sistemas de informação em saúde em municípios gaúchos de pequeno porte Utilización de los sistemas de información en salud en municipios gauchos de pequeño porte Use of health information systems in small municipalities in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Vidor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o uso dos sistemas de informação em saúde em cidades com menos de 10 mil habitantes. MÉTODOS: Estudo realizado no estado do Rio de Grande do Sul, entre 2003 e 2004. Foi enviado um questionário auto-aplicável a gestores dos municípios, contendo 11 questões de escolha simples, três de escolha múltipla e três abertas, sobre a estrutura disponível, utilização das informações, indicadores valorizados e satisfação com os sistemas. O questionário foi respondido por gestores de 127 (37,7% dos municípios gaúchos com menos de 10 mil habitantes. As respostas foram tabuladas em planilha eletrônica e a diferença entre municípios respondentes e não-respondentes foi avaliada pelo teste qui-quadrado, considerando-se significativo p OBJETIVO: Describir el uso de los Sistemas de Información en Salud en ciudades con menos de 10 mil habitantes. MÉTODOS: Estudio realizado en estado de Rio Grande do Sul, Sur de Brasil, entre 2003 y 2004. Se envió un cuestionario auto-aplicable a gestores de los municipios, conteniendo 11 preguntas de selección simple, tres de selección múltiple y tres abiertas, sobre la estructura disponible, utilización de las informaciones, indicadores valorizados y satisfacci��n con los sistemas. El cuestionario fue respondido por gestores de 127 (37,7% de los municipios gauchos con menos de 10 mil habitantes. Las respuestas fueron tabuladas en planilla electrónica y la diferencia entre municipios que respondieron y que no respondieron fue evaluada por la prueba chi-cuadrado, considerándose significativo pOBJECTIVE: To describe the use of health information systems in towns with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants. METHODS: Study conducted in the state of Rio de Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, between 2003 and 2004. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to municipal managers, containing 11 single-choice questions, three multiple-choice questions and three open questions on the structure

  6. Internationalization as a strategy to increase the competitiveness of the wine chain Gaucho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinval Oliveira Souza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the complexity of the competitive environment of the Brazilian wine industry, focusing on companies gaúcha through the perspective of the value chain, reporting the main challenges that are presented in relation to international competition. It also presents a case study conducted with two major players and their strategies of internationalization. Finally evaluate the constraints that hinder competitiveness in the global market, raising some issues that should be considered by companies seeking to expand its national participation in global markets.

  7. Teaching sign language in gaucho schools for deaf people: a study of curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Hessel Silveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper, which provides partial results of a master’s dissertation, has sought to give contribute Sign Language curriculum in the deaf schooling. We began to understand the importance of sign languages for deaf people’s development and found out that a large part of the deaf are from hearing parents, which emphasises the significance of teaching LIBRAS (Brazilian Sign Language in schools for the deaf. We should also consider the importance of this study in building deaf identities and strengthening the deaf culture. We have obtained the theoretical basis in the so-called Deaf Studies and some experts in the curriculum theories. The main objective for this study has been to conduct an analysis of the LIBRAS curriculum at work in schools for the deaf in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The curriculum analysis has shown a degree of diversity: in some curricula, content from one year is repeated in the next one with no articulation. In others, one can find preoccupation for issues of deaf identity and culture, but some of them include contents that are not related to LIBRAS, or the deaf culture, but rather to discipline for the deaf in general. By providing positive and negative aspects, the analysis data may help in discussions about difficulties, progress and problems in LIBRAS teacher education for deaf students.

  8. Exposure of Brown Recluse and Brown Widow Spiders (Araneae: Sicariidae, Theridiidae) to a Commercial Sulfuryl Fluoride Fumigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Hoddle, Mark S; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Thoms, Ellen

    2014-10-01

    The body of pesticide research on spiders is sparse with most studies using topical or residual applications to assess efficacy. Data on the effects of fumigation on spider survivorship are scarce in the scientific literature. In this study, we exposed adult male and female brown recluse spiders, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch & Mulaik, and female brown widow spiders, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, to a commercial fumigation event using sulfuryl fluoride directed at termite control. General consensus from the pest control industry is that fumigation is not always effective for control of spiders for a variety of reasons, including insufficient fumigant dosage, particularly, for contents of egg sacs that require a higher fumigant dosage for control. We demonstrated that a sulfuryl fluoride fumigation with an accumulated dosage of 162 oz-h per 1,000 ft(3) at 21°C over 25 h (≈1.7 × the drywood termite dosage) directed at termites was sufficient to kill adult brown recluse and brown widow spiders. The effectiveness of commercial fumigation practices to control spiders, and particularly their egg sacs, warrants further study. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  9. Así andan los gauchos, los gauchos andan así... Los verdugos voluntarios de Hitler y el esquivo objeto de la ideología

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Sameck, Pablo Edgardo

    2014-01-01

    El aporte de Los verdugos voluntarios de Hitler. Los alemanes corrientes y el Holocausto, de Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, ha de jugar un papel central en esta Ponencia. Este libro realiza un concienzudo trabajo y aporte significativo con un trabajo sobre la génesis y el universo cultural de las bases sociales de la sociedad alemana de preguerra, de lo que se pudiera entender sobre cómo funcionaba esa base social sobre la que fuera o se pudiera entender la estructura real del sistema social de cree...

  10. The effects of remoteness. The figure of the Indian and the gaucho in two novels of Alencar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Romano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Under the Brazilian romanticism project to build a national culture and literature, José de Alencar published in 1870 O Gaúcho and, four years later, Ubirajara. In both novels, he experimented with two typical inhabitants of his country: the gaúcho and the indian. The hypothesis developed in the paper is that they took such an extreme idealization of these “original” Brazilian human types that Alencar's prose was confronted with certain narrative crossroads. These could only be resolved by appealing to resources that streamline the course of the incidents but that work to the detriment of the artistic unity of the novels.

  11. The garden dying: Commoditization of agriculture and changes in practices of self-consumption among rural families of southern gaucho

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    Flávio Sacco dos Anjos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on qualitative research carried out in the southern extreme of the Rio Grande do Sul state and explores the transformations on the practices of self-consumption production in the context of familiar agriculture, essentially, under the impacts of the process of commoditization of agriculture and the rural life. The self-consumption practices present a cultural matrix among rural families, in spite of the symbolic value attributed to products generated within the very rural establishment, as compared to the ones which are acquired externally in usual commerce or from other units of production. The field-work was performed within thirty family agricultural establishments whose main commercial activity lies on the milk, peach and tobacco production. The authors discuss the impacts of the commoditization of agriculture on the practical of self-consumption production.

  12. [The perception of the young and long-lived elderly 'Gauchos' (from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) about the public spaces they live in Resumo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Joel Hirtz do Nascimento; Andrade, Francini Porcher; Paiva, Tiago Sousa; da Silva, Diovana Ourique; Gessinger, Cristiane Fernanda; Bós, Ângelo José Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    By 2050, the number of Brazilians living in urban areas will be over 200 million and 29% of the population will be elderly. The long-lived elderly are 80 or more years old and the young elderly are between 60 and 79 years of age. The scope of this article was to verify the difference in perception between the young elderly and the long-lived elderly from Rio Grande do Sul (RS) about the urban environment they live in. This is a population-based, observational, descriptive, retrospective study with a quantitative analysis paradigm. Data was analyzed from Elderly Profile research in RS conducted by the Geriatric and Gerontological Institute of PUCRS in partnership with the RS School of Public Health. The sample consisted of 6913 questionnaires answered by the elderly from 59 cities. Data analysis was performed for each age group and independent variables were processed using the Chi-square test, with p under 0.05. Results showed that the perception of difficulties such as a lack of park benches and safety strips, short traffic light times for pedestrians, high steps and bad-smelling public toilets was greater among the young elderly. The long-lived elderly noticed these facts less, though they admitted that they frequent community environments less often.

  13. Expert explanations of honeybee losses in areas of extensive agriculture in France: Gaucho® compared with other supposed causal factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maxim, L.; van der Sluijs, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Debates on causality are at the core of controversies as regards environmental changes. The present paper presents a new method for analyzing controversies on causality in a context of social debate and the results of its empirical testing. The case study used is the controversy as regards the role

  14. Venom of the Brazilian spider Sicarius ornatus (Araneae, Sicariidae) contains active sphingomyelinase D: potential for toxicity after envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Priscila Hess; Bertani, Rogério; Gonçalves-de-Andrade, Rute M; Nagahama, Roberto H; van den Berg, Carmen W; Tambourgi, Denise V

    2013-01-01

    The spider family Sicariidae includes two genera, Sicarius and Loxosceles. Bites by Sicarius are uncommon in humans and, in Brazil, a single report is known of a 17-year old man bitten by a Sicarius species that developed a necrotic lesion similar to that caused by Loxosceles. Envenomation by Loxosceles spiders can result in dermonecrosis and severe ulceration. Sicarius and Loxosceles spider venoms share a common characteristic, i.e., the presence of Sphingomyelinases D (SMase D). We have previously shown that Loxosceles SMase D is the enzyme responsible for the main pathological effects of the venom. Recently, it was demonstrated that Sicarius species from Africa, like Loxosceles spiders from the Americas, present high venom SMase D activity. However, despite the presence of SMase D like proteins in venoms of several New World Sicarius species, they had reduced or no detectable SMase D activity. In order to contribute to a better understanding about the toxicity of New World Sicarius venoms, the aim of this study was to characterize the toxic properties of male and female venoms from the Brazilian Sicarius ornatus spider and compare these with venoms from Loxosceles species of medical importance in Brazil. SDS-PAGE analysis showed variations in the composition of Loxosceles spp. and Sicarius ornatus venoms. Differences in the electrophoretic profiles of male and female venoms were also observed, indicating a possible intraspecific variation in the composition of the venom of Sicarius spider. The major component in all tested venoms had a Mr of 32-35 kDa, which was recognized by antiserum raised against Loxosceles SMases D. Moreover, male and female Sicarius ornatus spiders' venoms were able to hydrolyze sphingomyelin, thus showing an enzymatic activity similar to that determined for Loxosceles venoms. Sicarius ornatus venoms, as well as Loxosceles venoms, were able to render erythrocytes susceptible to lysis by autologous serum and to induce a significant loss of

  15. Venom of the Brazilian spider Sicarius ornatus (Araneae, Sicariidae contains active sphingomyelinase D: potential for toxicity after envenomation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Hess Lopes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The spider family Sicariidae includes two genera, Sicarius and Loxosceles. Bites by Sicarius are uncommon in humans and, in Brazil, a single report is known of a 17-year old man bitten by a Sicarius species that developed a necrotic lesion similar to that caused by Loxosceles. Envenomation by Loxosceles spiders can result in dermonecrosis and severe ulceration. Sicarius and Loxosceles spider venoms share a common characteristic, i.e., the presence of Sphingomyelinases D (SMase D. We have previously shown that Loxosceles SMase D is the enzyme responsible for the main pathological effects of the venom. Recently, it was demonstrated that Sicarius species from Africa, like Loxosceles spiders from the Americas, present high venom SMase D activity. However, despite the presence of SMase D like proteins in venoms of several New World Sicarius species, they had reduced or no detectable SMase D activity. In order to contribute to a better understanding about the toxicity of New World Sicarius venoms, the aim of this study was to characterize the toxic properties of male and female venoms from the Brazilian Sicarius ornatus spider and compare these with venoms from Loxosceles species of medical importance in Brazil. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: SDS-PAGE analysis showed variations in the composition of Loxosceles spp. and Sicarius ornatus venoms. Differences in the electrophoretic profiles of male and female venoms were also observed, indicating a possible intraspecific variation in the composition of the venom of Sicarius spider. The major component in all tested venoms had a Mr of 32-35 kDa, which was recognized by antiserum raised against Loxosceles SMases D. Moreover, male and female Sicarius ornatus spiders' venoms were able to hydrolyze sphingomyelin, thus showing an enzymatic activity similar to that determined for Loxosceles venoms. Sicarius ornatus venoms, as well as Loxosceles venoms, were able to render erythrocytes susceptible to

  16. 76 FR 18241 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Energy Gateway...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ..., 5353 Yellowstone Road, Cheyenne, Wyoming 82003, Attention: Tamara Gertsch. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... height with average spans between towers of 1,000 to 1,500 feet (4 to 5 structures per mile). Permanent... historical sites; Paleontological resources; Changes in visual quality and settings; National Scenic and...

  17. Systematics, conservation and morphology of the spider genus Tayshaneta (Araneae, Leptonetidae in Central Texas Caves

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    Joel Ledford

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The spider genus Tayshaneta is revised based on results from a three gene phylogenetic analysis (Ledford et al. 2011 and a comprehensive morphological survey using scanning electron (SEM and compound light microscopy. The morphology and relationships within Tayshaneta are discussed and five species-groups are supported by phylogenetic analyses: the anopica group, the coeca group, the myopica group, the microps group and the sandersi group. Short branch lengths within Tayshaneta contrast sharply with the remaining North American genera and are viewed as evidence for a relatively recent radiation of species. Variation in troglomorphic morphology is discussed and compared to patterns found in other Texas cave invertebrates. Several species previously known as single cave endemics have wider ranges than expected, suggesting that some caves are not isolated habitats but instead form part of interconnected karst networks. Distribution maps are compared with karst faunal regions (KFR’s in Central Texas and the implications for the conservation and recovery of Tayshaneta species are discussed. Ten new species are described: T. archambaulti sp. n., T. emeraldae sp. n., T. fawcetti sp. n., T. grubbsi sp. n., T. madla sp. n., T. oconnorae sp. n., T. sandersi sp. n., T. sprousei sp. n., T. vidrio sp. n. and T. whitei sp. n. The males for three species, T. anopica (Gertsch, 1974, T. devia (Gertsch, 1974 and T. microps (Gertsch, 1974 are described for the first time. Tayshaneta furtiva (Gertsch, 1974 and T. uvaldea (Gertsch, 1974 are declared nomina dubia as the female holotypes are not diagnosable and efforts to locate specimens at the type localities were unsuccessful. All Tayshaneta species are thoroughly illustrated, diagnosed and keyed. Distribution maps are also provided highlighting areas of taxonomic ambiguity in need of additional sampling.

  18. Physiotherapeutic attendance after repairing surgeries of lesions by brown spider: a case report - doi:10.5020/18061230.2007.p133

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marques Frezza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The loxoscelism is the most serious form of arachnidism in Brazil. The genus Loxosceles comprises more than 100 species of spiders in African and American continents. In Brazil, they are known as brown spiders. Nevertheless the great incidence of occurrence, few are the reports about repairing procedures, specially related to Physiotherapy after surgeries due to dermonecrosis. The aim of this case report was to register the Physiotherapeutic attendance of a female patient, 29 years old, victim of loxoscelism and who underwent debridement and skin transplantation for repairing right forearm lesions while she was interned at a hospital. Afterwards, data were confronted with the literature about loxoscelism, burns and Physiotherapy after skin transplantation. It is concluded that the patients with lesions caused by loxoscelism, who need repairing surgeries, may benefit a lot from Physiotherapeutic attendance while still at hospital. Although, factors such as: the lesion’s location, the cicatrization period, the number and complexity of surgeries, may be decisive for this indication.

  19. Politics representation scenarios and elec toral behavior - study case: Porto Alegre's municipal elections in 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Barth

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to reflect about the influence of the political surveys in the definition of the electoral behavior analyzing the scenarios of political representation, the mechanism of public opinion formation and the specificities of the behavior of the gaucho electorate. We believe the publicity built upon the surveys had a great impact in the Porto Alegre mayor election results in 2004. The methodology we chose was the qualitative approach, that is, content analysis. In the end, we confirm the behavior of the gaucho electorate shows a receptive predisposing to the appeal to the useful vote.

  20. Syndrome of Acute Anxiety Among Marines After Recent Arrival at High Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Naval Health Research Center Syndrome of Acute Anxiety Among Marines After Recent Arrival at High Altitude Michael K. Sracic Darren Thomas...Allen Pate Jacob Norris Marc Norman, Jeffrey H. Gertsch Report No. 13-29 The views expressed in this article are those of the authors...MEDICINE, 179, 5:559, 2014 Syndrome of Acute Anxiety Among Marines After Recent Arrival at High Altitude LT Michael K. Sracic, MC USN*; LT Darren Thomas

  1. High Altitude Headache and Acute Mountain Sickness at Moderate Elevations in a Military Population During Battalion-Level Training Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    activities falling between 2,400 and 3,300m. Ascent and descent profiles were variable according to the unit to which a given Marine was attached. Because all...for full duty status. Participants had ready access to water and medical care and available interventions against AMS included descent , oxygen, and...Acetazolamide Dosage Comparison for Efficacy (PACE) trial. High Alt Med Biol 2006; 7(1): 17-27. 14. Basnyat B, Gertsch JH, Johnson EW, Castro-Marin F

  2. Recent advances in the understanding of brown spider venoms: From the biology of spiders to the molecular mechanisms of toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremski, Luiza Helena; Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Ferrer, Valéria Pereira; Matsubara, Fernando Hitomi; Meissner, Gabriel Otto; Wille, Ana Carolina Martins; Vuitika, Larissa; Dias-Lopes, Camila; Ullah, Anwar; de Moraes, Fábio Rogério; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Barbaro, Katia Cristina; Murakami, Mario Tyago; Arni, Raghuvir Krishnaswamy; Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea; Chaim, Olga Meiri; Veiga, Silvio Sanches

    2014-06-01

    The Loxosceles genus spiders (the brown spiders) are encountered in all the continents, and the clinical manifestations following spider bites include skin necrosis with gravitational lesion spreading and occasional systemic manifestations, such as intravascular hemolysis, thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure. Brown spider venoms are complex mixtures of toxins especially enriched in three molecular families: the phospholipases D, astacin-like metalloproteases and Inhibitor Cystine Knot (ICK) peptides. Other toxins with low level of expression also present in the venom include the serine proteases, serine protease inhibitors, hyaluronidases, allergen factors and translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP). The mechanisms by which the Loxosceles venoms act and exert their noxious effects are not fully understood. Except for the brown spider venom phospholipase D, which causes dermonecrosis, hemolysis, thrombocytopenia and renal failure, the pathological activities of the other venom toxins remain unclear. The objective of the present review is to provide insights into the brown spider venoms and loxoscelism based on recent results. These insights include the biology of brown spiders, the clinical features of loxoscelism and the diagnosis and therapy of brown spider bites. Regarding the brown spider venom, this review includes a description of the novel toxins revealed by molecular biology and proteomics techniques, the data regarding three-dimensional toxin structures, and the mechanism of action of these molecules. Finally, the biotechnological applications of the venom components, especially for those toxins reported as recombinant molecules, and the challenges for future study are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. O Conselho Estadual do Povo de Terreiro: religiões afro-brasileiras e políticas públicas no Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Tadvald

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work seeks to problematize the formulation and application of governmental public policies in recent years focused on the Afro-Gaucho religions, based on the formation context and recent actions of the State Council of the People of Terreiro (CPTERS in the gaucho political scene. Following, we argue about some persecutory actions by local parliamentarians in recent years (2003, 2005, 2015, which sought to restrict liturgical practices that involve the free exercise of afro-religions in Rio Grande do Sul starting from a historical and present discussion and from references from the field of social studies of religion, thus seeking to situate the case of CPTERS within a larger framework of analysis involving themes such as ethnicity, racism and religious intolerance.

  4. Sphingomyelinase D activity in model membranes: structural effects of in situ generation of ceramide-1-phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stock, Roberto; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Wagner, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of Loxosceles spider venom has been attributed to a rare enzyme, sphingomyelinase D, which transforms sphingomyelin to ceramide-1-phosphate. The bases of its inflammatory and dermonecrotic activity, however, remain unclear. In this work the effects of ceramide-1-phosphate on model...... membranes were studied both by in situ generation of this lipid using a recombinant sphingomyelinase D from the spider Loxosceles laeta and by pre-mixing it with sphingomyelin and cholesterol. The systems of choice were large unilamellar vesicles for bulk studies (enzyme kinetics, fluorescence spectroscopy...... and dynamic light scattering) and giant unilamellar vesicles for fluorescence microscopy examination using a variety of fluorescent probes. The influence of membrane lateral structure on the kinetics of enzyme activity and the consequences of enzyme activity on the structure of target membranes containing...

  5. Evaluation of Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects in Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Exposed In Vitro to Neonicotinoid Insecticides News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Calderón-Segura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Calypso (thiacloprid, Poncho (clothianidin, Gaucho (imidacloprid, and Jade (imidacloprid are commercial neonicotinoid insecticides, a new class of agrochemicals in México. However, genotoxic and cytotoxic studies have not been performed. In the present study, human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL were exposed in vitro to different concentrations of the four insecticides. The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects were evaluated using the alkaline comet and trypan blue dye exclusion assays. DNA damage was evaluated using two genotoxicity parameters: tail length and comet frequency. Exposure to 9.5×10-6 to 5.7×10-5 M Jade; 2.8×10-4 to 1.7×10-3 M Gaucho; 0.6×10-1 to 1.4×10-1 M Calypso; 1.2×10-1 to 9.5×10-1 M Poncho for 2 h induced a significant increase DNA damage with a concentration-dependent relationship. Jade was the most genotoxic of the four insecticides studied. Cytotoxicity was observed in cells exposed to 18×10-3 M Jade, 2.0×10-3 M Gaucho, 2.0×10-1 M Calypso, 1.07 M Poncho, and cell death occurred at 30×10-3 M Jade, 3.3×10-3 M Gaucho, 2.8×10-1 M Calypso, and 1.42 M Poncho. This study provides the first report of genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in PBL following in vitro exposure to commercial neonicotinoid insecticides.

  6. Reviews of recent publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Aizenberg, Edna. Parricide on the Pampa? A New Study and Translation of Alberto Gerchunoffs "Los gauchos judíos" by Jan Mennell Emerson, Caryl, ed. Critical Essays on Mikhail Bakhtin by Michael Barry Finney, Gail. Christa Wolf by Stephen Brockmann Hoeg, Jerry. Science, Technology, and Latin American Narrative in the Twentieth Century and Beyond by Paul Fallon Mendez-Ramirez, Hugo. Neruda's Ekphrastic Experience: Mural Art and Canto general by Agustin Boyer Perriam, Chris, Michael Thompson, Susan Frenk, and Vanessa Knights. A New History of Spanish Writing: 1939 to the 1990s by William Sherzer Soto, Francisco. Reinaldo Arenas by Marina Llorente

  7. Ontogenetic development and reproduction of Zorocrates guerrerensis (Araneae: Zoropsidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolejš, Petr

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Zorocrates guerrerensis Gertsch & Davis, 1940 is a Mexican cribellate spider with almost no information about its biology. As the species could potentially be of medical interest, it was decided to study basic aspects of its life history under laboratory conditions. The life cycle lasts a year, with spiders undergoing up to 12 instars to reach maturity. The courtship behaviour includes tactile communication. Copulation consists of two palpal insertions, each with a single haematodochal expansion. Both males and females can mate more than once; components of the first and second copulation do not differ. On average, the total copulation duration lasts for more than five minutes. Some details of the copulation process are discussed and compared with those of other lycosoids.

  8. Sphingomyelinase D activity in model membranes: structural effects of in situ generation of ceramide-1-phosphate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto P Stock

    Full Text Available The toxicity of Loxosceles spider venom has been attributed to a rare enzyme, sphingomyelinase D, which transforms sphingomyelin to ceramide-1-phosphate. The bases of its inflammatory and dermonecrotic activity, however, remain unclear. In this work the effects of ceramide-1-phosphate on model membranes were studied both by in situ generation of this lipid using a recombinant sphingomyelinase D from the spider Loxosceles laeta and by pre-mixing it with sphingomyelin and cholesterol. The systems of choice were large unilamellar vesicles for bulk studies (enzyme kinetics, fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering and giant unilamellar vesicles for fluorescence microscopy examination using a variety of fluorescent probes. The influence of membrane lateral structure on the kinetics of enzyme activity and the consequences of enzyme activity on the structure of target membranes containing sphingomyelin were examined. The findings indicate that: 1 ceramide-1-phosphate (particularly lauroyl ceramide-1-phosphate can be incorporated into sphingomyelin bilayers in a concentration-dependent manner and generates coexistence of liquid disordered/solid ordered domains, 2 the activity of sphingomyelinase D is clearly influenced by the supramolecular organization of its substrate in membranes and, 3 in situ ceramide-1-phosphate generation by enzymatic activity profoundly alters the lateral structure and morphology of the target membranes.

  9. Potencialidades fitoquímicas do melão (Cucumis melo L. na região Noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil Phytochemical potentialities of melon (Cucumis melo L. in the northwest region of Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Muller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O melão (Cucumis melo L. é uma fruta muito apreciada por suas qualidades e sua produção vem crescendo e ganhando espaço no mercado nacional e internacional. Em regiões como o Noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul, destaca-se como uma nova alternativa de renda para vários agricultores. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o potencial fitoquímico de alguns cultivares de melão da região Noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul. A análise fitoquímica utilizando como farmacógeno as folhas, foi realizada para a verificação da presença de metabólitos secundários, tais como: saponinas, cumarinas, cardiotônicos, cianogenéticos, alcalóides, taninos, antraquinonas, flavonoides, e óleos voláteis. Também foi avaliado o teor de suco a partir dos frutos. Dentre os cinco cultivares analisados, Gaúcho, Imperial, Hy Mark, Magelan, e Cantaloupe, o cultivar Gaucho apresentou a maior variedade em metabólitos secundários. Na avaliação do teor de suco a cultivar Magelan se destacou em comparação às demais cultivares testadas.The melon (Cucumis melo L. is a fruit highly appreciated for its qualities and its production has been growing and gaining space in the national and in the international market. In regions like the northwest of Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil, it stands out as a new income alternative for farmers. In this context, this study aimed to analyze the phytochemical potential of some melon cultivars in the northwest region of Rio Grande do Sul. The phytochemical analysis, using the leaves as pharmacogen, was performed to verify the presence of secondary metabolites such as saponins, coumarins, cardiac glycosides, cyanogenetic glicosides, alkaloids, tannins, anthraquinones, flavonoids and volatile oils. The juice content from the fruits was also evaluated. Among the five analyzed cultivars, Gaucho, Imperial, Hy Mark, Magelan and Cantaloupe, cultivar Gaucho had the greatest variety of secondary metabolites. In the

  10. Brown spider dermonecrotic toxin directly induces nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaim, Olga Meiri; Sade, Youssef Bacila; Bertoni da Silveira, Rafael; Toma, Leny; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Chavez-Olortegui, Carlos; Mangili, Oldemir Carlos; Gremski, Waldemiro; Dietrich, Carl Peter von; Nader, Helena B.; Sanches Veiga, Silvio

    2006-01-01

    Brown spider (Loxosceles genus) venom can induce dermonecrotic lesions at the bite site and systemic manifestations including fever, vomiting, convulsions, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure. The venom is composed of a mixture of proteins with several molecules biochemically and biologically well characterized. The mechanism by which the venom induces renal damage is unknown. By using mice exposed to Loxosceles intermedia recombinant dermonecrotic toxin (LiRecDT), we showed direct induction of renal injuries. Microscopic analysis of renal biopsies from dermonecrotic toxin-treated mice showed histological alterations including glomerular edema and tubular necrosis. Hyalinization of tubules with deposition of proteinaceous material in the tubule lumen, tubule epithelial cell vacuoles, tubular edema and epithelial cell lysis was also observed. Leukocytic infiltration was neither observed in the glomerulus nor the tubules. Renal vessels showed no sign of inflammatory response. Additionally, biochemical analyses showed such toxin-induced changes in renal function as urine alkalinization, hematuria and azotemia with elevation of blood urea nitrogen levels. Immunofluorescence with dermonecrotic toxin antibodies and confocal microscopy analysis showed deposition and direct binding of this toxin to renal intrinsic structures. By immunoblotting with a hyperimmune dermonecrotic toxin antiserum on renal lysates from toxin-treated mice, we detected a positive signal at the region of 33-35 kDa, which strengthens the idea that renal failure is directly induced by dermonecrotic toxin. Immunofluorescence reaction with dermonecrotic toxin antibodies revealed deposition and binding of this toxin directly in MDCK epithelial cells in culture. Similarly, dermonecrotic toxin treatment caused morphological alterations of MDCK cells including cytoplasmic vacuoles, blebs, evoked impaired spreading and detached cells from each other and from

  11. Efeito de inseticidas na semeadura sobre pragas iniciais e produtividade de milho safrinha em plantio direto Effect of inseticides at sowing on seedling pests and yield off-season maize crop under no-tillage system

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    Gessi Ceccon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando o aumento do complexo de pragas em lavouras de milho safrinha, foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos (A e B no município de Cândido Mota (SP. O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito de inseticidas sobre pragas de solo (percevejos-castanhos e corós, lagarta-do-cartucho na fase inicial da cultura e desenvolvimento das plantas. Os inseticidas utilizados na semeadura foram: thiamethoxam (Cruiser 700 WS, carbofuran (Furazin 310 TS, imidacloprid (Gaucho FS, imidacloprid (Gaucho FS + carbofuran (Furazin 310 TS, fipronil (Regent 800 WG e thiodicarb (Semevin 350 RPA, nas doses recomendadas de cada produto, e a testemunha sem inseticida. As pragas de solo foram avaliadas aos 14 e 28 dias após a emergência das plantas (DAE, no experimento A, e aos 7 e 21 DAE, no experimento B. Os parâmetros agronômicos foram avaliados aos 14 e 28 DAE, juntamente com o ataque por Spodoptera frugiperda, e também por ocasião da colheita dos grãos. Os inseticidas fipronil e carbofuran destacaram-se no controle do percevejo-castanho Scaptocoris castanea e o fipronil sobressaiu no controle dos corós (Phyllophaga spp. Os inseticidas carbofuran e thiodicarb reduziram o número de plantas danificadas pela lagarta-do-cartucho Spodoptera frugiperda. O controle químico do complexo de pragas do solo e da lagarta-do-cartucho proporcionou aumentos significativos da produtividade de grãos de milho apenas na área A, onde o número de corós era maior.Due to an increasing pest diversity in maize crop during the off-season, two autumn-winter experiments were conducted in the Medium Paranapanema region, State of São Paulo, Brazil, designated as Fields A and B, both in Cândido Mota County. The aim of the experiments were to evaluate the effect of insecticides on the control of pests occurring in the initial plant development. Treatments were the recommended dosage of the insecticides thiamethoxam (Cruiser 700 WS, carbofuran (Furazin 310 TS, imidacloprid (Gaucho FS

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02054-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0.080 1 ( DT656898 ) pgr1n.UA001.227 Normalized chicken reproductive t... 50 0.080 1 ( AJ454996 ) Gallus gallus EST, clone library...90810 XtSt10-30 Xenopus (Silurana) t... 36 0.17 2 ( DV037739 ) BRS3230 storage root cDNA library Ipomoea bat..... 44 4.9 1 ( BM959958 ) cihA1L9S Ascidian hemocytes cDNA library Ciona in... 44 4.9 1 ( BM230365 ) K0294C12-3 NIA Mouse Unferti...... 36 0.010 3 ( EY189411 ) LLAE1039S Spider Loxosceles laeta cDNA library Lo... ... riken1, clone 4e... 50 0.080 1 ( AJ453299 ) Gallus gallus EST, clone library riken1,

  13. Implications of the admixture process in skin color molecular assessment.

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    Caio Cesar Silva de Cerqueira

    Full Text Available The understanding of the complex genotype-phenotype architecture of human pigmentation has clear implications for the evolutionary history of humans, as well as for medical and forensic practices. Although dozens of genes have previously been associated with human skin color, knowledge about this trait remains incomplete. In particular, studies focusing on populations outside the European-North American axis are rare, and, until now, admixed populations have seldom been considered. The present study was designed to help fill this gap. Our objective was to evaluate possible associations of 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, located within nine genes, and one pseudogene with the Melanin Index (MI in two admixed Brazilian populations (Gaucho, N = 352; Baiano, N = 148 with different histories of geographic and ethnic colonization. Of the total sample, four markers were found to be significantly associated with skin color, but only two (SLC24A5 rs1426654, and SLC45A2 rs16891982 were consistently associated with MI in both samples (Gaucho and Baiano. Therefore, only these 2 SNPs should be preliminarily considered to have forensic significance because they consistently showed the association independently of the admixture level of the populations studied. We do not discard that the other two markers (HERC2 rs1129038 and TYR rs1126809 might be also relevant to admixed samples, but additional studies are necessary to confirm the real importance of these markers for skin pigmentation. Finally, our study shows associations of some SNPs with MI in a modern Brazilian admixed sample, with possible applications in forensic genetics. Some classical genetic markers in Euro-North American populations are not associated with MI in our sample. Our results point out the relevance of considering population differences in selecting an appropriate set of SNPs as phenotype predictors in forensic practice.

  14. CONTROLE ASSOCIADO DE Cornitermes cumulans (KOLLAR, 1832 (ISOPTERA: TERMITIDAE COM Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana E IMIDACLOPRID ASSOCIATED CONTROL OF Cornitermes cumulans (KOLLAR, 1832 (ISOPTERA: TERMITIDAE WITH Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana AND IMIDACLOPRID

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    Pedro Janeiro Neves

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi o de verificar em condições de campo a eficiência do controle associado de colônias de Cornitermes cumulans utilizando imidacloprid juntamente com fungos entomopatogênicos (Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana. Foram realizados experimentos de campo para determinar quais as concentrações mínimas de conídios e de imidacloprid que quando aplicadas em associação controlaram os ninhos de cupins, mas quando aplicadas em separado não foram eficientes. Isto ocorreu quando 500 mg de conídios do patógeno (M. anisopliae ou B. bassiana foram misturados a 1,9 mg do produto comercial Gaucho 70 PM (imidacloprid e 6 gramas do inerte calcene. Foi possível diminuir a concentração de conídios em até 4 vezes e a do inseticida imidacloprid em até 157 vezes em relação às concentrações usualmente recomendadas. Estas concentrações possibilitaram elevados níveis de controle dos ninhos grandes (>80%, com uma diminuição considerável no custo do controle. Além disso, é importante considerar os benefícios ecológicos advindos deste controle associado pela diminuição na quantidade de inseticida a ser utilizada. Deste modo, esta estratégia deve ser explorada como uma alternativa importante na eliminação das colônias grandes de C. cumulans.The objective of this study was to investigate, under field conditions, the control efficiency against nests of Cornitermes cumulans using imidacoprid associated with entomopathogenic fungi (Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. Field experiments were conducted to determine the minimal conidia and imidacloprid concentration jointly applied, necessary to control termite nest, but when applied separately was not efficient. This occurred when 500 mg of conidia of the pathogen (M. anisopliae or B. bassiana were mixed with 1.9 mg of imidacloprid (Gaucho 70 PM and 6 g of the inert calcene. It was possible to reduce the conidial concentration 4 times and the

  15. Más allá de la cría extensiva: un estudio matizado sobre la geografía económica de Uruguay antes de la modernización

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    Carolina Vicario

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza algunas características sociodemográficas y económicas de las sociedades de América Latina precapitalistas del Cono Sur; específicamente, la estructura demográfica y ocupacional del sur de Uruguay entre 1760 y 1860. Se enfatiza en la importancia de la mano de obra familiar en los distintos contextos socioeconómicos de la región, así como en el peso de los sectores productivos en la estructura ocupacional. A partir de esto se visualiza una geografía económica distinta a la que planteaba a Uruguay como un territorio homogéneo: las regiones se distinguen según su trayectoria demográfica y económica y se matiza la imagen de una sociedad segmentada en estancieros y gauchos, característica de la historiografía tradicional de la cuenca del Plata. A partir de padrones de la población de Montevideo y sus alrededores se estudia el tamaño y la composición de los hogares, la población activa y la estructura ocupacional.The aim of this paper is to establish some questions about some economic and demographic characteristics of pre-industrial Latin America societies, specially the demographic and occupational structure of the South of Uruguay between 1760 and 1860 in the Río de la Plata context. We highlight in the first place the importance of the familiar labor force in different socioeconomic contexts of the region; in the second place, the size of the productive sectors in the occupational structure. From this, we can see a different economic geography from those which raised the image of Uruguay as a homogeneous territory: the regions are distinguished by the demographic and economic path and the society segmented in estancieros and gauchos is questioned. From population registers from Montevideo and surroundings we analyze the size and composition of the homes, the active population and the occupational structure.

  16. Reconfiguración de representaciones y descentramientos de la mirada

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    Cleopatra Barrios Cristaldo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available [es] Este artículo aborda la reconfiguración de representaciones identitarias y los descentramientos de la mirada en fotografías contemporáneas. La reflexión se focaliza en imágenes de la festividad del gaucho Antonio Gil, una de las manifestaciones de la religiosidad popular argentina más difundidas en la última década. En la indagación observamos que las representaciones visuales se encuentran fuertemente ligadas a retóricas de la nacionalidad. También analizamos la reconfiguración de representaciones como un proceso que se ve afectado por descentramientos de la mirada fotográfica. Estos mecanismos desestabilizan los esquemas de visibilidad establecidos y producen nuevas formas de ver, representar y per-formar las identidades. El análisis es interdisciplinar, con aportes de los estudios culturalesvisuales, la historia del arte y la crítica latinoamericana de la comunicación. El corpus está conformado por fotografías tomadas entre 2008 y 2012 por los fotógrafos argentinos Juan Pablo Faccioli y Guillermo Rusconi, en diálogo con otras narrativas. [en] This paper discusses the representational reconfiguration of identity and decentering of the contemporary photographic gaze. The study focus on images of Gaucho Antonio Gil festivity, one of the most widespread manifestation of popular religiosity in the last decade in Argentina. These visual representations are strongly linked to national rhetorics. We also analyze the representational reconfiguration as a process affected by the decentering of the photographic gaze. These mechanisms destabilize established visibility schemes, producing new ways of seeing, representing and performing the identities.This work is an interdisciplinary analysis, with contributions from Cultural and Visual Studies, History of Art and the Latin American Communication Criticism. We analyze photographs taken between 2008 and 2012 by Argentine photographers Juan Pablo Faccioli and Guillermo Rusconi, in

  17. Organizações privadas sem fins lucrativos: a participação do mercado no terceiro setor

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    Rosinha Machado Carrion

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse ensaio é analisar a participação da empresa privada no 3o setor. Resultado de pesquisa realizada em quatro dentre as sete instituições gaúchas associadas ao GIFE, que é a entidade que reúne as iniciativas empresariais de maior destaque no campo social no Brasil, esse artigo revela a substituição, nessas instituições, da lógica da caridade pela do investimento social. O que faz com que o ato de doar assuma conotações estratégicas, priorizando ações e projetos que por suas características sejam interpretados como capazes de aportar uma contribuição mais efetiva ao enfrentamento da questão social. Paralelamente, evidencia-se, também, a preferência das instituições gaúchas, mantidas pelo capital privado e associadas ao GIFE, por ações de caráter preventivo, tais como aquelas que visam evitar a marginalização de crianças e adolescentes, em situação de risco social. Entre tais ações pode-se apontar as escolas de iniciação profissional.This study analizes the participation of private business in the Third Sector. It is based on research carried out in four of the seven `gaucho' institutions, affiliated to GIFE, an institution that congregates outstanding business initiatives in the social field in Brazil. The article reveals the move from the `logic of charity' to that of social investment. Thus, the act of giving gains strategic connotations setting a priority on actions and projects that, due to their features, may be interpreted as being capable of contributing more effectively towards the solution of social problems. At the same time, the `gaucho' private business institutions associated to GIFE show a clear preference for preventive actions such as those that aim at keeping children and adolescents from becoming outcasts. Schools providing professional traineeship are among such initiatives.

  18. The symphytognathoid spiders of the Gaoligongshan, Yunnan, China (Araneae: Araneoidea: Systematics and diversity of micro-orbweavers

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    Jeremy Miller

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A ten-year inventory of the Gaoligongshan in western Yunnan Province, China, yielded more than 1000 adult spider specimens belonging to the symphytognathoid families Theridiosomatidae, Mysmenidae, Anapidae, and Symphytognathidae. These specimens belong to 36 species, all newly described here. In the Theridiosomatidae: Epeirotypus dalong n. sp., Ogulnius barbandrewsi n. sp., Baalzebub nemesis n. sp., Theridiosoma diwang n. sp., Theridiosoma shuangbi n. sp., Zoma dibaiyin n. sp., Wendilgarda muji n. sp., Coddingtonia euryopoides n. gen., n. sp.; in the Mysmenidae: Mysmena changouzi n. sp., Mysmena jinlong n. sp., Mysmena bizi n. sp., Mysmena goudao n. sp., Mysmena haban n. sp., Mysmena shibali n. sp., Simaoa yaojia n. gen., n. sp., Simaoa kavanaugh n. sp., Simaoa maku n. sp., Simaoa bianjing n. sp., Gaoligonga changya n. gen., n. sp., Gaoligonga zhusun n. sp., Mosu nujiang n. gen., n. sp., Mosu huogou n. sp., Chanea suukyii n. gen., n. sp., Maymena paquini n. sp., Maymena kehen n. sp.; in the Anapidae: Gaiziapis zhizhuba n. gen., n. sp.; in the Symphytognathidae: Patu jidanweishi n. sp., Patu qiqi n. sp., Patu xiaoxiao n. sp., Crassignatha pianma n. sp., Crassignatha yinzhi n. sp., Crassignatha quanqu n. sp., Crassignatha yamu n. sp., Crassignatha ertou n. sp., Crassignatha gudu n. sp., Crassignatha longtou n. sp. The first species of Zoma Saaristo, 1996 (previously monotypic, known from the Seychelles and Maymena Gertsch, 1960 (previously known from the Americas are reported from China. The genus Crassignatha Wunderlich, 1995 (previously known from a single male from Malaysia is represented by seven new Chinese species and is transferred to Symphytognathidae. The first Epeirotypus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1894 species from beyond the Neotropics is described, although the presence of the genus in Asia was previously noted. Notes on morphological characters exhibited by this fauna and implications for the limits and diagnosis of some symphytognathoid

  19. Taxonomia da subfamília Corinninae (Araneae, Corinnidae nas regiões neotropical e neártica Taxonomy of the subfamily Corinninae (Araneae, Corinnidae in neotropical and neartic regions

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    Alexandre Bragio Bonaldo

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Corinninae is characterized and diagnosed. Two synapomorphies are hypothesized for the subfamily, both regarding the male palpal reservoir, which is primarily coiled and presents a sclerotized distal sector. Seventeen genera are recognized, six of which are new: Abapeba (type species Corinna lacertosa Simon, Erendira (type species Corinna pallidoguttata Simon, Septentrinna (type species Corinna bicalcarata Simon, Simonestus (type species Diestus validus Simon, Tapixaua (type species T. callida sp. nov. and Tupirinna (type species T. rosae sp. nov.. The genera Creugas Thorell, Falconina Brignoli and Paradiestus Mello-Leitão are revalidated. Diestus Simon and Lausus Simon are newly synonymized with Corinna C. L. Koch. Chemmis Simon is included in the synonymy of Megalostrata Karsch. Hypsinotus L. Koch is removed from the synonymy of Corinna and included in the synonymy of Creugas. Thirteen new species are described: Septentrinna yucatan and S. potosi from Mexico; Tupirinna rosae from Venezuela and Brazil; Tapixaua callida from Brazil and Peru; Abapeba hoeferi, A. rioclaro, A. taruma, Corinna ducke, C. colombo, C. mourai, C. recurva and Parachemmis manauara from Brazil; Creugas lisei from Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay. Twenty seven species are redescribed. Fifty eight new combinations are presented: from Chemmis, Septentrinna steckleri (Gertsch; from Corinna, Abapeba abalosi (Mello-Leitão, A. cleonei (Petrunkevitch, A. echinus (Simon, A. grassima (Chickering, A. guanicae (Petrunkevitch, A. lacertosa (Simon, A. luctuosa (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, A. lugubris (Schenkel, A. pennata (Caporiacco, A. kochi (Petrunkevitch, A. saga (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, A. wheeleri (Petrunkevitch, Creugas annamae (Gertsch & Davis, C. apophysarius (Caporiacco, C. bajulus (Gertsch, C. bellator (L. Koch, C. bicuspis (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. epicureanus (Chamberlin, C. falculus (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. mucronatus (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. navus (F

  20. Biological treatment to bean seeds before sowing them.

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    Silvano Edel Castro Mayo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Even in some bibliography about the bean cultivation is recommended the use of Rhizobium which association with the cultivation is very advantageous for the fixation of the atmospheric nitrogen, as well as the employment of the antagonistic mushroom Trichoderma spp., for the control of fungous illnesses of the floor and knowing that the cultivation has its fertilization demands and of the plagues control and illnesses that are in definitive the causes that limit the yields of the cultivation, these practices are not used. We proceeded to the disinfection of bean seeds with the resulting solution of the laundry of 1Kg of Trichoderma harzianum of the stock A-34 with 2 liters of water and the mixture of this fluid with 1 Kg of Rhizobium, more a package (134 grams of Gaucho PS 70 for 45.35 kg (100 pounds of t seed. The disinfection of the seed was made by hand, 12 hour before sowing them and the results were very encouraging, so much in the delay of days in appearing the illnesses and the plagues and its low attack intensity as the increase of the yields with relationship to the not treated seed.

  1. Role of nano-range amphiphilic polymers in seed quality enhancement of soybean and imidacloprid retention capacity on seed coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Totan; Kumar, Jitendra; Shakil, Najam A; Pandey, Sushil

    2016-10-01

    Nano-size and wide-range solubility of amphiphilic polymers (having both hydrophilic and hydrophobic blocks) can improve uniformity in seed coatings. An investigation was carried out to assess the positive effect of amphiphilic polymers over hydrophilic or hydrophobic polymers as seed coating agents and pesticide carriers. Amphiphilic polymers with 127.5-354 nm micelle size were synthesized in the laboratory using polyethylene glycols and aliphatic di-acids. After 6 months of storage, germination of uncoated soybean seeds decreased drastically from 97.80 to 81.55%, while polymer-coated seeds showed 89.44-95.92% germination. Similarly, vigour index-1 was reduced from 3841.10 to 2813.06 for control seeds but ranged from 3375.59 to 3844.60 for polymer-coated seeds after 6 months. The developed imidacloprid formulations retained more pesticide on soybean seed coatings than did a commercial formulation (Gaucho(®) 600 FS). The time taken for 50% release of imidacloprid from seed coatings in water was 7.12-9.11 h for the developed formulations and 0.41 h for the commercial formulation. Nano-range amphiphilic polymers can be used to protect soybean seeds from ageing. Formulations as seed treatments may produce improved and sustained efficacy with minimum environmental contamination. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. El escritor uruguayo y la imaginación. Una tragedia bárbara de Copi en argentino

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    Juan Pablo Luppi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Escrita en castellano en Francia durante la última dictadura argentina (1976-1983, La sombra de Wenceslao (1978 acciona un dispositivo teatral que propicia la interrogación sobre el funcionamiento de la producción atópica (Barthes de Copi (Buenos Aires, 1939 - París, 1987 en la tradición literaria argentina, según el estado de la crítica en el fin de siglo. La acción del gaucho uruguayo Wenceslao despliega un sistema de relaciones que desarma los agenciamientos nacionales con lo animal y lo territorial (Foucault, Rancière; territorializado hacia 1910 como arquetipo nacional (Lugones, Rojas, ese sujeto desclasificado de la pre-modernidad argentina vuelve desterritorializado por Copi con una imaginación desplazada del canon, no asimilable a las revisiones principales de aquella territorialización (Martínez Estrada, Borges, Lamborghini. La circulación de voces y cuerpos externos a la norma nacional en La sombra de Wenceslao puede leerse como realización de una utópica poesía gauchesca, absuelta de la patria y del género, contemporánea del derrumbe del Estado bajo la violencia política y económica del último cuarto del siglo.

  3. ¿“Tierra de Gauchos” o “Gaucholandia”? Autenticidad en San Antonio de Areco (Argentina.

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    Cecilia Pérez Winter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo proponemos analizar cómo la autenticidad es definida por diversos sujetos que se involucran en los procesos de valorización patrimonial y turística de una ciudad. En particular, cómo esa cualidad es disputada, discursiva y materialmente, a través del tiempo. Sostenemos que el discurso, o la idea de, autenticidad puede ser implementada por diferentes sectores de una comunidad, ya sea como un forma de legitimar/deslegitimar proyectos turísticos ‑patrimoniales, o para controlar la activación de los “patrimonios/atractivos”. Proponemos como estudio de caso la ciudad de San Antonio de Areco, localizada en la provincia de Buenos Aires ‑Argentina. Allí nos interesar indagar estos temas, a partir de examinar las tensiones que emergen entre las representaciones identitarias y la lógica turística/comercial, al mercantilizar elementos significativos asociados a la activación de un tipo de tradición y de gaucho.

  4. A preface to the 70 and 70 Gravity Fest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutiérrez-Piñeres, A. C.; Montoya, E. A.; Núñez, L.A.

    2017-01-01

    There are transcendental landmarks in life to account and balance achievements and failures. With no doubt the age of 70 brings with it the possibility to trace back a significant part of our existences and can considered a natural stop. The year 2016 is, for many Latin American physicists, an important date because Rodolfo Gambini Italiano from the Universidad de la Repblica, Uruguay and Luis (Gaucho) Herrera Cometta from Universidad Central de Venezuela reach this age enjoying the passion for building generations of physicis in Latin America and leaving a profound and important imprint in Theoretical Physics along several countries of our continent. This is a tribute to these two masters, a great opportunity to share their visions and particular stiles with new generations of physics students from Latin America. These two masters of the Theoretical Physics have life-lines that crosses at different instants of their lives. Rodolfo (born May 11, 1946), got degree in physics from the University of the Republic in 1972–In fact, he was the first physicist graduated in Uruguay–. Then, he moved to Paris and obtained his doctorate in Theoretical Physics under the supervision of Achilles Papapetrou. This was the first encounter with El Gaucho. Luis (born December 20, 1946) after graduated from the People’s Friendship University, Moscow went to Paris to study also under the guidance of Papapetrou. Luis returned to Caracas in 1972, taking a position at the Universidad Central de Venezuela and joint Professor Carlos Aragone and Gustavo González Martín, starting a seminal group the Caracas Relativity Seminar. Prof. Aragone, former supervisor of Rodolfo, had just arrived to Caracas after militar coup d’état in Uruguay and got a position at Universidad Simón Bolívar, USB. In 1975 Rodolfo also started to work at USB, invited by Prof Aragone and this is the second cross road between him and El Gaucho. In 1978 Rodolfo and Antoni Trias began a great friendship and a

  5. A PHOTO OF POOR SIDE OF THE FAMILY FARM IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL STATE

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    Joacir Rufino Aquino

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to highlight the social dimension and analyze the socioeconomic and productive characteristics of the poor farmers, classified according to the rules of the PRONAF Group B in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS. In theoretical and methodological terms, we used the approach of capabilities Amartya Sen and the approach of Frank Ellis to gather conceptual elements necessary to the understanding of "multiple productive needs" of this particular group of farmers. The data used are from special tabulations from the 2006 Agricultural Census, IBGE. Research shows that the farms in low-income classifiable in Group B of PRONAF are present in all the RS micro, coming to encompass half the farmers in some areas and approximately 30% of the segment in the state. Research results also point to the high social vulnerability of these gauchos producers in various dimensions of their livelihoods (appropriations of natural capital, physical, human, social and financial, demonstrating that there is need for improvement in its asset platform (access land, water, finance and technology as well as in their basic training (formal education and level of social organization.

  6. The Repercussion of the False Memories Syndrome in the Eyewitness Testimony: an Analysis of Decisions from the Rio Grande do Sul State Court

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    Flaviane Baldasso

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available False memories are distortions of memory that can impact decisively on the evaluation of a criminal event of interest to the criminal system. Despite the growing interest in the subject, few empirical works have explored the practical consequences of the phenomenon. Along with, the question is if it is possible to measure the repercussion for our criminal proceedings, as well if the theses concerning false memories have been accepted by the Judiciary and in which cases. The present article intends to analyze the repercussion of the phenomenon of false memories, in terms of testimonial evidence, from 437 judgments of the Court of Justice of Rio Grande do Sul. Using the content analysis methodology of Lawrence Bardin, we explored the types of crimes in which the false memories argument has been used, if the hypothesis of this distortion has sensitized the judges, as well as if the analyzes of the judges have been supported in the bibliographical production on the psychology of the testimony. From the numbers raised, it was possible to perceive a considerable increase in the invocation of the argument of the False Memories, but this has not been reversed in the promotion of freedom in the scope of the gaucho penal process.

  7. De la independencia a la natural barbarie americana. Una lectura del Facundo de Domingo F. Sarmiento

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    Maura Brighenti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una lectura del "Facundo" de Domingo F. Sarmiento y, en particular, de su más general visión de la historia y de la realidad argentina y latinoamericana a partir del esquema dicotómico de civilización y barbarie que tendrá mucha suerte en las narraciones de los procesos del modernización latinoamericanos por lo menos hasta la segunda mitad del siglo XX. A través del análisis de algunos entre los múltiples niveles narrativos del "Facundo" se quiere mostrar como tal imagen dicotómica se va cristalizando en el texto. Partiendo del espacio infinito y vacío de la pampa y pasando por una antropología del gaucho - de su manera de vivir y de conducir la guerra - Sarmiento conduce el lector hasta la forma típicamente americana de despotismo, el caudillismo, llegado en Argentina a su epopeya final con el régimen de Juan M. de Rosas. En la última parte se intenta injertar el esquema dicotómico del Facundo al interior de la más general reflexión del Occidente sobre la modernidad y sus alteridades, a través por un lado del prisma orientalista y por el otro de las mismas fuentes del pensamiento moderno europeo y en particular de Locke y Hobbes.

  8. Literature and disability: the medical interface in Borges and Beckett.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novillo-Corvalán, Patricia

    2011-06-01

    Samuel Beckett and Jorge Luis Borges have presented 20th century literature with a distinctive gallery of solitary figures who suffer from a series of physiological ailments: invalidism, decrepitude, infirmity and blindness, as well as neurological conditions such as amnesia and autism spectrum disorders. Beckett and Borges were concerned with the dynamics between illness and creativity, the literary representation of physical and mental disabilities, the processes of remembering and forgetting, and the inevitability of death. This article explores the depiction of physically and mentally disabled characters in Borges' Funes the Memorious (1942)--a story about an Uruguayan gaucho who has been left paralysed after a fall from a horse which simultaneously endowed him with an infallible memory and perception--and Beckett's Trilogy: Molloy (1951), Malone Dies (1951) and The Unnamable (1953). It examines the prodigious memory of Funes and the forgetful minds of Molloy and Malone with reference to influential neuropsychological studies such as Alexander Luria's twofold exploration of memory and forgetfulness in The Mind of a Mnemonist (1968) and The Man with a Shattered World (1972). The article demonstrates that in contrast to Beckett's amnesiacs and Luria's brain-damaged patient, who are able to transcend their circumstances through cathartic writing, Borges' and Luria's mnemonic prodigies fail to achieve anything significant with their unlimited memories and remain imprisoned within their cognitive disabilities. It reveals that medical discourses can provide invaluable insights and lead to a deeper understanding of the minds and bodily afflictions of literary characters.

  9. Gauchito Gil, entre la adoración y la justicia divina. Un acercamiento al mito religioso popular desde la comunicación

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    Mauro Daniel Salvador

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El mito religioso popular en la actualidad se revela a través de una figura emblemática en Argentina: el Gauchito Gil. La manifestación cultural que se genera entorno a su adoración, con una concurrencia cada vez mayor los ocho de enero de cada año por fieles y devotos, es registro de un proceso que implica cuestiones tales como la gratitud, identidad, los usos y costumbres. El Gaucho milagroso genera un discurso que logra reivindicar a sectores marginados, en el nombre de la fe, es un paso que alimenta la figura y la historia de un personaje a cuasi santo. Los rasgos martinfierrescos de su vida, su participación en el federalismo, su injusta muerte, son emblema de un círculo que se registra en otras obras y en diferentes lenguajes a lo largo de los doscientos años de patria. Se intenta aproximar desde la comunicación para ahondar en la conexión cultural que proyecta el Gauchito Gil con múltiples expresiones, junto a la potencia del mito en diferentes soportes; intensificar dicho proceso como reconocimiento de la rica variedad y la notoria fuerza que surge en la búsqueda – y nexo- de justicia y creencia religiosa.

  10. COMPREENSÃO DA PAISAGEM DO ALTO CAMAQUÃ: debate ambiental sobre o Bioma Pampa

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    Adriano Severo Figueiró

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente articulo trata de la confi guración del paisaje de la subcuenca del Alto Camaquã/RS, bien como la evolución de determinados elementos naturales y la historia de las culturas que tornaran esta una de las más bellas e intrigantes paisajes que componen el territorio gaucho y el denominado Bioma Pampa. Este recorte de estudio fue determinado en función de su importancia para la conservación y protección de este bioma brasilero amenazado por la introducción de formas de "desarrollo exógeno" actualmente aprobadasy que no están de acuerdo con las particularidades socioeconómicas, culturales y ambientales de la región.En este sentido, el documento analiza las particularidades existentes y condicionamiento que los elementos naturales de este paisaje representan para el proceso de propiedad y planifi cación territorial del Pampa.

  11. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of methylxanthines from maté tea leaves

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    M.D.A. Saldaña

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Methylxanthines are alkaloids found in natural products such as tea, coffee and guaraná. These alkaloids are commonly used in cola drinks and pharmaceutical products due principally to their stimulant and diuretic effects on the human organism. In this work, experimental data on the supercritical CO2 extraction of caffeine, theophylline and theobromine from herbal maté tea, a beverage traditionally consumed by the gauchos of southern Brazil, the Argentine, Paraguay and Uruguay, were obtained using high pressure extraction equipment that allows adequate control of temperature and pressure. The continuous extraction/fractionation of maté tea leaves, Ilex paraguariensis in natura using carbon dioxide was carried out at 313.2 and 343.2 K and pressures of 13.8 and 25.5 MPa. Extraction/fractionation curves revealed the large influence of temperature and pressure on extraction yield. CO2 was also found to show a higher selectivity for caffeine than for theophylline and theobromine.

  12. A preface to the 70&70 Gravity Fest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Piñeres, A. C.; Montoya, E. A.; Núñez, L. A.

    2017-03-01

    There are transcendental landmarks in life to account and balance achievements and failures. With no doubt the age of 70 brings with it the possibility to trace back a significant part of our existences and can considered a natural stop. The year 2016 is, for many Latin American physicists, an important date because Rodolfo Gambini Italiano from the Universidad de la Repblica, Uruguay and Luis (Gaucho) Herrera Cometta from Universidad Central de Venezuela reach this age enjoying the passion for building generations of physicis in Latin America and leaving a profound and important imprint in Theoretical Physics along several countries of our continent. This is a tribute to these two masters, a great opportunity to share their visions and particular stiles with new generations of physics students from Latin America. These two masters of the Theoretical Physics have life-lines that crosses at different instants of their lives. Rodolfo (born May 11, 1946), got degree in physics from the University of the Republic in 1972-In fact, he was the first physicist graduated in Uruguay-. Then, he moved to Paris and obtained his doctorate in Theoretical Physics under the supervision of Achilles Papapetrou. This was the first encounter with El Gaucho. Luis (born December 20, 1946) after graduated from the People’s Friendship University, Moscow went to Paris to study also under the guidance of Papapetrou. Luis returned to Caracas in 1972, taking a position at the Universidad Central de Venezuela and joint Professor Carlos Aragone and Gustavo González Martín, starting a seminal group the Caracas Relativity Seminar. Prof. Aragone, former supervisor of Rodolfo, had just arrived to Caracas after militar coup d’état in Uruguay and got a position at Universidad Simón Bolívar, USB. In 1975 Rodolfo also started to work at USB, invited by Prof Aragone and this is the second cross road between him and El Gaucho. In 1978 Rodolfo and Antoni Trias began a great friendship and a

  13. ROMANCE, REALIDADE SOCIAL E RELAÇÕES DE PODER: AS ARTIMANHAS DO NARRADOR EM CORDA BAMBA, DE LÍGIA BOJUNGA NUNES

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    Solange Maria Moreira de Campos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Depois de localizar Corda Bamba, da escritora gaúcha Lygia Bojunga Nunes, nas narrativas contemporâneas que entrecruzam ficção e realidade social, este estudo busca discutir a existência de uma literatura infantil e juvenil e a produção literária que envolve essas faixas etárias. A partir da valorização do receptor e do livro, enquanto objeto de análise, este trabalho também dá guarida ao discurso do narrador, às relações de poder e à ironia, considerando a tessitura textual como um de seus mais relevantes repositórios. Palavras-chave: literatura, realidade social, Corda Bamba.Abstract: After locating Tightrope , the gaucho writer Lygia Bojunga Nunes, in contemporary narratives intersect fiction and social reality , this study discusses the existence of children's literature and literary production concerning these age groups. From the receiver's value and the book as object of analysis , this paper also gives shelter to the narrator's discourse , power relations and irony , considering the textual fabric as one of its most important repositories.Keywords: literature, social reality , Tightrope .Recebido em: 05/04/2015 – Aceito em 27/05/2015

  14. A rare cause of cellulitis (necrotic arachnidism: a report of two cases

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    Tugba Sari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bites from brown recluse spiders (Loxosceles reclusa result in several clinical manifestations, causing painful, disfiguring necrotic ulcers and, uncommonly, severe systemic effects. We report two cases reports with necrotic arachnidism from Turkey. A 21-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with the complaints of pruritis, redness on his neck. He had a history of spider bite one day ago. A 52-year-old woman had a cellulitis with hemorrhagic lesion and superficial necrosis on her arm and had a history of spider bite one day ago. Based on these clinical and epidemiological findings, a diagnosis of necrotic arachnidism was suspected, and the diagnosis of necrotic arachnidism was confirmed with these typical skin lesions and spiders bites in histories of patients. The outcome of our patients were good after antihistaminic, antibiotic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory treatments. The brown recluse spider is notorious for its necrosisinducing bite. Its venom contains a rare toxin, sphingomyelinase D, which activates the vascular endothelium and initiates a cascade of activation of neutrophils and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, resulting in tissue destruction. In many cases, diagnosis of spider bite is very difficult. Therefore, clinical and epidemiological findings, as well as a detailed history, may establish the diagnosis.

  15. Mestizaje y nacionalismo en la tierra en armas de Dávalos / Serrano y en algunos ensayos de Juan Carlos Dávalos.

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    Elisa Moyano

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo realiza un análisis de La tierra en armas, Los gauchos y “Gauchos y collas” en los que algunos personajes se presentan elaborados desde el paradigma del mestizaje. Los textos no constituyen descripciones del mestizo, del mestizaje o del proceso de su constitución (aunque los ensayos hacen pequeños aportes en este sentido como las realizadas por Uslar Pietri o por Fernando Ortiz. Se trata (y ésta es nuestra hipótesis de textos donde se construyen mestizos ideales para proponerlos como figuras de identificación en el marco de una doctrina política: el nacionalismo. El análisis se hizo siguiendo el modelo teórico-metodológico que Cornejo Polar utiliza para “desenmascarar” el hispanismo de la tesis de Riva Agüero sobre el Inca Garcilaso. A partir de comparaciones con las figuras mestizas construidas en otros textos, se encontraron similitudes con las de Riva Agüero con lo que se pensó en una posible raíz andina de los textos davalianos; pero se llegó a la conclusión de que éstos: 1.- están informados por un nacionalismo fuertemente hispanista a la manera de Manuel Gálvez y no al modo helenizante de Lugones 2.- están atravesados por un tenaz antiindigenismo, en las antípodas de una posición como la de Ricardo Rojas que daba importancia también a la vertiente indígena del mestizaje. Finalmente y a manera de conclusión se discute si, a comienzos del siglo XXI, tiene sentido “denunciar” hispanismo. O si, realizada en tantos ensayos la ponderación del mestizaje como característica de Hispanoamérica (aún cuando se haga sobresalir la vertiente hispana del mismo no sería preferible: 1.- ubicar los textos en sus condiciones productivas; 2.- preguntar por el lugar enunciativo desde dónde se “desenmascara” el hispanismo; 3.- ver si en los enunciados no se está estigmatizando todavía a España que —a diferencia de otras potencias imperiales— hizo posible la mezcla, y finalmente 4.- observar si, al

  16. La cuarta función del criollismo y las luchas por la definición del origen y el color del Ethnos Argentino (desde las primeras novelas gauchescas hasta c. 1940

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    Ezequiel Adamovsky

    Full Text Available En su clásico estudio del discurso criollista en Argentina, Adolfo Prieto argumentó que su notable expansión desde fines del siglo XIX fue consecuencia de tres causas concurrentes. El mundo gaucho en desaparición resultaba atractivo (primero para las clases bajas criollas, como una expresión de nostalgia y de las angustias que traía la experiencia de la modernización; (segundo para los inmigrantes, como una forma sencilla de sentirse parte de la nación, identificándose con un símbolo de la autenticidad nacional y (tercero para las élites, como un modo de reclamar precedencia y legitimidad para ellas mismas y de excluir de la nación a los recién llegados que traían con ellos gérmenes de rebelión. Este artículo propone que el criollismo popular desempeñó una cuarta función, que debería listarse junto a las otras tres ya mencionadas. El criollismo resultó atractivo, al menos en parte, por el hecho de que fue uno de los canales a través de los cuales la cultura local pudo aludir a la heterogeneidad étnica de la nación (en particular sus colores no-blancos y sus componentes mestizos, en un contexto en el que los discursos dominantes de la nación se empeñaban por negarla.

  17. [Anxiety, nostalgia and melancholy. A few remarks on psychoanalysis and tango].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimov, Jorge; Capello, Osvaldo Jorge; Caso de Leveratto, Beatriz; Neuman, Vera; Retondano, Rafael Alberto; Silvani de Capello, Stella Maris; Etchegoyen, R Horacio

    2004-01-01

    Our work is based on the application of psychoanalytic techniques, in order to unveil this cultural phenomenon called tango, related with sexuality and unconscious processes. As a way of introduction, it deals with a brief theory of the birth of tango, the possible terminological source of its name, its main creators and interpreters, as well as the chronological classification into the first wave tangos, Guardia Vieja, and the newer wave tangos, Guardia Nueva. The former ones were awash with festive themes of the centennial years, expressed in behaviors that denote sexuality and love, whereas the latter ones, expose the great bewilderment of the thirties' crisis, due to the imminent downfall of the country, the denunciation of materialism, the crumbling of ideas; which led up to feelings of utter pessimism, loneliness and abandonment. From this point onwards, through the use of techniques provided by psychoanalysis applied to tango lyrics, we are able to unravel the unconscious processes of the drama of its characters; the immigrant, hopeful and at same time nostalgic for the loss of his mother country; the porteno -urban man from Buenos Aires city- who, overwhelmed by immigrants, has to give way to the new compatriots; the inland inhabitant, who was dragged to the city because of the new conditions of rural work; and finally the conventillo, tenement house, as a melting pot that fulfilled the integration of these groups. Like in a painter's palette, which contains various colors and shades, the interpretations about nostalgia, grief and loneliness become apparent, along with the father-son rivalry, the conflict with the absent mother, the relationship between sexes, male chauvinism, infatuation, identity, the fear of death, the rebirth to a new life, the passage from gaucho to guapo, from a shrewd horseman to a daring, bullying braggart.

  18. Contribuições do uso do controle estatístico de processos na análise do desempenho na indústria química

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    Paulo Saldanha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A competitividade do mercado obriga as empresas a trabalhar de forma incessante na redução de custos e melhoria da qualidade. Uma maneira de atingir tais objetivos é através da otimização dos processos produtivos pela substituição de matérias-primas ou melhorando a produtividade dos recursos. Nesse sentido, esta pesquisa analisou o desempenho de um processo produtivo de uma empresa gaúcha aplicando o Controle Estatístico do Processo. A primeira fase do estudo foi identificar o problema que estava ocorrendo, e na sequência foram realizadas as coletas de dados e posteriormente a análise. Na etapa de análise, foram usadas ferramentas como o histograma, a carta de controle das médias e amplitudes, além da análise de capacidade do processo através dos índices de Cp e Cpk. Os principais resultados da pesquisa evidenciam que o processo investigado não apresenta um comportamento estatístico satisfatório, determinando ações de melhoria para a empresa implantar. The market competition forces companies to work relentlessly on cost reduction and quality improvement. One way to achieve these goals is through the optimization of production processes by replacing raw materials or improving resource productivity. Thus, this research analyzes the performance of a production process of a gaucho company applying Statistical Process Control. The first phase of the study was to identify the problem that was occurring, and following the data collection and subsequent analysis were performed. In the analysis stage, tools like the histogram, control chart of averages and ranges were used, and analysis of process capability indices through Cp and Cpk. The main results of the research show that the process investigated does not present a satisfactory statistical behavior, determining actions to improve the company deploy.

  19. Composição da fauna cavernícola brasileira, com uma análise preliminar da distribuição dos taxons

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    Eleonora Trajano

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available New data on Brazilian cave fauna are added to previous surveys and the relative abundance and distribution of the cavernicolous taxa is discussed. Terrestrial representatives of several arthropod families and genera are common in both tropical and subtropical Brazilian caves: Endecous and Eidmanacris crickets, Reduviidae heteropterans, Carabidae, Catopinae and Ptilodactylidae beetles, dipterans such as the Chironomidae, Keroplatidae, Phoridae and Drosophilidae, Hydropsychidae trichopterans, Pseudonnanolenidae and Chelodesnidae millipedes, Plato, Ctenus, Loxosceles and Blechroscelis spiders, Pachylinae opilionids, Chernetidae pseudoscorpions and acarians such as the Macrochelidae and Uropodidae. Other taxa are mainly or exclusively tropical Blattelidae, Blattidae and BlaberidaE cockroaches, Histeridae beetles, Noctuoidea moths, social insects as termites and ants, Styloniscidae isopods, Migalomorpha spiders, Amblypigi On the other hand, Psauridae spiders, Goniosoma and Tricommatinae opilionids, Elmidae beetles, and Philosciidae isopods seems to be mainly subtropical. Brazilian aquatic cave fauna seems to be less diversified than the terrestrial one. Siluriform fishes such as pimelodids, trichomycterids and loricariids predominate throughout the country, besides decapod (Macrobrachium shrimps, Potamidae crabs, Aegla anomurans, the latter exclusive of subtropical caves and amphipod (Spelaeogammarus, in tropical caves, and Hyalella crustaceans. Insect larvae (e.g. Elmidae coleopterans, Nematocera dipterans, trichopterans and adults (e.g. Veliidae and Naucoridae heteropterans, Dytiscidae coleopterans, oligochaetes and gastropods such as the Hydrobiidae, are also relatively common. Blechroscelis spiders, Goniosoma opilionids, Zelurus heteropterans, Eidmanacris crickets, Keroplatidae dipterans and Macrobrachium shrimps, among others, live next to the entrance zone in the majority of the caves. But, these animals become troglofiles under certain

  20. Coagulopathy after spider bites in a six-year-old boy

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    Ansari SH.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spider bites are common in most parts of the world. In some areas, where snake or scorpion bites are common, spider bites may not be considered a significant problem by the general public and those who have been bitten by spiders may not go to a hospital. However, significant problems are observed in the victims of certain species of spiders including: widow spider (of the genus Latrodectus, including the black widow and brown spiders (of the genus Loxosceles, such as the brown recluse. Case: We report a six-year-old boy, admitted to the hospital two weeks after suffering a spider bite. The patient presented with a severe nose bleed, ecchymosis and purpura, as well as anemia, indicating a clotting disorder. Laboratory results revealed abnormal values for prothrombin time (PT >50 sec, partial thromboplastin time (PTT >120 min and fibrinogen = 0 mg/dl, whereas factor VIII was normal according to a mixing study, with a normal platelet count of 350,000/µl. The patient was managed with fresh frozen plasma every 12 h, and was discharged one week after hospital admission. At present, the patient is well with more normal laboratory results one month after treatment: PT=13.4 sec, PTT= 34 sec, fibrinogen=105 mg/dl.         Conclusions: Although spider bites are uncommon in Iran, severe systemic reactions may occur in the pediatric population requiring admission to the pediatric intensive care unit. These systemic reactions may include hemolytic anemia coagulopathy and renal failure.

  1. Brown Recluse spider bite mediated hemolysis: clinical features, a possible role for complement inhibitor therapy, and reduced RBC surface glycophorin A as a potential biomarker of venom exposure.

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    Eric A Gehrie

    Full Text Available The venom of Loxosceles reclusa (Brown Recluse spider can cause a severe, life-threatening hemolysis in humans for which no therapy is currently available in the USA beyond supportive measures. Because this hemolysis is uncommon, relatively little is known about its clinical manifestation, diagnosis, or management. Here, we aimed to clarify the clinical details of envenomation, to determine the efficacy of the complement inhibitor eculizumab to prevent the hemolysis in vitro, and to investigate markers of exposure to Brown Recluse venom.We performed a 10-year chart review of cases of Brown Recluse spider bite-mediated hemolysis at our institution. We also designed an in vitro assay to test the efficacy of eculizumab to inhibit hemolysis of venom exposed red blood cells. Finally, we compared levels of CD55, CD59 and glycophorin A on venom exposed versus venom-naïve cells.Most victims of severe Brown Recluse spider mediated hemolysis at our institution are children and follow an unpredictable clinical course. Brown Recluse spider bite mediated hemolysis is reduced by 79.2% (SD=18.8% by eculizumab in vitro. Erythrocyte glycophorin A, but not CD55 or CD59, is reduced after red blood cells are incubated with venom in vitro.Taken together, our laboratory data and clinical observations indicate that L. reclusa venom exposure results in non-specific antibody and complement fixation on red blood cells, resulting in complement mediated hemolysis that is curtailed by the complement inhibitor eculizumab in vitro. Glycophorin A measurement by flow cytometry may help to identify victims of L. reclusa envenomation.

  2. L’identité argentine ou la construction d’un mythe littéraire entre Europe et Amérique

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    Lionel Souquet

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose une approche de quelques archétypes qui, jusqu’en Europe, ont contribué à construire une image un peu théâtrale et parfois floue de l’Argentin. Une image littéraire avant tout, mais paradoxalement, souvent proche de la réalité socioculturelle car l’identité du romancier latino-américain est souvent liée à un profond engagement qui se traduit par la description et l’analyse – philosophique, politique, historique, sociologique… - du réel. C’est en étudiant le portrait que les intellectuels du XIXème siècle dressent du gaucho, personnage emblématiquement fort mais aussi victime de toutes les manipulations idéologiques, que l’on voit comment l’identité argentine a été forgée autour d’une dichotomie civilisation-barbarie dont le mythe semble encore vivant dans l’Argentine d’aujourd’hui. L’article aborde ensuite le thème de l’immigration, facteur essentiel de la mutation de cette société et de son entrée dans le XXème siècle. Le portrait de l’Argentin de classe moyenne (groupe social qui distingue particulièrement l’Argentine du reste de l’Amérique latine est ensuite dessiné plus en détail, mais à travers le miroir à la fois déformant et grossissant de l’écrivain Manuel Puig. Il est indéniable que l’imaginaire modèle la réalité. La littérature est certes un miroir déformant et contradictoire de la réalité mais elle appartient aussi à cette réalité.This paper focuses on some of the archetypes which have contributed to the construction of the rather theatrical and blurred picture of the Argentinian – including in Europe. Paradoxically enough, this literary image is not so far removed from the socio-cultural reality as the identity of the Latin-American novelist is often defined by his or her engagement with reality through (philosophical, political, historical and sociological description and analysis. A study of the portrayal by 19th

  3. Regeneração in vitro de melão, cv. 'Gaúcho' In vitro regeneration of melon, cv. 'Gaúcho'

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    Daiane Schmidt de Pinho

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi otimizar um protocolo de regeneração de explantes cotiledonares de melão, cultivar 'Gaúcho', avaliando a composição de meios de germinação e o tempo de permanência dos explantes nesses meios. Para isso, as sementes foram germinadas em meio MS semi-sólido contendo BAP ou ANA e sem esses reguladores de crescimento. As sementes permaneceram nesses meios por um, dois, três e quatro dias, sendo então seus cotilédones inoculados em meio MS contendo diferentes concentrações de BAP (0,5; 0,9; 1,5 e 2,0mg L-1. As maiores taxas de regeneração ocorreram nos cotilédones oriundos de sementes mantidas durante um e dois dias nos meios contendo 0,5 e 0,9mg L-1 de BAP. O aumento da permanência dos explantes nos meios de germinação e as elevadas concentrações de BAP nos meios de regeneração diminuíram a capacidade organogênica dos explantes e incrementaram a formação de calos.The aim of the present study was to optimize a cv. Gaucho melon cotyledon explant regeneration protocol, evaluating the germination media composition and the explant exposition period in these media. For this purpose, seeds were germinated in semi-solid MS medium containing either BAP or ANA, and without growth regulators. The seeds were kept in these media for one, two, three or four days; afterwards, their cotyledons were inoculated in MS medium containing different BAP concentrations (0.5; 0.9; 1.5 and 2.0mg L-1. The highest regeneration rates occurred with cotyledons from seeds which had been kept for one or two days in media containing 0.5 and 0.9mg L-1 BAP. Both the increase in the explant exposition time in germination media and high BAP concentrations in regeneration media decreased explant organogenic capacity, and increased callus formation.

  4. Sopapo Poético: sarau de poesia negra no extremo sul do Brasil

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    Pâmela Amaro Fontoura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el Sopapo Poético, sarau de poesía negra que se celebra en Porto Alegre desde 2012. Entendemos que en este evento se da el encuentro de dos tendencias: por un lado la reciente difusión de los saraus periféricos en São Paulo y otras ciudades de Brasil, y por el otro la tradición de la poesía negra brasileña, especialmente la producida desde la década de 1970. Este encuentro ocurre en un contexto específico que condiciona la actuación del movimiento negro gaúcho: Porto Alegre, significativa “ciudad letrada” y capital de Rio Grande do Sul, un estado marcado por una identidad regional racializada en el mito del gaucho europeizado. Describimos el sarau, que se desarrolla en tres momentos: la rueda de poesía, con la participación espontánea de la audiencia; la presentación del Sopapinho, en el que los niños y niñas son llevados al centro del círculo; y el homenajeado de la noche, que combina el relato de trayectoria personal con el performance artístico. Entre los homenajeados, destacamos dos figuras relevantes para la estética del sarau: el poeta Oliveira Silveira y el sopapeiro Giba Giba. Analizando las intervenciones poéticas en sus dimensiones textual y performática, pensamos en la íntima relación entre lo estético y lo político que se construye en el sarau. Las ideas de Paul Gilroy sobre la política cultural diaspórica en el Atlántico Negro nos sirven para comprender el contexto de conflicto y las formas de elaboración de la identidad cultural afro-gaucha.

  5. A construção do cidadão: os conteúdos escolares nas escolas públicas do Rio Grande do Sul na Primeira República

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    Berenice Corsetti

    2012-06-01

    that the school, beside leaching, educated for the discipline, productivity and the health care. The preparation for the market included means by which the "gaucho" rulers prepared the youth rio-grandense to accept the capital logic. Keywords: educational subjects, curricular reorganization, capitalism. 

  6. A respeito da materialidade do patrimônio imaterial: o caso do INRC Porongos

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    Cristian Jobi Salaini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O colecionamento e a conservação de "bens culturais" vêm ganhando em complexidade pela inclusão de temas oriundos de minorias étnicas e econômicas. Apesar do consenso relativo ao conceito de patrimônio cultural proposto pela Unesco, a definição do que deve ser preservado e celebrado como "bem cultural" pode ser objeto de lutas políticas, jurídicas, econômicas e sociais. Visando refletir sobre as consequências dessas lutas, este artigo aborda o processo de inventário de referências culturais em torno do Massacre de Porongos, evento da Revolução Farroupilha (1835-1845 que vem servindo de apoio à configuração de uma identidade negra e gaúcha no Rio Grande do Sul. Segundo os autores, apesar de se apresentar no registro de "patrimônio imaterial", o processo de inventário possibilitou a fabricação de um "corpo" (de textos e imagens e a delimitação de "lugares" (de memória a partir dos quais os referentes culturais ditos "imateriais" vêm se inscrever.The collection and conservation of "cultural objects" has been gaining in complexity with the inclusion of non-material associations regarding ethnic and economic minorities. Despite the consensus on the concept of cultural heritage proposed by Unesco, the definition of what should be preserved and celebrated as "cultural object" may be subject of political, legal, economic and social struggles. In order to reflect upon the consequences of these struggles, this article discusses the process of inventory of cultural references related to the Porongos Massacre, an event of the Farroupilha's Revolution (1835-1845. These cultural references are serving in the configuration of black people's and gauchos identities. According to the authors, althought relating to the "intangible heritage", the process of inventory has enabled the fabrication of a "body" (text and images and the definition of "places" (from memory from which the cultural references so-called "non-material" come

  7. Um gaúcho e dezoito condores nas Ilhas Malvinas: identidade política e nação sob o autoritarismo argentino

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    Rosana Guber

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Argumento que o apelo ao símbolo "nação" constituía o principal veículo de construção de identidades políticas na Argentina de 1955 a 1983, sob regimes autoritários e semidemocráticos que excluíam a vontade eleitoral de amplos setores do país. Para isso, apresento a história da "Operação Condor" de 1966, na qual dezoito jovens peronistas e nacionalistas desviaram para a capital das Malvinas, sob ocupação britânica desde 1833, um vôo regular para a Patagônia. Protagonistas, simpatizantes e também antagonistas dos "condores" converteram o episódio e seus efeitos imediatos em um drama quase-turneriano no qual se encontram duas histórias: a do gaúcho Antonio Rivero e sua polêmica sublevação de 1834 contra os usurpadores ingleses, e a dos "condores". A "Operação Condor" revela assim, em última instância, a confluência de duas identidades-chave na política argentina dos anos 60 e 70: o Povo e a Juventude.I argue that the symbol of the "Nation" has been the main channel through which the formation of political identities takes place under exclusionary regimes, such as the authoritarian and restricted democracies of Argentina during the period from 1950-70. I therefore examine the "Condor Operation" of 1966, when seventeen young men and a young woman hijacked an Argentinian plane that was heading for the Malvinas (Falkland Islands, in order to assert Argentina's sovereignty over the South Atlantic archipelago which had been under British occupation since 1833. Members of the Condor group, as well as people backing and countering the Condors' action, turned the event and its effects into a quasi-Turnerian drama. It is at this point that two stories meet: that of the Gaucho Antonio Rivero and his controversial uprising against the English troops in 1834, and that of the Condors. The Condor Operation ultimately reveals the confluence of two key identities in 1960s-1970s Argentinian politics: the People and the Youth.

  8. Construction of concept maps as tool for Biochemistry learning

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    Silvia Lopes de Menezes

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of concept maps on the teaching of sciences has been object of worldwide research with different purposes: to detect the previous knowledge of the students on certain topics or to evaluate learning, among others. Based on Ausubel´s cognitive psychology, concept maps assume that the learning is accomplished by assimilation of new concepts and propositions to the students´ cognitive structure, contributing to establish links between the previous and new knowledge. It is especially interesting on the approach of interdisciplinary issues, as many studied in Biochemistry.The relevance of the use of concept maps on biochemistry learning was evaluated on a thirty-hour undergraduation optional course, with interdisciplinary topics, which are not usually included on introductory Biochemistry courses. The course Biochemistry of Animal Venoms was structured in seven module where the biochemical action mechanisms of the venoms of Crotalus sp (south american rattlesnake, Bothrops sp (jararaca, Loxosceles sp (brown spider, Tityus sp (yellow scorpion, Phoneutria sp (armed spider, Apis mellifera (honey bee and Latrodectus sp (black widowwere discussed. The students worked in small groups and, at each module, there were (1 an oriented study, guided by questions, texts and schemes, supervised by the teachers, (2 the construction of individual concept maps, where the local and systemic effects of the venoms should be predicted by their biochemical composition and (3 the construction of a new map by the group, incorporating the information of the individual maps. The difficulty level of these tasks was gradually increased throughout the course, with lesser time to carry out the tasks, lesser assistance during the oriented study and even lesser information on the venom effects.The course assessment was given by the number, quality and correction of the concepts relationship present in the concept maps, through a questionnaire and by the

  9. Constituição e funcionamento do Conselho Municipal de Educação frente ao processo de democratização da gestão: um estudo dos municípios de Santa Maria e Santa Rosa/RS Constituición y funcionamiento del Consejo Municipal de Educación frente al proceso de democratización de la gestión: un estudio de los municipios de Santa Maria y Santa Rosa/RS Constitution and operation of the Municipal Council of Education before regarding the process of democratizing management: a study about the municipalities of Santa Maria and Santa Rosa

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    Sueli Menezes Pereira

    2011-09-01

    encuadran en una lógica formal y burocratizada y donde todavía se los ve como órganos de asesoramiento del poder gubernamental es, sin duda, una meta que debe querer alcanzarse en la búsqueda de la democratización de este espacio público.The article departs from a qualitative study grounded upon bibliographic and documentary research and aims to discuss certain aspects concerning the constitution and operation of the Municipal Council of Education (CME, as a collegiate invested with important meaning for the democratizatizing management of education. The emphasis of the analysis falls on the CMEs 'gaucho' municipalities of Santa Maria and Santa Rosa taking into consideration their differences and peculiarities both, notwithstanding, designed as formal intermediary or subordinate structures. The challenge to the CMEs is to operate autonomously before their countless assignments, in order to give responses which signal the opening of new paths to the municipal public education. Acting through this different way in a context where most of the councils are aligned with a formal and bureaucratized logic, and where they are still thought of as advisory organs of the ruling power is, undoubtedly, a goal to be pursued in the general effort to democratize this public space.

  10. Universidade comunitária e avaliação institucional: o caso das universidades comunitárias gaúchas The community university and its institutional evaluation: a case study of the community universities of the State of Rio Grande do Sul Brazil

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    Rafael Ângelo Bunhi Pinto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A década de 1980 marcou uma série de transformações na educação superior, dando início aos debates sobre um novo modelo de instituição de educação superior - a universidade comunitária - e, também, de uma cultura avaliativa em nosso país. Nas décadas seguintes, esse modelo de instituição buscou seu fortalecimento no país, mostrando suas características primordiais e suas diferenças em relação àquelas mantidas pelo poder público e, também, àquelas instituições estritamente privadas. Essas Instituições se desenvolveram em várias regiões, com ênfase no sul do país, onde criaram o Consórcio das Universidades Comunitárias Gaúchas - COMUNG. As Instituições participantes desse consórcio, dentre outras atividades, desenvolveram um mecanismo próprio de avaliação, que se preocupou com o (repensar de suas atividades de ensino, pesquisa, extensão e gestão. O objetivo desta pesquisa será buscar respostas ao entendimento da avaliação institucional pelas Universidades Comunitárias gaúchas e verificar como a questão da responsabilidade social se insere em seu processo de avaliação. Também, objetivará estudar os processos históricos e as necessidades de adaptações que se fizeram necessárias quando da criação do Sistema Nacional de Avaliação da Educação Superior - SINAES.In the 1980s higher education experienced a series of transformations, commencing the debates about a new model of higher education institutions - the community university - and also of an evaluative culture in Brazil. During the following decades, this model of institution tried to strengthen its bases in the higher education scenario of the country, showing its primary characteristics and its differences from the public and the private branches of higher education. These universities were instituted in various regions of the country with emphasis in the southern region, where a Consortium of the Gaucho Community Universities