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Sample records for lowest adherence rates

  1. People In Sub-Saharan Africa Rate Their Health And Health Care Among Lowest In World

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    Deaton, Angus S.; Tortora, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The health of people in sub-Saharan Africa is a major global concern. However, data are weak, and little is known about how people in the region perceive their health or their health care. We used data from the Gallup World Poll in 2012 to document sub-Saharan Africans’ perceived health status, their satisfaction with health care, their contact with medical professionals, and the priority they attach to health care. In comparison to other regions of the world, sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest ratings for well-being and the lowest satisfaction with health care. It also has the second lowest perception of personal health, after only the former Soviet Union and its satellites. HIV prevalence is positively correlated with perceived improvements in health care in countries with high prevalence. This is consistent with an improvement in at least some health care services as a result of the largely aid-funded rollout of antiretroviral treatment. Even so, sub-Saharan Africans do not prioritize health care as a matter of policy, although donors are increasingly shifting their aid efforts in sub-Saharan Africa toward health. PMID:25715657

  2. People in sub-Saharan Africa rate their health and health care among the lowest in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Angus S; Tortora, Robert

    2015-03-01

    The health of people in sub-Saharan Africa is a major global concern. However, data are weak, and little is known about how people in the region perceive their health or their health care. We used data from the Gallup World Poll in 2012 to document sub-Saharan Africans' perceived health status, their satisfaction with health care, their contact with medical professionals, and the priority they attach to health care. In comparison to other regions of the world, sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest ratings for well-being and the lowest satisfaction with health care. It also has the second-lowest perception of personal health, after only the former Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellites. HIV prevalence is positively correlated with perceived improvements in health care in countries with high prevalence. This is consistent with an improvement in at least some health care services as a result of the largely aid-funded rollout of antiretroviral treatment. Even so, sub-Saharan Africans do not prioritize health care as a matter of policy, although donors are increasingly shifting their aid efforts in the region toward health. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. Mediterranean diet adherence rates in Sicily, southern Italy.

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    Grosso, Giuseppe; Marventano, Stefano; Giorgianni, Gabriele; Raciti, Teodoro; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    To assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet and nutrient intakes in a population of Sicily, southern Italy and to evaluate possible determinants, particularly socio-cultural and lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional. Urban and rural areas of eastern Sicily. Between May 2009 and December 2010, 3090 adults were randomly recruited through the collaboration of fourteen general practitioners. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was measured by the MedDietScore. Nutrient intakes were assessed through the 24 h recall of the previous day's dietary intake. Rural participants were barely more adherent to the Mediterranean diet than their urban counterparts (mean scores were 27·8 and 27·2, respectively, P = 0·037). The MedDietScore was correlated with intakes of MUFA, fibre and vitamin C, as well as with consumption of non-refined cereals, vegetables, fruit, meat, dairy products, alcohol and nuts. Regression analysis revealed that older and more educated people were more likely to be in the highest tertile of MedDietScore (OR = 1.90; 95 % CI 1·39, 2·59 and OR = 1·29; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·58, respectively). A significant difference in quantity (moderate) and quality (red wine and beer) of alcohol was found according to adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Finally, more active participants were 1·5 times more likely to form part of the high-adherence group. A slow but concrete moving away from traditional patterns has been observed in younger people and low educated people. Public health interventions should focus on these target populations in order to improve the quality of their diet.

  4. Evaluation of an integrated adherence program aimed to increase Medicare Part D star rating measures.

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    Leslie, R Scott; Tirado, Breanne; Patel, Bimal V; Rein, Philip J

    2014-12-01

    The Centers for Medicare Medicaid Services (CMS) Plan Quality and Performance Program, or Star Ratings Program, allows Medicare beneficiaries to compare quality of care among available Medicare Advantage prescription drug (MA-PD) plans and stand-alone prescription drug plans (PDPs). Health plans have increased intervention efforts and applied existing care management infrastructure as an approach to improving member medication adherence and subsequent Part D star rating performance. Independent Care Health Plan (iCare), an MA-PD plan; MedImpact Healthcare Systems, Inc. (MedImpact), a pharmacy benefits manager; and US MED, a mail order pharmacy, partnered to engage and enroll iCare's dual-eligible special needs population in an intervention designed to improve patient medication adherence and health plan performance for 3 Part D patient safety outcome measures: Medication Adherence for Oral Diabetes Medications (ODM), Medication Adherence for Hypertension (HTN), and Medication Adherence for Cholesterol (CHOL). To (a) assess the effectiveness of a coordinated member-directed medication adherence intervention and (b) determine the overall impact of the intervention on adherence rates and CMS Part D star rating adherence measures.  Administrative pharmacy claims and health plan eligibility data from MedImpact's databases were used to identify members using 3 target medication classes. Adherence was estimated by the proportion of days covered (PDC) for all members. Those members considered at high risk for nonadherence were prioritized for care management services. Risk factors were based on members' use of more than 1 target medication class, newly started therapy, and suboptimal adherence (PDC  less than  80%) in the most recent 6-month period. Data files listing member adherence rates and contact information were formatted and loaded monthly into iCare's care management system, which triggered an alert for care coordinators to counsel members on the importance

  5. Adherence to Vaginal Dilation Following High Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Endometrial Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Lois C.; Abdallah, Rita; Schluchter, Mark; Panneerselvam, Ashok; Kunos, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We report demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors associated with adherence to vaginal dilation and describe the sexual and marital or nonmarital dyadic functioning of women following high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively evaluated women aged 18 years or older in whom early-stage endometrial (IAgr3-IIB) cancers were treated by HDR intravaginal brachytherapy within the past 3.5 years. Women with or without a sexual partner were eligible. Patients completed questionnaires by mail or by telephone assessing demographic and clinical variables, adherence to vaginal dilation, dyadic satisfaction, sexual functioning, and health beliefs. Results: Seventy-eight of 89 (88%) eligible women with early-stage endometrial cancer treated with HDR brachytherapy completed questionnaires. Only 33% of patients were adherers, based on reporting having used a dilator more than two times per week in the first month following radiation. Nonadherers who reported a perceived change in vaginal dimension following radiation reported that their vaginas were subjectively smaller after brachytherapy (p = 0.013). Adherers reported more worry about their sex lives or lack thereof than nonadherers (p = 0.047). Patients reported considerable sexual dysfunction following completion of HDR brachytherapy. Conclusions: Adherence to recommendations for vaginal dilator use following HDR brachytherapy for endometrial cancer is poor. Interventions designed to educate women about dilator use benefit may increase adherence. Although sexual functioning was compromised, it is likely that this existed before having cancer for many women in our study.

  6. Self-reported adherence rates in glaucoma patients in Southwest Nigeria

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    Adeola Olukorede Onakoya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Nigerian glaucoma patients have an aversion to surgery and often rely on medical therapy to prevent disease progression. For medical therapy to be effective, the drugs have to be used as prescribed. Compliance has been reported to be low in the previous Nigerian studies. Aims: To evaluate the adherence rates of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG patients on medical therapy using patient self-report. Settings and Design: A hospital-based cross-sectional design was used to assess consecutive POAG patients attending a glaucoma clinic in a Tertiary Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Self-reported adherence was evaluated by trained interviewers. Comprehensive clinical assessment including intraocular pressure, gonioscopy, visual field assessment, and dilated binocular funduscopy using the slit lamp and + 78D fundus lens was done. Statistical Analysis Used: Data analysis was done using MedCalc Statistical Software. Results: One hundred and fourteen patients reported adherence rates ranging from 10% to 100% with a mean adherence rate of 82.33% ± 19.25%. Only 31 respondents (27.2% reported 100% adherence. Duration of the disease was the only significant factor on multiple regression analysis. Conclusions: The development of strategies to improve compliance and persistence in glaucoma patients is crucial for the reduction of disease progression and blindness.

  7. The Role of Occupational Voice Demand and Patient-Rated Impairment in Predicting Voice Therapy Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersole, Barbara; Soni, Resha S; Moran, Kathleen; Lango, Miriam; Devarajan, Karthik; Jamal, Nausheen

    2018-05-01

    Examine the relationship among the severity of patient-perceived voice impairment, perceptual dysphonia severity, occupational voice demand, and voice therapy adherence. Identify clinical predictors of increased risk for therapy nonadherence. A retrospective cohort study of patients presenting with a chief complaint of persistent dysphonia at an interdisciplinary voice center was done. The Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) and the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) survey scores, clinician rating of dysphonia severity using the Grade score from the Grade, Roughness Breathiness, Asthenia, and Strain scale, occupational voice demand, and patient demographics were tested for associations with therapy adherence, defined as completion of the treatment plan. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis was performed to establish thresholds for nonadherence risk. Of 166 patients evaluated, 111 were recommended for voice therapy. The therapy nonadherence rate was 56%. Occupational voice demand category, VHI-10, and V-RQOL scores were the only factors significantly correlated with therapy adherence (P demand are significantly more likely to be nonadherent with therapy than those with high occupational voice demand (P 40 is a significant cutoff point for predicting therapy nonadherence (P demand and patient perception of impairment are significantly and independently correlated with therapy adherence. A VHI-10 score of ≤9 or a V-RQOL score of >40 is a significant cutoff point for predicting nonadherence risk. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development and Initial Validation of a Client-Rated MET-CBT Adherence Measure

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    Wendy R. Ulaszek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional mechanisms for rating adherence or fidelity are labor-intensive. We developed and validated a tool to rate adherence to Motivational Enhancement Therapy–-Cognitive Behavioral Treatment (MET-CBT through anonymous client surveys. The instrument was used to survey clients in 3 methadone programs over 2 waves. Explanatory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses were used to establish construct validity for both MET and CBT. Internal consistency based on Cronbach's alpha was within adequate range (α > 0.70 for all but 2 of the subscales in one of the samples. Consensus between clients’ ratings (r wg(j scores were in the range of 0.6 and higher, indicating a moderate to strong degree of agreement among clients’ ratings of the same counselor. These results suggest that client surveys could be used to measure adherence to MET-CBT for quality monitoring that is more objective than counselor self-report and less resource-intensive than supervisor review of taped sessions. However, additional work is needed to develop this scale.

  9. Eradication rate of Helicobacter Pylori infection is directly influenced by adherence to therapy in children.

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    Kotilea, Kallirroi; Mekhael, Joyce; Salame, Assaad; Mahler, Tania; Miendje-Deyi, Veronique Yvette; Cadranel, Samy; Bontems, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    Current commonly accepted strategies to eradicate Helicobacter pylori in children are a 10-day sequential treatment or a triple therapy for 7-14 days. To avoid further expensive and possibly risky investigations as well as induction of secondary antimicrobial resistance, a success rate of elimination strategies over 90% in a per-protocol analysis is the target goal but rates observed in clinical trials are lower. Antimicrobial resistance is a well-recognized risk factor for treatment failure; therefore, only a treatment tailored to susceptibility testing should be recommended. Adherence to therapy is also a risk factor for treatment failure but that has been poorly studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of adherence to therapy on the elimination rates obtained with different treatment regimens. Cohort study analysis of children, aged 2-17 years, treated for Helicobacter pylori infection between October 2011 and December 2013. As a routine clinical practice, children infected with a strain susceptible to clarithromycin and to metronidazole received either a sequential regimen or a 10-day triple therapy while children infected with a strain resistant to clarithromycin or metronidazole received a 10-day triple regimen tailored to antimicrobial susceptibility. The eradication rate was assessed by a negative 13 C-urea breath test performed at least 8 weeks after the end of the treatment and adherence evaluated using a diary. One hundred forty-five children (67 girls/78 boys, median age 9.7 years) fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 118 being infected with a strain susceptible to both clarithromycin and metronidazole, 10 with a clarithromycin resistant, and 17 with a metronidazole resistant strain. A sequential regimen was prescribed in 44, a triple therapy containing clarithromycin in 84 and containing metronidazole in 17. Follow-up data were available for 130/145 and clearance of the infection observed in 105 of them. A concordance of more than

  10. Adherence rates to ferric citrate as compared to active control in patients with end stage kidney disease on dialysis.

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    Jalal, Diana; McFadden, Molly; Dwyer, Jamie P; Umanath, Kausik; Aguilar, Erwin; Yagil, Yoram; Greco, Barbara; Sika, Mohammed; Lewis, Julia B; Greene, Tom; Goral, Simin

    2017-04-01

    Oral phosphate binders are the main stay of treatment of hyperphosphatemia. Adherence rates to ferric citrate, a recently approved phosphate binder, are unknown. We conducted a post-hoc analysis to evaluate whether adherence rates were different for ferric citrate vs. active control in 412 subjects with end stage kidney disease (ESKD) who were randomized to ferric citrate vs. active control (sevelamer carbonate and/or calcium acetate). Adherence was defined as percent of actual number of pills taken to total number of pills prescribed. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics including gender, race/ethnicity, and age between the ferric citrate and active control groups. Baseline phosphorus, calcium, and parathyroid hormone levels were similar. Mean (SD) adherence was 81.4% (17.4) and 81.7% (15.9) in the ferric citrate and active control groups, respectively (P = 0.88). Adherence remained similar between both groups after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, age, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and diabetic nephropathy (mean [95% CI]: 81.4% [78.2, 84.6] and 81.5% [77.7, 85.2] for ferric citrate and active control, respectively). Gender, race/ethnicity, age, and diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy did not influence adherence to the prescribed phosphate binder. Subjects with CVD had lower adherence rates to phosphate binder; this was significant only in the active control group. Adherence rates to the phosphate binder, ferric citrate, were similar to adherence rates to active control. Similar adherence rates to ferric citrate are notable since tolerance to active control was an entry criteria and the study was open label. Gender, race/ethnicity, nor age influenced adherence. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  11. Determining the variables associated to clean intermittent self-catheterization adherence rate: one-year follow-up study

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    Marcia Eli Girotti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine adherence rate and variables associate with patients' adherence to Clean Intermittent Self Catheterization (CISC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients refereed to CISC training program between July 2006 and May 2008, were prospectively evaluated with urodynamic, 3 days bladder diary (BD and WHOQoL-bref questionnaire. After training to perform CISC, patients were evaluated at 2 weeks, monthly for 6 months and at 12 months with clinical visits and BD. Patients were considered adherent if they were performing at least 80% of the initial recommendation. RESULTS: Sixty patients (50.4 ± 19.9 years old were trained to perform CISC (21 female and 39 male. Out of them, 30 (50% had neurogenic and 30 (50% had a non-neurogenic voiding dysfunction. The adherence rate at 6 and 12 months was 61.7%, 58%, respectively. Patients < 40 years old had adherence rate of 86%. Women and neurogenic patients had higher adherence rate than their counterparts (p = 0.024 and p = 0.016, respectively. In the WHOQoL-bref, patients that adhere to the program had a significant higher score on psychological and social relationships domains. There was not difference in pre and post training WHOQoL-bref scores. Educational background, marriage status, detrusor leak point pressure, Bladder Capacity, number of leakage episodes did not play a role on the adherence rate. CONCLUSION: Patients in CISC program present a reasonable adherence after one year. Women, neurogenic voiding dysfunction and patients under 40 years old were significantly more adherents. The psychological and social relationship status seems to positively interfere on adherence. CISC did not affect patient's QoL evaluated by WHOQoL-bref.

  12. Applying the Collaborative Study Psychotherapy Rating Scale to Rate Therapist Adherence in Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, Interpersonal Therapy, and Clinical Management.

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    Hill, Clara E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Studied adherence of therapists to behaviors specified in cognitive-behavior therapy, interpersonal therapy, and clinical management manuals. Rated therapist adherence in each of 4 sessions from 180 patients in treatment phase of National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program. Therapists exhibited more…

  13. Hispanics have the lowest stem cell transplant utilization rate for autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for multiple myeloma in the United States: A CIBMTR report.

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    Schriber, Jeffrey R; Hari, Parameswaran N; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Fei, Mingwei; Costa, Luciano J; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamad A; Angel-Diaz, Miguel; Gale, Robert P; Ganguly, Siddharatha; Girnius, Saulius K; Hashmi, Shahrukh; Pawarode, Attaphol; Vesole, David H; Wiernik, Peter H; Wirk, Baldeep M; Marks, David I; Nishihori, Taiga; Olsson, Richard F; Usmani, Saad Z; Mark, Tomer M; Nieto, Yago L; D'Souza, Anita

    2017-08-15

    Race/ethnicity remains an important barrier in clinical care. The authors investigated differences in the receipt of autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) among patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and outcomes based on race/ethnicity in the United States. The Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database was used to identify 28,450 patients who underwent AHCT for MM from 2008 through 2014. By using data from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 18 registries, the incidence of MM was calculated, and a stem cell transplantation utilization rate (STUR) was derived. Post-AHCT outcomes were analyzed among patients ages 18 to 75 years who underwent melphalan-conditioned peripheral cell grafts (N = 24,102). The STUR increased across all groups from 2008 to 2014. The increase was substantially lower among Hispanics (range, 8.6%-16.9%) and non-Hispanic blacks (range, 12.2%-20.5%) compared with non-Hispanic whites (range, 22.6%-37.8%). There were 18,046 non-Hispanic whites, 4123 non-Hispanic blacks, and 1933 Hispanic patients. The Hispanic group was younger (P blacks (42%) compared with non-Hispanic whites (56%). A Karnofsky score 3 were more common in non-Hispanic blacks compared with Hispanic and non-Hispanic whites (P blacks (54%) and non-Hispanic whites (52%; P blacks (45%) and non-Hispanic whites (44%) had a very good partial response or better before transplantation (P = .005). Race/ethnicity did not impact post-AHCT outcomes. Although the STUR increased, it remained low and was significantly lower among Hispanics followed by non-Hispanic blacks compared with non-Hispanic whites. Race/ethnicity did not impact transplantation outcomes. Efforts to increase the rates of transplantation for eligible patients who have MM, with an emphasis on groups that underuse transplantation, are warranted. Cancer 2017;123:3141-9. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  14. Is There an Association between STARD Statement Adherence and Citation Rate?

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    Dilauro, Marc; McInnes, Matthew D F; Korevaar, Daniël A; van der Pol, Christian B; Petrcich, William; Walther, Stefan; Quon, Jeffrey; Kurowecki, Darya; Bossuyt, Patrick M M

    2016-07-01

    Purpose To determine if adherence to the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) is associated with postpublication citation rates. Materials and Methods A comprehensive search of PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases was performed to identify published articles that have evaluated adherence of diagnostic accuracy studies to the STARD statement. These were included if the number of STARD items reported ("STARD result") could be obtained for each evaluated study. The date of publication, journal impact factor, and citation rate (citations per day) were extracted for the diagnostic accuracy studies. Univariate correlations were performed to identify any association between STARD result, impact factor, and citation rate. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to explore the effect of impact factor on postpublication citation rates. Results The authors were able to obtain the STARD results for 1002 "original" diagnostic accuracy studies from eight different "STARD evaluation" articles. The median impact factor was 3.97 (interquartile range [IQR]: 2.32-6.21), the median STARD result was 15 of 25 items (IQR: 12-18), and the median citation rate was 0.007 citations per day (IQR: 0.0032-0.017). The authors identified a weak positive correlation between STARD result and citation rate (r = 0.096; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.034, 0.157), a moderate positive correlation between impact factor and citation rate (r = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.535, 0.617), and a weak positive correlation between impact factor and STARD result (r = 0.13; 95% CI: 0.064, 0.186). Multivariate analysis accounting for journal clustering effects revealed that, when impact factor is partialed out, the positive correlation between citation rate and STARD result does not persist (r = 0.029; 95% CI: -0.033, 0.091). Conclusion There is a positive correlation between completeness of reporting, as evaluated with STARD, and citation rate as well as impact factor. When adjusted for

  15. Europe the continent with the lowest fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baird, D. T.; Collins, J.; Evers, J. L. H.; Leridon, H.; Lutz, W.; Velde, E. Te; Thevenon, O.; Crosignani, P. G.; Devroey, P.; Diedrich, K.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Fraser, L.; Geraedts, J. P. M.; Gianaroli, L.; Glasier, A.; Sunde, A.; Tarlatzis, B.; Van Steirteghem, A.; Veiga, A.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although fertility rates are falling in many countries, Europe is the continent with the lowest total fertility rate (TFR). This review assesses trends in fertility rates, explores possible health and social factors and reviews the impact of health and social interventions designed to

  16. [A lower adherence to Mediterranean diet is associated with a poorer self-rated health in university population].

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    Barrios-Vicedo, Ricardo; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria; García de la Hera, Manuela; González-Palacios, Sandra; Valera-Gran, Desirée; Checa-Sevilla, José Francisco; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Vioque, Jesús

    2014-09-15

    A higher adherence to Mediterranean diet is considered as a protective factor against the large number of deaths attributable to the main chronic degenerative diseases in developed countries. Self-rated health is established as a good indicator of population health status and as a predictor of mortality. Studies exploring the relationship between the adherence to Mediterranean diet and self-rated health are scarce, especially, in young adults. Our aim was to explore the factors related, specially the adherence to a priori-defined Mediterranean diet with self-rated health in a cohort of Spanish university students. We analyzed data from 1110 participants of Spanish DiSA-UMH (Dieta, Salud y Antropometría en universitarios de la Universidad Miguel Hernández) study. Diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and the adherence to Mediterranean diet was calculated using the relative Mediterranean Diet Score (rMED; score range: 0-18) according to the consumption of 9 dietary components. Self-rated health was gathered from the question: "In general, how do you consider your health to be? (Excellent, good, fair, poor, very poor). Information on sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics was also collected. Multinomial logistic regression (using relative risk ratio, RRR) was used to analyze the association between the adherence to Mediterranean diet (low rMED: 0-6 points; medium: 7-10 points; high: 11-18 points) and self-rated health (Excellent (reference), good and fair/ poor/very poor). A low, medium or high adherence to Mediterranean diet conformed to 26.8%, 58.7% and 14.4% of participants, which of them reported an excellent (23.1%), good (65.1%) and fair/poor or very poor health, respectively. In multivariate analysis, a lower adherence to Mediterranean diet was significantly (p. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors associated with high rates of antiretroviral medication adherence among youth living with perinatal HIV in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ezer; Delzell, Darcie A P; Chhabra, Manik; Oberdorfer, Peninnah

    2015-07-01

    Antiretroviral medication adherence behaviour among Thai youth with perinatal HIV in Thailand has received growing attention. However, few studies have examined individual predictors of antiretroviral adherence using multiple self-reports. A convenience sample of 89 Thai youth (interquartile range 14-16 years) with perinatal HIV at three paediatric programmes in Chiang Mai completed a structured questionnaire and reported their antiretroviral adherence in the past one, seven and 30 days using count-based recall and a visual analog scale. Mean self-reported adherence rates ranged from 83.5% (past 30 days) to 99.8% (yesterday) of the time. One-inflated beta regression models were used to examine the associations between antiretroviral adherence outcomes, treatment self-efficacy, depression, anxiety, social support and beliefs/attitudes about medications. Higher percentage of medications taken in the past 30 days was independently associated with higher treatment self-efficacy and fewer symptoms of depression. Adherence monitoring would benefit from focal assessment of youth depression and perceived capacity to follow their antiretroviral regimen. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Excited state redox properties of phthalocyanines: influence of the axial ligand on the rates of relaxation and electron-transfer quenching of the lowest /sup 3/. pi pi. /sup */ excited state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraudi, G J; Prasad, D R

    1874-01-01

    Laser flash excitations at 640 nm have been used to generate the transient spectra of the lowest-lying /sup 3/..pi pi../sup */ state of phthalocyaninatoruthenium(II) complexes. The properties of this excited state such as the properties of the maxima, lambda/sub max/ = 500 +/- 30 nm, and lifetimes, t/sub 1/2/ = 70-4500 ns, exhibit a large dependence on the electron-accepting and electron-withdrawing tendencies of the axial ligands. A similar influence was observed upon the rate of electron-transfer quenching of the /sup 3/..pi pi../sup */ state. Values between 10/sup 6/ and 10/sup 7/ dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ for the self-exchange rate constant have been obtained, according to Marcus-Hush theoretical treatments, for (Ru(pc.)LL')/sup +//(/sup 3/..pi pi../sup */)(Ru(pc)LL') (L and L' = neutral axial ligands; pc = phthalocyaninate (2-)) and isoelectronic cobalt(III) and rhodium(III) couples. The redox properties of the ground and excited states are correlated with axial ligand-induced perturbations of the electronic structure.

  19. Adherence to Behavioral Interventions for Stress Incontinence: Rates, Barriers, and Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, Kathryn L.; Goode, Patricia S.; Ye, Wen; Weidner, Alison C.; Lukacz, Emily S.; Jelovsek, John-Eric; Bradley, Catherine S.; Schaffer, Joseph; Hsu, Yvonne; Kenton, Kimberly; Spino, Cathie

    2013-01-01

    Background First-line conservative treatment for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women is behavioral intervention, including pelvic-floor muscle (PFM) exercise and bladder control strategies. Objective The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe adherence and barriers to exercise and bladder control strategy adherence and (2) to identify predictors of exercise adherence. Design This study was a planned secondary analysis of data from a multisite, randomized trial comparing intravaginal continence pessary, multicomponent behavioral therapy, and combined therapy in women with stress-predominant urinary incontinence (UI). Methods Data were analyzed from the groups who received behavioral intervention alone (n=146) or combined with continence pessary therapy (n=150). Adherence was measured during supervised treatment and at 3, 6, and 12 months post-randomization. Barriers to adherence were surveyed during treatment and at the 3-month time point. Regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of exercise adherence during supervised treatment and at the 3- and 12-month time points. Results During supervised treatment, ≥86% of the women exercised ≥5 days a week, and ≥80% performed at least 30 contractions on days they exercised. At 3, 6, and 12 months post-randomization, 95%, 88%, and 80% of women, respectively, indicated they were still performing PFM exercises. During supervised treatment and at 3 months post-randomization, ≥87% of the women reported using learned bladder control strategies to prevent SUI. In addition, the majority endorsed at least one barrier to PFM exercise, most commonly “trouble remembering to do exercises.” Predictors of exercise adherence changed over time. During supervised intervention, less frequent baseline UI and higher baseline 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) mental scores predicted exercise adherence. At 3 months post-randomization, women who dropped out of the study had weaker PFMs at baseline. At

  20. Improved Adherence Rates and Clinical Outcomes of an Integrated, Closed-Loop, Pharmacist-Led Oral Chemotherapy Management Program.

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    Muluneh, Benyam; Schneider, Molly; Faso, Aimee; Amerine, Lindsey; Daniels, Rowell; Crisp, Brett; Valgus, John; Savage, Scott

    2018-06-01

    To address the growing use of oral anticancer therapy, an integrated, closed-loop, pharmacist-led oral chemotherapy management program was created within an academic medical center. An integrated, closed-loop, pharmacy-led oral chemotherapy management program was established. From September 2014 until June 2015, demographic information, rates of adherence, patient understanding of treatment, pharmacist interventions, patient and provider satisfaction, and molecular response rates in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) were collected. After full implementation, 107 patients were enrolled in our oral chemotherapy management program from September 2014 until June 2015. All patients were educated before starting oral chemotherapy, and using pre- and postassessment tests, comprehension of oral chemotherapy treatment increased from 43% to 95%. Patient-reported adherence was 86% and 94.7% for the GI/breast and malignant hematology patient populations, respectively, and these were validated with medication possession ratio, revealing adherence rates of 85% and 93.9% for the GI/breast and malignant hematology patient populations, respectively. A total of 350 encounters with a clinical pharmacist and 318 adverse effects were reported, which led to 235 interventions. This program led to a higher major molecular response rate (83%) in our CML population compared with published clinical trials (average major molecular response rates, 40% and 60% with 1- and 2-year follow-up, respectively). An innovative model was developed and resulted in improved patient knowledge regarding oral chemotherapy, improved adherence rates that exceeded nationally established thresholds, and superior major molecular response outcomes for patients with CML compared with published literature. As a result, this model has produced the gold standard in managing patients receiving oral chemotherapy.

  1. The rate of adherence to urate-lowering therapy and associated factors in Chinese gout patients: a cross-sectional study.

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    Yin, Rulan; Cao, Haixia; Fu, Ting; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Liren; Gu, Zhifeng

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess adherence rate and predictors of non-adherence with urate-lowering therapy (ULT) in Chinese gout patients. A cross-sectional study was administered to 125 gout patients using the Compliance Questionnaire on Rheumatology (CQR) for adherence to ULT. Patients were asked to complete the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication version II, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Confidence in Gout Treatment Questionnaire, Gout Knowledge Questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. Data were analyzed by independent sample t test, rank sum test, Chi-square analysis as well as binary stepwise logistic regression modeling. The data showed that the rate of adherence (CQR ≥80%) to ULT was 9.6% in our investigated gout patients. Adherence was associated with functional capacity, gout-related knowledge, satisfaction with medication, confidence in gout treatment and mental components summary. Multivariable analysis of binary stepwise logistic regression identified gout-related knowledge and satisfaction of effectiveness with medication was the independent risk factors of medication non-adherence. Patients unaware of gout-related knowledge, or with low satisfaction of effectiveness with medication, were more likely not to adhere to ULT. Non-adherence to ULT among gout patients is exceedingly common, particularly in patients unaware of gout-related knowledge, or with low satisfaction of effectiveness with medication. These findings could help medical personnel develop useful interventions to improve gout patients' medication adherence.

  2. Introducing radiology report checklists among residents: adherence rates when suggesting versus requiring their use and early experience in improving accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Daniel K; Lin, Eaton; Silberzweig, James E; Kagetsu, Nolan J

    2014-03-01

    To retrospectively compare resident adherence to checklist-style structured reporting for maxillofacial computed tomography (CT) from the emergency department (when required vs. suggested between two programs). To compare radiology resident reporting accuracy before and after introduction of the structured report and assess its ability to decrease the rate of undetected pathology. We introduced a reporting checklist for maxillofacial CT into our dictation software without specific training, requiring it at one program and suggesting it at another. We quantified usage among residents and compared reporting accuracy, before and after counting and categorizing faculty addenda. There was no significant change in resident accuracy in the first few months, with residents acting as their own controls (directly comparing performance with and without the checklist). Adherence to the checklist at program A (where it originated and was required) was 85% of reports compared to 9% of reports at program B (where it was suggested). When using program B as a secondary control, there was no significant difference in resident accuracy with or without using the checklist (comparing different residents using the checklist to those not using the checklist). Our results suggest that there is no automatic value of checklists for improving radiology resident reporting accuracy. They also suggest the importance of focused training, checklist flexibility, and a period of adjustment to a new reporting style. Mandatory checklists were readily adopted by residents but not when simply suggested. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Adherence rates to the Mediterranean diet are low in a representative sample of Greek children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kontogianni, Meropi D; Vidra, Nikoletta; Farmaki, Anastasia-Eleni; Koinaki, Stella; Belogianni, Katerina; Sofrona, Stavroula; Magkanari, Flora; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Data from studies in pediatric samples exploring adherence to the Mediterranean diet are scarce. The aim of the present work was to explore adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern in a representative sample of Greek children and adolescents. The study sample (n = 1305, 3-18 y) was representative

  4. The rate and factors associated with non-adherence to surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy among breast cancer patients attending public hospitals in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Aishah Taib

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of breast cancer treatments in reducing recurrence and death has been established. However, the treatments side effects greatly impact on quality of life and little is known about the non-adherence rates. The purpose of this study was to determine the non-adherence rates to surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy, and factors that affect it in public hospitals in Malaysia. Methods: A multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted in six public hospitals involving all newly diagnosed breast cancer patients in 2012. Data were collected through medical record reviews and interview by using structured questionnaire. Non-adherence was categorized as any breast cancer patients refusing or discontinuing any treatment due to non-medical reasons. Univariable logistic regression and multiple logistic regressions were used for analysis. Results: A total of 340 breast cancer patients were included in the study. The proportion for non-adherence to surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy were 14%, 30.1%, 33.3% and 36.3% respectively. Factors associated with non-adherence to surgery were localities involving Kuala Lumpur (2 (OR: 3.41, Johor (OR: 8.38 and Kelantan (OR: 6.32, and those required mastectomy (OR: 5.66. No factors were found to be associated with non-adherence to chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy. These three treatment modalities were then combined as oncology therapy and the only independent factor associated with non-adherence to oncology therapy was Perak locality (OR: 1.42. Conclusion: Non-adherence to breast cancer treatments was high among breast cancer patients at public hospitals in Malaysia. Factors influencing non-adherence were locations and mastectomy implicating of socio-culture, body image issues, psychological disturbance and treatment navigation. Community educational programs focusing on correcting misconceptions, treatment outcomes and treatments’ side effects

  5. A Review of Recruitment, Adherence and Drop-Out Rates in Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Trials in Children and Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wurff, Inge; Meyer, Barbara; De Groot, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The influence of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) supplementation on health outcomes has been studied extensively with randomized controlled trials (RCT). In many research fields, difficulties with recruitment, adherence and high drop-out rates have been

  6. Assessment of eight HPV vaccination programs implemented in lowest income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Joël; Besson, Marie-Hélène; Hampshire, Rachel; Tapert, Lisa; Chirenje, Mike; Saba, Joseph

    2012-05-23

    Cervix cancer, preventable, continues to be the third most common cancer in women worldwide, especially in lowest income countries. Prophylactic HPV vaccination should help to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with cervical cancer. The purpose of the study was to describe the results of and key concerns in eight HPV vaccination programs conducted in seven lowest income countries through the Gardasil Access Program (GAP). The GAP provides free HPV vaccine to organizations and institutions in lowest income countries. The HPV vaccination programs were entirely developed, implemented and managed by local institutions. Institutions submitted application forms with institution characteristics, target population, communication delivery strategies. After completion of the vaccination campaign (3 doses), institutions provided a final project report with data on doses administered and vaccination models. Two indicators were calculated, the program vaccination coverage and adherence. Qualitative data were also collected in the following areas: government and community involvement; communication, and sensitization; training and logistics resources, and challenges. A total of eight programs were implemented in seven countries. The eight programs initially targeted a total of 87,580 girls, of which 76,983 received the full 3-dose vaccine course, with mean program vaccination coverage of 87.8%; the mean adherence between the first and third doses of vaccine was 90.9%. Three programs used school-based delivery models, 2 used health facility-based models, and 3 used mixed models that included schools and health facilities. Models that included school-based vaccination were most effective at reaching girls aged 9-13 years. Mixed models comprising school and health facility-based vaccination had better overall performance compared with models using just one of the methods. Increased rates of program coverage and adherence were positively correlated with the number of

  7. Assessment of eight HPV vaccination programs implemented in lowest income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladner Joël

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervix cancer, preventable, continues to be the third most common cancer in women worldwide, especially in lowest income countries. Prophylactic HPV vaccination should help to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with cervical cancer. The purpose of the study was to describe the results of and key concerns in eight HPV vaccination programs conducted in seven lowest income countries through the Gardasil Access Program (GAP. Methods The GAP provides free HPV vaccine to organizations and institutions in lowest income countries. The HPV vaccination programs were entirely developed, implemented and managed by local institutions. Institutions submitted application forms with institution characteristics, target population, communication delivery strategies. After completion of the vaccination campaign (3 doses, institutions provided a final project report with data on doses administered and vaccination models. Two indicators were calculated, the program vaccination coverage and adherence. Qualitative data were also collected in the following areas: government and community involvement; communication, and sensitization; training and logistics resources, and challenges. Results A total of eight programs were implemented in seven countries. The eight programs initially targeted a total of 87,580 girls, of which 76,983 received the full 3-dose vaccine course, with mean program vaccination coverage of 87.8%; the mean adherence between the first and third doses of vaccine was 90.9%. Three programs used school-based delivery models, 2 used health facility-based models, and 3 used mixed models that included schools and health facilities. Models that included school-based vaccination were most effective at reaching girls aged 9-13 years. Mixed models comprising school and health facility-based vaccination had better overall performance compared with models using just one of the methods. Increased rates of program coverage and

  8. The lowest surface brightness disc galaxy known

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.I.; Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of a galaxy with a prominent bulge and a dominant extremely low surface brightness disc component is reported. The profile of this galaxy is very similar to the recently discovered giant low surface brightness galaxy Malin 1. The disc central surface brightness is found to be ∼ 26.4 Rμ, some 1.5 mag fainter than Malin 1 and thus by far the lowest yet observed. (author)

  9. Transfer of Technology in Determining Lowest Achievable Emission Rate (LAER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  10. Determination of Lowest Achievable Emission Rate for Coors Container Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  11. The lowest Landau level in QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruckmann Falk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermodynamics of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD in external (electro-magnetic fields shows some unexpected features like inverse magnetic catalysis, which have been revealed mainly through lattice studies. Many effective descriptions, on the other hand, use Landau levels or approximate the system by just the lowest Landau level (LLL. Analyzing lattice configurations we ask whether such a picture is justified. We find the LLL to be separated from the rest by a spectral gap in the two-dimensional Dirac operator and analyze the corresponding LLL signature in four dimensions. We determine to what extent the quark condensate is LLL dominated at strong magnetic fields.

  12. Five features of value-based insurance design plans were associated with higher rates of medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Niteesh K; Fischer, Michael A; Smith, Benjamin F; Brill, Gregory; Girdish, Charmaine; Matlin, Olga S; Brennan, Troyen A; Avorn, Jerry; Shrank, William H

    2014-03-01

    Value-based insurance design (VBID) plans selectively lower cost sharing to increase medication adherence. Existing plans have been structured in a variety of ways, and these variations could influence the effectiveness of VBID plans. We evaluated seventy-six plans introduced by a large pharmacy benefit manager during 2007-10. We found that after we adjusted for the other features and baseline trends, VBID plans that were more generous, targeted high-risk patients, offered wellness programs, did not offer disease management programs, and made the benefit available only for medication ordered by mail had a significantly greater impact on adherence than plans without these features. The effects were as large as 4-5 percentage points. These findings can provide guidance for the structure of future VBID plans.

  13. Blueberry Galaxies: The Lowest Mass Young Starbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Wang, Junxian

    2017-09-01

    Searching for extreme emission line galaxies allows us to find low-mass metal-poor galaxies that are good analogs of high redshift Lyα emitting galaxies. These low-mass extreme emission line galaxies are also potential Lyman-continuum leakers. Finding them at very low redshifts (z≲ 0.05) allows us to be sensitive to even lower stellar masses and metallicities. We report on a sample of extreme emission line galaxies at z≲ 0.05 (blueberry galaxies). We selected them from SDSS broadband images on the basis of their broadband colors and studied their properties with MMT spectroscopy. From the entire SDSS DR12 photometric catalog, we found 51 photometric candidates. We spectroscopically confirm 40 as blueberry galaxies. (An additional seven candidates are contaminants, and four remain without spectra.) These blueberries are dwarf starburst galaxies with very small sizes (<1 kpc) and very high ionization ([O III]/[O II] ˜ 10-60). They also have some of the lowest stellar masses ({log}(M/{M}⊙ )˜ 6.5{--}7.5) and lowest metallicities (7.1< 12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})< 7.8) of starburst galaxies. Thus, they are small counterparts to green pea galaxies and high redshift Lyα emitting galaxies.

  14. Patient adherence with COPD therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Rand

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there are very few published studies on adherence to treatment regimens in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, the evidence that exists suggests that, as with asthma therapy, adherence is poor. Patient beliefs about COPD, as well as their motivation and expectations about the likelihood of success of medical interventions, can influence adherence rates. Other critical factors include the patient's understanding of their illness and therapy, and the complexity of the prescribed treatment regimen. Incorrect inhaler technique is also a common failing. When prescribing in primary or specialist care, healthcare professionals should address adherence as a vital part of the patient consultation. Improved patient education may also increase adherence rates.

  15. CHILDREN'S ADHERENCE TO HAART ADHERENCE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    han or equal IQ 2 log" and in 64% of children wirh smaller man 2 log,o decrease in viral load. Secondly, i caregivers are not well prepared for adherence issues before starting HAART, or if regimens are too onerous to follow, treatment is likely to fail. Every effort should be made to see the burden of adherence from the.

  16. Inguinal Hernia Repair Using Self-adhering Sutureless Mesh: Adhesix™: A 3-Year Follow-up with Low Chronic Pain and Recurrence Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Malek; Genser, Laurent; Bossi, Manuela; Barat, Maxime; Polliand, Claude; Carandina, Sergio; Barrat, Christophe

    2016-02-01

    To review our experience and outcomes after inguinal hernia repair using the lightweight self-adhering sutureless mesh "Adhesix™" and demonstrate the safety and efficacy of this mesh. This is a 3-year retrospective study that included 143 consecutive patients who underwent 149 inguinal hernia repairs at our department of surgery. All hernias were repaired using a modified Lichtenstein technique. Preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative data were prospectively collected. Incidence of chronic pain, postoperative complications, recurrence, and patient satisfaction were assessed three years postoperatively by conducting a telephone survey. We had 143 patients with a mean age of 58 years (17-84), who underwent 149 hernia repairs using the Adhesix™ mesh. Ninety-two per cent (131 patients) were males. Only 10 patients (7%) had a postoperative pain for more than three years. In our series, neither age nor gender was predictive of postoperative pain. Only one patient had a hematoma lasting for more than one month and only four patients (2.8%) had a recurrence of their hernia within three years of their initial surgery. Ninety per cent of the patient expressed their satisfaction when surveyed three years after their surgery. In conclusion, the use of the self-adhering sutureless mesh for inguinal hernia repair has been proving itself as effective as the traditional mesh. Adhesix™ is associated with low chronic pain rate, recurrence rate, and postoperative complications rate, and can be safely adopted as the sole technique for inguinal hernia repair.

  17. The exhibition to ozone diminishes the adherence and increases the membrane permeability of macrophages alveolar of rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.

    2000-01-01

    Ozone gas is generated photochemically in areas with high levels of automotive or industrial emissions, and causes irritation and inflammation of the airways if inhaled. Rat alveolar macrophages were obtained by lung lavage from male Sprague Dawley rats and used as a model to assess ozone induced cell damage (0,594 ppm for up to 60 minutes). Ozone exposure caused loss of cell adherence to a polystyrene substrate and increased membrane permeability, as noted by increases in specific 51 Cr release and citoplasmic calcium levels. The results indicate that the cell membrane is a target for ozone damage. Elevations of cytoplasmic calcium could mediate other macrophage responses to ozone , including eicosanoid and nitric oxide production, with concomitant decreases in phagocytic ability and superoxide production. (Author) [es

  18. Theoretical study of the lowest-lying electronic states of Aluminium monoiodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taher, F.; Kabbani, A.; Ani-El Houte, W.

    2004-01-01

    Full text.The spectroscopic study of Aluminium monohalides, especially the Aluminium monoiodide, is important for monitoring such species in high temperature fast-flow reactors. Theoretical calculations of AlI are not available, whereas several studies have been done for the other aluminium monohalides. In this work, CAS-SCF/MRCI calculations are performed for the lowest-lying electronic states of AlI in a range of internuclear distance between 2.30 A and 2.80 A. Ab-initio calculations have been effectuated by using the computational chemistry program Molpro. The basis set used in this study for aluminium atom is that used by Langhoff for aluminium monohalides, of contractions using atomic natural orbitals and a pseudopotential is used for iode. Accurate theoretical spectroscopic constants and potential curves are obtained for the ground state X 1 Σ + and the first excited states a 3 Π and A 1 Π. The calculated values of Te, ωe, ωexe and re of these states are compatible with the experimental results. An ordering of states is represented for the lowest five predicted singlet and lowest five predicted triplet states. These results provide a big support to determine the analogy in the ordering of the electronic states in AlF, AlBr and AlI respectively at lower energies. These theoretical results identify a set of electronic singlet and triplet states unobserved experimentally

  19. Measuring medication adherence in patients with incident hypertension: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Karen L; Quan, Hude; Rabi, Doreen M

    2017-02-13

    Though pharmacy claims data are commonly used to study medication adherence, there remains no standard operational definition for adherence especially for patients on multiple medications. Even when studies use the same terminology, the actual methods of calculating adherence can differ drastically. It is unclear whether the use of different definitions results in different conclusions regarding adherence and associated outcomes. The objective of our study was to compare adherence rates and associations with mortality using different operational definitions of adherence, and using various methods of handling concurrent medication use. We conducted a cohort study of patients aged ≥65 years from Manitoba, Canada, with incident hypertension diagnosed in 2004 and followed to 2009. We calculated adherence rates to anti-hypertensive medications using different operational definitions of medication adherence (including interval and prescription based medication possession ratios [MPR] and proportion of days covered [PDC]). For those on concurrent medications, we calculated adherence rates using the different methods of handling concurrent medication use, for each definition. We used logistic regression to determine the association between adherence and mortality for each operational definition. Among 2199 patients, 24.1% to 90.5% and 71.2% to 92.7% were considered adherent when using fixed interval and prescription-based interval medication possession ratios [MPRi and MPRp] respectively, depending on how concurrent medications were handled. Adherence was inversely associated with death, with the strongest association for MPRp measures. This association was significant only when considering adherence to any anti-hypertensive [aOR 0.70, 95% CI 0.51, 0.97], or when the mean of the class-specific MPRp's [adjusted OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.53, 0.95] was used. No significant association existed when the highest or lowest class-specific MPRp was used as the adherence estimate. The

  20. Adherence to the five moments for hand hygiene among intensive care professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luccas Melo de Souza

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify the adherence of health professionals of an intensive care unit to the five moments for hand hygiene. Method: cross-sectional analytical study with a quantitative approach, based on secondary data from a database of a hospital infection control service at an institution in southern Brazil. A total of 793 observations were analyzed from July to December 2012. Results: hand washing was not performed in 446 (56.2% of the observations, and the adherence rate was 43.7%. The greatest adherence to hand hygiene was among the physiotherapists (53.5% and the lowest adherence was among the nursing staff (29.2%. The indications with the lowest adherence rates to hand hygiene were "before touching the patient" (18.4% and "before aseptic procedure" (20.9%. Conclusion: we conclude that adherence to hand washing does not comply with the national and international guidelines, especially when we consider the current scenario of growing infections caused by multidrug-resistant microorganisms.

  1. A Practice-Based Evaluation of Distress Screening Protocol Adherence and Medical Service Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrack, Brad; Kayser, Karen; Bybee, Deborah; Padgett, Lynne; Sundstrom, Laura; Jobin, Chad; Oktay, Julianne

    2017-07-01

    Background: This study examined the extent to which cancer programs demonstrated adherence to their own prescribed screening protocol, and whether adherence to that protocol was associated with medical service utilization. The hypothesis is that higher rates of service utilization are associated with lower rates of adherence to screening protocols. Methods: Oncology social workers at Commission on Cancer-accredited cancer programs reviewed electronic health records (EHRs) in their respective cancer programs during a 2-month period in 2014. Rates of overall adherence to a prescribed distress screening protocol were calculated based on documentation in the EHR that screening adherence and an appropriate clinical response had occurred. We examined documentation of emergency department (ED) use and hospitalization within 2 months after the screening visit. Results: Review of 8,409 EHRs across 55 cancer centers indicated that the overall adherence rate to screening protocols was 62.7%. The highest rates of adherence were observed in Community Cancer Programs (76.3%) and the lowest rates were in NCI-designated Cancer Centers (43.3%). Rates of medical service utilization were significantly higher than expected when overall protocol adherence was lacking. After controlling for patient and institutional characteristics, risk ratios for ED use (0.82) and hospitalization (0.81) suggest that when overall protocol adherence was documented, 18% to 19% fewer patients used these medical services. Conclusions: The observed associations between a mandated psychosocial care protocol and medical service utilization suggest opportunities for operational efficiencies and costs savings. Further investigations of protocol integrity, as well as the clinical care models by which psychosocial care is delivered, are warranted. Copyright © 2017 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  2. Electromagnetic structure of the lowest-lying decuplet resonances in covariant chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, L. S.; Camalich, J. Martin; Vacas, M. J. Vicente

    2009-01-01

    We present a calculation of the leading SU(3)-breaking O(p 3 ) corrections to the electromagnetic moments and charge radius of the lowest-lying decuplet resonances in covariant chiral perturbation theory. In particular, the magnetic dipole moment of the members of the decuplet is predicted fixing the only low-energy constant (LEC) present up to this order with the well-measured magnetic dipole moment of the Ω - . We predict μ Δ ++ =6.04(13) and μ Δ + =2.84(2), which agree well with the current experimental information. For the electric quadrupole moment and the charge radius, we use state-of-the-art lattice QCD results to determine the corresponding LECs, whereas for the magnetic octupole moment there is no unknown LEC up to the order considered here, and we obtain a pure prediction. We compare our results with those reported in large N c , lattice QCD, heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory, and other models.

  3. Giant angular resonance and the structure of the lowest-lying nuclear states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, I.N.; Usmanov, P.N.; Yuldashbaeva, Eh.Kh.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis is given of the Hamiltonian of the two-rotor model, which is based on the assumption that the giant angular resonance exists, i.e. that it is possible to rotate the neutron component of a deformed nucleus as a whole with respect to the proton component. The realization of the projections on the intrinsic axes of the angular momentum operators is found, the Hamiltonian matrix is determined in the basis convenient for the case of strong neutron-proton coupling. The spectrum of the two-rotor model is determined taking into account the nondiagonal matrix elements in the lowest order of the perturbation theory. The g factors and the probabilities of the M1 transitions are discussed

  4. Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adherence to controller therapy in asthma is a major concern during the management of the disease. ... The adherence to asthma treatment was rated using Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. A ..... in an outpatient setting.

  5. Preliminary investigation of adherence to antiretroviral therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of HIV with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in declining morbidity and mortality rates from HIV-associated diseases, but concerns regarding access and adherence are growing. To determine the adherence level and the reasons for non-adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among ...

  6. EFFECT OF 3-YEARS ADHERENCE TO A LOW PROTEIN DIET ON THE PROGRESSION OF GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rizzetto

    2012-06-01

    There was no difference between diabetic and non-diabetic patients who adhered to the diet. Both groups showed improvement on GFR. In conclusion, these analyses suggest that a lower protein intake retards the progression of renal disease.

  7. Study on leakage rates of high temperature water from wet-type transport casks for spent fuel. Pt. 2. Leakage rates from a scratch on O-ring surface and narrow wires adhering to O-ring surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, R.; Aritomi, M.; Sudi, A.; Kohketsu, Y.

    1997-01-01

    A programme for enhancement of fuel burnup has been promoted in Japan as part of the sophisticated programme for light water reactors to reduce the fuel cost and the amount of spent fuel. As part of this fuel programme, a new wet-type transport cask has been developed to transport the high burnup fuels efficiently. The purpose of this work is to clarify the margin of safety in the evaluation of the release rate of radioactive materials from the wet-type transport cask into the environment and to establish a practical evaluation method for leakage rates on leak behaviour of high temperature water from the casks. In this paper, leakage rates of water under high pressures and at high temperatures are investigated from two kinds of leak path model. One is a disc with a scratch on the surface which simulates a defect on the seal surface of the O-ring flange and the other is narrow stainless steel wires installed on the O-ring surface which simulates hair adhering to the O-ring surface. From the results, an evaluation method for the leakage rate of water under high pressure and at high temperature from a non-circular leak path and multiple leak paths is proposed. (author)

  8. Resistance profiles and adherence at primary virological failure in three different highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens: analysis of failure rates in a randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røge, B T; Barfod, T S; Kirk, O

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the interplay between resistance and adherence in the virological failure of three fundamentally different highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 56 verified primary virological failures (viral load >400 HIV-1 RNA...... copies/mL) among 293 patients randomized to two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)+ritonavir+saquinavir (RS-arm) (n=115), two NRTIs+nevirapine+nelfinavir (NN-arm) (n=118), or abacavir+stavudine+didanosine (ASD-arm) (n=60) followed up for a median of 90 weeks. Data on adherence were...... collected from patient files, and genotyping was performed on plasma samples collected at time of failure. RESULTS: Treatment interruption or poor adherence was mainly caused by side effects and accounted for 74% of failures, and was associated with absence of resistance mutations. In the 30 failing...

  9. Immunosuppressive medication adherence in kidney transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalić, Jelena; Veličković-Radovanović, Radmila; Mitić, Branka; Paunović, Goran; Cvetković, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    To assess the degree of immunosuppressive medication adherence in kidney transplant patients (KTPs) and to determine if there is a difference in the rate of adherence to tacrolimus (Tac), cyclosporine (CsA) and sirolimus (Sir). From a total of 63 KTPs treated at the Clinic of Nephrology, Clinical Centre Niš, Serbia, 60 participated in the study by responding to questionnaires. They were divided into the adherence group (n = 43) and the nonadherence group (n = 17) according to their degree of adherence which was measured using a validated survey form, the simplified medication adherence questionnaire. The KTP adherence to the different immunosuppressive regimens (Tac, CsA and Sir) was compared. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student t test. Adherence was observed in 43 (71.7%) patients, and only 17 (28.3%) did not follow the prescribed therapy. The estimated glomerular filtration rate was significantly lower in the nonadherence group (38.52 ± 18.22 ml/min) than in the adherence group (52.43 ± 16.91 ml/min, p adherers and the nonadherers (6.30 ± 2.06 vs. 5.0 ± 1.52 ng/ml, p adherence. Nonadherence was associated with worse graft function and a lower Tac level. Knowledge about the degree of adherence could help the early identification of nonadherent patients and the development of strategies to improve this. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  10. Teachers' Adherence to Highly Effective Instructional Practices as Related to Graduation Rates in Average-Need School Districts in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannucci, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate school administrators' perceptions of teachers' adherence to the highly effective critical attributes of the four domains of Charlotte Danielson's "Framework for Teaching" (Planning and Preparation, The Classroom Environment, Instruction, and Professional Responsibilities) in kindergarten…

  11. Lowest order Virtual Element approximation of magnetostatic problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirão da Veiga, L.; Brezzi, F.; Dassi, F.; Marini, L. D.; Russo, A.

    2018-04-01

    We give here a simplified presentation of the lowest order Serendipity Virtual Element method, and show its use for the numerical solution of linear magneto-static problems in three dimensions. The method can be applied to very general decompositions of the computational domain (as is natural for Virtual Element Methods) and uses as unknowns the (constant) tangential component of the magnetic field $\\mathbf{H}$ on each edge, and the vertex values of the Lagrange multiplier $p$ (used to enforce the solenoidality of the magnetic induction $\\mathbf{B}=\\mu\\mathbf{H}$). In this respect the method can be seen as the natural generalization of the lowest order Edge Finite Element Method (the so-called "first kind N\\'ed\\'elec" elements) to polyhedra of almost arbitrary shape, and as we show on some numerical examples it exhibits very good accuracy (for being a lowest order element) and excellent robustness with respect to distortions.

  12. The impact of psychiatric diagnosis on treatment adherence and duration among victimized children and adolescents in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Scivoletto

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Despite the high prevalence of substance abuse and mood disorders among victimized children and adolescents, few studies have investigated the association of these disorders with treatment adherence, represented by numbers of visits per month and treatment duration. We aimed to investigate the effects of substance abuse and mood disorders on treatment adherence and duration in a special program for victimized children in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A total of 351 participants were evaluated for psychiatric disorders and classified into one of five groups: mood disorders alone; substance abuse disorders alone; mood and substance abuse disorders; other psychiatric disorders; no psychiatric disorders. The associations between diagnostic classification and adherence to treatment and the duration of program participation were tested with logistic regression and survival analysis, respectively. RESULTS: Children with mood disorders alone had the highest rate of adherence (79.5%; those with substance abuse disorders alone had the lowest (40%; and those with both disorders had an intermediate rate of adherence (50%. Those with other psychiatric disorders and no psychiatric disorders also had high rates of adherence (75.6% and 72.9%, respectively. Living with family significantly increased adherence for children with substance abuse disorders but decreased adherence for those with no psychiatric disorders. The diagnostic correlates of duration of participation were similar to those for adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Mood and substance abuse disorders were strong predictive factors for treatment adherence and duration, albeit in opposite directions. Living with family seems to have a positive effect on treatment adherence for patients with substance abuse disorders. More effective treatment is needed for victimized substance-abusing youth

  13. 48 CFR 47.306-2 - Lowest overall transportation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transportation costs. 47.306-2 Section 47.306-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.306-2 Lowest overall transportation costs. (a) For the evaluation of offers, the transportation officer shall give to the contracting...

  14. Is action potential threshold lowest in the axon?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kole, Maarten H. P.; Stuart, Greg J.

    2008-01-01

    Action potential threshold is thought to be lowest in the axon, but when measured using conventional techniques, we found that action potential voltage threshold of rat cortical pyramidal neurons was higher in the axon than at other neuronal locations. In contrast, both current threshold and voltage

  15. Excitation of lowest electronic states of thymine by slow electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshova, I. V.; Kontros, E. J.; Markush, P. P.; Shpenik, O. B.

    2013-11-01

    Excitation of lowest electronic states of the thymine molecules in the gas phase is studied by elec- tron energy loss spectroscopy. In addition to dipole-allowed transitions to singlet states, transitions to the lowest triplet states were observed. The low-energy features of the spectrum at 3.66 and 4.61 eV are identified with the excitation of the first triplet states 13 A' (π → π*) and 13 A″ ( n → π*). The higher-lying features at 4.96, 5.75, 6.17, and 7.35 eV are assigned mainly to the excitation of the π → π* transitions to the singlet states of the molecule. The excitation dynamics of the lowest states is studied. It is found that the first triplet state 13 A'(π → π*) is most efficiently excited at a residual energy close to zero, while the singlet 21 A'(π → π*) state is excited with almost identical efficiency at different residual energies.

  16. Mixing of the lowest-lying qqq configurations with JP =1/2- in different hyperfine interaction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; An, Chunsheng; Chen, Hong

    2018-02-01

    We investigate mixing of the lowest-lying qqq configurations with JP = 1/2- caused by the hyperfine interactions between quarks mediated by Goldstone Boson Exchange, One Gluon Exchange, and both Goldstone Boson and One Gluon exchange, respectively. The first orbitally excited nucleon, Σ, Λ and Ξ states are considered. Contributions of both the contact term and tensor term are taken into account. Our numerical results show that mixing of the studied configurations in the two employed hyperfine interaction models are very different. Therefore, the present results, which should affect the strong and electromagnetic decays of baryon resonances, may be used to examine the present employed hyperfine interaction models. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11675131,11645002), Chongqing Natural Science Foundation (cstc2015jcyjA00032) and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (SWU115020)

  17. Rationality, irrationality and escalating behavior in lowest unique bid auctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea; Amaral, Luís A N

    2012-01-01

    Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions--lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of "bid space". The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets.

  18. Rationality, irrationality and escalating behavior in lowest unique bid auctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Radicchi

    Full Text Available Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions--lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of "bid space". The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets.

  19. Rationality, Irrationality and Escalating Behavior in Lowest Unique Bid Auctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea; Amaral, Luís A. N.

    2012-01-01

    Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions – lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of “bid space”. The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets. PMID:22279553

  20. Predictors of Vitamin Adherence After Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, Supreet; Santiago, Vincent A; Gougeon, Lorraine; Warwick, Katie; Okrainec, Allan; Hawa, Raed; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2017-02-01

    Vitamin supplementation in bariatric aftercare is essential to prevent nutrient deficiencies; however, rates of vitamin adherence have been as low as 30 % 6 months post-surgery. Preliminary literature suggests non-adherence to prescribed treatments can be linked to demographic and psychological factors. We aimed to determine the relationship between these factors to vitamin adherence in post-bariatric surgery patients. A total of 92 bariatric patients were assessed 6 months post-surgery. Patients were administered a questionnaire collecting demographic information, psychological scores, and self-reported adherence. Nutrient deficiencies were analyzed through serum vitamin levels measured 3 and 6 months after surgery. Wilcoxon rank-sum and chi-square tests were used for analysis. Non-adherence was associated with male sex and full-time employment (p = 0.027, p = 0.015). There were no differences with respect to living situation, education level, or relationship type. Non-adherent patients did not have significantly higher scores for generalized anxiety, depressive symptoms, or avoidant behaviors. However, non-adherent patients displayed greater attachment anxiety than their adherent counterparts (p = 0.0186). Non-adherence was also associated with lower vitamin B12 levels 6 months post-surgery (p = 0.001). Male gender and full-time work have previously been shown to be associated with non-adherence. This is the first study to demonstrate that attachment anxiety is associated with poor multivitamin adherence in the post-surgical bariatric population. This result is concordant with recent literature that has demonstrated attachment anxiety is associated with poor adherence to dietary recommendations in bariatric patients 6 months postoperatively. Presurgical screening for attachment anxiety could facilitate early interventions to promote better bariatric aftercare in this group.

  1. Adherence to antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola Farinde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While major depression is considered a frequent mental illness there are ongoing reports of high non-adherence to antidepressant medications which places suffers at high risk for relapse, recurrence, or greater impairment,. The World Health Organization (WHO defines adherence as the extent to which a person′s behavior (e.g. taking medications can align with the agreed recommendations of a health care provider. Unfortunately while patient may recognize the importance of adherence to antidepressant medications the majority of patients do not adhere to their prescribed antidepressants. Some of the factors that may contribute to or lead to non-adherence include knowingly or unknowingly missing doses, taking extra doses, delaying administration times, or taking drug holidays. Pharmacists have the unique ability to deter non-adherence through the performance of continuous assessment and monitoring of adherence in this population given these accessibility. Additionally, pharmacists are able to develop therapeutic alliances with patients that can help to increase the likelihood of achieving positive patient outcomes. Antidepressant non-adherence can be viewed as a significant public health concern so it is important for patients to be educated about the importance of adherence, and health care professionals should be aware of factors or patient characteristics that can serve as barriers to non-adherence.

  2. Primary non-adherence to prescribed medication in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Kristján; Halldórsson, Matthías; Thengilsdóttir, Gudrún

    2013-01-01

    Primary non-adherence refers to the patient not redeeming a prescribed medication at some point during drug therapy. Research has mainly focused on secondary non-adherence. Prior to this study, the overall rate of primary non-adherence in general practice in Iceland was not known....

  3. Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller therapy in chest clinics in a sub-Saharan African setting: a cross-sectional study. ... Background: Adherence to controller therapy in asthma is a major concern during the management of the disease. Objective: To determine the adherence rate and identify the ...

  4. Patient knowledge and pulmonary medication adherence in adult patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin AH

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ann Hsu-An Lin,1 Jennifer G Kendrick,2,3 Pearce G Wilcox,4,5 Bradley S Quon4,51Faculty of Medicine, 2Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, 3Department of Pharmacy, Children’s and Women’s Health Centre of British Columbia, 4Department of Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, 5Centre for Heart Lung Innovation, St Paul’s Hospital, Vancouver, BC, CanadaBackground and objectives: Patient knowledge of lung function (ie, forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1]% predicted and the intended benefits of their prescribed pulmonary medications might play an important role in medication adherence, but this relationship has not been examined previously in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF.Methods: All patients diagnosed with CF and without prior lung transplantation were invited to complete knowledge and self-reported medication adherence questionnaires during routine outpatient visits to the Adult CF Clinic, St Paul’s Hospital, Vancouver, Canada from June 2013 to August 2014.Results: A total of 142 out of 167 (85% consecutive adults attending CF clinic completed patient knowledge and medication adherence survey questionnaires. Sixty-four percent of the patients recalled their last FEV1% predicted value within 5%, and 70% knew the intended benefits of all their prescribed medications. Self-reported adherence rates were highest for inhaled antibiotics (81%, azithromycin (87%, and dornase alpha (76% and lowest for hypertonic saline (47%. Individuals who knew their FEV1% predicted value within 5% were more likely to self-report adherence to dornase alpha (84% vs 62%, P=0.06 and inhaled antibiotics (88% vs 64%, P=0.06 compared to those who did not, but these associations were not statistically significant. There were no significant associations observed between patient knowledge of intended medication benefits and self-reported medication adherence.Conclusion: Contrary to our hypothesis

  5. Lowest cost due to highest productivity and highest quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Daniel

    2003-03-01

    Since global purchasing in the automotive industry has been taken up all around the world there is one main key factor that makes a TB-supplier today successful: Producing highest quality at lowest cost. The fact that Tailored Blanks, which today may reach up to 1/3 of a car body weight, are purchased on the free market but from different steel suppliers, especially in Europe and NAFTA, the philosophy on OEM side has been changing gradually towards tough evaluation criteria. "No risk at the stamping side" calls for top quality Tailored- or Tubular Blank products. Outsourcing Tailored Blanks has been starting in Japan but up to now without any quality request from the OEM side like ISO 13919-1B (welding quality standard in Europe and USA). Increased competition will automatically push the quality level and the ongoing approach to combine high strength steel with Tailored- and Tubular Blanks will ask for even more reliable system concepts which enables to weld narrow seams at highest speed. Beside producing quality, which is the key to reduce one of the most important cost driver "material scrap," in-line quality systems with true and reliable evaluation is going to be a "must" on all weld systems. Traceability of all process related data submitted to interfaces according to customer request in combination with ghost-shift-operation of TB systems are tomorrow's state-of-the-art solutions of Tailored Blank-facilities.

  6. Asthma and Adherence to Inhaled Corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bårnes, Camilla Boslev; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the cornerstone of maintenance asthma therapy. However, in spite of this, adherence to ICS remains low. The aim of this systematic literature review was to provide an overview of the current knowledge of adherence to ICS, effects of poor adherence, and means...... was found to be between 22 and 63%, with improvement up to and after an exacerbation. Poor adherence was associated with youth, being African-American, having mild asthma, ... prescribed fixed-combination therapy (ICS and long-acting β2 agonists). Good adherence was associated with higher FEV1, a lower percentage of eosinophils in sputum, reduction in hospitalizations, less use of oral corticosteroids, and lower mortality rate. Overall, 24% of exacerbations and 60% of asthma...

  7. The paradox of Spoonbill migration : Most birds travel to where survival rates are lowest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lok, Tamar; Overdijk, Otto; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Piersma, Theunis

    2011-01-01

    Migrant birds face a choice where to spend the winter. Presumably there is a trade-off between migration distance (costs) and the quality of the wintering site (benefits). Wintering site fidelity is often high and increases with age. Hypotheses to explain such a pattern assume that wintering site

  8. 2016 Writing Contest Undergraduate Winner: The Relationship Between Medication Adherence and Total Healthcare Expenditures by Race/Ethnicity in Patients with Diabetes in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Cori X; Carpenter, Dee-Ann; Sumida, Wesley; Taira, Deborah

    2017-07-01

    Diabetes is a costly, chronic disease that is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide. Studies show that Native Hawaiians suffer from higher rates of diabetes and lower rates of medication adherence compared to Caucasians and Japanese. This study compared total annual healthcare expenditures of patients with diabetes in Hawai'i by race and ethnicity and determined whether any existing differences persisted after controlling for medication adherence and demographic factors. The study population consisted of 30,445 individuals, using administrative claims data from a large health plan in Hawai'i. Filipinos, Native Hawaiians, and Other Pacific Islanders had significantly lower medication adherence rates compared to other groups. These ethnic groups also had the lowest median healthcare costs. In contrast, Caucasians had one of the highest medication adherence rates coupled with the highest median annual healthcare expenditures at $5,132. Generalized linear regression models showed that after controlling for demographic factors and medication adherence, Japanese (RR=0.86, 95%CI [0.78, 0.94]), Chinese (RR=0.83, 95%CI [0.73, 0.95]), Filipinos (RR=0.74, 95%CI [0.67, 0.82]), and Native Hawaiians (RR=0.74, 95%CI [0.67, 0.82]) had significantly lower total healthcare costs compared to Caucasians. Costs for Other Pacific Islanders were not significantly different from those of Caucasians. This study provides evidence that total health-related cost is associated with a multitude of factors that further research may reveal.

  9. HIV Medication Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Medication Adherence Last Reviewed: January 17, 2018 Key ...

  10. Family strategies for achieving medication adherence in pediatric kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingerski, Lisa; Perrazo, Lauren; Goebel, Jens; Pai, Ahna L H

    2011-01-01

    Although nonadherence is well documented and strategies for adherence have been shown to be critical to overcoming barriers and improving overall adherence rates, it is unknown how family strategy use is related to adherence in the pediatric renal transplant population. The aims of this study were to assess (a) the strategies used by adolescents with kidney transplants and their caregivers to adhere to the posttransplant oral medication regimen and (b) the relationship of these strategies to objective adherence rates. Semistructured interviews to assess self-management were administered to 17 adolescents (14-18 years) and 17 caregivers. Adherence to oral immunosuppressant medication, measured via electronic monitors, was determined also for a subset of 13 dyads. Common strategies endorsed by families included the following: making it part of the routine (88.2%), verbal reminders by caregiver (82.4%), caregiver verifying medication was taken (76.5%), placing medication in a convenient location (76.5%), and using a pillbox (70.6%). A greater number of family-endorsed strategies were correlated with higher levels of adherence. Of those strategies spontaneously endorsed, only caregiver reminders to take medication and caregiver verification that medications were taken were related significantly to higher adherence rates. The findings highlight the importance of identification and use of specific strategies to improve adherence rates of pediatric renal transplant recipients and emphasize the need for continued caregiver involvement in the promotion of adherence to the treatment regimen.

  11. Assessing the Multidimensional Relationship Between Medication Beliefs and Adherence in Older Adults With Hypertension Using Polynomial Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Paul; Phillips, L Alison; Gallagher, Paul; Smith, Susan M; Stewart, Derek; Cousins, Gráinne

    2018-02-05

    The Necessity-Concerns Framework (NCF) is a multidimensional theory describing the relationship between patients' positive and negative evaluations of their medication which interplay to influence adherence. Most studies evaluating the NCF have failed to account for the multidimensional nature of the theory, placing the separate dimensions of medication "necessity beliefs" and "concerns" onto a single dimension (e.g., the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire-difference score model). To assess the multidimensional effect of patient medication beliefs (concerns and necessity beliefs) on medication adherence using polynomial regression with response surface analysis. Community-dwelling older adults >65 years (n = 1,211) presenting their own prescription for antihypertensive medication to 106 community pharmacies in the Republic of Ireland rated their concerns and necessity beliefs to antihypertensive medications at baseline and their adherence to antihypertensive medication at 12 months via structured telephone interview. Confirmatory polynomial regression found the difference-score model to be inaccurate; subsequent exploratory analysis identified a quadratic model to be the best-fitting polynomial model. Adherence was lowest among those with strong medication concerns and weak necessity beliefs, and adherence was greatest for those with weak concerns and strong necessity beliefs (slope β = -0.77, pnecessity beliefs had lower adherence than those with simultaneously low concerns and necessity beliefs (slope β = -0.36, p = .004; curvature β = -0.25, p = .003). The difference-score model fails to account for the potential nonreciprocal effects. Results extend evidence supporting the use of polynomial regression to assess the multidimensional effect of medication beliefs on adherence.

  12. Measuring the Rate of Change in Sea Level and Its Adherence to USACE Sea Level Rise Planning Scenarios Using Timeseries Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. D.; Huang, N.; Huber, M.; Veatch, W.; Moritz, H.; Obrien, P. S.; Friedman, D.

    2017-12-01

    In 2013, the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) issued guidance for all Civil Works activities to incorporate the effects of sea level change as described in three distinct planning scenarios.[1] These planning scenarios provided a useful framework to incorporate these effects into Civil Works activities, but required the manual calculation of these scenarios for a given gage and set of datum. To address this need, USACE developed the Sea Level Change Curve Calculator (SLCCC) in 2014 which provided a "simple, web-based tool to provide repeatable analytical results."[2]USACE has been developing a successor to the SLCCC application which retains the same, intuitive functionality to calculate these planning scenarios, but it also allows the comparison of actual sea level change between 1992 and today against the projections, and builds on the user's ability to understand the rate of change using a variety of timeseries metrics (e.g. moving averages, trends) and related visualizations. These new metrics help both illustrate and measure the complexity and nuances of sea level change. [1] ER 1000-2-8162. http://www.publications.usace.army.mil/Portals/76/Publications/EngineerRegulations/ER_1100-2-8162.pdf. [2] SLCC Manual. http://www.corpsclimate.us/docs/SLC_Calculator_Manual_2014_88.pdf.

  13. Oral anticancer agent medication adherence by outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Michio; Usami, Eiseki; Iwai, Mina; Nakao, Toshiya; Yoshimura, Tomoaki; Mori, Hiromi; Sugiyama, Tadashi; Teramachi, Hitomi

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, medication adherence and factors affecting adherence were examined in patients taking oral anticancer agents. In June 2013, 172 outpatients who had been prescribed oral anticancer agents by Ogaki Municipal Hospital (Ogaki, Gifu, Japan) completed a questionnaire survey, with answers rated on a five-point Likert scale. The factors that affect medication adherence were evaluated using a customer satisfaction (CS) analysis. For patients with good and insufficient adherence to medication, the median ages were 66 years (range, 21-85 years) and 73 years (range, 30-90 years), respectively (P=0.0004), while the median dosing time was 131 days (range, 3-3,585 days) and 219 days (24-3,465 days), respectively (P=0.0447). In 36.0% (62 out of 172) of the cases, there was insufficient medication adherence; 64.5% of those cases (40 out of 62) showed good medication compliance (4-5 point rating score). However, these patients did not fully understand the effects or side-effects of the drugs, giving a score of three points or less. The percentage of patients with good medication compliance was 87.2% (150 out of 172). Through the CS analysis, three items, the interest in the drug, the desire to consult about the drug and the condition of the patient, were extracted as items for improvement. Overall, the medication compliance of the patients taking the oral anticancer agents was good, but the medication adherence was insufficient. To improve medication adherence, a better understanding of the effectiveness and necessity of drugs and their side-effects is required. In addition, the interest of patients in their medication should be encouraged and intervention should be tailored to the condition of the patient. These steps should lead to improved medication adherence.

  14. Adherence to Technology-Mediated Insomnia Treatment: A Meta-Analysis, Interviews, and Focus Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Horsch, Corine; Lancee, Jaap; Beun, Robbert Jan; Neerincx, Mark A; Brinkman, Willem-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several technologies have been proposed to support the reduction of insomnia complaints. A user-centered assessment of these technologies could provide insight into underlying factors related to treatment adherence. Objective: Gaining insight into adherence to technology-mediated insomnia treatment as a solid base for improving those adherence rates by applying adherence-enhancing strategies. Methods: Adherence to technology-mediated sleep products was studied in three ways. First...

  15. Adherence to vitamin supplementation following adolescent bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Avani C; Zeller, Meg H; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Jenkins, Todd M; Inge, Thomas H

    2013-03-01

    Adolescents with extreme obesity, who have undergone bariatric surgery, must adhere to many lifestyle and nutritional recommendations, including multivitamin therapy. Little is known about multivitamin adherence following adolescent bariatric surgery. The present study aims to document self-reported and electronically-monitored adherence to multivitamins, determine convergence between self-report and electronic monitoring adherence for multivitamins, and identify barriers to multivitamin adherence for adolescents who have undergone bariatric surgery. The study used a prospective, longitudinal observational design to assess subjective (self-reported) and objective (electronic monitors) multivitamin adherence in a cohort of 41 adolescents (Mean age = 17.1 ± 1.5; range = 13-19) who have undergone bariatric surgery at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center. Mean adherence as derived from electronic monitoring for the entire 6-month study period was 29.8% ± 23.9. Self-reported adherence was significantly higher than electronically monitored adherence across both the 1 and 6-month assessment points (z = 4.5, P bariatric surgery, high rates of nonadherence to multivitamin therapy were observed in adolescents who had undergone bariatric surgery with forgetting and difficulty swallowing pills as reported barriers to adherence. These high rates of nonadherence to multivitamin therapy should be considered when devising treatment and family education pathways for adolescents considering weight loss surgery. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  16. Adherence to Technology-Mediated Insomnia Treatment: A Meta-Analysis, Interviews, and Focus Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsch, Corine; Lancee, Jaap; Beun, Robbert Jan; Neerincx, Mark A; Brinkman, Willem-Paul

    2015-09-04

    Several technologies have been proposed to support the reduction of insomnia complaints. A user-centered assessment of these technologies could provide insight into underlying factors related to treatment adherence. Gaining insight into adherence to technology-mediated insomnia treatment as a solid base for improving those adherence rates by applying adherence-enhancing strategies. Adherence to technology-mediated sleep products was studied in three ways. First, a meta-analysis was performed to investigate adherence rates in technology-mediated insomnia therapy. Several databases were queried for technology-mediated insomnia treatments. After inclusion and exclusion steps, data from 18 studies were retrieved and aggregated to find an average adherence rate. Next, 15 semistructured interviews about sleep-support technologies were conducted to investigate perceived adherence. Lastly, several scenarios were written about the usage of a virtual sleep coach that could support adherence rates. The scenarios were discussed in six different focus groups consisting of potential users (n=15), sleep experts (n=7), and coaches (n=9). From the meta-analysis, average treatment adherence appeared to be approximately 52% (95% CI 43%-61%) for technology-mediated insomnia treatments. This means that, on average, half of the treatment exercises were not executed, suggesting there is a substantial need for adherence and room for improvement in this area. However, the users in the interviews believed they adhered quite well to their sleep products. Users mentioned relying on personal commitment (ie, willpower) for therapy adherence. Participants of the focus groups reconfirmed their belief in the effectiveness of personal commitment, which they regarded as more effective than adherence-enhancing strategies. Although adherence rates for insomnia interventions indicate extensive room for improvement, users might not consider adherence to be a problem; they believe willpower to be an

  17. Pathways of low carbon transition at the lowest cost. Pathways of low carbon transition in France at the lowest cost - Dynamics and average abatement costs (MACC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrissin Fabert, Baptiste; Foussard, Alexis

    2016-11-01

    The objective to divide greenhouse gas emissions in France by a factor four by 2050 implies the mobilisation at the lowest cost of the whole set of known sources of reduction of emissions in all economic sectors. In this context, this report is based on a methodology (D-CAM in French for dynamics - average abatement costs, MACC in English for Medium Abatement Cost Curves) which relies on a theoretical business-as-usual scenario, on a database on the potential, rate of development, and cost of mobilizable sources, and on a dynamic model of cost minimisation. The MACC tool is used to explore, for each sector, scenarios of de-carbonation which allow objectives of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to be reached at different time horizons. An aggregated approach of this tool modifies the distribution of efforts of emission reduction between sectors with respect to a sector-based approach. Thus, a macro-assessment of low carbon transition does not reveal any obvious over-cost with respect to the business-as-usual scenario. A second document is a Power Point presentation which contains the same information, curves and graphs

  18. Beliefs about medications predict adherence to antidepressants in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzi, Waleed; Abdel Mohsen, Mohamed Yousry; Hashem, Abdel Hamid; Moussa, Suaad; Coker, Elizabeth; Wilson, Kenneth C M

    2012-01-01

    Adherence to treatment is a complex and poorly understood phenomenon. This study investigates the relationship between older depressed patients' adherence to antidepressants and their beliefs about and knowledge of the medication. Assessment was undertaken of 108 outpatients over the age of 55 years diagnosed with depressive disorder and treated for at least four weeks with antidepressants. Adherence was assessed using two self-report measures: the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) and a Global Adherence Measure (GAM). Potential predictors of adherence investigated included sociodemographic, medication and illness variables. In addition, 33 carers were interviewed regarding general medication beliefs. 56% of patients reported 80% or higher adherence on the GAM. Sociodemographic variables were not associated with adherence on the MARS. Specific beliefs about medicines, such as "my health depends on antidepressants" (necessity) and being less worried about becoming dependant on antidepressants (concern) were highly correlated with adherence. General beliefs about medicines causing harm or being overprescribed, experiencing medication side-effects and severity of depression also correlated with poor adherence. Linear regression with the MARS as the dependent variable explained 44.3% of the variance and showed adherence to be higher in subjects with healthy specific beliefs who received more information about antidepressants and worse with depression severity and autonomic side-effects. Our findings strongly support a role for specific beliefs about medicines in adherence. Challenging patients' beliefs, providing information about treatment and discussing side-effects could improve adherence. Poor response to treatment and medication side-effects can indicate poor adherence and should be considered before switching medications.

  19. Adherence to antidepressant treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2007-01-01

    Depression is a common disorder with painful symptoms and, frequently, social impairment and decreased quality of life. The disorder has a tendency to be long lasting, often with frequent recurrence of symptoms. The risk of relapse and the severity of the symptoms may be reduced by correct...... of dependence of antidepressant medicine, have a great influence on adherence to treatment....

  20. adherence to antiretroviral regimens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to macro- and microeconomic costs.' What soon became evident, however, was the vital importance of patient adherence with prescribed medication in order to garner the benefits that were so rapidly becoming available. As a result, much attention has recently been paid to this aspect of management. Both clinicians and ...

  1. Transient improvement of urticaria induces poor adherence as assessed by Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Sakae; Masuda, Koji; Hiragun, Takaaki; Inomata, Naoko; Furue, Masutaka; Onozuka, Daisuke; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Murota, Hiroyuki; Sugaya, Makoto; Saeki, Hidehisa; Shintani, Yoichi; Tsunemi, Yuichiro; Abe, Shinya; Kobayashi, Miwa; Kitami, Yuki; Tanioka, Miki; Imafuku, Shinichi; Abe, Masatoshi; Hagihara, Akihito; Morisky, Donald E; Katoh, Norito

    2015-11-01

    Poor adherence to medication is a major public health challenge. Here, we aimed to determine the adherence to oral and topical medications and to analyze underlying associated factors using the translated Japanese version of Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 regarding urticaria treatment. Web-based questionnaires were performed for 3096 registered dermatological patients, along with a subanalysis of 751 registered urticaria patients in this study. The adherence to oral medication was significantly associated with the frequency of hospital visits. Variables that affected the adherence to topical medication included age and experience of drug effectiveness. The rate of responses that "It felt like the symptoms had improved" varied significantly among the dermatological diseases treated with oral medications. Dermatologists should be aware that adherence to the treatment of urticaria is quite low. Regular visits and active education for patients with urticaria are mandatory in order to achieve a good therapeutic outcome by increasing the adherence. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Dermatology published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Dermatological Association.

  2. Impact of Quality Improvement Educational Interventions on Documented Adherence to Quality Measures for Adults with Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Laurence; Sapir, Tamar; Moreo, Kathleen; Carter, Jeffrey D; Patel, Barry; Higgins, Peter D R

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, leading organizations in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have developed quality measures for the care of adults with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. We used chart audits to assess the impact of quality improvement educational activities on documented adherence to Physician Quality Reporting System measures for IBD. Twenty community-based gastroenterologists were recruited to participate in baseline chart audits (n = 200), a series of 4 accredited educational activities with feedback, and follow-up chart audits (n = 200). Trained abstractors reviewed randomly selected charts of adults with moderate or severe Crohn's disease. The charts were retrospectively abstracted for physicians' documented performance of the 2013 Physician Quality Reporting System IBD quality measures. We compared the physicians' baseline and posteducation rates of documented adherence with 10 of these measures. In a secondary analysis, we compared preeducation with posteducation difference scores of low-performing physicians, those whose baseline documentation rates were in the lowest quartile, and the rest of the cohort. At baseline, documentation of mean provider-level adherence to the 10 quality measures ranged from 3% to 98% (grand mean = 35.8%). In the overall analysis, baseline and posteducation rates of documented adherence did not differ significantly for any of the measures. However, for 4 measures, preeducation to posteducation difference scores were significantly greater among low performers than physicians in the highest 3 quartiles. The results of this preliminary pragmatic study indicate that quality improvement education affords the potential to improve adherence to Physician Quality Reporting System quality measures for IBD among low-performing gastroenterologists.

  3. Psychological distress and treatment adherence among children on dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, J M; Asarnow, J R; Munford, P R; Koprowski, C M; Belin, T R; Salusky, I B

    1997-10-01

    Among 23 pediatric renal dialysis patients, we obtained self-reported assessments of psychological adjustment and biochemical and subjective ratings of adherence. Findings indicate elevated levels of depressive symptoms and substantial nonadherence. Depressive symptoms were associated with higher levels of hopelessness, more negative self-perceptions, and more depressogenic attributional style. The psychological adjustment measures did not significantly correlate with adherence. Nonsignificant associations among different measures of adherence underscore its multifaceted nature. Implications for monitoring the adjustment of children on dialysis, assessing adherence, and future research are discussed.

  4. Sleep Duration Associated with the Lowest Risk of Depression/Anxiety in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojio, Yasutaka; Nishida, Atsushi; Shimodera, Shinji; Togo, Fumiharu; Sasaki, Tsukasa

    2016-08-01

    To investigate sleep duration associated with the least depression/anxiety in adolescence. Grades 7-12 Japanese students (n = 18,250, aged 12-18 y) from public junior high/high schools were studied in a cross-sectional design. Due to missing/implausible data, 15,637 out of the 18,250 students were statistically analyzed. Relationship between sleep duration on school nights and depression/anxiety, measured using self-report questionnaires, including the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), were studied by sex and grade, controlling for bedtime regularity. When sleep duration was classified by 1-h intervals, rate of adolescents with a GHQ-12 score ≥ 4 was the lowest in males and females who slept 8.5-9.5 h and 7.5-8.5 h, respectively, (designated "references") in both grades 7-9 and 10-12. The rate was significantly higher than the references in both males and females who slept Sleep duration for the minimum GHQ-12 score was estimated to be 8.8 and 8.5 h in males, and 8.0 and 7.5 h in females, in grades 7-9 and 10-12, respectively, using the General Additive Model. Sleep duration of ≥ 8.5 h on school nights may be associated with the lowest risk of depression/anxiety on average in male adolescents. Although the duration was estimated to be shorter in females (≥ 7.5 h) than males, this should be interpreted carefully. Most adolescents may currently be sleeping less than the optimal duration. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1491. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  5. Physicians should increase focus on poor medicine adherence among chronically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Topp, Marie; Ingebrigtsen, Truls Sylvan

    2014-01-01

    Non-adherence to medicine is common in patients with chronic diseases, contributing to significant worsening of disease, increased mortality and health expenditure. Methods of measuring adherence include self report, prescription refill rates, biomarkers, electronic monitoring and therapeutic...

  6. Understanding and improving treatment adherence in patients with psychotic disorders: Review and a proposed intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staring, A.B.P.; Mulder, C.L.; van der Gaag, M.; Selten, J.P.; Loonen, A.J.M.; Hengeveld, M.W.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Non-adherence to treatment of patients with psychotic disorders is related to higher rates of relapse, hospitalization, and suicide. Important predictors of non-adherence include poor social structure, cognitive deficits, negative medication attitude, side effects, depression, a

  7. Understanding and improving treatment adherence in patients with psychotic disorders: A review and a proposed intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B.P. Staring (Anton); C.L. Mulder (Niels); M. van der Gaag (Mark); J.-P. Selten (Jean-Paul); A.J.M. Loonen (Anton); M.W. Hengeveld (Michiel)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractNon-adherence to treatment of patients with psychotic disorders is related to higher rates of relapse, hospitalization, and suicide. Important predictors of non-adherence include poor social structure, cognitive deficits, negative medication attitude, side effects, depression, a

  8. Antipsychotic medication non-adherence among schizophrenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... Non-adherence can cause high rates of relapse within 5 years of recovery from the first episode.7. Thus, lack of .... schizophrenia patients at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa,. Ethiopia, June 2014 (n = 412). 0. No substance use. Alcohol. Cigarre e. Chat. Alcohol/Cigarete/Chat. Cigarrete/ ...

  9. Effects of Psychosocial Parameters on Adherence of Adult Nigerians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the rate of adherence of adult HIV seropositive adult Nigerian to antiretroviral therapy and the effects of psychosocial factors including psychiatric morbidity, patients' perception of their illness, availability of social support, preference for alternative medicine on adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Methods: ...

  10. Adherence to cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Ellyn E; Arnedt, J Todd; McCarthy, Michaela S; Cuddihy, Leisha J; Aloia, Mark S

    2013-12-01

    Chronic insomnia is a significant public health problem worldwide, and insomnia has considerable personal and social costs associated with serious health conditions, greater healthcare utilization, work absenteeism, and motor-vehicle accidents. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) is an efficacious treatment, yet attrition and suboptimal adherence may diminish its impact. Despite the increasing use of CBTI, surprisingly little attention has been devoted to understanding the role of adherence. This review describes a comprehensive literature search of adherence to CBTI. The search revealed 15 studies that evaluated adherence to CBTI in adults using valid and reliable measures of sleep, and measure of adherence other than study withdrawals. The primary purposes of this review were to 1) synthesize current study characteristics, methodology, adherence rates, contributing factors, and impact on outcomes, 2) discuss measurement issues, and 3) identify future practice and research directions that may lead to improved outcomes. Strong patterns and inconsistencies were identified among the studies, which complicate an evaluation of the role of adherence as a factor and outcome of CBTI success. The importance of standardized adherence and outcome measures is discussed. In light of the importance of adherence to behavior change, this systematic review may better inform future intervention efforts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An isotope dependent study of acetone in its lowest excited triplet state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrtz, M.; Brauchle, C.; Voitlaender, J.

    1984-01-01

    The lowest excited triplet state T 1 of acetone-h 6 and acetone-d 6 was investigated with a pulsed dye laser equipped ODMR spectrometer. Acetone is found to be bent in T 1 and the out-of-plane distortion angle is estimated to be approx.= 38 0 . The observed zero-field splitting (ZFS) is surprisingly small. Both the spin-spin and the spin-orbit (SO) contribution to the ZFS are evaluated. The SO tensor contribution is calculated from a correlation between the deuterium effects on the ZFS parameters and the population rates. The sub-level selective kinetics of the acetone T 1 is largely determined by the mixing of the x- and z-level characteristics owing to magnetic axis rotation caused by the excited state out-of-plane distortion. Considerable deuterium effects are observed on the kinetic data and on the microwave transition frequencies. In all cases the spin-specific isotope effects (due to the promoting modes) and the global effects (due to the Franck-Condon factors) are specified. For the population rates and the SO contribution to ZFS, the inverse global isotope effects (deuterium factor > 1) was found for the first time. Based on the isotope dependence of the rates, the mechanisms of (vibrationally induced) SO coupling in acetone are discussed. It is concluded that non-adiabatic contributions have to be taken into account for the smallest population rate only, but that otherwise the adiabatic SO coupling mechanisms by far dominates in the acetone photophysics. (author)

  12. Change in Body Mass Index Associated With Lowest Mortality in Denmark, 1976-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Jensen, Gorm B; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-05-10

    Research has shown a U-shaped pattern in the association of body mass index (BMI) with mortality. Although average BMI has increased over time in most countries, the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors may also be decreasing among obese individuals over time. Thus, the BMI associated with lowest all-cause mortality may have changed. To determine whether the BMI value that is associated with the lowest all-cause mortality has increased in the general population over a period of 3 decades. Three cohorts from the same general population enrolled at different times: the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1976-1978 (n = 13,704) and 1991-1994 (n = 9482) and the Copenhagen General Population Study in 2003-2013 (n = 97,362). All participants were followed up from inclusion in the studies to November 2014, emigration, or death, whichever came first. For observational studies, BMI was modeled using splines and in categories defined by the World Health Organization. Body mass index was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. Main outcome was all-cause mortality and secondary outcomes were cause-specific mortality. The number of deaths during follow-up was 10,624 in the 1976-1978 cohort (78% cumulative mortality; mortality rate [MR], 30/1000 person-years [95%CI, 20-46]), 5025 in the 1991-1994 cohort (53%; MR, 16/1000 person-years [95%CI, 9-30]), and 5580 in the 2003-2013 cohort (6%;MR, 4/1000 person-years [95%CI, 1-10]). Except for cancer mortality, the association of BMI with all-cause, cardiovascular, and other mortality was curvilinear (U-shaped). The BMI associated with the lowest all-cause mortality increased by 3.3 from the 1976-1978 cohort compared with the 2003-2013 cohort. [table: see text] The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality for BMI of 30 or more vs BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 were 1.31 (95%CI, 1.23-1.39;MR, 46/1000 person-years [95%CI, 32-66] vs 28/1000 person-years [95%CI, 18-45]) in the 1976

  13. Evaluation of adherence and depression among patients on peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhen Li; Yeoh, Lee Ying; Seow, Ying Ying; Luo, Xue Chun; Griva, Konstadina

    2012-07-01

    It is challenging for dialysis patients to maintain adherence to their medical regimen, and symptoms of depression are prevalent among them. Limited data is available about adherence and depression among patients receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD). This study aimed to examine the rates of treatment non-adherence and depression in PD patients. A total of 20 PD patients (response rate 71.4%; mean age 64.4 ± 11.6 years) were assessed using the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire, Self Efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) and Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form. A self-reported adherence (PD exchanges, medication and diet) scale developed for the study was also included. Medical information (e.g. most recent biochemistry results) was obtained from chart review. The mean self-reported scores indicated an overall high level of adherence, although a significant proportion of patients were non-adherent. Among the latter, 20% of patients were non-adherent to medication and 26% to diet due to forgetfulness, while 15% and 26% of patients admitted to deliberate non-adherence to medication and diet, respectively. Treatment modality, employment, self-care status and self-efficacy were associated with overall adherence. Using a cutoff point of 8 for HAD depression and anxiety subscales, 40% of patients were found to be depressed and 30% had symptoms of anxiety. This is the first study to document treatment adherence and depression among PD patients in Singapore. Findings of high prevalence of depression and anxiety, and reports of poor adherence warrant development of intervention programmes.

  14. Treatment adherence and perception in patients on maintenance hemodialysis: a cross - sectional study from Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naalweh, Karam Sh; Barakat, Mohammad A; Sweileh, Moutaz W; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M; Zyoud, Sa'ed H

    2017-05-30

    Adherence to diet recommendations, fluid restriction, prescribed medications, and attendance at hemodialysis (HD) sessions are essential for optimal and effective treatment of patients with end-stage renal disease. No data regarding this issue are available from Palestine. Therefore, this study was carried out to assess adherence to diet, fluid restriction, medications, and HD sessions. A cross-sectional study of HD patients at An-Najah National University Hospital was carried out during summer, 2016. Self-reported adherence behavior was obtained using a valid and reliable questionnaire (End-Stage Renal Disease Adherence Questionnaire: ESRD-AQ). Predialytic serum levels of potassium and phosphate were obtained as clinical indicator of diet and medication adherence respectively. In addition, interdialytic body weight (IDW) was also obtained from medical records and analyzed in relation to reported adherence of fluid restriction. A total of 220 patients answered all questions pertaining to ESRD-AQ. The mean age ± standard deviation of participants was 56.82 ± 14.51 years. Dietary adherence was observed in 24% while that of fluid restriction adherence was observed in 31% of studied patients. Reported adherence to HD sessions was 52% while that for medications was 81%. Overall, 122 (55.5%) patients had good adherence, 89 (40.5%) had moderate adherence, and 9 (4.1%) had poor adherence behavior. Male patients had significantly higher overall adherence scores than females (p = 0.034). A significant correlation between reported diet adherence and serum pre-HD potassium level (p adherence and IDW (p adherence and pre-HD phosphate level. There was significant correlation between overall perception and overall adherence score (p adherence modalities was lowest for "staying for the entire dialysis time". Multivariate analysis indicated that elderly male patients who were city residents had higher odds of having higher adherence score. There was a good percentage of

  15. Contract Source Selection: An Analysis of Lowest Price Technically Acceptable and Tradeoff Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    using- spss - statistics.php Lamoureux, J., Murrow, M., & Walls, C. (2015). Relationship of source selection methods to contract outcomes: an analysis ...Contract Source Selection: an Analysis of Lowest Price Technically Acceptable and Tradeoff Strategies 15 June 2016 LCDR Jamal M. Osman, USN...ACQUISITION RESEARCH PROGRAM SPONSORED REPORT SERIES Contract Source Selection: an Analysis of Lowest Price Technically Acceptable and Tradeoff

  16. Correlates of Pediatric CPAP Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Stephen M.M.; Jensen, Emily L.; Simon, Stacey L.; Friedman, Norman R.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common pediatric condition characterized by recurrent partial or complete cessation of airflow during sleep, typically due to inadequate upper airway patency. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a therapeutic option that reduces morbidity. Despite efforts to promote use, CPAP adherence is poor in both pediatric and adult populations. We sought to determine whether demographics, insurance status, OSA severity, therapeutic pressure, or comorbid conditions were associated with pediatric CPAP adherence. Methods: A retrospective review of adherence download data was performed on all pediatric patients with initiation or adjustment of CPAP treatment over a one-year period with documented in-laboratory CPAP titration. Patients were grouped as CPAP adherent or non-adherent, where adherence was defined as > 70% nightly use and average usage ≥ 4 hours per night. Differences between the groups were analyzed by χ2 test. Results: Overall, nearly half of participants were CPAP adherent (49%, 69/140). Of the demographic data collected (age, ethnicity, sex, insurance status), only female sex was associated with better adherence (60.9% vs 39.5% of males adherent; odds ratio [OR] = 2.41, 95%CI = 1.20–4.85; p = 0.01). Severity of OSA (diagnostic apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] and degree of hypoxemia), therapeutic pressure, and residual AHI did not impact CPAP adherence (p > 0.05). Patients with developmental delay (DD) were more likely to be adherent with CPAP than those without a DD diagnosis (OR = 2.55, 95%CI = 1.27–5.13; p = 0.007). Female patients with trisomy 21 tended to be more adherent, but this did not reach significance or account for the overall increased adherence associated with female sex. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that adherence to CPAP therapy is poor but suggests that female sex and developmental delay are associated with better adherence. These findings support efforts to understand the

  17. HH 1158: THE LOWEST LUMINOSITY EXTERNALLY IRRADIATED HERBIG–HARO JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, B.; Whelan, E. T.

    2015-01-01

    We have identified a new externally irradiated Herbig–Haro (HH) jet, HH 1158, within ∼2 pc of the massive OB type stars in the σ Orionis cluster. At an L bol  ∼ 0.1 L ⊙ , HH 1158 is the lowest luminosity irradiated HH jet identified to date in any cluster. Results from the analysis of high-resolution optical spectra indicate asymmetries in the brightness, morphology, electron density, velocity, and the mass outflow rates for the blue and redshifted lobes. We constrain the position angle of the HH 1158 jet at 102° ± 5°. The mass outflow rate and the mean accretion rate for HH 1158 using multiple diagnostics are estimated to be (5.2 ± 2.6) × 10 −10 M ⊙ yr −1 and (3.0 ± 1.0) × 10 −10 M ⊙ yr −1 , respectively. The properties for HH 1158 are notably similar to the externally irradiated HH 444–HH 447 jets previously identified in σ Orionis. In particular, the morphology is such that the weaker jet beam is tilted toward the massive stars, indicating a higher extent of photo-evaporation. The high value for the Hα/[S ii] ratio is also consistent with the ratios measured in other irradiated jets, including HH 444–HH 447. The presence of an extended collimated jet that is bipolar and the evidence of shocked emission knots make HH 1158 the first unique case of irradiated HH jets at the very low-luminosity end, and provides an opportunity to learn the physical properties of very faint HH jet sources

  18. Treatment agreement, adherence, and outcome in cognitive behavioral treatments for insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lu; Soehner, Adriane M; Bélanger, Lynda; Morin, Charles M; Harvey, Allison G

    2018-03-01

    Patient adherence has been identified as an important barrier to the implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments. In cognitive behavioral treatments (CBT) for insomnia, the current study examined (a) the validity of therapist ratings of patient agreement and adherence against an established behavioral measure of adherence, and (b) the relationship between treatment agreement, adherence, and outcome. Participants were 188 adults meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for chronic insomnia who were randomized to receive behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, or CBT for insomnia. Treatment agreement/adherence was measured by (a) weekly therapist ratings of patient agreement and homework completion, and (b) adherence to behavioral strategies (ABS) derived from patient-reported sleep diary. Outcome measures were Insomnia Severity Index and insomnia remission (Insomnia Severity Index adherence, and ABS measures during treatment significantly predicted insomnia remission at posttreatment, and all but therapist rating of homework completion predicted remission at 6-month follow-up. Greater patient agreement and adherence (therapist ratings and ABS) during treatment predicted better treatment outcome. Therapist-rated treatment agreement and adherence correspond well with patient-reported sleep diary-derived adherence measure. These simple, deployable therapist-rated patient agreement and adherence can potentially be useful for treatments for other disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Sharia Adherence Mosque Survey: Correlations between Sharia Adherence and Violent Dogma in U.S. Mosques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mordechai Kedar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A random survey of 100 representative mosques in the U.S. was conducted to measure the correlation between Sharia adherence and dogma calling for violence against non-believers.  Of the 100 mosques surveyed, 51% had texts on site rated as severely advocating violence; 30% had texts rated as moderately advocating violence; and 19% had no violent texts at all.  Mosques that presented as Sharia adherent were more likely to feature violence-positive texts on site than were their non-Sharia-adherent counterparts.  In 84.5% of the mosques, the imam recommended studying violence-positive texts.  The leadership at Sharia-adherent mosques was more likely to recommend that a worshipper study violence-positive texts than leadership at non-Sharia-adherent mosques.  Fifty-eight percent of the mosques invited guest imams known to promote violent jihad.  The leadership of mosques that featured violence-positive literature was more likely to invite guest imams who were known to promote violent jihad than was the leadership of mosques that did not feature violence-positive literature on mosque premises.  

  20. Examining adherence to components of cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety after training and consultation

    OpenAIRE

    Edmunds, Julie M.; Brodman, Douglas M.; Ringle, Vanesa A.; Read, Kendra L.; Kendall, Philip C.; Beidas, Rinad S.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined 115 service providers’ adherence to components of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth anxiety prior to training, post workshop training, and after three months of weekly consultation. Adherence was measured using a role-play with a trained actor. We examined differences in individual adherence to CBT components across time and the relationship between number of consultation sessions attended and adherence ratings following consultation. Findings indicated t...

  1. Adherence as a language game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolberg, Espen Skarstein

    2017-04-01

    Non-adherence, i.e. medication intake behavior not corresponding with agreed recommendations, is associated with increased morbidity and death, and it has been estimated that as many as 50% of patients in developed countries are not taking their medications as prescribed. But even as efforts in improving medication adherence over the years have increased, results are inconsistent, with only a minority of clinical trials showing any improvement in both adherence and clinical outcome. Since patient education is central to promoting good medication adherence, and language is integral to education, perhaps an exploration of the meaning and use of language, using the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein, is in order.

  2. Psychosocial adjustment and adherence to dialysis treatment regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownbridge, G; Fielding, D M

    1994-12-01

    Sixty children and adolescents in end-stage renal failure who were undergoing either haemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis at one of five United Kingdom dialysis centres were assessed on psychosocial adjustment and adherence to their fluid intake, diet and medication regimes. Parental adjustment was also measured and data on sociodemographic and treatment history variables collected. A structured family interview and standardised questionnaire measures of anxiety, depression and behavioural disturbance were used. Multiple measures of treatment adherence were obtained, utilising children's and parents' self-reports, weight gain between dialysis, blood pressure, serum potassium level, blood urea level, dietitians' surveys and consultants' ratings. Correlational analyses showed that low treatment adherence was associated with poor adjustment to diagnosis and dialysis by children and parents (P adherence than younger children, P dialysis (P treatment of this group of children. Future research should develop and evaluate psychosocial interventions aimed at improving treatment adherence.

  3. Medication adherence beliefs of U.S community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witry, Matthew J

    2018-05-01

    There is increasing attention on the role of community pharmacists in improving medication adherence. There is a need to better understand pharmacist attitudes and experiences related to this role. To assess community pharmacist perceptions of patient reasons for non-adherence, characterize the adherence beliefs of community pharmacists, and test if there are demographic predictors of pharmacists' self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and role beliefs related to intervening on medication non-adherence. A cross-sectional survey was mailed using a 4-contact approach to 1000 pharmacists practicing in 5 Midwestern U.S. States. The survey included seven domains to address the study objectives. Descriptive statistics were calculated for demographic items, coefficient alphas tested the internal consistency of scales, and multiple regression was used to test the relationship between demographics and scale means. There were 261 usable responses giving a 29% response rate. Pharmacists perceived forgetting and instructions changing without a new prescription to be the most common reasons for late refills. A minority of pharmacists agreed that non-adherence involves a deliberate decision or that negative medication beliefs were common reasons for late refills. Pharmacists were confident, had positive outcome expectations, and positive role beliefs related to interacting with patients who have adherence issues. Barriers to adherence intervention included difficulties with follow-up and documentation. Also, over half of the pharmacists reported that discussing adherence makes patients defensive. Pharmacists had positive attitudes toward intervening on medication non-adherence although barriers to intervention are present. Pharmacists perceived non-intentional reasons for late refills to be more prevalent than intentional reasons. Pharmacists may benefit from additional non-adherence communication training and support targeted at identifying a broader range of non-adherence

  4. Adherence to headache treatment and profile of previous health professional seeking among patients with chronic headache: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krymchantowski, Abouch Valenty; Adriano, Marcus Vinicius; de Góes, Renemilda; Moreira, Pedro Ferreira; da Cunha Jevoux, Carla

    2007-04-26

    Chronic headache is common among patients in neurology clinics. Patients may suffer important economic and social losses because of headaches, which may result in high expectations for treatment outcomes. When their treatment goals are not reached quickly, treatment may be difficult to maintain and patients may consult with numerous health professionals. This retrospective study evaluated the relationship between treatment and the profiles of previous health professionals consulted by patients in a tertiary headache center. The records were reviewed of all patients from a headache center who were seen in initial consultation between January 2000 and June 2003. Data related to patient demographic characteristics (sex and age), headache diagnosis, and the profile (quality and quantity) of previous healthcare consultations exclusively related to headache, were collected. The headache diagnoses were confirmed according to the IHS criteria (1988) and to the Silberstein criteria (1994,1996). Although adherence includes taking the prescribed medicines, discontinuing overused symptomatic medications, and changing behavior, among other things, for this study, adherence was defined as when the patient returned at least 2 times within a 3- to 3.5-month period. Patients were separated into groups depending on the number of different healthcare professionals they had consulted, from none to more than 7. Data from 495 patients were analyzed; 357 were women and 138 were men (ages 6 to 90 years; mean, 41.1 +/- 15.05 years). The headache diagnoses included migraine without aura (43.2%), chronic (transformed) migraine (40%), cluster headache (6.5%), episodic tension-type headache (0.8%), and hemicrania continua (0.4%). The 24.2% of patients who sought care from no more than 1 health professional showed a 59.8% adherence rate; 29% of the total had consulted 7 or more health professionals and showed an adherence rate of 74.3% (P = .0004). In Brazil, the belief is widespread that

  5. A systematic review of medication non-adherence in persons with dementia or cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Smith

    Full Text Available Adherence to medication is vital for disease management while simultaneously reducing healthcare expenditure. Older persons with cognitive impairment (CI are at risk for non-adherence as cognitive processes are needed to manage medications. This systematic review focuses on the relationship between medication non-adherence and specific cognitive domains in persons with CI, and explores determinants of medication non-adherence. When available, relationships and factors are compared with cognitively intact populations.A seven database systematic search of studies published between 1 January 1949-31 December 2015 examining medication non-adherence in community dwelling persons with CI or dementia was conducted. Articles reporting medication non-adherence in people with CI or dementia in the community, with or without caregiver supports were eligible for inclusion. Papers reporting adherence to treatments in cognitively intact populations, populations from hospital or institutional settings, for non-prescribed medication or those describing dementia as a factor predicting medication non-adherence were excluded. Data on study and population characteristics, research design, data sources and analysis, specific cognitive domains, non-adherence prevalence, measurement of adherence, salient findings, factors associated with adherence and strategies to improve medication adherence were extracted. Study limitations included inconsistencies between data sources and definitions, resulting in a loss of fidelity in the value and comprehensiveness of data, as well as exclusion of non-pharmacological treatments and regimens.Fifteen studies met inclusion criteria. Adherence among CI subjects ranged from 10.7%-38% with better rates of adherence in non-CI individuals. Medication non-adherence definitions varied considerably. New-learning, memory and executive functioning were associated with improved adherence and formed the focus of most studies. Multiple factors

  6. Tuberculosis Treatment Adherence of Patients in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaip Krasniqi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting. The poor patient adherence in tuberculosis (TB treatment is considered to be one of the most serious challenges which reflect the decrease of treatment success and emerging of the Multidrug Resistance-TB (MDR-TB. To our knowledge, the data about patients’ adherence to anti-TB treatment in our country are missing. Objective. This study was aimed to investigate the anti-TB treatment adherence rate and to identify factors related to eventual nonadherence among Kosovo TB patients. Design. This study was conducted during 12 months, and the survey was a descriptive study using the standardized questionnaires with total 324 patients. Results. The overall nonadherence for TB patient cohort was 14.5%, 95% CI (0.109–0.188. Age and place of residence are shown to have an effect on treatment adherence. Moreover, the knowledge of the treatment prognosis, daily dosage, side effects, and length of treatment also play a role. This was also reflected in knowledge regarding compliance with regular administration of TB drugs, satisfaction with the treatment, interruption of TB therapy, and the professional monitoring in the administration of TB drugs. Conclusion. The level of nonadherence TB treatment in Kosovar patients is not satisfying, and more health care worker’s commitments need to be addressed for improvement.

  7. Tuberculosis Treatment Adherence of Patients in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasniqi, Shaip; Jakupi, Arianit; Daci, Armond; Tigani, Bahri; Jupolli-Krasniqi, Nora; Pira, Mimoza; Zhjeqi, Valbona; Neziri, Burim

    2017-01-01

    The poor patient adherence in tuberculosis (TB) treatment is considered to be one of the most serious challenges which reflect the decrease of treatment success and emerging of the Multidrug Resistance-TB (MDR-TB). To our knowledge, the data about patients' adherence to anti-TB treatment in our country are missing. This study was aimed to investigate the anti-TB treatment adherence rate and to identify factors related to eventual nonadherence among Kosovo TB patients. This study was conducted during 12 months, and the survey was a descriptive study using the standardized questionnaires with total 324 patients. The overall nonadherence for TB patient cohort was 14.5%, 95% CI (0.109-0.188). Age and place of residence are shown to have an effect on treatment adherence. Moreover, the knowledge of the treatment prognosis, daily dosage, side effects, and length of treatment also play a role. This was also reflected in knowledge regarding compliance with regular administration of TB drugs, satisfaction with the treatment, interruption of TB therapy, and the professional monitoring in the administration of TB drugs. The level of nonadherence TB treatment in Kosovar patients is not satisfying, and more health care worker's commitments need to be addressed for improvement.

  8. Clonogenic assay: adherent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafehi, Haloom; Orlowski, Christian; Georgiadis, George T; Ververis, Katherine; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-03-13

    The clonogenic (or colony forming) assay has been established for more than 50 years; the original paper describing the technique was published in 1956. Apart from documenting the method, the initial landmark study generated the first radiation-dose response curve for X-ray irradiated mammalian (HeLa) cells in culture. Basically, the clonogenic assay enables an assessment of the differences in reproductive viability (capacity of cells to produce progeny; i.e. a single cell to form a colony of 50 or more cells) between control untreated cells and cells that have undergone various treatments such as exposure to ionising radiation, various chemical compounds (e.g. cytotoxic agents) or in other cases genetic manipulation. The assay has become the most widely accepted technique in radiation biology and has been widely used for evaluating the radiation sensitivity of different cell lines. Further, the clonogenic assay is commonly used for monitoring the efficacy of radiation modifying compounds and for determining the effects of cytotoxic agents and other anti-cancer therapeutics on colony forming ability, in different cell lines. A typical clonogenic survival experiment using adherent cells lines involves three distinct components, 1) treatment of the cell monolayer in tissue culture flasks, 2) preparation of single cell suspensions and plating an appropriate number of cells in petri dishes and 3) fixing and staining colonies following a relevant incubation period, which could range from 1-3 weeks, depending on the cell line. Here we demonstrate the general procedure for performing the clonogenic assay with adherent cell lines with the use of an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line (FEP-1811). Also, our aims are to describe common features of clonogenic assays including calculation of the plating efficiency and survival fractions after exposure of cells to radiation, and to exemplify modification of radiation-response with the use of a natural antioxidant

  9. Pricing strategies for combination pediatric vaccines based on the lowest overall cost formulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Banafsheh; Jacobson, Sheldon H; Sewell, Edward C

    2012-10-01

    This paper analyzes pricing strategies for US pediatric combination vaccines by comparing the lowest overall cost formularies (i.e., formularies that have the lowest overall cost). Three pharmaceutical companies compete pairwise over the sale of monovalent and combination vaccines. Particular emphasis is placed on examining the price of Sanofi Pasteur's DTaP-IPV/HIb under different conditions. The main contribution of the paper is to provide the lowest overall cost formularies for different prices of DTaP-IPV/HIb and other Sanofi Pasteur vaccines. The resulting analysis shows that DTaP-IPV/HIb could have been more competitively priced compared with the combination vaccine DTaP-HepB-IPV, for federal contract prices in 2009, 2010 and 2011. This study also proposes the lowest overall cost formularies when shortages of monovalent vaccines occur.

  10. Adherence to Biobehavioral Recommendations in Pediatric Migraine as Measured by Electronic Monitoring: The Adherence in Migraine (AIM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M; Ramsey, Rachelle; Aylward, Brandon; Kroner, John W; Sullivan, Stephanie M; Nause, Katie; Allen, Janelle R; Chamberlin, Leigh A; Slater, Shalonda; Hommel, Kevin; LeCates, Susan L; Kabbouche, Marielle A; O'Brien, Hope L; Kacperski, Joanne; Hershey, Andrew D; Powers, Scott W

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine treatment adherence to medication and lifestyle recommendations among pediatric migraine patients using electronic monitoring systems. Nonadherence to medical treatment is a significant public health concern, and can result in poorer treatment outcomes, decreased cost-effectiveness of medical care, and increased morbidity. No studies have systematically examined adherence to medication and lifestyle recommendations in adolescents with migraine outside of a clinical trial. Participants included 56 adolescents ages 11-17 who were presenting for clinical care. All were diagnosed with migraine with or without aura or chronic migraine and had at least 4 headache days per month. Medication adherence was objectively measured using electronic monitoring systems (Medication Event Monitoring Systems technology) and daily, prospective self-report via personal electronic devices. Adherence to lifestyle recommendations of regular exercise, eating, and fluid intake were also assessed using daily self-report on personal electronic devices. Electronic monitoring indicates that adolescents adhere to their medication 75% of the time, which was significantly higher than self-reported rates of medication adherence (64%). Use of electronic monitoring of medication detected rates of adherence that were significantly higher for participants taking once daily medication (85%) versus participants taking twice daily medication (59%). Average reported adherence to lifestyle recommendations of consistent noncaffeinated fluid intake (M = 5 cups per day) was below recommended levels of a minimum of 8 cups per day. Participants on average also reported skipping 1 meal per week despite recommendations of consistently eating three meals per day. Results suggest that intervention focused on adherence to preventive treatments (such as medication) and lifestyle recommendations may provide more optimal outcomes for children and adolescents with

  11. Antihypertensive Medications Adherence Among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hospital, Ogbomosho, 2Goshen Heart Clinic, Osogbo, 3Department of Economics, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria ... significant impact of antihypertensive medication adherence.[13]. The level of information provided to patients may also impact ..... Muntner P. New medication adherence scale versus pharmacy.

  12. Assessment of eight HPV vaccination programs implemented in lowest income countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ladner, Joël; Besson, Marie-Hélène; Hampshire, Rachel; Tapert, Lisa; Chirenje, Mike; Saba, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cervix cancer, preventable, continues to be the third most common cancer in women worldwide, especially in lowest income countries. Prophylactic HPV vaccination should help to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with cervical cancer. The purpose of the study was to describe the results of and key concerns in eight HPV vaccination programs conducted in seven lowest income countries through the Gardasil Access Program (GAP). Methods The GAP provides free HPV vaccin...

  13. Appointment length, psychiatrists' communication behaviors, and medication management appointment adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Mario; Roter, Debra L; Cruz, Robyn F; Wieland, Melissa; Larson, Susan; Cooper, Lisa A; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2013-09-01

    The authors explored the relationship between critical elements of medication management appointments (appointment length, patient-centered talk, and positive nonverbal affect among providers) and patient appointment adherence. The authors used an exploratory, cross-sectional design employing quantitative analysis of 83 unique audio recordings of split treatment medication management appointments for 46 African-American and 37 white patients with 24 psychiatrists at four ambulatory mental health clinics. All patients had a diagnosis of depression. Data collected included demographic information; Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores for depression severity; psychiatrist verbal and nonverbal communication behaviors during medication management appointments, identified by the Roter Interaction Analysis System during analysis of audio recordings; and appointment adherence. Bivariate analyses were employed to identify covariates that might influence appointment adherence. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were employed to assess the relationship between appointment length, psychiatrist patient-centered talk, and positive voice tone ratings and patient appointment adherence, while adjusting for covariates and the clustering of observations within psychiatrists. Wald chi square analyses were used to test whether all or some variables significantly influenced appointment adherence. GEE revealed a significant relationship between positive voice tone ratings and appointment adherence (p=.03). Chi square analyses confirmed the hypothesis of a positive and significant relationship between appointment adherence and positive voice tone ratings (p=.03) but not longer visit length and more patient-centered communication. The nonverbal conveyance of positive affect was associated with greater adherence to medication management appointments by depressed patients. These findings potentially have important implications for communication skills training and adherence research.

  14. Comparisons of Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in a High-Risk Population in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Huan

    Full Text Available Reports on antiretroviral therapy (ART adherence are scare in China; we performed this meta-analysis to estimate ART adherence rates in different populations at high risk for HIV transmission in China.We searched PubMed, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (Chinese, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (Chinese, and Wanfang (Chinese to identify studies published from January 1985 to May 2015. We used random-effects meta-analysis to calculate weighted mean estimates across studies and 95% CIs. Data were pooled with proportions transformed prior to pooling using the Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation and then back transformed to the original scale. We calculated the I2 (and its 95% confidence intervals and tau2 to assess between-study heterogeneity.We identified 36 eligible articles, including 6885 HIV-positive individuals, reporting ART adherence. Pooled analysis produced an estimate of 77.61% (95% CI = 71.63-83.08 of patients with HIV with adequate adherence; however, high heterogeneity was observed between studies (I2 = 96.60%, 95%CI = 96.00%-97.20%; tau2 = 0.16. Three studies, which included 149 old HIV-infected patients, reported the highest ART adequate adherence rate (89.39%, 95% CI = 72.01-99.26 with high heterogeneity between the studies (I2 = 86.20%, 95%CI = 60.00-95.20%; tau2 = 0.13. While, only two studies, which included 143 heterosexual transmission group (HTG patients, reported the lowest ART adequate adherence rate (51.55%, 95% CI = 41.33-61.71 with low heterogeneity between the studies (I2 = 31.3%, tau2 = 0.007. In the multivariable meta-regression model, high-risk populations was the main factor explaining heterogeneity (variance explained 28.14%.ART adherence in some high-risk populations (e.g., heterosexual transmission group is below the recommended levels for maintaining virologic suppression. It is crucial to develop comprehensive intervention strategies to promote ART adherence in high-risk populations and

  15. Testing ΛCDM at the lowest redshifts with SN Ia and galaxy velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huterer, Dragan; Shafer, Daniel L. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Scolnic, Daniel M. [University of Chicago, Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Schmidt, Fabian, E-mail: huterer@umich.edu, E-mail: dshafer2@jhu.edu, E-mail: dscolnic@kicp.uchicago.edu, E-mail: fabians@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-05-01

    Peculiar velocities of objects in the nearby universe are correlated due to the gravitational pull of large-scale structure. By measuring these velocities, we have a unique opportunity to test the cosmological model at the lowest redshifts. We perform this test, using current data to constrain the amplitude of the ''signal'' covariance matrix describing the velocities and their correlations. We consider a new, well-calibrated ''Supercal'' set of low-redshift SNe Ia as well as a set of distances derived from the fundamental plane relation of 6dFGS galaxies. Analyzing the SN and galaxy data separately, both results are consistent with the peculiar velocity signal of our fiducial ΛCDM model, ruling out the noise-only model with zero peculiar velocities at greater than 7σ (SNe) and 8σ (galaxies). When the two data sets are combined appropriately, the precision of the test increases slightly, resulting in a constraint on the signal amplitude of A = 1.05{sub −0.21}{sup +0.25}, where A = 1 corresponds to our fiducial model. Equivalently, we report an 11% measurement of the product of the growth rate and amplitude of mass fluctuations evaluated at z {sub eff} = 0.02, f σ{sub 8} = 0.428{sub −0.045}{sup +0.048}, valid for our fiducial ΛCDM model. We explore the robustness of the results to a number of conceivable variations in the analysis and find that individual variations shift the preferred signal amplitude by less than ∼0.5σ. We briefly discuss our Supercal SN Ia results in comparison with our previous results using the JLA compilation.

  16. Adherence to dietary recommendations for Swedish adults across categories of greenhouse gas emissions from food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjörs, Camilla; Hedenus, Fredrik; Sjölander, Arvid; Tillander, Annika; Bälter, Katarina

    2017-12-01

    To explore associations between diet-related greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), nutrient intakes and adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations among Swedish adults. Diet was assessed by 4d food records in the Swedish National Dietary Survey. GHGE was estimated by linking all foods to carbon dioxide equivalents, using data from life cycle assessment studies. Participants were categorized into quartiles of energy-adjusted GHGE and differences between GHGE groups regarding nutrient intakes and adherence to nutrient recommendations were explored. Sweden. Women (n 840) and men (n 627) aged 18-80 years. Differences in nutrient intakes and adherence to nutrient recommendations between GHGE groups were generally small. The dietary intake of participants with the lowest emissions was more in line with recommendations regarding protein, carbohydrates, dietary fibre and vitamin D, but further from recommendations regarding added sugar, compared with the highest GHGE group. The overall adherence to recommendations was found to be better among participants with lower emissions compared with higher emissions. Among women, 27 % in the lowest GHGE group adhered to at least twenty-three recommendations compared with only 12 % in the highest emission group. For men, the corresponding figures were 17 and 10 %, respectively. The study compared nutrient intakes as well as adherence to dietary recommendations for diets with different levels of GHGE from a national dietary survey. We found that participants with low-emission diets, despite higher intake of added sugar, adhered to a larger number of dietary recommendations than those with high emissions.

  17. Psychosocial Characteristics Associated with Both Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence and Risk Behaviors in Women Living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; Spangler, Sydney; Higgins, Melinda; Dalmida, Safiya George; Sharma, Sanjay

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify key psychosocial characteristics of HIV-infected women who exhibit different levels of both ART adherence and risk behaviors. We analyzed baseline data from 193 predominately African American HIV-infected women participating in a behavioral clinical trial. Women were categorized into high/low groups based on levels of adherence and risky behaviors. There was a significant interaction effect for internal motivation for adherence. Women at high risk for poor health and transmitting HIV (low adherence/high risk group) had the lowest levels of internal motivation and also reported more difficult life circumstances. Gender roles, caretaking and reliance on men for economic and other support may promote external versus internal motivation as well as riskier behaviors in this group. The highest levels of internal motivation were found in those with High Adherence/High Risk behaviors. This group was highly knowledgeable about HIV and had the lowest VL. Compared to others, this group seems to tolerate risky behaviors given their high level of adherence. Adherence and risk reduction behaviors are key to individual and public health. Motivation and risk compensation should be addressed when providing interventions to women living with HIV.

  18. What strategies do ulcerative colitis patients employ to facilitate adherence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawakami A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aki Kawakami,1,2 Makoto Tanaka,3 Makoto Naganuma,4 Shin Maeda,5 Reiko Kunisaki,1 Noriko Yamamoto-Mitani2 1Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Minami-ku, Yokohama, Japan; 2Department of Gerontological Home Care and Long-term Care Nursing, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 3Ramathibodi School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Ratchathewi, Bangkok, Thailand; 4Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Keio University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Gastroenterology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Japan Background: Overall, 30%–45% of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC are non-adherent and have difficulties taking their medications; this non-adherence increases the risk of clinical relapse 1.4- to 5.5-fold. This study aimed to clarify the strategies patients employ to facilitate adherence and determine whether the strategies had an impact on good adherence.Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire and review of medical records. Patients diagnosed as having UC and attending one of the outpatient clinics of four urban hospitals from June 2009 to December 2012 were enrolled. A questionnaire was developed to identify the strategies patients employ to facilitate adherence and then administered to patients with UC. Adherence to 5-aminosalicylic acid was calculated, and univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the strategies that were associated with good adherence.Results: The final analyses included 671 participants (mean age 40.2 years; 54.3% males. The valid response rate was 96.9%; 186 (27.7% participants were classified as non-adherent, the mean adherence rate being 86.1% (standard deviation [SD] 17.9. Seven strategies that patients employ to facilitate adherence were identified, the

  19. Adhered Supported Carbon Nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Dale F.; Craft, Benjamin J.; Jaffe, Stephen M.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (NTs) in excess of 200 μm long are grown by catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbon vapors. The nanotubes grow continuously without the typical extinction due to catalyst encapsulation. A woven metal mesh supports the nanotubes creating a metal supported nanotube (MSNT) structure. The 140 μm wide mesh openings are completely filled by 70 nm diameter multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs). The MWNTs are straight, uniform and highly crystalline. Their wall thickness is about 10 nm (30 graphite layers). The adherent NTs are not removed from the support in a Scotch tape pull test. A 12.5 cm 2 capacitor made from two MSNT structures immersed in 1 M KCl has a capacitance of 0.35 F and an equivalent series resistance of 0.18 Ω. Water flows through the MSNT at a flow velocity of 1 cm/min with a pressure drop of 15 inches of water. With the support removed, the MWNTs naturally form a carbon nanocomposite (CNC) paper with a specific area of 80 m 2 /gm, a bulk density of 0.21 g/cm 3 , an open pore fraction of 0.81, and a resistivity of 0.16 Ω-cm

  20. Exercise after Stroke: Patient Adherence and Beliefs after Discharge from Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kristine K; Porter, Rebecca E; DeBaun-Sprague, Erin; Van Puymbroeck, Marieke; Schmid, Arlene A

    2017-03-01

    Most people complete post-stroke rehabilitation within the first 6 months after stroke even though benefits from exercise are believed to persist well beyond 6 months. Physical and Occupational therapists provide home exercise programs (HEP) to instruct patients on exercises to continue after discharge from rehabilitation. Unfortunately, there is little known about HEP adherence rates in adults with stroke. The objectives of this project were to (1) determine the adherence rate with post-rehabilitation HEP and reasons for non-adherence, (2) assess for interactions between HEP adherence and self-report of depression and fatigue, and (3) determine patient beliefs about the benefit of exercise during stroke recovery. This was a cross-sectional, survey study. A survey was developed and distributed during stroke support group meetings to determine adherence rates with post rehabilitation HEP, reasons for non-adherence, and patient beliefs about the benefit of exercise. Eighty-nine percent of participants reported receiving a HEP and 65.3% of those reported being adherent with at least part of the HEP. Several reasons for non-adherence were identified, including 'doing different exercises than the ones given by the physical therapist', as the most frequently given reason. Study participants identified positive roles of exercise in their recovery from stroke. Patient adherence with HEP after discharge from rehabilitation is less than ideal. Reasons for non-adherence are varied. Rehabilitation therapists need to be able to identify and help patients manage barriers to HEP adherence to promote management of residual deficits.

  1. Clustering based on adherence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwuwa-Muyingo, Sylvia; Oja, Hannu; Walker, Sarah A; Ilmonen, Pauliina; Levin, Jonathan; Todd, Jim

    2011-03-08

    Adherence to a medical treatment means the extent to which a patient follows the instructions or recommendations by health professionals. There are direct and indirect ways to measure adherence which have been used for clinical management and research. Typically adherence measures are monitored over a long follow-up or treatment period, and some measurements may be missing due to death or other reasons. A natural question then is how to describe adherence behavior over the whole period in a simple way. In the literature, measurements over a period are usually combined just by using averages like percentages of compliant days or percentages of doses taken. In the paper we adapt an approach where patient adherence measures are seen as a stochastic process. Repeated measures are then analyzed as a Markov chain with finite number of states rather than as independent and identically distributed observations, and the transition probabilities between the states are assumed to fully describe the behavior of a patient. The patients can then be clustered or classified using their estimated transition probabilities. These natural clusters can be used to describe the adherence of the patients, to find predictors for adherence, and to predict the future events. The new approach is illustrated and shown to be useful with a simple analysis of a data set from the DART (Development of AntiRetroviral Therapy in Africa) trial in Uganda and Zimbabwe.

  2. MONETARY EXPECTATIONS OF THE ROMANIAN EXECUTIVES REGARDING THE ADHERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona DUMITRIU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the monetary expectations induced to the managers of Romanian firms by adheration. It is based on an investigation among twenty Romanian executives regarding the impact on adheration over monetary aspects: inflation, exchange rates and adoption of euro. We conclude that the results of the monetary policy in the last years made the executives confident that the Romanian authorities could maintain the monetary stability after theadheration.

  3. Electron mobility on the surface of liquid Helium: influence of surface level atoms and depopulation of lowest subbands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, P. D.; Dyugaev, A. M.; Lebedeva, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    The temperature dependence of electron mobility is examined. We calculate the contribution to the electron scattering rate from the surface level atoms (SLAs), proposed in [10]. This contribution is substantial at low temperatures T < 0.5, when the He vapor concentration is exponentially small. We also study the effect of depopulation of the lowest energy subband, which leads to an increase in the electron mobility at high temperature. The results explain certain long-standing discrepancies between the existing theory and experiment on electron mobility on the surface of liquid helium

  4. The therapeutic relationship and adherence to antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie McCabe

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous research has shown that a better therapeutic relationship (TR predicts more positive attitudes towards antipsychotic medication, but did not address whether it is also linked with actual adherence. This study investigated whether the TR is associated with adherence to antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: 134 clinicians and 507 of their patients with schizophrenia or a related psychotic disorder participated in a European multi-centre study. A logistic regression model examined how the TR as rated by patients and by clinicians is associated with medication adherence, adjusting for clinician clustering and symptom severity. RESULTS: Patient and clinician ratings of the TR were weakly inter-correlated (r(s = 0.13, p = 0.004, but each was independently linked with better adherence. After adjusting for patient rated TR and symptom severity, each unit increase in clinician rated TR was associated with an increase of the odds ratio of good compliance by 65.9% (95% CI: 34.6% to 104.5%. After adjusting for clinician rated TR and symptom severity, for each unit increase in patient rated TR the odds ratio of good compliance was increased by 20.8% (95% CI: 4.4% to 39.8%. CONCLUSIONS: A better TR is associated with better adherence to medication among patients with schizophrenia. Patients' and clinicians' perspectives of the TR are both important, but may reflect distinct aspects.

  5. Two character traits associated with adherence to long term therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reach, Gérard

    2012-10-01

    Adherence is defined as the adequacy between the behaviours of patients and their medical prescriptions. Adherence is a general behaviour, which can explain why patients in the placebo arm of randomised clinical trials have a lower mortality rate when they are adherent. We propose that this behaviour is related to two character traits: patience (capacity to give priority to the future) and, more provocatively, obedience. To support this claim, we bring arguments from the literature and from two published personal studies. We previously showed that type 2 diabetic patients who respond as non-adherers to a questionnaire on adherence to medication and to whom one proposes a fictitious monetary choice between receiving 500 euros today or waiting one year to receive 1500 euros never make the remote choice. We also showed that obese diabetic patients who declare that they do not fasten their seat belt when they are seated in the rear of a car are more often non-adherent concerning medication than those patients who claim that they follow this road safety recommendation. Thus, one of the roles of empowerment and patient education could be to encourage the patients, if they wish it, to replace passive adherence behaviours with conscious active choices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of documented medication non-adherence in physician notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchin, Alexander; Wheeler, Holly I; Labreche, Matthew; Chu, Julia T; Pendergrass, Merri L; Einbinder, Jonathan S; Einbinder, Jonathan Seth

    2008-11-06

    Medication non-adherence is common and the physicians awareness of it may be an important factor in clinical decision making. Few sources of data on physician awareness of medication non-adherence are available. We have designed an algorithm to identify documentation of medication non-adherence in the text of physician notes. The algorithm recognizes eight semantic classes of documentation of medication non-adherence. We evaluated the algorithm against manual ratings of 200 randomly selected notes of hypertensive patients. The algorithm detected 89% of the notes with documented medication non-adherence with specificity of 84.7% and positive predictive value of 80.2%. In a larger dataset of 1,000 documents, notes that documented medication non-adherence were more likely to report significantly elevated systolic (15.3% vs. 9.0%; p = 0.002) and diastolic (4.1% vs. 1.9%; p = 0.03) blood pressure. This novel clinically validated tool expands the range of information on medication non-adherence available to researchers.

  7. Concept for lowest emissions of a hydrogen internal combustion engine; Niedrigstemissionskonzept fuer einen wasserstoffbetriebenen Verbrennungsmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, Marcel Christian Thomas

    2012-03-15

    This paper describes a concept with lowest emissions for a hydrogen internal combustion engine for passenger cars. With optimisation of the combustion concept the level of nitrogen oxide is below 90%, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide below 99% of the SULEV target (CARB). This concept enables a potential in power density that is comparable to current supercharged combustion engines at lowest emission level without catalytic aftertreatment. Additionally with a catalytic aftertreatment system, the emission level of a current hydrogen combustion engine (mono-fuel) is lowered to a level, that this car can be labeled as air cleaning vehicle for hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

  8. Therapist adherence is associated with outcome in cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folke, Sofie; Daniel, Sarah I F; Gondan, Matthias; Lunn, Susanne; Tækker, Louise; Poulsen, Stig

    2017-06-01

    Studies of therapist adherence in relation to treatment outcome have produced mixed results. The aim of the present study was to investigate change in therapist adherence to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for bulimia nervosa over time, and to investigate the relationship between adherence and client outcome in early, middle, and late phases of treatment. Thirty-six clients received the focused form of "enhanced" CBT (CBT-E) for bulimia nervosa. Trained observers rated audiotapes of 92 full-length therapy sessions from early (Session 3), middle (Session 11), and late phases (Session 20) of treatment using the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Treatment Protocol Adherence Scale. Change in adherence across the 3 treatment phases was examined using multilevel analysis. The relationship between early, middle, and late adherence levels and end-of-treatment binging frequency was examined using multilevel Poisson regression analysis. Adherence decreased significantly over the course of treatment. Higher levels of therapist adherence in early and middle phases of treatment were associated with reduced binging frequency, whereas higher levels of adherence measured late in treatment was not. Results indicate that therapists' adherence to the CBT-E treatment protocol decreases over time and that high levels of protocol adherence in early and middle phases of treatment are more important for positive client outcomes than high levels of adherence in the end of treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Non-adherence to topical treatments for actinic keratosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shergill B

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bav Shergill,1 Simon Zokaie,2 Alison J Carr3 1Department of Dermatology, Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals, Elm Grove, Brighton, UK; 2Leo Pharma, Princes Risborough, 3Hamell, London, UK Background: There is limited information on the patterns of use, adherence rates, and factors that impact adherence with topical treatments for actinic keratosis (AK. Objectives: To establish patterns of use and adherence with topical treatments for AK and to identify treatment-related factors that impact on adherence. Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional study was performed using a standardized questionnaire completed online or via telephone interview. Patients were stratified according to the presence of AK lesions on the scalp and/or other extremities; and presence of scarring resulting from treatment. Results: This study included 305 patients with AK who were currently using a patient-applied topical therapy for AK or had used one within the previous 12 months. In total, 88% (n = 268/305 of patients were either non-adherent, non-persistent or both non-adherent and non-persistent to topical therapy. Duration of treatment was associated with increasing rates of non-adherence (adjusted odds ratio [OR]; for treatment durations greater than 4 weeks, 2.2, P < 0.01: 52% of patients were non-adherent with 3–4 week treatment duration; 69% of patients with 4–8 week treatment duration; and 71% of patients with 6–12 week treatment duration. There were similar increases in non-persistence with increasing treatment duration (adjusted OR; for treatment durations greater than 4 weeks, 2.1, P < 0.05. Conclusion: This study found high rates of non-adherence and non-persistence in patients with AK. Duration of treatment was a significant factor contributing to non-adherence and non-persistence to topical treatments. Patient-applied topical therapies that require less frequent application and have shorter treatment duration may be associated with improved

  10. Association of Continuity of Primary Care and Statin Adherence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Warren

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in medication adherence are a major barrier to effectiveness of chronic condition management. Continuity of primary care may promote adherence. We assessed the association of continuity of primary care with adherence to long-term medication as exemplified by statins.We linked data from a prospective study of 267,091 Australians aged 45 years and over to national data sets on prescription reimbursements, general practice claims, hospitalisations and deaths. For participants having a statin dispense within 90 days of study entry, we computed medication possession ratio (MPR and usual provider continuity index (UPI for the subsequent two years. We used multivariate Poisson regression to calculate the relative risk (RR and 95% confidence interval (CI for the association between tertiles of UPI and MPR adjusted for socio-demographic and health-related patient factors, including age, gender, remoteness of residence, smoking, alcohol intake, fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, prior heart disease and speaking a language other than English at home. We performed a comparison approach using propensity score matching on a subset of the sample.36,144 participants were eligible and included in the analysis among whom 58% had UPI greater than 75%. UPI was significantly associated with 5% increased MPR for statin adherence (95% CI 1.04-1.06 for highest versus lowest tertile. Dichotomised analysis using a cut-off of UPI at 75% showed a similar effect size. The association between UPI and statin adherence was independent of socio-demographic and health-related factors. Stratification analyses further showed a stronger association among those who were new to statins (RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.15-1.54.Greater continuity of care has a positive association with medication adherence for statins which is independent of socio-demographic and health-related factors.

  11. Association of Continuity of Primary Care and Statin Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, James R; Falster, Michael O; Tran, Bich; Jorm, Louisa

    2015-01-01

    Deficiencies in medication adherence are a major barrier to effectiveness of chronic condition management. Continuity of primary care may promote adherence. We assessed the association of continuity of primary care with adherence to long-term medication as exemplified by statins. We linked data from a prospective study of 267,091 Australians aged 45 years and over to national data sets on prescription reimbursements, general practice claims, hospitalisations and deaths. For participants having a statin dispense within 90 days of study entry, we computed medication possession ratio (MPR) and usual provider continuity index (UPI) for the subsequent two years. We used multivariate Poisson regression to calculate the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between tertiles of UPI and MPR adjusted for socio-demographic and health-related patient factors, including age, gender, remoteness of residence, smoking, alcohol intake, fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, prior heart disease and speaking a language other than English at home. We performed a comparison approach using propensity score matching on a subset of the sample. 36,144 participants were eligible and included in the analysis among whom 58% had UPI greater than 75%. UPI was significantly associated with 5% increased MPR for statin adherence (95% CI 1.04-1.06) for highest versus lowest tertile. Dichotomised analysis using a cut-off of UPI at 75% showed a similar effect size. The association between UPI and statin adherence was independent of socio-demographic and health-related factors. Stratification analyses further showed a stronger association among those who were new to statins (RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.15-1.54). Greater continuity of care has a positive association with medication adherence for statins which is independent of socio-demographic and health-related factors.

  12. Improving adherence to antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nischal K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy (ART has transformed HIV infection into a treatable, chronic condition. However, the need to continue treatment for decades rather than years, calls for a long-term perspective of ART. Adherence to the regimen is essential for successful treatment and sustained viral control. Studies have indicated that at least 95% adherence to ART regimens is optimal. It has been demonstrated that a 10% higher level of adherence results in a 21% reduction in disease progression. The various factors affecting success of ART are social aspects like motivation to begin therapy, ability to adhere to therapy, lifestyle pattern, financial support, family support, pros and cons of starting therapy and pharmacological aspects like tolerability of the regimen, availability of the drugs. Also, the regimen′s pill burden, dosing frequency, food requirements, convenience, toxicity and drug interaction profile compared with other regimens are to be considered before starting ART. The lack of trust between clinician and patient, active drug and alcohol use, active mental illness (e.g. depression, lack of patient education and inability of patients to identify their medications, lack of reliable access to primary medical care or medication are considered to be predictors of inadequate adherence. Interventions at various levels, viz. patient level, medication level, healthcare level and community level, boost adherence and overall outcome of ART.

  13. Belonging to a peer support group enhance the quality of life and adherence rate in patients affected by breast cancer: A non-randomized controlled clinical trialFNx01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Malekpour Tehrani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. It seems that breast cancer patients benefit from meeting someone who had a similar experience. This study evaluated the effect of two kinds of interventions (peer support and educational program on quality of life in breast cancer patients. Methods: This study was a controlled clinical trial on women with non-metastatic breast cancer. The patients studied in two experimental and control groups. Experimental group took part in peer support program and control group passed a routine educational program during 3 months. The authors administered SF-36 for evaluating the quality of life pre-and post intervention. Also, patient′s adherence was assessed by means of a simple checklist. Results: Two groups were similar with respect of age, age of onset of the disease, duration of having breast cancer, marital status, type of the treatment receiving now, and type of the received surgery. In the control group, there were statistically significant improvements in body pain, role-physical, role-emotional and social functioning. In experimental group, role-physical, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional and mental health showed significant improvement. Vitality score and mental health score in experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group, both with p < 0.001. Also, it was shown that adherence was in high levels in both groups and no significant difference was seen after the study was done. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, supporting the patients with breast cancer by forming peer groups or by means of educational sessions could improve their life qualities.

  14. Lowest instrumented vertebra selection in Lenke 3C and 6C scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yu; Bünger, Cody; Zhang, Yanqun

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not post-op curve behaviour differs due to different choices of lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV) with reference to lumbar apical vertebra (LAV) in Lenke 3C and 6C scoliosis. METHODS: We reviewed all the AIS cases surgically treated...... it can yield similar correction while preserving more lumbar mobility and growth potential....

  15. Excitation energy of the lowest 2+ and 3- levels in 32Mg and 146Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barranco, M.; Lombard, R.J.

    1978-06-01

    The excitation energy of the lowest 2 + and 3 - levels are calculated for neutron rich Mg-isotopes as well as for N=82 isotones. The calculations are made by assuming quadrupole-quadrupole and octupole-octupole forces. The quasi-particles energies and occupation numbers are taken from the energy density method

  16. The DTU15 MSS (Mean Sea Surface) and DTU15LAT (Lowest Astronomical Tide) reference surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Stenseng, Lars; Piccioni, Gaia

    in the Arctic Ocean for DTU10MSS and DTU13MSS.A new reference surface for off-shore vertical referencing is introduced. This is called the DTU15LAT.The surface is derived from the DTU15MSS and the DTU10 Global ocean tide to give a 19 year Lowest Astronomical Tide referenced to either the Mean sea surface...

  17. How Effective Are Community College Remedial Math Courses for Students with the Lowest Math Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Di; Dadgar, Mina

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the effectiveness of remediation for community college students who are identified as having the lowest skills in math. Method: We use transcript data from a state community college system and take advantage of a regression discontinuity design that compares statistically identical students who are assigned to the…

  18. Degeneracy of the lowest Landau level and suq(2) on the Poincare half plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jellal, A.

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that the presence of the quantum group symmetry su q (2) in the quantum Hall effect on the Poincare upper half plane the degeneracy of the lowest Landau level. It is also shown that the relation between the degeneracy and the cyclic representation of su q (2) appears in accordance with q being a kth root of unity. (Authors)

  19. Fine structure of the lowest Landau level in suspended trilayer graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elferen, H. J.; Veligura, A.; Tombros, N.; Kurganova, E. V.; van Wees, B. J.; Maan, J. C.; Zeitler, U.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetotransport experiments on ABC-stacked suspended trilayer graphene reveal a complete splitting of the 12-fold degenerated lowest Landau level, and, in particular, the opening of an exchange-driven gap at the charge neutrality point. A quantitative analysis of distinctness of the quantum Hall

  20. Award of Construction Contracts: Public Institutions' Authority to Select the Lowest Responsible Bidder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Elsa Kircher; Goldblatt, Steven M.

    1989-01-01

    The article describes the responsibilities of public colleges and universities to award construction contracts to the lowest responsible bidder; discusses the purpose of bid statutes; and lists the factors institutions should consider in determining a bidder's responsibility. Also covered are the standard of review and due process rights of the…

  1. Structure of the lowest excited 0/sup +/ rotational band of /sup 16/O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikebata, Yasuhiko; Suekane, Shota

    1983-10-01

    The structure of the lowest excited 0/sup +/ rotational band is investigated by using the extended Nilsson model wave functions with angular momentum projection and the B1 interaction, two-body LS-force of the Skyrme type and the Coulomb interaction. The results obtained show good agreement with energy interval in this band.

  2. Correlation between the use of 'over-the-counter' medicines and adherence in elderly patients on multiple medications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Charlotte; Harbig, Philipp; Barat, Ishay

    2014-01-01

    (herbal medicines, dietary supplements, or non-prescribed drugs) was elicited during home visit interviews. Prescription drug adherence was determined by pill counts. A patient was categorised as non-adherent if the mean adherence rate for all drugs consumed was ... to be adherent than were non-users (odds ratio 0.41; 95 % confidence interval 0.18–0.91). Sensitivity analyses where adherence was defined different show no relationship between adherence and use of OTC medicine. Furthermore, separate analyses of herbal medicines, dietary supplements, or non-prescribed drugs did...... not correlate with adherence to prescriptions. Conclusion Amongst elderly patients on multiple medications a positive relationship was found between the overall use of OTC medicines and adherence to prescription drugs, in contrast to none when adherence were defined different or herbal medicines, dietary...

  3. Adherence to Medical Cannabis Among Licensed Patients in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, Yuval; Baruch, Yehuda; Reuveni, Haim; Magnezi, Racheli

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate adherence among Israeli patients who are licensed to use medical cannabis and to identify factors associated with adherence to medical cannabis. Methods: Ninety-five novice licensed patients were interviewed for this cross-sectional study. The questionnaire measured demographics, the perceived patient-physician relationship, and the level of patients' active involvement in their healthcare. In addition, patients were queried about adverse effect(s) and about their overall satisfaction from this medical treatment. Results: Eighty percent ( n =76) has been identified as adherent to medical cannabis use. Variables found associated with adherence were "country of origin" (immigrant status), "type of illness" (cancer vs. non-cancer), and "experiencing adverse effect(s)." Three predictors of adherence were found significant in a logistic regression model: "type of illness" (odds ratio [OR] 0.101), patient-physician relationship (OR 1.406), and level of patient activation (OR 1.132). 71.5% rated themselves being "completely satisfied" or "satisfied" from medical cannabis use. Conclusions: Our findings show a relatively high adherence rate for medical cannabis, as well as relative safety and high satisfaction among licensed patients. Additionally indicated is the need to develop and implement standardized education about this evolving field-to both patients and physicians.

  4. In vitro adherence of bacteria to prosthetic grafting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, A.R.; Stromberg, B.V.

    1990-01-01

    Adherence of bacteria to prosthetic grafting material is thought to play an important role in the ultimate development of prosthetic infections. To evaluate the role of bacterial adherence in the initiation and colonization of prosthetic materials, Proplast II, Gore-Tex, and silicone were evaluated for adherence of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteria were radiolabeled and incubated with the study material. Adherence was determined by scintillation. Adherence to Proplast II and Gore-Tex reached a maximum at approximately 45 minutes of incubation and demonstrated a detachment phenomenon with E. coli. Similar results were noted with S. aureus, but with a maximal attachment at approximately 30 minutes. Interestingly, bacterial attachment to silicone continued to increase throughout the time of the incubation. In addition, adherence of S. aureus was at a faster rate than E. coli. Attachment of bacteria is a multifactorial process. However, the PTFE graft demonstrates a slower rate of attachment, lower total number of attached bacteria, and faster detachment. The importance of this phenomenon may help explain the foreign body effect of increased susceptibility to infection of foreign materials

  5. A pilot investigation of a mobile phone application and progressive reminder system to improve adherence to daily prevention treatment in adolescents and young adults with migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Rachelle R; Holbein, Christina E; Powers, Scott W; Hershey, Andrew D; Kabbouche, Marielle A; O'Brien, Hope L; Kacperski, Joanne; Shepard, Jeffrey; Hommel, Kevin A

    2018-01-01

    Background Effective management of migraine requires adherence to treatment recommendations; however, adolescents with migraine take their daily medications only 75% of the time. Low-cost adherence-focused interventions using technology may improve adherence, but have not been investigated. Methods Thirty-five adolescents and young adults (13-21 years) with migraine participated in an AB-design pilot study to assess the use of a mobile phone adherence-promotion application ("app") and progressive reminder system. Adherence was calculated using electronic monitoring during the baseline period and medication adherence intervention. Results Relative to baseline, adherence significantly improved during the first month of the intervention. Specifically, improvements existed for older participants with lower baseline adherence. Self-reported app-based adherence rates were significantly lower than electronically monitored adherence rates. Participants rated the intervention as acceptable and easy to use. Conclusions "Apps" have the potential to improve medication adherence and are a promising intervention for adolescents and young adults with low adherence. Involving parents in the intervention is also helpful. Providers should assess barriers to adherence and use of technology-based interventions, encourage parents to incorporate behavioral incentives, and provide referrals for more intensive interventions to improve long-term outcomes. Further, tracking adherence in an app may result in an underestimation of adherence. Future full-scale studies should be conducted to examine adherence promotion app interventions.

  6. An integrative review of the methodology and findings regarding dietary adherence in end stage kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kelly; Mullan, Judy; Mansfield, Kylie

    2017-10-23

    Dietary modification is an important component of the management of end stage kidney disease (ESKD). The diet for ESKD involves modifying energy and protein intake, and altering sodium, phosphate, potassium and fluid intake. There have been no comprehensive reviews to date on this topic. The aims of this integrative review were to (i) describe the methods used to measure dietary adherence (ii) determine the rate of dietary adherence and (iii) describe factors associated with dietary adherence in ESKD. The Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched using the search terms 'adherence' and 'end stage kidney disease'. Of the 787 potentially eligible papers retrieved, 60 papers of 24,743 patients were included in this review. Of these papers, 44 reported the rate of dietary adherence and 44 papers described factors associated with adherence. Most of the evidence regarding dietary adherence is derived from studies of hemodialysis patients (72% of patients). The most common method of measuring dietary adherence in ESKD was subjective techniques (e.g. food diaries or adherence questionnaires). This was followed by indirect methods (e.g. serum potassium, phosphate or interdialytic weight gain). The weighted mean adherence rate to ESKD dietary recommendations was 31.5% and 68.5% for fluid recommendations. Adherence to protein, sodium, phosphate, and potassium recommendations were highly variable due to differences in measurement methods used, and were often derived from a limited evidence base. Socioeconomic status, age, social support and self-efficacy were associated with dietary adherence. However, factors such as taste, the impact of the diet on social eating occasions; and dietetic staffing also appear to play a role in dietary adherence. Dietary adherence rates in people with ESKD are suboptimal. Further research is required on dietary adherence in patients with ESKD from different social, educational, economic and ethnic groups. This research may identify other

  7. Electronic Adherence Monitoring in a High-Utilizing Pediatric Asthma Cohort: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chén Collin; Chang, Joyce; Wynter, Sheri-Ann; Fowler, Jessica C; Long, Jin; Bryant-Stephens, Tyra C

    2016-06-22

    Inner-city, minority children with asthma have the highest rates of morbidity and death from asthma and the lowest rates of asthma controller medication adherence. Some recent electronic medication monitoring interventions demonstrated dramatic improvements in adherence in lower-risk populations. The feasibility and acceptability of such an intervention in the highest-risk children with asthma has not been studied. Our objective was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a community health worker-delivered electronic adherence monitoring intervention among the highest utilizers of acute asthma care in an inner-city practice. This was a prospective cohort pilot study targeting children with the highest frequency of asthma-related emergency department and hospital care within a local managed care Medicaid plan. The 3-month intervention included motivational interviewing, electronic monitoring of controller and rescue inhaler use, and outreach by a community health worker for predefined medication alerts. We measured acceptability by using a modified technology acceptability model and changes in asthma control using the Asthma Control Test (ACT). Given prominent feasibility issues, we describe qualitative patterns of medication use at baseline only. We enrolled 14 non-Hispanic black children with a median age of 3.5 years. Participants averaged 7.8 emergency or hospital visits in the year preceding enrollment. We observed three distinct patterns of baseline controller use: 4 patients demonstrated sustained use, 5 patients had periodic use, and 5 patients lapsed within 2 weeks. All participants initiated use of the electronic devices; however, no modem signal was transmitted for 5 or the 14 participants after a mean of 45 days. Of the 9 (64% of total) caregivers who completed the final study visit, all viewed the electronic monitoring device favorably and would recommend it to friends, and 5 (56%) believed that the device helped to improve asthma control. ACT

  8. Physician reported adherence to immunosuppressants in renal transplant patients: Prevalence, agreement, and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, Selma; Bertram, Anna; Zimmermann, Tanja; Schiffer, Mario; de Zwaan, Martina

    2015-11-01

    Adherence to immunosuppressants (IS) is crucial to prevent allograft rejection. Even though there is evidence that non-adherence to IS among kidney transplant recipients is common, it is rarely routinely assessed in clinical practice. Especially, little is known about how physicians estimate patients' adherence to IS medication. In a single center, cross-sectional study adult patients at least 1 year after kidney transplantation were asked to complete measures of adherence (BAASIS©, Transplant Effect Questionnaire) and of general psychopathology (anxiety, depression, perceived social support). Also the physicians were asked to estimate their patients' adherence. Medical data (time since transplantation, treatment for rejection, IS serum trough levels and target levels) were taken from the patients' charts. Physicians rated 22 of 238 (9.2%) patients as non-adherent. Physicians' estimations of non-adherence were lower compared to the results of the self-ratings and biopsy-proven rejections. No association was found between physicians' estimates and the variability of IS through levels. Significantly more women and patients who reported that their native language was not German were rated as non-adherent by the physicians. Also, physician-rated non-adherent patients reported significantly higher depression and anxiety scores as well as less social support compared to adherent patients. Our results suggest that physicians tend to underestimate patient non-adherence to IS medication. They appear to use observable cues such as sex, language skills, and elevated anxiety and depression scores in particular, to make inferences about an individual patient's adherence. Underestimation of medication non-adherence may impede physicians' ability to provide high quality care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Adherence to oral and topical medication in 445 patients with tinea pedis as assessed by the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunemi, Yuichiro; Abe, Shinya; Kobayashi, Miwa; Kitami, Yuki; Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Murota, Hiroyuki; Sugaya, Makoto; Masuda, Koji; Hiragun, Takaaki; Kaneko, Sakae; Saeki, Hidehisa; Shintani, Yoichi; Tanioka, Miki; Imafuku, Shinichi; Abe, Masatoshi; Inomata, Naoko; Morisky, Donald E; Furue, Masutaka; Katoh, Norito

    2015-01-01

    Adherence is defined as the extent to which a person's behavior corresponds with recommendations from health care providers. Adherence to treatment is an important factor for a good therapeutic outcome. This study aimed to examine the adherence of patients with tinea pedis and to clarify the factors related to it. We assessed medication adherence for oral and topical drugs using a translated version of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 (MMAS-8) together with other background factors in 445 Japanese patients with tinea pedis, using a questionnaire in a web-based monitoring system. Overall, high, medium and low adherence rates as assessed by MMAS-8 were 8.7%, 31.7% and 59.6% for oral medication, and 8.6%, 17.4% and 74.0% for topical medication, respectively. The adherence level was significantly higher for oral medication than for topical medication. Subgroup analyses showed that the adherence level for topical medication was significantly higher when topical and oral medications were used in combination than when topical medication was used alone. A low adherence level was shown in employed patients, those for whom their oral medication had not been effective and those with topical medication who had visited their hospital less often than once every six months. Patient adherence to therapy can be effectively improved by selecting highly effective medication while considering the prescription of topical and oral antifungal medications concomitantly, by carefully selecting a therapy plan for employed patients and by encouraging patients to visit their doctor regularly.

  10. Assessment of medication adherence among type 2 diabetic patients in Quetta city, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Qaiser; Bashir, Sajid; Iqbal, Javeid; Iftikhar, Shehla; Godman, Brian

    2017-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a growing burden among all countries including Pakistan, with medication adherence very important to improve care. However, little is known about medication adherence in Pakistan and potential predictors among T2DM patients to provide future guidance. This needs to be addressed. Consequently, the present study sought to assess medication adherence among type 2 diabetic patients in Quetta city, Pakistan. Questionnaire based, descriptive study among 300 Pakistani patients attending public and private hospitals aged 18 years and above, having a confirmed diagnosis of T2DM, without additional co-morbidities were targeted. Descriptive statistics were used to describe demographic and disease characteristics. The association between socio-demographic data and study variables was compared through the Mann Whitney/Kruskal Wallis test (where applicable). The factors that were significantly associated with medication adherence were further assessed by logistic regression analysis. 55.6% of patients had high adherence although overall patients reported moderate adherence. Age, gender, education, diabetes-related knowledge and treatment satisfaction were significantly associated with medication adherence. Older males with only primary education and with poor diabetes-related knowledge had the lowest adherence. This study presents a model that is associated with medication adherence among T2DM patients, with disease-related knowledge as a significant predictor of likely adherence. Results of the current study revealed that improved diabetes related knowledge plays a significant role in improving medication adherence. Healthcare practitioners and the system should formalize and acknowledge patient education as a key component to treat patients with T2DM. This should include a greater role for pharmacists and other professionals.

  11. Predicting Malawian Women's Intention to Adhere to Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Ogbochi; Modeste, Naomi N; Lee, Jerry W; Gleason, Peter C

    2015-07-16

    With the increase in scaling up of antiretroviral therapy (ART), knowledge of the need for adherence to ART is pivotal for successful treatment outcomes. A cross-sectional study was carried out between October and December 2013. We administered theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and adherence questionnaires to 358 women aged 18-49 years, from a rural and urban ART-clinics in southern Malawi. Hierarchical linear regression models were used to predict intentions to adhere to ART. Regression models show that attitude (β=0.47), subjective norm (β=0.31) and perceived behavioural control (β=0.12) explain 55% of the variance in intentions to adhere to ART. The relationship between both food insecurity and perceived side effects with intentions to adhere to ART is mediated by attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control. Household (r=0.20) and individual (r=0.21) food insecurity were positively and significantly correlated with perceived behavioural control. Household food insecurity had a negative correlation with perceived side effects (r=-0.11). Perceived side effects were positively correlated with attitude (r=0.25). There was no statistically significant relationship between intentions to adhere to ART in the future and one month self-report of past month adherence. These interactions suggest that attitude predicted adherence only when food insecurity is high or perception of side effects is strong. This study shows that modification might be needed when using TPB constructs in resource constraint environments. Significance for public healthThe knowledge of the rates of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) could be used to evaluate planning and project, which could lead to better outcomes predicted by treatment efficacy data. In addition, knowledge of adherence behaviour could help the development of interventions focusing on collaboration between healthcare providers and Malawian government to provide food support for patients on ART. The

  12. Parental Depression and Pancreatic Enzymes Adherence in Children With Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, David H; Quittner, Alexandra L

    2016-02-01

    Treatment adherence in cystic fibrosis (CF) is often poor, however, less is known about adherence to pancreatic enzymes, a critical component of the CF treatment regimen. Parent caregivers often report elevations in depression, and parental depression may adversely affect children's adherence. This prospective study evaluated adherence to pancreatic enzymes in 83 patients (1-13 years) . Adherence was measured across 3 months with electronic pill-caps . Weight was measured at baseline and a 3-month follow-up. Parental depressive symptoms were evaluated by using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Adherence to pancreatic enzymes was 49.4% ± 3.4%. Adherence was higher at school (94.4% ± 6.1%) than at home (42.3% ± 3.1%), and higher for toddlers (50.6% ± 5.2%) than for school-aged children (37.5% ± 3.7%). Parents reported high rates of depressive symptoms (30% in the clinical range, 18% with moderate symptoms). Children of parents with symptoms of depression versus those without were less adherent (34.8% ± 4.5% vs 48.5% ± 4.1%), and adherence to enzymes was significantly related to 3-month weight outcomes. Average gain in weight z scores across 3 months was 0.5 ± 0.2for children who were >50% adherent and -0.1 ± 6.1for children who were <33% adherent. Parental depression had a signifcant, indirect effect on weight via adherence (-0.005 ± 0.003 gain in weight z score per CES-D unit ). High rates of parental depressive symptoms, coupled with its negative effects on adherence, suggest that measuring and treating parental depression may improve children's adherence to therapy. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Primary observation on adherent function of bone marrow stromal cells in mice post combined radiation-burn injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xinghua; Luo Chengji; Guo Chaohua; Wang Ping; Deng Xuecai

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the adherent function of bone marrow stromal cells in hematopoietic inductive microenvironment post combined radiation-burn injury. Methods: The expression of cell adhesion molecules including vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), fibro-connection (Fn), laminin (Ln) and collagen type IV (Col IV) on bone marrow stromal cells cultured in vitro was detected by flow cytometry and the binding capacity of bone marrow mononuclear cells to stromal cell adherence layer was tested by cell binding assay and cell binding blocking assay respectively from mice treated with 5.0 Gy γ-ray 15% of total body surface area (TBSA), third-degree burn injury and combined irradiation-burn injury, respectively. Results: 1. The expression levels of molecules mentioned above in burn-injured mice were the highest. The molecules levels in control mice were greater than those in radiation-injured mice, which were lower than those in mice with combined radiation-burn injury. 2. The binding capacity of stromal cell adherence layer in burn-injured mice was greater than that in control mice, and significantly increased from 3 to 7 days post injury as compared with that in controls, radiation-injured mice and combined radiation-burn-injured mice, respectively (P < 0.05-0.01). Contrarily, the capacity of binding in the radiation-injured and combined radiation-burn-injured mice was the lowest from 3 to 7 days post injury. 3. The binding rate of bone marrow mononuclear cells to stromal cell adherence layer descended in different degrees after pre-treatment with monoclonal antibodies directed to VCAM-1, Fn, Ln, or Col IV respectively or VCAM-1 combined with anti-Fn, anti-Ln or anti-Col IV, respectively, in stromal cell adherence layer. Conclusion: The damage of cell adherent function for bone marrow hematopoietic inductive microenvironment post combined radiation-burn injury might be one of the important factors in hematopoietic disorder in combined radiation-burn injury

  14. Examining adherence to components of cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety after training and consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Julie M; Brodman, Douglas M; Ringle, Vanesa A; Read, Kendra L; Kendall, Philip C; Beidas, Rinad S

    2017-02-01

    The present study examined 115 service providers' adherence to components of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth anxiety prior to training, post workshop training, and after three months of weekly consultation. Adherence was measured using a role-play with a trained actor. We examined differences in individual adherence to CBT components across time and the relationship between number of consultation sessions attended and adherence ratings following consultation. Findings indicated that somatic arousal identification and relaxation were the most used treatment components prior to training. Adherence to all components of CBT increased following workshop training, except the usage of problem-solving. Adherence to problem-solving, positive reinforcement, the identification of anxious self-talk, and the creation of coping thoughts increased following consultation but usage of problem-solving remained low compared to other treatment components. Overall adherence remained less than optimal at the final measurement point. Number of consultation sessions attended predicted post-consultation adherence to identification of somatic arousal, identification of anxious self-talk, and positive reinforcement. Implications include tailoring future training based on baseline levels of adherence and spending more time during training and consultation on underutilized CBT components, such as problem-solving. Limitations of the present study, including how adherence was measured, are discussed. This study adds to the implementation science literature by providing more nuanced information on changes in adherence over the course of training and consultation of service providers.

  15. Treatment adherence in heart failure patients followed up by nurses in two specialized clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Andressa Freitas; Cavalcanti, Ana Carla Dantas; Malta, Mauricio; Arruda, Cristina Silva; Gandin, Thamires; da Fé, Adriana; Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: to analyze treatment adherence in heart failure (HF) patients followed up by the nursing staff at specialized clinics and its association with patients' characteristics such as number of previous appointments, family structure, and comorbidities. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted at two reference clinics for the treatment of HF patients (center 1 and center 2). Data were obtained using a 10-item questionnaire with scores ranging from 0 to 26 points; adherence was considered adequate if the score was ≥ 18 points, or 70% of adherence. Results: a total of 340 patients were included. Mean adherence score was 16 (±4) points. Additionally, 124 (36.5%) patients showed an adherence rate ≥ 70%. It was demonstrated that patients who lived with their family had higher adherence scores, that three or more previous nursing appointments was significantly associated with higher adherence (p<0.001), and that hypertension was associated with low adherence (p=0.023). Conclusions: treatment adherence was considered satisfactory in less than a half of the patients followed up at the two clinics specialized in HF. Living with the family and attending to a great number of nursing appointments improved adherence, while the presence of hypertension led to worse adherence. PMID:26487139

  16. A q-Schroedinger algebra, its lowest weight representations and generalized q-deformed heat equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrev, V.K.; Doebner, H.D.; Mrugalla, C.

    1995-12-01

    We give a q-deformation S-perpendicular q of the centrally extended Schroedinger algebra. We construct the lowest weight representations of S-perpendicular q , starting from the Verma modules over S-perpendicular q , finding their singular vectors and factoring the Verma submodules built on the singular vectors. We also give a vector-field realization of S-perpendicular q which provides polynomial realization of the lowest weight representations and an infinite hierarchy of q-difference equations which may be called generalized q-deformed heat equations. We also apply our methods to the on-shell q-Schroedinger algebra proposed by Floreanini and Vinet. (author). 12 refs

  17. Lowest-order constrained variational method for simple many-fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, I.; Moszkowski, S.A.; Wong, C.W.

    1975-01-01

    The authors study the potential energy of many-fermion systems calculated by the lowest-order constrained variational (LOCV) method of Pandharipande. Two simple two-body interactions are used. For a simple hard-core potential in a dilute Fermi gas, they find that the Huang-Yang exclusion correction can be used to determine a healing distance. The result is close to the older Pandharipande prescription for the healing distance. For a hard core plus attractive exponential potential, the LOCV result agrees closely with the lowest-order separation method of Moszkowski and Scott. They find that the LOCV result has a shallow minimum as a function of the healing distance at the Moszkowski-Scott separation distance. The significance of the absence of a Brueckner dispersion correction in the LOCV result is discussed. (Auth.)

  18. RED DWARF DYNAMO RAISES PUZZLE OVER INTERIORS OF LOWEST-MASS STARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    -years away in the constellation Aquila. Gliese 752A is a red dwarf that is one-third the mass of the Sun and slightly more than half its diameter. By contrast, VB10 is physically smaller than the planet Jupiter and only about nine percent the mass of our Sun. This very faint star is near the threshold of the lowest possible mass for a true star (.08 solar masses), below which nuclear fusion processes cannot take place according to current models. A team led by Linsky used Hubble's Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) to make a one-hour long exposure of VB10 on October 12, 1994. No detectable ultraviolet emission was seen until the last five minutes, when bright emission was detected in a flare. Though the star's normal surface temperature is 4,500 degrees Fahrenheit, Hubble's GHRS detected a sudden burst of 270,000 degrees Fahrenheit in the star's outer atmosphere. Linsky attributes this rapid heating to the presence of an intense, but unstable, magnetic field. THE INTERIOR WORKINGS OF A STELLAR DYNAMO Before the Hubble observation, astronomers thought magnetic fields in stars required the same dynamo process which creates magnetic fields on the Sun. In the classic solar model, heat generated by nuclear fusion reactions at the star's center escapes through a radiative zone just outside the core. The heat travels from the radiative core to the star's surface through a convection zone. In this region, heat bubbles to the surface by motions similar to boiling in a pot of water. Dynamos, which accelerate electrons to create magnetic forces, operate when the interior of a star rotates faster than the surface. Recent studies of the Sun indicate its convective zone rotates at nearly the same rate at all depths. This means the solar dynamo must operate in the more rapidly rotating radiative core just below the convective zone. The puzzle is that stars below 20 percent the mass of our Sun do not have radiative cores, but instead transport heat from their core through

  19. Three-point Green's function of massless QED in position space to lowest order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Indrajit

    2009-01-01

    The transverse part of the three-point Green's function of massless QED is determined to the lowest order in position space. Taken together with the evaluation of the longitudinal part in Mitra (2008) (J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 41 315401), this gives a relation for QED which is analogous to the star-triangle relation. We relate our result to conformal-invariant three-point functions

  20. N-representability of the Jastrow wave function pair density of the lowest-order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Katsuhiko; Higuchi, Masahiko

    2017-08-08

    Conditions for the N-representability of the pair density (PD) are needed for the development of the PD functional theory. We derive sufficient conditions for the N-representability of the PD that is calculated from the Jastrow wave function within the lowest order. These conditions are used as the constraints on the correlation function of the Jastrow wave function. A concrete procedure to search the suitable correlation function is also presented.

  1. Chern-Simons field theory of two-dimensional electrons in the lowest Landau level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.

    1996-01-01

    We propose a fermion Chern-Simons field theory describing two-dimensional electrons in the lowest Landau level. This theory is constructed with a complete set of states, and the lowest-Landau-level constraint is enforced through a δ functional described by an auxiliary field λ. Unlike the field theory constructed directly with the states in the lowest Landau level, this theory allows one, utilizing the physical picture of open-quote open-quote composite fermion,close-quote close-quote to study the fractional quantum Hall states by mapping them onto certain integer quantum Hall states; but, unlike its application in the unconstrained theory, such a mapping is sensible only when interactions between electrons are present. An open-quote open-quote effective mass,close-quote close-quote which characterizes the scale of low energy excitations in the fractional quantum Hall systems, emerges naturally from our theory. We study a Gaussian effective theory and interpret physically the dressed stationary point equation for λ as an equation for the open-quote open-quote mass renormalization close-quote close-quote of composite fermions. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  2. Search for the lowest irradiation dose from literatures on radiation-induced breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizawa, Y; Kusama, T [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-12-01

    A survey of past case reports concerning radiation-induced breast cancer was carried out in order to find the lowest irradiation dose. The search of literature published since 1951 revealed 10 cases of radiation-induced breast cancer. Only 5 cases had precise descriptions of the irradiation dose. The lowest irradiation dose was estimated at 1470 rads in the case of external X-ray irradiation for tuberous angioma. All of cases of radiation-induced breast cancer had received radiation for the treatment of nonmalignant tumors, such as pulmonary tuberculosis, mastitis, and tuberous angioma. There also were three statistical studies. The first concerned atomic bomb survivors, the second, pulmoanry tuberculous patients subjected to frequent fluoroscopies, and the third, patients of acute post partum mastitis. These statistical studies had revealed a significant increase in the incidence of breast cancer in the irradiated group, but there was little information about the lowest irradiation dose. It was noticed that radiation-induced breast cancer was more numerous in the upper inner quadrant of the breast. Most histopathological findings of radiation-induced breast cancer involved duct cell carcinoma. The latent period was about 15 years.

  3. A randomized controlled trial with a Canadian electronic pill dispenser used to measure and improve medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Stip, Emmanuel; Vincent, Philippe D.; Sablier, Juliette; Guevremont, Catherine; Zhornitsky, Simon; Tranulis, Constantin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Medication adherence is extremely important in preventing relapse and lowering symptoms in schizophrenic patients. However, estimates show that nearly half of these patients have poor adherence. The Brief Adherence Rating Scale (BARS) seems to be the most reliable tool assessing adherence in schizophrenia and shows that the antipsychotic adherence ratio (AAR) is about 49.5% in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to test if an electronic pill dispenser named DoPill® improved AAR...

  4. A randomized-controlled trial with a Canadian electronic pill dispenser used to measure and improve medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel eStip; Emmanuel eStip; Emmanuel eStip; Philippe D. Vincent; Philippe D. Vincent; Philippe D. Vincent; Catherine eGuevremont; Simon eZhornitsky; Constantin eTranulis; Constantin eTranulis; Constantin eTranulis; Juliette eSablier; Juliette eSablier

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Medication adherence is extremely important in preventing relapse and lowering symptoms in schizophrenic patients. However, estimates show that nearly half of these patients have poor adherence. The Brief Adherence Rating Scale (BARS) seems to be the most reliable tool assessing adherence in schizophrenia and shows that the antipsychotic adherence ratio (AAR) is about 49.5 % in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to test if an electronic pill dispenser named DoPill® improv...

  5. Adherence to oral contraception in women on Category X medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkellner, Amy; Chen, William; Denison, Shannon E

    2010-10-01

    Over 6% of women become pregnant when taking teratogenic medications, and contraceptive counseling appears to occur at suboptimal rates. Adherence to contraception is an important component in preventing unwanted pregnancy and has not been evaluated in this population. We undertook a pharmacy claims-based analysis to evaluate the degree to which women of childbearing age who receive Category X medications adhere to their oral contraception. We evaluated the prescription medication claims for over 6 million women, age 18-44 years, with prescription benefits administered by a pharmacy benefits manager. Women with 2 or more claims for a Category X medication and 2 or more claims for oral contraception were evaluated in further detail. Adherence to oral contraception was measured by analyzing pharmacy claims. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with adherence. There were 146,758 women of childbearing age who received Category X medications, of which 26,136 also took oral contraceptive medication. Women who received Category X medications were prescribed oral contraception (18%) at rates similar to others of childbearing age (17%). Women prescribed both Category X and oral contraception demonstrated adherence similar to the overall population. Age, class of Category X medication, number of medications, prescriber's specialty, and ethnicity correlated with lower adherence rates. Despite added risk associated with unintended pregnancy, many women who receive Category X medications have refill patterns suggesting nonadherence to oral contraception. Compared with all women age 18-44 years, women receiving teratogenic medications do not have better adherence to oral contraception. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Which psychosocial factors are related to chelation adherence in thalassemia? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeli, Michael; Mughal, Kulsoom; Porter, John B

    2010-06-01

    Good adherence to iron chelation therapy in thalassemia is crucial. Although there is evidence that adherence is related to regimen factors, there has been less emphasis on the relationship between psychosocial (psychological, demographic and social) factors and adherence. We present a systematic review of psychosocial correlates of chelation adherence in thalassemia. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Information was extracted regarding the study characteristics and the relationship between psychosocial factors and chelation adherence. Methodological quality was rated. The studies took place in a range of countries, were mostly cross sectional in design, and examined adherence to deferoxamine (DFO) only. Sample sizes ranged from 15 to 1573. A variety of psychosocial variables were examined. Definitions of adherence varied between studies and non adherence rates were also variable (9 to 66%). Older age was consistently associated with lower levels of chelation adherence. There were few other consistent findings. The methodological quality of studies was variable. There is a need for more methodologically sophisticated and theoretically informed studies on psychosocial correlates of chelation adherence. We offer specific suggestions.

  7. A wearable sensor system for medication adherence prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantarian, Haik; Motamed, Babak; Alshurafa, Nabil; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2016-05-01

    Studies have revealed that non-adherence to prescribed medication can lead to hospital readmissions, clinical complications, and other negative patient outcomes. Though many techniques have been proposed to improve patient adherence rates, they suffer from low accuracy. Our objective is to develop and test a novel system for assessment of medication adherence. Recently, several smart pill bottle technologies have been proposed, which can detect when the bottle has been opened, and even when a pill has been retrieved. However, very few systems can determine if the pill is subsequently ingested or discarded. We propose a system for detecting user adherence to medication using a smart necklace, capable of determining if the medication has been ingested based on the skin movement in the lower part of the neck during a swallow. This, coupled with existing medication adherence systems that detect when medicine is removed from the bottle, can detect a broader range of use-cases with respect to medication adherence. Using Bayesian networks, we were able to correctly classify between chewable vitamins, saliva swallows, medication capsules, speaking, and drinking water, with average precision and recall of 90.17% and 88.9%, respectively. A total of 135 instances were classified from a total of 20 subjects. Our experimental evaluations confirm the accuracy of the piezoelectric necklace for detecting medicine swallows and disambiguating them from related actions. Further studies in real-world conditions are necessary to evaluate the efficacy of the proposed scheme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Approaches to improve adherence to pharmacotherapy in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Kimberly M

    2014-01-01

    rates, inpatient admissions, and associated costs. Optimization of medication and involvement of caregivers are important to promoting adherence. A multidisciplinary team approach may be invaluable in identifying barriers to adherence and helping schizophrenia patients overcome them.

  9. Efficacy of interventions for adherence to the immunosuppressive therapy in kidney transplant recipients: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yichen; Zhou, Yifan; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jian; Lin, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Immunosuppressive treatment regimens are complex and require ongoing self-management. Medication adherence can be difficult to achieve for several reasons. The current meta-analysis and systematic review investigated whether adherence interventions improved immunosuppressive treatment adherence in kidney transplant recipients. Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were searched until October 17, 2016 using the following search terms: kidney transplantation, compliance, adherence, and immunosuppressive therapy. Randomized controlled trials and two-arm prospective, retrospective, and cohort studies were included. The primary outcomes were adherence rate and adherence score. Eight studies were included with a total for 546 patients. Among participants receiving intervention, the adherence rate was significantly higher than the control group (pooled OR=2.366, 95% CI 1.222 to 4.578, p=0.011). Participants in the intervention group had greater adherence scores than those in the control group (pooled standardized difference in means =1.706, 95% CI 0.346 to 3.065, p=0.014). Sensitivity analysis indicated that findings for adherence rate were robust. However, for adherence score, the significance of the association disappeared after removing one of the studies indicating the findings may have been overly influenced by this one study. Intervention programs designed to increase immunosuppressive adherence in patients with kidney transplant improve treatment adherence. Copyright © 2017 American Federation for Medical Research.

  10. Clarifying the Concept of Adherence to eHealth Technology: Systematic Review on When Usage Becomes Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieverink, Floor; Kelders, Saskia M; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia Ewc

    2017-12-06

    results of this review showed that to date, justifications for intended use are often missing in evaluations of adherence. Evidently, it is not always possible to estimate the intended use of a technology. However, such measures do not meet the definition of adherence and should therefore be referred to as the actual usage of the technology. Therefore, it can be concluded that adherence to eHealth technology is an underdeveloped and often improperly used concept in the existing body of literature. When defining the intended use of a technology and selecting valid measures for adherence, the goal or the assumed working mechanisms should be leading. Adherence can then be standardized, which will improve the comparison of adherence rates to different technologies with the same goal and will provide insight into how adherence to different elements contributed to the outcomes. ©Floor Sieverink, Saskia M Kelders, Julia EWC van Gemert-Pijnen. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 06.12.2017.

  11. Adherence with Preventive Medication in Childhood Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Burgess

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Suboptimal adherence with preventive medication is common and often unrecognised as a cause of poor asthma control. A number of risk factors for nonadherence have emerged from well-conducted studies. Unfortunately, patient report a physician's estimation of adherence and knowledge of these risk factors may not assist in determining whether non-adherence is a significant factor. Electronic monitoring devices are likely to be more frequently used to remind patients to take medication, as a strategy to motivate patients to maintain adherence, and a tool to evaluate adherence in subjects with poor disease control. The aim of this paper is to review non-adherence with preventive medication in childhood asthma, its impact on asthma control, methods of evaluating non-adherence, risk factors for suboptimal adherence, and strategies to enhance adherence.

  12. Barriers to and determinants of medication adherence among hypertensive patients attended National Health Service Hospital, Sunderland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umair Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is a silent killer, a time bomb in both the developed and developing nations of the world. It is one of the most significant risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality resulting from target-organ damage to blood vessels in the heart, brain, kidney and eyes. Adherence to long-term therapy for chronic illnesses like hypertension is an important tool to enhance the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy. Objective: The two objectives of this study were to evaluate the extent and reasons of non-adherence in patients attended National Health Service (NHS Hospital, Sunderland. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted for 4 months in the out-patient department of NHS Hospital. A total of 200 patients were selected randomly for this study. Morisky′s Medication Adherence Scale was used to assess the adherence rate and the reason of non-adherence. Data were entered and analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2010. Results: The overall adherence rate was found to be 79% (n = 158. Adherence rate in females were low was compared with their male counterparts (74.7% vs. 85.7%. The higher rate of adherence was found in age group of 30-40 years (82%, n = 64. The major intentional and non-intentional reason of non-adherence was side-effects and forgetfulness respectively. Conclusion: Overall, more than three-fourth of the hypertensive participants were found to be adherent to their treatment. On the basis of factors associated with non-adherence, it is analyzed that suitable therapy must be designed for patients individually to increase medication adherence and its effectiveness.

  13. Relationship between Illness Perceptions, Treatment Adherence, And Clinical Outcomes in Patients On Maintenance Hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Youngmee; Evangelista, Lorraine S.

    2010-01-01

    Previous data indicate that negative perception of disease and non-adherence to recommended treatment may lead to unfavorable clinical outcomes in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD). However, a paucity of research addresses clinical outcomes in the end stage renal disease (ESRD) population as a function of patients’ illness perceptions and their degree of adherence to recommended treatment. The study was conducted to examine illness perceptions and treatment adherence rates in patients...

  14. Study to Measure the impact of Pharmacists and Pharmacy Services (STOMPP on Medication Non-Adherence: Medication Adherence and Clinical Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharrel Pinto, BS Pharm, DMM, MS, PhD

    2018-02-01

    , systolic blood pressure (SBP, and diastolic blood pressures (DBP were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months Results: A mixed-model ANOVA was used to study the impact of these services on medication adherence, using PDC and pill count scores. Results of the 61 patients in the study revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between the PB and BP groups (p=0.008; between the PB and BP+MTM groups (p=0.023; and between the PB+MTM and the BP+MTM groups (p=0.041. Except at baseline, adherence scores at all time points (0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months were significant with the patients in the BP and BP+MTM groups having higher adherence compared to those in the PB and PB+MTM groups. Pill count scores had similar results to the PDC measures. Insert data from HBA1c, BMI, SBP and DBP. Clinical outcomes were also analyzed using the mixed between-within ANOVA and were measured at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Patients in the MTM groups reached the American Diabetes Association goal of 7%, whereas the patients in the PB group did not reach a goal at 12 months. All groups, except for the PB only group, indicated a statistically significant change from baseline to 12 months. When comparing body mass index (BMI scores across groups over time, patients in the BP+MTM group showed the lowest BMI at 12 months. There were not any significant differences across the groups, but patients in the two MTM groups saw greater improvement in their BMI scores than patients in the other two groups. There were no significant differences between groups in SBP and DBP reduction. However, patients in the two BP groups reached a SBP goal sooner (per the Eighth Joint National Committee than patients in the PB+MTM and PB groups. Conclusion: Patients had improved clinical outcomes and adherence rates when using blister packaging and medication therapy management services, individually and in combination. Blister packaging seemed to have a greater impact on medication adherence while MTM

  15. Lowest lying 2+ and 3- vibrational states in Pb, Sn, and Ni isotopes in relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, A.; Ring, P.

    2006-01-01

    The excitation energies and electric multipole decay rates of the lowest lying 2 + and 3 - vibrational states in Pb, Sn, and Ni nuclei are calculated following relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation formalism based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov mean field. Two sets of Lagrangian parameters, NL1 and NL3, are used to investigate the effect of the nuclear force. Overall there is good agreement with the available experimental data for a wide range of mass numbers considered here, and the NL3 set seems to be a better choice. However, strictly speaking, these studies point toward the need of a new set of force parameters that could produce more realistic single-particle levels, at least in vicinity of the Fermi surface, of a wide range of nuclear masses

  16. Behavioral measures to reduce non-adherence in renal transplant recipients: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Márcia Fátima Faraldo Martinez; Bravin, Ariane Moyses; Garcia, Paula Dalsoglio; Contti, Mariana Moraes; Nga, Hong Si; Takase, Henrique Mochida; de Andrade, Luis Gustavo Modelli

    2015-11-01

    Solid-organ transplant recipients present a high rate of non-adherence to drug treatment. Few interventional studies have included approaches aimed at increasing adherence. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of an educational and behavioral strategy on treatment adherence of kidney transplant recipients. In a randomized prospective study, incident renal transplant patients (n = 111) were divided into two groups: control group (received usual transplant patient education) and treatment group (usual transplant patient education plus ten additional weekly 30-min education/counseling sessions about immunosuppressive drugs and behavioral changes). Treatment adherence was assessed using ITAS adherence questionnaire after 3 months. Renal function at 3, 6, and 12 months, and the incidence of transplant rejection were evaluated. The non-adherence rates were 46.4 and 14.5 % in the control and treatment groups (p = 0.001), respectively. The relative risk for non-adherence was 2.59 times (CI 1.38-4.88) higher in the control group. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a 5.84 times (CI 1.8-18.8, p = 0.003) higher risk of non-adherence in the control group. There were no differences in renal function and rejection rates between groups. A behavioral and educational strategy addressing the patient's perceptions and knowledge about the anti-rejection drugs significantly improved the short-term adherence to immunosuppressive therapy.

  17. Barriers to and facilitative processes of endocrine therapy adherence among women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Emma E; Petrie, Keith J; Partridge, Ann H; Stanton, Annette L

    2016-07-01

    The treatment of chronic illness, and the prevention of disease progression and recurrence, often involve long-term adherence to prescription medications in breast cancer. Despite the survival benefit of endocrine therapies, nonadherence remains high. In this study, we examined barriers to and facilitators of endocrine therapy adherence among women with breast cancer (n = 1371). Participants currently taking tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors were recruited from Dr. Susan Love Research Foundation's Army of Women(®) Registry. Participants responded online to open-ended and close-ended questions about thoughts, feelings, and behaviors relevant to endocrine therapy. Two weeks later, women were invited to complete a second online questionnaire regarding current endocrine therapy adherence. Approximately one-third (36 %) of participants reported the presence of factors that make endocrine therapy difficult; reporting any barrier to medication adherence was significantly associated with nonadherence (P adhere and the use of cognitive self-talk (e.g., thoughts regarding endocrine therapy efficacy) was related to higher adherence. Hierarchical linear regressions revealed a significant behavioral barrier × behavioral facilitator interaction (P behavioral barrier in the absence of a behavioral facilitator reported the lowest adherence. Findings suggest that a sizeable minority of women face barriers to taking endocrine therapy, which are associated with nonadherence.

  18. Lowest vibrational states of 4He3He+: Non-Born-Oppenheimer calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanke, Monika; Bubin, Sergiy; Kedziera, Dariusz; Molski, Marcin; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2007-01-01

    Very accurate quantum mechanical calculations of the first five vibrational states of the 4 He 3 He + molecular ion are reported. The calculations have been performed explicitly including the coupling of the electronic and nuclear motions [i.e., without assuming the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation]. The nonrelativistic non-BO wave functions were used to calculate the α 2 relativistic mass velocity, Darwin, and spin-spin interaction corrections. For the lowest vibrational transition, whose experimental energy is established with high precision, the calculated and the experimental results differ by only 0.16 cm -1

  19. Potential energies for the two lowest 1A' electronic states of H3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihara, Akira; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Iwamoto, Osamu

    1998-11-01

    Potential energies for the two lowest 1 A' states of H 3 + at 701 different spatial geometries are tabulated. These energies have been calculated by the ab initio full configuration interaction method with a (8s6p2d1f) Gaussian type basis set. Features of avoided crossing of two surfaces as well as the potential well in the ground state can be produced by interpolating calculated energies. These ab initio energies are expressed as a function of three internuclear distances in the range from 0.6 to 10.0 bohr, and they are applicable to the molecular dynamics study for the H + + H 2 system. (author)

  20. Viable adhered Staphylococcus aureus highly reduced on novel antimicrobial sutures using chlorhexidine and octenidine to avoid surgical site infection (SSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jochen; Harrasser, Norbert; Tübel, Jutta; Mühlhofer, Heinrich; Pförringer, Dominik; von Deimling, Constantin; Foehr, Peter; Kiefel, Barbara; Krämer, Christina; Stemberger, Axel; Schieker, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    coated sutures with higher roughness for palmitate coatings and sustaining integrity of coated sutures. Adherent S. aureus were found via SEM on all types of investigated sutures. The novel antimicrobial sutures showed significantly less viable adhered S. aureus bacteria (up to 6.1 log) compared to Vicryl® Plus (0.5 log). Within 11 μg/cm drug-containing sutures, octenidine-palmitate (OL11) showed the highest number of viable adhered S. aureus (0.5 log), similar to Vicryl® Plus. Chlorhexidine-laurate (CL11) showed the lowest number of S. aureus on sutures (1.7 log), a 1.2 log greater reduction. In addition, planktonic S. aureus in suspensions were highly inhibited by CL11 (0.9 log) represents a 0.6 log greater reduction compared to Vicryl® Plus (0.3 log). Conclusions Novel antimicrobial sutures can potentially limit surgical site infections caused by multiple pathogenic bacterial species. Therefore, a potential inhibition of multispecies biofilm formation is assumed. In detail tested with S. aureus, the chlorhexidine-laurate coating (CL11) best meets the medical requirements for a fast bacterial eradication. This suture coating shows the lowest survival rate of adhering as well as planktonic bacteria, a high drug release during the first–clinically most relevant– 48 hours, as well as biocompatibility. Thus, CL11 coatings should be recommended for prophylactic antimicrobial sutures as an optimal surgical supplement to reduce wound infections. However, animal and clinical investigations are important to prove safety and efficacy for future applications. PMID:29315313

  1. Pinning of fullerene lowest unoccupied molecular orbital edge at the interface with standing up copper phthalocyanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chenggong; Irfan, Irfan; Turinske, Alexander J.; Gao, Yongli

    2012-01-01

    The electronic structure evolution of interfaces of fullerene (C 60 ) with copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) on highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) and on native silicon oxide has been investigated with ultra-violet photoemission spectroscopy and inverse photoemission spectroscopy. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital edge of C 60 was found to be pinned at the interface with CuPc on SiO 2 . A substantial difference in the electron affinity of CuPc on the two substrates was observed as the orientation of CuPc is lying flat on HOPG and standing up on SiO 2 . The ionization potential and electron affinity of C 60 were not affected by the orientation of CuPc due to the spherical symmetry of C 60 molecules. We observed band bending in C 60 on the standing-up orientation of CuPc molecules, while the energy levels of C 60 on the flat lying orientation of CuPc molecules were observed to be flat. - Highlights: ► Orientation of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) on ordered graphite and silicon oxide. ► Pinning of lowest unoccupied molecular orbital edge of C60 to the Fermi level on CuPc. ► No C60 pinning or band bending was observed on flat laying CuPc. ► Results are useful for organic photovoltaic and organic light emitting diode research.

  2. Search for the lowest irradiation dose from literatures on radiation-induced cancer in uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuo; Kusama, Tomoko

    1975-01-01

    A survey of past case reports on radiation-induced cancer of the uterus was carried out with the main object of finding the lowest irradiation dose. Search of literature published since 1912 revealed 548 cases of radiation-induced cancer of the uterus. All of these cases of radiation-induced cancer had received radiation for the treatment of non-malignant disease. The primary gynecological conditions which were the object of radiation therapy were functional bleeding, endometrial hyperplasia, myoma, endometritis, and polyps. The lowest irradiation dose was estimated at 1000-1450 rad in the case of external X-ray irradiation, and 100 mg.hr for intrauterine radium therapy, which corresponds to 100-1000 rad. It was noted that were more cases of corpus cancer than cervical cancer. Histopathological findings of radiation-induced uterine cancer were carcinoma, sarcoma, and mixed mesodermal tumors. The latent period was distributed in the range of 1 to 40 years, with the average of 10.1 years. (auth.)

  3. Search for the lowest irradiation dose from literatures on radiation-induced cancer in gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuo; Kusama, Tomoko

    1976-01-01

    A survey of past case reports about radiation-induced cancer in the gastrointestinal tract was carried out with the main object of finding the lowest irradiation dose. Search of the literature published since 1923 revealed 80 cases of radiation-induced large intestine cancer and one case of stomach cancer. The cases of radiation-induced cancer in the large intestine had received radiation for the treatment of non-malignant conditions, fibroma, ovarial cyste, myoma, endometritis and duodenal ulcer. The lowest irradiation dose was estimated at 460 rads. Adenocarcinoma was the histopathological finding in all cases of radiation-induced cancer in the caecum, colon and rectum, and squamous cell carcinoma in the cases of anal cancer. The latent period ranged from 1 to 31 years, with the average of 13.6 years. There were some reports of statistical studies of radiation-induced stomach cancer. Three groups were the subjects of these studies. The first group was composed of atomic bomb survivors, the second of patients who had undergone radiation treatment for ankylosing spondilitis, and the third of duodenal ulcer patients subjected to radiation treatment for the purpose of suppressing gastric acid secretion. These statistical studies showed no significant increase of the incidence of stomach cancer in the irradiated groups. (auth.)

  4. Search for the lowest irradiation dose from literatures on radiation-induced cancer in gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizawa, Y; Kusama, T [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1976-05-01

    A survey of past case reports about radiation-induced cancer in the gastrointestinal tract was carried out with the main object of finding the lowest irradiation dose. Search of the literature published since 1923 revealed 80 cases of radiation-induced large intestine cancer and one case of stomach cancer. The cases of radiation-induced cancer in the large intestine had received radiation for the treatment of non-malignant conditions, fibroma, ovarial cyste, myoma, endometritis and duodenal ulcer. The lowest irradiation dose was estimated at 460 rads. Adenocarcinoma was the histopathological finding in all cases of radiation-induced cancer in the caecum, colon and rectum, and squamous cell carcinoma in the cases of anal cancer. The latent period ranged from 1 to 31 years, with the average of 13.6 years. There were some reports of statistical studies of radiation-induced stomach cancer. Three groups were the subjects of these studies. The first group was composed of atomic bomb survivors, the second of patients who had undergone radiation treatment for ankylosing spondilitis, and the third of duodenal ulcer patients subjected to radiation treatment for the purpose of suppressing gastric acid secretion. These statistical studies showed no significant increase of the incidence of stomach cancer in the irradiated groups.

  5. Search for the lowest irradiation dose from literatures on radiation-induced bone tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizawa, Y; Kusama, T; Morimoto, K [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1977-04-01

    A survey of past case reports of bone tumor induced by external radiation was carried out with the main object of finding the lowest irradiation dose. Search of the literature published since 1922 revealed 262 cases of radiation-induced bone tumor. These patients, except a patient with occupational exposure, had received radiation for treatment. The primary conditions as object of radiation therapy were nonmalignan bone diseases such as tuberclosis, giant cell tumor, fibrous dysplasia and bone cyst, and extra-skeletal diseases such as retinoblastoma, breast cancer and uterus cancer. The ratio of male to female patients with radiation-induced bone tumor was 1:1.3. The age of the patient ranged between 5 and 98 years, with an average of 37.6 years. Skeletal distribution of radiation-induced bone tumor was as follows: 20% the frontal and face bones, 17% the femur, 10% the humerus, 9% the vertebral column, and 44% other. The lowest absorbed dose reported was 800 rads in patients irradiated for the treatment of bone disease, but 1800 rads in patients with extra-skeletal disease. The latent period ranged between 2 and 42 years, with an average of 11.7 years. The histopathological findings were as follows: 60% osteosarcoma, 25% fibrosarcoma, 7% chondrosarcoma, and 8% other.

  6. Measurement of the lowest dosage of phenobarbital that can produce drug discrimination in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Donald A.; Stanwood, Gregg D.; Patel, Bhavesh N.; Pragada, Sreenivasa R.; Gordon, M. Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Accurate measurement of the threshold dosage of phenobarbital that can produce drug discrimination (DD) may improve our understanding of the mechanisms and properties of such discrimination. Objectives Compare three methods for determining the threshold dosage for phenobarbital (D) versus no drug (N) DD. Methods Rats learned a D versus N DD in 2-lever operant training chambers. A titration scheme was employed to increase or decrease dosage at the end of each 18-day block of sessions depending on whether the rat had achieved criterion accuracy during the sessions just completed. Three criterion rules were employed, all based on average percent drug lever responses during initial links of the last 6 D and 6 N sessions of a block. The criteria were: D%>66 and N%50 and N%33. Two squads of rats were trained, one immediately after the other. Results All rats discriminated drug versus no drug. In most rats, dosage decreased to low levels and then oscillated near the minimum level required to maintain criterion performance. The lowest discriminated dosage significantly differed under the three criterion rules. The squad that was trained 2nd may have benefited by partially duplicating the lever choices of the previous squad. Conclusions The lowest discriminated dosage is influenced by the criterion of discriminative control that is employed, and is higher than the absolute threshold at which discrimination entirely disappears. Threshold estimations closer to absolute threshold can be obtained when criteria are employed that are permissive, and that allow rats to maintain lever preferences. PMID:19082992

  7. It's the adherence, stupid (that determines asthma control in preschool children)!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klok, Ted; Kaptein, Adrian A; Duiverman, Eric J; Brand, Paul L

    2014-03-01

    Although guideline-based asthma care and adherence to inhaled corticosteroids are predictors of asthma control, the role of adherence in maintaining long-term asthma control is largely unknown. This study was designed to explore the relationship between adherence to inhaled corticosteroids and long-term asthma control in young children with asthma. In this observational study, 81 2-6-year-old asthmatic children, using inhaled corticosteroids, closely followed-up in a programme with extensive self-management training, were enrolled. Adherence was measured daily for 12 months using Smartinhaler (Nexus6 Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand) devices. Long-term asthma control was assessed by parents and physicians and included clinical assessment, an asthma control questionnaire and lung function measurement. We examined the association of adherence to asthma control, adjusting for seasonal influences and clinical characteristics. Median (interquartile range) adherence was 87% (70-94%), and 64 (79%) children had well-controlled asthma throughout follow-up. Adherence >80% was associated with better asthma control, and we found no important confounders of this association. Children with persistent mild symptoms had lower adherence rates (p=0.028). Guideline-based asthma care was associated with good asthma control in most children. Adherence to inhaled corticosteroids was an independent strong predictor of long-term asthma control, with highest levels of asthma control found in children with adherence >80% of doses prescribed.

  8. Electronically-measured adherence to immunosuppressive medications and kidney function after deceased donor kidney transplantation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israni, Ajay K.; Weng, Francis L.; Cen, Ye-Ying; Joffe, Marshall; Kamoun, Malek; Feldman, Harold I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-adherence with immunosuppressive medications can result in allograft rejection and eventually allograft loss. Methods In a racially diverse population, we utilized microelectronic cap monitors to determine the association of adherence with a single immunosuppressive medication and kidney allograft outcomes post-transplantation. This prospective cohort study enrolled 243 patients from eight transplant centers to provide adherence and kidney allograft outcomes data. To determine the association of adherence with change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), we fit mixed effects models with the outcome being change in eGFR over time. We also fit Cox proportional hazards models to determine the association of adherence with time to persistent 25% and 50% decline in eGFR. Results The distribution of adherence post-transplant was as follows: 164 (68%), 49 (20%) and 30 (12%) had >85–100%, 50–85% and adherence, respectively. 79 (33%) and 36 (15%) of the subjects experienced a persistent 25% decline in eGFR or allograft loss and 50% decline in eGFR or allograft loss during follow-up. Adherence was not associated with acute rejection or 25% decline or 50% decline in eGFR. In the adjusted and unadjusted model, adherence and black race were not associated with change in eGFR over time. Conclusions Non-adherence with a single immunosuppressive medication, was not associated with kidney allograft outcomes. PMID:20977496

  9. Electronically measured adherence to immunosuppressive medications and kidney function after deceased donor kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israni, Ajay K; Weng, Francis L; Cen, Ye-Ying; Joffe, Marshall; Kamoun, Malek; Feldman, Harold I

    2011-01-01

    Non-adherence with immunosuppressive medications can result in allograft rejection and eventually allograft loss. In a racially diverse population, we utilized microelectronic cap monitors to determine the association of adherence with a single immunosuppressive medication and kidney allograft outcomes post-transplantation. This prospective cohort study enrolled 243 patients from eight transplant centers to provide adherence and kidney allograft outcomes data. To determine the association of adherence with change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), we fit mixed effects models with the outcome being change in eGFR over time. We also fit Cox proportional hazards models to determine the association of adherence with time to persistent 25% and 50% decline in eGFR. The distribution of adherence post-transplant was as follows: 164 (68%), 49 (20%), and 30 (12%) had >85-100%, 50-85%, and adherence, respectively. Seventy-nine (33%) and 36 (15%) of the subjects experienced a persistent 25% decline in eGFR or allograft loss and 50% decline in eGFR or allograft loss during follow-up. Adherence was not associated with acute rejection or 25% decline or 50% decline in eGFR. In the adjusted and unadjusted model, adherence and black race were not associated with change in eGFR over time. Non-adherence with a single immunosuppressive medication was not associated with kidney allograft outcomes. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Medication adherence levels and differential use of mental-health services in the treatment of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furiak Nicolas M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adherence to antipsychotics for schizophrenia is associated with favorable clinical outcomes. This study compared annual mental-health service utilization by recent medication adherence levels for patients treated for schizophrenia, and assessed whether adherence levels change from pre- to post-psychiatric hospitalization. Methods We analyzed data from a large prospective, non-interventional study of patients treated for schizophrenia in the United States, conducted between 7/1997 and 9/2003. Detailed mental-health resource utilization was systematically abstracted from medical records and augmented with patients' self report. Medication possession ratio (MPR with any antipsychotic in the 6 months prior to enrollment was used to categorize patients as: adherent (MPR ≥ 80%, N = 1758, partially adherent (MPR ≥ 60% Results Adherent patients had a lower rate of psychiatric hospitalization compared with partially adherent and non-adherent patients (p Conclusion Adherence is associated with lower utilization of acute care services and greater engagement in outpatient mental-health treatment. Adherence is a potentially dynamic phenomenon, which may improve, at least temporarily, following patients' psychiatric hospitalizations.

  11. Positive airway pressure adherence and subthreshold adherence in posttraumatic stress disorder patients with comorbid sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krakow BJ

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Barry J Krakow,1–3 Jessica J Obando,2 Victor A Ulibarri,1,2 Natalia D McIver1,2 1Sleep & Human Health Institute, 2Maimonides Sleep Arts & Sciences, Albuquerque, 3Los Alamos Medical Center, Los Alamos, NM, USA Study objectives: Patients with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA manifest low adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP due to fixed, pressure-induced expiratory pressure intolerance (EPI, a subjective symptom and objective sign aggravated by anxiety sensitivity and somatosensory amplification. As advanced PAP therapy modes (ie, auto-bilevel PAP [ABPAP] or adaptive servo-ventilation [ASV] may address these side effects, we hypothesized such treatment would be associated with decreased expiratory intolerance and increased adherence in posttraumatic stress patients with co-occurring OSA.Methods: We reviewed charts of 147 consecutive adult patients with moderately severe posttraumatic stress symptoms and objectively diagnosed OSA. All patients failed or rejected CPAP and were manually titrated on auto-adjusting, dual-pressure ABPAP or ASV modes in the sleep laboratory, a technique to eliminate flow limitation breathing events while resolving EPI. Patients were then prescribed either mode of therapy. Follow-up encounters assessed patient use, and objective data downloads (ODDs measured adherence.Results: Of 147 charts reviewed, 130 patients were deemed current PAP users, and 102 provided ODDs: 64 used ASV and 38 used ABPAP. ODDs yielded three groups: 59 adherent per insurance conventions, 19 subthreshold compliant partial users, and 24 noncompliant. Compliance based on available downloads was 58%, notably higher than recently reported rates in PTSD patients with OSA. Among the 19 partial users, 17 patients were minutes of PAP use or small percentages of nights removed from meeting insurance compliance criteria for PAP devices.Conclusion: Research is warranted on advanced PAP modes in

  12. Antidiabetic medication adherence and associated factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Godfrey Mutashambara Rwegerera

    2017-03-06

    Mar 6, 2017 ... tive of the study was to determine current antidiabetic medication adherence in ...... A systematic review of adherence with medications for diabetes. .... Pascal IGU, Ofoedu JN, Uchenna NP, Nkwa AA, Uchamma GUE.

  13. Objective Assessment Method for RNAV STAR Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Michael; Matthews, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Flight crews and air traffic controllers have reported many safety concerns regarding area navigation standard terminal arrival routes (RNAV STARs). Specifically, optimized profile descents (OPDs). However, our information sources to quantify these issues are limited to subjective reporting and time consuming case-by-case investigations. This work is a preliminary study into the objective performance of instrument procedures and provides a framework to track procedural concepts and assess design specifications. We created a tool and analysis methods for gauging aircraft adherence as it relates to RNAV STARs. This information is vital for comprehensive understanding of how our air traffic behaves. In this study, we mined the performance of 24 major US airports over the preceding three years. Overlaying 4D radar track data onto RNAV STAR routes provided a comparison between aircraft flight paths and the waypoint positions and altitude restrictions. NASA Ames Supercomputing resources were utilized to perform the data mining and processing. We assessed STARs by lateral transition path (full-lateral), vertical restrictions (full-lateral/full-vertical), and skipped waypoints (skips). In addition, we graphed frequencies of aircraft altitudes relative to the altitude restrictions. Full-lateral adherence was always greater than Full-lateral/ full- vertical, as it is a subset, but the difference between the rates was not consistent. Full-lateral/full-vertical adherence medians of the 2016 procedures ranged from 0% in KDEN (Denver) to 21% in KMEM (Memphis). Waypoint skips ranged from 0% to nearly 100% for specific waypoints. Altitudes restrictions were sometimes missed by systematic amounts in 1,000 ft. increments from the restriction, creating multi-modal distributions. Other times, altitude misses looked to be more normally distributed around the restriction. This tool may aid in providing acceptability metrics as well as risk assessment information.

  14. Uninformed Clinical Decisions Resulting From Lack of Adherence Assessment in Children with New Onset Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Avani C.; Wu, Yelena P.; Guilfoyle, Shanna M.; Glauser, Tracy A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between non-adherence to antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy and clinical decision-making in a cohort of 112 children with newly-diagnosed epilepsy. AED adherence was monitored using electronic monitoring over the first six months of therapy. The primary outcome measure was rate of uninformed clinical decisions as defined by number of participants with AED dosage or drug changes to address continued seizures who demonstrated non-adherence prior to the seizure. Among the 52 (47%) participants who had an AED change for continued seizures, 30 (27% of the overall cohort) had imperfect medication adherence prior to their seizures. A quarter of children with new onset epilepsy had uninformed medication changes because adherence was not rigorously assessed in clinical practice. Results highlight the importance of routinely assessing medication adherence in this population. PMID:23159375

  15. Predictors of Adherence to Relaxation Guided Imagery During Pregnancy in Women with Preterm Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Li-Lan; Liu, Shu-Chen; Chen, Yi-Heng; Lin, Li-Chan

    2015-09-01

    To examine adherence to relaxation guided imagery in women experiencing preterm labor as well as predictors influencing adherence. This study used a longitudinal follow-up approach. Each of the 57 participating women received a mini-MP3 player containing a 13-minute relaxation guided imagery audio program that they were instructed to follow daily until giving birth. Follow-up interviews were conducted weekly. A generalized estimating equation was used to predict adherence. The total adherence rate was 58%. Higher adherence was predicted by the presence of at least a college degree (p=0.006), greater perceived stress (p=0.006), a higher risk of preterm delivery (pguided imagery. For women with a lower adherence to relaxation guided imagery, health care professionals may consider individual preferences regarding relaxation techniques.

  16. Evaluating adherence to ocular hypotensives using the Travatan dosing aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Dell L

    2012-01-01

    , an objective tool has not been available to the clinician to identify individual patients' rate of adherence. The TDA is an accurate, adjunctive tool available for assessing patient adherence on an individual level.Keywords: Glaucoma, adherence, therapy, travatan, medication, travoprost, monitoring

  17. Predictors of adherence to a multifaceted podiatry intervention for the prevention of falls in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spink, Martin J; Fotoohabadi, Mohammad R; Wee, Elin; Landorf, Karl B; Hill, Keith D; Lord, Stephen R; Menz, Hylton B

    2011-08-26

    Despite emerging evidence that foot problems and inappropriate footwear increase the risk of falls, there is little evidence as to whether foot-related intervention strategies can be successfully implemented. The aim of this study was to evaluate adherence rates, barriers to adherence, and the predictors of adherence to a multifaceted podiatry intervention for the prevention of falls in older people. The intervention group (n = 153, mean age 74.2 years) of a randomised trial that investigated the effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention to prevent falls was assessed for adherence to the three components of the intervention: (i) foot orthoses, (ii) footwear advice and footwear cost subsidy, and (iii) a home-based foot and ankle exercise program. Adherence to each component and the barriers to adherence were documented, and separate discriminant function analyses were undertaken to identify factors that were significantly and independently associated with adherence to the three intervention components. Adherence to the three components of the intervention was as follows: foot orthoses (69%), footwear (54%) and home-based exercise (72%). Discriminant function analyses identified that being younger was the best predictor of orthoses use, higher physical health status and lower fear of falling were independent predictors of footwear adherence, and higher physical health status was the best predictor of exercise adherence. The predictive accuracy of these models was only modest, with 62 to 71% of participants correctly classified. Adherence to a multifaceted podiatry intervention in this trial ranged from 54 to 72%. People with better physical health, less fear of falling and a younger age exhibited greater adherence, suggesting that strategies need to be developed to enhance adherence in frailer older people who are most at risk of falling. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000065392.

  18. Accurate assessment of adherence: self-report and clinician report vs electronic monitoring of nebulizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Tracey; Goodacre, Lynne; Sutton, Chris; Pollard, Kim; Conway, Steven; Peckham, Daniel

    2011-08-01

    People with cystic fibrosis have a high treatment burden. While uncertainty remains about individual patient level of adherence to medication, treatment regimens are difficult to tailor, and interventions are difficult to evaluate. Self- and clinician-reported measures are routinely used despite criticism that they overestimate adherence. This study assessed agreement between rates of adherence to prescribed nebulizer treatments when measured by self-report, clinician report, and electronic monitoring suitable for long-term use. Seventy-eight adults with cystic fibrosis were questioned about their adherence to prescribed nebulizer treatments over the previous 3 months. Self-report was compared with clinician report and stored adherence data downloaded from the I-Neb nebulizer system. Adherence measures were expressed as a percentage of the prescribed regimen, bias was estimated by the paired difference in mean (95% CI) patient and clinician reported and actual adherence. Agreement between adherence measures was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients (95% CI), and disagreements for individuals were displayed using Bland-Altman plots. Patient-identified prescriptions matched the medical record prescription. Median self-reported adherence was 80% (interquartile range, 60%-95%), whereas median adherence measured by nebulizer download was 36% (interquartile range, 5%-84.5%). Nine participants overmedicated and underreported adherence. Median clinician report ranged from 50% to 60%, depending on profession. Extensive discrepancies between self-report and clinician report compared with nebulizer download were identified for individuals. Self- and clinician-reporting of adherence does not provide accurate measurement of adherence when compared with electronic monitoring. Using inaccurate measures has implications for treatment burden, clinician prescribing practices, cost, and accuracy of trial data.

  19. The association between depression and adherence to antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-17

    Mar 17, 2011 ... prevalence rates of around 15%.2 According to a meta- analysis of 10 studies, this figure is nearly double in people living with HIV/AIDS ... with female gender, disability and negative life events.12. Depressive disorders ... significantly increased the risk of non-adherence.16 However, there is a lack of ...

  20. Do improved patient recall and the provision of memory support enhance treatment adherence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lu; Lee, Jason Y; Harvey, Allison G

    2017-03-01

    Patient adherence to psychosocial treatment is an important but understudied topic. The aim of this study was to examine whether better patient recall of treatment contents and therapist use of memory support (MS) were associated with better treatment adherence. Data were drawn from a pilot randomized controlled trial. Participants were 48 individuals (mean age = 44.27 years, 29 females) with Major Depressive Disorder randomized to receive either Cognitive Therapy (CT) with an adjunctive Memory Support Intervention (CT + Memory Support) or CT-as-usual. Therapist and patient ratings of treatment adherence were collected during each treatment session. Patient recall was assessed at mid-treatment. Therapist use of MS was manually coded for a random selection of sessions. Patient recall was significantly associated with better therapist and patient ratings of adherence. Therapist use of Application, a specific MS strategy, predicted higher therapist ratings of adherence. Attention Recruitment, another specific MS strategy, appeared to attenuate the positive impact of session number on patient ratings of adherence. Treatment groups, MS summary scores and other specific MS strategies were not significantly associated with adherence. The measure for treatment adherence is in the process of being formally validated. Results were based on small sample. These results support the importance of patient recall in treatment adherence. Although collectively the effects of MS on treatment adherence were not significant, the results support the use of certain specific MS strategy (i.e., application) as a potential pathway to improve treatment adherence. Larger-scale studies are needed to further examine these constructs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Trends in CPAP adherence over twenty years of data collection: a flattened curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Brian W; Murariu, Dorian; Pang, Kenny P

    2016-08-19

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder, and continuous airway positive pressure (CPAP) is considered to be the gold standard of therapy. CPAP however is known to have problems with adherence, with many patients eventually abandoning the device. The purpose of this paper is to assess secular trends in CPAP adherence over the long term to see if there have been meaningful improvements in adherence in light of the multiple interventions proposed to do so. A comprehensive systematic literature review was conducted using the Medline-Ovid, Embase, and Pubmed databases, searching for data regarding CPAP adherence over a twenty year timeframe (1994-2015). Data was assessed for quality and then extracted. The main outcome measure was reported CPAP non-adherence. Secondary outcomes included changes in CPAP non-adherence when comparing short versus long-term, and changes in terms of behavioral counseling. Eighty-two papers met study inclusion/exclusion criteria. The overall CPAP non-adherence rate based on a 7-h/night sleep time that was reported in studies conducted over the twenty year time frame was 34.1 %. There was no significant improvement over the time frame. Behavioral intervention improved adherence rates by ~1 h per night on average. The rate of CPAP adherence remains persistently low over twenty years worth of reported data. No clinically significant improvement in CPAP adherence was seen even in recent years despite efforts toward behavioral intervention and patient coaching. This low rate of adherence is problematic, and calls into question the concept of CPAP as gold-standard of therapy for OSA.

  2. Understanding and improving treatment adherence in patients with psychotic disorders : A review and a proposed intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staring, Anton B.P.; van der Gaag, Mark; Selten, Jean-Paul; Loonen, Anton J.M.; Hengeveld, Michiel W.; Mulder, Cornelis L.

    2006-01-01

    Non-adherence to treatment of patients with psychotic disorders is related to higher rates of relapse, hospitalization, and suicide. Important predictors of non-adherence include poor social structure, cognitive deficits, negative medication attitude, side effects, depression, a sealing-over

  3. Patient Medication Knowledge Governing Adherence to Asthma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samuel Olaleye

    disturbing levels of patients adherence with management recommendations. Asthma education strategies need to be modified to engage ... and quick procedure. ... Participants' medication adherence and skills at using .... In this study 17 of the 67 patients studied .... adherence: changing behaviour to promote better self-.

  4. Risk factors for antipsychotic medication non-adherence behaviors and attitudes in adult-onset psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Christy Lai Ming; Poon, Venessa Wing Yan; Ko, Wai Tung; Miao, Ho Yee; Chang, Wing Chung; Lee, Edwin Ho Ming; Chan, Sherry Kit Wa; Lin, Jingxia; Chen, Eric Yu Hai

    2016-07-01

    Research on antipsychotic medication non-adherence in first-episode psychosis patients tends to examine non-adherence behaviors and attitudes together. Nonetheless, attitudes do not always directly translate into behaviors. We examined the baseline predictors for antipsychotics non-adherence behaviors and attitudes separately in a first-episode psychosis cohort. We also included cognitive impairments as one of the predictor variables as this domain is rarely explored in adherence studies. Participants were 313 adult-onset psychosis patients recruited from the Jockey Club Early Psychosis project in Hong Kong. Demographic, premorbid, clinical, and cognitive characteristics were first assessed at baseline. Six months later, participants completed a 14-item Medication Compliance Questionnaire, which was a modified and Cantonese-translated version of the Medication Adherence Rating Scale that includes items pertaining to both adherence behaviors and attitudes. Rates of poor adherence behaviors and negative adherence attitudes were 17.6% and 27.8%, respectively. Determinants of poor adherence behavior included more severe positive symptoms, hospitalization at onset of illness, and poorer engagement in extended social network. As for negative adherence attitude, determinants included more severe general psychopathology, poorer insight, more psychic medication side-effects, and poorer performance on backward digit span test and WAIS-R information test. The risk factors for non-adherence behaviors and attitudes are different and they should all be taken into careful consideration while formulating appropriate intervention programs to tackle the adherence problem in adult onset psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Direct observation of the lowest indirect exciton state in the bulk of hexagonal boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, R.; Habenicht, C.; Ahmad, M.; Knupfer, M.; Büchner, B.

    2018-01-01

    We combine electron energy-loss spectroscopy and first-principles calculations based on density-functional theory (DFT) to identify the lowest indirect exciton state in the in-plane charge response of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) single crystals. This remarkably sharp mode forms a narrow pocket with a dispersion bandwidth of ˜100 meV and, as we argue based on a comparison to our DFT calculations, is predominantly polarized along the Γ K direction of the hexagonal Brillouin zone. Our data support the recent report by Cassabois et al. [Nat. Photonics 10, 262 (2016), 10.1038/nphoton.2015.277] who indirectly inferred the existence of this mode from the photoluminescence signal, thereby establishing h-BN as an indirect semiconductor.

  6. The advantageous way of getting the lowest uncertainty values of elemental concentration by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cincu, Em.; Manea, I.; Manu, V.; Barbos, D.

    2007-01-01

    Analysts in a NAA accredited laboratory bear full responsibility for the report on the material they investigated. The document has to contain the most accurate values that can be, as confidence to further use of the material on the market. To this end, analysts are expected to use the standardization method providing the lowest element concentration uncertainty and carefully quantify every factor that may contribute to the validity of the results. The question is which method is the most advantageous one from this perspective and in what conditions. This paper presents a comparison between results of the elemental analysis of a CRM sample by INAA, as obtained through two standardization methods and three calculations variants applied to the same experimental data. The results were discussed in terms of uncertainty and of the E n statistical criterion recommended for inter-comparison exercises. The influence of the nuclear reaction and decay data was studied in several cases. (author)

  7. Lowest-order average effect of turbulence on atmospheric profiles derived from radio occultation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshleman, V.R.; Haugstad, B.S.

    1977-01-01

    Turbulence in planetary atmospheres and ionospheres causes changes in angles of refraction of radio waves used in occultation experiments. Atmospheric temperature and pressure profiles, and ionospheric electron concentration profiles, derived from radio occultation measurements of Doppler frequency contain errors due to such angular offsets. The lowest-order average errors are derived from a geometrical-optics treatment of the radio-wave phase advance caused by the addition of uniform turbulence to an initially homogeneous medium. It is concluded that the average profile errors are small and that precise Doppler frequency measurements at two or more wavelengths could be used to help determine characteristics of the turbulence, as well as accuracy limits and possible correction terms for the profiles. However, a more detailed study of both frequency and intensity characteristics in radio and optical occultation measurements of turbulent planetary atmospheres and ionospheres is required to realize the full potential of such measurements

  8. Preparations for an optical access to the lowest nuclear excitation in {sup 229}Th

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wense, Lars v.d.; Seiferle, Benedict; Thirolf, Peter [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Laatiaoui, Mustapha [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The isomeric lowest excited nuclear level of {sup 229}Th has been indirectly measured to be 7.6±0.5 eV (163±11 nm). In order to improve the accuracy as prerequisite of an all-optical control, {sup 229m}Th is populated via a 2% decay branch in the α decay of {sup 233}U. The Thorium ions are extracted and cooled with the help of a buffer gas stopping cell and an RFQ-cooler. In order to suppress accompanying α decay chain products other than {sup 229}Th, a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) is used, performance and extraction efficiency measurements were performed. Following the QMS, the Thorium isomers will be collected on a 50 μm micro electrode. The decay of these isomers can then be detected using deep UV optics, presently in the phase of preparation and adjustment. Newest results are presented.

  9. Rotational structure of the five lowest frequency fundamental vibrational states of dimethylsulfoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Drumel, Marie-Aline Martin; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gaël; Sadovskií, Dmitrií A.

    2013-10-01

    We report on the successful extended analysis of the high-frequency (200-700 GHz) part of the gas phase (sub)mm-wave spectra of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The spectrum was recorded at 100 kHz resolution using a solid state subTHz spectrometer. The five lowest energy fundamental vibrational states of DMSO with frequencies below 400 cm-1 were observed as sidebands along with the main 0←0 band. Neglecting the internal rotation of methyls, our rotational Hamiltonian reproduced the spectrum to the subMHz accuracy. We have found that the asymmetric bending state ν23 is the only low frequency fundamental vibrational state with the "anomalous" rotational structure uncovered in Cuisset et al. [1]. dmsomw 2013-09-04 15:03

  10. Projection-operator calculations of the lowest e--He resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, A.; Bhatia, A.K.; Junker, B.R.; Temkin, A.

    1986-01-01

    Results for the lowest (Schulz) autodetaching state of He - [1s(2s) 2 ] are reported. The calculation utilizes the full projection-operator formalism as explicitly developed by Temkin and Bhatia [Phys. Rev. A 31, 1259 (1985)]. Eigenvalues, scrE = , are calculated using projection operators Q depending on increasingly elaborate target wave functions going up to a 10-term Hylleraas-form, and a configuration-interaction total wave function Phi of 40 configurations. Results are well converged, but our best value is --0.13 eV above the experimental position at 19.37 eV. We conclude that the shift (Δ) in the Feshbach formalism gives a large contribution (relative to the width) to the position E/sub r/ ( = scrE+Δ). An appendix is devoted to the evaluation of the most complicated type of three-center integral involved in the calculation

  11. THE LOWEST-MASS MEMBER OF THE β PICTORIS MOVING GROUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, Emily L.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Cruz, Kelle L.

    2010-01-01

    We present spectral and kinematic evidence that 2MASS J06085283-2753583 (M8.5γ) is a member of the β Pictoris Moving Group (BPMG, age ∼12 Myr), making it the latest-type known member of this young, nearby association. We confirm low-gravity spectral morphology at both medium and high resolutions in the near-infrared. We present new radial velocity and proper motion measurements, and use these to calculate galactic location and space motion consistent with other high-probability members of the BPMG. The predicted mass range consistent with the object's effective temperature, surface gravity, spectral type, and age is 15-35 M Jup , placing 2MASS 0608-27 well within the brown dwarf mass regime. 2MASS J06085283-2753583 is thus confidently added to the short list of very low mass, intermediate age benchmark objects that inform ongoing searches for the lowest-mass members of nearby young associations.

  12. Determination of the lowest critical power levels of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huy, Ngo Quang [Centre for Nuclear Technique Application, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Thong, Ha Van; Long, Vu Hai; Binh, Do Quang; Nghiem, Huynh Ton; Tuan, Nguyen Minh; Vien, Luong Ba; Vinh, Le Vinh [Nuclear Research Inst., Da Lat (Viet Nam)

    1994-10-01

    This paper presents the experimental methods for determining critical states of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor containing an extraneous neutron source induced by gamma ray reactions on beryllium in the reactor. The lowest critical power levels are measured at various moments after the reactor is shut down following 100 hours of its continuous operation. Th power levels vary from (0.5-1.2) x 10{sup -4} of P{sub n}, i.e. (25-60)W to (1.1-1.6) x 10{sup -5} of P{sub n}, i.e. (5.5-8)W at corresponding times of 4 days to 13 days after the reactor is shut down. However the critical power must be chosen greater than 500 W to sustain the steady criticality of the reactor for a long time. (author). 3 refs. 4 figs. 1 tab.

  13. All Electron ab initio Investigations of the Three Lowest Lying Electronic States of the RuC Molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shim, Irene; Gingerich, K. A.

    2000-01-01

    The three lowest-lying electronic states of RuC, (1)Sigma(+), (3)Delta, and (1)Delta, have been investigated by performing all-electron ab initio multi-configuration self-consistent-field (CASSCF) and multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations including relativistic corrections....... The electronic ground state is derived as (1)Sigma(+) with the spectroscopic constants r(e) = 1.616 Angstrom and omega(e) = 1085 cm(-1). The lowest-lying excited state, (3)Delta, has r(e) = 1.632 Angstrom, omega(e) = 1063 cm(-1), and T-e = 912 cm(-1). These results are consistent with recent spectroscopic values....... The chemical bonds in all three lowest-lying states are triple bonds composed of one sigma and two pi bonds. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  14. Variations in infant and childhood vitamin D supplementation programmes across Europe and factors influencing adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suma Uday

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional rickets is a growing global public health concern despite existing prevention programmes and health policies. We aimed to compare infant and childhood vitamin D supplementation policies, implementation strategies and practices across Europe and explore factors influencing adherence. Methods: European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology Bone and Growth Plate Working Group members and other specialists completed a questionnaire on country-specific vitamin D supplementation policy and child health care programmes, socioeconomic factors, policy implementation strategies and adherence. Factors influencing adherence were assessed using Kendall’s tau-b correlation coefficient. Results: Responses were received from 29 of 30 European countries (97%. Ninety-six per cent had national policies for infant vitamin D supplementation. Supplements are commenced on day 1–5 in 48% (14/29 of countries, day 6–21 in 48% (14/29; only the UK (1/29 starts supplements at 6 months. Duration of supplementation varied widely (6 months to lifelong in at-risk populations. Good (≥80% of infants, moderate (50–79% and low adherence (<50% to supplements was reported by 59% (17/29, 31% (9/29 and 10% (3/29 of countries, respectively. UK reported lowest adherence (5–20%. Factors significantly associated with good adherence were universal supplementation independent of feeding mode (P = 0.007, providing information at neonatal unit (NNU discharge (P = 0.02, financial family support (P = 0.005; monitoring adherence at surveillance visits (P = 0.001 and the total number of factors adopted (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Good adherence to supplementation is a multi-task operation that works best when parents are informed at birth, all babies are supplemented, and adherence monitoring is incorporated into child health surveillance visits. Implementation strategies matter for delivering efficient prevention policies.

  15. Predictive validity of a brief antiretroviral adherence index: Retrospective cohort analysis under conditions of repetitive administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colwell Bradford

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Newer antiretroviral (ARV agents have improved pharmacokinetics, potency, and tolerability and have enabled the design of regimens with improved virologic outcomes. Successful antiretroviral therapy is dependent on patient adherence. In previous research, we validated a subset of items from the ACTG adherence battery as prognostic of virologic suppression at 6 months and correlated with adherence estimates from the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS. The objective of the current study was to validate the longitudinal use of the Owen Clinic adherence index in analyses of time to initial virologic suppression and maintenance of suppression. Results 278 patients (naïve n = 168, experienced n = 110 met inclusion criteria. Median [range] time on the first regimen during the study period was 286 (30 – 1221 days. 217 patients (78% achieved an undetectable plasma viral load (pVL at median 63 days. 8.3% (18/217 of patients experienced viral rebound (pVL > 400 after initial suppression. Adherence scores varied from 0 – 25 (mean 1.06, median 0. The lowest detectable adherence score cut point using this instrument was ≥ 5 for both initial suppression and maintenance of suppression. In the final Cox model of time to first undetectable pVL, controlling for prior treatment experience and baseline viral load, the adjusted hazard ratio for time updated adherence score was 0.36score ≥ 5 (95% CI: 0.19–0.69 [reference: score ≥ 5 (0.05–0.66 [reference: Conclusion A brief, longitudinally administered self report adherence instrument predicted both initial virologic suppression and maintenance of suppression in patients using contemporary ARV regimens. The survey can be used for identification of sub-optimal adherence with subsequent appropriate intervention.

  16. Opioid Addiction in Pregnancy: Does Depression Negatively Impact Adherence With Prenatal Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Lauren; Sulo, Suela; Kozmic, Sarah; Parilla, Barbara V

    We aimed to evaluate whether depression in pregnancy in women with opioid dependency negatively impacts adherence with prenatal care. This was a retrospective chart analysis of opioid-dependent pregnant women over a 6-year period at 2 large referral and tertiary care centers. The primary outcome was adherence with prenatal care based on the concurrent diagnosis of depression. Adherence was assessed by looking at the number of observed versus expected prenatal visits. Secondary outcomes included neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay, and incidence and severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). A total of 74 patient charts were reviewed. 45/74 (60.8%) of the opioid-dependent pregnant patients were either diagnosed with depression (n = 41), anxiety (n = 2), or scored >10 on the Edinburgh Prenatal Depression Scale (n = 1). Patients with a diagnosis of depression were significantly less adherent with prenatal care; 80% adherent (73% vs 93%; P = 0.03), 90% adherent (62% vs 93%; P = 0.003). A higher number of patients in the depression group had an infant treated for withdrawal (62% vs 38%; P = 0.041), and had longer NICU stays (27% vs 21%; P = 0.018). Analysis of the whole cohort of opioid dependent gravidas revealed Buprenorphine maintenance therapy had the lowest mean NAS score 6.5 ± 4.4, compared with methadone maintenance 10.6 ± 3.6, and no maintenance therapy 9.4 ± 4.0 (P = 0.008). Depression negatively impacts adherence with prenatal care and was significantly associated with a higher incidence of neonatal withdrawal and longer NICU stays. Buprenorphine therapy had the lowest incidence and severity of NAS when compared with methadone and no maintenance therapy.

  17. Adherence and health care costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuga AO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aurel O Iuga,1,2 Maura J McGuire3,4 1Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 2Johns Hopkins University, 3Johns Hopkins Community Physicians, 4Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Medication nonadherence is an important public health consideration, affecting health outcomes and overall health care costs. This review considers the most recent developments in adherence research with a focus on the impact of medication adherence on health care costs in the US health system. We describe the magnitude of the nonadherence problem and related costs, with an extensive discussion of the mechanisms underlying the impact of nonadherence on costs. Specifically, we summarize the impact of nonadherence on health care costs in several chronic diseases, such as diabetes and asthma. A brief analysis of existing research study designs, along with suggestions for future research focus, is provided. Finally, given the ongoing changes in the US health care system, we also address some of the most relevant and current trends in health care, including pharmacist-led medication therapy management and electronic (e-prescribing. Keywords: patient, medication, adherence, compliance, nonadherence, noncompliance, cost

  18. Consumer Airfare Report: Table 5 - Detailed Fare Information For Highest and Lowest Fare Markets Under 750 Miles

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Provides detailed fare information for highest and lowest fare markets under 750 miles. For a more complete explanation, please read the introductory information at...

  19. The effects of psychological factors in sports medicine rehabilitation adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampton, C C; Lambert, M E; Yost, R

    1993-09-01

    This study investigated the influence of achievement motivation and self-esteem on injury treatment adherence in a general sample of injured patients receiving treatment in a sports medicine clinic. Subjects consisted of both injured athletes and workers who had incurred an on-the-job injury. Based on scales of self-esteem and achievement motivation, patients were categorized as either high or low in self-esteem certainty, self-esteem level, tendency to be task-involved, and tendency to ego-involved in tasks. Treatment adherence was measured by number of missed appointments and by physical therapist ratings of effort and progress. It was found that patients low in self-esteem certainty and high in ego-involvement tended to miss the most treatment appointments. Contrary to previous findings, task-involvement was not found to be related to treatment adherence.

  20. Sonoporation of adherent cells under regulated ultrasound cavitation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muleki Seya, Pauline; Fouqueray, Manuela; Ngo, Jacqueline; Poizat, Adrien; Inserra, Claude; Béra, Jean-Christophe

    2015-04-01

    A sonoporation device dedicated to the adherent cell monolayer has been implemented with a regulation process allowing the real-time monitoring and control of inertial cavitation activity. Use of the cavitation-regulated device revealed first that adherent cell sonoporation efficiency is related to inertial cavitation activity, without inducing additional cell mortality. Reproducibility is enhanced for the highest sonoporation rates (up to 17%); sonoporation efficiency can reach 26% when advantage is taken of the standing wave acoustic configuration by applying a frequency sweep with ultrasound frequency tuned to the modal acoustic modes of the cavity. This device allows sonoporation of adherent and suspended cells, and the use of regulation allows some environmental parameters such as the temperature of the medium to be overcome, resulting in the possibility of cell sonoporation even at ambient temperature. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Perspectives Regarding Adherence to Prescribed Treatment in Highly Adherent HIV-Infected Gay Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, John M; Menke, Edna M

    2008-01-01

    Focus group methodology was used to describe the medication adherence experience of 24 HIV-infected gay men who reported being adherent to their medication regimens. A conceptualization of medication adherence as an evolving process consisted of challenges to adherence (learning the diagnosis, starting the medications, struggling with the medications, dealing with side effects, coping with stigma) as well as those factors supportive of adherence (believing in medications, finding motivating factors, using reminders, depending on others, owning the disease). Themes associated with challenges to adherence focused on diagnosis and the physical and emotional adjustments individuals made to incorporate antiretroviral medications into their daily lives and move toward medication adherence. The factors supportive of adherence were related to the ongoing behaviors identified with establishing and maintaining adherence behaviors. What can be taken from the study is that adherence is a complex and dynamic process rather than a static behavior.

  2. Motivational effects of coronary artery calcium scores on statin adherence and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Nove K; Cespedes, Lucas; Youssef, George; Li, Dong; Budoff, Matthew J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect on adherence to statin therapy and assess the effect of beneficial changes in behavior that resulted in weight loss in patients who underwent coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring with cardiac computed tomography. Despite convincing data demonstrating the benefits of HmGCoA inhibitors for both primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease, they remain underused. Also, despite convincing data demonstrating the benefits of weight loss for both primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease, it remains difficult to motivate behavioral changes resulting in weight loss. In this study, we assess whether higher CAC scores are associated with increased compliance with statin medication and whether higher CAC scores are associated with beneficial lifestyle behaviors resulting in weight loss. We retrospectively analyzed patients that had undergone baseline CAC testing and returned for a follow-up scan. All patients had weight documented and were administered a questionnaire regarding compliance to medications. The primary endpoint was measurable weight loss between visit one and visit two and the self-reported compliance to statin use. The study population with data regarding statin compliance consisted of 2608 individuals (72% men, mean age 58±8 years) who were followed for a mean of 4.1±3.2 years after an initial CAC scan. Overall, statin compliance was lowest (27.4%) among those with CAC=0, and gradually increased with higher CAC scores (1-99, 39.2%; 100-399, 53.6%; ≥400, 58.8%; Ptool, a higher rate of adherences with statin therapy was observed in patients with higher CAC scores.

  3. Exercise, Affect, and Adherence: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The low rates of regular exercise and overall physical activity (PA in the general population represent a significant public health challenge. Previous research suggests that, for many people, exercise leads to a negative affective response and, in turn, reduced likelihood of future exercise. The purpose of this paper is to examine this exercise-affect-adherence relationship from an evolutionary perspective. Specifically, we argue that low rates of physical exercise in the general population are a function of the evolved human tendency to avoid unnecessary physical exertion. This innate tendency evolved because it allowed our evolutionary ancestors to conserve energy for physical activities that had immediate adaptive utility such as pursuing prey, escaping predators, and engaging in social and reproductive behaviors. The commonly observed negative affective response to exercise is an evolved proximate psychological mechanism through which humans avoid unnecessary energy expenditure. The fact that the human tendencies toward negative affective response to and avoidance of unnecessary physical activities are innate does not mean that they are unchangeable. Indeed, it is only because of human-engineered changes in our environmental conditions (i.e., it is no longer necessary for us to work for our food that our predisposition to avoid unnecessary physical exertion has become a liability. Thus, it is well within our capabilities to reengineer our environments to once again make PA necessary or, at least, to serve an immediate functional purpose. We propose a two-pronged approach to PA promotion based on this evolutionary functional perspective: First, to promote exercise and other physical activities that are perceived to have an immediate purpose, and second, to instill greater perceived purpose for a wider range of physical activities. We posit that these strategies are more likely to result in more positive (or at least less negative affective

  4. Psychosocial and demographic predictors of adherence and non-adherence to health advice accompanying air quality warning systems: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antoni, Donatella; Smith, Louise; Auyeung, Vivian; Weinman, John

    2017-09-22

    , being exposed to health messages that reduced both concern about air pollution and perceived susceptibility, as well as perceived lack of self-efficacy/locus of control, reliance on sensory cues and lack of time. We found frequent suboptimal adherence rates to health advice accompanying air quality alerts. Several psychosocial facilitators and barriers of adherence were identified. To maximise their health effects, health advice needs to target these specific psychosocial factors.

  5. Adherence to hysterosalpingogram appointments following hysteroscopic sterilization among low income women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The few studies on post-Essure hysterosalpingogram (HSG) adherence rates show inconsistent results. This study examined associations between sociodemographic variables not examined in prior studies and HSG adherence among low income women. Study Design Medical records of 286 women who underwent sterilization between August 31, 2005 and September 30, 2011 were reviewed. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used to determine variable associations with HSG adherence. Results The adherence rate for the first HSG was 85.0% (243/286). Variables associated with adherence were: lower education level (p=.01), not working outside the home (p=.04), being married (pEssure placement is feasible among low income populations. Furthermore, not speaking English or having to commute a far distance to the clinic do not appear to be barriers. This is encouraging considering the importance of this test to confirm tubal occlusion. PMID:24012097

  6. Adherence to the "Mediterranean Diet" in Spain and Its Relationship with Cardiovascular Risk (DIMERICA Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán Alemán, José; Zafrilla Rentero, María Pilar; Montoro-García, Silvia; Mulero, Juana; Pérez Garrido, Alfonso; Leal, Mariano; Guerrero, Lucía; Ramos, Elena; Ruilope, Luis Miguel

    2016-10-28

    Nutritional studies focus on traditional cultural models and lifestyles in different countries. The aim of this study was to examine the adherence to the Mediterranean diet, life habits, and risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases among people living in different geographical regions in Spain. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in each region. The sampling scheme consisted of a random three-stage stratified sampling program according to geographic region, age, and gender. A total of 1732 subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire designed to assess their nutrient intake, dietary habits, and exercise. A diet score that assesses the adherence of participants to the Mediterranean diet (range 0-10) was also applied. Southeastern Spain had the lowest score for adherence to the Mediterranean diet because of the low consumption of fish and plant products. A lower adherence score to the Mediterranean diet was strongly associated with the prevalence of hypertension ( p = 0.018). A low level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet is accompanied by a high prevalence of hypertension and, therefore, a raised cardiovascular risk in the country. The adherence score could help identify individuals at greater cardiovascular risk.

  7. Factors associated with suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiamsakul, Awachana; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Ditangco, Rossana; Li, Patrick CK; Phanuphak, Praphan; Sirisanthana, Thira; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek; Kantipong, Pacharee; Lee, Christopher KC; Mustafa, Mahiran; Merati, Tuti; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Singtoroj, Thida; Law, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) plays an important role in treatment outcomes. It is crucial to identify factors influencing adherence in order to optimize treatment responses. The aim of this study was to assess the rates of, and factors associated with, suboptimal adherence (SubAdh) in the first 24 months of ART in an Asian HIV cohort. Methods As part of a prospective resistance monitoring study, the TREAT Asia Studies to Evaluate Resistance Monitoring Study (TASER-M) collected patients’ adherence based on the World Health Organization-validated Adherence Visual Analogue Scale. SubAdh was defined in two ways: (i) 14 days. Time was divided into four intervals: 0–6, 6–12, 12–18 and 18–24 months. Factors associated with SubAdh were analysed using generalized estimating equations. Results Out of 1316 patients, 32% ever reported 2 assessments per patient per year had an odds ratio (OR)=0.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) (0.55 to 0.90), p=0.006), compared to sites with ≤2 assessments per patient per year. Compared to heterosexual exposure, SubAdh was higher in injecting drug users (IDUs) (OR=1.92, 95% CI (1.23 to 3.00), p=0.004) and lower in homosexual exposure (OR=0.52, 95% CI (0.38 to 0.71), p<0.001). Patients taking a nucleoside transcriptase inhibitor and protease inhibitor (NRTI+PI) combination were less likely to report adherence <100% (OR=0.36, 95% CI (0.20 to 0.67), p=0.001) compared to patients taking an NRTI and non-nucleoside transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI+NNRTI) combination. SubAdh decreased with increasing time on ART (all p<0.001). Similar associations were found with adherence <95% as the outcome. Conclusions We found that SubAdh, defined as either <100% and <95%, was associated with mode of HIV exposure, ART regimen, time on ART and frequency of adherence measurement. The more frequently sites assessed patients, the lower the SubAdh, possibly reflecting site resourcing for patient counselling. Although social

  8. Approaches to improve adherence to pharmacotherapy in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuler KM

    2014-05-01

    enhanced team-oriented approach to managing patients with schizophrenia improves adherence and supports corresponding reductions in relapse rates, inpatient admissions, and associated costs. Conclusion: Optimization of medication and involvement of caregivers are important to promoting adherence. A multidisciplinary team approach may be invaluable in identifying barriers to adherence and helping schizophrenia patients overcome them. Keywords: medication adherence, schizophrenia, community mental health services, social work, psychiatric

  9. Integrative Review of Mobile Phone Contacts and Medication Adherence in Severe Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Cordellia E

    Poor medication adherence is a significant problem in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). About 50% of people with SMI become nonadherent to treatment in the first month following discharge from the hospital. This study examined literature in the past decade (2006-2016) on the use of mobile phone contacts in individuals with SMI to improve medication adherence post hospital discharge. This integrative review used the search terms texting, text messaging, SMS, cell/mobile phone, medication adherence, medication compliance, and mental illness. Databases (CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus) and manual searching of reference lists were done. The main inclusion criteria were the use of mobile phone contacts on medication adherence in individuals with SMI. Adults 18 years and older, studies conducted from 2006 to 2016, and studies conducted in English were also criteria for inclusion. Only five studies met criteria for inclusion. Outcomes from the review showed that mobile phone contacts have been used to improve medication adherence in individuals with SMI and able to provide the four types of social support (instrumental, informational, emotional, and, appraisal). When phone contacts especially text messaging was used as an adjunct to other interventions, it yielded better medication adherence than when used alone. However, results on medication adherence rates were mixed in participants on both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric medications. Although mobile phone contacts are a promising tool to enhance medication adherence after hospital discharge, its effectiveness to increase medication adherence in this population remains inconclusive.

  10. Hand Hygiene Adherence Among Health Care Workers at Japanese Hospitals: A Multicenter Observational Study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakihama, Tomoko; Honda, Hitoshi; Saint, Sanjay; Fowler, Karen E; Shimizu, Taro; Kamiya, Toru; Sato, Yumiko; Arakawa, Soichi; Lee, Jong Ja; Iwata, Kentaro; Mihashi, Mutsuko; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2016-03-01

    Although proper hand hygiene among health care workers is an important component of efforts to prevent health care-associated infection, there are few data available on adherence to hand hygiene practices in Japan. The aim of this study was to examine hand hygiene adherence at teaching hospitals in Japan. An observational study was conducted from July to November 2011 in 4 units (internal medicine, surgery, intensive care, and/or emergency department) in 4 geographically diverse hospitals (1 university hospital and 3 community teaching hospitals) in Japan. Hand hygiene practice before patient contact was assessed by an external observer. In a total of 3545 health care worker-patient observations, appropriate hand hygiene practice was performed in 677 (overall adherence, 19%; 95% confidence interval, 18%-20%). Subgroup rates of hand hygiene adherence were 15% among physicians and 23% among nurses. The ranges of adherence were 11% to 25% between hospitals and 11% to 31% between units. Adherence of the nurses and the physicians to hand hygiene was correlated within each hospital. There was a trend toward higher hand hygiene adherence in hospitals with infection control nurses, compared with hospitals without them (29% versus 16%). The hand hygiene adherence in Japanese teaching hospitals in our sample was low, even lower than reported mean values from other international studies. Greater adherence to hand hygiene should be encouraged in Japan.

  11. Predictors and outcomes of non-adherence in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohme, Fadi; Mor, Maria K; Pena-Polanco, Julio; Green, Jamie A; Fine, Michael J; Palevsky, Paul M; Weisbord, Steven D

    2017-08-01

    Predictors of and outcomes associated with non-adherent behavior among patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD) have been incompletely elucidated. We conducted a post hoc analysis of data from the SMILE trial to identify patient factors associated with non-adherence to dialysis-related treatments and the associations of non-adherence with clinical outcomes. We defined non-adherence as missed HD and abbreviated HD. We used negative binomial regression to model the associations of demographic and clinical factors with measures of non-adherence, and negative binomial and Cox regression to analyze the associations of non-adherence with hospitalizations and mortality, respectively. We followed 286 patients for up to 24 months. Factors independently associated with missing HD included Tuesday/Thursday/Saturday HD schedule [incident rate ratio (IRR) 1.85, p adherence to HD-related treatments, and independent associations of non-adherence with hospitalization and mortality. These findings should inform the development and implementation of interventions to improve adherence and reduce health resource utilization.

  12. Factors influencing long-term adherence to pelvic floor exercises in women with urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Mónica; Carrasco, Bernardita; Casas-Cordero, Romina

    2018-03-01

    To ensure the effectiveness of Physical Therapy for urinary incontinence (UI), it is crucial that patients adhere to treatment in both the long and the short term. Treatment adherence may prevent symptom progression and the need for surgery, which is associated with higher costs and potential complications. Adherence is defined as carrying out a recommended behavioral modification or change. The World Health Organization (WHO) has established that adherence is a multifactorial phenomenon determined by the interaction of five dimensions, which include diverse factors that affect long-term adherence on many levels. To identify the factors that influence long-term adherence to pelvic floor exercises in women with UI. Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. The sample was recruited from the "Centro Integral de Reeducación de Piso Pélvico" (CIREP), and included 61 women treated for UI at the center in 2014 and 2015. Participants completed a self-administered, 28-item questionnaire developed for this study based on the WHO five dimensions. Data analysis was performed using STATA 13.0 software. Having performed pelvic floor home exercises after discharge from Physical Therapy was significantly associated with self-rated treatment adherence (P pelvic floor exercise program (P pelvic floor exercises in women with UI; forgetting to do the exercises and boredom with the exercises were the factors most strongly related to low treatment adherence, while motivation and commitment were associated with high adherence in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A Systematic Review of Predictors of, and Reasons for, Adherence to Online Psychological Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Lisa; Binnion, Claire

    2016-12-01

    A key issue regarding the provision of psychological therapy in a self-guided online format is low rates of adherence. The aim of this systematic review was to assess both quantitative and qualitative data on the predictors of adherence, as well as participant reported reasons for adhering or not adhering to online psychological interventions. Database searches of PsycINFO, Medline, and CINAHL identified 1721 potentially relevant articles published between 1 January 2000 and 25 November 2015. A further 34 potentially relevant articles were retrieved from reference lists. Articles that reported predictors of, or reasons for, adherence to an online psychological intervention were included. A total of 36 studies met the inclusion criteria. Predictors assessed included demographic, psychological, characteristics of presenting problem, and intervention/computer-related predictors. Evidence suggested that female gender, higher treatment expectancy, sufficient time, and personalized intervention content each predicted higher adherence. Age, baseline symptom severity, and control group allocation had mixed findings. The majority of assessed variables however, did not predict adherence. Few clear predictors of adherence emerged overall, and most results were either mixed or too preliminary to draw conclusions. More research of predictors associated with adherence to online interventions is warranted.

  14. Improving Adherence to Web-Based and Mobile Technologies for People With Psychosis: Systematic Review of New Potential Predictors of Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killikelly, Clare; He, Zhimin; Reeder, Clare; Wykes, Til

    2017-07-20

    Despite the boom in new technologically based interventions for people with psychosis, recent studies suggest medium to low rates of adherence to these types of interventions. The benefits will be limited if only a minority of service users adhere and engage; if specific predictors of adherence can be identified then technologies can be adapted to increase the service user benefits. The study aimed to present a systematic review of rates of adherence, dropout, and approaches to analyzing adherence to newly developed mobile and Web-based interventions for people with psychosis. Specific predictors of adherence were also explored. Using keywords (Internet or online or Web-based or website or mobile) AND (bipolar disorder or manic depression or manic depressive illness or manic-depressive psychosis or psychosis or schizophr* or psychotic), the following databases were searched: OVID including MedLine, EMBASE and PsychInfo, Pubmed and Web of Science. The objectives and inclusion criteria for suitable studies were defined following PICOS (population: people with psychosis; intervention: mobile or Internet-based technology; comparison group: no comparison group specified; outcomes: measures of adherence; study design: randomized controlled trials (RCT), feasibility studies, and observational studies) criteria. In addition to measurement and analysis of adherence, two theoretically proposed predictors of adherence were examined: (1) level of support from a clinician or researcher throughout the study, and (2) level of service user involvement in the app or intervention development. We provide a narrative synthesis of the findings and followed the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for reporting systematic reviews. Of the 20 studies that reported a measure of adherence and a rate of dropout, 5 of these conducted statistical analyses to determine predictors of dropout, 6 analyzed the effects of specific adherence

  15. Measures and predictors of varenicline adherence in the treatment of nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Annie R; Morales, Mark; Wileyto, E Paul; Hawk, Larry W; Cinciripini, Paul; George, Tony P; Benowitz, Neal L; Nollen, Nicole L; Lerman, Caryn; Tyndale, Rachel F; Schnoll, Robert

    2017-12-01

    While adherence to medication in smoking cessation clinical trials is strongly associated with clinical outcome, very few studies have evaluated the validity of pill count as a measure of adherence relative to a biological assay, and evaluated a broad range of correlates of adherence. In a smoking cessation clinical trial of varenicline, we compared pill counts collected over 4 different time periods to varenicline salivary levels taken after 2weeks of treatment, as well as evaluated predictors of adherence to varenicline. Using a binary measure of adherence based on salivary varenicline levels, adherence was higher among older, white, and more educated participants. Relative to 3, 7, and 14-day pill count, 12-week pill count was the only significant measure able to discriminate adherence as defined by salivary varenicline levels (assessed by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve; AUC=0.59, p=0.004). Seventy-two percent of participants who indicated adherence on 12-week pill count were classified as adherent based on varenicline saliva levels (sensitivity=0.80; specificity=0.40). There was modest variability in the relationship between 12-week pill count and varenicline levels across race and rate of nicotine metabolism. Lastly, General Estimating Equation models demonstrated that longitudinal changes in withdrawal, craving, negative and positive affect, and side effect count and severity were not related to adherence based on salivary varenicline levels. These results indicate that 12-week pill count was the best, albeit a relatively weak, measure of varenicline adherence; additional factors associated with treatment adherence need to be identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Suboptimal treatment adherence in bipolar disorder: impact on clinical outcomes and functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes JM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jose Manuel Montes1, Jorge Maurino2, Consuelo de Dios3, Esteban Medina21Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Universitario del Sureste, 2AstraZeneca Medical Department, 3Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, SpainBackground: The primary aim of this study was to assess drug treatment adherence in patients with bipolar disorder and to identify factors associated with adherence. The secondary aim was to analyze the impact of suboptimal adherence on clinical and functional outcomes.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of outpatients receiving an oral antipsychotic drug. Medication adherence was assessed combining the 10-item Drug Attitude Inventory, the Morisky Green Adherence Questionnaire, and the Compliance Rating Scale. Logistic regression was used to determine significant variables associated with suboptimal adherence to medication.Results: Three hundred and three patients were enrolled into the study. The mean age was 45.9 ± 12.8 years, and 59.7% were females. Sixty-nine percent of patients showed suboptimal adherence. Disease severity and functioning were significantly worse in the suboptimal group than in the adherent group. Multivariate analysis showed depressive polarity of the last acute episode, presence of subsyndromal symptoms, and substance abuse/dependence to be significantly associated with suboptimal treatment adherence (odds ratios 3.41, 2.13, and 1.95, respectively.Conclusion: A high prevalence of nonadherence was found in an outpatient sample with bipolar disorder. Identification of factors related to treatment adherence would give clinicians the opportunity to select more adequately patients who are eligible for potential adherence-focused interventions.Keywords: bipolar disorder, treatment adherence, functioning, polarity, subsyndromal symptoms

  17. Synchrotron far-infrared spectroscopy of the two lowest fundamental modes of 1,1-difluoroethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Andy; Thompson, Christopher D.; Appadoo, Dominique R. T.; Plathe, Ruth; Roy, Pascale; Manceron, Laurent; Barros, Joanna; McNaughton, Don

    2013-08-01

    The far-infrared (FIR) spectrum (50-600 cm-1) of 1,1-difluoroethane was recorded using the high-resolution infrared AILES beamline at the Soleil synchrotron. A ro-vibrational assignment was performed on the lowest wavenumber, low intensity 181 0 and 171 0 modes, yielding band centres of 224.241903 (10) cm-1 and 384.252538 (13) cm-1, respectively. A total of 965 and 2031 FIR transitions were assigned to the 181 0 and 171 0 fundamentals, respectively. Previously measured pure rotational transitions from the upper states were included into the respective fits to yield improved rotational and centrifugal distortion constants. The 182 1 hot band was observed within the fundamental band, with 369 FIR transitions assigned and co-fitted with the fundamental to give a band centre of 431.956502 (39) cm-1 for ν 18 = 2. The 182 0 overtone was observed with 586 transitions assigned and fitted to give a band centre of 431.952763 (23) cm-1 for ν 18 = 2. The difference in energy is attributed to a torsional splitting of 0.003740 (45) cm-1 in the ν 18 = 2 state. Two hot bands originating from the ν 18 = 1 and ν 17 = 1 states were observed within the 171 0 fundamental.

  18. Operator product expansion of the lowest weight CPOs in N=4 SYM4 at strong coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arutyunov, Gleb; Frolov, Sergey; Petkou, Anastasios C.

    2000-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the 4-point functions of the lowest weight chiral primary operators O I ∼tr(phi (i phi j) ) in N=4 SYM 4 at strong coupling and show that their structure is compatible with the predictions of AdS/CFT correspondence. In particular, all power-singular terms in the 4-point functions exactly coincide with the contributions coming from the conformal blocks of the CPOs, the R -symmetry current and the stress tensor. Operators dual to string modes decouple at strong coupling. We compute the anomalous dimensions and the leading 1/N 2 corrections to the normalization constants of the 2- and 3-point functions of scalar and vector double-trace operators with approximate dimensions 4 and 5, respectively. We also find that the conformal dimensions of certain towers of double-trace operators in the 105 , 84 and 175 irreps are non-renormalized. We show that, despite the absence of a non-renormalization theorem for the double-trace operator in the 20 irrep, its anomalous dimension vanishes. As by-products of our investigation, we derive explicit expressions for the conformal block of the stress tensor, and for the conformal partial wave amplitudes of a conserved current and of a stress tensor in d dimensions

  19. Preparations for an optical access to the lowest nuclear excitation in {sup 229}Th

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wense, Lars v.d.; Seiferle, Benedict; Thirolf, Peter G. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Laatiaoui, Mustapha [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The isomeric lowest excited nuclear level of {sup 229}Th has been indirectly measured to be 7.6±0.5 eV (163±11 nm). This low transition energy, compared to energies typically involved in nuclear processes, would allow for the application of laser-spectroscopic methods. Also considering the isomeric lifetime of the excited state (estimated to be 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} s), which leads to an extremely sharp linewidth of Δω/ω ∝ 10{sup -20}, the isomer becomes a strong candidate for a nuclear-based frequency standard. In order to directly detect the isomeric ground-state decay and improve the accuracy of its energy as a prerequisite for an all-optical control, {sup 229m}Th is populated via a 2% decay branch in the α decay of {sup 233}U. The Thorium ions are extracted and cooled with the help of a buffer-gas stopping cell and an RFQ-cooler. In order to suppress accompanying α decay chain products other than {sup 229}Th, a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) is used. Following the QMS, the Thorium isomeric decay is expected to be detectable. Internal conversion as well as photonic decay is probed via different detection techniques. Latest results are presented.

  20. Failures of TDDFT in describing the lowest intramolecular charge-transfer excitation in para-nitroanilin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, J.J.; Sauer, S.P.A.; Mikkelsen, K.V.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the failure of Time{Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) with the CAM{B3LYP exchange{correlation (xc) functional coupled to the Polarizable Embedding (PE) scheme (PE-CAM-B3LYP) in reproducing the solvatochromic shift of the lowest intense charge{transfer excitation in para...... the electric dipole moments in the gas phase and for 100 solvent congurations. We find that CAM-B3LYP overestimates the amount of charge separation inherent in the ground state and TDDFT/CAM-B3LYP drastically underestimates this amount in the excited charge-transfer state. As the errors in the solvatochromatic...... to benchmark results of TDDFT calculations with CAM-B3LYP for intramolecular charge{transfer excitations in molecular systems similar to pNA against higher{level ab initio wave function methods, like, e.g., CCSD, prior to their use. Using the calculated change in dipole moment upon excitation as a measure...

  1. Behavioral heterogeneity affects individual performances in experimental and computational lowest unique integer games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takashi

    2017-12-01

    This study computationally examines (1) how the behaviors of subjects are represented, (2) whether the classification of subjects is related to the scale of the game, and (3) what kind of behavioral models are successful in small-sized lowest unique integer games (LUIGs). In a LUIG, N (>= 3) players submit a positive integer up to M(> 1) and the player choosing the smallest number not chosen by anyone else wins. For this purpose, the author considers four LUIGs with N = {3, 4} and M = {3, 4} and uses the behavioral data obtained in the laboratory experiment by Yamada and Hanaki (Physica A 463, pp. 88–102, 2016). For computational experiments, the author calibrates the parameters of typical learning models for each subject and then pursues round robin competitions. The main findings are in the following: First, the subjects who played not differently from the mixed-strategy Nash equilibrium (MSE) prediction tended to made use of not only their choices but also the game outcomes. Meanwhile those who deviated from the MSE prediction took care of only their choices as the complexity of the game increased. Second, the heterogeneity of player strategies depends on both the number of players (N) and the upper limit (M). Third, when groups consist of different agents like in the earlier laboratory experiment, sticking behavior is quite effective to win.

  2. Perturbative Power Counting, Lowest-Index Operators and Their Renormalization in Standard Model Effective Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi; Ma, Xiao-Dong

    2018-03-01

    We study two aspects of higher dimensional operators in standard model effective field theory. We first introduce a perturbative power counting rule for the entries in the anomalous dimension matrix of operators with equal mass dimension. The power counting is determined by the number of loops and the difference of the indices of the two operators involved, which in turn is defined by assuming that all terms in the standard model Lagrangian have an equal perturbative power. Then we show that the operators with the lowest index are unique at each mass dimension d, i.e., (H † H) d/2 for even d ≥ 4, and (LT∈ H)C(LT∈ H) T (H † H)(d-5)/2 for odd d ≥ 5. Here H, L are the Higgs and lepton doublet, and ∈, C the antisymmetric matrix of rank two and the charge conjugation matrix, respectively. The renormalization group running of these operators can be studied separately from other operators of equal mass dimension at the leading order in power counting. We compute their anomalous dimensions at one loop for general d and find that they are enhanced quadratically in d due to combinatorics. We also make connections with classification of operators in terms of their holomorphic and anti-holomorphic weights. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11025525, 11575089, and by the CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP)

  3. Solar Cycle 24 UV Radiation: Lowest in more than 6 Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, Klaus-Peter; Mittag, Marco; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Using spectra taken by the robotic telescope ``TIGRE'' (see Fig. 1 and the TIGRE-poster presented by Schmitt et al. at this conference) and its mid-resolution (R=20,000) HEROS double-channel echelle spectrograph, we present our measurements of the solar Ca II H&K chromospheric emission. Using moonlight, we applied the calibration and definition of the Mt. Wilson S-index , which allows a direct comparison with historic observations, reaching back to the early 1960's. At the same time, coming from the same EUV emitting plage regions, the Ca II H&K emission is a good proxy for the latter, which is of interest as a forcing factor in climate models. Our measurements probe the weak, asynchronous activity cycle 24 around its 2nd maximum during the past winter. Our S-values suggest that this maximum is the lowest in chromospheric emission since at least 60 years -- following the longest and deepest minimum since a century. Our observations suggest a similarly long-term (on a scale of decades) low of the far-UV radiation, which should be considered by the next generation of climate models. The current, very interesting activity behaviour calls for a concerted effort on long-term solar monitoring.

  4. Behavioral Heterogeneity Affects Individual Performances in Experimental and Computational Lowest Unique Integer Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yamada

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study computationally examines (1 how the behaviors of subjects are represented, (2 whether the classification of subjects is related to the scale of the game, and (3 what kind of behavioral models are successful in small-sized lowest unique integer games (LUIGs. In a LUIG, N (≥ 3 players submit a positive integer up to M(> 1 and the player choosing the smallest number not chosen by anyone else wins. For this purpose, the author considers four LUIGs with N = {3, 4} and M = {3, 4} and uses the behavioral data obtained in the laboratory experiment by Yamada and Hanaki [1]. For computational experiments, the author calibrates the parameters of typical learning models for each subject and then pursues round robin competitions. The main findings are in the following: First, the subjects who played not differently from the mixed-strategy Nash equilibrium (MSE prediction tended to made use of not only their choices but also the game outcomes. Meanwhile those who deviated from the MSE prediction took care of only their choices as the complexity of the game increased. Second, the heterogeneity of player strategies depends on both the number of players (N and the upper limit (M. Third, when groups consist of different agents like in the earlier laboratory experiment, sticking behavior is quite effective to win.

  5. Validity of the lowest-Landau-level approximation for rotating Bose gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Alexis G.; Feder, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The energy spectrum for an ultracold rotating Bose gas in a harmonic trap is calculated exactly for small systems, allowing the atoms to occupy several Landau levels. Two vortexlike states and two strongly correlated states (the Pfaffian and Laughlin) are considered in detail. In particular, their critical rotation frequencies and energy gaps are determined as a function of particle number, interaction strength, and the number of Landau levels occupied (up to three). For the vortexlike states, the lowest-Landau-level (LLL) approximation is justified only if the interaction strength decreases with the number of particles; nevertheless, the constant of proportionality increases rapidly with the angular momentum per particle. For the strongly correlated states, however, the interaction strength can increase with particle number without violating the LLL condition. The results suggest that, in large systems, the Pfaffian and Laughlin states might be stabilized at rotation frequencies below the centrifugal limit for sufficiently large interaction strengths, with energy gaps a significant fraction of the trap energy

  6. NO NEUTRON STAR COMPANION TO THE LOWEST MASS SDSS WHITE DWARF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueeros, Marcel A.; Camilo, Fernando; Heinke, Craig; Kilic, Mukremin; Anderson, Scott F.; Silvestri, Nicole M.; Freire, Paulo; Kleinman, Scot J.; Liebert, James W.

    2009-01-01

    SDSS J091709.55+463821.8 (hereafter J0917+4638) is the lowest surface gravity white dwarf (WD) currently known, with log g = 5.55 ± 0.05 (M ∼ 0.17 M sun ). Such low-mass white dwarfs (LMWDs) are believed to originate in binaries that evolve into WD/WD or WD/neutron star (NS) systems. An optical search for J0917+4638's companion showed that it must be a compact object with a mass ≥0.28 M sun . Here we report on Green Bank Telescope 820 MHz and XMM-Newton X-ray observations of J0917+4638 intended to uncover a potential NS companion to the LMWD. No convincing pulsar signal is detected in our radio data. Our X-ray observation also failed to detect X-ray emission from J0917+4638's companion, while we would have detected any of the millisecond radio pulsars in 47 Tuc. We conclude that the companion is almost certainly another WD.

  7. Improving Post-Discharge Medication Adherence in Patients with CVD: A Pilot Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo D. Oliveira-Filho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Effective interventions to improve medication adherence are usually complex and expensive. Objective: To assess the impact of a low-cost intervention designed to improve medication adherence and clinical outcomes in post-discharge patients with CVD. Method: A pilot RCT was conducted at a teaching hospital. Intervention was based on the four-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-4. The primary outcome measure was medication adherence assessed using the eight-item MMAS at baseline, at 1 month post hospital discharge and re-assessed 1 year after hospital discharge. Other outcomes included readmission and mortality rates. Results: 61 patients were randomized to intervention (n = 30 and control (n = 31 groups. The mean age of the patients was 61 years (SD 12.73, 52.5% were males, and 57.4% were married or living with a partner. Mean number of prescribed medications per patient was 4.5 (SD 3.3. Medication adherence was correlated to intervention (p = 0.04 and after 1 month, 48.4% of patients in the control group and 83.3% in the intervention group were considered adherent. However, this difference decreased after 1 year, when adherence was 34.8% and 60.9%, respectively. Readmission and mortality rates were related to low adherence in both groups. Conclusion: The intervention based on a validated patient self-report instrument for assessing adherence is a potentially effective method to improve adherent behavior and can be successfully used as a tool to guide adherence counseling in the clinical visit. However, a larger study is required to assess the real impact of intervention on these outcomes.

  8. Treating depression in HIV-positive patients affects adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Y H Moosa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine changes in adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART in HIV-positive patients with depression, following treatment with an antidepressant or psychotherapy. Methods. The study was prospective, randomised and controlled. Consenting volunteers aged ≥18 years and stable on ART for ≥6 months were included in the study. Sociodemographic data were obtained, and a clinical diagnostic evaluation and the Hamilton Depression rating scale (HAMD were performed on all subjects at entry to and at the end of the study. Participants found to be depressed were randomly assigned antidepressant treatment (20 mg citalopram or interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT (5 sessions. Medication was dispensed at each visit and patients were asked to return all unused medication to determine ART adherence. The study was approved by the University of the Witwatersrand. Results. Sixty-two HIV-positive persons receiving ART participated; 30 were not depressed (control group and 32 were depressed (patient group. No significant differences in demographic characteristics existed between the control and patient groups. Mean ART adherence at the start of the study was 99.5% (standard error (SE ±0.46 and 92.1% (SE ±1.69 in the control and patients groups, respectively. Mean ART adherence at the end of the study changed marginally in the control group (99.7%; SE ±0.46 and increased significantly in the patient group (99.5%; SE± 0.13 (p>0.05. The mean ART adherence rate of patients who received pharmacotherapy increased from 92.8% to 99.5%, and of those who received psychotherapy increased from 91.1% to 99.6% (p>0.05. There was no significant association between the increased adherence in the patient group and baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, irrespective of antidepressant therapy or IPT (p>0.05. Conclusion. Successful treatment of depression with an antidepressant or psychotherapy was associated with improved ART adherence, independent of the type

  9. A novel method for measuring patients' adherence to insulin dosing guidelines: introducing indicators of adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahané Michel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic type 1 patients are often advised to use dose adjustment guidelines to calculate their doses of insulin. Conventional methods of measuring patients' adherence are not applicable to these cases, because insulin doses are not determined in advance. We propose a method and a number of indicators to measure patients' conformance to these insulin dosing guidelines. Methods We used a database of logbooks of type 1 diabetic patients who participated in a summer camp. Patients used a guideline to calculate the doses of insulin lispro and glargine four times a day, and registered their injected doses in the database. We implemented the guideline in a computer system to calculate recommended doses. We then compared injected and recommended doses by using five indicators that we designed for this purpose: absolute agreement (AA: the two doses are the same; relative agreement (RA: there is a slight difference between them; extreme disagreement (ED: the administered and recommended doses are merely opposite; Under-treatment (UT and over-treatment (OT: the injected dose is not enough or too high, respectively. We used weighted linear regression model to study the evolution of these indicators over time. Results We analyzed 1656 insulin doses injected by 28 patients during a three weeks camp. Overall indicator rates were AA = 45%, RA = 30%, ED = 2%, UT = 26% and OT = 30%. The highest rate of absolute agreement is obtained for insulin glargine (AA = 70%. One patient with alarming behavior (AA = 29%, RA = 24% and ED = 8% was detected. The monitoring of these indicators over time revealed a crescendo curve of adherence rate which fitted well in a weighted linear model (slope = 0.85, significance = 0.002. This shows an improvement in the quality of therapeutic decision-making of patients during the camp. Conclusion Our method allowed the measurement of patients' adherence to their insulin adjustment guidelines. The indicators that we

  10. Barriers to hydroxyurea adherence and health-related quality of life in adolescents and young adults with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Sherif M; Thompson, Alexis A; Penedo, Frank J; Lai, Jin-Shei; Rychlik, Karen; Liem, Robert I

    2017-06-01

    To identify barriers to hydroxyurea adherence (negative beliefs, access, and/or recall barriers), and their relationship to adherence rates and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among adolescents and young adults (AYA) with sickle cell disease (SCD). A cross-sectional survey was administered to 34 AYAs (12-22 years old) in SCD clinics from January to December 2015. Study measures included Brief Medication Questionnaire, Modified Morisky Adherence Scale 8-items, visual analog scale, and Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System. Participants (59% male; 91% Black) had a median age of 13.5 years (IQR 12-18). Participants reported negative beliefs (32%), recall barriers (44%), and access barriers (32%). Participants with recall barriers reported worse pain (P=.02), fatigue (P=.05), and depression (P=.05). The number of adherence barriers inversely correlated with adherence level using ©MMAS-8 (r s =-.38, P=.02) and VAS dose (r s =-.25, P=.14) as well as MCV (r s =-.45, P=.01) and HbF% (r s =-.36, P=.05), suggesting higher hydroxyurea adherence in patients with fewer barriers. Patients with fewer barriers to hydroxyurea adherence were more likely to have higher adherence rates and better HRQOL scores. Routine assessment of hydroxyurea adherence and its related barriers could provide actionable information to improve adherence rates, HRQOL, and other clinical outcomes. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Haematology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to contact lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examined the interactions of P. aeruginosa with hydrogel contact lenses and other substrata, and characterize adherence to lenses under various physiological and physicochemical conditions. Isolates adhered to polystyrene, glass, and hydrogel lenses. With certain lens types, radiolabeled cells showed decreased adherence with increasing water content of the lenses, however, this correlation with not found for all lenses. Adherence to rigid gas permeable lenses was markedly greater than adherence to hydrogels. Best adherence occurred near pH 7 and at a sodium chloride concentration of 50 mM. Passive adhesion of heat-killed cells to hydrogels was lower than the adherence obtained of viable cells. Adherence to hydrogels was enhanced by mucin, lactoferrin, lysozyme, IgA, bovine serum albumin, and a mixture of these macromolecules. Adherence to coated and uncoated lenses was greater with a daily-wear hydrogel when compared with an extended-wear hydrogel of similar polymer composition. Greater adherence was attributed to a higher concentration of adsorbed macromolecules on the 45% water-content lens in comparison to the 55% water-content lens

  12. The Leoncino Dwarf: The Lowest Metallicity Star-Forming Galaxy in the Nearby Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen

    2017-08-01

    Extremely metal-poor (XMP) galaxies are dwarf irregular galaxies with very low metallicities, traced by their gas-phase oxygen abundance. Galaxy evolution scenarios suggest three pathways to form an XMP: (1) secular evolution at low galaxy masses, (2) slow evolution in voids, or (3) dilution of measured abundances from infall of pristine gas. These scenarios have proven challenging to test because, despite concerted efforts, XMP galaxies in the nearby universe have proven hard to find. A notable exception is the recently discovered dwarf galaxy Leoncino. Leoncino has the lowest gas-phase oxygen abundance ever measured in a galaxy in the local Universe. From optical spectroscopy, the oxygen abundance is 12+log(O/H)=7.02+/-0.03, more than 40% lower than the iconic low-metallicity galaxy I Zw 18 and less than 2% Z_sun. Despite a precision oxygen abundance measurement, the evolutionary context of Leoncino remains uncertain without a secure distance. We propose HST WFC3 high-resolution optical imaging of Leoncino to accurately measure the distance to the galaxy using the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) method. The distance will determine whether Leoncino is located in a typical field environment or in a void, and whether the galaxy is consistent with the luminosity-metallicity relation at low galaxy masses. The detailed study of Leoncino will provide benchmark results for future XMP discoveries in the nearby Universe, and an exceptionally timely comparison for studies of chemically primitive, high-redshift galaxies that will be observable in the JWST era.

  13. TRACING THE LOWEST PROPELLER LINE IN MAGELLANIC HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christodoulou, Dimitris M.; Laycock, Silas G. T.; Yang, Jun; Fingerman, Samuel, E-mail: dimitris_christodoulou@uml.edu, E-mail: silas_laycock@uml.edu, E-mail: jun_yang@uml.edu, E-mail: fingerman.samuel@gmail.com [Lowell Center for Space Science and Technology, 600 Suffolk Street, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    We have combined the published observations of high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) pulsars in the Magellanic Clouds with a new processing of the complete archival data sets from the XMM-Newton and Chandra observatories in an attempt to trace the lowest propeller line below which accretion to polar caps is inhibited by the centrifugal force and the pulsations from the most weakly magnetized pulsars cease. Previously published data reveal that some of the faster-spinning pulsars with spin periods of P {sub S} < 12 s, detected at relatively low X-ray luminosities L {sub X} , appear to define such a line in the P {sub S} – L {sub X} diagram, characterized by a magnetic moment of μ = 3 × 10{sup 29} G cm{sup 3}. This value implies the presence of surface magnetic fields of B ≥ 3 × 10{sup 11} G in the compact objects of this class. Only a few quiescent HMXBs are found below the propeller line: LXP4.40 and SXP4.78, for which XMM-Newton and Chandra null detections respectively placed firm upper limits on their X-ray fluxes in deep quiescence; and A0538-66, for which many sub-Eddington detections have never measured any pulsations. On the other hand, the data from the XMM-Newton and Chandra archives show clearly that, during routine observation cycles, several sources have been detected below the propeller line in extremely faint, nonpulsating states that can be understood as the result of weak magnetospheric emission when accretion to the poles is centrifugally stalled or severely diminished. We also pay attention to the anomalous X-ray pulsar CXOU J010043.1-721134 that was reported in HMXB surveys. Its pulsations and locations near and above the propeller line indicate that this pulsar could be accreting from a fossil disk.

  14. Serum phosphorus levels and pill burden are inversely associated with adherence in patients on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Steven; Alfieri, Thomas; Ramakrishnan, Karthik; Braunhofer, Peter; Newsome, Britt A

    2014-11-01

    Phosphate binders (PBs) account for about one half of the daily pill burden for US hemodialysis (HD) patients, which may reduce adherence. Adherence can be estimated by the medication possession ratio (MPR), which is defined as the proportion of time a patient had sufficient medication to have taken it as prescribed. Gaps of time between prescription fills lower the patient's MPR. We assessed the association of PB pill burden and adherence (MPR) with phosphorus goal attainment. Using pharmacy management program data, HD patients on PB monotherapy were tracked from first PB fill during 1 January 2007-30 June 2011 for 1 year, or until PB change or censoring. Data were assessed with generalized linear models. We analyzed 8616 patients. Higher pill burden was associated with lower adherence. Lower adherence tended to be associated with higher mean phosphorus levels and lower percentage of patients with serum phosphorus ≤5.5 mg/dL (P adherence and these clinical outcomes was most pronounced in the lowest and highest pill burden strata (3-6, >12-15, >15). Adherence, as measured by the MPR, was negatively related to higher pill burden and phosphorus levels and positively related to patients in the phosphorus target range. Within pill burden strata, phosphorus increased and patients in the target range generally decreased with decreasing adherence, suggesting that patients prescribed fewer PB pills are less likely to have treatment gaps, and may be more likely to achieve phosphorus targets. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  15. Association between adherence to medications for COPD and medications for other chronic conditions in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhamane AD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Amol D Dhamane,1 Phil Schwab,2 Sari Hopson,2 Chad Moretz,2 Srinivas Annavarapu,2 Kate Burslem,1 Andrew Renda,3 Shuchita Kaila1 1Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc, Ridgefield, CT, 2Comprehensive Health Insights Inc, Louisville, 3Humana Inc, Louisville, KY, USA Background: Patients with COPD often have multiple comorbidities requiring use of multiple medications, and adherence rates for maintenance COPD (mCOPD medications are already known to be suboptimal. Presence of comorbidities in COPD patients, and use of medications used to treat those comorbidities (non-COPD medications, may have an adverse impact on adherence to mCOPD medications. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between non-adherence to mCOPD medications and non-COPD medications in COPD patients. Methods: COPD patients were identified using a large administrative claims database. Selected patients were 40–89 years old and continuously enrolled for 12 months prior to and 24 months after the first identified COPD diagnosis (index date during January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2010. Patients were required to have ≥1 prescription for a mCOPD medication within 365 days of the index date and ≥1 prescription for one of 12 non-COPD medication classes within ±30 days of the first COPD prescription. Adherence (proportion of days covered [PDC] was measured during 365 days following the first COPD prescription. The association between non-adherence (PDC <0.8 to mCOPD and non-adherence to non-COPD medications was determined using logistic regression, controlling for baseline patient characteristics. Results: A total of 14,117 patients, with a mean age of 69.9 years, met study criteria. Of these, 40.9% were males and 79.2% were non-adherent to mCOPD medications with a mean PDC of 0.47. Non-adherence to mCOPD medications was associated with non-adherence to 10 of 12 non-COPD medication classes (odds ratio 1.38–1

  16. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and its determinants in AIDS patients: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajiabdolbaghi M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} There are limited published investigations about adherence to antiretroviral and its determinants. Many determinants influence on adherence to therapy. The effects of some determinants on adherence are controversial. More studies are needed to be fulfilled about adherence and its determinants to compile strategies. Key to the success of antiretroviral therapies is the ability and willingness of HIV-positive individuals to adhere to antiretroviral regimens. There are different definitions for full adherence. In the most studies, adherence is defined as taking ≥95% of prescribed medication. Adherence rate needs to be >95% to prevent virologic failure and for complete supper-ssion. The consequences of poor adherence include not only diminished benefits for the patient, but also the public health threat of the emergence of multidrug-resistant viruses, as these resistant strains can then be transmitted from a patient to their contacts. Evaluating adherence has proven to be difficult and there is no gold standard for evaluating adherence to medication. Adherence is assessed in various ways. The most studies evaluate adherence to treatment by using patient's self report and the pill count method but these are methods

  17. Medication adherence among adult patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmalik M Alkatheri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medication adherence was assessed in 89 patients on hemodialysis (HD at the King Abdul Aziz Medical City using an Arabic version of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MASS-8. The results of the study revealed that 31.46% and 40.45% of the participants showed low and medium adherence, respectively, while 28.09% showed high medication adherence. Accordingly, 71.91% of the patients visiting the dialysis unit were considered medication non-adherent. While being of older age (P = 0.012, being married (P = 0.012 increased the level of adherence, being of medium level of education (P = 0.024 decreased adherence levels. On the other hand, gender, presence of a care-giver, number of members in the household and employment status seems to have no effect on the level of medication adherence. These results call upon the practitioners in HD units to develop intervention programs that can increase the level of medication adherence.

  18. Medicine non-adherence in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allison Fiona; Manias, Elizabeth; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Crawford, Kimberley

    2014-06-01

    The increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease, the relative shortage of kidney donors and the economic- and health-related costs of kidney transplant rejection make the prevention of adverse outcomes following transplantation a healthcare imperative. Although strict adherence to immunosuppressant medicine regimens is key to preventing kidney rejection, evidence suggests that adherence is sub-optimal. Strategies need to be developed to help recipients of kidney transplants adhere to their prescribed medicines. This review has found that a number of factors contribute to poor adherence, for example, attitudes towards medicine taking and forgetfulness. Few investigations have been conducted, however, on strategies to enhance medicine adherence in kidney transplant recipients. Strategies that may improve adherence include pharmacist-led interventions (incorporating counselling, medicine reviews and nephrologist liaison) and nurse-led interventions (involving collaboratively working with recipients to understand their routines and offering solutions to improve adherence). Strategies that have shown to have limited effectiveness include supplying medicines free of charge and providing feedback on a participant's medicine adherence without any educational or behavioural interventions. Transplantation is the preferred treatment option for people with end-stage kidney disease. Medicine non-adherence in kidney transplantation increases the risk of rejection, kidney loss and costly treatments. Interventions are needed to help the transplant recipient take all their medicines as prescribed to improve general well-being, medicine safety and reduce healthcare costs. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  19. Brief report: Adherence to fluid recommendations in children receiving treatment for retentive encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Elizabeth S; Felt, Barbara T; Patton, Susana R

    2009-01-01

    Limited data are available regarding whether children being treated for retentive encopresis are adherent to recommendations to increase their daily fluid intake. The purpose of this study was to examine fluid adherence in children who received treatment for retentive encopresis. A retrospective chart review was performed using diet diary data for 26 children (ages 3-12) who completed a group behavioral intervention for retentive encopresis. Mean daily intake of clear fluid increased significantly during treatment and children relied primarily on water and juice to make this dietary change. However, adherence rates to clear fluid goals were <50%. Children's increased clear fluid intake did not equate to high fluid adherence. Children's high juice consumption is concerning as it could place them at risk for other negative health consequences. Future research should examine whether enhanced fluid education and use of behavior change strategies yield higher fluid adherence.

  20. Adherence to inhaled therapies, health outcomes and costs in patients with asthma and COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkelä, Mika J; Backer, Vibeke; Hedegaard, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Suboptimal adherence to pharmacological treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has adverse effects on disease control and treatment costs. The reasons behind non-adherence revolve around patient knowledge/education, inhaler device convenience and satisfaction, age...... and clinical efficacy is positive, with improved symptom control and lung function shown in most studies of adults, adolescents and children. Satisfaction with inhaler devices is also positively correlated with improved adherence and clinical outcomes, and reduced costs. Reductions in healthcare utilisation......, adverse effects and medication costs. Age is of particular concern given the increasing prevalence of asthma in the young and increased rates of non-adherence in adolescents compared with children and adults. The correlation between adherence to inhaled pharmacological therapies for asthma and COPD...

  1. A randomised clinical trial of feedback on inhaler adherence and technique in patients with severe uncontrolled asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Imran; Greene, Garrett; MacHale, Elaine; Seheult, Jansen; Mokoka, Matshediso; D'Arcy, Shona; Taylor, Terence; Murphy, Desmond M; Hunt, Eoin; Lane, Stephen J; Diette, Gregory B; FitzGerald, J Mark; Boland, Fiona; Sartini Bhreathnach, Aoife; Cushen, Breda; Reilly, Richard B; Doyle, Frank; Costello, Richard W

    2018-01-01

    In severe asthma, poor control could reflect issues of medication adherence or inhaler technique, or that the condition is refractory. This study aimed to determine if an intervention with (bio)feedback on the features of inhaler use would identify refractory asthma and enhance inhaler technique and adherence.Patients with severe uncontrolled asthma were subjected to a stratified-by-site random block design. The intensive education group received repeated training in inhaler use, adherence and disease management. The intervention group received the same intervention, enhanced by (bio)feedback-guided training. The primary outcome was rate of actual inhaler adherence. Secondary outcomes included a pre-defined assessment of clinical outcome. Outcome assessors were blinded to group allocation. Data were analysed on an intention-to-treat and per-protocol basis.The mean rate of adherence during the third month in the (bio)feedback group (n=111) was higher than that in the enhanced education group (intention-to-treat, n=107; 73% versus 63%; 95% CI 2.8%-17.6%; p=0.02). By the end of the study, asthma was either stable or improved in 54 patients (38%); uncontrolled, but poorly adherent in 52 (35%); and uncontrolled, but adherent in 40 (27%).Repeated feedback significantly improved inhaler adherence. After a programme of adherence and inhaler technique assessment, only 40 patients (27%) were refractory and adherent, and might therefore need add-on therapy. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  2. Highly active antiretroviral therapy adherence and its determinants in selected regions in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix F. Widjaja

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART can reduce morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected patients. However, it depends upon adherence to medication. The objective of this study was to examine the adherence to HAART and to evaluate individual patient characteristics i.e. self-efficacy, depression level, and social support and to finally determine HAART adherence in selected regions in Indonesia.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Jakarta, Malang, Bandung, Makasar and Banda Aceh. The subject of the study was HIV-infected patients who were older than 13 years old and had taken HAART for at least a month. They were recruited consecutively then asked how many pills they had missed during the previous month. Poor adherence can be stated if the percentage of adherence rate is below 95%. HIV treatment adherence self-efficacy scale  (HIVASES, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II and Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL was adapted to assess self-efficacy, depression level and social support, respectively.Results: We found that 96% (n=53 of the subjects adhered to HAART. There were no associations between adherence with self-efficacy, depression level, and social support. The main cause of non-adherence in this study was ‘simply  forget’.Conclusion: Adherence to HAART was found to be high and not associated with self-efficacy, depression level and social support in some central regions in Indonesia. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:50-5Keywords: adherence, depression, HAART, HIV, self-efficacy, social support

  3. Improving adherence to acne treatment: the emerging role of application software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park C

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chanhyun Park,1 Gilwan Kim,1 Isha Patel,2 Jongwha Chang,3 Xi Tan2 1College of Pharmacy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA; 2College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 3McWhorter School of Pharmacy, Samford University, Birmingham, AL, USA Objective: To examine recent studies on the effect of mobile and electronic (ME-health technology on adherence to acne treatment. Background: With emerging use of ME-health technology, there is a growing interest in evaluating the effectiveness of the tools on medication adherence. Examples of ME-health technology-based tools include text message-based pill reminders and Web-based patient education. Methods: MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were searched for articles on adherence to acne treatment published through November 2013. A combination of search terms such as "acne" and "adherence" or "compliance" were used. Results: Adherence to oral acne medication was higher than for topical acne medication. The frequency of office visits was also an influencing factor for acne treatment adherence. The telephone-based reminders on a daily basis did not improve acne patients' medication adherence, whereas the Web-based educational tools on a weekly basis had a positive effect on medication adherence in acne treatment. Conclusion: In using ME-health interventions, factors such as medication dosage forms, frequency of intervention, and patients' preferences should be taken into consideration. Developing disease-specific text message reminders may be helpful to increase adherence rates. In addition, a combination of text message reminders with another type of intervention may improve medication adherence. Keywords: acne vulgaris, medication adherence, compliance, mobile and electronic health technology, application software, telemedicine

  4. The Impact of Health Care Appointment Non-Adherence on Graft Outcomes in Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, David J; Fleming, James N; Fominaya, Cory E; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Hunt, Kelly J; Srinivas, Titte R; Baliga, Prabhakar K; McGillicuddy, John W; Egede, Leonard E

    2017-01-01

    Non-adherence to medication is a well-studied and known cause of late allograft loss, but it is difficult to measure and prospectively monitor. The aim of this study was to assess if appointment non-adherence was correlated with medication non-adherence and a predictor of graft outcomes. This was a longitudinal cohort study that used the National United States Renal Data System and veterans affairs health records data with time-to-event analyses conducted to assess the impact on graft and patient survival. The number of transplants that were included in the analysis was 4,646 (3,656 with complete records); 14.6% of patients had an appointment no show rate of ≥12% (non-adherence). Appointment and medication non-adherence were highly correlated and both were significant independent predictors of outcomes. Those with appointment non-adherence had 1.5 times the risk of acute rejection (22.0 vs. 14.7%, p adherence; those with appointment and medication non-adherence were at very high risk of graft loss (aHR 4.18, 95% CI 3.39-5.15, p adherence (aHR 1.39, 95% CI 0.97-2.01, p = 0.0766) or only medication non-adherence (aHR 2.44, 95% CI 2.11-2.81, p adherence to health care appointments is a significant and independent risk factor for graft loss. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Medication non-adherence in the homeless population in an Intermountain West city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Unni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homelessness happens when people or household are unable to acquire and/or maintain housing they can afford. Approximately 17% of homeless individuals are also chronically ill. Studies have often not objectively measured medication non- adherence among the homeless population, probably due to lack of consistent pharmacy records. This study proposed to objectively estimate medication non-adherence to chronic medications among the homeless population in Salt Lake City, Utah. Methods: A retrospective study design was used based on the pharmacy records from the Fourth Street Pharmacy based on four classes of chronic medications - asthma, diabetes, statins, and psychiatric medications. Data was collected between November 1, 2010 and February 28, 2011 on the variables: date of original prescription, number of refills on the original prescription, date of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th fills, age, gender, and race. Primary non-adherence and medication refill non-adherence based on Continuous Measure of Medication Gaps were calculated. Results: The medication refill non-adherence rate was 38.8% with asthma medications, 38.5% with diabetic medications, 27.2% with statins, and 47.1% with psychiatric medications. The primary non-adherence rate varied from zero percent to 20%. Conclusion: The study concluded that this population has comparable non-adherence rates with asthma, diabetes, cholesterol lowering, and certain psychiatric medications than the general population.   Type: Original Research

  6. Assessing the Medication Adherence App Marketplace From the Health Professional and Consumer Vantage Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayer, Lindsey E; Shilling, Rebecca; Van Valkenburg, Madalyn; Martin, Bradley C; Gubbins, Paul O; Hadden, Kristie; Heldenbrand, Seth

    2017-04-19

    Nonadherence produces considerable health consequences and economic burden to patients and payers. One approach to improve medication nonadherence that has gained interest in recent years is the use of smartphone adherence apps. The development of smartphone adherence apps has increased rapidly since 2012; however, literature evaluating the clinical app and effectiveness of smartphone adherence apps to improve medication adherence is generally lacking. The aims of this study were to (1) provide an updated evaluation and comparison of medication adherence apps in the marketplace by assessing the features, functionality, and health literacy (HL) of the highest-ranking adherence apps and (2) indirectly measure the validity of our rating methodology by determining the relationship between our app evaluations and Web-based consumer ratings. Two independent reviewers assessed the features and functionality using a 4-domain rating tool of all adherence apps identified based on developer claims. The same reviewers downloaded and tested the 100 highest-ranking apps including an additional domain for assessment of HL. Pearson product correlations were estimated between the consumer ratings and our domain and total scores. A total of 824 adherence apps were identified; of these, 645 unique apps were evaluated after applying exclusion criteria. The median initial score based on descriptions was 14 (max of 68; range 0-60). As a result, 100 of the highest-scoring unique apps underwent user testing. The median overall user-tested score was 31.5 (max of 73; range 0-60). The majority of the user tested the adherence apps that underwent user testing reported a consumer rating score in their respective online marketplace. The mean consumer rating was 3.93 (SD 0.84). The total user-tested score was positively correlated with consumer ratings (r=.1969, P=.04). More adherence apps are available in the Web-based marketplace, and the quality of these apps varies considerably. Consumer

  7. The Lowest Spin and Parity Levels on Two Particle System for Odd-oddNuclei 60Co and 46K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardhani, VIS; Siagian, Toga

    2000-01-01

    For obtaining the lowest spin and parity levels of odd-odd nuclei, theanalyzing of the nuclei 60 Co and 46 K has been done using delta forcemodel. The calculation is done by theoretically and compared with experiment.To get a result optimally, the data analyzed using least square method. It isshown that the lowest spin and parity level from calculation result and theexperiment result are similar. (author)

  8. Protocol adherence and the ability to achieve target haemoglobin levels in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kevin; Moran, John; Hlatky, Mark; Lafayette, Richard

    2009-06-01

    Anemia management remains complicated in patients with endstage renal disease on hemodialysis. We wished to evaluate the effect of protocol adherence to EPO and intravenous iron dosing on achieving the desired range of hemoglobin levels. A cohort of hemodialysis patients was studied to evaluate the rate of adherence to EPO and iron dosing protocols over a 5 month period. A database was completed to evaluate all known comorbidities, demographic factors, and facility issues that might affect hemoglobin levels. A logistic regression model was employed to evaluate the effect of adherence to the anemia protocols on the probability of achieving a hemoglobin level below, within or above the targeted range of 11-12.5 g/dl. Among 2114 patients, we found that adherence to both the EPO and iron dosing protocol resulted in the greatest probability of achieving the target hemoglobin range (56 +/- 5% in anemia protocol adherent patients versus 42 +/- 7% in non adherent patients). This was predominantly due to a lowered risk of having above target hemoglobin levels rather than below. The use of the anemia protocols was associated with lower rates of hospitalization (9 +/- 0.7 visits/100 months in adherent group vs 15 +/- 2 in non adherent group) and lower utilization of both EPO and intravenous iron. Furthermore, patients in the adherent groups had less variability of their hemoglobin levels month by month, at least as judged by standard deviation. Adherence to anemia protocols, as practiced in the dialysis units included in this cohort, may improve hemodialysis patients' ability to achieve target hemoglobin levels, and by avoiding above target hemoglobin values, lower drug utilization and reduce variability of hemoglobin levels.

  9. Might ART Adherence Estimates Be Improved by Combining Biomarker and Self-Report Data?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Rhead

    Full Text Available As we endeavour to examine rates of viral suppression in PLHIV, reliable data on ART adherence are needed to distinguish between the respective contributions of poor adherence and treatment failure on high viral load. Self-reported data are susceptible to response bias and although biomarker data on drug presence and concentration can provide a superior, alternative method of measurement, complications due to drug-drug interactions and genetic variations can cause some inaccuracies. We investigate the feasibility of combining both biomarker and self-report data to produce a potentially more accurate measure of ART adherence.Data were taken from a large general-population survey in the Manicaland province, Zimbabwe, conducted in 2009-2011. HIV-infected adults who had initiated ART (N = 560 provided self-report data on adherence and dried blood spot samples that were analysed for traces of ART medication. A new three-category measure of ART adherence was constructed, based on biomarker data but using self-report data to adjust for cases with abnormally low and high drug concentrations due to possible drug-drug interactions and genetic factors, and was assessed for plausibility using survey data on socio-demographic correlates.94.3% (528/560 and 92.7% (519/560 of the sample reported faithful adherence to their medication and had traces of ART medication, respectively. The combined measure estimated good evidence of ART adherence at 69% and excellent evidence of adherence at 53%. The regression analysis results showed plausible patterns of ART adherence by socio-demographic status with men and younger participants being more likely to adhere poorly to medication, and higher socio-economic status individuals and those living in more urban locations being more likely to adhere well.Biomarker and self-reported measures of adherence can be combined in a meaningful way to produce a potentially more accurate measure of ART adherence. Results indicate that

  10. Might ART Adherence Estimates Be Improved by Combining Biomarker and Self-Report Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhead, Rebecca; Masimirembwa, Collen; Cooke, Graham; Takaruza, Albert; Nyamukapa, Constance; Mutsimhi, Cosmas; Gregson, Simon

    2016-01-01

    As we endeavour to examine rates of viral suppression in PLHIV, reliable data on ART adherence are needed to distinguish between the respective contributions of poor adherence and treatment failure on high viral load. Self-reported data are susceptible to response bias and although biomarker data on drug presence and concentration can provide a superior, alternative method of measurement, complications due to drug-drug interactions and genetic variations can cause some inaccuracies. We investigate the feasibility of combining both biomarker and self-report data to produce a potentially more accurate measure of ART adherence. Data were taken from a large general-population survey in the Manicaland province, Zimbabwe, conducted in 2009-2011. HIV-infected adults who had initiated ART (N = 560) provided self-report data on adherence and dried blood spot samples that were analysed for traces of ART medication. A new three-category measure of ART adherence was constructed, based on biomarker data but using self-report data to adjust for cases with abnormally low and high drug concentrations due to possible drug-drug interactions and genetic factors, and was assessed for plausibility using survey data on socio-demographic correlates. 94.3% (528/560) and 92.7% (519/560) of the sample reported faithful adherence to their medication and had traces of ART medication, respectively. The combined measure estimated good evidence of ART adherence at 69% and excellent evidence of adherence at 53%. The regression analysis results showed plausible patterns of ART adherence by socio-demographic status with men and younger participants being more likely to adhere poorly to medication, and higher socio-economic status individuals and those living in more urban locations being more likely to adhere well. Biomarker and self-reported measures of adherence can be combined in a meaningful way to produce a potentially more accurate measure of ART adherence. Results indicate that ART adherence

  11. Adherence to treatment, emotional state and quality of life in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis

    OpenAIRE

    García-Llana, Helena; Remor, Eduardo; Selgas, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    A low rate of adherence to treatment is a widespread problem of great clinical relevance among dialysis patients. The objective of the present study is to determine the relationship between adherence, emotional state (depression, anxiety, and perceived stress), and healthrelated quality of life (HRQOL) in renal patients undergoing dialysis. Method: Two patient groups (30 in hemodialysis and 31 in peritoneal dialysis) participated in this study. We evaluated aspects of adhere...

  12. [Medication adherence of 65 patients in hemodialysis in Togo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabi, K A; Noto-Kadou-Kaza, B; Amekoudi, Y E; Tsevi, M C; Sylla, F; Kossidze, K; Gnionsahe, D A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess adherence in people on hemodialysis and determine the factors of poor adherence. This cross-sectional study took place throughout the month of September, 2012, in the hemodialysis center of the Sylvanus Olympio University Hospital, the only such center in Togo. The study included 65 patients, with a mean age of 49.5 years (range: 22 to 77 years), more often men (sex ratio: 1.82) and married (74 %). More than half (58%) had completed secondary education, while 73% belonged to the least advantaged socioeconomic class; 61 (94%) had health insurance, and 57% had been on dialysis for 1 to 4 years. The compliance rate was 11%. The main factors associated with good adherence were marital status (p = 0.0339) and the patient's general health status (p = 0.001). Treatment fatigue (p = 0.0347), forgetfulness (p = 0.0001), dosage forms and drug characteristics (p = 0.0198) were all factors of noncompliance. Therapeutic non-compliance was proportional to the number of drugs prescribed (p = 0.4263). Adherence in hemodialysis patients in Togo is very poor.

  13. Pharmacist's Role in Improving Medication Adherence in Transplant Recipients With Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorassani, Farah; Tellier, Shannon; Tsapepas, Demetra

    2018-01-01

    Medication nonadherence rates are high in both the transplant and psychiatric populations. The consequence of medication nonadherence posttransplant is graft rejection and psychiatric decompensation, highlighting the importance of optimizing adherence to medication regimens. Pharmacists may work with transplant patients with psychiatric comorbidity to improve medication adherence through identifying patient-specific barriers and recommending an appropriate intervention. Multiple evidence-based practices for improving nonadherence have been detailed in the transplant and psychiatric population. Medication adherence aids, medication management, patient education, and motivational interviewing are all strategies that may be used to improve adherence. Selecting which interventions to make will be based on the reasons for a patient's nonadherence. Most patients benefit from medication management, patient education, and medication adherence aids. Selection of medication adherence aids may be based on patient demographics, technology literacy, and preference. Motivational interviewing may be considered in patients with intentional nonadherence relating to a lack of insight into their illness or the importance of taking medication. Pharmacists may promote adherence and potentially improve patient outcomes in transplant recipients with comorbid psychiatric disorders through assisting patients with designing a tailored medication adherence plan.

  14. A systematic review of immunosuppressant adherence interventions in transplant recipients: Decoding the streetlight effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, S; Annunziato, R A; Dunphy, C; LaPointe Rudow, D; Shneider, B L; Shemesh, E

    2018-02-01

    Non-adherence to immunosuppressant medications is an important risk factor for graft dysfunction. To evaluate the effectiveness of adherence-enhancing interventions, we reviewed adherence intervention studies in solid organ transplant recipients (all ages). Using the following databases: PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect, we identified 41 eligible studies. Only three non-randomized trials showed a possible positive effect on objective indicators of transplant outcomes (such as rejection, liver enzyme levels, kidney function). None of the 21 RCTs showed an improvement in transplant outcomes. Three studies showed a higher rate of adverse events in the intervention group as compared with controls, although this may be related to ascertainment bias. Improvement in adherence as measured indirectly (eg, with electronic monitoring devices) was not aligned with effects on transplant outcomes. We conclude that adherence interventions, to date, have largely been ineffective in improving transplant outcomes. To improve this track record, intervention efforts may wish to concentrate on non-adherent patients (rather than use convenience sampling, which excludes many of the patients who need the intervention), use direct measures of adherence to guide the interventions, and employ strategies that are intensive and yet engaging enough to ensure that non-adherent patients are able to participate. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Factors relevant to medication non-adherence in kidney transplant: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaiche, Stephanie; Décaudin, Bertrand; Dharancy, Sébastien; Noel, Christian; Odou, Pascal; Hazzan, Marc

    2017-06-01

    Background Medication non-adherence is a major issue after transplant that can lead to misdiagnosis, rejection, poor health affecting quality of life, graft loss or death. Several estimations of adherence and related factors have previously been described but conclusions leave doubt as to the most accurate assessment method. Aim of the review To identify the factors most relevant to medication non-adherence in kidney transplant in current clinical practice. Method This systematic review is registered in the PROSPERO data base and follows the Prisma checklist. Articles in English in three databases from January 2009 to December 2014 were analysed. A synthesis was made to target adherence assessment methods, their prevalence and significance. Results Thirty-seven studies were analysed rates of non-adherence fluctuating from 1.6 to 96%. Assessment methods varied from one study to another, although self-reports were mainly used. It appears that youth (≤50 years old), male, low social support, unemployment, low education, ≥3 months post graft, living donor, ≥6 comorbidities, ≥5 drugs/d, ≥2 intakes/d, negative beliefs, negative behavior, depression and anxiety were the factors significantly related to non-adherence. Conclusion As there are no established guidelines, consideration should be given to more than one approach to identify medication non-adherence although self-reports should remain the cornerstone of adherence assessment.

  16. Adherence to oral anti-diabetic drugs among patients attending a Ghanaian teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce SP

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The burden of diabetes mellitus, especially Type-2, continues to increase across the world. Medication adherence is considered an integral component in its management. Poor glycemic controls due to medication nonadherence accelerates the development of long-term complications which consequently leads to increased hospitalization and mortality. Objective: This study examined the level of adherence to oral antidiabetic drugs among patients who visited the teaching hospital and explored the probable contributory factors to non-adherence. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study using systematic sampling to collect quantitative data was undertaken. Questionnaires were administered to out-patients of the medical department of a teaching hospital in Ghana. Logistic regression was performed with statistical significance determined at p<0.05. Results: A total of 200 diabetic patients participated in the study. Using the Morisky Medication Adherence scale, the level of adherence determined was 38.5%. There were significant correlations between level of adherence and educational level [(OR=1.508; (CI 0.805- 2.825, P=0.019, and mode of payment [(OR=1.631; (CI 0.997- 2.669, P=0.05. Conclusion: Adherence in diabetic patients was low among respondents and this can be improved through education, counseling and reinforcement of self-care. There were several possible factors that contributed to the low adherence rate which could benefit from further studies.

  17. Lowest neonatal serum sodium predicts sodium intake in low birth weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazki, Adi; Weintraub, Zalman; Reich, Dan; Gershon, Edith; Leshem, Micah

    2007-04-01

    Forty-one children aged 10.5 +/- 0.2 years (range, 8.0-15.0 yr), born with low birth weight of 1,218.2 +/- 36.6 g (range, 765-1,580 g) were selected from hospital archives on the basis of whether they had received neonatal diuretic treatment or as healthy matched controls. The children were tested for salt appetite and sweet preference, including rating of preferred concentration of salt in tomato soup (and sugar in tea), ratings of oral spray (NaCl and sucrose solutions), intake of salt or sweet snack items, and a food-seasoning, liking, and dietary questionnaire. Results showed that sodium appetite was not related to neonatal diuretic treatment, birth weight, or gestational age. However, there was a robust inverse correlation (r = -0.445, P clear that perinatal sodium loss, from a variety of causes, is a consistent and significant contributor to long-term sodium intake.

  18. DIETARY SODIUM ADHERENCE IS POOR IN CHRONIC HEART FAILURE PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuray, Anupam; Dolansky, Mary; Josephson, Richard; Sattar, Abdus; Grady, Ellen M.; Vehovec, Anton; Gunstad, John; Redle, Joseph; Fang, James; Hughes, Joel W.

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to determine the rates and predictors of dietary sodium restriction, while evaluating the reliability of the 24-hour urine collection as a tool to estimate dietary sodium intake in heart failure (HF) patients. Methods and Results We evaluated the 24-hour urinary sodium excretion of 305 outpatients with HF and reduced ejection fraction who were educated on following a sodium diet. The mean sodium excretion using a single sample from each participant was 3.15 ± 1.58 grams, and 23% were adherent to the sodium excretion of 3.21 ± 1.20 grams and lower adherence rates to the sodium and creatinine showed poor reproducibility between samples. Conclusions In this chronic HF population, sodium consumption probably exceeds recommended amounts, particularly in men and those with higher BMI. Urine analyses were not highly reproducible, suggesting variation in both diet and urine collection. PMID:25576680

  19. Effectiveness of Educational Technology in Promoting Quality of Life and Treatment Adherence in Hypertensive People.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Célia Caetano de Souza

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of an educational intervention with use of educational technology (flipchart to promote quality of life (QOL and treatment adherence in people with hypertension. It was an intervention study of before-and-after type conducted with 116 hypertensive people registered in Primary Health Care Units. The educational interventions were conducted using the flipchart educational technology. Quality of life was assessed through the MINICHAL (lowest score = better QOL and the QATSH (higher score = better adherence was used to assess the adherence to hypertension treatment. Both were measured before and after applying the intervention. In the analysis, we used the Student's t-test for paired data. The average baseline quality of life was 11.66 ± 7.55, and 7.71 ± 5.72 two months after the intervention, showing a statistically significant reduction (p <0.001 and mean of differences of 3.95. The average baseline adherence to treatment was 98.03 ± 7.08 and 100.71 ± 6.88 two months after the intervention, which is statistically significant (p < 0.001, and mean of differences of 2.68. The conclusion was that the educational intervention using the flipchart improved the total score of quality of life in the scores of physical and mental domains, and increased adherence to hypertension treatment in people with the disease.

  20. Improving adherence to hand hygiene practice: a multidisciplinary approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Pittet, D.

    2001-01-01

    Hand hygiene prevents cross-infection in hospitals, but health-care workers' adherence to guidelines is poor. Easy, timely access to both hand hygiene and skin protection is necessary for satisfactory hand hygiene behavior. Alcohol- based hand rubs may be better than traditional handwashing as they require less time, act faster, are less irritating, and contribute to sustained improvement in compliance associated with decreased infection rates. This article reviews barriers to appropriate han...

  1. Current Situation of Medication Adherence in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijens, Bernard; Antoniou, Sotiris; Burnier, Michel; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Volpe, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Despite increased awareness, poor adherence to treatments for chronic diseases remains a global problem. Adherence issues are common in patients taking antihypertensive therapy and associated with increased risks of coronary and cerebrovascular events. Whilst there has been a gradual trend toward improved control of hypertension, the number of patients with blood pressure values above goal has remained constant. This has both personal and economic consequences. Medication adherence is a multifaceted issue and consists of three components: initiation, implementation, and persistence. A combination of methods is recommended to measure adherence, with electronic monitoring and drug measurement being the most accurate. Pill burden, resulting from free combinations of blood pressure lowering treatments, makes the daily routine of medication taking complex, which can be a barrier to optimal adherence. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations simplify the habit of medication taking and improve medication adherence. Re-packing of medication is also being utilized as a method of improving adherence. This paper presents the outcomes of discussions by a European group of experts on the current situation of medication adherence in hypertension.

  2. Dietary and fluid adherence among haemodialysis patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    comparison with major infectious diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis ... dietary and fluid adherence is of crucial importance to the quality of life and survival of ... behaviours such as medication adherence among psychiatric ... or nursing sister and introduced to one of the study personnel who .... Children per household. 61.

  3. Self-replenishing low-adherence coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikic, T.; Ming, W.; Benthem, van R.A.T.M.; With, de G.; Schmets, A.J.M.; Zwaag, van der S.

    2007-01-01

    Low-adherence coatings are widely used today since their water/oil repellency makes them easily cleanable (a well-known example is PTFE). The low surface tension is provided by fluorine- or silicon-containing species that are present at the film surface. Low adherence coatings have already been

  4. Medication adherence in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webber Chan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory condition with intestinal and extraintestinal manifestations. Medications are the cornerstone of treatment of IBD. However, patients often adhere to medication poorly. Adherence to medications is defined as the process by which patients take their medications as prescribed. Treatment non-adherence is a common problem among chronic diseases, averaging 50% in developed countries and is even poorer in developing countries. In this review, we will examine the adherence data in IBD which vary greatly depending on the study population, route of administration, and methods of adherence measurement used. We will also discuss the adverse clinical outcomes related to non-adherence to medical treatment including increased disease activity, flares, loss of response to anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy, and so forth. There are many methods to measure medication adherence namely direct and indirect methods, each with their advantages and drawbacks. Finally, we will explore different intervention strategies to improve adherence to medications.

  5. Factors influencing adherence to routine iron supplementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anemia in pregnancy is a common problem especially in developing countries. and has been linked with feotal and maternal complications. Taking iron supplements could reduce anaemia in pregnancy but some pregnant women do not adhere to this. The study identified some factors associated with non adherence ...

  6. Social Support, Treatment Adherence and Outcome among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-02

    Jun 2, 2017 ... Access to family support did not positively influence medication adherence, while access to financial support marginally impacted on outcome among hypertensive and T2D patients. However, un- wavering tendency for therapy affordability significantly influenced adherence and outcome, thus, the need for ...

  7. Glatiramer acetate treatment persistence - but not adherence - in multiple sclerosis patients is predicted by health-related quality of life and self-efficacy: a prospective web-based patient-centred study (CAIR study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Peter Joseph; Lemmens, Wim A; Hoogervorst, Erwin L; Donders, Rogier

    2017-03-14

    In patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) the persistence of and adherence to disease modifying drug (DMD) treatment is inadequate. To take individualised measures there is a need to identify patients with a high risk of non-persistence or non-adherence. As patient-related factors have a major influence on persistence and adherence, we investigated whether health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and self-efficacy could predict persistence or adherence. In a prospective web-based patient-centred study in 203 RRMS patients, starting treatment with glatiramer acatete (GA) 20 mg subcutaneously daily, we measured physical and mental HRQoL (Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 questionnaire), functional and control self-efficacy (Multiple Sclerosis Self-Efficacy Scale), the 12-month persistence rate and, in persistent patients, the percentage of missed doses. HRQoL and self-efficacy were compared between persistent and non-persistent patients, and between adherent and non-adherent patients. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess whether persistence and adherence were explained by HRQoL and self-efficacy. Persistent patients had higher baseline physical (mean 58.1 [standard deviation, SD] 16.9) and mental HRQoL (63.8 [16.8]) than non-persistent patients (49.5 [17.6]; 55.9 [20.4]) (P = 0.001; P = 0.003) with no differences between adherent and non-adherent patients (P = 0.46; P = 0.54). Likewise, in persistent patients function (752 [156]) and control self-efficacy (568 [178]) were higher than in non-persistent patients (689 [173]; 491 [192]) (P = 0.009; P = 0.004), but not in adherent vs. non-adherent patients (P = 0.26; P = 0.82). Logistic regression modelling identified physical HRQoL and control self-efficacy as factors that explained persistence. Based on predicted scores from the model, patients were classified into quartiles and the percentage of non-persistent patients per quartile was calculated: non

  8. Renal Transplant Recipients: The Factors Related to Immunosuppressive Medication Adherence Based on the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Pen-Chen; Yeh, Mei Chang; Lai, Ming-Kuen; Liu, Hsueh-Erh

    2017-10-01

    Kidney transplant failures are caused primarily by lack of adherence to immunosuppressive medication regimens by patients after transplantation. A number of studies have indicated that health-related beliefs are an effective predictor of health-related behavior. The aim of this study is to understand the influence of the personal characteristics and health-related beliefs of patients on adherence to treatment with immunosuppressive medication based on the Health Belief Model. This cross-sectional study distributed questionnaires to patients who had been recruited via purposive sampling at one medical center in Taipei. All of the potential participants had undergone kidney transplantation at least 6 months previously. The self-developed questionnaire collected data in three areas: personal characteristics, health-related beliefs regarding transplant rejection, and adherence to the immunosuppressive medication regimen. One hundred twenty-two valid questionnaires were received. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent t test, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation, and multiple regression. Participants who had received dialysis treatment or had experienced rejection perceived susceptibility to rejection more strongly than those who had not. Participants who had undergone transplantation in Taiwan, had experienced more drug-related symptoms, or had contracted severe to extremely severe infections in the past showed lower rates of adherence to treatment with immunosuppressive medication. Adherence to medication regimens correlated negatively with length of time since transplantation. Length of time since transplantation, drug-related symptoms, perceived susceptibility to rejection, and perceived benefits of treatment were identified as major predictors of adherence to immunosuppressive medication regimens. The results partially conformed to the concepts of the Health Belief Model. Perceived susceptibility to rejection and

  9. Positive airway pressure adherence and mask interface in the setting of sinonasal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Amy E; Soose, Ryan J

    2017-10-01

    Despite reports of lower positive pressure adherence rates with oronasal masks, patients with sinonasal problems are often prescribed this interface over a nasal interface. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between mask type and therapy adherence in the setting of sinonasal symptoms. Retrospective case series with chart review. We reviewed 328 patients who underwent positive pressure titration between January 2012 and May 2015. Follow-up adherence data were available for 218 patients (66.5%). Multivariate analysis examined whether patients with sinonasal symptoms have improved adherence with oronasal masks compared to nasal or nasal pillow interfaces. At a median follow-up of 95 days, positive pressure adherence in patients with sinonasal symptoms was highest with the nasal pillow interface. When compared with oronasal interfaces, the odds of adequate therapy adherence were >5 times greater with nasal pillow interfaces (odds ratio [OR] = 5.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.61-16.80, P = .006) and >3 times greater with nasal interfaces (OR = 3.67, 95% CI = 1.20-11.26, P = .02) in these symptomatic patients. The presence of nasal problems does not predict the need for an oronasal mask. Positive pressure adherence rates are higher with nasal and nasal pillow interfaces compared to oronasal masks, even in patients with sinonasal complaints. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:2418-2422, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Predictors of medication adherence and smoking cessation among smokers under community corrections supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropsey, Karen L; Clark, C Brendan; Stevens, Erin N; Schiavon, Samantha; Lahti, Adrienne C; Hendricks, Peter S

    2017-02-01

    Individuals in the U.S. criminal justice system now represent over 12% of all current U.S. smokers. With smoking banned in most U.S. jails and prisons, the cessation focus for this population has shifted to individuals who are under community correction supervision (e.g., probation, parole). The aim of this study was to examine predictors of successful smoking cessation among criminal justice individuals supervised in the community. Five hundred participants under community corrections supervision were randomized to receive either four sessions of smoking cessation counseling or no counseling in conjunction with 12weeks of bupropion treatment plus brief physician advice to quit. Logistic regression analyses examined associations of smoking variables with medication adherence and successful abstinence. Mediation analysis evaluated the indirect effects of medication adherence on smoking abstinence. The strongest associate of medication adherence was previous use of bupropion, while the strongest associate of smoking abstinence was medication adherence. Mediation analysis indicated that previous use of bupropion indirectly increased cessation rates through the pathway of increased medication adherence. These results highlight the importance of medication adherence for smoking cessation among community corrections smokers. Providing exposure to medication may be a promising intervention to increase medication adherence and subsequent cessation rates in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Auditing HIV Testing Rates across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, D; Mocroft, A; Rayment, M

    2015-01-01

    European guidelines recommend the routine offer of an HIV test in patients with a number of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS conditions believed to share an association with HIV; so called indicator conditions (IC). Adherence with this guidance across Europe is not known. We audited HIV testing behaviour...... audits from 23 centres, representing 7037 patients. The median test rate across audits was 72% (IQR 32-97), lowest in Northern Europe (median 44%, IQR 22-68%) and highest in Eastern Europe (median 99%, IQR 86-100). Uptake of testing was close to 100% in all regions. The median HIV+ rate was 0.9% (IQR 0.......0-4.9), with 29 audits (60.4%) having an HIV+ rate >0.1%. After adjustment, there were no differences between regions of Europe in the proportion with >0.1% testing positive (global p = 0.14). A total of 113 patients tested HIV+. Applying the observed rates of testing HIV+ within individual ICs and regions to all...

  12. Therapist adherence is associated with outcome in cognitive–behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Sofie; Daniel, Sarah Ingrid Franksdatter; Gondan, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Studies of therapist adherence in relation to treatment outcome have produced mixed results. The aim of the present study was to investigate change in therapist adherence to cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) for bulimia nervosa over time, and to investigate the relationship between adherence...... and client outcome in early, middle, and late phases of treatment. Thirty-six clients received the focused form of “enhanced” CBT (CBT-E) for bulimia nervosa. Trained observers rated audiotapes of 92 full-length therapy sessions from early (Session 3), middle (Session 11), and late phases (Session 20...

  13. A performance improvement plan to increase nurse adherence to use of medication safety software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriloff, Carrie

    2012-08-01

    Nurses can protect patients receiving intravenous (IV) medication by using medication safety software to program "smart" pumps to administer IV medications. After a patient safety event identified inconsistent use of medication safety software by nurses, a performance improvement team implemented the Deming Cycle performance improvement methodology. The combined use of improved direct care nurse communication, programming strategies, staff education, medication safety champions, adherence monitoring, and technology acquisition resulted in a statistically significant (p < .001) increase in nurse adherence to using medication safety software from 28% to above 85%, exceeding national benchmark adherence rates (Cohen, Cooke, Husch & Woodley, 2007; Carefusion, 2011). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Code Team Training: Demonstrating Adherence to AHA Guidelines During Pediatric Code Blue Activations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Claire; Shoemaker, Jamie; Keller-Smith, Rachel; Edmunds, Katherine; Davis, Andrew; Tegtmeyer, Ken

    2017-10-16

    Pediatric code blue activations are infrequent events with a high mortality rate despite the best effort of code teams. The best method for training these code teams is debatable; however, it is clear that training is needed to assure adherence to American Heart Association (AHA) Resuscitation Guidelines and to prevent the decay that invariably occurs after Pediatric Advanced Life Support training. The objectives of this project were to train a multidisciplinary, multidepartmental code team and to measure this team's adherence to AHA guidelines during code simulation. Multidisciplinary code team training sessions were held using high-fidelity, in situ simulation. Sessions were held several times per month. Each session was filmed and reviewed for adherence to 5 AHA guidelines: chest compression rate, ventilation rate, chest compression fraction, use of a backboard, and use of a team leader. After the first study period, modifications were made to the code team including implementation of just-in-time training and alteration of the compression team. Thirty-eight sessions were completed, with 31 eligible for video analysis. During the first study period, 1 session adhered to all AHA guidelines. During the second study period, after alteration of the code team and implementation of just-in-time training, no sessions adhered to all AHA guidelines; however, there was an improvement in percentage of sessions adhering to ventilation rate and chest compression rate and an improvement in median ventilation rate. We present a method for training a large code team drawn from multiple hospital departments and a method of assessing code team performance. Despite subjective improvement in code team positioning, communication, and role completion and some improvement in ventilation rate and chest compression rate, we failed to consistently demonstrate improvement in adherence to all guidelines.

  15. Adherence and persistence to urate-lowering therapies in the Irish setting

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, Bernie

    2014-11-01

    for poor adherence to anti-gout medications include the risk of flare of acute gout with the initiation of urate-lowering therapy (ULT), poor response to ULT and persistence of attacks of acute gout, suboptimal dosing of allopurinol therapy and intolerance of allopurinol.-The results of this study identified adherence and persistence rates of approximately 50 % at 6 months which is in line if not lower than many of the other published studies to date which have measured adherence and persistence using pharmacy claims databases.-The results of poor adherence and persistence affect both the health of the patients with financial implications for the healthcare service.

  16. Adherence of pharmaceutical advertisements in medical journals to FDA guidelines and content for safe prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenstein, Deborah; Keyhani, Salomeh; Mendelson, Ali; Ross, Joseph S

    2011-01-01

    Physician-directed pharmaceutical advertising is regulated in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA); adherence to current FDA guidelines is unknown. Our objective was to determine adherence rates of physician-directed print advertisements in biomedical journals to FDA guidelines and describe content important for safe prescribing. Cross-sectional analysis of November 2008 pharmaceutical advertisements within top U.S.-based biomedical journals publishing original research. We excluded advertisements for devices, over the counter medications, and disease awareness. We utilized FDA guideline items identifying unique forms of advertisement bias to categorize advertisements as adherent to FDA guidelines, possibly non-adherent to at least 1 item, or non-adherent to at least 1 item. We also evaluated advertisement content important for safe prescribing, including benefit quantification, risk information and verifiable references. All advertisements were evaluated by 2 or more investigators, with differences resolved by discussion. Twelve journals met inclusion criteria. Nine contained pharmaceutical advertisements, including 192 advertisements for 82 unique products; median 2 per product (range 1-14). Six "teaser" advertisements presented only drug names, leaving 83 full unique advertisements. Fifteen advertisements (18.1%) adhered to all FDA guidelines, 41 (49.4%) were non-adherent with at least one form of FDA-described bias, and 27 (32.5%) were possibly non-adherent due to incomplete information. Content important for safe prescribing was often incomplete; 57.8% of advertisements did not quantify serious risks, 48.2% lacked verifiable references and 28.9% failed to present adequate efficacy quantification. Study limitations included its focus on advertisements from a single month, the subjectivity of FDA guidelines themselves, and the necessary subjectivity of determinations of adherence. Few physician-directed print pharmaceutical advertisements

  17. Network support, technology use, depression, and ART adherence among HIV-positive MSM of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, I W; Tan, D; Dunlap, S L; Palmer, L; Beougher, S; Cederbaum, J A

    2017-09-01

    Depression is associated with poor antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS. This relationship may be moderated by an individual's social network characteristics. Our study sought to examine social network correlates of treatment adherence among HIV-positive men recruited from social service agencies throughout Los Angeles County (N = 150) to inform technology-driven social support interventions for this population. We administered egocentric social network and computer-assisted survey interviews focused on demographic characteristics, health history, depressive symptoms, and ART adherence, where adherence was assessed by the number of reasons participants missed taking their medication, if ever. Significant univariate correlates of adherence were included in a multivariable regression analysis, where the moderating effect of having a network member who reminds participants to take their HIV medication on the relationship between depression and adherence was tested. Over 60% of participants reported clinically significant depressive symptoms; this was significantly associated with lower adherence among those without someone in their social network to remind them about taking their HIV medication, even after adjusting for covariates in an ordinary least squares regression (adjusted mean difference b = -1.61, SE = 0.42, p = 0.0003). Having a network member who reminds participants to take their ART medication significantly ameliorated the negative association between depression and treatment adherence, especially for those reporting greater depressive symptoms (p = 0.0394). Additionally, participants demonstrated high rates of technology use to communicate with social network members. In order to achieve the aims of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, innovative interventions addressing mental health to improve ART adherence are needed. Network strategies that leverage technology may be helpful for improving ART

  18. Adherence of pharmaceutical advertisements in medical journals to FDA guidelines and content for safe prescribing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Korenstein

    Full Text Available Physician-directed pharmaceutical advertising is regulated in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA; adherence to current FDA guidelines is unknown. Our objective was to determine adherence rates of physician-directed print advertisements in biomedical journals to FDA guidelines and describe content important for safe prescribing.Cross-sectional analysis of November 2008 pharmaceutical advertisements within top U.S.-based biomedical journals publishing original research. We excluded advertisements for devices, over the counter medications, and disease awareness. We utilized FDA guideline items identifying unique forms of advertisement bias to categorize advertisements as adherent to FDA guidelines, possibly non-adherent to at least 1 item, or non-adherent to at least 1 item. We also evaluated advertisement content important for safe prescribing, including benefit quantification, risk information and verifiable references. All advertisements were evaluated by 2 or more investigators, with differences resolved by discussion. Twelve journals met inclusion criteria. Nine contained pharmaceutical advertisements, including 192 advertisements for 82 unique products; median 2 per product (range 1-14. Six "teaser" advertisements presented only drug names, leaving 83 full unique advertisements. Fifteen advertisements (18.1% adhered to all FDA guidelines, 41 (49.4% were non-adherent with at least one form of FDA-described bias, and 27 (32.5% were possibly non-adherent due to incomplete information. Content important for safe prescribing was often incomplete; 57.8% of advertisements did not quantify serious risks, 48.2% lacked verifiable references and 28.9% failed to present adequate efficacy quantification. Study limitations included its focus on advertisements from a single month, the subjectivity of FDA guidelines themselves, and the necessary subjectivity of determinations of adherence.Few physician-directed print pharmaceutical

  19. Medication adherence in the transition of adolescent kidney transplant recipients to the adult care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akchurin, Oleh M; Melamed, Michal L; Hashim, Becky L; Kaskel, Frederick J; Del Rio, Marcela

    2014-08-01

    Non-adherence is common in adolescent and young adult kidney transplant recipients, leading to adverse graft outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine whether adherence to immunosuppressant medications changes during transition from a pediatric to an adult program within the same transplant center. Adherence was assessed for a period of two yr before and two yr after the transfer. Subtherapeutic trough levels of serum tacrolimus and level variability were used as measures of adherence. Twenty-five patients were transitioned between 1996 and 2011 at the median age of 22.3 [IQR 21.6-23.0] yr. Young adults 21-25 yr of age (n = 26) and non-transitioned adolescents 17-21 yr of age (currently followed in the program, n = 24 and those that lost their grafts prior to the transfer, 22) formed the comparison groups. In the transitioned group, adherence prior to the transfer was not significantly different from the adherence after the transfer (p = 0.53). The rate of non-adherence in the group of non-transitioned adolescents who lost their grafts (68%) was significantly higher than in the transitioned group (32%, p = 0.01). In the group of young adults, adherence was not significantly different from the transitioned group (p = 0.27). Thus, transition was not associated with differences in medication adherence in this single-center study. Large-scale studies are needed to evaluate the national data on medication adherence after transfer. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. eHealth Technologies as an Intervention to Improve Adherence to Topical Antipsoriatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mathias Tiedemann; Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Topical antipsoriatics are recommended first-line treatment of psoriasis, but rates of adherence are low. Patient support by use of electronic health (eHealth) services is suggested to improve medical adherence. OBJECTIVE: To review randomised controlled trials (RCTs) testing eHealth...... interventions designed to improve adherence to topical antipsoriatics and to review applications for smartphones (apps) incorporating the word psoriasis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Literature review: Medline, Embase, Cochrane, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were searched using search terms for eHealth, psoriasis....... CONCLUSION: There is a critical need for high-quality RCTs testing if the ubiquitous eHealth technologies, e.g. some of the numerous apps, can improve psoriasis patients' rates of adherence to topical antipsoriatics....

  1. Long-term exercise adherence after public health training in at-risk adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riktrup Hansen Saida, Trine Gro; Juul Sørensen, Tina; Langberg, Henning

    2017-01-01

    and self-rated health. Predictors of long-term exercise adherence were assessed by logistic regression, estimating crude odds-ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) and adjusting for age, gender, education, smoking, moderate and vigorous exercise. Results: In total, 214 adults (mean age 58......Objectives: Sustainment of healthy exercise behavior is essential in preventing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Few studies have explored long-term exercise adherence after an exercise referral scheme. The objective of this study was to examine 12-month exercise adherence after an exercise...... intervention program. Methods: This was a pragmatic follow-up study in at-risk people performed between June 2012 and January 2014. The main outcome measure was self-reported single-item exercise adherence. Secondary outcomes were change in exercise level, quality of life rated on a visual analog scale...

  2. Patient Characteristics Associated with HCV Treatment Adherence, Treatment Completion, and Sustained Virologic Response in HIV Coinfected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Wagner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatitis C (HCV treatment efficacy among HIV patients is limited by poor treatment adherence and tolerance, but few studies have examined the psychosocial determinants of treatment adherence and outcomes. Methods. Chart abstracted and survey data were collected on 72 HIV patients who had received pegylated interferon and ribavirin to assess correlates of treatment adherence, completion, and sustained virologic response (SVR. Results. Nearly half (46% the sample had active psychiatric problems and 13% had illicit drug use at treatment onset; 28% reported <100% treatment adherence, 38% did not complete treatment (mostly due to virologic nonresponse, and intent to treat SVR rate was 49%. Having a psychiatric diagnosis was associated with nonadherence, while better HCV adherence was associated with both treatment completion and SVR. Conclusions. Good mental health may be an indicator of HCV treatment adherence readiness, which is in turn associated with treatment completion and response, but further research is needed with new HCV treatments emerging.

  3. Effects of adherence to antiretroviral therapy on body mass index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S.A. Olowookere

    2015-06-19

    Jun 19, 2015 ... ure, development of drug resistance and subsequent virological and immunological .... adherence during counseling sessions, although 95% adher- ence is sufficient .... evaluation and adherence measurement by self report.

  4. Concordance of Adherence Measurement Using Self-Reported Adherence Questionnaires and Medication Monitoring Devices: An Updated Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnette, Alisha; Zhang, Yichen; Shao, Hui; Shi, Lizheng

    2018-01-01

    As medication adherence continues to be a prevalent issue in today's society, the methods used to monitor medication-taking behaviors are constantly being re-evaluated and compared in search of the 'gold standard' measure. Our review aimed to assess the current literature surrounding the correlation between self-reported questionnaires (SRQs) and electronic monitoring devices to determine if these measures produce similar results. We performed a literature search from 2009 to 2017 using PubMed, PubMed In-Process and Non-Indexed, EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, and Ovid MEDLINE In-Process. A keyword search using the terms 'patient compliance', 'treatment compliance', 'medication adherence', 'drug monitoring', 'drug therapy', 'electronic', 'digital', 'computer', 'monitor', 'monitoring', 'drug', 'pharmaceutical preparations', 'compliance', and 'medications' was done to capture all articles. We included articles measuring adherence using both monitoring devices and SRQs. Thirty-five articles were included in this review. The average difference in measured adherence rates between the two measures was 9.2% (range -66.3 to 61.5). A majority (62.7%) of articles reported moderate (n = 12; 27.9%), high (n = 5, 11.6%), or significant (n = 10, 23.3%) correlations between SRQs and monitoring devices. Results from our review are consistent with previous studies, as we found that many of our studies produced moderate to high correlation between both SRQs and monitoring devices [Farmer, Clin Ther 21(6):1074-90 (1999), IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics. Avoidable costs in US health care (2012), Patel et al., Respirology 18(3):546-52 (2013), Siracusa et al., J Cyst Fibros 14(5):621-6 (2015), Smith et al., Int J Cardiol 145(1):122-3 (2010)]. Our findings demonstrate that self-reported adherence produces comparable results to electronic monitoring devices. As there is not yet a 'gold standard' measure for monitoring patient adherence, SRQs and Medication Event Monitoring Systems

  5. Lowest-energy cage structures of medium-sized (ZnO){sub n} clusters with n = 15 − 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Lingli; Sai, Linwei [School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China and College of Advanced Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, Jijun, E-mail: zhaojj@dlut.edu.cn [College of Advanced Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China and Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Dalian University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China); Qiu, Ruifeng [School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-01-22

    Fullerene-like cage structures of medium-sized (ZnO){sub n} clusters with n = 15 − 24 were generated by spiral algorithm and optimized using density functional theory calculations. Most of these lowest-energy cage structures contain only four-membered and six-membered rings, whereas eight-membered rings were found in the lowest-energy cages of (ZnO){sub n} (n = 19, 20, 23, 24). Our best cage configurations either reproduce or prevail the previously reported ones. The size-dependent electronic properties were also discussed.

  6. Charge-Transfer Dynamics in the Lowest Excited State of a Pentacene–Fullerene Complex: Implications for Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Joseph, Saju

    2017-10-02

    We characterize the dynamic nature of the lowest excited state in a pentacene/C60 complex on the femtosecond time scale, via a combination of ab initio molecular dynamics and time-dependent density functional theory. We analyze the correlations between the molecular vibrations of the complex and the oscillations in the electron-transfer character of its lowest excited state, which point to vibration-induced coherences between the (pentacene-based) local-excitation (LE) state and the complex charge-transfer (CT) state. We discuss the implications of our results on this model system for the exciton-dissociation process in organic solar cells.

  7. Racial differences in long-term adherence to oral antidiabetic drug therapy: a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meigs James B

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adherence to oral antidiabetic medications is often suboptimal. Adherence differences may contribute to health disparities for black diabetes patients, including higher microvascular event rates, greater complication-related disability, and earlier mortality. Methods In this longitudinal retrospective cohort study, we used 10 years of patient-level claims and electronic medical record data (1/1/1992–12/31/2001 to assess differences in short- and long-term adherence to oral antidiabetic medication among 1906 newly diagnosed adults with diabetes (26% black, 74% white in a managed care setting in which all members have prescription drug coverage. Four main outcome measures included: (1 time from diabetes diagnosis until first prescription of oral antidiabetic medication; (2 primary adherence (time from first prescription to prescription fill; (3 time until discontinuation of oral antidiabetic medication from first prescription; and (4 long-term adherence (amount dispensed versus amount prescribed over a 24-month follow-up from first oral antidiabetic medication prescription. Results Black patients were as likely as whites to initiate oral therapy and fill their first prescription, but experienced higher rates of medication discontinuation (HR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.7 and were less adherent over time. These black-white differences increased over the first six months of therapy but stabilized thereafter for patients who initiated on sulfonylureas. Significant black-white differences in adherence levels were constant throughout follow-up for patients initiated on metformin therapy. Conclusion Racial differences in adherence to oral antidiabetic drug therapy persist even with equal access to medication. Early and continued emphasis on adherence from initiation of therapy may reduce persistent racial differences in medication use and clinical outcomes.

  8. Determinants of medication adherence in older people with dementia from the caregivers' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Saifi, Najwan; Moyle, Wendy; Jones, Cindy; Alston-Knox, Clair

    2018-05-11

    ABSTRACTBackground:Adherence to treatment is a primary determinant of treatment success. Caregiver support can influence medication adherence in people with cognitive impairment. This study sought to characterize medication adherence in older people with dementia from the caregivers' perspective, and to identify influencing factors. Caregivers caring for a person with dementia and living in the community were eligible to complete the survey. Bayesian profile regression was applied to identify determinants of medication adherence measured using the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale. Out of the 320 caregivers who participated in the survey, Bayesian profile regression on 221 participants identified two groups: Profile 1 (55 caregivers) with a mean adherence rate of 0.69 (80% Credible Interval (CrI): 0.61-0.77), and Profile 2 (166 caregivers) with a mean adherence rate of 0.80 (80% CrI: 0.77-0.84). Caregivers in Profile 1 were characterized with below data average scores for the following: cognitive functioning, commitment or intention, self-efficacy, and health knowledge, which were all above the data average in Profile 2, except for health knowledge. Caregivers in Profile 1 had a greater proportion of care recipients taking more than five medications and with late-stage dementia. Trade, technical, or vocational training was more common among the caregivers in Profile 1. Profile 2 caregivers had a better patient-provider relationship and less medical problems. Bayesian profile regression was useful in understanding caregiver factors that influence medication adherence. Tailored interventions to the determinants of medication adherence can guide the development of evidence-based interventions.

  9. Adherence to yoga and exercise interventions in a 6-month clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine factors that predict adherence to a mind-body intervention in a randomized trial. Design We analyzed adherence data from a 3-arm trial involving 135 generally healthy seniors 65–85 years of age randomized to a 6-month intervention consisting of: an Iyengar yoga class with home practice, an exercise class with home practice, or a wait-list control group. Outcome measures included cognitive function, mood, fatigue, anxiety, health-related quality of life, and physical measures. Adherence to the intervention was obtained by class attendance and biweekly home practice logs. Results The drop-out rate was 13%. Among the completers of the two active interventions, average yoga class attendance was 77% and home practice occurred 64% of all days. Average exercise class attendance was 69% and home exercise occurred 54% of all days. There were no clear effects of adherence on the significant study outcomes (quality of life and physical measures. Class attendance was significantly correlated with baseline measures of depression, fatigue, and physical components of health-related quality of life. Significant differences in baseline measures were also found between study completers and drop-outs in the active interventions. Adherence was not related to age, gender, or education level. Conclusion Healthy seniors have good attendance at classes with a physically active intervention. Home practice takes place over half of the time. Decreased adherence to a potentially beneficial intervention has the potential to decrease the effect of the intervention in a clinical trial because subjects who might sustain the greatest benefit will receive a lower dose of the intervention and subjects with higher adherence rates may be functioning closer to maximum ability before the intervention. Strategies to maximize adherence among subjects at greater risk for low adherence will be important for future trials, especially complementary

  10. Retailer adherence to Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, North Carolina, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Shyanika W; Myers, Allison E; D'Angelo, Heather; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2013-04-04

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act regulates the sales and marketing of tobacco products in the United States; poor adherence by tobacco retailers may reduce the effectiveness of the Act's provisions. The objectives of this study were 1) to assess whether and to which provisions retailers were adherent and 2) to examine differences in adherence by county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer characteristics. We conducted multivariate analysis of tobacco retailers' adherence to 12 point-of-sale provisions of the Tobacco Control Act in 3 North Carolina counties. We conducted observational audits of 324 retailers during 3 months in 2011 to assess adherence. We used logistic regression to assess associations between adherence to provisions and characteristics of each county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer. We found 15.7% of retailers did not adhere to at least 1 provision; 84.3% adhered to all provisions. The provisions most frequently violated were the ban on sales of cigarettes with modified-risk labels (eg, "light" cigarettes) (43 [13.3%] retailers nonadherent) and the ban on self-service for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (6 [1.9%] retailers nonadherent). We found significant differences in rates of nonadherence by county and type of retailer. Pharmacies and drug stores were more than 3 times as likely as grocery stores to be nonadherent. Most tobacco retailers have implemented regulatory changes without enforcement by the US Food and Drug Administration. Monitoring rates of adherence by store type and locale (eg, county) may help retailers comply with point-of-sale provisions.

  11. Dilator Use After Vaginal Brachytherapy for Endometrial Cancer: A Randomized Feasibility and Adherence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Alexandra; Small, William; Strauss, Jonathan; Lin, Lilie L; Hanisch, Laura; Huang, Liming; Bai, Jinbing; Wells, Jessica; Bruner, Deborah Watkins

    Vaginal brachytherapy, a common treatment of endometrial cancer, is associated with high rates of vaginal stenosis. Recommendations for vaginal dilator use to minimize stenosis generally include 3 times per week for approximately 10 minutes per use. However, adherence rates range widely and are generally well less than 50%. The aims of this study were to assess feasibility of recruitment to a study of dilator use and test a theoretically driven enhanced educational program (EEP) to increase adherence. Eligibility included women treated with postoperative vaginal brachytherapy for stage I to IIIc endometrial cancer. Patients were randomized to either nurse-delivered standard institutional instruction or EEP. Of eligible patients, 76% consented, 42 were randomized, and 69% completed the 6-month assessment. Mean age was 58.2 years; 48% were sexually active. There was no difference in adherence between arms. Overall, 20% and 8.3% were adherent to the prescribed use of 3 times per week, and 64% and 16% were adherent to use at least once per week at 6 weeks and 6 months, respectively. Adherence was greater among those motivated by vaginal health and having lower body mass index. Nonadherence was significantly higher among those who are college educated, in the EEP group, and with higher weight. Feasibility of recruitment into a study of vaginal dilator use was high. Adherence was low, and there was no difference between groups. Adherence to vaginal dilator use requires novel interventions to test. Nursing education that includes how dilators may maintain vaginal health may improve use because it was a motivator for adherence in this study.

  12. Adherence to an Aerobic Exercise Intervention after an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Cynthia M; Luttrell, Matilda N; Burr, Robert L; Kim, Misun; Haskell, William L

    2016-02-01

    Exercise adherence is an important element in achieving important exercise outcomes. The purpose of this study was to describe adherence in a home-based aerobic exercise program following an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), determine effects of adherence on peakVO2 , and outline reasons for nonadherence. A single-blind randomized control trial of home walking compared to usual care in 160 patients with an ICD for primary or secondary prevention was conducted. This report is on adherence in the exercise arm (N = 84). Home walking exercise consisted of 8 weeks of aerobic conditioning (60 minutes/day, 5 days/week) followed by 16 weeks of aerobic maintenance (150 minutes/week, 30 minutes/session) at 60-80% of heart rate reserve. Adherence was tracked using Polar heart rate (HR) monitors, pedometers, home exercise logs, and telephone follow-up. Adherence was defined as performing at least 80% of prescribed exercise. For aerobic conditioning, there was a mean frequency of 3.81 walks/week, duration of 1,873 minutes walked, and 17.5% of exercise was in the target HR (THR) zone. For aerobic maintenance, there was a mean frequency of 2.4 walks/week, duration of 1,872 minutes/walked, and 8.7% of exercise was in the THR zone. Those who were 80% adherent achieved a 3.4 mL/kg/min (P = 0.03) improvement in peakVO2 over those who were exercise ranged from scheduling issues to viral illness and fatigue. Adherence to aerobic exercise frequency and duration was high with few dropouts, resulting in higher peakVO2 . Exercise monitoring equipment encouraged adherence and conferred a sense of safety to exercise. ©2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Non-adherence in patients on peritoneal dialysis: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstadina Griva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been increasingly recognized that non-adherence is an important factor that determines the outcome of peritoneal dialysis (PD therapy. There is therefore a need to establish the levels of non-adherence to different aspects of the PD regimen (dialysis procedures, medications, and dietary/fluid restrictions. METHODS: A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature was performed in PubMed, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases using PRISMA guidelines in May 2013. Publications on non-adherence in PD were selected by two reviewers independently according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Relevant data on patient characteristics, measures, rates and factors associated with non-adherence were extracted. The quality of studies was also evaluated independently by two reviewers according to a revised version of the Effective Public Health Practice Project assessment tool. RESULTS: The search retrieved 204 studies, of which a total of 25 studies met inclusion criteria. Reported rates of non-adherence varied across studies: 2.6-53% for dialysis exchanges, 3.9-85% for medication, and 14.4-67% for diet/fluid restrictions. Methodological differences in measurement and definition of non-adherence underlie the observed variation. Factors associated with non-adherence that showed a degree of consistency were mostly socio-demographical, such as age, employment status, ethnicity, sex, and time period on PD treatment. CONCLUSION: Non-adherence to different dimensions of the dialysis regimen appears to be prevalent in PD patients. There is a need for further, high-quality research to explore these factors in more detail, with the aim of informing intervention designs to facilitate adherence in this patient population.

  14. Non-adherence in patients on peritoneal dialysis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griva, Konstadina; Lai, Alden Yuanhong; Lim, Haikel Asyraf; Yu, Zhenli; Foo, Marjorie Wai Yin; Newman, Stanton P

    2014-01-01

    It has been increasingly recognized that non-adherence is an important factor that determines the outcome of peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy. There is therefore a need to establish the levels of non-adherence to different aspects of the PD regimen (dialysis procedures, medications, and dietary/fluid restrictions). A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature was performed in PubMed, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases using PRISMA guidelines in May 2013. Publications on non-adherence in PD were selected by two reviewers independently according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Relevant data on patient characteristics, measures, rates and factors associated with non-adherence were extracted. The quality of studies was also evaluated independently by two reviewers according to a revised version of the Effective Public Health Practice Project assessment tool. The search retrieved 204 studies, of which a total of 25 studies met inclusion criteria. Reported rates of non-adherence varied across studies: 2.6-53% for dialysis exchanges, 3.9-85% for medication, and 14.4-67% for diet/fluid restrictions. Methodological differences in measurement and definition of non-adherence underlie the observed variation. Factors associated with non-adherence that showed a degree of consistency were mostly socio-demographical, such as age, employment status, ethnicity, sex, and time period on PD treatment. Non-adherence to different dimensions of the dialysis regimen appears to be prevalent in PD patients. There is a need for further, high-quality research to explore these factors in more detail, with the aim of informing intervention designs to facilitate adherence in this patient population.

  15. Non-Adherence in Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griva, Konstadina; Lai, Alden Yuanhong; Lim, Haikel Asyraf; Yu, Zhenli; Foo, Marjorie Wai Yin; Newman, Stanton P.

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been increasingly recognized that non-adherence is an important factor that determines the outcome of peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy. There is therefore a need to establish the levels of non-adherence to different aspects of the PD regimen (dialysis procedures, medications, and dietary/fluid restrictions). Methods A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature was performed in PubMed, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases using PRISMA guidelines in May 2013. Publications on non-adherence in PD were selected by two reviewers independently according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Relevant data on patient characteristics, measures, rates and factors associated with non-adherence were extracted. The quality of studies was also evaluated independently by two reviewers according to a revised version of the Effective Public Health Practice Project assessment tool. Results The search retrieved 204 studies, of which a total of 25 studies met inclusion criteria. Reported rates of non-adherence varied across studies: 2.6–53% for dialysis exchanges, 3.9–85% for medication, and 14.4–67% for diet/fluid restrictions. Methodological differences in measurement and definition of non-adherence underlie the observed variation. Factors associated with non-adherence that showed a degree of consistency were mostly socio-demographical, such as age, employment status, ethnicity, sex, and time period on PD treatment. Conclusion Non-adherence to different dimensions of the dialysis regimen appears to be prevalent in PD patients. There is a need for further, high-quality research to explore these factors in more detail, with the aim of informing intervention designs to facilitate adherence in this patient population. PMID:24586478

  16. Division of domestic labour and lowest-low fertility in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Hye-Won Kim

    2017-09-01

    fertility rates in East Asia.

  17. Cognitive Behavioral Treatment to Improve Adherence to Hemodialysis Fluid Restrictions: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Anson, Heather M.; Byrd, Michelle R.; Koch, Ellen I.

    2009-01-01

    This case report describes outpatient psychological treatment targeting adherence to fluid restrictions in a hemodialysis patient. The consequences of nonadherence to fluid restrictions in hemodialysis patients range from minor discomfort to increased hospitalizations and mortality rates. In addition, when patients chronically fail to adhere, they may no longer be candidates for kidney transplant. The interventions focused on polydipsia, characterized by excessive fluid intake. The methods in...

  18. Adherence to Cardiovascular Disease Medications: Does Patient-Provider Race/Ethnicity and Language Concordance Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Traylor, Ana H.; Schmittdiel, Julie A.; Uratsu, Connie S.; Mangione, Carol M.; Subramanian, Usha

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patient-physician race/ethnicity and language concordance may improve medication adherence and reduce disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) by fostering trust and improved patient-physician communication. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of patient race/ethnicity and language and patient-physician race/ethnicity and language concordance on medication adherence rates for a large cohort of diabetes patients in an integrated delivery system. DESIGN: We studied 131,277 adul...

  19. Treatment Adherence, Competence, and Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Hogue, Aaron; Henderson, Craig E.; Dauber, Sarah; Barajas, Priscilla C.; Fried, Adam; Liddle, Howard A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of treatment adherence and therapist competence on treatment outcome in a controlled trial of individual cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) and multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for adolescent substance use and related behavior problems. Participants included 136 adolescents (62 CBT, 74 MDFT) assessed at intake, discharge, and 6-month follow-up. Observational ratings of adherence and competence were collected on early and later phases of treatment (192 CBT ...

  20. Communication strategies to improve HIV treatment adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochon, Donna; Ross, Michael W; Looney, Carol; Nepal, Vishnu P; Price, Andrea J; Giordano, Thomas P

    2011-01-01

    Although antiretroviral therapy has increased the survival of HIV-positive patients, traditional approaches to improving medication adherence have failed consistently. Acknowledging the role of communication in health behavior, we conducted a qualitative study to learn about patients' HIV treatment adherence experiences and to identify which communication strategies might influence adherence. Findings indicate that five constructs--cultural beliefs/language, stigma, cues to action, self-efficacy, and mood state--are potentially modifiable by improved communication. Results will be used to create a direct marketing campaign targeted to HIV-infected patients. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  1. eHealth Technologies as an intervention to improve adherence to topical antipsoriatics: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Mathias Tiedemann; Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2018-03-01

    Topical antipsoriatics are recommended first-line treatment of psoriasis, but rates of adherence are low. Patient support by use of electronic health (eHealth) services is suggested to improve medical adherence. To review randomised controlled trials (RCTs) testing eHealth interventions designed to improve adherence to topical antipsoriatics and to review applications for smartphones (apps) incorporating the word psoriasis. Literature review: Medline, Embase, Cochrane, PsycINFO and Web of Science were searched using search terms for eHealth, psoriasis and topical antipsoriatics. General analysis of apps: The operating systems (OS) for smartphones, iOS, Google Play, Microsoft Store, Symbian OS and Blackberry OS were searched for apps containing the word psoriasis. Literature review: Only one RCT was included, reporting on psoriasis patients' Internet reporting their status of psoriasis over a 12-month period. The rate of adherence was measured by Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS ® ). An improvement in medical adherence and reduction of severity of psoriasis were reported. General analysis of apps: A total 184 apps contained the word psoriasis. There is a critical need for high-quality RCTs testing if the ubiquitous eHealth technologies, for example, some of the numerous apps, can improve psoriasis patients' rates of adherence to topical antipsoriatics.

  2. Adherence to Dietary Recommendations in Maintenance Phase Kidney Transplant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimaru, N; Nakazawa, S; Yamanaka, K; Kakuta, Y; Abe, T; Kaimori, J-Y; Imamura, R; Nonomura, N; Takahara, S

    2016-04-01

    Current adherence to dietary recommendations for chronic kidney disease was evaluated in kidney transplant patients in the maintenance phase. A total of 268 maintenance phase kidney transplant patients were included in the study. Estimated daily intakes of oral protein and salt were calculated from 24-h urinary excretion of nitrogen and sodium, respectively. Dietary recommendations for chronic kidney disease, as issued in 2014 by the Japanese Society of Nephrology, were used as the basis for assessing diet. The study included 114 female patients and 154 male patients. The mean age, posttransplantation years, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and 24-h urinary excretion of protein were 56.3 years, 11.2 years, 22.0 kg/m(2), 42.6 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and 321 mg/d, respectively. Estimated daily protein and salt intakes were 0.98 ± 0.26 g/kg/d and 9.3 ± 3.9 g/d. Only 47 patients (17.5%) in the case of salt intake and 105 patients (39.2%) in the case of protein intake were within reference values. The 24-h urinary protein excretion of the daily salt intake-adherent group (adherence rate to dietary recommendations for chronic kidney disease in kidney transplant patients was low. The 24-h urinary protein excretion of the daily salt intake-adherent group was significantly less than that of the nonadherent group. Dietary therapy for these patients may have the potential to improve kidney graft function and survival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Improving medication adherence of patients with chronic heart failure: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Deval Shah,1 Kim Simms,2 Debra J Barksdale,3 Jia-Rong Wu3 1Internal Medicine, Wake Forest Baptist Hospital, Winston-Salem, 2Duke University Hospital, Durham, 3School of Nursing, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abstract: Heart failure is a chronic debilitating illness that affects 5.7 million Americans. The financial burden of heart failure in the US toppled $31 billion in 2012, which is one of the highest among all chronic medical conditions. Medication adherence is a major component of heart failure self-care behaviors. Therefore, medication non-adherence is associated with more emergency department visits, frequent rehospitalizations, and higher medical cost. Medication adherence rates have varied from 10% to 98% depending on the definition and measurement used to assess and analyze adherence. Many factors contribute to medication non-adherence such as lack of support, finances, absent of symptoms, cognitive decline, adverse reactions, depression, poor attention span, poor knowledge about medication, multiple medications, difficulty swallowing large pills, and inconveniences of urinary frequency with diuretics. Researchers have explored various strategies such as the use of pharmacists, nurses, telemedicine, and interdisciplinary teams to provide interventions to improve medication adherence in heart failure. Health care providers should continue to provide education, constantly reinforce the importance of taking medication as prescribed, and when feasible, utilize one of the successful evidence-based strategies to increase adherence. Keywords: pharmacy, tele-health, interdisciplinary, registered nurse, interventions

  4. A New Lebanese Medication Adherence Scale: Validation in Lebanese Hypertensive Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Serhal, R; Salameh, P; Wakim, N; Issa, C; Kassem, B; Abou Jaoude, L; Saleh, N

    2018-01-01

    A new Lebanese scale measuring medication adherence considered socioeconomic and cultural factors not taken into account by the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8). Objectives were to validate the new adherence scale and its prediction of hypertension control, compared to MMAS-8, and to assess adherence rates and factors. A cross-sectional study, including 405 patients, was performed in outpatient cardiology clinics of three hospitals in Beirut. Blood pressure was measured, a questionnaire filled, and sodium intake estimated by a urine test. Logistic regression defined predictors of hypertension control and adherence. 54.9% had controlled hypertension. 82.4% were adherent by the new scale, which showed good internal consistency, adequate questions (KMO coefficient = 0.743), and four factors. It predicted hypertension control (OR = 1.217; p value = 0.003), unlike MMAS-8, but the scores were correlated (ICC average measure = 0.651; p value < 0.001). Stress and smoking predicted nonadherence. This study elaborated a validated, practical, and useful tool measuring adherence to medications in Lebanese hypertensive patients.

  5. A New Lebanese Medication Adherence Scale: Validation in Lebanese Hypertensive Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bou Serhal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A new Lebanese scale measuring medication adherence considered socioeconomic and cultural factors not taken into account by the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8. Objectives were to validate the new adherence scale and its prediction of hypertension control, compared to MMAS-8, and to assess adherence rates and factors. Methodology. A cross-sectional study, including 405 patients, was performed in outpatient cardiology clinics of three hospitals in Beirut. Blood pressure was measured, a questionnaire filled, and sodium intake estimated by a urine test. Logistic regression defined predictors of hypertension control and adherence. Results. 54.9% had controlled hypertension. 82.4% were adherent by the new scale, which showed good internal consistency, adequate questions (KMO coefficient = 0.743, and four factors. It predicted hypertension control (OR = 1.217; p value = 0.003, unlike MMAS-8, but the scores were correlated (ICC average measure = 0.651; p value < 0.001. Stress and smoking predicted nonadherence. Conclusion. This study elaborated a validated, practical, and useful tool measuring adherence to medications in Lebanese hypertensive patients.

  6. The relationship between patients' knowledge of diabetes therapeutic goals and self-management behaviour, including adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheedi, Mohammad; Awad, Abdelmoneim; Hatoum, Hind T; Enlund, Hannes

    2017-02-01

    Background The Middle East region has one the highest prevalence rates of diabetes in the world. Little is known about the determinants of adherence and the role of knowledge in diabetes self-management within these populations. Objective To investigate the relationship between patients knowledge of diabetes therapeutic targets with adherence to self-care measures in a sample of patients with type 2 diabetes in Kuwait. Setting Primary care chronic care clinics within the Ministry of Health of Kuwait. Methods A cross sectional survey was carried out with 238 patients from six clinics. A multistage stratified clustered sampling method was used to first randomly select the clinics and the patients. Self-reported adherence to three behaviours: medication taking, diet and physical activity. Results Respondents were able to correctly report a mean (SD) of 1.6 (1.3) out of 5 of the pre-specified treatment targets. Optimal adherence to physical activity, diet and medications was reported in 25, 33 and 47 % of the study cohort, respectively. A structural equation model analysis showed better knowledge of therapeutic goals and own current levels translated into better adherence to medications, diet and physical activity. Conclusion Knowledge of therapeutic goals and own recent levels is associated with adherence to medications, diet, or physical activity in this Kuwaiti cohort of patients with diabetes. Low adherence to self-care management and poor overall knowledge of diabetes is a big challenge to successful diabetes care in Kuwait.

  7. Antiretroviral treatment adherence as a mediating factor between psychosocial variables and HIV viral load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attonito, Jennifer; Dévieux, Jessy G; Lerner, Brenda D G; Hospital, Michelle M; Rosenberg, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial factors may directly impact HIV health measures such as viral load (VL) whether or not patients are taking antiretroviral treatment (ART) consistently. Structural equation modeling plus Baron and Kenny's (1986) four-step approach were used to test a mediated model predicting VL among 246 HIV-infected adults who were on ART. Exogenous variables were social support, barriers to adherence, and stress. Moderators were alcohol use, marijuana use, and neurocognitive impairment. A small positive association between marijuana use and ART adherence approached significance. Only barriers to adherence predicted a decrease in adherence rates and an increase in VL. No other factors were significantly associated with either VL or adherence, and no interaction effects between exogenous variables and moderators were identified. The association between barriers to adherence and VL was partially mediated by ART adherence. Findings provide modest support for a direct link between psychosocial variables and a virologic response to ART. Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Total solar eclipse of 16 February 1980 and the vertical profiles of atmospheric parameters in the lowest 200M

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshBabu, V.; Sastry, J.S.

    Vertical profiles of air temperature, wind and humidity at Raichur (16 degrees 12'N and 77 degrees 21'E) in the lowest 200m of the atmosphere are presented for the period 15-18 February 1980. The effect of the total solar eclipse, on 16 February...

  9. Lowest-order corrections to the RPA polarizability and GW self-energy of a semiconducting wire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de H.J.; Ummels, R.T.M.; Bobbert, P.A.; van Haeringen, W.

    1996-01-01

    We present the results of the addition of lowest-order vertex and self-consistency corrections to the RPA polarizability and the GW self-energy for a semiconducting wire. It is found that, when starting from a local density approximation zeroth-order Green function and systematically including these

  10. Time-resolved resonance raman spectrum of all-trans-diphenylbutadiene in the lowest excited singlet state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Jensen, Niels-Henrik; Langkilde, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    The resonance Raman spectrwn of all-trans-diphenylbutadiene in its lowest excited S1 state excited in resonance with the S1 → Sn absorption band at 650 nm in non-polar solvents is reported. Three vibrational bands at 1572, 1481 and 1165 cm−1 are observed. A possible assignment of the the 1481 cm−...

  11. Motivated for Leisure in the Future: A Person-Centred Longitudinal Study in the Lowest Level of Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Veen, Ineke; Peetsma, Thea

    2011-01-01

    Long-term future time perspective on leisure has been found to relate negatively to school effort. This was studied further by recognizing types of students based on developments in long-term leisure perspectives and comparing their development in motivation and academic achievement. Around 1200 12-13 year old students attending the lowest level…

  12. Adherence to hydroxyurea medication by children with sickle cell disease (SCD) using an electronic device: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Susumu; Kodjebacheva, Gergana; Scherrer, Tammy; Rice, Gary; Grigorian, Matthew; Blankenship, Jeremy; Onwuzurike, Nkechi

    2016-08-01

    Adherence to hydroxyurea (HU) is a significant modifying factor in sickle cell vaso-occlusive pain. We conducted a study using an electronic medication container-monitor-reminder device (GlowCap™) to track adherence and determine whether use of this device affected rates of HU adherence. Subjects were regular attendees to our clinic. They were given a 37-item questionnaire and were asked to use a GlowCap containing HU. When the device cap is opened, it makes a remote "medication taken" record. The device also provides usage reminder in the form of lights and alarm sounds if the cap opening is delayed. Nineteen subjects participated in the survey, and 17 in the intervention phase. Of the 17, 12 had reliable adherence data. Seventeen caregivers of patients and two patients completed the survey. Two most common barriers to adherence identified were lack of reminders and absence of medicine home delivery. The intervention component of this study, which used both the electronic (GlowCap) method and medication possession ratio showed that the median adherence rate for the 12 patients evaluated was 85 %. The GlowCap device accurately kept a record of adherence rates. This device may be an effective tool for increasing HU medication adherence.

  13. Looking for trouble: Adherence to late-effects surveillance among childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppucci, Marina L; Schleien, Charles L; Fish, Jonathan D

    2017-02-01

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) are at high risk of morbidity and mortality from long-term complications of their cancer treatment. The Children's Oncology Group developed screening guidelines to enable the early identification of and intervention for late effects of cancer treatment. There is a paucity of data on the adherence of CCSs to screening recommendations. A retrospective analysis of medical records to evaluate the rate of adherence of CCSs to the personalized, risk-based recommendations provided to them in the context of a structured long-term follow-up program over a 3-year period. Two hundred eighty-six CCSs visited the survivorship clinic 542 times during the 3-year study period. The overall rate of adherence to recommended screening was 74.2%. Using a univariate model and greater age at diagnosis and at screening recommendation were associated with decreased screening adherence. Gender, cancer diagnosis, radiation therapy, anthracycline exposure, and hematopoietic stem cell transplant were not significantly associated with adherence. In a multivariate model, age over 18 years at the time of the visit was significantly associated with decreased adherence (P < 0.0329) (odds ratio: 1.53, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-2.25). Adherence to recommended screening tests is suboptimal among CCSs, with lower rates of adherence in CCSs older than 18 years of age compared with those younger than 18 years of age. Given the morbidity and mortality from the late effects of therapy among young adult CCSs, it is critically important to identify and remove barriers to late-effects screening among CCSs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Introducing the Adherence Strategy Engineering Framework (ASEF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg; Bertelsen, Olav W.

    2013-01-01

    . Methods: Key concepts related to self-care and adherence were defined, discussed, and implemented as part of the ASEF framework. ASEF was applied to seven self-care case studies, and the perceived usefulness and feasibility of ASEF was evaluated in a questionnaire study by the case study participants...... resulting in reduced data quality and suboptimal treatment. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to introduce the Adherence Strategy Engineering Framework (ASEF) as a method for developing novel technology-based adherence strategies to assess and improve patient adherence levels in the unsupervised setting....... Finally, we reviewed the individual case studies usage of ASEF. Results: A range of central self-care concepts were defined and the ASEF methodological framework was introduced. ASEF was successfully used in seven case studies with a total of 25 participants. Of these, 16 provided answers...

  15. Determinants of Patient's Adherence to Hypertension Medications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medications: Application of Health Belief Model .... Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios expressing the ... costs.[15]. Adherence to medication is always a matter of concern, especially in chronic diseases and identification of the ...

  16. Factors Influencing Adherence to Routine Iron Supplementation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fineprint

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... adherence among pregnant women in three selected health centers in Akinyele. Local Government Area, Ibadan ... socioeconomic status, and illiteracy. [12]. .... 80.74% in India [24 ] Although the reason for this disparity is not ...

  17. Microbial adherence to cosmetic contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Yin; Cho, Pauline; Boost, Maureen

    2014-08-01

    To investigate whether cosmetic contact lenses (CCL) with surface pigments affect microbial adherence. Fifteen brands of CCL were purchased from optical, non-optical retail outlets, and via the Internet. A standardized rub-off test was performed on each CCL (five lenses per brand) to confirm the location of the pigments. The rub-off test comprised gentle rubbing on the surfaces of each CCL with wetted cotton buds for a maximum of 20 rubs per surface. A new set of CCL (five lenses per brand) were incubated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa overnight. Viable counts of adhered bacteria were determined by the number of colony-forming units (CFU) on agar media on each lens. The adherence of P. aeruginosa as well as Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens to three brands of CCL (A-C) (five lenses per brand) were also compared to their adherences on their clear counterparts. Only two of the 15 brands of CCL tested (brands B and C) had pigments that did not detach with the rub-off test. The remaining 13 brands of CCL all failed the rub-off test and these lenses showed higher P. aeruginosa adherence (8.7 × 10(5)-1.9 × 10(6) CFU/lens). Brands B and C lenses showed at least six times less bacterial adhesion than the other 13 brands. Compared to their clear counterparts, bacterial adherence to brands B and C lenses did not differ significantly, whereas brand A lenses showed significantly higher adherence. Surface pigments on CCL resulted in significantly higher bacterial adherence. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Longitudinal Analysis of Adherence to First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy: Evidence of Treatment Sustainability from an Indian HIV Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shet, Anita; Kumarasamy, N; Poongulali, Selvamuthu; Shastri, Suresh; Kumar, Dodderi Sunil; Rewari, Bharath B; Arumugam, Karthika; Antony, Jimmy; De Costa, Ayesha; D'Souza, George

    2016-01-01

    Given the chronic nature of HIV infection and the need for life-long antiretroviral therapy (ART), maintaining long-term optimal adherence is an important strategy for maximizing treatment success. In order to understand better the dynamic nature of adherence behaviors in India where complex cultural and logistic features prevail, we assessed the patterns, trajectories and time-dependent predictors of adherence levels in relation to virological failure among individuals initiating first-line ART in India. Between July 2010 and August 2013, eligible ART-naïve HIV-infected individuals newly initiating first-line ART within the national program at three sites in southern India were enrolled and monitored for two years. ART included zidovudine/stavudine/tenofovir plus lamivudine plus nevirapine/efavirenz. Patients were assessed using clinical, laboratory and adherence parameters. Every three months, medication adherence was measured using pill count, and a structured questionnaire on adherence barriers was administered. Optimal adherence was defined as mean adherence ≥95%. Statistical analysis was performed using a bivariate and a multivariate model of all identified covariates. Adherence trends and determinants were modeled as rate ratios using generalized estimating equation analysis in a Poisson distribution. A total of 599 eligible ART-naïve patients participated in the study, and contributed a total of 921 person-years of observation time. Women constituted 43% and mean CD4 count prior to initiating ART was 192 cells/mm3. Overall mean adherence among all patients was 95.4%. The proportion of patients optimally adherent was 75.6%. Predictors of optimal adherence included older age (≥40 years), high school-level education and beyond, lower drug toxicity-related ART interruption, full disclosure, sense of satisfaction with one's own health and patient's perception of having good access to health-care services. Adherence was inversely proportional to virological

  19. Developing a Measure of Therapist Adherence to Contingency Management: An Application of the Many-Facet Rasch Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jason E; Sheidow, Ashli J; Henggeler, Scott W; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen; Cunningham, Phillippe B

    2008-06-01

    A unique application of the Many-Facet Rasch Model (MFRM) is introduced as the preferred method for evaluating the psychometric properties of a measure of therapist adherence to Contingency Management (CM) treatment of adolescent substance use. The utility of psychometric methods based in Classical Test Theory was limited by complexities of the data, including: (a) ratings provided by multiple informants (i.e., youth, caregivers, and therapists), (b) data from separate research studies, (c) repeated measurements, (d) multiple versions of the questionnaire, and (e) missing data. Two dimensions of CM adherence were supported: adherence to Cognitive Behavioral components and adherence to Monitoring components. The rating scale performed differently for items in these subscales, and of 11 items evaluated, eight were found to perform well. The MFRM is presented as a highly flexible approach that can be used to overcome the limitations of traditional methods in the development of adherence measures for evidence-based practices.

  20. Bacterial adherence to polymethylmethacrylate posterior chamber IOLs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi Shalini

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Bacterial adherence to intraocular lenses (IOLs has been incriminated in the pathogenesis of postoperative endophthalmitis. Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most common organism isolated. We studied the in-vitro adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis to Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA IOLs and the effect of duration of exposure to adherence. Methods: Two groups of 10 IOLs each were incubated in Staphylococcus epidermidis suspension for 2 minutes and 20 minutes respectively. Adhesion of bacterial cells was determined by counting the number of viable bacteria attached to IOLs. Results: The mean bacterial adherence with 2 minutes incubation was 12,889 ± 7,150 bacteria / IOL and with 20 minutes incubation was 84,226 ± 35,024 bacteria/IOL (P< 0.01. Conclusion: Our results show that Staphylococcus epidermidis adheres to PMMA IOLs in vitro and the degree of adherence is less for shorter duration of exposure. We conclude that viable bacteria irreversibly adherent to IOLs may play a role in the pathogenesis of postoperative endophthalmitis. Shorter duration of operative manipulation and exposure to contaminating sources may decrease the chances of postoperative endophthalmitis.

  1. Microbicide clinical trial adherence: insights for introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodsong, Cynthia; MacQueen, Kathleen; Amico, K Rivet; Friedland, Barbara; Gafos, Mitzy; Mansoor, Leila; Tolley, Elizabether; McCormack, Sheena

    2013-04-08

    After two decades of microbicide clinical trials it remains uncertain if vaginally- delivered products will be clearly shown to reduce the risk of HIV infection in women and girls. Furthermore, a microbicide product with demonstrated clinical efficacy must be used correctly and consistently if it is to prevent infection. Information on adherence that can be gleaned from microbicide trials is relevant for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, pre-licensure implementation trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery. Drawing primarily from data and experience that has emerged from the large-scale microbicide efficacy trials completed to-date, the paper identifies six broad areas of adherence lessons learned: (1) Adherence measurement in clinical trials, (2) Comprehension of use instructions/Instructions for use, (3) Unknown efficacy and its effect on adherence/Messages regarding effectiveness, (4) Partner influence on use, (5) Retention and continuation and (6) Generalizability of trial participants' adherence behavior. Each is discussed, with examples provided from microbicide trials. For each of these adherence topics, recommendations are provided for using trial findings to prepare for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery programs.

  2. Adherence to the “Mediterranean Diet” in Spain and Its Relationship with Cardiovascular Risk (DIMERICA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Abellán Alemán

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional studies focus on traditional cultural models and lifestyles in different countries. The aim of this study was to examine the adherence to the Mediterranean diet, life habits, and risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases among people living in different geographical regions in Spain. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in each region. The sampling scheme consisted of a random three-stage stratified sampling program according to geographic region, age, and gender. A total of 1732 subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire designed to assess their nutrient intake, dietary habits, and exercise. A diet score that assesses the adherence of participants to the Mediterranean diet (range 0–10 was also applied. Results: Southeastern Spain had the lowest score for adherence to the Mediterranean diet because of the low consumption of fish and plant products. A lower adherence score to the Mediterranean diet was strongly associated with the prevalence of hypertension (p = 0.018. Conclusions: A low level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet is accompanied by a high prevalence of hypertension and, therefore, a raised cardiovascular risk in the country. The adherence score could help identify individuals at greater cardiovascular risk.

  3. Modeling the impact of increased adherence to asthma therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amory Schlender

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nonadherence to medications occurs in up to 70% of patients with asthma. The effect of improving adherence is not well quantified. We developed a mathematical model with which to assess the population-level effects of improving medication prescribing and adherence for asthma. METHODS: A mathematical model, calibrated to clinical trial data from the U.S. NHLBI-funded SOCS trial and validated using data from the NHLBI SLIC trial, was used to model the effects of increased prescribing and adherence to asthma controllers. The simulated population consisted of 4,930 individuals with asthma, derived from a sample the National Asthma Survey. Main outcomes were controller use, reliever use, unscheduled doctor visits, emergency department (ED visits, and hospitalizations. RESULTS: For the calibration, simulated outcomes agreed closely with SOCS trial outcomes, with treatment failure hazard ratios [95% confidence interval] of 0.92 [0.58-1.26], 0.97 [0.49-1.45], and 1.01 [0-1.87] for simulation vs. trial in the in placebo, salmeterol, and triamcinolone arms, respectively. For validation, simulated outcomes predicted mid- and end-point treatment failure rates, hazard ratios 1.21 [0.08-2.34] and 0.83 [0.60-1.07], respectively, for patients treated with salmeterol/triamcinolone during the first half of the SLIC study and salmeterol monotherapy during the second half. The model performed less well for patients treated with salmeterol/triamcinolone during the entire study duration, with mid- and end-point hazard ratios 0.83 [0.00-2.12] and 0.37 [0.10-0.65], respectively. Simulation of optimal adherence and prescribing indicated that closing adherence and prescription gaps could prevent as many as nine million unscheduled doctor visits, four million emergency department visits, and one million asthma-related hospitalizations each year in the U.S. CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in medication adherence and prescribing could have a substantial impact on

  4. A nationwide survey of factors influencing adherence to ocular hypotensive eyedrops in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumura, Toyoaki; Kashiwagi, Kenji; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Yoshikawa, Keiji; Suzumura, Hirotaka; Maeda, Toshine; Takeda, Ryuji; Saito, Hitomi; Araie, Makoto

    2018-01-12

    Few reports have investigated the status of adherence in Japan on a large scale. We aimed to investigate the status of adherence to topical glaucoma treatment and its associated factors. A nationwide survey was conducted as a prospective fashion. Participants in this survey were subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma, normal-tension glaucoma, or ocular hypertension or pseudoexfoliation glaucoma who had been prescribed anti-glaucoma ophthalmic eyedrops and whose ophthalmologist considered prescribing any fixed combination of ocular hypotensive eyedrops for the first time between 2011 and 2012. Subjects and their attending ophthalmologists independently completed a questionnaire by utilizing a fixed combination of ocular hypotensive eyedrops. A total of 1358 ophthalmologists from 1071 medical institutions participated in this survey. We registered 4430 subjects (2049 males and 2381 females). In total, data from 3853 subjects (87.6%) were analyzed after inclusion of subjects based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Good adherence was defined as not forgetting instillation during the past week. Rates of good adherence reported by subjects and ophthalmologists were 72.4 and 78.5%, respectively (P < 0.0001). The consistency of adherence evaluation between subjects and ophthalmologists was moderate [kappa score 0.5025 (95% confidence interval 0.4740-0.5309)]. Significant factors associated with adherence were size of clinic, age, gender, number of types of ocular hypotensive eyedrops, ease of instillation, preferred number of eyedrops, preferred frequency of instillation of eyedrops, and knowledge of glaucoma. Adherence to ocular hypotensive eyedrops among Japanese subjects was relatively good. Concordance of adherence between subjects' reports and ophthalmologists' responses was moderate. Size of clinic, number of types of ocular hypotensive eyedrops, ease of instillation, preferred number of eyedrops, preferred frequency of instillation of eyedrops, and knowledge

  5. Early detection of poor adherers to statins: applying individualized surveillance to pay for performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Zimolzak

    Full Text Available Medication nonadherence costs $300 billion annually in the US. Medicare Advantage plans have a financial incentive to increase medication adherence among members because the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS now awards substantive bonus payments to such plans, based in part on population adherence to chronic medications. We sought to build an individualized surveillance model that detects early which beneficiaries will fall below the CMS adherence threshold.This was a retrospective study of over 210,000 beneficiaries initiating statins, in a database of private insurance claims, from 2008-2011. A logistic regression model was constructed to use statin adherence from initiation to day 90 to predict beneficiaries who would not meet the CMS measure of proportion of days covered 0.8 or above, from day 91 to 365. The model controlled for 15 additional characteristics. In a sensitivity analysis, we varied the number of days of adherence data used for prediction.Lower adherence in the first 90 days was the strongest predictor of one-year nonadherence, with an odds ratio of 25.0 (95% confidence interval 23.7-26.5 for poor adherence at one year. The model had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.80. Sensitivity analysis revealed that predictions of comparable accuracy could be made only 40 days after statin initiation. When members with 30-day supplies for their first statin fill had predictions made at 40 days, and members with 90-day supplies for their first fill had predictions made at 100 days, poor adherence could be predicted with 86% positive predictive value.To preserve their Medicare Star ratings, plan managers should identify or develop effective programs to improve adherence. An individualized surveillance approach can be used to target members who would most benefit, recognizing the tradeoff between improved model performance over time and the advantage of earlier detection.

  6. Motives for adherence to a gluten-free diet: a qualitative investigation involving adults with coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, A J; Tamminen, K A; Jung, M E; Case, S; McEwan, D; Beauchamp, M R

    2014-12-01

    Currently , the only treatment for coeliac disease is life long adherence to a strict gluten-free diet. Strict adherence to a gluten-free diet is challenging, with recent reports suggesting that adherence rates range from 42% to 91%. The present study aimed to: (i) identify motives for adhering to a gluten-free diet and (ii) explore factors implicated in adherence and non-adherence behaviour in terms of accidental and purposeful gluten consumption among adults with coeliac disease. Two hundred and three adults with coeliac disease completed an online questionnaire. Using a qualitative design, relationships were examined between reported adherence and motivation to follow a gluten-free diet, as well as the onset, duration and severity of symptoms. Feelings of desperation (‘hitting rock bottom’) and needing to gain or lose weight were associated with the strictest adherence to a gluten-free diet. Participants who accidentally consumed gluten over the past week developed symptoms the most quickly and reported the most pain over the past 6 months. Participants who consumed gluten on purpose over the past week reported a shorter duration of symptoms and less pain over the past 6 months. Hitting rock bottom and needing to gain or lose weight were factors associated with the strictest adherence, when considered in the context of both accidental and purposeful gluten consumption. Future research is warranted to develop resources to help people with coeliac disease follow a strict gluten-free diet.

  7. Factors governing long-term adherence to a gluten-free diet in adult patients with coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafuerte-Galvez, J; Vanga, R R; Dennis, M; Hansen, J; Leffler, D A; Kelly, C P; Mukherjee, R

    2015-09-01

    A strict gluten-free diet is the cornerstone of treatment for coeliac disease. Studies of gluten-free diet adherence have rarely used validated instruments. There is a paucity of data on long-term adherence to the gluten-free diet in the adult population. To determine the long-term adherence to the gluten-free diet and potential associated factors in a large coeliac disease referral centre population. We performed a mailed survey of adults with clinically, serologically and histologically confirmed coeliac disease diagnosed ≥5 years prior to survey. The previously validated Celiac Disease Adherence Test was used to determine adherence. Demographic, socio-economic and potentially associated factors were analysed with adherence as the outcome. The response rate was 50.1% of 709 surveyed, the mean time on a gluten-free diet 9.9 ± 6.4 years. Adequate adherence (celiac disease adherence test score 75% of respondents. Perceived cost remains a barrier to adherence. Perceptions of effectiveness of gluten-free diet as well as its knowledge, are potential areas for intervention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Therapist adherence in individual cognitive-behavioral therapy for binge-eating disorder: assessment, course, and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauhardt, Anne; de Zwaan, Martina; Herpertz, Stephan; Zipfel, Stephan; Svaldi, Jennifer; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Hilbert, Anja

    2014-10-01

    While cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most well-established treatment for binge-eating disorder (BED), little is known about process factors influencing its outcome. The present study sought to explore the assessment of therapist adherence, its course over treatment, and its associations with patient and therapist characteristics, and the therapeutic alliance. In a prospective multicenter randomized-controlled trial comparing CBT to internet-based guided self-help (INTERBED-study), therapist adherence using the newly developed Adherence Control Form (ACF) was determined by trained raters in randomly selected 418 audio-taped CBT sessions of 89 patients (25% of all sessions). Observer-rated therapeutic alliance, interview-based and self-reported patient and therapist characteristics were assessed. Three-level multilevel modeling was applied. The ACF showed adequate psychometric properties. Therapist adherence was excellent. While significant between-therapist variability in therapist adherence was found, within-therapist variability was non-significant. Patient and therapist characteristics did not predict the therapist adherence. The therapist adherence positively predicted the therapeutic alliance. The ACF demonstrated its utility to assess therapist adherence in CBT for BED. The excellent levels of therapist adherence point to the internal validity of the CBT within the INTERBED-study serving as a prerequisite for empirical comparisons between treatments. Variability between therapists should be addressed in therapist trainings and dissemination trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary adherence and acceptability of five different diets, including vegan and vegetarian diets, for weight loss: The New DIETs study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Wendy J; McGrievy, Michael E; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine dietary adherence and acceptability among participants from the New DIETs study who were randomized to one of four plant-based diets (vegan, vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian) or an omnivore diet. Primary outcomes at two- and six months included dietary adherence (24-hour dietary recalls), weight loss and changes in animal product intake (mg cholesterol) by adherence status, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Power of Food Scale (PFS), dietary acceptability (Food Acceptability Questionnaire), and impact of diet preference on adherence. No differences were found in dietary adherence or changes in FAQ, TFEQ, or PFS among the groups. At six months, non-adherent vegan and vegetarian participants (n=16) had a significantly greater decrease in cholesterol intake (-190.2 ± 199.2 mg) than non-adherent pesco-vegetarian/semi-vegetarian (n=15, -2.3 ± 200.3 mg, P=0.02) or omnivore participants (n=7, 17.0 ± 36.0, P=0.04). Non-adherent vegan/vegetarian participants lost significantly more weight at six months (-6.0 ± 6.7%) than non-adherent omnivore participants (-0.4 ± 0.6%, P=0.04). Dietary preference had no impact on adherence at six months. Due to equal rates of adherence and acceptability among the diet groups, instructing participants to follow vegan or vegetarian diets may have a greater impact on weight loss and animal product intake than providing instruction in more moderate approaches even among non-adherent participants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Information and Motivation and Behavioral Skills Model of ART Adherence among HIV-Positive Adults in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillán Torres Torija, Carolina; Villagrán Vázquez, Gabina; Robles Montijo, Silvia Susana; de Lourdes Eguiluz Romo, Luz

    2015-01-01

    Middle-income countries are in need of research that uses theoretical-based models to assess factors that predict adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and help in the design, implementation, and evaluation of interventions for nonadherent populations. In Mexico, the Information and Motivation and Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model of ART Adherence constructs is useful in describing and predicting adherence behaviors in various samples but has not been articulated to people living with HIV (PLWH) on ART. The aim of this was to characterize the IMB core constructs and identify correlates of ART adherence in an HIV-positive clinic sample in Mexico. A convenience sample of 109 HIV-positive patients attending their monthly visits at a local public hospital were interviewed with the Spanish version of the LifeWindows IMB ART Adherence Questionnaire (LW-IMB-AAQ) as well as a sociodemographic questionnaire. All participants were recruited from a hospital-based outpatient clinical care site. Partial confirmation of the relationships proposed by the IMB Model of ART Adherence was found. As predicted by the model, only behavioral skills had direct association with all measures of self-reported adherence, and motivation was associated with behavioral skills. Information did not demonstrate significant relations to either motivation or behavioral skills, nor did it directly associate with adherence. Self-reported adherence did not associate with CD4 counts, nor did any of the IMB model core constructs. Applicability of the IMB Model of ART Adherence in this setting is discussed. The IMB Model of ART Adherence offered promise in this population and could help tailor population-specific interventions to promote high rates of ART adherence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Adherence to hospital drug formularies and cost of drugs in hospitals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plet, H. T.; Hallas, J.; Kjeldsen, L. J.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate adherence rates to hospital drug formularies (HDFs) and cost of drugs in hospitals. METHODS: Data on drugs used during 2010 were analyzed for ten hospitals (two hospitals from each of the five regions), constituting 30 % of hospitals and 45 % of hospital beds in Denmark....... Drug use data from individual hospitals were retrieved from the hospital pharmacies. Adherence to the HDFs was analyzed for selected substances characterised by extensive use both in primary and secondary sectors (ATC codes A10, B03, C03, C07, C08, C09, C10, J01, N02, N05 and R03). Within each group......, we also identified the drugs constituting 90 % of the volume (= DU90%) and the adherence to the HDF in this segment (Index of Adherence). RESULTS: Substances used by hospitals varied between 598 and 1,093. The proportion of used substances that were on the HDF varied between 14 % and 44 %. University...

  12. Child and Adolescent Adherence With Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety: Predictors and Associations With Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Phyllis; Zehgeer, Asima; Ginsburg, Golda S; McCracken, James; Keeton, Courtney; Kendall, Philip C; Birmaher, Boris; Sakolsky, Dara; Walkup, John; Peris, Tara; Albano, Anne Marie; Compton, Scott

    2017-04-27

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders is effective, but nonadherence with treatment may reduce the benefits of CBT. This study examined (a) four baseline domains (i.e., demographic, youth clinical characteristics, therapy related, family/parent factors) as predictors of youth adherence with treatment and (b) the associations between youth adherence and treatment outcomes. Data were from 279 youth (7-17 years of age, 51.6% female; 79.6% White, 9% African American), with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.) diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and/or social phobia, who participated in CBT in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study. Adherence was defined in three ways (session attendance, therapist-rated compliance, and homework completion). Multiple regressions revealed several significant predictors of youth adherence with CBT, but predictors varied according to the definition of adherence. The most robust predictors of greater adherence were living with both parents and fewer youth comorbid externalizing disorders. With respect to outcomes, therapist ratings of higher youth compliance with CBT predicted several indices of favorable outcome: lower anxiety severity, higher global functioning, and treatment responder status after 12 weeks of CBT. Number of sessions attended and homework completion did not predict treatment outcomes. Findings provide information about risks for youth nonadherence, which can inform treatment and highlight the importance of youth compliance with participating in therapy activities, rather than just attending sessions or completing homework assignments.

  13. Adherence to management guidelines for childhood asthma in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereznicki, Bonnie J; Beggs, Sean; Duff, Caitlin; Bereznicki, Luke

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about doctors' treatment preferences for childhood asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate adherence to management guidelines for childhood asthma. One thousand general practitioners (GPs) and paediatric specialists in Australia were invited to take part in a survey, which collected demographic details and explored their familiarity with and adherence to childhood asthma management guidelines. Two hundred doctors (20% response rate) responded and were eligible for inclusion in the survey. Approximately half (54.5%) of the respondents were very familiar with at least one of the childhood asthma management guidelines. The majority of respondents (86.8%) followed guideline recommendations when prescribing initial maintenance therapy for childhood asthma, while 89.2% and 68.0% followed guideline recommendations regarding step-up and step-down therapy respectively. Overall familiarity with childhood asthma management guidelines could be improved. There is scope for improvement in the adherence to these guidelines when prescribing medication in childhood asthma, particularly for step-down therapy.

  14. Effectiveness of Educational Technology in Promoting Quality of Life and Treatment Adherence in Hypertensive People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Ana Célia Caetano; Moreira, Thereza Maria Magalhaes; Oliveira, Edmar Souza de; Menezes, Anaíze Viana Bezerra de; Loureiro, Aline Maria Oliveira; Silva, Camila Brasileiro de Araújo; Linard, Jair Gomes; Almeida, Italo Lennon Sales de; Mattos, Samuel Miranda; Borges, José Wicto Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of an educational intervention with use of educational technology (flipchart) to promote quality of life (QOL) and treatment adherence in people with hypertension. It was an intervention study of before-and-after type conducted with 116 hypertensive people registered in Primary Health Care Units. The educational interventions were conducted using the flipchart educational technology. Quality of life was assessed through the MINICHAL (lowest score = better QOL) and the QATSH (higher score = better adherence) was used to assess the adherence to hypertension treatment. Both were measured before and after applying the intervention. In the analysis, we used the Student's t-test for paired data. The average baseline quality of life was 11.66 ± 7.55, and 7.71 ± 5.72 two months after the intervention, showing a statistically significant reduction (p educational intervention using the flipchart improved the total score of quality of life in the scores of physical and mental domains, and increased adherence to hypertension treatment in people with the disease.

  15. Preliminary Evidence for Feasibility, Use, and Acceptability of Individualized Texting for Adherence Building for Antiretroviral Adherence and Substance Use Assessment among HIV-Infected Methamphetamine Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Moore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility, use, and acceptability of text messages to track methamphetamine use and promote antiretroviral treatment (ART adherence among HIV-infected methamphetamine users was examined. From an ongoing randomized controlled trial, 30-day text response rates of participants assigned to the intervention (individualized texting for adherence building (iTAB, n = 20 were compared to those in the active comparison condition (n = 9. Both groups received daily texts assessing methamphetamine use, and the iTAB group additionally received personalized daily ART adherence reminder texts. Response rate for methamphetamine use texts was 72.9% with methamphetamine use endorsed 14.7% of the time. Text-derived methamphetamine use data was correlated with data from a structured substance use interview covering the same time period (P<0.05. The iTAB group responded to 69.0% of adherence reminder texts; among those responses, 81.8% endorsed taking ART medication. Standardized feedback questionnaire responses indicated little difficulty with the texts, satisfaction with the study, and beliefs that future text-based interventions would be helpful. Moreover, most participants believed the intervention reduced methamphetamine use and improved adherence. Qualitative feedback regarding the intervention was positive. Future studies will refine and improve iTAB for optimal acceptability and efficacy. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01317277.

  16. The adherence in the union stone-mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez García, María Reyes

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Stones placates present a wide of problems that result in the fall of plates. One of the causes is the lack of adherence stone-mortar. We considered a study to determine the adherence between several cement mortars (1:3, 1:5, 1:7, 1:9 and a especial mortar prepared with latex and stones (white granite, pink granites, black granites, white marble and cream limestones. The results obtained suggest that only adequate adherence rates (higher than 3 kgf/cm2 achieved with cement mortar 1:3 and especial mortar. Besides it is observed that in the stones studied there is no relation between adherence and the absorption values.

    Los aplacados de piedra presentan una extensa patología que se traduce en la caída de las placas colocadas. Una de las causas es la falta de adherencia mortero-piedra. El estudio se realiza para determinar la tensión de adherencia entre diversos morteros de cemento (1:3, 1:5, 1:7, 1:9 y otro compuesto por mortero y látex y piedras (granito blanco, granitos rosa, granitos negros, mármol blanco y calizas crema. De los resultados obtenidos se deduce que los únicos morteros que permiten valores de adherencia aceptables (superiores a 3 kp/cm2 son el mortero de cemento 1:3 y el especial. Igualmente se comprueba que, en las piedras estudiadas, no existe relación alguna entre la adherencia y la absorción de agua.

  17. Bacterial adherence to vascular grafts after in vitro bacteremia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenman, J.E.; Pearce, W.H.; Kempczinski, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    All currently used arterial prosthetics have a greater susceptibility to infection following bacteremia than does autogenous tissue. This experiment compares quantitative bacterial adherence to various prosthetic materials after bacteremia carried out in a tightly controlled and quantitative fashion. Ten centimeters long, 4 mm i.d. Dacron, umbilical vein (HUV), and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts, as well as PTFE grafts with a running suture line at the midportion were tested. Each graft was interposed into a pulsatile perfusion system modified from a Waters MOX 100 TM renal transplant pump. Indium-111-labeled Staphylococcus aureus were added to heparinized canine blood to give a mean concentration of 4.7 X 10(6) bacteria/cc. This infected blood was recirculated through each graft for 30 min at a rate of 125 cc/m, 100 Torr (sys), 60 beats/min. The gamma counts/graft were used to calculate the number of bacteria/cm2 of graft surface. After nine experiments, a mean of 9.63 X 10(5) bacteria/cm2 were adherent to the Dacron, 1.04 X 10(5) bacteria/cm2 to the HUV, and 2.15 X 10(4) bacteria/cm2 to the PTFE. These differences were all significant at the 0.05 level. The addition of a suture line increased bacterial adherence to the PTFE graft by 50%. These results suggest that PTFE is the vascular graft material of choice when a prosthetic graft must be implanted despite a high risk of subsequent clinical bacteremia. An in vitro, pulsatile perfusion model gave accurate and reproducible results, and appears well suited for further studies of bacterial, or platelet adherence to grafts, as well as the biomechanics of vascular conduits

  18. Millimeter-wave and Submillimeter-wave Spectra of Aminoacetonitrile in the Three Lowest Vibrational Excited States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposti, Claudio Degli; Dore, Luca; Melosso, Mattia [Dipartimento di Chimica “Giacomo Ciamician”, Università di Bologna, via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Kobayashi, Kaori [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Fujita, Chiho; Ozeki, Hiroyuki, E-mail: ozeki@env.sci.toho-u.ac.jp [Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science, Toho University, 2-2-1 Miyama, Funabashi, 274-8510 (Japan)

    2017-06-01

    It is important to study possible precursors of amino acids such as glycine to enable future searches in interstellar space. Aminoacetonitrile (NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CN) is one of the most feasible molecules for this purpose. This molecule was already detected toward Sgr B2(N). Aminoacetonitrile has a few low-lying vibrational excited states, and transitions within these states may be found in space. In this study, the pure-rotational transitions in the three lowest vibrational states in the 80–450 GHz range have been assigned and analyzed. It was found to be very important to include Coriolis coupling between the two lowest vibrational fundamentals, while the third one was unperturbed. The partition function was evaluated considering these new results.

  19. Computer simulation of 2D grain growth using a cellular automata model based on the lowest energy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yizhu; Ding Hanlin; Liu Liufa; Shin, Keesam

    2006-01-01

    The morphology, topology and kinetics of normal grain growth in two-dimension were studied by computer simulation using a cellular automata (Canada) model based on the lowest energy principle. The thermodynamic energy that follows Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics has been introduced into this model for the calculation of energy change. The transition that can reduce the system energy to the lowest level is chosen to occur when there is more than one possible transition direction. The simulation results show that the kinetics of normal grain growth follows the Burke equation with the growth exponent m = 2. The analysis of topology further indicates that normal grain growth can be simulated fairly well by the present CA model. The vanishing of grains with different number of sides is discussed in the simulation

  20. Lowest excited-state impurity binding energy in InGaN/GaN parabolic QWW: magnetic field effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddou El Ghazi; Anouar Jorio; Izeddine Zorkani

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the magnetic field effect on the lowest excited-state binding energy of hydrogenic shallow-donor impurity in wurtzite (In,Ga)N/GaN parabolic transversal-section quantum-well wire (PQWW) using the finite-difference method within the quasi-one-dimensional effective potential model. The calculations are performed within the framework of the effective mass approximation. A cylindrical QWW effective radius is taken into account to describe the lateral confinement strength. The numerical results show that: (i) the probability density is the largest on a circularity whose radius is the effective radius and (ii) the lowest excited-state binding energy is the largest when an impurity is located on this circularity while it starts to decrease as the impurity is away from the circularity. (author)

  1. Current strategies for improving access and adherence to antiretroviral therapies in resource-limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scanlon ML

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael L Scanlon,1,2 Rachel C Vreeman1,21Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2USAID, Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH Partnership, Eldoret, KenyaAbstract: The rollout of antiretroviral therapy (ART significantly reduced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-related morbidity and mortality, but good clinical outcomes depend on access and adherence to treatment. In resource-limited settings, where over 90% of the world’s HIV-infected population resides, data on barriers to treatment are emerging that contribute to low rates of uptake in HIV testing, linkage to and retention in HIV care systems, and suboptimal adherence rates to therapy. A review of the literature reveals limited evidence to inform strategies to improve access and adherence with the majority of studies from sub-Saharan Africa. Data from observational studies and randomized controlled trials support home-based, mobile and antenatal care HIV testing, task-shifting from doctor-based to nurse-based and lower level provider care, and adherence support through education, counseling and mobile phone messaging services. Strategies with more limited evidence include targeted HIV testing for couples and family members of ART patients, decentralization of HIV care, including through home- and community-based ART programs, and adherence promotion through peer health workers, treatment supporters, and directly observed therapy. There is little evidence for improving access and adherence among vulnerable groups such as women, children and adolescents, and other high-risk populations and for addressing major barriers. Overall, studies are few in number and suffer from methodological issues. Recommendations for further research include health information technology, social-level factors like HIV stigma, and new research directions in cost-effectiveness, operations, and implementation. Findings from this review make a

  2. Adherence to Positive Airway Therapy After Switching From CPAP to ASV: A Big Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pépin, Jean-Louis D; Woehrle, Holger; Liu, Dongquan; Shao, Shiyun; Armitstead, Jeff P; Cistulli, Peter A; Benjafield, Adam V; Malhotra, Atul

    2018-01-15

    There is a lack of data regarding adherence trajectories when switching from continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to adaptive servoventilation (ASV) in the context of persistent or treatment-emergent central sleep apnea (CSA). This study investigated 90-day adherence rates in patients with sleep apnea based on the type of positive airway pressure (PAP) device used and any switching of PAP modality over time. Telemonitoring data were obtained from a United States PAP database. Eligible patients were a 30% random sample who started PAP, plus all who started ASV, from January 1, 2015 to October 2, 2015. All received PAP and had at least one session with usage of 1 hour or more. Adherence and device usage were determined in three groups: started on CPAP and stayed on CPAP (CPAP only); started on ASV and stayed on ASV (ASV only); started on CPAP, switched to ASV (Switch). The United States Medicare definition of adherence was used. The study included 198,890 patients; 189,724 (CPAP only), 8,957 (ASV only) and 209 (Switch). In the Switch group, average apnea-hypopnea index decreased significantly on ASV versus CPAP. At 90 days, adherence rates were 73.8% and 73.2% in the CPAP only and ASV only groups. In the Switch group, CPAP adherence was 62.7%, improving to 76.6% after the switch to ASV. Mean device usage at 90 days was 5.27, 5.31, and 5.73 h/d in the CPAP only, ASV only, and Switch groups, respectively. Treatment-emergent or persistent CSA during CPAP reduced therapy adherence, but adherence improved early after switching from CPAP to ASV. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  3. Multistate transitional models for measuring adherence to breast cancer screening: A population-based longitudinal cohort study with over two million women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutradhar, R; Gu, S; Paszat, L F

    2017-06-01

    Objective Prior work on the disparities among women in breast cancer screening adherence has been methodologically limited. This longitudinal study determines and examines the factors associated with becoming adherent. Methods In a cohort of Canadian women aged 50-74, a three-state transitional model was used to examine adherence to screening for breast cancer. The proportion of time spent being non-adherent with screening was calculated for each woman during her observation window. Using age as the time scale, a relative rate multivariable regression was implemented under the three-state transitional model, to examine the association between covariates (all time-varying) and the rate of becoming adherent. Results The cohort consisted of 2,537,960 women with a median follow-up of 8.46 years. Nearly 31% of women were continually up-to-date with breast screening. Once a woman was non-adherent, the rate of becoming adherent was higher among longer term residents (relative rate = 1.289, 95% confidence interval 1.275-1.302), those from wealthier neighbourhoods, and those who had an identifiable primary care provider who was female or had graduated in Canada. Conclusion Individual and physician-level characteristics play an important role in a woman's adherence to screening. This work improves the quality of evidence regarding disparities among women in adherence to breast cancer screening and provides a novel methodological foundation to investigate adherence for other types of screening, including cervix and colorectal cancer screening.

  4. Predicting Malawian Women’s Intention to Adhere to Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Ogbochi; Modeste, Naomi N.; Lee, Jerry W.; Gleason, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Background With the increase in scaling up of antiretroviral therapy (ART), knowledge of the need for adherence to ART is pivotal for successful treatment outcomes. Design and Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between October and December 2013. We administered theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and adherence questionnaires to 358 women aged 18-49 years, from a rural and urban ART-clinics in southern Malawi. Hierarchical linear regression models were used to predict intentions to adhere to ART. Results Regression models show that attitude (β=0.47), subjective norm (β=0.31) and perceived behavioural control (β=0.12) explain 55% of the variance in intentions to adhere to ART. The relationship between both food insecurity and perceived side effects with intentions to adhere to ART is mediated by attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control. Household (r=0.20) and individual (r=0.21) food insecurity were positively and significantly correlated with perceived behavioural control. Household food insecurity had a negative correlation with perceived side effects (r=-0.11). Perceived side effects were positively correlated with attitude (r=0.25). There was no statistically significant relationship between intentions to adhere to ART in the future and one month self-report of past month adherence. These interactions suggest that attitude predicted adherence only when food insecurity is high or perception of side effects is strong. Conclusions This study shows that modification might be needed when using TPB constructs in resource constraint environments. Significance for public health The knowledge of the rates of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) could be used to evaluate planning and project, which could lead to better outcomes predicted by treatment efficacy data. In addition, knowledge of adherence behaviour could help the development of interventions focusing on collaboration between healthcare providers and Malawian government to

  5. Effects of First Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus on Medical Visits and Medication Adherence in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyeongsu, KIM; Soon-Ae, SHIN; Kunsei, LEE; Jong-Heon, PARK; Tae Hwa, HAN; Minsu, PARK; Eunyoung, Minsu; Hyoseon, JEONG; Jung-Hyun, LEE; Hyemi, AHN; Vitna, KIM

    2018-01-01

    Background: The National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) conducted a screening test to detect chronic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes in Korea. This study evaluated the effects of health screening for DM on pharmacological treatment. Methods: The data from qualification and the General Health Screening in 2012, the insurance claims of medical institutions from Jan 2009 to Dec 2014, and the diabetic case management program extracted from the NHIS administrative system were used. Total 16068 subjects were included. Visiting rate to medical institution, medication possession ratio and the rate of medication adherence of study subjects were used as the indices. Results: The visiting rates to medical institutions were 39.7%. The percentage who received a prescription for a diabetes mellitus medication from a doctor was 80.9%, the medication possession ratio was 70.8%, and the rate of medication adherence was 57.8%. Conclusion: The visiting rate, medication possession ratio and rate of medication adherence for DM medication were not high. In order to increase the visiting rate, medication possession ratio and rate of medication adherence, NHIS should support environment in which medical institutions and DM patients can do the role of each part. PMID:29445630

  6. Determinants of adherence to methylphenidate and the impact of poor adherence on maternal and family measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan S F; Shen, Hsin-Yi; Chou, Miao-Churn; Tang, Ching-Shu; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Gau, Churn-Shiouh

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between adherence to immediate-release methylphenidate (IR MPH) and maternal psychological distress, parenting style, parent- child relationship, and perceived family support. The sample consisted of 307 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (271 boys and 36 girls), 6-17 years of age, who had been treated with IR MPH for the past 6 months. The measures included the Chinese Health Questionnaire, Parental Bonding Instrument, Family APGAR, and Home Behaviors of the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents. Reasons for poor adherence (n = 79; 25.7%) included forgetting medication (72.7%), the medication having no effect (20.0%), and refusing medication (12.7%). Increased age and three-times-daily administration were the major predictors for poor adherence to IR MPH. Poor adherence was associated with increased degree of maternal psychological distress, indifferent parenting, maternal overprotection/control, poor family support, decreased interaction with parents, and increased problems at home. Findings indicate that multiple daily dosing of MPH increases the likelihood of poor adherence, particularly in adolescents, and that poor adherence is associated with impaired maternal/family process. Once-daily administration of MPH is necessary to improve adherence and to decrease the possible exacerbation of tense parent-child relationships caused by poor drug adherence.

  7. Medication Adherence Apps: Review and Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Imran; Ahmad, Niall Safir; Ali, Shahnaz; Ali, Shair; George, Anju; Saleem Danish, Hiba; Uppal, Encarl; Soo, James; Mobasheri, Mohammad H; King, Dominic; Cox, Benita; Darzi, Ara

    2018-03-16

    Medication adherence is an expensive and damaging problem for patients and health care providers. Patients adhere to only 50% of drugs prescribed for chronic diseases in developed nations. Digital health has paved the way for innovative smartphone solutions to tackle this challenge. However, despite numerous apps available claiming to improve adherence, a thorough review of adherence apps has not been carried out to date. The aims of this study were to (1) review medication adherence apps available in app repositories in terms of their evidence base, medical professional involvement in development, and strategies used to facilitate behavior change and improve adherence and (2) provide a system of classification for these apps. In April 2015, relevant medication adherence apps were identified by searching the Apple App Store and the Google Play Store using a combination of relevant search terms. Data extracted included app store source, app price, documentation of health care professional (HCP) involvement during app development, and evidence base for each respective app. Free apps were downloaded to explore the strategies used to promote medication adherence. Testing involved a standardized medication regimen of three reminders over a 4-hour period. Nonadherence features designed to enhance user experience were also documented. The app repository search identified a total of 5881 apps. Of these, 805 fulfilled the inclusion criteria initially and were tested. Furthermore, 681 apps were further analyzed for data extraction. Of these, 420 apps were free for testing, 58 were inaccessible and 203 required payment. Of the 420 free apps, 57 apps were developed with HCP involvement and an evidence base was identified in only 4 apps. Of the paid apps, 9 apps had HCP involvement, 1 app had a documented evidence base, and 1 app had both. In addition, 18 inaccessible apps were produced with HCP involvement, whereas 2 apps had a documented evidence base. The 420 free apps were

  8. [Family adherence in serious mental disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Padilla, Ernesto; Obando Posada, Diana; Sarmiento Medina, Pedro

    2017-10-09

    Identify attitudes and behaviors that evidence and characterize family adherence to treatment in patients with severe mental disorder. Qualitative descriptive, from an interpretative social approach. Chia, Colombia, with professionals in the psychiatric and geriatric settings. Twelve professionals in psychiatry, nursing and psychology, with experience in care of patients with serious mental disorder and their families. Intentional sampling. Twelve semi-structured interviews were carried out. The analysis strategy was made from the procedures of constant comparison and open coding of the grounded theory. As validation strategies, triangulation was done between researchers and methods, as interviews and results survey. Two categories of family adherence were defined: family and treatment (treatment cooperation, knowledge about the disease and attention to the disease evolution), and family attitudes towards the patient (patient's care, patient's promotion of autonomy, and affective attachment with the patient). A third category showed aspects that diminished family adherence, such as lack or distortion of information regarding mental disorder, or family and patient endurance attitudes. Participants agree about the relevance of the construct named «family adherence», which describes the behaviors and attitudes of the family regarding the treatment of patients with severe mental disorder. Family adherence can be seen as active participation behavior, but also as a process of strengthening relationships, which can reduce the burden and suffering on family members, caregivers and patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Adherence to Follow-up Recommendations Among Individuals in the Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark, Lisa A; Leiby, Benjamin E; Waisbourd, Michael; Myers, Jonathan S; Fudemberg, Scott J; Mantravadi, Anand V; Dai, Yang; Gilligan, John P; Resende, Arthur F; Katz, L Jay

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate rates of adherence to free follow-up eye exam appointments among participants in the Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Project. Ophthalmologists and testing equipment were brought directly to participants at risk for glaucoma at 43 community sites in Philadelphia. Those diagnosed with glaucoma-related pathology were recommended to return for follow-up to be reexamined on site. Rates of adherence and clinical and demographic risk factors for adherence were evaluated. Five hundred thirty-one participants were diagnosed with glaucoma-related conditions and recommended to attend community-based follow-up exams. Follow-up adherence rate was 61.2% (n=325/531). Significant factors associated with greater eye exam appointment adherence, based on our univariable analysis, included final diagnosis of glaucoma (risk ratio [RR]=1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.57), male sex (RR=1.19; 95% CI, 1.04-1.36), white race (RR=1.26; 95% CI, 1.08-1.48), age (RR=1.17; 95% CI, 1.00-1.37) recommendation for glaucoma medication (RR=1.52; 95% CI, 1.35-1.71), recommendation for laser peripheral iridotomy (RR=1.18; 95% CI, 1.02-1.35), diagnosis of age-related macular degeneration (RR=1.42; 95% CI, 1.13-1.77) and an increased intraocular pressure (>22 mm Hg in the worse eye) (RR=1.23; 95% CI, 1.06-1.42). On the basis of our multivariable model, diagnosis, sex, and recommended glaucoma medications were significantly associated with follow-up adherence. This study demonstrates that individuals living in underserved urban communities would take advantage of free eye exams in community sites and return for follow-up eye exams in these same settings. Future studies could investigate interventions to improve eye exam appointment adherence in community-based settings to detect glaucoma-eye conditions.

  10. Patient Adherence to Biologic Agents in Psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, Der Yi; Gniadecki, Robert

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low adherence to therapies in psoriasis decreases treatment outcomes and increases the total health care costs. In spite of the wide use of biologic agents, patients' adherence to these drugs has not been extensively investigated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to measure adherence...... to the biologic drugs in a population of patients treated for psoriasis vulgaris using the medication possession ratio (MPR) index and to survey patients' attitudes to the treatment. METHODS: This is a single-center study on 247 patients with psoriasis vulgaris treated with adalimumab (n = 113), etanercept (n...... = 39), and ustekinumab (n = 95). MPR calculation was calculated monthly based on the hospital records documenting the dispensing of biologics to the patients. Clinical data [Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), presence of psoriatic arthritis, concomitant...

  11. Improving medication adherence in patients with hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Ulla; Kjeldsen, Lene Juel; Pottegård, Anton

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: and Purpose: In patients with hypertension, medication adherence is often suboptimal, thereby increasing the risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke. In a randomized trial, we investigated the effectiveness of a multifaceted pharmacist intervention in a hospital setting to improve...... medication adherence in hypertensive patients. Motivational interviewing was a key element of the intervention. METHODS: Patients (N=532) were recruited from 3 hospital outpatient clinics and randomized to usual care or a 6-month pharmacist intervention comprising collaborative care, medication review...... for persistence, blood pressure or hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS: A multifaceted pharmacist intervention in a hospital setting led to a sustained improvement in medication adherence for patients with hypertension. The intervention had no significant impact on blood pressure and secondary clinical outcomes....

  12. Factors contributing to antiretroviral drug adherence among adults living with HIV or AIDS in a Kenyan rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kioko, Mary T; Pertet, Anne M

    2017-07-31

    Antiretroviral (ARV) adherence of ≥ 95% is recommended for suppressing HIV. However, studies have shown that the ≥ 95% recommended level is rarely achieved. This cross-sectional community-based study sought to assess factors contributing to ARV drug adherence among adults living with HIV or AIDS. The study was conducted in a rural community in Machakos County, Kenya. The questions used for the study were adapted from the Patient Medicine Adherence Questionnaire (PMAQ), a tool grounded in the Health Belief Model. Adherence to ARV was measured using self-reports and pill counts. The perception social support was measured with a 5-point Likert scale, whereas the type and the number of side effects experienced were recorded using 'yes' and 'no' questions. We used the chi-square test to test associations and binary logistic regression to assess factors explaining dose adherence to ARV. The levels of adherence of 86% using self-reports were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than the pill count of 58.6%. The immediate family was rated high in providing social support (3.7 ± 0.6) followed by social support groups (3.1 ± 0.8). A binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict ARV adherence (adherent, non-adherent) using social support, side effects and marital status as explanatory variables. The Wald criterion demonstrated that marital status (p = 0.019) and burden of side effects (p ≤ 0.001) made a significant contribution to the prediction of ARV adherence. The burden of side effects and being a divorcee are primary predictors of ARV adherence.

  13. Assessing medication adherence in inflammatory bowel diseases: a comparison between a self-administered scale and a pharmacy refill index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Luisa de-Castro

    Full Text Available Background: Medication non-adherence in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD has a negative impact on disease outcome. Different tools have been proposed to assess non-adherence. We aimed to compare a self-administered scale and a pharmacy refill index as a reliable measure of medication adherence and to determine what factors are related to adherence. Methods: Consecutive non-active IBD outpatients were asked to fill in the self-reported Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8 and the Beliefs about Medication Questionnaire (BMQ. Pharmacy refill data were reviewed from the previous three or six months and the medication possession ratio (MPR was calculated. Non-adherence was defined as MMAS-8 scores < 6 or MPR < 0.8. Results: Two-hundred and three patients were enrolled (60% ulcerative colitis, 40% Crohn's disease; 51% were men, and the mean age was 46.3 (14 years. Seventy-four per cent of patients were on monotherapy and 26% on combination therapy; altogether, 65% received mesalazine, 46% thiopurines and 16% anti-tumor necrosis factor alfa. Non-adherence rate assessed by MPR was 37% and 22.4% by MMAS-8. Receiver operator curve analysis using a MMAS-8 cut-off of six gave an area under the curve of 0.6 (95% CI 0.5-0.7, p = 0.001. This score had an 85% sensitivity and 34% specificity to predict medication non-adherence, with negative and positive predictive values of 57% and 70% respectively. High scores in the BMQ potential for harm of medication were significantly associated with MPR non-adherence (p = 0.01. Conclusion: The accuracy of MMAS-8 to identify medication non-adherence in inactive IBD outpatients in our setting is poor due to a low specificity and a negative predictive value. Psychosocial factors such as beliefs about medication seem to be related to IBD non-adherence.

  14. Non-adherence to life-style modification and its factors among type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumu, Shirin Jahan; Saleh, Farzana; Ara, Ferdous; Afnan, Fadia; Ali, Liaquat

    2014-01-01

    Non-adherence to preventive and therapeutic life-style recommendations among patients with diabetes is special challenge in the management of these patients. This study aimed to measure the proportion of non-adherence to life-style modification and factors associated with these among a group of Bangladeshi type 2 diabetic patients. Under an analytical cross-sectional design 374 type 2 diabetic patients (age >20 years), diagnosed for at least 1 year, were selected from different health care centers operated by the Diabetic Association of Bangladesh. Non-adherence rate were assessed for: Diet (88%), exercise (25%), routine blood glucose testing (32%), foot care (70%), smoking (6%) and betel quid chewing habit (25%). Binary logistic regression suggests that higher education group (P = 0.013), rural area (P = 0.013) and attendance to diabetes education classes (P = 0.043) showed good adherence to diet and non-attendance to diabetes education class (P = 0.014), older age (P = 0.037) are associated to non-adherence to exercise. Unemployed patients showed more non-adherence to blood glucose testing (P = 0.045) than others. Non-attendance to diabetes education class (P = 0.037) and business occupation group (P = 0.039) showed significant association to smoking and betel quid intake habit respectively.

  15. Cost and clinical consequence of antibiotic non-adherence in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, S V; Baker, T; Fleurence, R; Dixon, J; Roberts, C; Haider, S; Hughes, D

    2009-08-01

    To quantify the impact of non-adherence on the clinical effectiveness of antibiotics for acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB) and to estimate the economic consequences for Spain, Italy and the United States. Standard systematic reviewing procedures were followed to identify randomised controlled clinical trials of antibiotic treatment for acute respiratory tract infection for which adherence was reported. A decision-analytic model was then constructed to evaluate the impact of non-adherence to antibiotic treatment on clinical effectiveness and costs per AECB episode. The model compared the total treatment costs, cure rates and incremental costs per cure for a poor compliance group (PCG) against a good compliance group (GCG). Clinical and resource use estimates were from the published literature and physician surveys. Twenty-five articles met the criteria of the systematic review, although only one reported treatment success by adherence status. The relative risk of clinical effectiveness if non-adherent was 0.75 (95%CI 0.73-0.78). Based on this single study, the model predicted that 16-29% more patients would be cured in the GCG vs. the PCG, and payers would save up to euro122, euro179 and US$141 per AECB episode in Spain, Italy and the United States, respectively. Non-adherence to antibiotics for AECB may have an impact on clinical effectiveness, which is associated with increased costs.

  16. [Adherence to a stability exercise program in patients with chronic low back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Bringas, Tania Inés; Roeniger-Desatnik, Antje; Arellano-Hernández, Aurelia; Cruz-Medina, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Chronic low back pain is a major cause of disability. The most effective intervention is exercise, with higher benefits in terms of pain and function. Knowing the level of adherence to therapeutic exercise is essential to assess the effectiveness of health services, for planning strategies, optimising resources, and promoting the full recovery of patients in less time. A prospective, observational study with 6 months follow-up was performed on 31 patients with chronic low back pain who underwent a lumbar stability program. Rating scales for pain, function, anxiety, depression and fear of avoidance were applied. Adherence was recorded using daily therapy diary. Parametric tests were performed to determine correlations of interest, and to evaluate the changes presented over time. The percentage of adherence was 82-84% during the 3 trimesters. There were no correlations between adherence and socio-demographic variables, depression, anxiety, or fear of avoidance. Patients categorised as adherent showed faster and more significant improvements in pain and function (p > 0.05). At the end of the study all patients had a significant improvement in pain and function. Depressed patients showed higher scores on scales of pain and disability at the beginning and end of the study. However, neither depression, anxiety, nor fear of running activity were predictors of non-adherence to the therapy. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Motivational Interviewing to Increase Postdischarge Antibiotic Adherence in Older Adults with Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyler, Rachel; Shvets, Kristina; Blakely, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a pharmacist-led, motivational interviewing on antibiotic adherence following discharge in older adults with pneumonia. Inpatient medical wards in a large tertiary academic medical center. Older adults diagnosed with pneumonia were enrolled from December 1, 2013, to August 1, 2014, at Yale-New Haven Hospital. Motivational interviewing-a patient-centered method of communication-has gained recognition as a tool that can aid pharmacists in addressing negative health behaviors (e.g., medication adherence, health screenings, substance abuse during counseling sessions). However, the potential role of motivational interviewing in older adults to improve medication adherence during transitions of care is not clear. In this study, in addition to standard discharge care, older adults hospitalized with pneumonia who were randomized to the intervention group received enhanced care: pharmacist-led motivational interviewing. Evaluation of adherence to prescribed antibiotic regimens and patient satisfaction with the motivational interviewing, enhanced-care session. Ultimately, 87% of patients in the intervention group (n = 16) compared with 64% of patients in the control group (n = 14) were adherent to their antibiotic regimens. Patient satisfaction with the motivational interviewing intervention was high. Pharmacist-led motivational interviewing sessions have the potential to positively influence antibiotic adherence rates and patient satisfaction.

  18. Electronic monitoring of patient adherence to oral antihypertensive medical treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Arne; Osterberg, Lars G; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2009-08-01

    Poor patient adherence is often the reason for suboptimal blood pressure control. Electronic monitoring is one method of assessing adherence. The aim was to systematically review the literature on electronic monitoring of patient adherence to self-administered oral antihypertensive medications. We searched the Pubmed, Embase, Cinahl and Psychinfo databases and websites of suppliers of electronic monitoring devices. The quality of the studies was assessed according to the quality criteria proposed by Haynes et al. Sixty-two articles were included; three met the criteria proposed by Haynes et al. and nine reported the use of electronic adherence monitoring for feedback interventions. Adherence rates were generally high, whereas average study quality was low with a recent tendency towards improved quality. One study detected investigator fraud based on electronic monitoring data. Use of electronic monitoring of patient adherence according to the quality criteria proposed by Haynes et al. has been rather limited during the past two decades. Electronic monitoring has mainly been used as a measurement tool, but it seems to have the potential to significantly improve blood pressure control as well and should be used more widely.

  19. Prevalence of Heart Failure and Adherence to Process Indicators: Which Socio-Demographic Determinants are Involved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Buja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Interest in chronic conditions reflects their role as the first cause of death and disability in developed countries; improving the management of these conditions is a priority for health care services. The aim of this study was to establish which sociodemographic factors influence adherence to standards of care for chronic heart failure (CHF. A generalized multilevel structural equation model was developed and applied to a sample of patients with CHF obtained from administrative data flows in six Italian regions to ascertain any associations between adherence to standards of care for CHF and sociodemographic variables. Indicators of compliance were adherence to beta-blocker therapy (BB-A and Angiotensin Convertin Enzime inhibitor/Angiotensin Receptor Blocker therapy (ACE-A, and creatinine and electrolyte testing (CNK-T. All indicators were computed over a one-year follow-up. Among a cohort of 24,997 patients, the BB-A rate was 40.4%, the ACE-A rate 61.1%, and the CNK-T rate 57.0%. Factors found associated with adherence were gender, age, and citizenship. Our study shows an inadequate adherence to standards of care for CHF, particularly associated with certain sociodemographic characteristics. This suggests the need to improve the role of primary care in managing this chronic condition. The measures considered only apply to patients with a reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction, hence a limitation of this analysis is the lack of information on left ventricular ejection.

  20. Measurement complexity of adherence to medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galato D

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dayani Galato, Fabiana Schuelter-Trevisol, Anna Paula PiovezanMaster Program in Health Sciences, University of Southern Santa Catarina (Unisul Tubarão, Santa Catarina, BrazilAdherence to pharmacologic therapy is a major challenge for the rational use of medicines, particularly when it comes to antiretroviral drugs that require adherence to at least 95% of prescribed doses.1 Studies in this area are always important and contribute to medication adherence understanding, even though there is no reference test for measuring this. Recently, an article was published in this journal that proposes the determination of lamivudine plasma concentration to validate patient self-reported adherence to antiretroviral treatment.2 In that study, serum levels obtained after 3 hours of ingestion of the last dose of the drug were compared with patient reports that were classified into different levels of adherence, based on their recall of missed doses in the previous 7 days.It was hypothesized by the authors that the use of a biological marker for drug adherence was extremely important, given the relevance of the topic. However, we would like to draw attention to some points that may determine the success of the use of similar methods for this purpose. The formation of groups with similar anthropometric characteristics is relevant since the dose of lamivudine may have to be changed, depending, for example, on sex, weight, and age.3 Even information considered important by the authors of that study was not provided. There is a need for greater clarity on the eligibility criteria, especially with regard to the clinical stage of the disease, CD4 counts and viral load, associated diseases, and comorbidity, as well as the evaluation of kidney function and other medications used that can affect lamivudine pharmacokinetics.3View original paper by Minzi and colleagues

  1. Adherence to anti-Parkinson drug therapy in the "REASON" sample of Italian patients with Parkinson's disease: the linguistic validation of the Italian version of the "Morisky Medical Adherence Scale-8 items".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbrini, G; Abbruzzese, G; Barone, P; Antonini, A; Tinazzi, M; Castegnaro, G; Rizzoli, S; Morisky, D E; Lessi, P; Ceravolo, R

    2013-11-01

    Information about patients' adherence to therapy represents a primary issue in Parkinson's disease (PD) management. To perform the linguistic validation of the Italian version of the self-rated 8-Item Morisky Medical Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) and to describe in a sample of Italian patients affected by PD the adherence to anti-Parkinson drug therapy and the association between adherence and some socio-demographic and clinical features. MMAS-8 was translated into Italian language by two independent Italian mother-tongue translators. The consensus version was then back-translated by an English mother-tongue translator. This translation process was followed by a consensus meeting between the authors of translation and investigators and then by two comprehension tests. The translated version of the MMAS-8 scale was then administered at the baseline visit of the "REASON" study (Italian Study on the Therapy Management in Parkinson's disease: Motor, Non-Motor, Adherence and Quality Of Life Factors) in a large sample of PD patients. The final version of the MMAS-8 was easily understood. Mean ± SD MMAS-8 score was 6.1 ± 1.2. There were no differences in adherence to therapy in relationship to disease severity, gender, educational level or decision to change therapy. The Italian version of MMAS-8, the key tool of the REASON study to assess the adherence to therapy, has shown to be understandable to patients with PD. Patients enrolled in the REASON study showed medium therapy adherence.

  2. Subjective reasons for adherence to psychotropic medication and associated factors among older adults with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapra, Mamta; Vahia, Ipsit V; Reyes, Pia N; Ramirez, Paul; Cohen, Carl I

    2008-12-01

    There are limited data examining subjective influences on medication adherence among older persons with schizophrenia. The subjective reasons for adherence to antipsychotic medication and associated clinical and psychosocial factors in this population are examined. The sample consisted of 198 community dwelling persons aged >or=55 who developed schizophrenia before age 45. Using the Rating of Medication Influences Scale (ROMI), a principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation yielded three subscales: Medication Affinity and Prevention, Influence of Others, and Impact of Authority. These subscales were dichotomized into high and low based on a median split. We also created an ordinal High Adherence measure based on the summed scores of each person's three dichotomized ROMI subscales. A modified Health Belief Model was used to examine the association between 18 predictor variables and the ROMI subscales and the adherence scale. The mean subscale rankings were Medication Affinity and Prevention > Impact of Authority > Influence of Others. In logistic regression, lower education, more side effects, higher depression scores, and more mental health services were associated with higher scores on Influence of Others subscale. More side effects and more entitlements were associated with higher scores on the Medication Affinity and Prevention subscale. The Impact of Authority subscale had no significant associations. More side effects and higher depression scores were associated with higher scores on High Adherence measure. We identified a three-dimensional model for explaining the subjective reasons for medication adherence in older persons with schizophrenia. Our findings suggest that cognitive approaches and use of authority figures may be useful for promoting adherence in older adults. Independent variables associated with these subscales may provide guidance for improving adherence in this population.

  3. Video chat technology to remotely quantify dietary, supplement and medication adherence in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Courtney M; Apolzan, John W; Wright, Courtney; Martin, Corby K

    2016-11-01

    We conducted two studies to test the validity, reliability, feasibility and acceptability of using video chat technology to quantify dietary and pill-taking (i.e. supplement and medication) adherence. In study 1, we investigated whether video chat technology can accurately quantify adherence to dietary and pill-taking interventions. Mock study participants ate food items and swallowed pills, while performing randomised scripted 'cheating' behaviours to mimic non-adherence. Monitoring was conducted in a cross-over design, with two monitors watching in-person and two watching remotely by Skype on a smartphone. For study 2, a twenty-two-item online survey was sent to a listserv with more than 20 000 unique email addresses of past and present study participants to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the technology. For the dietary adherence tests, monitors detected 86 % of non-adherent events (sensitivity) in-person v. 78 % of events via video chat monitoring (P=0·12), with comparable inter-rater agreement (0·88 v. 0·85; P=0·62). However, for pill-taking, non-adherence trended towards being more easily detected in-person than by video chat (77 v. 60 %; P=0·08), with non-significantly higher inter-rater agreement (0·85 v. 0·69; P=0·21). Survey results from study 2 (n 1076 respondents; ≥5 % response rate) indicated that 86·4 % of study participants had video chatting hardware, 73·3 % were comfortable using the technology and 79·8 % were willing to use it for clinical research. Given the capability of video chat technology to reduce participant burden and outperform other adherence monitoring methods such as dietary self-report and pill counts, video chatting is a novel and promising platform to quantify dietary and pill-taking adherence.

  4. The association between adherence and outcome in an Internet intervention for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhr, Kristina; Schröder, Johanna; Berger, Thomas; Moritz, Steffen; Meyer, Björn; Lutz, Wolfgang; Hohagen, Fritz; Hautzinger, Martin; Klein, Jan Philipp

    2018-03-15

    Adherence to Internet interventions is often reported to be rather low and this might adversely impact the effectiveness of these interventions. We investigated if patient characteristics are associated with adherence, and if adherence is associated with treatment outcome in a large RCT of an Internet intervention for depression, the EVIDENT trial. Patients were randomized to either care as usual (CAU) or CAU plus the Internet intervention Deprexis. A total of 509 participants with mild to moderate depressive symptoms were included in the intervention group and of interest for the present study. We assessed depression symptoms pre and post intervention (12 weeks). Patient characteristics, a self-rating screening for mental disorders, attitudes towards online interventions, and quality of life were assessed before randomization. Adherence in this study was good with on average seven hours of usage time and eight number of sessions spent with the intervention. Some of the patient characteristics (age, sex, depressive symptoms, and confidence in the effectiveness of the program) predicted higher number of sessions in different models (explaining in total between 15 and 25% of variance). Older age (β = .16) and higher depressive symptoms (β = .15) were associated with higher usage duration. Higher adherence to the program predicted a greater symptom reduction in depressive symptoms over 12 weeks (number of sessions: β = .13, usage duration: β = .14), however, this prediction could mostly be explained by receiving guidance (β = .27 and .26). Receiving guidance and symptom severity at baseline were confounded since only participants with a moderate symptom severity at baseline received e-mail support. Therefore no firm conclusions can be drawn from the association we observed between baseline symptom severity and usage intensity. We conclude that older age was associated with adherence and adherence was positively associated with outcome. The effects we have found

  5. [Treatment adherence and use of complementary and alternative medicine in patients with inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, László; Czeglédi, Zsófia; Dávid, Gyula; Kispál, Zsófi; Kiss, Lajos S; Palatka, Károly; Kristóf, Tünde; Molnár, Tamás; Salamon, Agnes; Demeter, Pál; Miheller, Pál; Szamosi, Tamás; Banai, János; Papp, Mária; Bene, László; Kovács, Agota; Rácz, István; Lakatos, Péter László

    2010-02-14

    Previous studies have suggested an increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Furthermore, a significant number of IBD patients fail to comply with treatment. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of non-adherence the use of CAM in Hungarian patients with IBD. A total of 655 consecutive IBD patients (Crohn's disease [CD]: 344, age: 38.2 + or - 12.9 years; ulcerative colitis [UC]: 311, age: 44.9 + or - 15.3 years) were interviewed during the visit at specialists by self-administered questionnaire including demographic and disease-related data, as well as items analyzing the extent of non-adherence and CAM use. Patients taking more then 80% of each prescribed medicine were classified as adherent. The overall rate of self reported non-adherence (CD: 20.9%, UC: 20.6%) and CAM (CD: 31.7%, UC: 30.9%) use was not different between CD and UC. The most common causes of non-adherence were: forgetfulness (47.8%), too many/unnecessary pills (39.7%), being afraid of side effects (27.9%) and too frequent dosing. Most common forms of CAM were herbal tee (47.3%), homeopathy (14.6%), special diet (12.2%), and acupuncture (5.8%). In CD, disease duration, date of last follow-up visit, educational level and previous surgeries were predicting factors for non-adherence. Alternative medicine use was associated in both diseases with younger age, higher educational level and immunosuppressant use. In addition, CAM use in UC was more common in females and in patients with supportive psychiatric/psychological therapy. Non-adherence and CAM use is common in patients with IBD. Special attention should be paid to explore the identified predictive factors during follow-up visits to improve adherence to therapy and improving patient-doctor relationship.

  6. The optimal value of BMI for the lowest risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women aged 40-88 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzek, A; Kozieł, S; Ignasiak, Z

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to establish the optimal values of the body mass index (BMI) which would indicate the most favourable preservation of the bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. The material consists of the data of 369 healthy women aged between 40 and 88 years (mean age 67.84, SD=6.70) inhabitants of Wrocław, which were followed up between 2001 and 2006. The absolute measure of bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), expressed in g/(100mm(2)) and was transformed to T-score values. According to the value of BMI, the women were divided into eight groups, the reference group with value between 18.0 and 21.9kg/m(2) and seven other groups beginning with the value 22.0 with a 2-point interval. Postmenopausal status was defined according to the occurrence of menstruation within the last 360 days. The women with osteopenia and osteoporosis were pooled together and comprised the risk group, whereas the other women comprised the normal group (T-score values above -1.0). The adjusted odds ratio showed the highest value for intervals between 24.0 and 25.9 units of BMI, and the lowest value for interval 26.0-27.9 units of BMI. The Youden index showed the lowest value in the 26.0-27.9BMI kg/m(2) interval. For our sample the optimal value of BMI, with the lowest risk of osteopenia and/or osteoporosis was the value of 26.9kg/m(2). A further increase of BMI does not result in a favourable effect on the bones, it rather intensifies negative phenomena in the body resulting in the onset of many diseases. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. Factors affecting medication adherence in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin HK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyekyung Jin,1 Yeonhee Kim,2 Sandy Jeong Rhie1,3 1College of Pharmacy, 2Center for Excellence in Teaching & Learning, 3Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Little is known about the functional health literacy (FHL associated with medication adherence in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to examine the FHL among older adults and identify influencing factors that can predict medication adherence. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey. Participants (n=160 aged 65 years and older were selected from outpatient clinics of 3 tertiary care hospitals, 6 community pharmacies, and 2 senior centers between November 1 and 30, 2014. The participants’ FHL was measured using the Korean Functional Health Literacy Test, which consists of 15 items including 8 numeracy and 7 reading comprehension items. Medication adherence was measured by the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale. Descriptive statistics, chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean score of the total FHL was 7.72±3.51 (range 0–15. The percentage of the total number of correct answers for the reading comprehension subtest and numeracy subtest were 48.1% and 54.4%, respectively. Among 160 participants, 52.5% showed low adherence to medication. The factors affecting medication adherence included the patient’s degree of satisfaction with the service (β=-0.215, P=0.022, sufficient explanation of medication counseling (β=-0.335, P=0.000, education level (β=-0.153, P=0.045, health-related problems (β=-0.239, P=0.004, and dosing frequency (β=0.189, P=0.018. Conclusion: In this study, we found medication adherence of elderly patients was associated with education level, health-related problems, dosing frequency, satisfaction with patient counseling, and explanation of medication, but no association was found with FHL. Pharmacists

  8. The constraint for the lowest Landau level and the effective field theory approach for the fractional quantum hall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhongshui; Su Zhaobin.

    1992-09-01

    By applying the Dirac quantization method, we build the constraint that all electrons are in the lowest Landau level into the Chern-Simons field theory approach for the fractional quantum Hall system and show that the constraint can be transmuted from hierarchy to hierarchy. For a finite system, we derive that the action for each hierarchy can be split into two parts: a surface part provides the action for the edge excitations while the remaining part is precisely the bulk action for the next hierarchy. An the action for the edge could be decoupled from the bulk only at the hierarchy filling. (author). 16 refs

  9. Antihypertensive medication adherence in chronic type B aortic dissection is an important consideration in the management debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Guy; Patel, Nandesh; Grant, Yasmin; Jenkins, Michael; Gibbs, Richard; Bicknell, Colin

    2018-03-31

    Early aortic stenting in chronic type B aortic dissection (TBAD) may lead to long-term benefit, although the optimal treatment strategy is hotly debated. A robust comparison to outcomes seen in medically managed patients is challenging as the rate of antihypertensive medication adherence is unknown. The aims of this study were therefore to identify the rate of antihypertensive medication adherence and predictors of adherence in TBAD. This was a cross-sectional mixed methods study of patients with TBAD. Medication adherence was assessed by the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale together with an assessment of demographic, behavioral, and psychological variables and disease-specific knowledge. There were 47 patients (mean age, 59 years; 81% male) who were recruited from a tertiary vascular unit. The mean total number of medications taken was 5.8 (2-14), and the mean number of antihypertensive medications was 1.9 (1-6). Of the 47 patients, 20 (43%) reported high levels of medication adherence, 17 (36%) reported moderate adherence, and 10 (21%) reported low adherence. Previous aortic surgery was associated with higher levels of adherence (β = 0.332; P = .03), as was taking a greater number of medications (β = 0.332; P = .026), perceived benefit from treatment (β = 0.486; P debate; one cannot robustly compare two strategies when half of a treatment group may not be receiving the stated intervention. To develop an evidence-based treatment strategy for TBAD, we must take into account the direct and indirect effects of medical therapy and thoracic endovascular aortic repair. Further work to improve medication adherence and to understand its impact on disease progression is vital to inform the debate and to deliver the best outcomes for patients. Copyright © 2018 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Non-adherence to telemedicine interventions for drug users: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís de Campos Moreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To estimate rates of non-adherence to telemedicine strategies aimed at treating drug addiction. METHODS A systematic review was conducted of randomized controlled trials investigating different telemedicine treatment methods for drug addiction. The following databases were consulted between May 18, 2012 and June 21, 2012: PubMed, PsycINFO, SciELO, Wiley (The Cochrane Library, Embase, Clinical trials and Google Scholar. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation was used to evaluate the quality of the studies. The criteria evaluated were: appropriate sequence of data generation, allocation concealment, blinding, description of losses and exclusions and analysis by intention to treat. There were 274 studies selected, of which 20 were analyzed. RESULTS Non-adherence rates varied between 15.0% and 70.0%. The interventions evaluated were of at least three months duration and, although they all used telemedicine as support, treatment methods differed. Regarding the quality of the studies, the values also varied from very poor to high quality. High quality studies showed better adherence rates, as did those using more than one technique of intervention and a limited treatment time. Mono-user studies showed better adherence rates than poly-user studies. CONCLUSIONS Rates of non-adherence to treatment involving telemedicine on the part of users of psycho-active substances differed considerably, depending on the country, the intervention method, follow-up time and substances used. Using more than one technique of intervention, short duration of treatment and the type of substance used by patients appear to facilitate adherence.

  11. Blood Pressure Treatment Adherence and Control after Participation in the ReHOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Silva de Jesus

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Lack of adherence to pharmacological treatment is one of the main causes of low control rates in hypertension. Objective: To verify treatment adherence and associated factors, as well as blood pressure (BP control in participants of the Resistant Hypertension Optimal Treatment (ReHOT clinical trial. Method: Cross-sectional study including all 109 patients who had completed the ReHOT for at least 6 months. We excluded those participants who failed to respond to the new recruitment after three phone contact attempts. We evaluated the BP control by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM; controlled levels: 24-hour systolic and diastolic BP < 130 x 80 mmHg and analyzed the patients' treatment adherence using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS questionnaire validated by Bloch, Melo, and Nogueira (2008. The statistical analysis was performed with the software IBM SPSS statistics 21.0. We tested the normality of the data distribution with kurtosis and skewness. The variables tested in the study are presented with descriptive statistics. Comparisons between treatment adherence and other variables were performed with Student's t test for independent variables and Pearson's chi-square or Fisher's exact test. To conduct analyses among patients considering adherence to treatment and BP control, we created four groups: G0, G1, G2, and G3. We considered a 5% significance level in all tests. Results: During the ReHOT, 80% of the patients had good BP control and treatment adherence. Of 96 patients reevaluated in the present study, only 52.1% had controlled hypertension when assessed by ABPM, while 31.3% were considered adherent by the MMAS. Regarding other ABPM measures, we observed an absence of a nocturnal dip in 64.6% of the patients and a white-coat effect and false BP control in 23% and 12.5%, respectively. Patients' education level showed a trend towards being a determinant factor associated with lack of adherence (p = 0

  12. Hypertension: adherence to treatment in rural Bangladesh – findings from a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanam, Masuma Akter; Lindeboom, Wietze; Koehlmoos, Tracey Lynn Perez; Alam, Dewan Shamsul; Niessen, Louis; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2014-01-01

    .79, CI 0.64–0.97). Conclusions Although village doctors diagnose 40% of hypertension, their treatments are associated with a higher rate of non-adherence to medication. The hypertension care practices of the village doctors should be explored by additional research. More emphasis should be placed on men, young people, and people with low education. Health programs focused on education regarding the importance of taking continuous antihypertensive medication is now of utmost importance. PMID:25361723

  13. Adherence to treatment, emotional state and quality of life in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Llana, Helena; Remor, Eduardo; Selgas, Rafael

    2013-02-01

    A low rate of adherence to treatment is a widespread problem of great clinical relevance among dialysis patients. The objective of the present study is to determine the relationship between adherence, emotional state (depression, anxiety, and perceived stress), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in renal patients undergoing dialysis. Two patient groups (30 in hemodialysis and 31 in peritoneal dialysis) participated in this study. We evaluated aspects of adherence, depression, anxiety, perceived stress, and HRQOL with self-report and standardized instruments. Peritoneal dialysis patients reported significantly higher levels of adherence to treatment and better HRQOL in Physical Function and Bodily Pain domains. Depression level is associated with HRQOL indicators. We did not find any differences regarding specific adherence to antihypertensive and phosphate binder drugs or in psychological variables depending on the modality of dialysis. Patients with adherence to antihypertensive drugs show better physical HRQOL. The predictors of HRQOL in dialysis patients were: work, gender and depression. Our results suggest that the modality of dialysis does not differentially affect the emotional state or specific adherence to drugs, but it is nevertheless related to their overall adherence to treatment and to their HRQOL.

  14. Patient-reported non-adherence and immunosuppressant trough levels are associated with rejection after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Jennifer; Reber, Sandra; Stoessel, Lisa; Waldmann, Elisabeth; Jank, Sabine; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Grundmann, Franziska; Vitinius, Frank; de Zwaan, Martina; Bertram, Anna; Erim, Yesim

    2017-03-29

    Different measures of non-adherence to immunosuppressant (IS) medication have been found to be associated with rejection episodes after successful transplantation. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether graft rejection after renal transplantation is associated with patient-reported IS medication non-adherence and IS trough level variables (IS trough level variability and percentage of sub-therapeutic IS trough levels). Patient-reported non-adherence, IS trough level variability, percentage of sub-therapeutic IS trough levels, and acute biopsy-proven late allograft rejections were assessed in 267 adult renal transplant recipients who were ≥12 months post-transplantation. The rate of rejection was 13.5%. IS trough level variability, percentage of sub-therapeutic IS trough levels as well as patient-reported non-adherence were all significantly and positively associated with rejection, but not with each other. Logistic regression analyses revealed that only the percentage of sub-therapeutic IS trough levels and age at transplantation remained significantly associated with rejection. Particularly, the percentage of sub-therapeutic IS trough levels is associated with acute rejections after kidney transplantation whereas IS trough level variability and patient-reported non-adherence seem to be of subordinate importance. Patient-reported non-adherence and IS trough level variables were not correlated; thus, non-adherence should always be measured in a multi-methodological approach. Further research concerning the best combination of non-adherence measures is needed.

  15. Adherence to oral anticoagulant therapy in secondary stroke prevention – impact of the novel oral anticoagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luger S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sebastian Luger,1 Carina Hohmann,2 Daniela Niemann,1 Peter Kraft,3 Ignaz Gunreben,3 Tobias Neumann-Haefelin,2 Christoph Kleinschnitz,3 Helmuth Steinmetz,1 Christian Foerch,1 Waltraud Pfeilschifter1 1Department of Neurology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, 2Department of Neurology, Klinikum Fulda gAG, Fulda, 3Department of Neurology, University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany Background: Oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT potently prevents strokes in patients with atrial fibrillation. Vitamin K antagonists (VKA have been the standard of care for long-term OAT for decades, but non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOAC have recently been approved for this indication, and raised many questions, among them their influence on medication adherence. We assessed adherence to VKA and NOAC in secondary stroke prevention. Methods: All patients treated from October 2011 to September 2012 for ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack with a subsequent indication for OAT, at three academic hospitals were entered into a prospective registry, and baseline data and antithrombotic treatment at discharge were recorded. At the 1-year follow-up, we assessed the adherence to different OAT strategies and patients’ adherence to their respective OAT. We noted OAT changes, reasons to change treatment, and factors that influence persistence to the prescribed OAT. Results: In patients discharged on OAT, we achieved a fatality corrected response rate of 73.3% (n=209. A total of 92% of these patients received OAT at the 1-year follow-up. We observed good adherence to both VKA and NOAC (VKA, 80.9%; NOAC, 74.8%; P=0.243 with a statistically nonsignificant tendency toward a weaker adherence to dabigatran. Disability at 1-year follow-up was an independent predictor of lower adherence to any OAT after multivariate analysis, whereas the choice of OAT did not have a relevant influence. Conclusion: One-year adherence to OAT after stroke is strong (>90% and patients

  16. The relationship of gender and gender identity to treatment adherence among individuals with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajatovic, Martha; Micula-Gondek, Weronika; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Bialko, Christopher

    2011-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that 46% to 48% of individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) are at least partially nonadherent with prescribed medication. Reports of whether male gender is a predictor of treatment nonadherence in BD have been inconsistent. The construct of gender may also be a matter of cultural orientation, and psychological gender, as a component of self-perception, may affect the experience of mental illness. Gender identity is the subjective experience of one's individuality as male or female. This cross-sectional study evaluated gender and gender identity among men and women with BD as they relate to self-reported medication treatment adherence. This secondary analysis of a larger study on treatment adherence evaluated men and women with BD being treated with mood-stabilizing medications in a community mental health clinic. Gender identity and treatment adherence were evaluated using the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Tablets Routine Questionnaire, respectively. Other measures included assessing BD symptoms using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and mania symptoms using the Young Mania Rating Scale, as well as psychosocial support with the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List and locus of control with the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale. Mean age of the 70 men and 70 women with type I BD was 43.1 years for adherent patients and 40.8 years for nonadherent patients. Women with BD had mean scores on the BSRI consistent with general population norms, whereas men with BD had scores suggesting lower levels of self-perceived masculinity than population norms. There were no differences between men and women on adherence; however, men with high BSRI masculinity scores had less adherence than other men in the sample (P = 0.04). Lower scores on the "powerful others" dimension of locus of control were associated with lower adherence. For women, there was no relationship between BSRI masculinity scores and adherence. Gender identity in

  17. Patient Medication Knowledge Governing Adherence to Asthma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asthma is a chronic disease and often requires complex management. This study was undertaken in four pharmacies–V-Ninat Pharmacy, Videc Chemists, Tomabel Pharmacy and Josbet Chemists, all in Isolo, Lagos, to determine the level of adherence to the anti-asthmatic drugs by asthmatic patients who participated in the ...

  18. Adherence to methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Henning; Eriksen, Stine A; Christensen, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To study adherence to methotrexate (MTX) and factors of importance thereof in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Patients with a hospital diagnosis of RA (ICD10 codes M05.X or M06.X) after January 1, 1997, and aged ≥18 years at the date of first diagnosis...

  19. Adherence to Cooperative Principles among Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Data on group characteristics, level of awareness, adherence and ... enhance small scale farmers' access to credit, Oruonye and Musa (2012) ... According to FAO (2012) cooperatives play important roles in overcoming barriers ... collective bargaining power in input and output markets; and ..... Members' dishonest attitude.

  20. Barriers to adherence in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf

    2012-01-01

    Danish patients with cystic fibrosis aged 14 to 25 years and their parents. Conclusions: The present study showed that the majority of adolescents with CF and their parents experienced barriers to treatment adherence. Patients and parents agreed that the three most common barriers encountered lack...

  1. Telephone interventions for adherence to colpocytological examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Marques Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to test the effects of behavioral and educational intervention by telephone on adherence of women with inappropriate periodicity to colpocytological examination. Method: quasi-experimental study with a sample of 524 women, selected with the following inclusion criteria: be aged between 25 and 64 years, have initiated sexual activity, have inappropriate periodicity of examination and have mobile or landline phone. The women were divided into two groups for application of behavioral and educational intervention by telephone. It was used an intervention script according to the principles of Motivational Interviewing. Results: on comparing the results before and after the behavioral and educational interventions, it was found that there was a statistically significant change (p = 0.0283 with increase of knowledge of women who participated in the educational intervention. There was no change in the attitude of women of any of the groups and there was an increase of adherence to colpocytological examination in both groups (p < 0.0001, with greater adherence of women participating in the behavioral group (66.8%. Conclusion: the behavioral and educational interventions by phone were effective in the adherence of women to colpocytological examination, representing important strategies for permanent health education and promotion of care for the prevention of cervical cancer.

  2. Adherence to traditional Indian customs surrounding birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Customs traditionally followed by Indian women during pregnancy, birth and early parenthood have been documented. An exploratory investigation of the extent to which some of these traditional beliefs, customs and practices are currently adhered to was undertaken by interviewing Indian mothers living in Johannesburg ...

  3. Social Support, Treatment Adherence and Outcome among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Family source of support was the most available [hypertensive (225; 90.0%); T2D (174; 87.0%)], but government and non-governmental organisation support were largely desired, with financial support preferred, 233(93.2%) hypertensive and 190(95.0%) T2D, respectively. Adherent hypertensive patients with or ...

  4. AI empowered context-aware smart system for medication adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Poor medication adherence leads to high hospital admission rate and heavy amount of health-care cost. To cope with this problem, various electronic pillboxes have been proposed to improve the medication adherence rate. However, most of the existing electronic pillboxes use time-based reminders which may often lead to ineffective reminding if the reminders are triggered at inopportune moments, e.g. user is sleeping or eating. Design/methodology/approach – In this paper, the authors propose an AI-empowered context-aware smart pillbox system. The pillbox system collects real-time sensor data from a smart home environment and analyzes the user’s contextual information through a computational abstract argumentation-based activity classifier. Findings – Based on user’s different contextual states, the smart pillbox will generate reminders at appropriate time and on appropriate devices. Originality/value – This paper presents a novel context-aware smart pillbox system that uses argumentation-based activity recognition and reminder generation.

  5. Adherence to cancer screening guidelines and predictors of improvement among participants in the Kansas State Employee Wellness Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Siu-kuen Azor; Engelman, Kimberly K; Shireman, Theresa I; Ellerbeck, Edward F

    2013-07-11

    Employee wellness programs (EWPs) have been used to implement worksite-based cancer prevention and control interventions. However, little is known about whether these programs result in improved adherence to cancer screening guidelines or how participants' characteristics affect subsequent screening. This study was conducted to describe cancer screening behaviors among participants in a state EWP and identify factors associated with screening adherence among those who were initially nonadherent. We identified employees and their dependents who completed health risk assessments (HRAs) as part of the Kansas state EWP in both 2008 and 2009. We examined baseline rates of adherence to cancer screening guidelines in 2008 and factors associated with adherence in 2009 among participants who were initially nonadherent. Of 53,095 eligible participants, 13,222 (25%) participated in the EWP in 2008 and 6,205 (12%) participated in both years. Among the multiyear participants, adherence was high at baseline to screening for breast (92.5%), cervical (91.8%), and colorectal cancer (72.7%). Of participants who were initially nonadherent in 2008, 52.4%, 41.3%, and 33.5%, respectively, became adherent in the following year to breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening. Suburban/urban residence and more frequent doctor visits predicted adherence to breast and colorectal cancer screening guidelines. The effectiveness of EWPs for increasing cancer screening is limited by low HRA participation rates, high rates of adherence to screening at baseline, and failure of nonadherent participants to get screening. Improving overall adherence to cancer screening guidelines among employees will require efforts to increase HRA participation, stronger interventions for nonadherent participants, and better access to screening for rural employees.

  6. Bacterial adherence to anodized titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peremarch, C Perez-Jorge; Tanoira, R Perez; Arenas, M A; Matykina, E; Conde, A; De Damborenea, J J; Gomez Barrena, E; Esteban, J

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Staphylococcus sp adhesion to modified surfaces of anodized titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Surface modification involved generation of fluoride-containing titanium oxide nanotube films. Specimens of Ti-6Al-4V alloy 6-4 ELI-grade 23- meets the requirements of ASTM F136 2002A (AMS 2631B class A1) were anodized in a mixture of sulphuric/hydrofluoric acid at 20 V for 5 and 60 min to form a 100 nm-thick porous film of 20 nm pore diameter and 230 nm-thick nanotube films of 100 nm in diameter. The amount of fluorine in the oxide films was of 6% and of 4%, respectively. Collection strains and six clinical strains each of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were studied. The adherence study was performed using a previously published protocol by Kinnari et al. The experiments were performed in triplicates. As a result, lower adherence was detected for collection strains in modified materials than in unmodified controls. Differences between clinical strains were detected for both species (p<0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test), although global data showed similar results to that of collection strains (p<0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test). Adherence of bacteria to modified surfaces was decreased for both species. The results also reflect a difference in the adherence between S. aureus and S. epidermidis to the modified material. As a conclusion, not only we were able to confirm the decrease of adherence in the modified surface, but also the need to test multiple clinical strains to obtain more realistic microbiological results due to intraspecies differences.

  7. Adherence to phosphate binders in hemodialysis patients: prevalence and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Yoleen P M; Vrijens, Bernard; Abraham, Ivo; Van Rompaey, Bart; Elseviers, Monique M

    2014-12-01

    Phosphate control is a crucial treatment goal in end-stage renal disease, but poor patient adherence to phosphate binder therapy remains a challenge. This study aimed to estimate the extent of phosphate binder adherence in hemodialysis patients and to identify potential determinants. Phosphate binder adherence was measured blindly in 135 hemodialysis patients for 2 months using the medication event monitoring system. Patient data, gathered at inclusion through medical records, ad hoc questionnaires and the short form (SF)-36 health survey, included: (1) demographics, (2) perceived side-effects, belief in benefit, self-reported adherence to the therapy, (3) knowledge about phosphate binder therapy, (4) social support, and (5) quality of life (SF-36). Phosphatemia data was collected from charts. 'Being adherent' was defined as missing adherent' as missing adherent. Over the entire 8-week period, 22 % of patients were totally adherent. Mean phosphatemia levels were 0.55 mg/dl lower in adherent than nonadherent patients (4.76 vs. 5.31 mg/dl). Determinants for being totally adherent were living with a partner, higher social support (both were interrelated) and higher physical quality of life. Experiencing intake-related inconvenience negatively affected adherence. The social support and quality of life physical score explained 26 % of the variance in adherence. Phosphate binder nonadherence remains a major problem. Interventions should aim, at least, to improve social support. With few associated factors found and yet low adherence, an individualized approach seems indicated.

  8. Psychosocial influencers and mediators of treatment adherence in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun Soo; Park, Ji Suk; Seo, Wha Sook

    2013-09-01

    This article is a report of the development and testing of the hypothetical model that illustrates relationships between treatment adherence and its psychosocial influencing factors and to elucidate the direct and indirect (mediating) effects of factors on treatment adherence. Poor adherence has been consistently reported in haemodialysis patients. Much research has showed various influencing factors of adherence, but these studies have failed to identify consistent influencing factors. This study was performed using a non-experimental, cross-sectional design. The study subjects were 150 end-stage renal failure patients on haemodialysis at a university hospital located in Incheon, South Korea. Data were collected over 10 months (June 2010-April 2011). The hypothetical model provided a good fit with data. Haemodialysis-related knowledge, perceived barrier to adherence, self-efficacy on adherence, and healthcare provider support had significant effects on adherence. Self-efficacy was found to mediate barrier-adherence and family support-adherence relationships. Self-efficacy in combination with barrier, family support, and healthcare provider support was found to mediate the depression-adherence relationship. Strategies aimed at the development of successful adherence interventions should focus on reducing perceived barriers and enhancing self-efficacy and knowledge. It can be suggested that efforts to improve the healthcare provider-patient relationship would enhance adherence. In depressive patients, strategies that promote self-efficacy and the support of family or healthcare providers could diminish the negative impact of depression on adherence. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Online physician ratings fail to predict actual performance on measures of quality, value, and peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskivich, Timothy J; Houman, Justin; Fuller, Garth; Black, Jeanne T; Kim, Hyung L; Spiegel, Brennan

    2018-04-01

    Patients use online consumer ratings to identify high-performing physicians, but it is unclear if ratings are valid measures of clinical performance. We sought to determine whether online ratings of specialist physicians from 5 platforms predict quality of care, value of care, and peer-assessed physician performance. We conducted an observational study of 78 physicians representing 8 medical and surgical specialties. We assessed the association of consumer ratings with specialty-specific performance scores (metrics including adherence to Choosing Wisely measures, 30-day readmissions, length of stay, and adjusted cost of care), primary care physician peer-review scores, and administrator peer-review scores. Across ratings platforms, multivariable models showed no significant association between mean consumer ratings and specialty-specific performance scores (β-coefficient range, -0.04, 0.04), primary care physician scores (β-coefficient range, -0.01, 0.3), and administrator scores (β-coefficient range, -0.2, 0.1). There was no association between ratings and score subdomains addressing quality or value-based care. Among physicians in the lowest quartile of specialty-specific performance scores, only 5%-32% had consumer ratings in the lowest quartile across platforms. Ratings were consistent across platforms; a physician's score on one platform significantly predicted his/her score on another in 5 of 10 comparisons. Online ratings of specialist physicians do not predict objective measures of quality of care or peer assessment of clinical performance. Scores are consistent across platforms, suggesting that they jointly measure a latent construct that is unrelated to performance. Online consumer ratings should not be used in isolation to select physicians, given their poor association with clinical performance.

  10. Adherence to EBM guidelines in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafizianova, R Kh; Burykin, I M

    2015-01-01

    Adequate and rational pharmacotherapy is an important element of rehabilitation of patients with myocardial infarction. Orders of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, domestic and international guidelines, and scientific publications - all contain a complete algorithm for rational pharmacotherapy [1, 2]. These documents are based on the principles of evidence-based medicine (EBM) and help practicing physicians to carry out individualized and rational pharmacotherapy. However, clinical studies have shown low adherence of physicians to clinical guidelines. In the Russian Federation the death rate from cardiovascular diseases is higher than in developed countries. Thus, studies of the causes of high cardiovascular mortality are needed. To assess adherence of practicing physicians to principles of evidence-based medicine in treating patients after myocardial infarction at the stage of rehabilitation. A retrospective analysis of 157 cases of patients in rehabilitation after myocardial infarction for the years 2006 and 2009 was undertaken.We analyzed the list of drugs, prescribed to patients during the period of rehabilitation, drug combinations, regimens and pharmacoepidemiological parameters. We used the following rehabilitation criteria: blood pressure control, smoking cessation, and weight control. Recommendations of controlled physical activities have also been studied. Patient care was compared with the guideline recommendations. Statistical analysis was performed using the OLAP system. 65 patients with myocardial infarction received rehabilitation therapy in 2006, and 92 - in 2009. It was found, that in 2006 physicians prescribed an average of 4.5 drugs per patient, and in 2009 - 4.6 drugs per patient. The average number of cardiovascular drugs (category C of ATC classification) per patient was 2.9 in 2006, and 2.6 - in 2009. Polypharmacy was found in half of the patients.In terms of evidence-based medicine, an important element in the rehabilitation

  11. Predictors of adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected persons: a prospective study in Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girma Belaineh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The devastating impact of AIDS in the world especially in sub-Saharan Africa has led to an unprecedented global effort to ensure access to antiretroviral (ARV drugs. Given that medication-taking behavior can immensely affect an individual's response; ART adherence is now widely recognized as an 'Achilles heel' for the successful outcome. The present study was undertaken to investigate the rate and predictors of adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected persons in southwest Ethiopia. Methods The study was conducted in the antiretroviral therapy unit of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. A prospective study was undertaken on a total of 400 HIV infected person. Data were collected using a pre-tested interviewer-administered structured questionnaire at first month (M0 and third month (M3 follow up visits. Results A total of 400 and 383 patients at baseline (M0 and at follow up visit (M3 respectively were interviewed. Self-reported dose adherence in the study area was 94.3%. The rate considering the combined indicator (dose, time and food was 75.7%. Within a three month follow up period, dose adherence decreased by 2% and overall adherence rate decreased by more than 3%. Adherence was common in those patients who have a social support (OR, 1.82, 95%CI, 1.04, 3.21. Patients who were not depressed were two times more likely to be adherent than those who were depressed (OR, 2.13, 95%CI, 1.18, 3.81. However, at the follow up visit, social support (OR, 2.42, 95%CI, 1.29, 4.55 and the use of memory aids (OR, 3.29, 95%CI, 1.44, 7.51 were found to be independent predictors of adherence. The principal reasons reported for skipping doses in this study were simply forgetting, feeling sick or ill, being busy and running out of medication in more than 75% of the cases. Conclusion The self reported adherence rate was high in the study area. The study showed that adherence is a dynamic process which changes overtime and cannot

  12. Adherence is associated with the quality of professional-patient interaction in Directly Observed Treatment Short-course, DOTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, Pranaya; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Sabroe, Svend

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the behaviour of health professionals as reported by patients, the quality of communication, patients' communication about their disease, and non-adherence to Directly Observed Tuberculosis Treatment Short-course, DOTS. METHODS: This study...... was designed as a case-control study based on 50 cases (non-adherents) and 100 controls (adherents), conducted in a hilly western district in Nepal. The participation rate was 80% for 50 cases and 95% for 100 controls. All covariates with p-value

  13. A single-item self-report medication adherence question predicts hospitalisation and death in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Rong; DeWalt, Darren A; Baker, David W; Schillinger, Dean; Ruo, Bernice; Bibbins-Domingo, Kristen; Macabasco-O'Connell, Aurelia; Holmes, George M; Broucksou, Kimberly A; Erman, Brian; Hawk, Victoria; Cene, Crystal W; Jones, Christine DeLong; Pignone, Michael

    2014-09-01

    To determine whether a single-item self-report medication adherence question predicts hospitalisation and death in patients with heart failure. Poor medication adherence is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Having a simple means of identifying suboptimal medication adherence could help identify at-risk patients for interventions. We performed a prospective cohort study in 592 participants with heart failure within a four-site randomised trial. Self-report medication adherence was assessed at baseline using a single-item question: 'Over the past seven days, how many times did you miss a dose of any of your heart medication?' Participants who reported no missing doses were defined as fully adherent, and those missing more than one dose were considered less than fully adherent. The primary outcome was combined all-cause hospitalisation or death over one year and the secondary endpoint was heart failure hospitalisation. Outcomes were assessed with blinded chart reviews, and heart failure outcomes were determined by a blinded adjudication committee. We used negative binomial regression to examine the relationship between medication adherence and outcomes. Fifty-two percent of participants were 52% male, mean age was 61 years, and 31% were of New York Heart Association class III/IV at enrolment; 72% of participants reported full adherence to their heart medicine at baseline. Participants with full medication adherence had a lower rate of all-cause hospitalisation and death (0·71 events/year) compared with those with any nonadherence (0·86 events/year): adjusted-for-site incidence rate ratio was 0·83, fully adjusted incidence rate ratio 0·68. Incidence rate ratios were similar for heart failure hospitalisations. A single medication adherence question at baseline predicts hospitalisation and death over one year in heart failure patients. Medication adherence is associated with all-cause and heart failure-related hospitalisation and death in heart

  14. Extra-large pore zeolite (ITQ-40) with the lowest framework density containing double four- and double three-rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cabañas, M. J.; Jiang, J.; Afeworki, M.; Dorset, D. L.; Soled, S. L.; Strohmaier, K. G.

    2010-01-01

    The first zeolite structure (ITQ-40) that contains double four (D4) and double three (D3) member ring secondary building units has been synthesized by introducing Ge and NH4F and working in concentrated synthesis gels. It is the first time that D3-Rs have been observed in a zeolite structure. As was previously analyzed [Brunner GO, Meier, WM (1989) Nature 337:146–147], such a structure has a very low framework density (10.1 T/1,000 Å3). Indeed, ITQ-40 has the lowest framework density ever achieved in oxygen-containing zeolites. Furthermore, it contains large pore openings, i.e., 15-member rings parallel to the [001] hexagonal axis and 16-member ring channels perpendicular to this axis. The results presented here push ahead the possibilities of zeolites for uses in electronics, control delivery of drugs and chemicals, as well as for catalysis. PMID:20660773

  15. Effects of Pop III to PopII transition on the lowest metallicity stars in dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimiao; Keres, Dusan; FIRE Team

    2018-01-01

    We examine the effects of the enrichments from Population III (Pop III) stars on the formation and properties of the first generation of the Population II (Pop II) stars. Pop III stars begin to transition towards Pop II stars when the metals dispersed in Pop III supernovae pollute the nearby gas. However, details of this transition are still largely unknown. We use dwarf galaxy simulations from the Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) project to identify the star-forming gas that is likely to be pre-enriched by Pop III supernovae and follow the stars that form in such gas. This pre-enrichment will leave the signature in the lowest metallicity stars that can be used to better constrain the details of the Pop III-to-Pop II transition.

  16. Consistency of the Hamiltonian formulation of the lowest-order effective action of the complete Horava theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellorin, Jorge; Restuccia, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    We perform the Hamiltonian analysis for the lowest-order effective action, up to second order in derivatives, of the complete Horava theory. The model includes the invariant terms that depend on ∂ i lnN proposed by Blas, Pujolas, and Sibiryakov. We show that the algebra of constraints closes. The Hamiltonian constraint is of second-class behavior and it can be regarded as an elliptic partial differential equation for N. The linearized version of this equation is a Poisson equation for N that can be solved consistently. The preservation in time of the Hamiltonian constraint yields an equation that can be consistently solved for a Lagrange multiplier of the theory. The model has six propagating degrees of freedom in the phase space, corresponding to three even physical modes. When compared with the λR model studied by us in a previous paper, it lacks two second-class constraints, which leads to the extra even mode.

  17. Non-mineralized fibrocartilage shows the lowest elastic modulus in the rabbit supraspinatus tendon insertion: measurement with scanning acoustic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Hirotaka; Saijo, Yoshifumi; Kokubun, Shoichi

    2006-01-01

    The acoustic properties of rabbit supraspinatus tendon insertions were measured by scanning acoustic microscopy. After cutting parallel to the supraspinatus tendon fibers, specimens were fixed with 10% neutralized formalin, embedded in paraffin, and sectioned. Both the sound speed and the attenuation constant were measured at the insertion site. The 2-dimensional distribution of the sound speed and that of the attenuation constant were displayed with color-coded scales. The acoustic properties reflected both the histologic architecture and the collagen type. In the tendon proper and the non-mineralized fibrocartilage, the sound speed and attenuation constant gradually decreased as the predominant collagen type changed from I to II. In the mineralized fibrocartilage, they increased markedly with the mineralization of the fibrocartilaginous tissue. These results indicate that the non-mineralized fibrocartilage shows the lowest elastic modulus among 4 zones at the insertion site, which could be interpreted as an adaptation to various types of biomechanical stress.

  18. Association between medication adherence and clinical outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangkiatkumjai, Mayuree; Walker, Dawn-Marie; Praditpornsilpa, Kearkiat; Boardman, Helen

    2017-06-01

    There is limited evidence of medication adherence related to progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine associations between medication adherence and the progression of CKD in outpatients with CKD. This cohort study recruited 339 Thai patients with stages 3-5 CKD. Patients with a glomerular disease or receiving renal replacement therapy before recruitment were excluded. 295 were followed up regarding their serum creatinine, blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol over 12 months. Medication adherence was measured at baseline using the Thai version of the 8-Item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale ® . The primary outcome was the progression of CKD. The progression of CKD was defined as either a decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate of at least 3 ml/min/1.73 m 2 /year or initiation of renal replacement therapy. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using Chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regressions. Twenty-one percent had poor adherence. Younger patients were more likely to have poor adherence (adjusted OR 2.81, 95 % CI 1.45-5.43). Anti-hypertensive agents were the most frequently reported as not being taken (52 %). Patients with poor adherence were associated with the progression of CKD (adjusted OR 1.96, 95 % CI 1.02-3.76). Those with poor adherence were less likely to control their blood pressure, than moderate-to-high adherence group (p < 0.01). The findings suggest that CKD patients with poor medication adherence are more likely to have progression of CKD. Health care providers should acknowledge these findings and provide effective strategies to deal with this issue.

  19. Rating mutual funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Rangvid, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    We develop a new rating of mutual funds: the atpRating. The atpRating assigns crowns to each individual mutual fund based upon the costs an investor pays when investing in the fund in relation to what it would cost to invest in the fund's peers. Within each investment category, the rating assigns...... the return of a fund in a certain year generally contains only little information about the future return that the fund will generate. Finally, we have information on the investments in different mutual funds made by a small subgroup of investors known to have been exposed to both the atp...... five crowns to funds with the lowest costs and one crown to funds with the highest costs. We investigate the ability of the atpRating to predict the future performance of a fund. We find that an investor who has invested in the funds with the lowest costs within an investment category would have...

  20. Rating Mutual Funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Rangvid, Jesper

    We develop a new rating of mutual funds: the atpRating. The atpRating assigns crowns to each individual mutual fund based upon the costs an investor pays when investing in the fund in relation to what it would cost to invest in the fund’s peers. Within each investment category, the rating assigns......, whereas the return of a fund in a certain year generally contains only little information about the future return that the fund will generate. Finally, we have information on the investments in different mutual funds made by a small subgroup of investors known to have been exposed to both the atp...... five crowns to funds with the lowest costs and one crown to funds with the highest costs. We investigate the ability of the atpRating to predict the future performance of a fund. We find that an investor who has invested in the funds with the lowest costs within an investment category would have...

  1. Trends and determining factors associated with adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART in Cameroon: a systematic review and analysis of the CAMPS trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbuagbaw Lawrence

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART cannot be experienced if they are not taken as prescribed. Yet, not all causes of non-adherence are dependent on the patient. Having to pay for medication reduces adherence rates. Non- adherence has severe public health implications which must be addressed locally and globally. This paper seeks to describe the trends in adherence rates reported in Cameroon and to investigate the determinants of adherence to ART in the Cameroon Mobile Phone SMS (CAMPS trial. Methods We conducted a systematic review of electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, CINAHL, EMBASE and PSYCINFO for publications on adherence to ART in Cameroon (from January 1999 to May 2012 and described the trend in reported adherence rates and the factors associated with adherence. Data were extracted in duplicate. We used multivariable analyses on the baseline data for 200 participants in the CAMPS trial to determine the factors associated with adherence in four models using different measures of adherence (more than 90% or 95% on the visual analogue scale, no missed doses and a composite measure: 100% on the visual analogue scale, no missed doses and all pills taken on time. Results We identified nine studies meeting our inclusion criteria. Adherence to ART in Cameroon has risen steadily between 2000 and 2010, corresponding to reductions in the cost of medication. The factors associated with adherence to ART in Cameroon are grouped into patient, medication and disease related factors. We also identified factors related to the health system and the patient-provider relationship. In the CAMPS trial, education, side effects experienced and number of reminder methods were found to improve adherence, but only using multiple reminder methods was associated with better adherence in all the regression models (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 4.11, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.89, 8.93; p Conclusions Reducing the

  2. Medication adherence in type 2 diabetes patients: study of patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medication adherence in type 2 diabetes patients: study of patients in ... impact of medication adherence on the clinical outcomes of type 2 diabetes patients at ... the review of case notes of one-hundred and fifty two randomly selected patients.

  3. Roles of family dynamics on adherence to highly active antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Background: Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been proven .... Table 1: Relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and HAART adherence among ... constraints (44%), stigma (15%), travel/migration.

  4. Adherence of Moraxella bovis to cell cultures of bovine origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annuar, B O; Wilcox, G E

    1985-09-01

    The adherence of five strains of Moraxella bovis to cell cultures was investigated. M bovis adhered to cultures of bovine corneal epithelial and Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells but not to cell types of non-bovine origin. Both piliated and unpiliated strains adhered but piliated strains adhered to a greater extent than unpiliated strains. Antiserum against pili of one strain inhibited adherence of piliated strains but caused only slight inhibition of adherence to the unpiliated strains. Treatment of bacteria with magnesium chloride caused detachment of pili from the bacterial cell and markedly inhibited adherence of piliated strains but caused only slight inhibition of adherence by the unpiliated strains. The results suggested that adhesion of piliated strains to cell cultures was mediated via pili but that adhesins other than pili may be involved in the attachment of unpiliated strains of M bovis to cells.

  5. Assessment of the prevalence and factors influencing adherence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    adherence to exclusive breast feeding among HIV positive ... Despite its benefits, the practice of EBF among HIV positive mothers is low in Ethiopia. Objective: This study is intended to assess factors influencing adherence to exclusively breast ...

  6. Determinants of Adherence to Living on Dialysis for Mexican Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley A. Wells

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores perceptions that affect adherence behaviors among Mexican Americans living with dialysis. In-depth narrative interviews were conducted with 15 Mexican Americans with end-stage renal disease (ESRD living on dialysis, 15 family members, and 6 health care personnel who provided care to them. Four themes emerged: (a positive influences to adherence, (b obstacles to adherence, (c daily activity losses, and (d fears about living with dialysis. From the findings, the perceptions given for non-adherence with the dialysis regimen ranged from denial of the condition, lack of pre-education, to cultural factors. Those given for adherence included prolonged life, family, and hope of getting a transplant. Health care providers were the reminder to adhere. Several cultural factors influenced their adherence perceptions. Strategies to enhance adherence behaviors should focus on knowledge about dialysis, use of the collective efficacy of the family, and the inclusion of cultural values.

  7. Comprehensive efforts to increase adherence to statin therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vonbank, Alexander; Agewall, Stefan; Kjeldsen, Keld Per

    2017-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that statin therapy improves cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, statin adherence is far from optimal regarding initiation, execution and persistence of treatment over time.26 Poor adherence to statin therapy is associated with a significantly incre...

  8. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Are Egyptian children adherent to maintenance therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhamy Rifky Abdel Khalek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background, Aims, Settings and Design: Poor adherence to oral maintenance chemotherapy can cause relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. A multicenter study for the evaluation of adherence to oral 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP maintenance chemotherapy for childhood ALL in Egypt to identify contributing factors and possible steps to promote adherence. Materials and Methods: The study included 129 children with ALL in complete remission receiving 6-MP single daily oral dose in the evening. Evaluation was done through specific questionnaires for the patients as well as serum 6-MP measurements. Results: Nonadherence was detected in around 56% by questionnaires and around 50% by serum 6-MP level measurement. There was a highly significant correlation between nonadherence as found by the questionnaire and 6-MP level (P - 0.001. Nonadherence was significantly associated with low socioeconomic standard, noneducation and low educational level and large family size by both methods. High cost to come for follow-up visits was significant by questionnaire but not by 6-MP measurement. Adolescent age, the higher number of siblings, lack of written instructions, long time spent per visit, were all associated with higher rates of nonadherence, although none reached statistical significance. Conclusions: Nonadherence is a real problem in pediatric patients. Specific questionnaires can be an excellent reliable method for the routine follow-up of these children, and drug level assay can be requested only for confirmation. This protocol is especially effective in developing countries where financial resources may be limited. Every effort should be made to uncover its true incidence, contributing factors, and best methods of intervention.

  9. Strategies to improve adherence to treatment in adolescents and young adults with cancer: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson EG

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Eden G Robertson,1,2 Claire E Wakefield,1,2 Kate H Marshall,2 Ursula M Sansom-Daly1–3 1Discipline of Paediatrics, School of Women's and Children's Health, UNSW Medicine, University of New South Wales, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia; 2Behavioural Sciences Unit, Kids Cancer Centre, Sydney Children's Hospital, 3Sydney Youth Cancer Service, Prince of Wales/Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia Purpose: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs with cancer have higher rates of nonadherence to treatment relative to younger and older cancer patients. Efforts to improve adherence in this population are therefore increasing. This review aimed: 1 to synthesize recommendations and strategies used to improve treatment adherence in AYAs with cancer, and 2 to summarize the available evidence supporting the efficacy of adherence-promoting strategies for AYAs with cancer.Methods: We conducted a systematic review with two stages: 1 a narrative stage, to analyze expert recommendations, and 2 an evaluative stage, to summarize quantitative evidence for interventions. Four electronic databases were searched for studies involving AYAs, aged 10–39 years, with cancer, published from 2005 to 2015. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines were used to ensure quality of the review. The Delphi list was used to assess study quality.Results: Nine articles were identified in the narrative stage of the review. For the evaluative stage, out of 113 screened abstracts, only one eligible intervention was identified. Common themes of adherence-promoting strategies were grouped into five domains: developmental, communication, educational, psychological well-being, and logistical/management strategies. Strategies to address developmental stage and to improve communication were the most highly recommended to improve adherence. Few strategies focused on the role of the patient in adherence. One

  10. Medication adherence among transgender women living with HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Baguso, Glenda N.; Gay, Caryl L.; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2016-01-01

    Medication adherence is linked to health outcomes among adults with HIV infection. Transgender women living with HIV (TWLWH) in the U.S. report suboptimal adherence to medications and are found to have difficulty integrating HIV medication into their daily routine, but few studies explore factors associated with medication adherence among transgender women. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine demographic and clinical factors related to self-reported medication adherence among transg...

  11. Does Prescription Drug Adherence Reduce Hospitalizations and Costs?

    OpenAIRE

    William Encinosa; Didem Bernard; Avi Dor

    2010-01-01

    We estimate the impact of diabetic drug adherence on hospitalizations, ER visits, and hospital costs, using insurance claims from MarketScan® employer data. However, it is often difficult to measure the impact of drug adherence on hospitalizations since both adherence and hospitalizations may be correlated with unobservable patient severity. We control for such unobservables using propensity score methods and instrumental variables for adherence such as drug coinsurance levels and direct-to- ...

  12. The economics of improving medication adherence in osteoporosis: validation and application of a simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Amanda R; Schousboe, John T; Losina, Elena; Solomon, Daniel H

    2011-09-01

    Adherence to osteoporosis treatment is low. Although new therapies and behavioral interventions may improve medication adherence, questions are likely to arise regarding their cost-effectiveness. Our objectives were to develop and validate a model to simulate the clinical outcomes and costs arising from various osteoporosis medication adherence patterns among women initiating bisphosphonate treatment and to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a hypothetical intervention to improve medication adherence. We constructed a computer simulation using estimates of fracture rates, bisphosphonate treatment effects, costs, and utilities for health states drawn from the published literature. Probabilities of transitioning on and off treatment were estimated from administrative claims data. Patients were women initiating bisphosphonate therapy from the general community. We evaluated a hypothetical behavioral intervention to improve medication adherence. Changes in 10-yr fracture rates and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were evaluated. A hypothetical intervention with a one-time cost of $250 and reducing bisphosphonate discontinuation by 30% had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $29,571 per quality-adjusted life year in 65-yr-old women initiating bisphosphonates. Although the ICER depended on patient age, intervention effectiveness, and intervention cost, the ICERs were less than $50,000 per quality-adjusted life year for the majority of intervention cost and effectiveness scenarios evaluated. Results were sensitive to bisphosphonate cost and effectiveness and assumptions about the rate at which intervention and treatment effects decline over time. Our results suggests that behavioral interventions to improve osteoporosis medication adherence will likely have favorable ICERs if their efficacy can be sustained.

  13. Self-Reported Adverse Drug Reactions, Medication Adherence, and Clinical Outcomes among Major Depressive Disorder Patients in Ethiopia: A Prospective Hospital Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadesse Melaku Abegaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is paucity of data on prevalence of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs and adherence and clinical outcomes of antidepressants. The present study determined the magnitude of ADRs of antidepressants and their impact on the level of adherence and clinical outcome. Methods. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted among depression patients from September 2016 to January 2017 at Gondar University Hospital psychiatry clinic. The Naranjo ADR probability scale was employed to assess the ADRs. The rate of medication adherence was determined using Morisky Medication Adherence Measurement Scale-Eight. Results. Two hundred seventeen patients participated in the study, more than half of them being males (122; 56.2%. More than one-half of the subjects had low adherence to their medications (124; 57.1% and about 186 (85.7% of the patients encountered ADR. The most common ADR was weight gain (29; 13.2%. More than one-half (125; 57.6% of the respondents showed improved clinical outcome. Optimal level of medication adherence decreased the likelihood of poor clinical outcome by 56.8%. Conclusion. ADRs were more prevalent. However, adherence to medications was very poor in the setup. Long duration of depression negatively affects the rate of adherence. In addition, adherence was found to influence the clinical outcome of depression patients.

  14. Adherence to Oral Maintenance Treatment in Adolescents With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekhorst, Lieke M.; Hummel, Thalia Z.; Benninga, Marc A.; van Rheenen, Patrick F.; Kindermann, Angelika

    Objectives:The aim of this study was to systematically review the rates of nonadherence to oral maintenance treatment in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and to describe perceived barriers to adherence and psychosocial factors involved.Methods:The article considered studies

  15. Adherence to Oral Maintenance Treatment in Adolescents With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekhorst, Lieke M.; Hummel, Thalia Z.; Benninga, Marc A.; van Rheenen, Patrick F.; Kindermann, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the rates of nonadherence to oral maintenance treatment in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and to describe perceived barriers to adherence and psychosocial factors involved. The article considered studies published in MEDLINE,

  16. Technology and Adherence in Web-based Intervantions for Weight Control: a Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelders, Saskia Marion; Haugtvedt, C.P.; Stibe, A.; Kok, Robin N.; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.

    2011-01-01

    While technology based health interventions can be effective, high attrition rates are commonly observed in research and practice and are a major issue in eHealth. Research on adherence has recently gained some scientific attention, but little has been done as to how technology itself engages users.

  17. Therapist Adherence and Competence with Manualized Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for PTSD Delivered via Videoconferencing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frueh, B. Christopher; Monnier, Jeannine; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Elhai, Jon D.; Yim, Eunsil; Knapp, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Using secondary analyses from a randomized trial comparing the effectiveness of manualized cognitive-behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder, we compared ratings of therapist competency and adherence between two service delivery modes: telepsychiatry (TP) and same room (SR). Patients were 38 male treatment-seeking veterans recruited…

  18. Patients' Perception of App-based Educational and Behavioural Interventions for Enhancing Oral Anticancer Medication Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Eskinder Eshetu; Leow, Jo Lene; Chew, Lita; Yap, Kevin Yi-Lwern

    2017-07-14

    Well-designed smartphone apps can potentially help in enhancing adherence to oral anticancer medications (OAMs). The objective of this study was to evaluate patients' perception on inclusion of various adherence-enhancing strategies as features of an app and their interest in using such app. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the National Cancer Centre Singapore. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from patients taking OAMs. Final analysis was based on 409 surveys and most of the respondents were female (291, 71.1%), Chinese (332, 81.2%), married (296, 72.4%) and breast cancer patients (211, 51.6%). Close to two-thirds of respondents rated medication information (65.0%), disease information (60.2%) and side effect self-management (60.2%) features as having the highest level of importance in an adherence app. Three hundred thirty-two (81.2%) of the respondents owned a smartphone, among which 92 (27.7%) reported using health-related apps. From respondents with smartphones, 219 (66.0%) were interested in using an app for OAM adherence. Age 65 and older compared to 21-54 years old (adjusted OR = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.15-0.76) and current use of a health app (adjusted OR = 1.91; 95% CI = 1.07-3.41) were significant predictors of interest to adopt an adherence app. In conclusion, patients value the inclusion of educational and behavioural interventions in adherence apps. Developers of adherence apps should consider including tools for side effect self-management and provision of information to educate patients on their medications and disease condition.

  19. Developing consensus-based policy solutions for medicines adherence for Europe: a delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-adherence to prescribed medication is a pervasive problem that can incur serious effects on patients’ health outcomes and well-being, and the availability of resources in healthcare systems. This study aimed to develop practical consensus-based policy solutions to address medicines non-adherence for Europe. Methods A four-round Delphi study was conducted. The Delphi Expert Panel comprised 50 participants from 14 countries and was representative of: patient/carers organisations; healthcare providers and professionals; commissioners and policy makers; academics; and industry representatives. Participants engaged in the study remotely, anonymously and electronically. Participants were invited to respond to open questions about the causes, consequences and solutions to medicines non-adherence. Subsequent rounds refined responses, and sought ratings of the relative importance, and operational and political feasibility of each potential solution to medicines non-adherence. Feedback of individual and group responses was provided to participants after each round. Members of the Delphi Expert Panel and members of the research group participated in a consensus meeting upon completion of the Delphi study to discuss and further refine the proposed policy solutions. Results 43 separate policy solutions to medication non-adherence were agreed by the Panel. 25 policy solutions were prioritised based on composite scores for importance, and operational and political feasibility. Prioritised policy solutions focused on interventions for patients, training for healthcare professionals, and actions to support partnership between patients and healthcare professionals. Few solutions concerned actions by governments, healthcare commissioners, or interventions at the system level. Conclusions Consensus about practical actions necessary to address non-adherence to medicines has been developed for Europe. These actions are also applicable to other regions. Prioritised

  20. Adherence to statin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes: An important dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Farsaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the importance of patients′ adherence to their drug treatments for achieving desired therapeutic goals and the proven role 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A inhibitors (statins for the health status of patients with cardiovascular diseases, there is not enough information regarding diabetic patients′ adherence to statin therapy in developing countries. In this clinical study we aimed to assess the adherence of diabetes type 2 patients to statin therapy in a research based community clinic in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this prospective clinical study which was done at Isfahan Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, 204 diabetic type 2 patients under treatment with statin were interviewed twice and their demographic data (age, gender, body mass index, education, statin information (type, dose and their serum lipid profile were recorded. Three months after the initial visits, patients were assessed using pill counting method and according to patients′ self-reporting and also assessed low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol goal attainment <100 mg/dl. Results: Adherence rate was 79.7% and 69% according to pill counting and self-reporting among study population. Moreover, 68.4% of patients achieved their LDL cholesterol goal of <100 mg/dl and adherent patients reached therapeutic goal significantly more than those who were considered non-adherence to statin therapy (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Adherence to statin therapy, as reflected by pill count method, is significantly related to LDL cholesterol goal achievement in patients with diabetes and dyslipidemia. Pill count method can be used to identify patients who are nonadherent to statin therapy and at high risk for failure to attain LDL cholesterol goals.

  1. Adherence to the DASH and Mediterranean diets is associated with decreased risk for gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Vajihe; Tehrani, Hatav; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Dehghan, Atefeh; Surkan, Pamela J; Azadbakht, Leila

    2016-10-01

    Few studies have examined the association between adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) or Mediterranean (MED) diets and prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between the two diets and GDM. In a case-control hospital-based study, pregnant women with (n = 200) and without (n = 260) GMD were recruited. An average of three 24-h dietary records were used to assess participants' dietary intakes. DASH scores were calculated based on the Fung method and MED scores were calculated using the Trichopoulou method. GDM was defined as fasting glucose >95 mg/dL or 1-h postprandial glucose >140 mg/dL for the first time in the pregnancy. The risk for GDM was assessed across tertiles of DASH and MED scores. DASH and MED diets were negatively related to fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and serum triacylglycerol concentrations. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly higher for those in the top tertile of the DASH diet but not the MED diet in comparison with the lowest tertile. Total serum cholesterol level was lower in the third tertile of the MED diet but not in the DASH diet. Participants in the highest tertile of the MED diet had 80% lower risk for GDM compared with those in the lowest tertile (Ptrend = 0.006). Greater adherence to the DASH eating plan was associated with 71% reduced risk for GDM (Ptrend = 0.006) after adjustment for potential confounders. Adherence to either the DASH or Mediterranean diet is associated with decreased risk for GDM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Examining the relationship between psychological distress and adherence to anti-retroviral therapy among Ugandan adolescents living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutumba, Massy; Musiime, Victor; Lepkwoski, James M; Harper, Gary W; Snow, Rachel C; Resnicow, Ken; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2016-07-01

    Psychological distress is common among adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) worldwide, and has been associated with non-adherence to anti-retroviral therapy (ART), leading to poor virologic suppression, drug resistance, and increased risk for AIDS morbidity and mortality. However, only a few studies have explored the relationship between psychological distress and ART adherence among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. The paper examines the relationship between psychological distress and ART adherence, and effect of psychosocial resources on ART adherence. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 464 ALHIV (aged 12-19; 53% female) seeking HIV care at a large HIV treatment center in Kampala, Uganda. ALHIV were recruited during routine clinic visits. Three self-reported binary adherence measures were utilized: missed pills in the past three days, non-adherence to the prescribed medical regimen, and self-rated adherence assessed using a visual analog scale. Psychological distress was measured as a continuous variable, and computed as the mean score on a locally developed and validated 25-item symptom checklist for Ugandan ALHIV. Psychosocial resources included spirituality, religiosity, optimism, social support, and coping strategies. After adjusting for respondents' socio-demographic characteristics and psychosocial resources, a unit increase in psychological distress was associated with increased odds of missing pills in past 3 days (Odds Ratio(OR) = 1.75; Confidence Interval (CI): 1.04-2.95), not following the prescribed regimen (OR = 1.63; CI: 1.08-2.46), and lower self-rated adherence (OR = 1.79; CI: 1.19-2.69). Psychosocial resources were associated with lower odds for non-adherence on all three self-report measures. There is a need to strengthen the psychosocial aspects of adolescent HIV care by developing interventions to identify and prevent psychological distress among Ugandan ALHIV.

  3. Adherence to treatment of patients with past ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Je. Azarenko

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The main task of the general practitioner is managing patients with the effects of ischemic stroke. The improvement of patients adherence to treatment in a significant way contributes to successful secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. Adherence to treatment can be determined through various questionnaires, including Morissky-Green. Currently, the adherence to a long-term drug therapy remains insufficient.

  4. Method of detaching adherent cells for flow cytometry

    KAUST Repository

    Kaur, Mandeep; Esau, Luke E.

    2015-01-01

    In one aspect, a method for detaching adherent cells can include adding a cell lifting solution to the media including a sample of adherent cells and incubating the sample of adherent cells with the cell lifting solution. No scraping or pipetting

  5. Self-reported adherence to treatment: A study of socioeconomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Adherence to treatment is important and relevant in HIV treatment. Previous studies in sub Sahara Africa and south western Nigeria reported that psychiatric morbidity influence treatment adherence. The present study was to examine treatment adherence among the male and the female patients with HIV infection ...

  6. Determinants of Adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated factors of adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment (ART), factors or variables that can discriminate between adherent and non-adherent patients on ART were selected. Simple structured questionnaire was employed. The study sample consisted of 145 HIV patients who received ART in the Shashemene ...

  7. Understanding how adherence goals promote adherence behaviours: a repeated measure observational study with HIV seropositive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Gareth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent to which patients follow treatments as prescribed is pivotal to treatment success. An exceptionally high level (> 95% of HIV medication adherence is required to suppress viral replication and protect the immune system and a similarly high level (> 80% of adherence has also been suggested in order to benefit from prescribed exercise programmes. However, in clinical practice, adherence to both often falls below the desirable level. This project aims to investigate a wide range of psychological and personality factors that may lead to adherence/non-adherence to medical treatment and exercise programmes. Methods HIV positive patients who are referred to the physiotherapist-led 10-week exercise programme as part of the standard care are continuously recruited. Data on social cognitive variables (attitude, intention, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and outcome beliefs about the goal and specific behaviours, selected personality factors, perceived quality of life, physical activity, self-reported adherence and physical assessment are collected at baseline, at the end of the exercise programme and again 3 months later. The project incorporates objective measures of both exercise (attendance log and improvement in physical measures such as improved fitness level, weight loss, improved circumferential anthropometric measures and medication adherence (verified by non-invasive hair analysis. Discussion The novelty of this project comes from two key aspects, complemented with objective information on exercise and medication adherence. The project assesses beliefs about both the underlying goal such as following prescribed treatment; and about the specific behaviours such as undertaking the exercise or taking the medication, using both implicit and explicit assessments of patients’ beliefs and attitudes. We predict that i the way people think about the underlying goal of their treatments explains medication and exercise

  8. Medication Adherence Improvements in Employees Participating in a Pharmacist-Run Risk Reduction Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallory C. McKenzie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the medication adherence of individuals participating in a pharmacist-run employee health Cardiovascular and Diabetes Risk Reduction Program. Design: Retrospective analysis of medication adherence using pharmacy refill data. Setting: A medium sized university located in the Midwest United States and the organization's outpatient pharmacy. Participants: 38 participants ≥ 18 years of age, employed and receiving their health insurance through the organization, and have a diagnosis of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, or a combination thereof. Intervention: Participation in the risk reduction program that emphasizes medication therapy management (MTM, lifestyle medicine and care coordination. Main Outcome Measures: The Proportion of Days Covered (PDC and the Medication Possession Ratio (MPR. Results: PDC and MPR analysis showed a statistically significant improvement in medication adherence for 180 days and 360 days post enrollment versus the 180 days prior to enrollment (P<0.01. The PDC analysis demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in the number of medications that achieved a PDC ≥ 80% (high adherence for the 180 days post enrollment versus the 180 days prior to enrollment (+30%, P<0.01. The MPR analysis showed a non-statistically significant improvement in the number of medications that achieved an MPR ≥ 80% (high adherence pre enrollment versus post enrollment (+10%, P=0.086. The percentage of participants in the program that reached a PDC and MPR adherence rate ≥ 80% at 180 days post enrollment was 78.9% and 94.4%, respectively which exceeds that of a matched cohort that reached a PDC and MPR adherence rate ≥ 80% of 66.4% and 82.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Pharmacists can improve medication adherence as measured by PDC and MPR when working with employees enrolled in a novel pharmacist-run employee health risk reduction program. Medication adherence was shown to be sustainable for

  9. Interpersonal Factors Are Associated with Lower Therapist Adherence in Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Panic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickgraf, Hana F; Chambless, Dianne L; McCarthy, Kevin S; Gallop, Robert; Sharpless, Brian A; Milrod, Barbara L; Barber, Jacques P

    2016-05-01

    The contributions of disorder severity, comorbidity and interpersonal variables to therapists' adherence to a cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) manual were tested. Thirty-eight patients received panic control therapy (PCT) for panic disorder. Trained observers watching videotapes of the sixth session of a 24-session protocol rated therapists' adherence to PCT and their use of interventions from outside the CBT model. Different observers rated patients' behavioural resistance to therapy in the same session using the client resistance code. Interview measures obtained before treatment included the Panic Disorder Severity Scale, the anxiety disorders interview schedule for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV and the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV, Axis II. Questionnaire measures were the anxiety sensitivity index at intake, and, at session 2, the therapist and client versions of the working alliance inventory-short form. The higher the patients' resistance and the more Axis II traits a patient had, the less adherent the therapist. Moreover, the more resistant the client, the more therapists resorted to interventions from outside the CBT model. Stronger therapist and patient alliance was also generally related to better adherence, but these results were somewhat inconsistent across therapists. Pretreatment disorder severity and comorbidity were not related to adherence. Interpersonal variables, particularly behavioural resistance to therapy, are related to therapists' ability to adhere to a treatment manual and to their use of interventions from outside of the CBT model. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Patients' behavioural resistance to therapy may make it more difficult for cognitive-behavioural clinicians to adhere to a structured treatment protocol and more likely for them to borrow interventions from outside the CBT model. Patients' Axis II traits may make adherence to treatment CBT protocol more difficult

  10. Factors related to medication non-adherence for patients with hypertension in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Wen; Kuo, Chi-Tai; Hwang, Shiow-Li; Hsu, Hsin-Tien

    2012-07-01

    To characterise a Taiwanese population and to examine the prevalence of antihypertensive medication non-adherence and how the cultural/clinical factors were associated with non-adherence in Taiwan. Antihypertensive medication non-adherence is a significant clinical issue in the United States. However, little is known about hypertension (HTN) control and cultural/clinical factors related to non-adherence in Taiwan. A convenience sample survey design was used. Data were gathered from a convenience sample of 200 subjects recruited from a large teaching hospital. Medication non-adherence and cultural/clinical factors were recorded using various self-administered questionnaires, and blood pressure was taken twice for each participant. The mean age of the participants was 60.4 (SD 11.5 years) including 62% men. Two-thirds had less than a high school education (64.5%), and the majority of them were married (86·0%) and lived with family or close friends (93.5%). The average length of HTN diagnosis was 8.6 years (SD 9.0 years). Medication non-adherence rate was 47·5%, and uncontrolled HTN rate was 49.0%. Some participants (17.0%) used Chinese herbs for treating their disease (e.g. cough) and promoting health in addition to their regular antihypertensive medications. Two factors were found to be statistically significant for predicting medication non-adherence: Lower Perceived Susceptibility to Specific Diseases [OR = 1.15 (95%CI, 1.01-1.31)] and Longer Length of HTN Diagnosis [OR = 1.06 (95%CI, 1.01-1.12)]. Taiwanese at risk of non-adherence included those who perceived lower susceptibility to specific diseases and had been diagnosed with HTN for a longer time. Those using herbs need to be studied for an impact of herbs on their adherence behaviour. These findings can help guide the development of culturally sensitive and clinically appropriate nursing interventions for HTN management in Taiwan. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Cancer Prevention Recommendations: Impact of Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresso, Karen Colbert; Hawk, Ernest

    2016-08-01

    To review the relationship between adherence to cancer prevention guidelines published by the American Cancer Society and the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research and reductions in cancer incidence, cancer mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and overall mortality. Current cancer prevention guidelines published by the American Cancer Society and the American Institute for Cancer Research, journal articles published between 2004 and 2016, and internet resources. Evidence from a number of large observational studies indicates that following current cancer prevention recommendations in a comprehensive manner results in significant reductions in both cancer risk and cancer mortality, as well as in cardiovascular mortality and overall mortality. Nurses can take the lead in familiarizing patients and families with established cancer prevention recommendations and resources that may assist patients in implementing them comprehensively in their daily lives, as well as in discussing the substantial health benefits of adhering to the recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Subpopulations in purified platelets adhering on glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Alessia; Gupta, Swati; Reviakine, Ilya

    2016-06-22

    Understanding how platelet activation is regulated is important in the context of cardiovascular disorders and their management with antiplatelet therapy. Recent evidence points to different platelet subpopulations performing different functions. In particular, procoagulant and aggregating subpopulations have been reported in the literature in platelets treated with the GPVI agonists. How the formation of platelet subpopulations upon activation is regulated remains unclear. Here, it is shown that procoagulant and aggregating platelet subpopulations arise spontaneously upon adhesion of purified platelets on clean glass surfaces. Calcium ionophore treatment of the adhering platelets resulted in one platelet population expressing both the procoagulant and the adherent population markers phosphatidylserine and the activated form of GPIIb/IIIa, while all of the platelets expressed CD62P independently of the ionophore treatment. Therefore, all platelets have the capacity to express all three activation markers. It is concluded that platelet subpopulations observed in various studies reflect the dynamics of the platelet activation process.

  13. Furthering patient adherence: A position paper of the international expert forum on patient adherence based on an internet forum discussion

    OpenAIRE

    van Dulmen, Sandra; Sluijs, Emmy; van Dijk, Liset; de Ridder, Denise; Heerdink, Rob; Bensing, Jozien

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background As the problem of patient non-adherence persists and a solution appears hard to be found, it continues to be important to look for new ways to further the issue. We recently conducted a meta-review of adherence intervention studies which yielded a preliminary agenda for future research, practice and theory development in patient adherence. The objective of the present project was to find out to what extent adherence experts consider this agenda relevant and feasible. Metho...

  14. Improving diabetes medication adherence: successful, scalable interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zullig LL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leah L Zullig,1,2 Walid F Gellad,3,4 Jivan Moaddeb,2,5 Matthew J Crowley,1,2 William Shrank,6 Bradi B Granger,7 Christopher B Granger,8 Troy Trygstad,9 Larry Z Liu,10 Hayden B Bosworth1,2,7,11 1Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 3Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion, Pittsburgh Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 4Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 5Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 6CVS Caremark Corporation; 7School of Nursing, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 8Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA; 9North Carolina Community Care Networks, Raleigh, NC, USA; 10Pfizer, Inc., and Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA; 11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Effective medications are a cornerstone of prevention and disease treatment, yet only about half of patients take their medications as prescribed, resulting in a common and costly public health challenge for the US healthcare system. Since poor medication adherence is a complex problem with many contributing causes, there is no one universal solution. This paper describes interventions that were not only effective in improving medication adherence among patients with diabetes, but were also potentially scalable (ie, easy to implement to a large population. We identify key characteristics that make these interventions effective and scalable. This information is intended to inform healthcare systems seeking proven, low resource, cost-effective solutions to improve medication adherence. Keywords: medication adherence, diabetes mellitus, chronic disease, dissemination research

  15. Washing and changing uniforms: is guidance being adhered to?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Yvonne Camilla; Justham, David

    To allay public apprehension regarding the risk of nurses' uniforms transmitting healthcare-associated infections (HCAI), national and local guidelines have been issued to control use, laundry and storage. This paper aims to measure the knowledge of registered nurses (RNs) and healthcare assistants (HCAs) working within a rural NHS foundation Trust and their adherence to the local infection prevention and control (IPC) standard regarding uniforms through a Trust-wide audit. Stratified random sampling selected 597 nursing staff and 399 responded (67%) by completing a short questionnaire based on the local standard. Responses were coded and transferred to SPSS (v. 17) for analysis. The audit found that nursing staff generally adhere to the guidelines, changing their uniforms daily and immediately upon accidental soiling, and wearing plastic aprons where indicated. At home, staff normally machine-wash and then iron their uniforms at the hottest setting. Nevertheless, few observe the local direction to place their newly-laundered uniforms in protective covers. This paper recommends a re-audit to compare compliance rates with baseline figures and further research into the reasons why compliance is lacking to sanction interventions for improvement, such as providing relevant staff education and re-introducing appropriate changing facilities.

  16. Motivational factors of adherence to cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Hooman; Shahriari, Mohsen; Alimohammadi, Nasrollah

    2012-05-01

    Main suggested theories about patients' adherence to treatment regimens recognize the importance of motivation in positive changes in behaviors. Since cardiac diseases are chronic and common, cardiac rehabilitation as an effective prevention program is crucial in management of these diseases. There is always concern about the patients' adherence to cardiac rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to describe the motivational factors affecting the patients' participation and compliance to cardiac rehabilitation by recognizing and understanding the nature of patients' experiences. The participants were selected among the patients with cardiac diseases who were referred to cardiac rehabilitation in Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Iran. The purposive sampling method was used and data saturation achieved after 8 semi-structured interviews. The three main concepts obtained from this study are "beliefs", "supporters" and "group cohesion". In cardiac rehabilitation programs, emphasis on motivational factors affects the patient's adherence. It is suggested that in cardiac rehabilitation programs more attention should be paid to patients' beliefs, the role of patients' supporters and the role of group-based rehabilitation.

  17. Medication non-adherence and uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Lau, Sofie Rosenlund

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Statins are widely prescribed to lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, statin non-adherence is very high. PURPOSE: The aim of this paper was to investigate reasons for stopping statin treatment in the general population and to study how aspects of information-seeking ......BACKGROUND: Statins are widely prescribed to lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, statin non-adherence is very high. PURPOSE: The aim of this paper was to investigate reasons for stopping statin treatment in the general population and to study how aspects of information......-seeking and processing is associated with statin non-adherence. METHODS: This study used a population survey on 3050 Danish residents aged 45-65 years. Reasons for statin discontinuation was studied among those who were previous statin users. The association between information seeking and processing and statin...... from information disseminated by media outlets. Side effects and fear of side effects should be addressed in clinical practice. Health care professionals should pay attention to emotional aspects of how information is disseminated and perceived by statin users....

  18. Adherent Raindrop Modeling, Detectionand Removal in Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Shaodi; Tan, Robby T; Kawakami, Rei; Mukaigawa, Yasuhiro; Ikeuchi, Katsushi

    2016-09-01

    Raindrops adhered to a windscreen or window glass can significantly degrade the visibility of a scene. Modeling, detecting and removing raindrops will, therefore, benefit many computer vision applications, particularly outdoor surveillance systems and intelligent vehicle systems. In this paper, a method that automatically detects and removes adherent raindrops is introduced. The core idea is to exploit the local spatio-temporal derivatives of raindrops. To accomplish the idea, we first model adherent raindrops using law of physics, and detect raindrops based on these models in combination with motion and intensity temporal derivatives of the input video. Having detected the raindrops, we remove them and restore the images based on an analysis that some areas of raindrops completely occludes the scene, and some other areas occlude only partially. For partially occluding areas, we restore them by retrieving as much as possible information of the scene, namely, by solving a blending function on the detected partially occluding areas using the temporal intensity derivative. For completely occluding areas, we recover them by using a video completion technique. Experimental results using various real videos show the effectiveness of our method.

  19. Optimizing adherence to advice from antimicrobial stewardship audit and feedback rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, Matthew D M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Ingram, Paul R; McLellan, Duncan G J; Crawford, Colin; D'Orsogna, Luca; Dyer, John

    2018-02-01

    We examined adherence to antimicrobial stewardship prospective audit and feedback rounds in a rehabilitation service compared with the remainder of the acute hospital, and explored the reasons for this. Between October 2014 and December 2015, we retrospectively assessed the rate of non-adherence to advice from antimicrobial stewardship prospective audit and feedback rounds between the rehabilitation service and the acute hospital, along with the source of the patient referral. Compared with the rehabilitation service, acute hospital medical staff were almost twice as likely to not adhere to advice provided on antimicrobial stewardship prospective audit and feedback rounds (13.8% vs. 7.6%, p risk 1.8 [95% confidence interval 1.3, 2.5]). In the rehabilitation service, referrals were more likely to come from medical staff (61.9% vs. 16.3%, p model potentially applicable to other settings.

  20. Engagement with Care, Substance Use, and Adherence to Therapy in HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice K. Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Engagement with care for those living with HIV is aimed at establishing a strong relationship between patients and their health care provider and is often associated with greater adherence to therapy and treatment (Flickinger, Saha, Moore, and Beach, 2013. Substance use behaviors are linked with lower rates of engagement with care and medication adherence (Horvath, Carrico, Simoni, Boyer, Amico, and Petroli, 2013. This study is a secondary data analysis using a cross-sectional design from a larger randomized controlled trial (n=775 that investigated the efficacy of a self-care symptom management manual for participants living with HIV. Participants were recruited from countries of Africa and the US. This study provides evidence that substance use is linked with lower self-reported engagement with care and adherence to therapy. Data on substance use and engagement are presented. Clinical implications of the study address the importance of utilizing health care system and policy factors to improve engagement with care.

  1. Educational interventions for knowledge on the disease, treatment adherence and control of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Ana Laura Galhardo; Boas, Lilian Cristiane Gomes Villas; Coelho, Anna Claudia Martins; Freitas, Maria Cristina Foss de; Pace, Ana Emilia

    2017-04-20

    to assess the effect of educational interventions for knowledge on the disease, medication treatment adherence and glycemic control of diabetes mellitus patients. evaluation research with "before and after" design, developed in a sample of 82 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. To collect the data, the Brazilian version of the Diabetes Knowledge Scale (DKN-A), the Measure of Adherence to Treatments and the electronic system at the place of study were used. The data were collected before and after the end of the educational interventions. The educational activities were developed within 12 months, mediated by the Diabetes Conversation Maps, using the Cognitive Social Theory to conduct the interventions. the knowledge on the disease (pknowledge about diabetes mellitus, the medication treatment adherence and the glycated hemoglobin rates.

  2. Importance of doctor-patient relationship for patient adherence with medication regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokolowski, Ineta; Vedsted, Peter

    Aim: It has been supposed that the relation between the doctor and the patient has implications for the adherence to medication. This study explores the effect of patient reported doctor-patient relationship on patient adherence with medication regiments. Methods: Design: Prospective cohort study...... practices. Doctor-patient relationship was measured from The Danish version of the 23-item EUROPEP questionnaire measuring patient evaluation of general practice. From the register data on prescriptions we drew all subsidised drugs redeemed at pharmacies for each patient in 2002-2005. Patients, who did...... was measured as secondary non-compliance and as persistence. The incidence rate ratio of non-adherence was calculated for different levels of the patient evaluated doctor-patient-relationship. Results: A total of 482 patients started new treatment of which 98 were non-compliant and 7 were censored. This study...

  3. African Americans’ Perceptions of Adherence to Medications and Lifestyle Changes Prescribed to Treat Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Pettey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 80 million Americans have hypertension (HTN, and African Americans (AAs are disproportionately affected. AAs also have lower rates of adherence to HTN treatment. It is important to understand AAs’ perceptions of adherence to develop effective interventions. The aim of this study is to examine AAs’ perceptions of adherence to medications and lifestyle changes prescribed to treat HTN. In this qualitative study, we used purposive sampling to recruit Southern AAs with HTN aged 21 and older from a free, faith-based clinic. We recorded individual, in-person interviews about perceptions related to adherence to treatment of HTN and analyzed verbatim transcripts using content analysis and constant comparison. We also conducted medical record audits. Twenty-nine AAs participated (52% female, 38% were <50 years of age, 52% had taken anti-HTN medications for ≥5 years. Audits indicated that 65% had uncontrolled HTN during the previous year. Two main themes included causes of HTN and ways to improve blood pressure. Perceived causes of HTN included diet, stress, unhealthy actions, genes, and obesity. Ways to improve HTN included using cultural treatments “passed down,” increasing exercise, reducing stress, and losing weight. Many reported using home remedies to control HTN, including drinking pickle juice. More than half of this sample had uncontrolled HTN. They identified influences of culture on perceptions of adherence including causes and treatment of HTN, and possibly detrimental home remedies. It is imperative that clinicians identify culturally appropriate interventions for this high-risk group.

  4. The Effect of Sociodemographic Features and Beliefs about Medicines on Adherence to Chronic Kidney Disease Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi Theofilou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have shown that non-adherence is a common and increasing problem regarding those with chronic illnesses, including chronic kidney disease (CKD patients undergoinghemodialysis (HD.Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the influence of sociodemographic features as well as beliefs about medicines on adherence to medication treatment among HD patients.Methodology: A sample of 168 individuals was recruited from six General Hospitals in the broader area of Athens, consisting of patients undergoing in - centre HD. Measurements were conducted withthe following instruments: the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ.Results: Medication adherence was associated positively with family (r= 0.24, p= 0.00 and work status (r= 0.26, p= 0.00 as well as BMQ - concern (r= 0.19, p= 0.02.Conclusions: The present study demonstrates the importance of sociodemographic characteristics in understanding medication adherence in HD patients as well as the contribution of beliefs aboutmedicines.

  5. Predicting the effect of interactive video bikes on exercise adherence: An efficacy trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Warburton, Darren E R; Bredin, Shannon S D

    2009-12-01

    Exercise games that employ video game technology are increasing in the marketplace but have received scant research attention despite their popularity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of videobike gaming on the constructs of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and adherence in comparison to a cycling condition where participants listen to self-selected music. Participants were 29 inactive young men assigned randomly to experimental (n = 16) or comparison (n = 13) conditions. The recommended training regime consisted of moderate intensity activity (60-75% heart rate reserve), 3 days/week for 30 min/day for 6 weeks. At the end of the first session, participants were asked to complete TPB measures and these were subsequently measured 6 weeks later. Attendance was used as the measure of adherence. Results showed that affective attitude and adherence across the 6 weeks significantly favored the videobike condition over the comparison condition. Regression analyses suggested partial mediation of the effect of the videobike condition on adherence via affective attitude. This is the first study to provide evidence that interactive videobikes may improve adherence over traditional cycling because the activity produces higher affective attitudes. The results are promising for expanding to community-based evaluation.

  6. Intentional and inadvertent non-adherence in adult coeliac disease. A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nicola J; Rubin, Gregory P; Charnock, Anne

    2013-09-01

    Adherence to a gluten-free diet is the mainstay of treatment for coeliac disease. Non-adherence is common as the diet is restrictive and can be difficult to follow. This study aimed to determine the rates of intentional and inadvertent non-adherence in adult coeliac disease and to examine the factors associated with both. A self-completion questionnaire was mailed to adult coeliac patients identified from the computer records of 31 family practices within the North East of England. We received 287 responses after one reminder. Intentional gluten consumption was reported by 115 (40%) of respondents. 155 (54%) had made at least one known mistaken lapse over the same period and 82 (29%) reported neither intentional nor mistaken gluten consumption. Using logistic regression analysis, low self-efficacy, perceptions of tolerance to gluten and intention were found to be independently predictive of intentional gluten consumption. A statistical model predicted 71.8% of cases reporting intentional lapses. Intentional non-adherence to the GFD was found to be common but not as frequent as inadvertent lapses. Distinguishing the factors influencing both intentional and inadvertent non-adherence is useful in understanding dietary self-management in coeliac disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy and flexibility impact perceived adherence barriers in pediatric kidney post-transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Shanna M; Goebel, Jens W; Pai, Ahna L H

    2011-03-01

    The alarming rates of medication nonadherence and its detrimental effect on long-term graft survival in pediatric kidney transplantation has called attention to identifying modifiable factors that promote better adherence and subsequent transplant outcomes. In a sample of 45 adolescent kidney transplant recipients (14.7 ± 3.3 years, 77.8% Caucasian, 39.5% female) and their primary caregivers, study aims included: 1) identifying sociodemographic and medical correlates of both caregiver- and patient-reported general family functioning (i.e., efficacy, flexibility, and communication) and 2) determining the unique contributions of these family functioning indices to perceived posttransplant adherence barriers. During a routine clinic visit, caregivers completed a sociodemographic form and questionnaire on general family functioning. Both caregivers and the adolescents completed a measure on perceived medication adherence barriers. Data identified household income and family structure as persistent correlates of family functioning. Familial efficacy and flexibility contributed significant variance to perceived adherence barriers. Family-based interventions enhancing modifiable family factors, such as flexibility and efficacy, in overcoming medication adherence barriers would likely promote more optimal health outcomes in the pediatric kidney transplant population. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Effect of citrus lemon oil on growth and adherence of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Xiangyu; Wang, Yuzhi; Chen, Feifei; Yu, Zhifen; Wang, Li; Chen, Shuanglu; Guo, Maoding

    2013-07-01

    In order to exploit novel anticaries agents, we investigated the effects of citrus lemon oil (CLO), a type of natural product, on growth and adherence of the primary oral cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). The growth inhibitory effect was explored with a micro-dilution assay. Adherence was analyzed by colony counts on the respective surfaces and the adherence inhibition rate (AIR). Real time-PCR was used to investigate the effects of CLO on transcription of glucosyltransferase (Gtf) encoding genes, gtfB, C and D. Neson-Somogyi method was used to measure the effects of CLO on Gtf activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration of CLO against S. mutans was 4.5 mg/ml. The CLO effectively reduced the adherence of S. mutans on glass surface (the AIR were from 98.3 to 100 %, P > 0.05) and saliva-coated enamel surface (the AIR were from 54.8 to 79.2 %, P < 0.05). CLO effectively reduced the activity of Gtf and the transcription of gtfs in a dose dependent manner (P < 0.05). In conclusion, CLO can effectively inhibit the growth and the adherence to glass and saliva-coated enamel surfaces of S. mutans. It can also inhibit the transcription of gtfs, as well as the Gtf enzyme activity.

  9. Improving healthcare worker hand hygiene adherence before patient contact: A multimodal intervention of hand hygiene practice in Three Japanese tertiary care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakihama, Tomoko; Honda, Hitoshi; Saint, Sanjay; Fowler, Karen E; Kamiya, Toru; Sato, Yumiko; Iuchi, Ritsuko; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2016-03-01

    Though hand hygiene is an important method of preventing healthcare-associated infection, we found suboptimal hand hygiene adherence among healthcare workers in 4 diverse Japanese hospitals (adherence rates of 11%-25%). Our goal was to assess multimodal hand hygiene intervention coupled with a contest to improve hand hygiene adherence. A total of 3 to 4 inpatient wards in 3 Japanese hospitals. Pre-post intervention study. The intervention was a multimodal hand hygiene intervention recommended by the World Health Organization that was tailored to each facility. The hospital with the highest adherence after the intervention was given $5000 US dollars and a trophy, provided by an American coinvestigator unaffiliated with any of the Japanese hospitals. We tracked hand hygiene adherence rates before patient contact for each unit and hospital and compared these to pre-intervention adherence rates. We observed 2982 postintervention provider-patient encounters in 10 units across 3 hospitals. Hand hygiene adherence rates were improved overall after the intervention (18% pre- to 33% postintervention; P hand hygiene rates among Japanese healthcare workers. Given the overall low rates, however, further improvement is necessary. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  10. The Effectiveness of Mobile Phone Text Messaging in Improving Medication Adherence for Patients with Chronic Diseases: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershad Sarabi, Roghayeh; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Jamshidi Orak, Roohangiz; Bahaadinbeigy, Kambiz

    2016-05-01

    Medication non-adherence is a commonly observed problem in the self-administration of treatment, regardless of the disease type. Text messaging reminders, as electronic reminders, provide an opportunity to improve medication adherence. In this study, we aimed to provide evidence addressing the question of whether text message reminders were effective in improving patients' adherence to medication. We carried out a systematic literature search, using the five electronic bibliographic databases: PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials. Studies were included on the basis of whether they examined the benefits and effects of short-message service (SMS) interventions on medication adherence. The results of this systematic review indicated that text messaging interventions have improved patients' medication adherence rate (85%, 29.34). Included in the review, those who had problems with adherence, or those whom text messaging was most helpful had HIV, asthma, diabetes, schizophrenia and heart disease (73.5%). The period of intervention varied from 1 week to 14 months. The most common study design was randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (66%) carried out in the developed countries. This study demonstrated the potential of mobile phone text messaging for medication non-adherence problem solving.

  11. The Hepatitis C treatment experience: Patients' perceptions of the facilitators of and barriers to uptake, adherence and completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sublette, Victoria A; Smith, Sian K; George, Jacob; McCaffery, Kirsten; Douglas, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the perceptions of patients receiving treatment for Hepatitis C to determine what factors influence their decision to commence treatment, ability to maintain adherence and complete their treatment program. Semi-structured interview techniques were used in a qualitative study of 20 patients undergoing treatment for Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC). To explore patients' perceived barriers and facilitators of Hepatitis C treatment adherence and completion. Analysis of patient interviews identified four key themes: (1) motivations for commencing CHC treatment - fear of death and ridding themselves of stigma and shame; (2) the influential role of provider communication - patients reported that information and feedback that was personalised to their needs and lifestyles was the most effective for improving adherence to treatment; (3) facilitators of treatment adherence and completion - social, emotional and practical support improved adherence and completion, as did temporarily ceasing employment; (4) barriers to treatment adherence and completion - these included side effects, stigma, a complicated dosing schedule and limitations of the public healthcare system. To increase treatment adherence and completion rates, a patient-centred approach is required that addresses patients' social, practical, and emotional support needs and adaptive coping strategies.

  12. Current issues in patient adherence and persistence: focus on anticoagulants for the treatment and prevention of thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick P Kneeland

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Patrick P Kneeland, Margaret C FangThe University of California, San Francisco Division of Hospital Medicine, San Francisco, CA, USAAbstract: Warfarin therapy reduces morbidity and mortality related to thromboembolism. Yet adherence to long-term warfarin therapy remains challenging due to the risks of anticoagulantassociated complications and the burden of monitoring. The aim of this paper is to review determinants of adherence and persistence on long-term anticoagulant therapy for atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism. We evaluate what the current literature reveals about the impact of warfarin on quality of life, examine warfarin trial data for patterns of adherence, and summarize known risk factors for warfarin discontinuation. Studies suggest only modest adverse effects of warfarin on quality of life, but highlight the variability of individual lifestyle experiences of patients on warfarin. Interestingly, clinical trials comparing anticoagulant adherence to alternatives (such as aspirin show that discontinuation rates on warfarin are not consistently higher than in control arms. Observational studies link a number of risk factors to warfarin non-adherence including younger age, male sex, lower stroke risk, poor cognitive function, poverty, and higher educational attainment. In addition to differentiating the relative impact of warfarin-associated complications (such as bleeding versus the lifestyle burdens of warfarin monitoring on adherence, future investigation should focus on optimizing patient education and enhancing models of physician–patient shared-decision making around anticoagulation.Keywords: anticoagulation, warfarin, adherence, persistence, thromboembolism

  13. Educational video to improve CPAP use in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea at risk for poor adherence: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralnick, Amy S; Balachandran, Jay S; Szutenbach, Shane; Adley, Kevin; Emami, Leila; Mohammadi, Meelad; Farnan, Jeanne M; Arora, Vineet M; Mokhlesi, Babak

    2017-12-01

    Suboptimal adherence to CPAP limits its clinical effectiveness in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Although rigorous behavioural interventions improve CPAP adherence, their labour-intensive nature has limited widespread implementation. Moreover, these interventions have not been tested in patients at risk of poor CPAP adherence. Our objective was to determine whether an educational video will improve CPAP adherence in patients at risk of poor CPAP adherence. Patients referred by clinicians without sleep medicine expertise to an urban sleep laboratory that serves predominantly minority population were randomised to view an educational video about OSA and CPAP therapy before the polysomnogram, or to usual care. The primary outcome was CPAP adherence during the first 30 days of therapy. Secondary outcomes were show rates to sleep clinic (attended appointment) and 30-day CPAP adherence after the sleep clinic visit date. A total of 212 patients met the eligibility criteria and were randomised to video education (n=99) or to usual care (n=113). There were no differences in CPAP adherence at 30 days (3.3, 95% CI 2.8 to 3.8 hours/day video education; vs 3.5, 95% CI 3.1 to 4.0 hours/day usual care; p=0.44) or during the 30 days after sleep clinic visit. Sleep clinic show rate was 54% in the video education group and 59% in the usual care group (p=0.41). CPAP adherence, however, significantly worsened in patients who did not show up to the sleep clinic. In patients at risk for poor CPAP adherence, an educational video did not improve CPAP adherence or show rates to sleep clinic compared with usual care. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02553694. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Adherence of Helicobacter pylori to the Gastric Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Clyne

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial adhesion to the intestinal epithelium is a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of many enteric diseases. Helicobacter pylori is a duodenal pathogen that adheres to the gastric epithelium and causes gastritis and peptic ulceration. The mechanism by which H pylori causes disease has not yet been elucidated but adherence to the gastric mucosa is thought to be an important virulence determinant of the organism. What is known about adherence of H pylori to the gastric mucosa is summarized. Topics discussed are the mechanism of H pylori adherence; in vitro and in vivo models of H pylori infection; and adherence and potential adhesins and receptors for H pylori.

  15. Density functional theory, comparative vibrational spectroscopic studies, highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital analysis of Linezolid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalakshmi, K.; Gunasekaran, S.; Kumaresan, S.

    2015-06-01

    The Fourier transform infrared spectra and Fourier transform Raman spectra of Linezolid have been recorded in the regions 4,000-400 and 4,000-100 cm-1, respectively. Utilizing the observed Fourier transform infrared spectra and Fourier transform Raman spectra data, a complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound have been carried out. The optimum molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities and Raman scattering activities, have been calculated by density functional theory with 6-31G(d,p), 6-311G(d,p) and M06-2X/6-31G(d,p) levels. The difference between the observed and scaled wavenumber values of most of the fundamentals is very small. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of Linezolid is reported. Mulliken's net charges have also been calculated. Ultraviolet-visible spectrum of the title molecule has also been calculated using time-dependent density functional method. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential, highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital analysis and several thermodynamic properties have been performed by the density functional theoretical method.

  16. Emergence of liquid crystalline order in the lowest Landau level of a quantum Hall system with internal anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftja, Orion

    2018-05-01

    It has now become evident that interplay between internal anisotropy parameters (such as electron mass anisotropy and/or anisotropic coupling of electrons to the substrate) and electron-electron correlation effects can create a rich variety of possibilities especially in quantum Hall systems. The electron mass anisotropy or material substrate effects (for example, the piezoelectric effect in GaAs) can lead to an effective anisotropic interaction potential between electrons. For lack of knowledge of realistic ab-initio potentials that may describe such effects, we adopt a phenomenological approach and assume that an anisotropic Coulomb interaction potential mimics the internal anisotropy of the system. In this work we investigate the emergence of liquid crystalline order at filling factor ν = 1/6 of the lowest Landau level, a state very close to the point where a transition from the liquid to the Wigner solid happens. We consider small finite systems of electrons interacting with an anisotropic Coulomb interaction potential and study the energy stability of an anisotropic liquid crystalline state relative to its isotropic Fermi-liquid counterpart. Quantum Monte Carlo simulation results in disk geometry show stabilization of liquid crystalline order driven by an anisotropic Coulomb interaction potential at all values of the interaction anisotropy parameter studied.

  17. On the theoretical analysis of the lowest many-electron states for cyclic zigzag graphene nano-ribbons

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