WorldWideScience

Sample records for loxia leucoptera white-winged

  1. Survival, fidelity, and recovery rates of white-winged doves in Texas

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.; Kremer, Shelly R.; Mason, Corey D.; Peterson, Markus J.; Calhoun, Kirby W.

    2012-01-01

    the last 30 years. Because >85% of white-winged dove harvest in the United States (approx. 1.3 million annually) now occurs in Texas, information on vital rates of expanding white-winged dove populations is necessary for informed management. We used band

  2. Survival, fidelity, and recovery rates of white-winged doves in Texas

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.

    2012-03-12

    Management of migratory birds at the national level has historically relied on regulatory boundaries for definition of harvest restrictions and estimation of demographic parameters. Most species of migratory game birds are not expanding their ranges, so migratory corridors are approximately fixed. White-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica), however, have undergone significant variation in population structure with marked range expansion occurring in Texas, and range contraction in Arizona, during the last 30 years. Because >85% of white-winged dove harvest in the United States (approx. 1.3 million annually) now occurs in Texas, information on vital rates of expanding white-winged dove populations is necessary for informed management. We used band recovery and mark-recapture data to investigate variation in survival and harvest across 3 geographic strata for white-winged doves banded in the pre-hunting season in Texas during 2007-2010. We banded 60,742 white-winged doves, recovered 2,458 bands via harvest reporting, and recaptured 455 known-age birds between 2007 and 2010. The best supporting model found some evidence for geographic differences in survival rates among strata (A-C) in both hatch-year (juvenile; A = 0.205 [SE = 0.0476], B = 0.213 [SE = 0.0278], C = 0.364 [SE = 0.0254]) and after-hatch year (adult; A = 0.483 [SE = 0.0775], B = 0.465 [SE = 0.0366], C = 0.538 [SE = 0.251]) birds. White-winged doves had a low probability of moving among strata (0.009) or being recaptured (0.002) across all strata. Harvest recovery rates were concordant with estimates for other dove species, but were variable across geographic strata. Based on our results, harvest management strategies for white-winged doves in Texas and elsewhere should consider differences in population vital rates among geographic strata. © 2012 The Wildlife Society.

  3. Distribution and derivation of white-winged dove harvests in Texas

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.; Skow, Kevin L.; Kremer, Shelly R.; Mason, Corey D.; Snelgrove, Robert T.; Calhoun, Kirby W.

    2012-01-01

    Band recoveries provide requisite data for evaluating the spatial distribution of harvest relative to the distribution of breeding stocks for a wide variety of migratory species. We used direct and indirect band-recovery data to evaluate the distribution and derivation of harvest of white-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica) banded before hunting season in 3 distinct strata in Texas, USA, during 2007-2010. We banded 60,742 white-winged doves during 2007-2010, and based on 2,458 harvest recoveries, the majority (>95%) of white-winged dove harvest occurred during the first 2 months of the hunting season (Sep-Oct). Juvenile white-winged doves represented a greater percentage of the direct recoveries than adults across all strata (north = 80%, central = 69%, south = 82%) and the majority of direct band recoveries (north = 75%, central = 90%, south = 78%) occurred within the original banding strata. Age-specific weighting factors and harvest derivation indicated that both juvenile and adult harvest were highest within the strata of original banding. Harvest distribution data corrected for band-reporting rates indicated high fidelity of white-winged doves to specific geographic strata, with little interplay between strata. Our results suggest that population vital-rate estimates for survival and harvest for use in future Adaptive Harvest Management should focus on stock-specific levels. © 2012 The Wildlife Society.

  4. Distribution and derivation of white-winged dove harvests in Texas

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.

    2012-04-25

    Band recoveries provide requisite data for evaluating the spatial distribution of harvest relative to the distribution of breeding stocks for a wide variety of migratory species. We used direct and indirect band-recovery data to evaluate the distribution and derivation of harvest of white-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica) banded before hunting season in 3 distinct strata in Texas, USA, during 2007-2010. We banded 60,742 white-winged doves during 2007-2010, and based on 2,458 harvest recoveries, the majority (>95%) of white-winged dove harvest occurred during the first 2 months of the hunting season (Sep-Oct). Juvenile white-winged doves represented a greater percentage of the direct recoveries than adults across all strata (north = 80%, central = 69%, south = 82%) and the majority of direct band recoveries (north = 75%, central = 90%, south = 78%) occurred within the original banding strata. Age-specific weighting factors and harvest derivation indicated that both juvenile and adult harvest were highest within the strata of original banding. Harvest distribution data corrected for band-reporting rates indicated high fidelity of white-winged doves to specific geographic strata, with little interplay between strata. Our results suggest that population vital-rate estimates for survival and harvest for use in future Adaptive Harvest Management should focus on stock-specific levels. © 2012 The Wildlife Society.

  5. 50 CFR 20.103 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for mourning and white-winged doves and wild pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mourning and white-winged doves and wild pigeons. 20.103 Section 20.103 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... shooting hours for mourning and white-winged doves and wild pigeons. This section provides for the annual hunting of certain doves and pigeons in the 48 contiguous United States. The mourning dove hunting...

  6. Photoperiod but not food restriction modulates innate immunity in an opportunistic breeder, Loxia curvirostra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Elizabeth M; Hahn, Thomas P; Klasing, Kirk C

    2017-02-15

    An organism's investment in immune function often varies seasonally but understanding of how fluctuations in environmental conditions directly modulate investment remains limited. This experiment investigated how changes in photoperiod and food availability affect investment in constitutive innate immunity and the acute phase response induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injections in captive red crossbills ( Loxia curvirostra ). Crossbills are reproductively flexible songbirds that specialize on an unpredictably available food resource and display temporal variation in immunity in the wild. Birds were separated into four treatments and exposed to long or short day lengths for 6 weeks before continuing on an ad libitum diet or experiencing a 20% food reduction for 10 days. Birds were un-injected or injected with LPS both before and after diet change. Innate immunity was quantified throughout the experiment to assess effects of photoperiod, food availability and their interactions on hemolysis-hemagglutination, haptoglobin, bacterial killing ability and leukocyte counts. Overall, increasing day length significantly increased both bacterial killing ability and leukocyte counts. Surprisingly, food restriction had little effect on the immune parameters, potentially owing to the 'low-cost' environment of captivity and suggesting that investment in innate immunity is prioritized and maintained whenever possible. LPS injections induced stereotypical sickness behaviors and increased bacterial killing ability in short day birds and complement activity (hemolysis) both before and after food restriction. These results demonstrate robust seasonal modulation of immune investment and an ability to maintain innate immunity in the face of limited resources in these temporally flexible songbirds. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Selection of active plant extracts against the coffee leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Alves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to contribute to the development of alternative control methods of the coffee leaf miner, Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet, 1842 (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae, a search for plants able to produce active substances against this insect was carried out, with species collected during different periods of time in the Alto Rio Grande region, (Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Coffee leaves containing L. coffeella mines were joined with 106 extracts from 77 plant species and, after 48 hours, the dead and alive caterpillars were counted. The extracts from Achillea millefolium, Citrus limon, Glechoma hederacea, Malva sylvestris, Mangifera indica, Mentha spicata, Mirabilis jalapa, Musa sapientum, Ocimum basiculum, Petiveria alliaceae, Porophyllum ruderale, Psidium guajava, Rosmarinus officinalis, Roupala montana, Sambucus nigra and Tropaeolum majus showed the highest mortality rates.

  8. Spatial distribution of the coffee-leaf-miner (Leucoptera coffeella) in an organic coffee (Coffea arabica L.) field in formation

    OpenAIRE

    Scalon, João Domingos; Universidade Federal de Lavras; Freitas, Gabriela Alves; DEX/UFLA; Avelar, Maria Betania Lopes; DEX/UFLA; Zacarias, Mauricio Sérgio; EPAMIG/EcoCentro

    2011-01-01

    Coffee production has been one of the economy pillars of many tropical countries. Unfortunately, this crop is susceptible to infestation by the coffee-leaf-miner (Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet, 1842)) which causes severe damage to coffee plantations with losses that may reach 80% of the total production. In recent years, researchers have been trying to develop practices for minimizing the use of pesticides in the coffee-leaf-miner control. It is well known that the un...

  9. Rearing Technique, Biology and Sterilization of the Coffee Leaf Miner, Leucoptera Coffeella Guer. (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katiyar, K. P.; Ferrer, F. [Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences of the OAS Training and Research Center, Turrialba (Costa Rica)

    1968-06-15

    For two years the authors studied the feasibility of controlling the coffee leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella Guer. by the radiation sterilization technique. During this period a technique for raising large numbers of tills insect on potted coffee plants in the laboratory was devised. The optimal range for the development of egg, larval and pupal stages of the coffee leaf miner was between 20 and 30 Degree-Sign C. The pupal stage of female insects was slightly shorter than that of the male. The laying of fertile eggs began during the first night following emergence. During an oviposition period of 16 days the average fecundity was 68 eggs. The maximum oviposition by a single female was 131 eggs over the life span while as many as 34 eggs were laid during a single day of oviposition. To investigate the best stage to induce radiation sterilization, pupal and adult insects were irradiated with {sup 60}CO gamma rays. Seven-day pupae (close to emergence) showed 88% lethality in males when given 60 krad; the survivors retained some fertility. Adult females receiving 70 krad were 100% sterile while males given 90 krad showed 0.02% fertility. Doses as high as 90 krad given to newly emerged adults did not reduce longevity. Studies are continuing to determine if sterilizing doses impair sexual vigour and mating competitiveness of the treated males. (author)

  10. High Emigration Propensity and Low Mortality on Transfer Drives Female-Biased Dispersal of Pyriglena leucoptera in Fragmented Landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Awade

    Full Text Available Dispersal is a biological process performed in three stages: emigration, transfer and immigration. Intra-specific variation on dispersal behavior, such as sex-bias, is very common in nature, particularly in birds and mammals. However, dispersal is difficult to measure in the field and many hypotheses concerning the causes of sex-biased dispersal remain without empirical confirmation. An important limitation of most empirical studies is that inferences about sex-biased dispersal are based only on emigration proneness or immigration success data. Thus, we still do not know whether sex-biased immigration in fragmented landscapes occurs during emigration, transfer or in both stages. We conducted translocation and radiotracking experiments to assess i whether inter-patch dispersal movements of a rainforest bird (Pyriglena leucoptera is sex-biased and ii how dispersal stages and the perceptual range of the individuals are integrated to generate dispersal patterns. Our results showed that inter-patch dispersal is sex-biased at all stages for P. leucoptera, as females not only exhibit a higher emigration propensity but are subjected to a lower risk of predation when moving through the matrix. Moreover, our data support a perceptual range of 80 m and our results showed that dispersal success decreases considerably when inter-patch distances exceeds this perceptual range. In this case, birds have a higher probability of travelling over longer routes and, as a consequence, the risk of predation increases, specially for males. Overall, results supported that assuming dispersal as a single-stage process to describe dispersal behavior may be misleading. In this way, our study advanced our understanding of processes and patterns related to inter-patch dispersal of neotropical forest birds, shedding light on potential implications for population dynamics and for the management of fragmented landscapes.

  11. Ultrasound Assisted Synthesis of 5,9-Dimethylpentadecane and 5,9-Dimethylhexadecane – the Sex Pheromones of Leucoptera coffeella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Duus

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Racemic 5,9-dimethylpentadecane and 5,9-dimethylhexadecane, the major and minor constituents, respectively, of the sex pheromone of Leucoptera coffeella, have been synthesized from citronellol in 56-58% overall yield through six steps. Ultrasound irradiation efficiently supported tosylation of alcohols (two steps as well as the subsequent cross coupling reactions with the pertinent Grignard reagents (also two steps.

  12. Efeitos de variáveis ambientais, irrigação e vespas predadoras sobre Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Méneville) (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae) no cafeeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Flávio L; Mantovani, Everardo C; Bonfim Neto, Hermes; Nunes, Victor De V

    2009-01-01

    A densidade populacional do bicho-mineiro do cafeeiro Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Méneville) pode ser afetada por variáveis ambientais em agroecossistemas irrigados e vespas predadoras tais como Vespidae. Assim, objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar os efeitos das variáveis ambientais, de lâminas de irrigação via gotejamento, e da predação por vespas na densidade populacional de L. coffeella. O experimento foi conduzido entre os anos de 2004 e 2005, em lavoura de Coffea arabica L. no município...

  13. Coevolution between Hispaniolan crossbills and pine: does more time allow for greater phenotypic escalation at lower latitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchman, Thomas L; Benkman, Craig W; Mezquida, Eduardo T

    2007-09-01

    Crossbills (Aves: Loxia) and several conifers have coevolved in predator-prey arms races over the last 10,000 years. However, the extent to which coevolutionary arms races have contributed to the adaptive radiation of crossbills or to any other adaptive radiation is largely unknown. Here we extend our previous studies of geographically structured coevolution by considering a crossbill-conifer interaction that has persisted for a much longer time period and involves a conifer with more variable annual seed production. We examined geographic variation in the cone and seed traits of two sister species of pines, Pinus occidentalis and P. cubensis, on the islands of Hispaniola and Cuba, respectively. We also compared the Hispaniolan crossbill (Loxia megaplaga) to its sister taxa the North American white-winged crossbill (Loxia leucoptera leucoptera). The Hispaniolan crossbill is endemic to Hispaniola whereas Cuba lacks crossbills. In addition and in contrast to previous studies, the variation in selection experienced by these pines due to crossbills is not confounded by the occurrence of selection by tree squirrels (Tamiasciurus and Sciurus). As predicted if P. occidentalis has evolved defenses in response to selection exerted by crossbills, cones of P. occidentalis have scales that are 53% thicker than those of P. cubensis. Cones of P. occidentalis, but not P. cubensis, also have well-developed spines, a known defense against vertebrate seed predators. Consistent with patterns of divergence seen in crossbills coevolving locally with other conifers, the Hispaniolan crossbill has evolved a bill that is 25% deeper than the white-winged crossbill. Together with phylogenetic analyses, our results suggest that predator-prey coevolution between Hispaniolan crossbills and P. occidentalis over approximately 600,000 years has caused substantial morphological evolution in both the crossbill and pine. This also indicates that cone crop fluctuations do not prevent crossbills and

  14. Geophysical survey work plan for White Wing Scrap Yard (Waste Area Grouping 11) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The White Wing Scrap Yard, located on the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation, served as an aboveground storage and disposal area for contaminated debris and scrap from the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge National laboratory. The site is believed to have been active from the early 1950s until the mid-1960s. A variety of materials were disposed of at the site, including contaminated steel tanks and vehicles. As an interim corrective action, a surface debris removal effort was initiated in November 1993 to reduce the potential threat to human health and the environment from the radionuclide-contaminated debris. Following this removal effort, a geophysical survey will be conducted across the site to locate and determine the lateral extent of buried nonindigenous materials. This survey will provide the data necessary to prepare a map showing areas of conductivity and magnetic intensity that vary from measured background values. These anomalies represent potential buried materials and therefore can be targeted for further evaluation. This work plan outlines the activities necessary to conduct the geophysical survey

  15. Dinámica estacional de la abundancia de piquituerto común Loxia curvirostra L., 1756 en dos localidades del Pirineo Navarro e implicaciones para su seguimiento mediante anillamiento.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alonso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Las estaciones de anillamiento de aves de esfuerzo constante realizan un papel clave en el seguimiento de poblaciones a largo plazo. El periodo de muestreo de este tipo de estaciones se ajusta a la época de nidificación de las especies más abundantes, en el caso de España entre los meses de abril-mayo y agosto. En consecuencia, aquellas especies cuya reproducción no coincida con la del grueso de especies quedan, invariablemente, poco o indebidamente representadas en este tipo de programas de seguimiento. Lo mismo ocurre con especies que, debido a su comportamiento, requieren de técnicas de muestreo especiales o específicas para su monitorización. Ejemplo de tales excepciones sería el piquituerto común Loxia curvirostra, L. 1758. En este artículo se describe el patrón estacional de la abundancia de piquituertos en dos localidades del Pirineo Navarro empleando datos de anillamiento obtenidos durante un periodo de 22 años. Los patrones observados fueron homogéneos entre ambos puntos de muestreo. Nuestros resultados sugieren que el promedio de capturas entre los meses de enero y abril podría utilizarse como un índice de la abundancia de individuos adultos durante el periodo de cría en el Pirineo Occidental.

  16. Produtos naturais e sintéticos no controle de Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet, 1842 (Lepdoptera: Lyonetiidae e seus efeitos sobre a predação por vespas Natural and sinthetic products in the control of Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet, 1842 (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae and their effects on predation for wasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Angélico de Mendonça

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O controle do bicho-mineiro-do-cafeeiro Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet, 1842 é realizado por meio de inseticidas de amplo espectro de ação, capazes de causar desequilíbrios biológicos, sendo importante a busca por produtos que apresentem toxicidade à praga e seletividade aos seus inimigos naturais. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a ação dos produtos naturais, extrato pirolenhoso Biopirol® a 2,0; 4,0; 8,0 e 16,0% e azadiractina Nim-I-Go® a 0,25; 0,50; 0,75 e 1,0% em comparação com os inseticidas sintéticos lambdacialotrina (0,01 mg i.a./mL e etion (1,5 mg i.a./mL sobre o bicho-mineiro e seus efeitos sobre vespas predadoras desta praga, em condições de campo. Para isto, foi instalado um experimento em uma área de aproximadamente 1,2 ha, em lavoura cafeeira da cultivar Catuaí Vermelho, situada em Lavras, MG. As concentrações do extrato pirolenhoso e de azadiractina avaliadas não controlaram o bicho-mineiro e não afetaram negativamente a capacidade predatória das vespas. Observou-se que etion causou efeito letal às lagartas, logo após sua aplicação, decrescendo ao longo do tempo. Lambdacialotrina apresentou menor toxicidade às lagartas logo após sua aplicação, seguido por um aumento significativo de controle da praga ao longo do tempo.The control of the coffee leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet, 1842 by broad spectrum pesticides can cause great ecological problems. Thus, the search for products with low toxicity and that do not affect natural enemies is necessary. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the action of natural products like pyroligneous extract Biopirol® (2.0; 4.0; 8.0 and 16.0% and azadirachtin Nim-I-Go® (0.25; 0.50; 0.75 and 1.0% and the pesticides lambdacyhalothrin (0.01 mg a.i./mL and ethion (1.5 mg a.i./mL over coffee leaf miner and their effects over predator wasps, under field conditions. In order to achieve that, an

  17. Comunidades de parasitóides de Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet, 1842 (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae em cafeeiros nas regiões Oeste e Sudoeste da Bahia Parasitoid communities of Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet, 1842 (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae in coffee plants in the western and southwestern regions of Bahia state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Lima Melo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se conhecer a diversidade e a estrutura das comunidades de parasitóides de Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet, 1842 nas regiões Oeste, município de Luiz Eduardo Magalhães, e, Sudoeste, município de Vitória da Conquista, do Estado da Bahia. Os estudos foram desenvolvidos nos anos de 2002 e 2003, por meio de coletas mensais de folhas do quarto par, de ramos nos três estratos da planta e caídas no solo, totalizando 1600 folhas por região e período de coleta, coletando-se minas contendo pupas de parasitóides e crisálidas. O material foi mantido no Laboratório de Entomologia da Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, em temperatura ambiente, visando à emergência de adultos. A estrutura das comunidades foi avaliada por meio dos índices faunísticos freqüência, constância, dominância e diversidade. Foram identificadas seis espécies de parasitóides pertencentes à Braconidade e Eulophidae, registrando-se os parasitóides Cirrospilus neotropicus (Diez & Fidalgo, 2003; Closteroscerus coffeellae (Ihering, 1914; Horismenus aeneicollis (Ashmead, 1904; Neochrysocharis coffeae (Ihering, 1914; Stiropius sp.1 e Stiropius sp.2, associados ao bicho-mineiro do cafeeiro. Há diferenças na estrutura das comunidades de parasitóides em função das regiões estudadas, sendo que na Região Oeste a espécie predominante foi N. coffeae, enquanto que na região Sudoeste, H. aeneicollis e Stiropius sp.1 foram as predominantes.The aim of this work was to know the diversity and the structure of parasitoid communities of Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet, 1842 in the West, municipality of Luiz Eduardo Magalhães, and in the Southwest, municipality of Vitória da Conquista, of the State of Bahia, Brazil. The studies were developed in 2002 and 2003, by monthly samplings of leaves from the fourth pair, of branches in the three plant strata and those fallen on the ground, with a total of 1600 leaves per

  18. Co-expression of cytokeratins and vimentin by highly invasive trophoblast in the white-winged vampire bat, Diaemus youngi, and the black mastiff bat, Molossus ater, with observations on intermediate filament proteins in the decidua and intraplacental trophoblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badwaik, N K; Rasweiler, J J; Muradali, F

    1998-11-01

    Histological and immunocytochemical studies of gravid reproductive tracts obtained from the white-winged vampire bat (Diaemus youngi) and the black mastiff bat (Molossus ater) have established that both species develop unusually invasive trophoblast. This is released by the developing discoidal haemochorial placenta, expresses both cytokeratins and vimentin, and invades the myometrium and adjacent tissues (including the ovaries) via interstitial migration within the walls of maternal blood vessels. Hence, this trophoblast is noteworthy for the extent to which it undergoes an epithelial-mesenchymal transformation. In Molossus, it originates from the cytotrophoblastic shell running along the base of the placenta, is mononuclear, and preferentially invades maternal arterial vessels serving the discoidal placenta. This trophoblast may have a role in dilatation of these vessels when the discoidal placenta becomes functional. In Diaemus, the highly invasive trophoblast appears to originate instead from a layer of syncytiotrophoblast on the periphery of the placenta is multinucleated, and vigorously invades both arterial and venous vessels. During late pregnancy, it becomes extensively branched and sends attenuated processes around many of the myometrial smooth muscle fibres. In view of its distribution, this trophoblast could have important influences upon myometrial contractility and the function of blood vessels serving the gravid tract. Other aspects of intermediate filament expression in the uteri and placentae of these bats are also noteworthy. Many of the decidual giant cells in Molossus co-express cytokeratins and vimentin, while the syncytiotrophoblast lining the placental labyrinth in Diaemus late in pregnancy expresses little cytokeratin.

  19. Data and records management plan for the White Wing Scrap Yard (Waste Area Grouping 11) geophysical survey at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    A geophysical survey is being conducted across the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 11 site to locate buried nonindigenous materials. The survey team will collect data manually in field logbooks and on field forms using two types of instrumentation. This Data and Records Management Plan will describe the process necessary to record and track the geophysical data in a manner that will comply with the data quality objectives (DQOs) described in the WAG 11 Geophysical Survey Work Plan and with Environmental Restoration (ER) regulations concerning project records. This plan provides guidance on handling documentation within CDM Federal Programs Corporation (CDM Federal) and by the survey team in the field. An initial (Phase 1) survey will be performed in established areas (referred to as known target areas) using both 10-ft and 20-ft grid spacing. The results of the Phase 1 survey will be evaluated to determine the appropriate grid spacing to be used for the subsequent survey phase. The second phase (Phase 2) will then cover the remainder of the WAG 11 area using the grid spacing determined in Phase 1. The objective of the Phase 2 survey will be to estimate the horizontal and vertical extent of nonindigenous materials in the subsurface that are man-made, ferrous, highly resistive, and/or possess conductivity above background, based on the survey grid established in Phase 1

  20. Occurrence of white-winged vampire bat, Diaemus youngi (Mammalia, Chiroptera, in the Cerrado of Distrito Federal, Brazil Ocorrência de Diaemus youngi (Mammalia, Chiroptera no Cerrado do Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla M. de S. Aguiar

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Authors cite Diaemus youngi (Jentik, 1893 as occurring in all the Brazilian territory. In spite of that, there are no reports of capture sites for D. youngi in the literature for Distrito Federal or Cerrado of Central Brazil. Here we report the first precise record of this species for Central Brazil, rural area of Distrito Federal, and provide information on its biology, conservation and distribution in Brazil, according to our data and information from the literature.A espécie Diaemus youngi (Jentik, 1893 é considerada por alguns autores como ocorrendo para todo o Brasil incluindo o bioma Cerrado e área rural do Distrito Federal. No entanto não há na literatura nenhum registro do local de coleta dessa espécie para essas regiões. Reportamos aqui o primeiro registro no Cerrado do Brasil Central, área rural do Distrito Federal, e alguns dados sobre a biologia, conservação e distribuição geográfica da espécie no Brasil, de acordo com dados desse trabalho e da literatura.

  1. 77 FR 54451 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... year and have a primary emphasis on such species as mourning and white-winged doves. Late seasons begin..., daily bag limit is 10 mourning or white-winged doves, singly, or in the aggregate. For the late season, the daily bag limit is 10 mourning doves. Possession limits are twice the daily bag limits after the...

  2. 78 FR 58233 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... a primary emphasis on such species as mourning and white-winged dove. Late seasons begin about... migratory bird surveys and assigned the following OMB control numbers: 1018-0010--Mourning Dove Call Count... bag limit is 10 mourning or white-winged doves, singly, or in the aggregate. For the late season, the...

  3. 77 FR 58657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ..., early seasons begin during September each year and have a primary emphasis on such species as mourning..., mourning doves, white-winged doves, white-tipped doves, and band-tailed pigeons; and the status and harvest...: For the early season, daily bag limit is 10 mourning or white-winged doves, singly, or in the...

  4. 78 FR 47135 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... commonly include such species as American woodcock, sandhill cranes, mourning doves, and white-winged doves... begin September 1 and end September 15, 2013. Daily bag limits would be 10 mourning or white-winged... December 23, 2013. The daily bag limit would be 10 mourning doves. The possession limit would be twice the...

  5. Legacy Bird Species at Risk Monitoring in and Around Camp Navajo and the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    19th century due to a convergence of complex stressors such as overgrazing, timber harvest, drought , and fire suppression (Allen et al. 2002, Moore... pinus 16 Olive Warbler Peucedramus taeniatus 5 Plumbeous Vireo Vireo solitarius 60 Pygmy Nuthatch Sitta pygmaea 177 Red Crossbill Loxia...Dove Zenaida macroura 14 Northern Flicker Colaptes auratus 50 Pine Siskin Carduelis pinus 58 Olive-sided Flycatcher Contopus cooperi 1

  6. HOW to Identify and Control Sapsucker Injury on Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Ostry; Thomas H. Nicholls

    1976-01-01

    The yellow-bellied sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varius), a member of the woodpecker family, is a migratory bird whose summer breeding range includes the Lakes States region. The identifying field markings of adult birds are a black crescent on the breast, pale yellow belly, white wing stripe, and a crimson crown. The male also has a crimson chin and throat, distinguishing...

  7. 75 FR 47681 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... million). Residual water remains in the Parklands and these were classified as fair to good. Most of the... stabilized at around 100,000 birds; the preliminary 2009 Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program (HIP... and 2009. According to HIP surveys, the preliminary harvest estimate for 2009 was 66,100 white-winged...

  8. The Eagle’s Talons. The American Experience at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    64, Lake Erie: 334, 339, 341274-75, 277-78, 281,298, Lake Ontario: 334, 341 310-11, 313, 317, 375 Lake Xochimilco : 354 Johnston, Albert Sidney: 116...370, 372-73, 383-84,White Plains: 68 389-91,393-98, 400-1White Wing Operation: 313 Wilderness: 127 Xochimilco Lake: 354 Wilkinson, James: 341 Wilson

  9. 77 FR 53117 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ...- tailed pigeons. 16. Mourning Doves Council Recommendations: The Atlantic and Mississippi Flyway Councils... of mourning doves, resulting in a 70-day season and 15-bird daily bag limit. The daily bag limit could be composed of mourning doves and white-winged doves, singly or in combination. The Mississippi...

  10. Breeding seasonality and primary moult parameters of Euplectes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The grassland biome in South Africa has a summer rainfall and Southern Red Bishops Euplectes orix, Fan-tailed Widows E. axillaris, White-winged Widow E. albonotatus, Red-collared Widow E. ardens and Long-tailed Widow E. progne breed from October or November to March. Primary moult starts in late March or early ...

  11. Data manage and communication of lunar orbital X-ray imaging analyzer in CE-1 satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinzhou; Wang Huanyu; Zhang Chengmo; Liang Xiaohua; Gao Min; CaoXuelei; Zhang Jiayu; Peng Wenxi; Cui Xingzhu; Xu Yupeng; Zhang Yongjie

    2006-01-01

    We present the software design for data management and communication software designed for the Lunar Orbital X-ray Imaging Analyzer in CE-1 Satellite. The software uses the appropriate format to assemble science data package and appropriate command respond mode, realizes the data transferring tasks through the 1553B bus on time, event though the channel bandwidth is under the limited. Also, the memory distribution and management of LOXIA (remote terminal) that fitted the communication with BC(Bus Controller) was introduced. Furthermore, for the spatial application, the security and reliability of software are emphasized. (authors)

  12. Haemoproteus, a blood parasite, in domestic pigeons and mourning doves in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knisley, J.O.; Herman, C.M.

    1967-01-01

    The occurrence of Haemoproteus in pigeons throughout the world and in mourning doves in the United States is reviewed. Haemoproteus has previously been reported only once from pigeons in Maryland. During this study it was found in all of 18 pigeons from one area but in none of 12 from an adjacent area. No infections were found in 90 Maryland mourning doves. All of the 10 mourning doves from Florida were infected whereas 60 nestlings from Texas and Mississippi had no parasites. None was found in 358 nestling white-winged doves from Texas.

  13. Irradiation of fruits for quarantine insect disinfestation. Development in the world and in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscarlet, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    In many countries strict phytosanitary controls have been established to prevent the entry of foreign insect species. The recent interdiction of ethylene dibromide fumigation in USA led to the search of new methods of quarantine control among which irradiation was considered as the more convenient. In different countries such as USA, Australia, New Zeland, studies were conducted to determine the dose of irradiation efficient for controlling different insect species and to verify that irradiation had no noxious effect on the fruits. At the present time the papaya harvested in Hawaii and irradiated against fruit flies are allowed to enter in the continent of USA. In France the irradiation of apples against Leucoptera malifoliella is under study to promote the exportation of apples to America [fr

  14. Groundwater quality monitoring well installation for Waste Area Grouping at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimore, J.A.; Lee, T.A.

    1994-09-01

    This report documents the drilling and installation of 18 groundwater quality monitoring (GQM) wells on the perimeter of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 11. WAG 11 (White Wing Scrap Yard) is located on the west end of East Fork Ridge between White Wing Road and the Oak Ridge Turnpike. The scrap yard is approximately 25 acres in size. The wells at WAG 11 were drilled and developed between January 1990 and October 1990. These wells were installed to characterize and assess the WAG in accordance with applicable Department of Energy, state, and Environmental Protection Agency regulatory requirements. The wells at WAG 11 were drilled with auger or air rotary rigs. Depending on the hydrogeologic conditions present at each proposed well location, one of four basic installation methods was utilized. Detailed procedures for well construction were specified by the Engineering Division to ensure that the wells would provide water samples representative of the aquifer. To ensure conformance with the specifications, Energy Systems Construction Engineering and ERCE provided continuous oversight of field activities. The purpose of the well installation program was to install GQM wells for groundwater characterization at WAG 11. Data packages produced during installation activities by the ERCE hydrogeologists are an important product of the program. These packages document the well drilling, installation, and development activities and provide valuable data for well sampling and WAG characterization. The forms contained in the packages include predrilling and postdrilling checklists, drilling and construction logs, development and hydraulic conductivity records, and quality control-related documents

  15. New Records of Five Ennomine Moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae; Ennominae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi, Sei-Woong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Ennominae is one of the most species-rich taxa of Geometridae that include more than 9,700 species worldwide and over 280 species in South Korea. Herein, we present the first report of five species of Ennominae. Abraxas flavisinuata can be characterized by the white wings, a thick black postmedial line that is medially and dorsally broken with an orange band, large rounded black discal dots on the forewing, and a black dotted postmedial line on the hindwing. Lomographa claripennis can be characterized by the whitish wings, the black undulating postmedial line as well as the minute blackish discal dot on the forewing, and the black undulating postmedial line with a minute black discal dot on the hindwing. Arichanna tetrica can be characterized by the grayish forewings, thick black transverse ante- and postmedial lines, a large blackish discal dot, whitish apical streak on the forewing, and scattered black dots on the whitish hindwing. Apocleora rimosa can be characterized by the brown ground color of the fore- and hindwings, the black slanted ante- and postmedial lines of the forewing, and two black medial lines on the hindwing. Ourapteryx japonica can be characterized by the white wings, the dark brown transverse ante- and postmedial lines with a long discal dot on the forewing, and the dark brownish transverse antemedial line as well as a termen that has a sharp white tail with one large dark reddish dot and one small black dot on the hindwing.

  16. Toxicity of organic farming‑compatible products to the coffee leaf miner Toxicidade de produtos compatíveis com a agricultura orgânica ao bicho‑mineiro do cafeeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelaine Venzon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the toxicity of organic farming‑compatible products to the coffee leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella. Lime sulphur, enriched Bordeaux mixture (Viça Café Plus, and the "supermagro" biofertilizer were first tested in laboratory. The most promising product was tested afterwards under field conditions. In laboratory, different concentrations of each product were applied on L. coffeella eggs and on infested coffee‑mined leaves. Only lime sulphur had ovicidal effects at an acceptable concentration (1.6% for field applications, but no significant effect on larvae mortality was found. Enriched Bordeaux mixture and the "supermagro" biofertilizer had no effect on L. coffeella eggs and larvae. In the field trial, biweekly or monthly sprayings of lime sulphur at different concentrations caused population decrease after 30 days; however, this effect was not significant after 60 or 90 days.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade de produtos compatíveis com a agricultura orgânica ao bicho‑mineiro Leucoptera coffeella. A calda sulfocálcica, a calda Viçosa comercial (Viça Café Plus e biofertilizante supermagro foram testados inicialmente em laboratório. O produto mais eficaz foi posteriormente testado em condições de campo. Em laboratório, diferentes concentrações de cada produto foram aplicadas sobre ovos de L. coffeella e sobre folhas de café infestadas com o bicho‑mineiro. Apenas a calda sulfocálcica teve efeito ovicida a uma concentração (1,6%, viável para aplicação no campo; porém, sem nenhum efeito significativo sobre a mortalidade das larvas. A calda Viçosa comercial e o biofertilizante supermagro não tiveram efeito sobre ovos e larvas de L. coffeella. No experimento de campo, a pulverização quinzenal ou mensal de diferentes concentrações da calda causou a redução da população 30 dias após a aplicação; no entanto, esse efeito não foi significativo após 60 ou 90

  17. Serologic evidence of influenza A (H14) virus introduction into North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Margalef, Neus; Ramey, Andy M.; Fojtik, Alinde; Stallknecht, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Although a diverse population of influenza A viruses (IAVs) is maintained among ducks, geese, shorebirds, and gulls, not all of the 16 avian hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes are equally represented (1). The 14th HA subtype, commonly known as the H14 subtype, was historically limited to isolates from the former Soviet Union in the 1980s (2) and was not subsequently detected until 2010, when isolated in Wisconsin, USA from long-tailed ducks and a white-winged scoter (3–5). In the United States, the H14 subtype has since been isolated in California (6), Mississippi, and Texas (7); and has been reported in waterfowl in Guatemala (7). In this study, we examined whether there was serologic evidence of H14 spread among ducks in North America before (2006–2010) and after (2011–2014) the initial detection of the H14 subtype virus on this continent.

  18. Biomimetic Pieris rapae’s Nanostructure and Its Use as a Simple Sucrose Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bonzon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetics often provides efficient ways to create a product incorporating novel properties. Here we present the replication of the Pieris rapae butterfly optical structure. This butterfly has white wings with black spots. The white coloration is produced by light scattering on pterin beads ranging from 100 to 500 nm whereas black spots correspond to areas without pterin beads, thus revealing a highly pigmented layer underneath. In order to mimic the butterfly wing structure, we deposited SU-8 beads produced by electrospraying on a black absorbing layer made of black SU-8. We thereby replicated the optical effect observed on Pieris rapae. Additional experiments showed that the white coloration replication is a structural color. Finally, we further demonstrate that these optical engineered surfaces can be used for sucrose sensing in the range of 1 g/L to 250 g/L.

  19. Rare birds in Slovenia in 2015 – Slovenian Rarities Committee’s Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanžel Jurij

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This report by the Slovenian Rarities Committee presents records of rare bird species in Slovenia in 2015, with some addenda for previous years. The numbers in brackets refer to the number of records (first number and individuals (second number recorded between 1 Jan 1950 and 31 Dec 2014. Since 1 Jan 2013, submission to the Committee has been required for 37 additional species, 17 of which are regional rarities. Records of these species are not numbered, since records from previous years were not collected by the Committee. One new species, the Desert Wheatear Oenanthe deserti, was added to category A. Other notable observations were the first record of Parrot Crossbill Loxia pytyopsittacus after 1909, the second record of Baillon’s Crake Zapornia pusilla, the third and fourth records of Calandra Lark Melanocorypha calandra, the fourth of Long-legged Buzzard Buteo rufinus, the fifth of Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi and the sixth of Grey Phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius. Four species were added to category E: Bahama Pintail Anas bahamensis, Rosy-billed Pochard Netta peposaca, Harris’s Hawk Parabuteo unicinctus and Alexandrine Parakeet Psittacula eupatria. The list of birds recorded in Slovenia (as of 31 Dec 2015 contains 386 species (371 in category A, 6 in category B, 9 exclusively in category C; 4 species are both in categories A and C. Category D contains 6 species, while category E contains 38, two of which are classified into subcategory E*. These two categories are not part of the list.

  20. A role for habitat area in the geographic mosaic of coevolution between red crossbills and lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepielski, A M; Benkman, C W

    2005-07-01

    Understanding how resource abundance limits adaptive evolution and influences species interactions is an important step towards developing insight into the role of microevolutionary processes in establishing macroevolutionary patterns. We examined how variation in resource abundance (forest area of lodgepole pine Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia) influenced patterns of co-adaptation and coevolution between red crossbill (Loxia curvirostra complex) and lodgepole pine populations. First, we found that crossbill abundance increased logarithmically as forest area increased in mountain ranges lacking a preemptive competitor (pine squirrels Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Second, seed defences against predation by crossbills increased with increases in crossbill density, suggesting that seed defences have likely evolved in proportion to the intensity of selection that crossbills exert. Third, the average bill size of crossbill populations increased with increasing seed defences, which implies that crossbill offenses increased with increases in seed defences. The large bill size on the largest range is the result of coevolution with lodgepole pine with this crossbill population perhaps speciating. Local adaptation of crossbill populations on smaller ranges, however, is more likely the result of resident crossbills representing a subset of the potential colonists (phenotypic sorting) than of local evolution. In the smallest range, migration and possibly more frequent extinction likely impede local adaptation and may result in maladaptation.

  1. Replicated population divergence caused by localized coevolution? A test of three hypotheses in the red crossbill-lodgepole pine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelaar, P; Benkman, C W

    2006-09-01

    Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that local populations of red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra complex) enter into a predator-prey arms race with lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta latifolia) in the absence of competing pine squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Nevertheless, the alternative hypotheses that neutral evolution or factors other than squirrels have caused crossbill population differentiation have not been thoroughly tested. We compared crossbill and pine cone morphology between island populations where squirrels are absent or present, and mainland sites where squirrels are present, in order to distinguish among these hypotheses. All comparisons supported an effect of squirrel absence, not island status, on crossbill and cone morphology. Hence our results provide further evidence that strong localized coevolutionary interactions in a geographic mosaic have driven adaptive population differentiation. In addition, vocal differentiation of crossbills was related to the absence of squirrels, but not to island status. As morphological and vocal differentiation is correlated with reproductive isolation in crossbills, the geographic mosaic of coevolution also seems to promote ecological speciation.

  2. Reciprocal selection causes a coevolutionary arms race between crossbills and lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkman, Craig W; Parchman, Thomas L; Favis, Amanda; Siepielski, Adam M

    2003-08-01

    Few studies have shown both reciprocal selection and reciprocal adaptations for a coevolving system in the wild. The goal of our study was to determine whether the patterns of selection on Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta spp. latifolia) and red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra complex) were concordant with earlier published evidence of reciprocal adaptations in lodgepole pine and crossbills on isolated mountain ranges in the absence of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). We found that selection (directional) by crossbills on lodgepole pine where Tamiasciurus are absent was divergent from the selection (directional) exerted by Tamiasciurus on lodgepole pine. This resulted in divergent selection between areas with and without Tamiasciurus that was congruent with the geographic patterns of cone variation. In the South Hills, Idaho, where Tamiasciurus are absent and red crossbills are thought to be coevolving with lodgepole pine, crossbills experienced stabilizing selection on bill size, with cone structure as the agent of selection. These results show that crossbills and lodgepole pine exhibit reciprocal adaptations in response to reciprocal selection, and they provide insight into the traits mediating and responding to selection in a coevolutionary arms race.

  3. The liver but not the skin is the site for conversion of a red carotenoid in a passerine bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Val, Esther; Senar, Juan Carlos; Garrido-Fernández, Juan; Jarén, Manuel; Borràs, Antoni; Cabrera, Josep; Negro, Juan José

    2009-07-01

    Carotenoids may provide numerous health benefits and are also responsible for the integumentary coloration of many bird species. Despite their importance, many aspects of their metabolism are still poorly known, and even basic issues such as the anatomical sites of conversion remain controversial. Recent studies suggest that the transformation of carotenoid pigments takes place directly in the follicles during feather growth, even though the liver has been previously recognised as a storing organ for these pigments with a certain potential for conversion. In this context, we analysed the carotenoid profile of plasma, liver, skin and feathers of male Common Crossbills ( Loxia curvirostra). Interestingly, the derivative feather pigment 3-hydroxy-echinenone was detected in the liver and in the bloodstream (i.e. the necessary vehicle to transport metabolites to colourful peripheral tissues). Our results demonstrate for the first time with empirical data that the liver may act as the main site for the synthesis of integumentary carotenoids. This finding contradicts previous assumptions and raises the question of possible inter-specific differences in the site of carotenoid conversion in birds.

  4. Social information changes stress hormone receptor expression in the songbird brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Jamie M; Perreau, Gillian; Bishop, Valerie R; Krause, Jesse S; Smith, Rachael; Hahn, Thomas P; Meddle, Simone L

    2018-01-01

    Social information is used by many vertebrate taxa to inform decision-making, including resource-mediated movements, yet the mechanisms whereby social information is integrated physiologically to affect such decisions remain unknown. Social information is known to influence the physiological response to food reduction in captive songbirds. Red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) that were food reduced for several days showed significant elevations in circulating corticosterone (a "stress" hormone often responsive to food limitation) only if their neighbors were similarly food restricted. Physiological responses to glucocorticoid hormones are enacted through two receptors that may be expressed differentially in target tissues. Therefore, we investigated the influence of social information on the expression of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA in captive red crossbill brains. Although the role of MR and GR in the response to social information may be highly complex, we specifically predicted social information from food-restricted individuals would reduce MR and GR expression in two brain regions known to regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity - given that reduced receptor expression may lessen the efficacy of negative feedback and release inhibitory tone on the HPA. Our results support these predictions - offering one potential mechanism whereby social cues could increase or sustain HPA-activity during stress. The data further suggest different mechanisms by which metabolic stress versus social information influence HPA activity and behavioral outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assortative flocking in crossbills and implications for ecological speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julie W; Sjoberg, Stephanie M; Mueller, Matthew C; Benkman, Craig W

    2012-10-22

    How reproductive isolation is related to divergent natural selection is a central question in speciation. Here, we focus on several ecologically specialized taxa or 'call types' of red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra complex), one of the few groups of birds providing much evidence for ecological speciation. Call types differ in bill sizes and feeding capabilities, and also differ in vocalizations, such that contact calls provide information on crossbill phenotype. We found that two call types of red crossbills were more likely to approach playbacks of their own call type than those of heterotypics, and that their propensity to approach heterotypics decreased with increasing divergence in bill size. Although call similarity also decreased with increasing divergence in bill size, comparisons of responses to familiar versus unfamiliar call types indicate that the decrease in the propensity to approach heterotypics with increasing divergence in bill size was a learned response, and not a by-product of calls diverging pleiotropically as bill size diverged. Because crossbills choose mates while in flocks, assortative flocking could lead indirectly to assortative mating as a by-product. These patterns of association therefore provide a mechanism by which increasing divergent selection can lead to increasing reproductive isolation.

  6. Efficiency of playback for assessing the occurrence of five bird species in Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Boscolo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Playback of bird songs is a useful technique for species detection; however, this method is usually not standardized. We tested playback efficiency for five Atlantic Forest birds (White-browed Warbler Basileuterus leucoblepharus, Giant Antshrike Batara cinerea, Swallow-tailed Manakin Chiroxiphia caudata, Whiteshouldered Fire-eye Pyriglena leucoptera and Surucua Trogon Trogon surrucura for different time of the day, season of the year and species abundance at the Morro Grande Forest Reserve (South-eastern Brazil and at thirteen forest fragments in a nearby landscape. Vocalizations were broadcasted monthly at sunrise, noon and sunset, during one year. For B. leucoblepharus, C. caudata and T. surrucura, sunrise and noon were more efficient than sunset. Batara cinerea presented higher efficiency from July to October. Playback expanded the favourable period for avifaunal surveys in tropical forest, usually restricted to early morning in the breeding season. The playback was efficient in detecting the presence of all species when the abundance was not too low. But only B. leucoblepharus and T. surrucura showed abundance values significantly related to this efficiency. The present study provided a precise indication of the best daily and seasonal periods and a confidence interval to maximize the efficiency of playback to detect the occurrence of these forest species.A técnica de play-back é muito útil para a detecção de aves, mas este método geralmente não é padronizado. Sua eficiência em atestar a ocorrência de cinco espécies de aves da Mata Atlântica (Pula-pula-assobiador Basileuterus leucoblepharus, Batará Batara cinerea, Tangará Chiroxiphia caudata, Olho-de-fogo Pyriglena leucoptera e Surucuá-de-barriga-vermelha Trogon surrucura foi analisada de acordo com o horário do dia, estação do ano e abundância das espécies na Reserva Florestal do Morro Grande (São Paulo, Brasil e em treze fragmentos florestais de uma paisagem adjacente

  7. Flutuação populacional do bicho-mineiro em cultivares de café arábica resistentes à ferrugem Fluctuation of leaf miner population in resistant arabica coffee cultivars to leaf rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Henrique Costa Conceição

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A intensidade de infestação pelo bicho-mineiro, Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Méneville (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae foi investigada nas cultivares Obatã IAC 1669-20 e Tupi IAC 1669-33, com resistência à ferrugem das folhas do cafeeiro, Hemileia vastatrix Berk. et Br., e Ouro Verde Amarelo IAC 4397, suscetível à doença, em ensaios de campo, localizados em Campinas (SP, Brasil. A incidência de ferrugem e a ocorrência de inimigos naturais da praga, assim como o enfolhamento das plantas, foram também observados nas três cultivares. As curvas de flutuação populacional obtidas para Obatã IAC 1669-20 e Tupi IAC 1669-33 revelaram maior incidência do bicho-mineiro entre abril e novembro. Já na cultivar Ouro Verde Amarelo IAC 4397, observaram-se dois picos de infestação, sendo o primeiro em abril-maio e o segundo em agosto-setembro. No entanto, a elevada percentagem de folhas minadas nas cultivares Tupi IAC 1669-33 e Obatã IAC 1669-20 em relação à Ouro Verde Amarelo IAC 4397 não é evidência de maior suscetibilidade à praga, mas sim devido à maior retenção foliar dessas cultivares, em conseqüência da resistência à ferrugem das folhas observada em ambas. De maneira oposta, na cultivar Ouro Verde Amarelo IAC 4397, os sintomas de ataque do bicho-mineiro ocorreram em menor nível especialmente devido a maior queda de folhas. Com base nas diferenças observadas entre as cultivares, sugere-se a adoção de estratégias distintas de manejo da praga.The intensity of infestation of leaf-miner, Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Méneville was investigated in coffee cultivars Obatã IAC 1669-20 and Tupi IAC 1669-33, both resistant to the leaf rust agent, Hemileia vastatrix Berk. et Br., and Ouro Verde Amarelo IAC 4397, susceptible to this coffee disease, at field assays in Campinas, SP, Brazil. The incidence of coffee rust and presence of natural enemies, as well as the plant leafiness, were also observed. In Obatã IAC 1669-20 and Tupi

  8. Description of the first cryptic avian malaria parasite, Plasmodium homocircumflexum n. sp., with experimental data on its virulence and development in avian hosts and mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinauskas, Vaidas; Žiegytė, Rita; Ilgūnas, Mikas; Iezhova, Tatjana A; Bernotienė, Rasa; Bolshakov, Casimir; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2015-01-01

    For over 100 years studies on avian haemosporidian parasite species have relied on similarities in their morphology to establish a species concept. Some exceptional cases have also included information about the life cycle and sporogonic development. More than 50 avian Plasmodium spp. have now been described. However, PCR-based studies show a much broader diversity of haemosporidian parasites, indicating the possible existence of a diverse group of cryptic species. In the present study, using both similarity and phylogenetic species definition concepts, we believe that we report the first characterised cryptic speciation case of an avian Plasmodium parasite. We used sequence information on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and constructed phylogenies of identified Plasmodium spp. to define their position in the phylogenetic tree. After analysis of blood stages, the morphology of the parasite was shown to be identical to Plasmodium circumflexum. However, the geographic distribution of the new parasite, the phylogenetic information, as well as patterns of development of infection, indicate that this parasite differs from P. circumflexum. Plasmodium homocircumflexum n. sp. was described based on information about genetic differences from described lineages, phylogenetic position and biological characters. This parasite develops parasitemia in experimentally infected birds - the domestic canary Serinus canaria domestica, siskin Carduelis spinus and crossbill Loxia curvirostra. Anaemia caused by high parasitemia, as well as cerebral paralysis caused by exoerythrocytic stages in the brain, are the main reasons for mortality. Exoerythrocytic stages also form in other organs (heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, spleen, intestines and pectoral muscles). DNA amplification was unsuccessful from faecal samples of heavily infected birds. The sporogonic development initiates, but is abortive, at the oocyst stage in two common European mosquito species, Culex pipiens pipiens (forms

  9. Sperm morphology in five species of cicadettine cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawanji, Abraham S; Hodgson, Alan N; Villet, Martin H

    2006-12-01

    Mature spermatozoa from five species of cicadas of the subfamily Cicadettinae (Quintilia wealei, Melampsalta leucoptera, Stagira simplex, Xosopsaltria thunbergi and Monomatapa matoposa) were examined by light and electron microscopy. In each species sperm are elongate, aggregated into organized bundles with their heads embedded in a homogenous matrix to form spermatodesmata, and exhibit polymegaly. The head of the sperm consist of an anteriorly positioned conical acrosome that has a tubular substructure and a deep, posterior invagination that forms the subacrosomal space (eccentrically positioned anteriorly). The acrosome is flattened anteriorly; posteriorly it extends along either side of the nucleus as two tubular processes that gradually decrease in diameter. The filiform nucleus tapers anteriorly and intrudes into the subscrosomal space. Posteriorly the nucleus has a lateral invagination that houses material of the so-called centriolar adjunct. Posterior to the centriolar adjuct and the nucleus are two crystalline mitochondrial derivatives and a centriole, respectively, the latter giving rise to the axoneme, which has a 9 + 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules. In these respects the sperm are similar to those of platypleurine cicadas. However, some features seem unique to cicadettines, including the structural organization of an enlarged centriolar adjunct and the dimensions of the tails. The enlarged centriolar adjunct has a lamella-like substructure and can be considered a synapomorphic character in the Cicadettinae. It is, therefore, potentially useful in the separation of this subfamily from the Cicadinae. In addition, the great length of the sperm nucleus of long-headed sperm in M. matoposa could be a synapomorphy of this genus and related taphurine and cicadettine species.

  10. Analysis and prediction of pest dynamics in an agroforestry context using Tiko'n, a generic tool to develop food web models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Marcela; Malard, Julien; Adamowski, Jan; Carrera, Jaime Luis; Maas, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    While it is known that climate change will impact future plant-pest population dynamics, potentially affecting crop damage, agroforestry with its enhanced biodiversity is said to reduce the outbreaks of pest insects by providing natural enemies for the control of pest populations. This premise is known in the literature as the natural enemy hypothesis and has been widely studied qualitatively. However, disagreement still exists on whether biodiversity enhancement reduces pest outbreaks, showing the need of quantitatively understanding the mechanisms behind the interactions between pests and natural enemies, also known as trophic interactions. Crop pest models that study insect population dynamics in agroforestry contexts are very rare, and pest models that take trophic interactions into account are even rarer. This may be due to the difficulty of representing complex food webs in a quantifiable model. There is therefore a need for validated food web models that allow users to predict the response of these webs to changes in climate in agroforestry systems. In this study we present Tiko'n, a Python-based software whose API allows users to rapidly build and validate trophic web models; the program uses a Bayesian inference approach to calibrate the models according to field data, allowing for the reuse of literature data from various sources and reducing the need for extensive field data collection. Tiko'n was run using coffee leaf miner (Leucoptera coffeella) and associated parasitoid data from a shaded coffee plantation, showing the mechanisms of insect population dynamics within a tri-trophic food web in an agroforestry system.

  11. Predation rates, timing, and predator composition for Scoters (Melanitta spp.) in marine habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric J.; Esler, Daniel N.; Sean, Boyd W.; Evenson, Joseph; Nysewander, David R.; Ward, David H.; Dickson, Rian D.; Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Vanstratt, C.S.; Hupp, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    Studies of declining populations of sea ducks have focused mainly on bottom-up processes with little emphasis on the role of predation. We identified 11 potential predators of White-winged Scoters (Melanitta fusca (L., 1758)) and Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata (L., 1758)) in North American marine habitats. However, of 596 Scoters marked with VHF transmitters along the Pacific coast, mortalities were recovered in association with just two identifiable categories of predators: in southeast Alaska recoveries occurred mainly near mustelid feeding areas, while those in southern British Columbia and Washington occurred mainly near feeding areas of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus (L., 1766)). Determining whether marked Scoters had been depredated versus scavenged was often not possible, but mortalities occurred more frequently during winter than during wing molt (13.1% versus 0.7% of both species combined, excluding Scoters that died within a postrelease adjustment period). In two sites heavily used by Scoters, diurnal observations revealed no predation attempts and low rates of predator disturbances that altered Scoter behavior (≤ 0.22/h). These and other results suggest that predation by Bald Eagles occurs mainly at sites and times where densities of Scoters are low, while most predation by mustelids probably occurs when Scoters are energetically compromised.

  12. Year-to-year correlations in blood metal levels among individuals of two species of North American sea ducks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayland, M.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Kellett, D.; Traylor, J.; Swoboda, C.; Neugebauer, E.; Mehl, K.

    2007-01-01

    Sea duck populations have declined in North America. Contaminants, especially metals, have been listed as possible contributing factors. Sea ducks are long-lived. Thus, individuals chronically exposed to elevated metal levels may be at greatest risk. Information about long-term exposure (≥1 year) of individuals to metals is absent. To address this information gap, we examined year-to-year correlations among individual White-Winged Scoters and King Eiders in levels of blood cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium. Positive correlations (r ≥ 0.43), were found in six, five, five and two of seven correlations for cadmium, selenium, lead and mercury. Thus, certain individuals of these species may be exposed over two or more years to higher levels of cadmium, selenium and lead (but apparently not mercury) than other individuals. Single blood samples are appropriate metrics of exposure for studies that examine long-term effects of certain metals on these birds. - Some individuals of two species of sea ducks experience greater long-term (≥1 year) exposure to cadmium, selenium and lead compared to other individuals

  13. Bioaccumulation of polonium 210Po in marine birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarzec, B.; Fabisiak, J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the 210 Po content in marine birds which permanently or temporally live in the Polish part of the Baltic Sea. We chose 11 species of sea birds: three species permanently residing at southern Baltic Sea, four species of wintering birds and three species of migrating birds. The results show that the polonium is non-uniformly distributed in the marine birds. The highest activities of 210 Po were observed in feathers, muscles and liver and the lowest in skin and skeleton. Species of birds that eat crustaceans, molluscs, fish and plants (long-tailed duck Clangula hyemalis, white-winged scoter Melanitta fusca) accumulated more polonium than species that eat mainly fish (great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, common guillemot Uria aalge) or plants (tufted duck Aythya fuligula). Moreover, about 63% of the 210 Po that was located in feathers of razorbil (Alca torda) and long-tailed duck (C. hyemalis) was apparently adsorbed, suggesting an external source such as the air. It means that the adsorption of 210 Po on the feather surface may be an important transfer from air to water

  14. Haste makes waste: accelerated molt adversely affects the expression of melanin-based and depigmented plumage ornaments in house sparrows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor I Vágási

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many animals display colorful signals in their integument which convey information about the quality of their bearer. Theoretically, these ornaments incur differential production and/or maintenance costs that enforce their honesty. However, the proximate mechanisms of production costs are poorly understood and contentious in cases of non-carotenoid-based plumage ornaments like the melanin-based badge and depigmented white wing-bar in house sparrows Passer domesticus. Costly life-history events are adaptively separated in time, thus, when reproduction is extended, the time available for molt is curtailed and, in turn, molt rate is accelerated.We experimentally accelerated the molt rate by shortening the photoperiod in order to test whether this environmental constraint is mirrored in the expression of plumage ornaments. Sparrows which had undergone an accelerated molt developed smaller badges and less bright wing-bars compared to conspecifics that molted at a natural rate being held at natural-like photoperiod. There was no difference in the brightness of the badge or the size of the wing-bar.These results indicate that the time available for molt and thus the rate at which molt occurs may constrain the expression of melanin-based and depigmented plumage advertisements. This mechanism may lead to the evolution of honest signaling if the onset of molt is condition-dependent through the timing of and/or trade-off between breeding and molt.

  15. Multilocus phylogeny of the avian family Alaudidae (larks) reveals complex morphological evolution, non-monophyletic genera and hidden species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alström, Per; Barnes, Keith N; Olsson, Urban; Barker, F Keith; Bloomer, Paulette; Khan, Aleem Ahmed; Qureshi, Masood Ahmed; Guillaumet, Alban; Crochet, Pierre-André; Ryan, Peter G

    2013-12-01

    The Alaudidae (larks) is a large family of songbirds in the superfamily Sylvioidea. Larks are cosmopolitan, although species-level diversity is by far largest in Africa, followed by Eurasia, whereas Australasia and the New World have only one species each. The present study is the first comprehensive phylogeny of the Alaudidae. It includes 83.5% of all species and representatives from all recognised genera, and was based on two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci (in total 6.4 kbp, although not all loci were available for all species). In addition, a larger sample, comprising several subspecies of some polytypic species was analysed for one of the mitochondrial loci. There was generally good agreement in trees inferred from different loci, although some strongly supported incongruences were noted. The tree based on the concatenated multilocus data was overall well resolved and well supported by the data. We stress the importance of performing single gene as well as combined data analyses, as the latter may obscure significant incongruence behind strong nodal support values. The multilocus tree revealed many unpredicted relationships, including some non-monophyletic genera (Calandrella, Mirafra, Melanocorypha, Spizocorys). The tree based on the extended mitochondrial data set revealed several unexpected deep divergences between taxa presently treated as conspecific (e.g. within Ammomanes cinctura, Ammomanes deserti, Calandrella brachydactyla, Eremophila alpestris), as well as some shallow splits between currently recognised species (e.g. Certhilauda brevirostris-C. semitorquata-C. curvirostris; Calendulauda barlowi-C. erythrochlamys; Mirafra cantillans-M. javanica). Based on our results, we propose a revised generic classification, and comment on some species limits. We also comment on the extraordinary morphological adaptability in larks, which has resulted in numerous examples of parallel evolution (e.g. in Melanocorypha mongolica and Alauda leucoptera [both

  16. Innovative plant protection means prepared natural raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Lomtadze

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Were developed new compositions preparation against pests and diseases of plant: Insekto-acaricide “Antipest”, Fungicide “Antifungal”, a drug against of overwintering pests “Proinsekt” and nutritious preparation “Si-humate”.The effectiveness of trial oil-emulsion preparation “Proinsect” was assessed by the spread of pests - San Jose scale (Diaspidiotus perniciosus and mountain ash bentwing (Leucoptera scitella Costa on treated trees. According to field testing, the efficiency of preparation “Proinsect” exceeds the effectiveness of one of the best imported oily preparation “Sipcomol”, which was selected as a reference.Joint content in composition of synthetic pyretroids with turpentine oil, supposedly synergism takes place (turpentines cause prolonged action of synthetic pyrethroid. In working solutions, obtained from turpentine oil containing composition concentration of pyretroid is low, but it is enough during the whole period of pest development cycle. According to the comparative field testing of “Antipest” and imported preparations, against for fruits pests their efficiency is at almost one level, despite the low content (by 30–40% of pyrethroid (cypermethrin in “Antipest”.The developed phosphate preparation “Antifungal” is a little bit less effective compared to Bordeaux mixture. If well take into account significant decrease of intensity of disease spread and development after the action of phosphate preparation, also very low toxicity zinc hydro- and dihydrophosphates compared to the blue vitriol (Copper(II sulfate, the developed fungicide preparation can be successfully used instead of traditional Bordeaux mixture and in particular against the peach leaf curl.According to the results of field trials, effect, of developed silicon containing humic nutrient composition -“Si-humate” on experimental 2-year-old seedlings apples and peach is on the average 15–17% better than the control ones in

  17. Stable isotopes (C, N, O, H) of feathers collected in an Italian alpine region, during postbreeding migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempo, Luana; Ceppa, Florencia; Pedrini, Paolo; Tenan, Simone; Camin, Federica

    2013-04-01

    Over the last 20 years the analysis of stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and sulphur have gradually become a formidable tool for the animal ecologists (Hobson and Wassenaar, 1997; Marra et al., 1998; Inger and Bearhop, 2008). In particular many studies have been developed on tracking the movement and the diet of birds in time and space, fundamental to understanding their ecology, but also inherently difficult to determine. The aim of this study was to deepen the origin and behaviour of migratory bird species crossing the Trentino area, an Italian alpine region, during the post-nuptial migration period, and monitored by a long term study by ringing activities (Progetto Alpi, Pedrini et al. 2008). About 800 samples of feathers from 48 local bird species were collected during 2010 - 2012 years. Analysis of d13C, d15N, d18O and dD were performed on these samples using an Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS) interfaced with an Elemental Analyser or a pyrolyser after a pre-treatment of the feathers (cleaning with diethyl ether:methanol 2:1, equilibration to ambient humitity for 4 days and, for d18O and dD a final drying step wth P2O5 for another 4 days). A first survey of the obtained data is presented in this work. As expected, the first statistical elaboration/'look' of them confirmed that 13C can be used to trace the importance of different carbon pools to a consumer (e.g. C3, C4 or CAM plants, marine algae) whereas d15N vary as a function of a variety of biological, geochemical and anthropogenic processes and is a very effective tracer of trophic level. In particular, it was interesting to note that the specie Loxia curvirostra showed particularly high d13C and low d15N values probably due to the eating of conifer seeds and whereas the specie Motacilla flava, that bases its diet primarily on worms and insects, presented high d15N values. On the other hand d18O values mainly depends by geographical/diet factors whereas dD values are

  18. The effect of varying protein levels on blood chemistry, food consumption, and behavior of captive seaducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells-Berlin, A. M.; Perry, M.C.; Olsen, Glenn H.

    2005-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay is a primary wintering area for scoters and the long-tailed ducks (Clangia hyemalis) that migrate along the Atlantic Flyway. Recently, the Chesapeake Bay had undergone an ecosystem shift and little is known about how this is affecting the seaduck populations. We are determining what are the preferred food sources of the seaducks wintering on the Bay and analyzing the factors influencing prey selection whether it is prey composition, energy assimilated, prey availability, or a combination of any or all of these factors. We have established a captive colony of surf (Melanitta perspicillata) and white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca) as well as long-tailed ducks at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to allow us to examine these factors in a more controlled environment. This project contains a multitude of experiments and the resultant data will be compiled into a compartmental model on the feeding ecology of seaducks wintering on the Bay. The first experiment entailed feeding groups of each species (four ducks per pen of equal sex ratio, if possible, and four pens per species) three diets varying in percent protein levels from November to February. Each diet was randomly assigned to each pen and the amount of food consumed was recorded each day. New feed was given when all existing food was consumed. Behavioral trials and blood profiles were completed on all study birds to determine the effects of the varying diets. There were no significant differences in food consumption, blood chemistry, and behavior detected at the 5% level among the diets for all three species of interest. There was a seasonal effect determined based on the food consumption data for white-winged scoters, but not for surf scoters or long-tailed ducks. The blood profiles of the surf scoters were compared to blood profiles of wild surf scoters and a there was no difference detected at the 5% level. As a health check of the ducks an aspergillosis test was run on the blood obtained

  19. Effects of predation by sea ducks on clam abundance in soft-bottom intertidal habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tyler; Esler, Daniel N.; Boyd, W. Sean

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have documented strong, top-down predation effects of sea ducks on mussel populations in rocky intertidal communities. However, the impact of these gregarious predators in soft-bottom communities has been largely unexplored. We evaluated effects of predation by wintering surf scoters Melanitta perspicillata and white-winged scoters M. fusca on clam populations in soft-bottom intertidal habitats of the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Specifically, we documented spatial and temporal variation in clam density (clams m–2), scoter diet composition, and the consequences of scoter predation on clam abundance. Of the 3 most numerous clams, Manila clams Venerupis philippinarum and varnish clams Nuttallia obscurata were the primary prey items of both scoter species, while clams of the genus Macoma were rarely consumed by scoters. Between scoter arrival in the fall and departure in the spring, Manila clams decreased in density at most sample sites, while varnish clam densities did not change or declined slightly. Our estimates of numbers of clams consumed by scoters accounted for most of the observed declines in combined abundance of Manila and varnish clams, despite the presence of numerous other vertebrate and invertebrate species known to consume clams. For Macoma spp., we detected an over-winter increase in density, presumably due to growth of clams too small to be retained by our sieve (<5 mm) during fall sampling, in addition to the lack of predation pressure by scoters. These results illustrate the strong predation potential of scoters in soft-bottom intertidal habitats, as well as their potentially important role in shaping community structure.

  20. Baseline glucocorticoids are drivers of body mass gain in a diving seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennin, Holly; Berlin, Alicia; Love, Oliver P.

    2016-01-01

    Life-history trade-offs are influenced by variation in individual state, with individuals in better condition often completing life-history stages with greater success. Although resource accrual significantly impacts key life-history decisions such as the timing of reproduction, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving resource accumulation. Baseline corticosterone (CORT, the primary avian glucocorticoid) mediates daily and seasonal energetics, responds to changes in food availability, and has been linked to foraging behavior, making it a strong potential driver of individual variation in resource accrual and deposition. Working with a captive colony of white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca deglandi), we aimed to causally determine whether variation in baseline CORT drives individual body mass gains mediated through fattening rate (plasma triglycerides corrected for body mass). We implanted individuals with each of three treatment pellets to elevate CORT within a baseline range in a randomized order: control, low dose of CORT, high dose of CORT, then blood sampled and recorded body mass over a two-week period to track changes in baseline CORT, body mass, and fattening rates. The high CORT treatment significantly elevated levels of plasma hormone for a short period of time within the biologically relevant, baseline range for this species, but importantly did not inhibit the function of the HPA (hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal) axis. Furthermore, an elevation in baseline CORT resulted in a consistent increase in body mass throughout the trial period compared to controls. This is some of the first empirical evidence demonstrating that elevations of baseline CORT within a biologically relevant range have a causal, direct, and positive influence on changes in body mass.

  1. Evaluation of harvest and information needs for North American sea ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneff, Mark D; Zimmerman, Guthrie S; Dwyer, Chris P; Fleming, Kathleen K; Padding, Paul I; Devers, Patrick K; Johnson, Fred A; Runge, Michael C; Roberts, Anthony J

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife managers routinely seek to establish sustainable limits of sport harvest or other regulated forms of take while confronted with considerable uncertainty. A growing body of ecological research focuses on methods to describe and account for uncertainty in management decision-making and to prioritize research and monitoring investments to reduce the most influential uncertainties. We used simulation methods incorporating measures of demographic uncertainty to evaluate risk of overharvest and prioritize information needs for North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini). Sea ducks are popular game birds in North America, yet they are poorly monitored and their population dynamics are poorly understood relative to other North American waterfowl. There have been few attempts to assess the sustainability of harvest of North American sea ducks, and no formal harvest strategy exists in the U.S. or Canada to guide management. The popularity of sea duck hunting, extended hunting opportunity for some populations (i.e., special seasons and/or bag limits), and population declines have led to concern about potential overharvest. We used Monte Carlo simulation to contrast estimates of allowable harvest and observed harvest and assess risk of overharvest for 7 populations of North American sea ducks: the American subspecies of common eider (Somateria mollissima dresseri), eastern and western populations of black scoter (Melanitta americana) and surf scoter (M. perspicillata), and continental populations of white-winged scoter (M. fusca) and long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis). We combined information from empirical studies and the opinions of experts through formal elicitation to create probability distributions reflecting uncertainty in the individual demographic parameters used in this assessment. Estimates of maximum growth (rmax), and therefore of allowable harvest, were highly uncertain for all populations. Long-tailed duck and American common eider appeared to be at high

  2. Gut content analysis of Lake Michigan waterbirds in years with avian botulism type E mortality, 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essian, David A.; Chipault, Jennifer G.; Lafrancois, Brenda M.; Leonard, Jill B.K.

    2016-01-01

    Waterbird die-offs caused by Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E) have occurred sporadically in the Great Lakes since the late 1960s, with a recent pulse starting in the late 1990s. In recent die-offs, round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus) have been implicated as vectors for the transfer of BoNT/E to fish-eating birds due to the round goby invasion history and their importance as prey. Dreissenid mussels (Dreissena spp.) are also potentially involved in BoNT/E transmission to birds and round gobies. We examined gut contents of waterbirds collected in Lake Michigan during die-offs in 2010–2012, and the gut contents of culled, presumably BoNT/E-free double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus). Round gobies were found in 86% of the BoNT/E-positive individuals, 84% of the BoNT/E-negative birds, and 94% of the BoNT/E-free cormorants examined. Double-crested cormorants, ring-billed gulls (Larus delewarensis), and common loons (Gavia immer) consumed larger-sized round gobies than horned and red-necked grebes (Podiceps auritus and Podiceps grisegena), white-winged scoters (Melanitta deglandi), and long-tailed ducks (Clangula hymealis). Other common prey included dreissenid mussels, terrestrial insects, and alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus). Our data emphasize the importance of round gobies and mussels in diets of Lake Michigan waterbirds and suggest they may play a role in the transfer of BoNT/E to waterbirds; however, round gobies and mussels were found in BoNT/E-positive, -negative, and -free individuals, suggesting that other factors, such as alternative trophic pathways for toxin transfer, bird migratory timing and feeding locations, prey behavior, and individual physiological differences across birds may affect the likelihood that a bird will succumb to BoNT/E intoxication.

  3. Longwing (Heliconius) butterflies combine a restricted set of pigmentary and structural coloration mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilts, Bodo D; Vey, Aidan J M; Briscoe, Adriana D; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2017-11-21

    Longwing butterflies, Heliconius sp., also called heliconians, are striking examples of diversity and mimicry in butterflies. Heliconians feature strongly colored patterns on their wings, arising from wing scales colored by pigments and/or nanostructures, which serve as an aposematic signal. Here, we investigate the coloration mechanisms among several species of Heliconius by applying scanning electron microscopy, (micro)spectrophotometry, and imaging scatterometry. We identify seven kinds of colored scales within Heliconius whose coloration is derived from pigments, nanostructures or both. In yellow-, orange- and red-colored wing patches, both cover and ground scales contain wavelength-selective absorbing pigments, 3-OH-kynurenine, xanthommatin and/or dihydroxanthommatin. In blue wing patches, the cover scales are blue either due to interference of light in the thin-film lower lamina (e.g., H. doris) or in the multilayered lamellae in the scale ridges (so-called ridge reflectors, e.g., H. sara and H. erato); the underlying ground scales are black. In the white wing patches, both cover and ground scales are blue due to their thin-film lower lamina, but because they are stacked upon each other and at the wing substrate, a faint bluish to white color results. Lastly, green wing patches (H. doris) have cover scales with blue-reflecting thin films and short-wavelength absorbing 3-OH-kynurenine, together causing a green color. The pigmentary and structural traits are discussed in relation to their phylogenetic distribution and the evolution of vision in this highly interesting clade of butterflies.

  4. Environmental data for the White Oak Creek/White Oak Lake watershed: Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 2779

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, C.B.; Loar, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, which drains approximately 16.8 km 2 (6.5 mile 2 ). The waters of WOC are impounded by White Oak Dam at WOC's intersection with White Wing Road (State Route 95), 1.0 km (0.6 mile) upstream from the Clinch River. The resulting White Oak Lake (WOL) is a small, shallow impoundment, whose water level is controlled by a vertical sluice gate that remains in a fixed position during normal operations. White Oak Creek has been utilized for the discharge of treated and untreated wastes from routine operations since the Laboratory's inception. In addition, most of the more recent (1954 to date) liquid and solid low-level-waste disposal operations have been located in the drainage area of WOC. As a federally owned facility, ORNL is required to comply with all existing federal, state, and local environmental regulations regarding waste management. On July 15, 1985, the US Environmental Protection Agency published final rules to incorporate changes in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 that resulted from the passage of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984. As a part of the rule changes, a new Sect. 3004(u) was added. The new section requires that any facility permit issued after November 8, 1984, include planned corrective actions for all continuing releases of hazardous waste or constituents from any disposal unit at the facility, regardless of when the waste was placed at the disposal unit. This report was prepared to compile existing information on the content and quantity of hazardous substances (both radioactive and nonradioactive) in the WOC/WOL watershed and to provide background information on the geology, hydrology, and ecology of the site for use in planning future remedial actions. 109 refs., 45 figs., 33 tabs

  5. Baseline glucocorticoids are drivers of body mass gain in a diving seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennin, Holly L; Wells-Berlin, Alicia M; Love, Oliver P

    2016-03-01

    Life-history trade-offs are influenced by variation in individual state, with individuals in better condition often completing life-history stages with greater success. Although resource accrual significantly impacts key life-history decisions such as the timing of reproduction, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving resource accumulation. Baseline corticosterone (CORT, the primary avian glucocorticoid) mediates daily and seasonal energetics, responds to changes in food availability, and has been linked to foraging behavior, making it a strong potential driver of individual variation in resource accrual and deposition. Working with a captive colony of white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca deglandi), we aimed to causally determine whether variation in baseline CORT drives individual body mass gains mediated through fattening rate (plasma triglycerides corrected for body mass). We implanted individuals with each of three treatment pellets to elevate CORT within a baseline range in a randomized order: control, low dose of CORT, high dose of CORT, then blood sampled and recorded body mass over a two-week period to track changes in baseline CORT, body mass, and fattening rates. The high CORT treatment significantly elevated levels of plasma hormone for a short period of time within the biologically relevant, baseline range for this species, but importantly did not inhibit the function of the HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis. Furthermore, an elevation in baseline CORT resulted in a consistent increase in body mass throughout the trial period compared to controls. This is some of the first empirical evidence demonstrating that elevations of baseline CORT within a biologically relevant range have a causal, direct, and positive influence on changes in body mass.

  6. Environmental data for the White Oak Creek/White Oak Lake watershed: Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 2779

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, C.B.; Loar, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, which drains approximately 16.8 km/sup 2/ (6.5 mile/sup 2/). The waters of WOC are impounded by White Oak Dam at WOC's intersection with White Wing Road (State Route 95), 1.0 km (0.6 mile) upstream from the Clinch River. The resulting White Oak Lake (WOL) is a small, shallow impoundment, whose water level is controlled by a vertical sluice gate that remains in a fixed position during normal operations. White Oak Creek has been utilized for the discharge of treated and untreated wastes from routine operations since the Laboratory's inception. In addition, most of the more recent (1954 to date) liquid and solid low-level-waste disposal operations have been located in the drainage area of WOC. As a federally owned facility, ORNL is required to comply with all existing federal, state, and local environmental regulations regarding waste management. On July 15, 1985, the US Environmental Protection Agency published final rules to incorporate changes in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 that resulted from the passage of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984. As a part of the rule changes, a new Sect. 3004(u) was added. The new section requires that any facility permit issued after November 8, 1984, include planned corrective actions for all continuing releases of hazardous waste or constituents from any disposal unit at the facility, regardless of when the waste was placed at the disposal unit. This report was prepared to compile existing information on the content and quantity of hazardous substances (both radioactive and nonradioactive) in the WOC/WOL watershed and to provide background information on the geology, hydrology, and ecology of the site for use in planning future remedial actions. 109 refs., 45 figs., 33 tabs.

  7. Distribution patterns of wintering sea ducks in relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation and local environmental characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipkin, Elise F.; Gardner, Beth; Gilbert, Andrew T.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Royle, J. Andrew; Silverman, Emily D.

    2010-01-01

    Twelve species of North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini) winter off the eastern coast of the United States and Canada. Yet, despite their seasonal proximity to urbanized areas in this region, there is limited information on patterns of wintering sea duck habitat use. It is difficult to gather information on sea ducks because of the relative inaccessibility of their offshore locations, their high degree of mobility, and their aggregated distributions. To characterize environmental conditions that affect wintering distributions, as well as their geographic ranges, we analyzed count data on five species of sea ducks (black scoters Melanitta nigra americana, surf scoters M. perspicillata, white-winged scoters M. fusca, common eiders Somateria mollissima, and long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis) that were collected during the Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey for ten years starting in the early 1990s. We modeled count data for each species within ten-nautical-mile linear survey segments using a zero-inflated negative binomial model that included four local-scale habitat covariates (sea surface temperature, mean bottom depth, maximum bottom slope, and a variable to indicate if the segment was in a bay or not), one broad-scale covariate (the North Atlantic Oscillation), and a temporal correlation component. Our results indicate that species distributions have strong latitudinal gradients and consistency in local habitat use. The North Atlantic Oscillation was the only environmental covariate that had a significant (but variable) effect on the expected count for all five species, suggesting that broad-scale climatic conditions may be directly or indirectly important to the distributions of wintering sea ducks. Our results provide critical information on species-habitat associations, elucidate the complicated relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation, sea surface temperature, and local sea duck abundances, and should be useful in assessing the impacts of climate

  8. Butterfly wing coloration studied with a novel imaging scatterometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavenga, Doekele

    2010-03-01

    Animal coloration functions for display or camouflage. Notably insects provide numerous examples of a rich variety of the applied optical mechanisms. For instance, many butterflies feature a distinct dichromatism, that is, the wing coloration of the male and the female differ substantially. The male Brimstone, Gonepteryx rhamni, has yellow wings that are strongly UV iridescent, but the female has white wings with low reflectance in the UV and a high reflectance in the visible wavelength range. In the Small White cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, the wing reflectance of the male is low in the UV and high at visible wavelengths, whereas the wing reflectance of the female is higher in the UV and lower in the visible. Pierid butterflies apply nanosized, strongly scattering beads to achieve their bright coloration. The male Pipevine Swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor, has dorsal wings with scales functioning as thin film gratings that exhibit polarized iridescence; the dorsal wings of the female are matte black. The polarized iridescence probably functions in intraspecific, sexual signaling, as has been demonstrated in Heliconius butterflies. An example of camouflage is the Green Hairstreak butterfly, Callophrys rubi, where photonic crystal domains exist in the ventral wing scales, resulting in a matte green color that well matches the color of plant leaves. The spectral reflection and polarization characteristics of biological tissues can be rapidly and with unprecedented detail assessed with a novel imaging scatterometer-spectrophotometer, built around an elliptical mirror [1]. Examples of butterfly and damselfly wings, bird feathers, and beetle cuticle will be presented. [4pt] [1] D.G. Stavenga, H.L. Leertouwer, P. Pirih, M.F. Wehling, Optics Express 17, 193-202 (2009)

  9. Incidência de pragas e doenças em agroecossistemas de café orgânico de agricultores familiares em Poço Fundo-MG Incidence of plagues and diseases in agroecossystems of organic coffee of familiar farmers in Poço Fundo-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Martins

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se determinar a incidência de pragas Leucoptera coffeella (GUÉRIN-MENÉVILLE, 1842 e Hypothenemus hampei (FERRARI, 1867 e doenças Hemileia vastatrix (BERK e BROOME, 1869 e Cercospora coffeicola (BERK e CURTIS, 1880, durante o período de janeiro de 2001 a dezembro de 2002, foram selecionados três agroecossistemas com produção de café orgânico conduzidos por agricultores familiares do município de Poço Fundo-MG. O agroecossistema I possui 2.200 pés da cultivar 'Catuaí Vermelho' em espaçamento 2,5 x 1,3 m (0,72 ha. O agroecossistema II possui 2.000 pés ('Catuaí Vermelho' em espaçamento 2,8 x 1,0 m (0,56 ha. O agroecossistema III possui 1.100 pés ('Icatu Amarelo' em espaçamento 3,0 x 0,9 m (0,36 ha. A determinação da incidência de L. coffeella, C. coffeicola e H. vastatrix foi realizada mediante levantamentos mensais. A determinação da infecção por C. coffeicola em frutos foi realizada nos meses de abril, maio e junho de 2001 e 2002. O levantamento da infestação por H. hampei foi realizado nos meses de janeiro a junho/julho de cada ano. Determinou-se que a infestação por L. coffeella ultrapassou 20% no terço superior (principalmente no período seco. A infestação por H. hampei atingiu o nível de dano somente no agroecossistema I, em 2001, e no agroecossistema III, em 2002. A infecção por H. vastatrix no agroecossistema III não atingiu nível de dano em conseqüência da tolerância da cultivar ('Icatu' à infecção por esse fungo; porém, nos agroecossistemas I e II ('Catuaí Vermelho', a infecção na lavoura ultrapassou o nível de 10% (principalmente no período seco. A infecção por C. coffeicola em folhas e frutos atingiu níveis elevados (período seco. A produtividade do agroecossistema I, em 2001, foi de 510 Kg ha-1 e, em 2002, de 2.340 Kg ha-1; no agroecossistema II, em 2001, foi de 420 Kg ha-1 e, em 2002, de 1.290 Kg ha-1; e, no agroecossistema III, foi praticamente zero, em 2001, e em

  10. Attaching transmitters to waterbirds using one versus two subcutaneous anchors: Retention and survival trade-offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tyler; Esler, Daniel N.; Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Dickson, Rian D.; Anderson, Eric M.; Evenson, Joseph R.; Hupp, Jerry; Flint, Paul L.

    2017-01-01

    A major challenge of wildlife telemetry is choosing an attachment technique that maximizes transmitter retention while minimizing negative side effects. For waterbirds, attachment of transmitters with subcutaneous anchors has been an effective and well-established technique, having been used on >40 species. This method was recently modified to include a second subcutaneous anchor, presumably increasing transmitter retention beyond that of single-anchor attachments. This putative benefit may be offset, however, by increased health risks related to additional incisions and subcutaneous protrusions. To test this potential trade-off, we attached radiotransmitters to molting and wintering surf (Melanitta perspicillata) and white-winged scoters (M. fusca) during 2008 and 2009 in Washington State and southeast Alaska, USA, using single- (121 scoters) and double-anchor (128 scoters) attachment techniques. We estimated daily probabilities of survival and radio retention for each group, this being apparent retention for wintering scoters because we could not differentiate shed transmitters from flighted emigration. For scoters during the flightless remigial molt, we found that addition of a second anchor increased cumulative retention probability (±SE) over a 49-day period from 0.69 ± 0.11 for single-anchor to 0.88 ± 0.07 for double-anchor attachments, while having no effect on survival. However, during winter, scoters with double-anchor attachments experienced no improvement in apparent retention, while having significantly lower survival during their first 14 days following transmitter attachment; of 15 mortalities during this period, 11 had 2 subcutaneous anchors. From day 15 onward, winter survival rates were nearly identical for single- versus double-anchor attachments, indicating that adverse effects of subcutaneous anchors were mainly limited to the 14-day postattachment period. Overall, given that the survival cost of adding a second subcutaneous anchor

  11. Evaluation of harvest and information needs for North American sea ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneff, Mark D.; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.; Dwyer, Chris P.; Fleming, Kathleen K.; Padding, Paul I.; Devers, Patrick K.; Johnson, Fred A.; Runge, Michael C.; Roberts, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife managers routinely seek to establish sustainable limits of sport harvest or other regulated forms of take while confronted with considerable uncertainty. A growing body of ecological research focuses on methods to describe and account for uncertainty in management decision-making and to prioritize research and monitoring investments to reduce the most influential uncertainties. We used simulation methods incorporating measures of demographic uncertainty to evaluate risk of overharvest and prioritize information needs for North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini). Sea ducks are popular game birds in North America, yet they are poorly monitored and their population dynamics are poorly understood relative to other North American waterfowl. There have been few attempts to assess the sustainability of harvest of North American sea ducks, and no formal harvest strategy exists in the U.S. or Canada to guide management. The popularity of sea duck hunting, extended hunting opportunity for some populations (i.e., special seasons and/or bag limits), and population declines have led to concern about potential overharvest. We used Monte Carlo simulation to contrast estimates of allowable harvest and observed harvest and assess risk of overharvest for 7 populations of North American sea ducks: the American subspecies of common eider (Somateria mollissima dresseri), eastern and western populations of black scoter (Melanitta americana) and surf scoter (M. perspicillata), and continental populations of white-winged scoter (M. fusca) and long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis). We combined information from empirical studies and the opinions of experts through formal elicitation to create probability distributions reflecting uncertainty in the individual demographic parameters used in this assessment. Estimates of maximum growth (rmax), and therefore of allowable harvest, were highly uncertain for all populations. Long-tailed duck and American common eider appeared to be at high

  12. Aksu-Zhabagly Nature Reserve's 90-anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy F. Kovshar

    2016-05-01

    whistling thrush (Myophonus caeruleus turcestanicus, paradise flycatcher (Terpsiphone paradisi leucogaster and several species of highland finches, including Eurasian crimson-winged finch (Rhodopechys sanguinea, white-winged snowfinch (Montifringilla nivalis alpicola and Brandt's mountain finch (Leucosticte brandti; reptiles – Ophisaurus apodus, Elape dione and Coluber rhodorhachis. 18 Vertebrate and 26 invertebrate species are listed in the Red Data Book of Kazakhstan. In the 90 years of its existence a huge research was carried out and the scientific staff of field biologists, botanists and zoologists were prepared (N.K. Karmysheva, V.V. Shevchenko, F.D. Shaposhnikov, V.D. Utekhin, A.F. Kovshar, A.A. Ivaschenko, B.M. Gubin, Yu.A. Grachyov, etc.. At the same time dozens of expeditions were working on this territory from several scientific institutions – institutes of botany and zoology (Alma-Ata, Tashkent, Leningrad, Kiev, botanical gardens (Moscow, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, All-Union Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (Moscow, All-Union Institute of Pharmacology (Moscow, Institute of Plant Protection (Alma-Ata, Zoological Museum of Moscow State University (Moscow, Palaeontological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of USSR and many others. As a result from the material collected on the territory of the nature reserve, more than 900 scientific works were published, including 11 issues of Proceedings of the nature reserve, published since 1948 till 2016.

  13. Evaluation of harvest and information needs for North American sea ducks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Koneff

    Full Text Available Wildlife managers routinely seek to establish sustainable limits of sport harvest or other regulated forms of take while confronted with considerable uncertainty. A growing body of ecological research focuses on methods to describe and account for uncertainty in management decision-making and to prioritize research and monitoring investments to reduce the most influential uncertainties. We used simulation methods incorporating measures of demographic uncertainty to evaluate risk of overharvest and prioritize information needs for North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini. Sea ducks are popular game birds in North America, yet they are poorly monitored and their population dynamics are poorly understood relative to other North American waterfowl. There have been few attempts to assess the sustainability of harvest of North American sea ducks, and no formal harvest strategy exists in the U.S. or Canada to guide management. The popularity of sea duck hunting, extended hunting opportunity for some populations (i.e., special seasons and/or bag limits, and population declines have led to concern about potential overharvest. We used Monte Carlo simulation to contrast estimates of allowable harvest and observed harvest and assess risk of overharvest for 7 populations of North American sea ducks: the American subspecies of common eider (Somateria mollissima dresseri, eastern and western populations of black scoter (Melanitta americana and surf scoter (M. perspicillata, and continental populations of white-winged scoter (M. fusca and long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis. We combined information from empirical studies and the opinions of experts through formal elicitation to create probability distributions reflecting uncertainty in the individual demographic parameters used in this assessment. Estimates of maximum growth (rmax, and therefore of allowable harvest, were highly uncertain for all populations. Long-tailed duck and American common eider appeared

  14. Pacific Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment (PaCSEA): aerial seabird and marine mammal surveys off northern California, Oregon, and Washington, 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Josh; Felis, Jonathan J.; Mason, John W.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    counted (19,033) with Common Murres (Uria aalge) representing the majority of individuals counted (70.4% of total). The remaining six most abundant taxa included: Surf/White-winged Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata/M. fusca; 4.8% of total), Herring/Thayer’s Gulls (Larus argentatus/L. thayeri; 3.8% of total), Cassin’s Auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus; 3.8% of total), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens; 3.7% of total), Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla; 2.0% of total), and Western Gulls (Larus occidentalis; 1.9% of total). During summer, five species comprised >95% of the total number of birds counted (17,063) with the majority comprised of Common Murres (54.1% of total) and Sooty Shearwaters (Puffinus griseus; 34.4% of total). The remaining most abundant three taxa included: Fork-tailed Storm-Petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 3.3% of total), Western Gulls (2.1% of total), and Leach’s Storm-Petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa; 1.1% of total). During fall, nine species comprised >85% of the total number of birds counted (23,376) with the majority comprised of Common Murres (50.0% of total) and Sooty Shearwaters (10.5% of total). The remaining seven taxa included Cassin’s Auklets (5.2% of total), Surf/White-winged Scoters (5.1% of total), Fork-tailed Storm-Petrels (3.8% of total), Red/Red-necked Phalaropes (Phalaropus fulicarius/P. lobatus; 3.2% of total), California Gulls (Larus californicus; 3.1% of total), Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis; 2.7% of total), and Sabine’s Gulls (Xema sabini; 2.2% of total). Throughout the entire PaCSEA survey area, average densities (± SE) at sea for all marine birds combined were similar between fall (23.7 ± 1.9 birds km-2) and winter (24.0 ± 1.9 birds km-2) and least during summer (16.3 ± 2.2 birds km-2). Marine bird densities at sea varied according to bathymetric domain and season. Throughout the entire PaCSEA study area average densities (± SE) for all marine birds combined were greatest over the inner-shelf domain