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Sample records for lowered hepatic iron

  1. Hepatic iron overload: Quantitative MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomori, J.M.; Horev, G.; Tamary, H.; Zandback, J.; Kornreich, L.; Zaizov, R.; Freud, E.; Krief, O.; Ben-Meir, J.; Rotem, H.

    1991-01-01

    Iron deposits demonstrate characteristically shortened T2 relaxation times. Several previously published studies reported poor correlation between the in vivo hepatic 1/T2 measurements made by means of midfield magnetic resonance (MR) units and the hepatic iron content of iron-overloaded patients. In this study, the authors assessed the use of in vivo 1/T2 measurements obtained by means of MR imaging at 0.5 T using short echo times (13.4 and 30 msec) and single-echo-sequences as well as computed tomographic (CT) attenuation as a measure of liver iron concentration in 10 severely iron-overloaded patients with beta-thalassemia major. The iron concentrations in surgical wedge biopsy samples of the liver, which varied between 3 and 9 mg/g of wet weight (normal, less than or equal to 0.5 mg/g), correlated well (r = .93, P less than or equal to .0001) with the preoperative in vivo hepatic 1/T2 measurements. The CT attenuation did not correlate with liver iron concentration. Quantitative MR imaging is a readily available noninvasive method for the assessment of hepatic iron concentration in iron-overloaded patients, reducing the need for needle biopsies of the liver

  2. Effect of iron, taurine and arginine on rat hepatic fibrosis

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    Song Liangwen; Wang Dewen; Cui Xuemei

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The promotion role of iron on pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis and the protective role of taurine and L-arginine against hepatic fibrosis were studied. Method: The model of rat radiation hepatic fibrosis was used. Experimental rats were divided into 0 Gy, 30 Gy, 30 Gy + iron, 30 Gy + taurine and 30 Gy + L-arginine groups. Serum iron, liver tissue hydroxyproline (Hyp) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured one and three months respectively after irradiation of hepatic tissue, production and distribution characteristics of hepatic tissue type I and III collagen were observed with a polarizing microscope. Results: Administration of iron agent could significantly increase hepatic tissue MDA content and serum iron concentration, one month after irradiation, hepatic tissue Hyp in 30 Gy + iron group began to increase, and collagen in hepatic tissue obviously increased. Taurine and L-arginine could reduce serum iron concentration and decrease production of hepatic fissure Hyp. Conclusion: Exogenous iron agent could promote early development of radiation hepatic fibrosis; taurine and arginine could diminish pathologic alteration of hepatic fibrosis to a certain extent

  3. SERUM IRON PARAMETERS IN ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS, CRYPTOGENIC CIRRHOSIS, CHRONIC HEPATITIS B AND CHRONIC HEPATITIS C

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    Sajeevan K. C

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Regular monitoring of serum iron parameters is helpful for assessing the severity of alcoholic liver disease. Assessment of serum iron parameters are used for screening hereditary haemochromatosis in chronic liver disease. Serum iron parameters in chronic liver disease have not been clearly described in most of the studies. The aim of this study was to assess the serum iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC, transferrin saturation and ferritin levels in common chronic liver disease like alcoholic cirrhosis, cryptogenic cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis C and chronic hepatitis B. MATERIALS AND METHODS 110 consecutive patients with chronic liver disease admitted to the Gastroenterology Department, Government Medical College, Kozhikode were selected for the study. The categories of chronic liver disease included in our study were alcoholic cirrhosis (Group I, n = 40, cryptogenic cirrhosis (Group II, n = 30, chronic hepatitis C (Group III, n = 20 and chronic hepatitis B (Group IV, n = 20. Serum iron, ferritin, total iron binding capacity and transferrin saturation were estimated in the fasting sample. Statistical Analysis- Analysis was performed using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Bonferroni test to assess statistical significance of difference of continuous variables among and between groups, respectively. The results were considered statistically significant at the level of p <0.05. RESULTS The serum iron level was normal and total iron binding capacity was low in all the four groups of chronic liver disease. Serum ferritin and transferrin saturation were significantly higher in alcoholic cirrhosis in comparison with cryptogenic cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis B, but was not statistically significant in comparison with chronic hepatitis C. CONCLUSION We observed irregularities in iron status in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, cryptogenic cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis C and chronic hepatitis B.

  4. Estimates of the effect on hepatic iron of oral deferiprone compared with subcutaneous desferrioxamine for treatment of iron overload in thalassemia major: a systematic review

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    Caro J

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta thalassemia major requires regular blood transfusions and iron chelation to alleviate the harmful accumulation of iron. Evidence on the efficacy and safety of the available agents, desferrioxamine and deferiprone, is derived from small, non-comparative, heterogeneous observational studies. This evidence was reviewed to quantitatively compare the ability of these chelators to reduce hepatic iron. Methods The literature was searched using Medline and all reports addressing the effect of either chelator on hepatic iron were considered. Data were abstracted independently by two investigators. Analyses were performed using reported individual patient data. Hepatic iron concentrations at study end and changes over time were compared using ANCOVA, controlling for initial iron load. Differences in the proportions of patients improving were tested using χ2. Results Eight of 11 reports identified provided patient-level data relating to 30 desferrioxamine- and 68 deferiprone-treated patients. Desferrioxamine was more likely than optimal dose deferiprone to decrease hepatic iron over the average follow-up of 45 months (odds ratio, 19.0, 95% CI, 2.4 to 151.4. The degree of improvement was also larger with desferrioxamine. Conclusions This analysis suggests that desferrioxamine is more effective than deferiprone in lowering hepatic iron. This comparative analysis – despite its limitations – should prove beneficial to physicians faced with the challenge of selecting the optimal treatment for their patients.

  5. Lower doses venlafaxine-associated toxic hepatitis in a patient with chronic hepatitis

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    Sencan, I.; Sahin, I.; Ozcetin, A.

    2003-01-01

    Toxic hepatitis is observed with high doses of Venlafaxine. But toxic hepatitis has not been yet reported at lower doses of Venlafaxine such as 37.5 mg per day. In this case report, a case of Venlafaxine associated toxic hepatitis with lower doses in patient with history of chronic hepatitis is presented. We suggest that liver function should be regularly monitored in patients with history of chronic hepatitis receiving Venlafaxine even at lower doses and even when their liver enzymes are normal. (author)

  6. DMPD: Iron regulation of hepatic macrophage TNFalpha expression. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11841920 Iron regulation of hepatic macrophage TNFalpha expression. Tsukamoto H. Fr...ee Radic Biol Med. 2002 Feb 15;32(4):309-13. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Iron regulation of hepatic macrophage... TNFalpha expression. PubmedID 11841920 Title Iron regulation of hepatic macrophage TNFalpha expres

  7. The role of MR imaging in detection of hepatic iron overload in patients with cirrhosis of different origins.

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    Szurowska, Edyta; Sikorska, Katarzyna; Izycka-Swieszewska, E; Nowicki, Tomasz; Romanowski, Tomasz; Bielawski, Krzysztof P; Studniarek, Michał

    2010-01-27

    There are many pathological conditions with hepatic iron overload. Classical definite diagnostic methods of these disorders are invasive and based on a direct tissue biopsy material. For the last years the role of MR imaging in liver diagnostics has been increasing. MRI shows changes of liver intensity in patients with hepatic iron overload. Changes in MR signal are an indirect consequence of change of relaxation times T2 and T2*, that can be directly measured. The purpose of the study was to evaluate usefulness of MR imaging in the detection of hepatic iron overload in patients with cirrhosis of different origins. MR imaging at 1.5T was prospectively performed in 44 patients with liver cirrhosis who had undergone liver biopsy with histopathological assessment of hepatic iron deposits. In all patients the following sequences were used: SE, Express, GRE in T2 and T1-weighted images. Signal intensity (SI) was measured on images obtained with each T2 weighted sequence by means of regions of interest, placed in the liver and paraspinal muscles. The correlation between iron overload, histopathological score, serum ferritin and SI ratio was analyzed. In 20 patients with iron overload confirmed by the biopsy, the liver parenchyma demonstrated lower signal intensity than that of paraspinal muscles. This effect was visible only in 8 patients with hepatic iron overload in Express T2-weighted images. Higher signal intensity of liver than that of skeletal muscles on GRE - T2 weighted images was noted in 24 patients with cirrhosis and without elevated hepatic iron concentration. We observed a correlation between low and high iron concentration and liver to muscle SI ratio. MR imaging is a useful and fast noninvasive diagnostic tool for the detection of liver iron overload in patients with cirrhosis of different origins.Liver to muscle SI ratio in GRE-T2-weighted sequence facilitates to differentiate patients with low and high degree of hepatic iron overload, which correlates

  8. Dietary iron controls circadian hepatic glucose metabolism through heme synthesis.

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    Simcox, Judith A; Mitchell, Thomas Creighton; Gao, Yan; Just, Steven F; Cooksey, Robert; Cox, James; Ajioka, Richard; Jones, Deborah; Lee, Soh-Hyun; King, Daniel; Huang, Jingyu; McClain, Donald A

    2015-04-01

    The circadian rhythm of the liver maintains glucose homeostasis, and disruption of this rhythm is associated with type 2 diabetes. Feeding is one factor that sets the circadian clock in peripheral tissues, but relatively little is known about the role of specific dietary components in that regard. We assessed the effects of dietary iron on circadian gluconeogenesis. Dietary iron affects circadian glucose metabolism through heme-mediated regulation of the interaction of nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group d member 1 (Rev-Erbα) with its cosuppressor nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCOR). Loss of regulated heme synthesis was achieved by aminolevulinic acid (ALA) treatment of mice or cultured cells to bypass the rate-limiting enzyme in hepatic heme synthesis, ALA synthase 1 (ALAS1). ALA treatment abolishes differences in hepatic glucose production and in the expression of gluconeogenic enzymes seen with variation of dietary iron. The differences among diets are also lost with inhibition of heme synthesis with isonicotinylhydrazine. Dietary iron modulates levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a transcriptional activator of ALAS1, to affect hepatic heme. Treatment of mice with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine diminishes PGC-1α variation observed among the iron diets, suggesting that iron is acting through reactive oxygen species signaling. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  9. Calcium channel blockers ameliorate iron overload-associated hepatic fibrosis by altering iron transport and stellate cell apoptosis

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    Zhang, Ying [Department of Pharmacology, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Department of Pathology, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Hebei Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine Research on Cardio-Cerebrovascular Disease, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Zhao, Xin [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051, Hebei (China); Chang, Yanzhong [Laboratory of Molecular Iron Metabolism, College of Life Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024, Hebei (China); Zhang, Yuanyuan [Department of Pharmacology, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Chu, Xi [Department of Pharmacy, The Forth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050011, Hebei (China); Zhang, Xuan [Department of Pharmacology, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Liu, Zhenyi; Guo, Hui [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Wang, Na [Department of Physiology, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Gao, Yonggang [Department of Pharmacology, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Zhang, Jianping, E-mail: zhangjianping14@126.com [Department of Pharmacology, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Chu, Li, E-mail: chuli0614@126.com [Department of Pharmacology, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Hebei Key Laboratory of Integrative Medicine on Liver-Kidney Patterns, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China)

    2016-06-15

    Liver fibrosis is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with iron overload. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) can antagonize divalent cation entry into renal and myocardial cells and inhibit fibrogenic gene expression. We investigated the potential of CCBs to resolve iron overload-associated hepatic fibrosis. Kunming mice were assigned to nine groups (n = 8 per group): control, iron overload, deferoxamine, high and low dose verapamil, high and low dose nimodipine, and high and low dose diltiazem. Iron deposition and hepatic fibrosis were measured in mouse livers. Expression levels of molecules associated with transmembrane iron transport were determined by molecular biology approaches. In vitro HSC-T6 cells were randomized into nine groups (the same groups as the mice). Changes in proliferation, apoptosis, and metalloproteinase expression in cells were detected to assess the anti-fibrotic effects of CCBs during iron overload conditions. We found that CCBs reduced hepatic iron content, intracellular iron deposition, the number of hepatic fibrotic areas, collagen expression levels, and hydroxyproline content. CCBs rescued abnormal expression of α1C protein in L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel (LVDCC) and down-regulated divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT-1) expression in mouse livers. In iron-overloaded HSC-T6 cells, CCBs reduced iron deposition, inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1). CCBs are potential therapeutic agents that can be used to address hepatic fibrosis during iron overload. They resolve hepatic fibrosis probably correlated with regulating transmembrane iron transport and inhibiting HSC growth. - Highlights: • Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) reduced hepatic iron content. • CCBs decreased hepatic fibrotic areas and collagen expression levels. • CCBs resolve fibrosis by regulating iron transport and

  10. Mitochondrial iron accumulation exacerbates hepatic toxicity caused by hepatitis C virus core protein

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    Sekine, Shuichi; Ito, Konomi; Watanabe, Haruna; Nakano, Takafumi [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan); Moriya, Kyoji; Shintani, Yoshizumi; Fujie, Hajime; Tsutsumi, Takeya; Miyoshi, Hideyuki; Fujinaga, Hidetake; Shinzawa, Seiko; Koike, Kazuhiko [Department of Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Horie, Toshiharu, E-mail: t.horie@thu.ac.jp [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    Patients with long-lasting hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are at major risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Iron accumulation in the livers of these patients is thought to exacerbate conditions of oxidative stress. Transgenic mice that express the HCV core protein develop HCC after the steatosis stage and produce an excess of hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS). The overproduction of ROS in the liver is the net result of HCV core protein-induced dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. This study examined the impact of ferric nitrilacetic acid (Fe-NTA)-mediated iron overload on mitochondrial damage and ROS production in HCV core protein-expressing HepG2 (human HCC) cells (Hep39b cells). A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS production were observed following Fe-NTA treatment. After continuous exposure to Fe-NTA for six days, cell toxicity was observed in Hep39b cells, but not in mock (vector-transfected) HepG2 cells. Moreover, mitochondrial iron ({sup 59}Fe) uptake was increased in the livers of HCV core protein-expressing transgenic mice. This increase in mitochondrial iron uptake was inhibited by Ru360, a mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uniporter inhibitor. Furthermore, the Fe-NTA-induced augmentation of mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS production, and cell toxicity were also inhibited by Ru360 in Hep39b cells. Taken together, these results indicate that Ca{sup 2+} uniporter-mediated mitochondrial accumulation of iron exacerbates hepatocyte toxicity caused by the HCV core protein. - Highlights: • Iron accumulation in the livers of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is thought to exacerbate oxidative stress. • The impact of iron overload on mitochondrial damage and ROS production in HCV core protein-expressing cells were examined. • Mitochondrial iron uptake was increased in the livers of HCV core protein-expressing transgenic mice. • Ca{sup 2+} uniporter-mediated mitochondrial accumulation of iron exacerbates

  11. Liver steatosis correlates with iron overload but not with HFE gene mutations in chronic hepatitis C.

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    Sikorska, Katarzyna; Stalke, Piotr; Romanowski, Tomasz; Rzepko, Robert; Bielawski, Krzysztof Piotr

    2013-08-01

    Liver steatosis and iron overload, which are frequently observed in chronic hepatitis C (CHC), may contribute to the progression of liver injury. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between liver steatosis and iron overload in Polish patients with CHC compared to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and HFE-hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) patients. A total of 191 CHC patients were compared with 67 NAFLD and 21 HH patients. Liver function tests, serum markers of iron metabolism, cholesterol and triglycerides were assayed. The inflammatory activity, fibrosis, iron deposits and steatosis stages were assessed in liver specimens. HFE gene polymorphisms were investigated by PCR-RFLP. Liver steatosis was associated with obesity and diabetes mellitus. This disease was confirmed in 76/174 (44%) CHC patients, most of whom were infected with genotype 1. The average grade of steatosis was higher in NAFLD patients. CHC patients had significantly higher iron concentrations and transferrin saturations than NAFLD patients. Compared with CHC patients, HH patients had higher values of serum iron parameters and more intensive hepatocyte iron deposits without differences in the prevalence and intensity of liver steatosis. In the CHC group, lipids accumulation in hepatocytes was significantly associated with the presence of serum markers of iron overload. No correlation between the HFE gene polymorphism and liver steatosis in CHC patients was found. Liver steatosis was diagnosed in nearly half of CHC patients, most of whom were infected with genotype 1. The intensity of steatosis was lower in CHC patients than that in NAFLD patients because of a less frequent diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Only in CHC patients were biochemical markers of iron accumulation positively correlated with liver steatosis; these findings were independent of HFE gene mutations.

  12. Hepatic iron overload is associated with hepatocyte apoptosis during Clonorchis sinensis infection.

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    Han, Su; Tang, Qiaoran; Chen, Rui; Li, Yihong; Shu, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoli

    2017-08-01

    Hepatic iron overload has been implicated in many liver diseases; however, whether it is involved in clonorchiasis remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) infection causes hepatic iron overload, analyze the relationship between the iron overload and associated cell apoptosis, so as to determine the role of excess iron plays in C. sinensis-induced liver injury. The Perls' Prussian staining and atomic absorption spectrometry methods were used to investigate the iron overload in hepatic sections of wistar rats and patients infected with C. sinensis. The hepatic apoptosis was detected by transferase uridyl nick end labeling (TUNEL) methods. Spearman analysis was used for determining the correlation of the histological hepatic iron index and the apoptotic index. Blue iron particles were deposited mainly in the hepatocytes, Kupffer cells and endothelial cells, around the liver portal and central vein area of both patients and rats. The total iron score was found to be higher in the infected groups than the respective control from 8 weeks. The hepatic iron concentration was also significantly higher in treatment groups than in control rats from 8 weeks. The hepatocyte apoptosis was found to be significantly higher in the portal area of the liver tissue and around the central vein. However, spearman's rank correlation coefficient revealed that there was a mildly negative correlation between the iron index and hepatocyte apoptosis. This present study confirmed that hepatic iron overload was found during C. sinensis infection. This suggests that iron overload may be associated with hepatocyte apoptosis and involved in liver injury during C. sinensis infection. Further studies are needed to investigate the molecular mechanism involved here.

  13. Dietary Iron Supplementation Alters Hepatic Inflammation in a Rat Model of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

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    Machi Atarashi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is now the most common liver disease in the world. NAFLD can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Acquired hepatic iron overload is seen in a number of patients with NAFLD; however, its significance in the pathology of NAFLD is still debated. Here, we investigated the role of dietary iron supplementation in experimental steatohepatitis in rats. Rats were fed a control, high-fat (HF, high-fat high-iron (HFHI and high-iron (HI diet for 30 weeks. Blood biochemical, histopathological and gut microbiota analyses were performed. Rats in HF and HFHI groups showed an ALT-dominant elevation of serum transaminases, hepatic steatosis, hepatic inflammation, and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. The number of large inflammatory foci, corresponding to lobular inflammation in NASH patients, was significantly higher in HFHI than in HF group; within the lesion, macrophages with intense iron staining were observed. Hepatic expression of TNFα was higher in HFHI than that in HF group. There was no significant change in hepatic oxidative stress, gut microbiota or serum endotoxin levels between HF and HFHI groups. These results suggested that dietary iron supplementation enhances experimental steatohepatitis induced by long-term high-fat diet feeding in rats. Iron-laden macrophages can play an important role in the enhancement of hepatic inflammation.

  14. Use of deferiprone for the treatment of hepatic iron storage disease in three hornbills.

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    Sandmeier, Peter; Clauss, Marcus; Donati, Olivio F; Chiers, Koen; Kienzle, Ellen; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    3 hornbills (2 Papua hornbills [Aceros plicatus] and 1 longtailed hornbill [Tockus albocristatus]) were evaluated because of general listlessness and loss of feather glossiness. Because hepatic iron storage disease was suspected, liver biopsy was performed and formalin-fixed liver samples were submitted for histologic examination and quantitative image analysis (QIA). Additional frozen liver samples were submitted for chemical analysis. Birds also underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) under general anesthesia for noninvasive measurement of liver iron content. Serum biochemical analysis and analysis of feed were also performed. Results of diagnostic testing indicated that all 3 hornbills were affected with hepatic iron storage disease. The iron chelator deferiprone was administered (75 mg/kg [34.1 mg/lb], PO, once daily for 90 days). During the treatment period, liver biopsy samples were obtained at regular intervals for QIA and chemical analysis of the liver iron content and follow-up MRI was performed. In all 3 hornbills, a rapid and large decrease in liver iron content was observed. All 3 methods for quantifying the liver iron content were able to verify the decrease in liver iron content. Orally administered deferiprone was found to effectively reduce the liver iron content in these 3 hornbills with iron storage disease. All 3 methods used to monitor the liver iron content (QIA, chemical analysis of liver biopsy samples, and MRI) had similar results, indicating that all of these methods should be considered for the diagnosis of iron storage disease and monitoring of liver iron content during treatment.

  15. Significance of iron reduction for the therapy of chronic hepatitis C

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    Nožić Darko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It has been established that many patients with chronic hepatitis C have elevated serum iron, feritin levels and iron deposits in the liver. Therefore, the liver damage due to hepatitis C virus may be aggravated with iron overload. In many studies higher levels of iron in the blood and the liver were connected with the decreased response to interferon-alfa therapy for chronic viral hepatitis C. Recent introduction of pegylated interferons plus ribavirin has improved the therapeutic response, so it is now possible to cure more than 50% of the patients. Case report. Three patients with chronic hepatitis C and iron overload were presented. Iron reduction therapy using phlebotomy or eritrocytapheresis with plasmapheresis was done at different times in regard to specific antiviral therapy or as a sole therapy. Conclusion. It has been shown that iron reduction, sole or combined with antiviral therapy, led to the deacreased aminotransferase serum activity and might have slow down the evolution of chronic hepatitis C viral infection.

  16. Branched-chain amino acids reduce hepatic iron accumulation and oxidative stress in hepatitis C virus polyprotein-expressing mice

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    Korenaga, Masaaki; Nishina, Sohji; Korenaga, Keiko; Tomiyama, Yasuyuki; Yoshioka, Naoko; Hara, Yuichi; Sasaki, Yusuke; Shimonaka, Yasushi; Hino, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) reduce the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with cirrhosis. However, the mechanisms that underlie these effects remain unknown. Previously, we reported that oxidative stress in male transgenic mice that expressed hepatitis C virus polyprotein (HCVTgM) caused hepatic iron accumulation by reducing hepcidin transcription, thereby leading to HCC development. This study investigated whether long-term treatment with BCAA reduced hepatic iron accumulation and oxidative stress in iron-overloaded HCVTgM and in patients with HCV-related advanced fibrosis. Methods Male HCVTgM were fed an excess-iron diet that comprised either casein or 3.0% BCAA, or a control diet, for 6 months. Results For HCVTgM, BCAA supplementation increased the serum hepcidin-25 levels and antioxidant status [ratio of biological antioxidant potential (BAP) relative to derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROM)], decreased the hepatic iron contents, attenuated reactive oxygen species generation, and restored mitochondrial superoxide dismutase expression and mitochondrial complex I activity in the liver compared with mice fed the control diet. After 48 weeks of BCAA supplementation in patients with HCV-related advanced fibrosis, BAP/dROM and serum hepcidin-25 increased and serum ferritin decreased compared with the pretreatment levels. Conclusions BCAA supplementation reduced oxidative stress by restoring mitochondrial function and improved iron metabolism by increasing hepcidin-25 in both iron-overloaded HCVTgM and patients with HCV-related advanced fibrosis. These activities of BCAA may partially account for their inhibitory effects on HCC development in cirrhosis patients. PMID:25156780

  17. Superparamagnetic iron oxide enhanced MR imaging: influence of hepatic dysfunction in cirrhotic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Hyo Sung; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Chong Soo; Ym, Seong Hee; Han, Hyun Young

    2000-01-01

    To determine the influence of liver dysfunction on the detection of focal hepatic nodules, and investigate the loss of signal intensity of hepatic parenchyma occurring after superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-induced contrast enhancement in patients with liver cirrhosis. In 68 patients with liver cirrhosis, we evaluated MR images before and after the administration of SPIO. /clinical information and laboratory data indicated that the liver was normal in ten patients (nine hemangiomas and one hepatic cyst), while Child's A was diagnosed in 25 cases (22 of which were hepatocellular carcinoma (HCCs)),Child's B in 15 (11 HCCs), and Child's C in 18 (10 HCCs).Before and after SPIO administration, conventional T2-weighted spin-echo, respiratory-triggered T2-weighted turbo spin-echo, and breathhold T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images were obtained. After the administration of SPIO, degrees of lever dysfunction and laboratory data were correlated with reductions in signal intensity of the liver, and in addition, the state of hepatic dysfunction was correlated with inhomogeneous parenchymal change and lesion conspicuity. After the administration of SPIO, percentage signal loss in liver parenchyma was significantly higher on conventional T2-weighted spin-echo images than on T2-weighted turbo spin-echo and breathhold T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (p less than 0.05). There was significant correlation between degree of liver dysfunction and of signal loss (p less than ).05), while percentage signal loss of the liver was lower in the Child's C group than in the other three. In addition, there was close correlation between percentage signal loss and laboratory data such as albumin and total bilirubin levels, and prothrombin time (p less than 0.05). Qualitative analysis showed that inhomogeneous enhancement due to fibrous septa and a regenerative nodule occurred more often in the Child's B and Child's C group than in the normal and Child's A group (p less than 0.0001). In terms of

  18. Hepatic iron content is independently associated with serum hepcidin levels in subjects with obesity.

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    Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Moreno, María; Puig, Josep; Blasco, Gerard; Ortega, Francisco; Xifra, Gemma; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2017-10-01

    Serum hepcidin concentration is known to increase in parallel to circulating markers of iron stores. We aimed to investigate whether this is reflected at the tissue level in subjects with obesity. Serum hepcidin and ferritin levels (ELISA) and hepatic iron content (using magnetic resonance imaging) were analyzed longitudinally in 44 participants (19 without obesity and 25 with obesity). In a subgroup of 16 participants with obesity, a weight loss intervention was performed. Serum hepcidin, ferritin and hepatic iron content (HIC) were significantly increased in participants with obesity. Age- and gender-adjusted serum hepcidin was positively correlated with BMI, hsCRP, ferritin and HIC. In addition, age- and gender-adjusted serum hepcidin was positively correlated with ferritin and HIC in both non-obese and obese participants. In multivariate regression analysis, hepatic iron content (p obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Stainable hepatic iron in 341 African American adults at coroner/medical examiner autopsy

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    Acton Ronald T

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results of previous autopsy studies indicate that increased hepatic iron stores or hepatic iron overload is common in African Americans dying in hospitals, but there are no reports of hepatic iron content in other cohorts of African Americans. Methods We investigated the prevalence of heavy liver iron deposition in African American adults. Using established histochemical criteria, we graded Perls' acid ferrocyanide-reactive iron in the hepatocytes and Kupffer cells of 341 consecutive African American adults who were autopsied in the coroner/medical examiner office. Heavy staining was defined as grade 3 or 4 hepatocyte iron or grade 3 Kupffer cell iron. Results There were 254 men and 85 women (mean age ± 1 SD: 44 ± 13 y vs. 48 ± 14 y, respectively; p = 0.0255; gender was unstated or unknown in two subjects. Approximately one-third of subjects died of natural causes. Heavy staining was observed in 10.2% of men and 4.7% of women. 23 subjects had heavy hepatocyte staining only, six had heavy Kupffer cell staining only, and one had a mixed pattern of heavy staining. 15 subjects had histories of chronic alcoholism; three had heavy staining confined to hepatocytes. We analyzed the relationships of three continuous variables (age at death in years, hepatocyte iron grade, Kupffer cell iron grade and two categorical variables (sex, cause of death (natural and non-natural causes in all 341 subjects using a correlation matrix with Bonferroni correction. This revealed two positive correlations: hepatocyte with Kupffer cell iron grades (p Conclusions The present results confirm and extend previous observations that heavy liver iron staining is relatively common in African Americans. The pertinence of these observations to genetic and acquired causes of iron overload in African Americans is discussed.

  20. lowered serum triglyceride levels among chronic hepatitis b-infected

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    about the effect of the two pathological stages of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection – chronic- symptomatic and ... 2 hepatitis B disease and plasma metabolite dys- regulation has become the subject of interest by most biomedical researchers over the past dec- ade. The liver as a ..... leukin – 1, and interferon – α stimulate.

  1. SQUID biosusceptometry in the measurement of hepatic iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheth, Sujit

    2003-01-01

    Individuals with primary or secondary abnormalities of iron metabolism, such as hereditary hemochromatosis and transfusional iron loading, may develop potentially lethal systemic iron overload. Over time, this excess iron is progressively deposited in the liver, heart, pancreas, and other organs, resulting in cirrhosis, heart disease, diabetes and other disorders. Unless treated, death usually results from cardiac failure. The amount of iron in the liver is the best indicator of the amount of iron in the whole body. At present, the only sure way to measure the amount of iron in the liver is to remove a sample of the liver by biopsy. Iron stored in the liver can be magnetized to a small degree when placed in a magnetic field. The amount of magnetization is measured by our instrument, called a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) susceptometer. In patients with iron overload, our previous studies have shown that magnetic measurements of liver iron in patients with iron overload are quantitatively equivalent to biochemical determinations on tissue obtained by biopsy. The safety, ease, rapidity, and comfort of magnetic measurements make frequent, serial studies technically feasible and practically acceptable to patients. (orig.)

  2. Urinary Hepcidin Levels in Iron-Deficient and Iron-Supplemented Piglets Correlate with Hepcidin Hepatic mRNA and Serum Levels and with Body Iron Status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Staroń

    Full Text Available Among livestock, domestic pig (Sus scrofa is a species, in which iron metabolism has been most intensively examined during last decade. The obvious reason for studying the regulation of iron homeostasis especially in young pigs is neonatal iron deficiency anemia commonly occurring in these animals. Moreover, supplementation of essentially all commercially reared piglets with iron entails a need for monitoring the efficacy of this routine practice followed in the swine industry for several decades. Since the discovery of hepcidin many studies confirmed its role as key regulator of iron metabolism and pointed out the assessment of its concentrations in biological fluids as diagnostic tool for iron-related disorder. Here we demonstrate that urine hepcidin-25 levels measured by a combination of weak cation exchange chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (WCX-TOF MS are highly correlated with mRNA hepcidin expression in the liver and plasma hepcidin-25 concentrations in anemic and iron-supplemented 28-day old piglets. We also found a high correlation between urine hepcidin level and hepatic non-heme iron content. Our results show that similarly to previously described transgenic mouse models of iron disorders, young pigs constitute a convenient animal model to explore accuracy and relationship between indicators for assessing systemic iron status.

  3. Ameliorating role of rutin on oxidative stress induced by iron overload in hepatic tissue of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziza, Samy Ali Hussein; Azab, Mohammed El-Said; El-Shall, Soheir Kamal

    2014-08-01

    Iron is an essential element that participates in several metabolic activities of cells; however, excess iron is a major cause of iron-induced oxidative stress and several human diseases. Natural flavonoids, as rutin, are well-known antioxidants and could be efficient protective agents. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective influence of rutin supplementation to improve rat antioxidant systems against IOL-induced hepatic oxidative stress. Sixty male albino rats were randomly divided to three equal groups. The first group, the control, the second group, iron overload group, the third group was used as iron overload+rutin group. Rats received six doses of ferric hydroxide polymaltose (100 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) as one dose every two days, by intraperitoneal injections (IP) and administrated rutin (50 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) as one daily oral dose until the sacrificed day. Blood samples for serum separation and liver tissue specimens were collected three times, after three, four and five weeks from the onset of the experiment. Serum iron profiles total iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC), Unsaturated Iron Binding Capacity (UIBC), transferrin (Tf) and Transferrin Saturation% (TS%)}, ferritin, albumin, total Protein, total cholesterol, triacylglycerols levels and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities were determined. Moreover, total iron in the liver, L-malondialdehyde (L-MDA), glutathione (GSH), Nitric Oxide (NO) and Total Nucleic Acid (TNA) levels and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were also determined. The obtained results revealed that, iron overload (IOL) resulted in significant increase in serum iron, TIBC, Tf, TS% and ferritin levels and AST and ALT activities and also increased liver iron, L-MDA and NO levels. Meanwhile, it decreased serum UIBC, total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, albumin, total protein and liver GSH, TNA levels and Gpx, CAT

  4. Diagnosis of hepatic iron overload: a family study illustrating pitfalls in diagnosing hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schranz, Melanie; Talasz, Heribert; Graziadei, Ivo; Winder, Thomas; Sergi, Consolato; Bogner, Klaus; Vogel, Wolfgang; Zoller, Heinz

    2009-03-01

    Recent identification of genetic variants in iron storage disease has changed the classification system and diagnostic algorithms for hemochromatosis. Clinical diagnosis of the disease requires phenotypic evidence of iron overload because the commonly disease-associated HFE genotypes have an incomplete penetrance. Furthermore, approximately 20% of patients with a clinical diagnosis of hemochromatosis have no disease-associated genotype, which underlines the importance of clear phenotypic criteria of hemochromatosis. A diagnosis of hemochromatosis cannot be made even in patients with liver cirrhosis simply on the basis of genetic testing that indicates that iron overload is the cause of the disease and not its consequence. Proper diagnosis requires integration of clinical presentation, family history, and the results of biochemical and histopathologic tests. Here we propose a rational diagnostic algorithm for hepatic iron overload syndromes and illustrate potential pitfalls by presenting a family study in a pedigree with rare HFE variants (H63D and E168Q), in cis on the same chromosome. Although the clinical suspicion of hemochromatosis was confirmed by histology, chemical analysis of liver tissue revealed a normal hepatic iron concentration, which is compatible with the genetic finding of 1 normal and 1 doubly mutated allele. In conclusion, clinical suspicion of hemochromatosis and elevated serum iron parameters should prompt HFE genotyping for C282Y and H63D. Should they be uninformative, further genetic tests should be recommended only if iron overload in liver tissue has been confirmed chemically.

  5. Hepatic Iron Quantification on 3 Tesla (3 T Magnetic Resonance (MR: Technical Challenges and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Anwar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available MR has become a reliable and noninvasive method of hepatic iron quantification. Currently, most of the hepatic iron quantification is performed on 1.5 T MR, and the biopsy measurements have been paired with R2 and R2* values for 1.5 T MR. As the use of 3 T MR scanners is steadily increasing in clinical practice, it has become important to evaluate the practicality of calculating iron burden at 3 T MR. Hepatic iron quantification on 3 T MR requires a better understanding of the process and more stringent technical considerations. The purpose of this work is to focus on the technical challenges in establishing a relationship between T2* values at 1.5 T MR and 3 T MR for hepatic iron concentration (HIC and to develop an appropriately optimized MR protocol for the evaluation of T2* values in the liver at 3 T magnetic field strength. We studied 22 sickle cell patients using multiecho fast gradient-echo sequence (MFGRE 3 T MR and compared the results with serum ferritin and liver biopsy results. Our study showed that the quantification of hepatic iron on 3 T MRI in sickle cell disease patients correlates well with clinical blood test results and biopsy results. 3 T MR liver iron quantification based on MFGRE can be used for hepatic iron quantification in transfused patients.

  6. Room-temperature susceptometry predicts biopsy-determined hepatic iron in patients with elevated serum ferritin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliken, Bryan D; Avrin, William F; Nelson, James E; Mooney, Jody; Kumar, Sankaran; Kowdley, Kris V

    2012-01-01

    There is an ongoing clinical need for novel methods to measure hepatic iron content (HIC) noninvasively. Both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) methods have previously shown promise for estimation of HIC, but these methods can be expensive and are not widely available. Room-temperature susceptometry (RTS) represents an inexpensive alternative and was previously found to be strongly correlated with HIC estimated by SQUID measurements among patients with transfusional iron overload related to thalassemia. The goal of the current study was to examine the relationship between RTS and biochemical HIC measured in liver biopsy specimens in a more varied patient cohort. Susceptometry was performed in a diverse group of patients with hyperferritinemia due to hereditary hemochromatosis (HHC) (n = 2), secondary iron overload (n = 3), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n = 2), and chronic viral hepatitis (n = 3) within one month of liver biopsy in the absence of iron depletion therapy. The correlation coefficient between HIC estimated by susceptometry and by biochemical iron measurement in liver tissue was 0.71 (p = 0.022). Variance between liver iron measurement and susceptometry measurement was primarily related to reliance on the patient's body-mass index (BMI) to estimate the magnetic susceptibility of tissue overlying the liver. We believe RTS holds promise for noninvasive measurement of HIC. Improved measurement techniques, including more accurate overlayer correction, may further improve the accuracy of liver susceptometry in patients with liver disease.

  7. The Relationship Between Intestinal Iron Absorption and Hepatic Parenchymal Cell Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mok Hyun; Hahn, Shin Suck [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-09-15

    Since the iron balance is maintained by regulated intestinal absorption rather than regulated excretion, there have been many reports concerning the factors which may influence the intestinal iron absorption. As the liver is the largest iron storage organ of the body, any hepatocellular damage may result in disturbances in iron metabolism, e,g., frequent co-existence of haemochromatosis and liver cirrhosis, or elevated serum iron level and increased iron absorption rate in patients with infectious hepatitis or cirrhosis. In one effort to demonstrate the influence of hepatocellular damage on intestinal iron absorption, the iron absorption rate was measured in the rabbits whose livers were injured by a single subcutaneous injection of carbon tetrachloride (doses ranging from 0.15 to 0.5 cc per kg of body weight) or by a single irradiation of 2, 000 to 16, 000 rads with Co on the liver locally. A single oral dose of 1muCi of Fe-citrate with 0.5 mg of ferrous citrate was fed in the fasting state, 24 hours after hepatic damage had been induced, without any reducing or chelating agents, and stool was collected for one week thereafter. Serum iron levels, together with conventional liver function teats, were measured at 24, 48, 72, 120 and 168 hours after liver damage had been induced. All animals were sacrificed upon the completing of the one week's test period and tissue specimens were prepared for H-E and Gomori's iron stain. Following are the results. 1. Normal iron absorption rate of the rabbit was 41.72+-3.61% when 0.5 mg of iron was given in the fasting state, as measured by subtracting the amount recovered in stool collected for 7 days from the amount given. The test period of 7 days is adequate, for only 1% of the iron given was excreted thereafter. 2. The intestinal iron absorption rate and serum iron level were significantly increased when the animal was poisoned by a single subcutaneous injection of 0.15 cc, per kg. of body weight of carbon tetrachloride or

  8. The Relationship Between Intestinal Iron Absorption and Hepatic Parenchymal Cell Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mok Hyun; Hahn, Shin Suck

    1971-01-01

    Since the iron balance is maintained by regulated intestinal absorption rather than regulated excretion, there have been many reports concerning the factors which may influence the intestinal iron absorption. As the liver is the largest iron storage organ of the body, any hepatocellular damage may result in disturbances in iron metabolism, e,g., frequent co-existence of haemochromatosis and liver cirrhosis, or elevated serum iron level and increased iron absorption rate in patients with infectious hepatitis or cirrhosis. In one effort to demonstrate the influence of hepatocellular damage on intestinal iron absorption, the iron absorption rate was measured in the rabbits whose livers were injured by a single subcutaneous injection of carbon tetrachloride (doses ranging from 0.15 to 0.5 cc per kg of body weight) or by a single irradiation of 2, 000 to 16, 000 rads with Co on the liver locally. A single oral dose of 1μCi of Fe-citrate with 0.5 mg of ferrous citrate was fed in the fasting state, 24 hours after hepatic damage had been induced, without any reducing or chelating agents, and stool was collected for one week thereafter. Serum iron levels, together with conventional liver function teats, were measured at 24, 48, 72, 120 and 168 hours after liver damage had been induced. All animals were sacrificed upon the completing of the one week's test period and tissue specimens were prepared for H-E and Gomori's iron stain. Following are the results. 1. Normal iron absorption rate of the rabbit was 41.72±3.61% when 0.5 mg of iron was given in the fasting state, as measured by subtracting the amount recovered in stool collected for 7 days from the amount given. The test period of 7 days is adequate, for only 1% of the iron given was excreted thereafter. 2. The intestinal iron absorption rate and serum iron level were significantly increased when the animal was poisoned by a single subcutaneous injection of 0.15 cc, per kg. of body weight of carbon tetrachloride or

  9. Acute loss of the hepatic endo-lysosomal system in vivo causes compensatory changes in iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzendorf, Christoph; Zeigerer, Anja; Seifert, Sarah; Sparla, Richard; Najafi, Bahar; Canonne-Hergaux, François; Zerial, Marino; Muckenthaler, Martina U

    2017-06-22

    Liver cells communicate with the extracellular environment to take up nutrients via endocytosis. Iron uptake is essential for metabolic activities and cell homeostasis. Here, we investigated the role of the endocytic system for maintaining iron homeostasis. We specifically depleted the small GTPase Rab5 in the mouse liver, causing a transient loss of the entire endo-lysosomal system. Strikingly, endosome depletion led to a fast reduction of hepatic iron levels, which was preceded by an increased abundance of the iron exporter ferroportin. Compensatory changes in livers of Rab5-depleted mice include increased expression of transferrin receptor 1 as well as reduced expression of the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. Serum iron indices (serum iron, free iron binding capacity and total iron binding capacity) in Rab5-KD mice were increased, consistent with an elevated splenic and hepatic iron export. Our data emphasize the critical importance of the endosomal compartments in hepatocytes to maintain hepatic and systemic iron homeostasis in vivo. The short time period (between day four and five) upon which these changes occur underscore the fast dynamics of the liver iron pool.

  10. Mechanism and Influencing Factors of Iron Nuggets Forming in Rotary Hearth Furnace Process at Lower Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hongliang; Duan, Dongping; Chen, Siming; Yuan, Peng

    2015-10-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of slag and iron separation, a new idea of "the separation of slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) in rotary hearth furnace process at lower temperature" is put forward. In this paper, the forming process of iron nuggets has been investigated. Based on those results, the forming mechanisms and influencing factors of iron nugget at low temperature are discussed experimentally using an electric resistance furnace simulating a rotary hearth furnace process. Results show that the reduction of iron ore, carburization of reduced iron, and the composition and quantity of slag are very important for producing iron nuggets at lower temperature. Reduction reaction of carbon-containing pellets is mainly at 1273 K and 1473 K (1000 °C and 1200 °C). When the temperature is above 1473 K (1200 °C), the metallization rate of carbon-containing pellets exceeds 93 pct, and the reduction reaction is substantially complete. Direct carburization is the main method for carburization of reduced iron. This reaction occurs above 1273 K (1000 °C), with carburization degree increasing greatly at 1473 K and 1573 K (1200 °C and 1300 °C) after particular holding times. Besides, to achieve the "slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) separation," the melting point of the slag phase should be increased. Slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) separation can be achieved below 1573 K (1300 °C), and when the holding time is 20 minutes, C/O is 0.7, basicity is less than 0.5 and a Na2CO3 level of 3 pct, the recovery rate of iron can reach 90 pct, with a proportion of iron nuggets more than 3.15 mm of nearly 90 pct. This study can provide theoretical and technical basis for iron nugget production.

  11. Proton MR spectroscopic features according to change of hepatic parenchymal iron content after SPIO injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Chang Hae; Cho, Soon Gu; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Mi Young; Lee, Kyung Hee; Kim, Hyung Jin

    2001-01-01

    To determine the effect of iron on proton MR spectra ( 1 H-MRS) by evaluating changes in 1 H-MRS of the liver according to changes in hepatic parenchymal iron content. We evaluated serial changes in 1 H-MRS of the liver after intravenous infusion of SPIO in 40 rabbits. These were divided into eight groups of five, and in each group, respectively, 1 H-MRS and T2WI MR images were acquired prior to SPIO infusion, just after infusion, and at 15 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 24 and 96 hours after infusion. MR spectra were evaluated with particular attention ot the curve pattern observed at specific times after the infusion of SPIO, and the results were correlated with the signal intensity observed on T2WI images and the histologic giade of iron content of samples of resected liver parenchyma. As observed on T2WI, the mean signal intensity of rabbit liver in tis pre-SPIO infusion state, just after infusion, at 15 minutes, and at 1, 2, 4 and 96 hours after SPIO infusion was 121.3±15.5, 41.5±12.7, 30.3±7.9, 31.3±3.5, 33.6±9.4, 45.5±10.9, 80.3±15.7 and 110.4±22.9, respectively (p<0.05). Mean standard deviation of the ratio of the area of the peak (3.9-4.1 ppm)/lipid peak (1.3 ppm) peak at each of the above times except for the pre-infusion state was 1.10±0.13, 1.86±0.21, 1.80±0.30, 1.76±0.27, 1.74±0.20, 0.07±0.02 and 0.03±0.01, respectively (p<0.05). The hepatic parenchymal iron content increased rapidly from just after SPIO infusion, reaching its maximal level (as revealed by histologic specimens) at 15 minutes, sustaining this for up to 4 hours, and then decreasing gradually over periods of 24 and 96 hours. These results show that serial changes in patterns of MR spectra and the signal intensity seen on T2WI images correlate closely with changes in hepatic parenchymal iron content. Elevated hepatic parenchymal iron content leads to increases in the relative intensity of unknown peaks at around 4.0 ppm and decreases in the relative intensity of lipid peaks

  12. Role of phenolics from Spondias pinnata bark in amelioration of iron overload induced hepatic damage in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Dipankar; Ghate, Nikhil Baban; Panja, Sourav; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2016-07-26

    Crude Spondias pinnata bark extract was previously assessed for its antioxidant, anticancer and iron chelating potentials. The isolated compounds gallic acid (GA) and methyl gallate (MG) were evaluated for their curative potential against iron overload-induced liver fibrosis and hepatocellular damage. In vitro iron chelation property and in vivo ameliorating potential from iron overload induced liver toxicity of GA and MG was assessed by different biochemical assays and histopathological studies. MG and GA demonstrated excellent reducing power activities but iron chelation potential of MG is better than GA. Oral MG treatment in mice displayed excellent efficacy (better than GA) to significantly restore the levels of liver antioxidants, serum markers and cellular reactive oxygen species in a dose-dependent fashion. Apart from these, MG exceptionally prevented lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation whereas GA demonstrated better activity to reduce collagen content, thereby strengthening its position as an efficient drug against hepatic damage/fibrosis, which was further supported by histopathological studies. Alongside, MG efficiently eliminated the cause of liver damage, i.e., excess iron, by chelating free iron and reducing the ferritin-bound iron. The present study confirmed the curative effect of GA and MG against iron overload hepatic damage via their potent antioxidant and iron-chelating potential.

  13. Fat content, fatty acid pattern and iron content in livers of turkeys with hepatic lipidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Visscher, Christian; Middendorf, Lea; G?nther, Ronald; Engels, Alexandra; Leibfacher, Christof; M?hle, Henrik; D?ngelhoef, Kristian; Weier, Stefan; Haider, Wolfram; Radko, Dimitri

    2017-01-01

    Background The so-called ?hepatic lipidosis? in turkeys is an acute progressive disease associated with a high mortality rate in a very short time. Dead animals show a massive fatty degeneration of the liver. The cause is still unclear. Previous findings suggest that there may be parallels to human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The object of the study was to examine the changes in the fat contents, the fatty acid composition and the iron content in livers of animals, which have died from...

  14. Fat content, fatty acid pattern and iron content in livers of turkeys with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Christian; Middendorf, Lea; Günther, Ronald; Engels, Alexandra; Leibfacher, Christof; Möhle, Henrik; Düngelhoef, Kristian; Weier, Stefan; Haider, Wolfram; Radko, Dimitri

    2017-05-30

    The so-called "hepatic lipidosis" in turkeys is an acute progressive disease associated with a high mortality rate in a very short time. Dead animals show a massive fatty degeneration of the liver. The cause is still unclear. Previous findings suggest that there may be parallels to human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The object of the study was to examine the changes in the fat contents, the fatty acid composition and the iron content in livers of animals, which have died from hepatic lipidosis. The conspicuous livers (n = 85) were collected from 20 flocks where the phenomenon of massive increased animal losses accompanied by marked macroscopically visible pathological liver steatosis suddenly occurred. For comparison and as a reference, livers (n = 16) of two healthy flocks were taken. Healthy and diseased flocks were fed identical diets concerning official nutrient recommendations and were operating under standardized, comparable conventional conditions. Compared to livers of healthy animals, in the livers of turkeys died from hepatic lipidosis there were found massively increased fat levels (130 ± 33.2 vs. 324 ± 101 g/kg dry matter-DM). In all fatty livers, different fatty acids concentrations were present in significantly increased concentrations compared to controls (palmitic acid: 104 g/kg DM, +345%; palmitoleic acid: 18.0 g/kg DM, + 570%; oleic acid: 115 g/kg DM, +437%). Fatty acids concentrations relevant for liver metabolism and inflammation were significantly reduced (arachidonic acid: 2.92 g/kg DM, -66.6%; eicosapentaenoic acid: 0.141 g/kg DM, -78.3%; docosahexaenoic acid: 0.227 g/kg DM, -90.4%). The ratio of certain fatty acids to one another between control and case livers changed analogously to liver diseases in humans (e.g.: C18:0/C16:0 - 0.913 against 0.311; C16:1n7/C16:0 - 0.090 against 0.165; C18:1/C18:0 - 0.938 against 4.03). The iron content in the liver tissue also increased massively (271 ± 51.5 vs 712 ± 214 mg/kg DM). The hepatic

  15. Evaluation of cardiac and hepatic iron overload in thalassemia major patients with T2* magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahidiyat, Pustika Amalia; Liauw, Felix; Sekarsari, Damayanti; Putriasih, Siti Ayu; Berdoukas, Vasili; Pennell, Dudley J

    2017-09-01

    Recent advancements have promoted the use of T2* magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the non-invasive detection of iron overload in various organs for thalassemia major patients. This study aims to determine the iron load in the heart and liver of patients with thalassemia major using T2* MRI and to evaluate its correlation with serum ferritin level and iron chelation therapy. This cross-sectional study included 162 subjects diagnosed with thalassemia major, who were classified into acceptable, mild, moderate, or severe cardiac and hepatic iron overload following their T2* MRI results, respectively, and these were correlated to their serum ferritin levels and iron chelation therapy. The study found that 85.2% of the subjects had normal cardiac iron stores. In contrast, 70.4% of the subjects had severe liver iron overload. A significant but weak correlation (r = -0.28) was found between cardiac T2* MRI and serum ferritin, and a slightly more significant correlation (r = 0.37) was found between liver iron concentration (LIC) and serum ferritin. The findings of this study are consistent with several other studies, which show that patients generally manifest with liver iron overload prior to cardiac iron overload. Moreover, iron accumulation demonstrated by T2* MRI results also show a significant correlation to serum ferritin levels. This is the first study of its kind conducted in Indonesia, which supports the fact that T2* MRI is undoubtedly valuable in the early detection of cardiac and hepatic iron overload in thalassemia major patients.

  16. Brain insulin lowers circulating BCAA levels by inducing hepatic BCAA catabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Andrew C.; Fasshauer, Martin; Filatova, Nika; Grundell, Linus A.; Zielinski, Elizabeth; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Scherer, Thomas; Lindtner, Claudia; White, Phillip J.; Lapworth, Amanda L.; Ilkayeva, Olga; Knippschild, Uwe; Wolf, Anna M.; Scheja, Ludger; Grove, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    Circulating branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels are elevated in obesity/diabetes and are a sensitive predictor for type 2 diabetes. Here we show in rats that insulin dose-dependently lowers plasma BCAA levels through induction of hepatic protein expression and activity of branched-chain α keto-acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the BCAA degradation pathway. Selective induction of hypothalamic insulin signaling in rats and genetic modulation of brain insulin receptors ...

  17. MRI of the liver and the pituitary gland in patients with {beta}-thalassemia major: Does hepatic siderosis predict pituitary iron deposition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Efremidis, Stavros C. [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, Dimitrios N. [Laboratory of Physiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to study, in thalassemic patients, if hepatic siderosis evaluated by MRI could predict the pituitary iron overload. In 36 thalassemic patients (age range 6-44 years, mean age 21.7 years) the liver/fat ratio (L/F), the pituitary/fat ratio (P/F), the liver and pituitary T2 relaxation times were evaluated, by using a multiecho spin-echo sequence. Serum ferritin levels were measured and an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed. The L/F, the P/F and pituitary T2 showed a good correlation with serum ferritin (r=-0.55, r=-0.55 and r=-0.53, respectively; p<0.01). Liver T2 did not show significant correlation with serum ferritin. The variability of L/F explained only the 10.8% of the variability of pituitary T2 and of the P/F. When ferritin was added to the model it predicted only the 26.85% and the 30.8% of the variability of pituitary T2 and of the P/F, respectively. The P/F and pituitary T2 were lower in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (group 1) compared with those without pituitary dysfunction (group 2). No significant differences of L/F were found between the two groups. Hepatic iron overload evaluated by MR is a poor predictor of pituitary siderosis. The MR studies of the pituitary gland might be necessary to evaluate the pituitary iron overload. (orig.)

  18. Brain insulin lowers circulating BCAA levels by inducing hepatic BCAA catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Andrew C; Fasshauer, Martin; Filatova, Nika; Grundell, Linus A; Zielinski, Elizabeth; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Scherer, Thomas; Lindtner, Claudia; White, Phillip J; Lapworth, Amanda L; Ilkayeva, Olga; Knippschild, Uwe; Wolf, Anna M; Scheja, Ludger; Grove, Kevin L; Smith, Richard D; Qian, Wei-Jun; Lynch, Christopher J; Newgard, Christopher B; Buettner, Christoph

    2014-11-04

    Circulating branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels are elevated in obesity/diabetes and are a sensitive predictor for type 2 diabetes. Here we show in rats that insulin dose-dependently lowers plasma BCAA levels through induction of hepatic protein expression and activity of branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the BCAA degradation pathway. Selective induction of hypothalamic insulin signaling in rats and genetic modulation of brain insulin receptors in mice demonstrate that brain insulin signaling is a major regulator of BCAA metabolism by inducing hepatic BCKDH. Short-term overfeeding impairs the ability of brain insulin to lower BCAAs in rats. High-fat feeding in nonhuman primates and obesity and/or diabetes in humans is associated with reduced BCKDH protein in liver. These findings support the concept that decreased hepatic BCKDH is a major cause of increased plasma BCAAs and that hypothalamic insulin resistance may account for impaired BCAA metabolism in obesity and diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of MR imaging with T1 and T2* mapping for the determination of hepatic iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, B; Kremser, C; Rauch, S; Eder, R; Zoller, H; Finkenstedt, A; Michaely, H J; Schocke, M

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate MRI using T1 and T2* mapping sequences in patients with suspected hepatic iron overload (HIO). Twenty-five consecutive patients with clinically suspected HIO were retrospectively studied. All underwent MRI and liver biopsy. For the quantification of liver T2* values we used a fat-saturated multi-echo gradient echo sequence with 12 echoes (TR = 200 ms, TE = 0.99 ms +  n × 1.41 ms, flip angle 20°). T1 values were obtained using a fast T1 mapping sequence based on an inversion recovery snapshot FLASH sequence. Parameter maps were analysed using regions of interest. ROC analysis calculated cut-off points at 10.07 ms and 15.47 ms for T2* in the determination of HIO with accuracy 88 %/88 %, sensitivity 84 %/89.5 % and specificity 100 %/83 %. MRI correctly classified 20 patients (80 %). All patients with HIO only had decreased T1 and T2* relaxation times. There was a significant difference in T1 between patients with HIO only and patients with HIO and steatohepatitis (P = 0.018). MRI-based T2* relaxation diagnoses HIO very accurately, even at low iron concentrations. Important additional information may be obtained by the combination of T1 and T2* mapping. It is a rapid, non-invasive, accurate and reproducible technique for validating the evidence of even low hepatic iron concentrations. • Hepatic iron overload causes fibrosis, cirrhosis and increases hepatocellular carcinoma risk. • MRI detects iron because of the field heterogeneity generated by haemosiderin. • T2* relaxation is very accurate in diagnosing hepatic iron overload. • Additional information may be obtained by T1 and T2* mapping.

  20. Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most common types of viral hepatitis. What Is Hepatitis A? For kids, hep A is the most common ... they recover, it does not come back. Can Hepatitis A Be Prevented? The following will help keep people ...

  1. Cost of post-operative intravenous iron therapy in total lower limb arthroplasty: a retrospective, matched cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Manuel; Gómez-Ramírez, Susana; Martín-Montañez, Elisa; Naveira, Enrique; Seara, Javier; Pavía, José

    2014-01-01

    Background Requirements for allogeneic red cell transfusion after total lower limb arthroplasty are still high (20–50%), and post-operative intravenous iron has been shown to reduce transfusion requirements for this surgery. We performed a cost analysis to ascertain whether this alternative is also likely to be cost-effective. Materials and methods Data from 182 matched-pairs of total lower limb arthroplasty patients, managed with a restrictive transfusion protocol and without (control group) or with post-operative intravenous iron (iron group), were retrospectively reviewed. Acquisition and administration costs of iron (iron sucrose or ferric carboxymaltose) and allogeneic red cell concentrates, haemoglobin measurements, and prolonged stay in hospital were used for blood management cost analysis. Results Patients in the iron group received 600 mg intravenous iron, without clinically relevant incidents, and had a lower allogeneic transfusion rate (11.5% vs 26.4% for the iron and control groups, respectively; p=0.001). The reduction in transfusion rate was more pronounced in anaemic patients (17% vs 40%; p=0.015) than in non-anaemic ones (9.6% vs 21.2%; p=0.011). There were no differences with respect to post-operative infection rate. Patients receiving allogeneic transfusion stayed in hospital longer (+1.9 days [95% CI: 1.2–2.6]). As intravenous iron reduces the allogeneic transfusion rate, both iron formulations were cost-neutral in the different cost scenarios (−25.5 to 62.1 €/patient for iron sucrose, and −51.1 to 64.4 €/patient for ferric carboxymaltose). Discussion In patients presenting with or without pre-operative anaemia, post-operative intravenous iron after total lower limb arthroplasty seems to be safe and is associated with reduced transfusion rates, without incremental costs. For anaemic patients, its efficacy could be increased by associating some other blood-saving method. PMID:24120595

  2. Radial Ultrashort TE Imaging Removes the Need for Breath-Holding in Hepatic Iron Overload Quantification by R2* MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipirneni-Sajja, Aaryani; Krafft, Axel J; McCarville, M Beth; Loeffler, Ralf B; Song, Ruitian; Hankins, Jane S; Hillenbrand, Claudia M

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate radial free-breathing (FB) multiecho ultrashort TE (UTE) imaging as an alternative to Cartesian FB multiecho gradient-recalled echo (GRE) imaging for quantitative assessment of hepatic iron content (HIC) in sedated patients and subjects unable to perform breath-hold (BH) maneuvers. FB multiecho GRE imaging and FB multiecho UTE imaging were conducted for 46 test group patients with iron overload who could not complete BH maneuvers (38 patients were sedated, and eight were not sedated) and 16 control patients who could complete BH maneuvers. Control patients also underwent standard BH multiecho GRE imaging. Quantitative R2* maps were calculated, and mean liver R2* values and coefficients of variation (CVs) for different acquisitions and patient groups were compared using statistical analysis. FB multiecho GRE images displayed motion artifacts and significantly lower R2* values, compared with standard BH multiecho GRE images and FB multiecho UTE images in the control cohort and FB multiecho UTE images in the test cohort. In contrast, FB multiecho UTE images produced artifact-free R2* maps, and mean R2* values were not significantly different from those measured by BH multiecho GRE imaging. Motion artifacts on FB multiecho GRE images resulted in an R2* CV that was approximately twofold higher than the R2* CV from BH multiecho GRE imaging and FB multiecho UTE imaging. The R2* CV was relatively constant over the range of R2* values for FB multiecho UTE, but it increased with increases in R2* for FB multiecho GRE imaging, reflecting that motion artifacts had a stronger impact on R2* estimation with increasing iron burden. FB multiecho UTE imaging was less motion sensitive because of radial sampling, produced excellent image quality, and yielded accurate R2* estimates within the same acquisition time used for multiaveraged FB multiecho GRE imaging. Thus, FB multiecho UTE imaging is a viable alternative for accurate HIC assessment

  3. Factors other than hepatitis B virus responsible for hepatocellular carcinomas in lower social class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, T.; Anwar, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To find out the role of other etiological agents besides hepatitis B virus in the genesis of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in our social classes. Design: A hospital-based observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in oncology department of services Hospital, Lahore from December 1997 to February 2001. Patients and Methods: One hundred patients of hepatocellular carcinoma ware divided into three groups based on monthly income. Lower socioeconomic group had monthly income less than 3,000 Pakistani rupees. Middle socioeconomic group had monthly income between 3,000-1,000 Pakistani rupees and upper socioeconomic group heard monthly income of more than 10,000 Pakistani rupees. Percentages of HCC patients positive for HbsAg in different socioeconomic groups in our population were compared to assess the social class difference, the possibility and correlation of other factors present in our classes for the formation of hepatocellular carcinoma besides hepatitis B virus. Results: We found that there was no significant difference in HbsAg positively in different classes. Conclusion: If HBV was only responsible for this disease than there should have been consistency in the outcome. But as there is a higher prevalence of HCC in poor class, this reflects that other etiological agents are also operating. This needs further evaluation. (author)

  4. Targeting higher ferritin concentrations with intravenous iron dextran lowers erythropoietin requirement in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita, M V; Frumkin, D; Mittal, S; Kamran, A; Fishbane, S; Michelis, M F

    2003-11-01

    Although clinical use of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) since 1989 has improved anemia in most end-stage renal disease patients, there are still many hemodialysis patients unable to maintain an adequate hematocrit (HCT) without large doses of rHuEPO. This suggests that anemia is not solely a consequence of rHuEPO deficiency, but may be due to other factors including functional iron deficiency. Since the optimal prescription for iron replacement is not yet known, we evaluated the effect of intravenous iron dextran (IVFe) infusion on serum ferritin (SFer) concentration and rHuEPO dose. Our objective was to raise and maintain serum ferritin concentrations to 2 different levels above the National Kidney Foundation Dialysis Outcome Quality Initiative standard of 100 ng/ml to determine whether, and by what degree rHuEPO dose could be lowered. HD patients on i.v. rHuEPO with a SFer concentration > or = 70 ng/ml and an HCT of requirements.

  5. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  6. Contribution of Hfe expression in macrophages to the regulation of hepatic hepcidin levels and iron loading

    OpenAIRE

    Makui, Hortence; Soares, Ricardo J.; Jiang, Wenlei; Constante, Marco; Santos, Manuela M.

    2005-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), an iron overload disease associated with mutations in the HFE gene, is characterized by increased intestinal iron absorption and consequent deposition of excess iron, primarily in the liver. Patients with HH and Hfe-deficient (Hfe−/−) mice manifest inappropriate expression of the iron absorption regulator hepcidin, a peptide hormone produced by the liver in response to iron loading. In this study, we investigated the contribution of Hfe expression in macrophag...

  7. Hepatic S1P deficiency lowers plasma cholesterol levels in apoB-containing lipoproteins when LDLR function is compromised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Debapriya; Huq, Afroza; Iqbal, Jahangir; Hussain, M Mahmood; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Jin, Weijun

    2015-01-01

    expression through activation of the SREBPs. In the LDLR(-/-) background, hepatic S1P KD significantly reduced Blp-c levels. Hepatic S1P is a physiological modulator of plasma Blp metabolism through its regulation of LDLR and PCSK9. Hepatic S1P is a valid target for lowering plasma Blp-c levels in the situation where LDLR function is compromised.

  8. Separation of hepatic iron and fat by dual-source dual-energy computed tomography based on material decomposition: an animal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of dual-source dual-energy computed tomography (DSDECT for hepatic iron and fat separation in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All of the procedures in this study were approved by the Research Animal Resource Center of Shanghai Ruijin Hospital. Sixty rats that underwent DECT scanning were divided into the normal group, fatty liver group, liver iron group, and coexisting liver iron and fat group, according to Prussian blue and HE staining. The data for each group were reconstructed and post-processed by an iron-specific, three-material decomposition algorithm. The iron enhancement value and the virtual non-iron contrast value, which indicated overloaded liver iron and residual liver tissue, respectively, were measured. Spearman's correlation and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were performed, respectively, to analyze statistically the correlations with the histopathological results and differences among groups. RESULTS: The iron enhancement values were positively correlated with the iron pathology grading (r = 0.729, p<0.001. Virtual non-iron contrast (VNC values were negatively correlated with the fat pathology grading (r = -0.642,p<0.0001. Different groups showed significantly different iron enhancement values and VNC values (F = 25.308,p<0.001; F = 10.911, p<0.001, respectively. Among the groups, significant differences in iron enhancement values were only observed between the iron-present and iron-absent groups, and differences in VNC values were only observed between the fat-present and fat-absent groups. CONCLUSION: Separation of hepatic iron and fat by dual energy material decomposition in vivo was feasible, even when they coexisted.

  9. Separation of hepatic iron and fat by dual-source dual-energy computed tomography based on material decomposition: an animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Song, Zhi-Qiang; Yan, Fu-Hua

    2014-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of dual-source dual-energy computed tomography (DSDECT) for hepatic iron and fat separation in vivo. All of the procedures in this study were approved by the Research Animal Resource Center of Shanghai Ruijin Hospital. Sixty rats that underwent DECT scanning were divided into the normal group, fatty liver group, liver iron group, and coexisting liver iron and fat group, according to Prussian blue and HE staining. The data for each group were reconstructed and post-processed by an iron-specific, three-material decomposition algorithm. The iron enhancement value and the virtual non-iron contrast value, which indicated overloaded liver iron and residual liver tissue, respectively, were measured. Spearman's correlation and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed, respectively, to analyze statistically the correlations with the histopathological results and differences among groups. The iron enhancement values were positively correlated with the iron pathology grading (r = 0.729, pVNC) values were negatively correlated with the fat pathology grading (r = -0.642,pVNC values (F = 25.308,pVNC values were only observed between the fat-present and fat-absent groups. Separation of hepatic iron and fat by dual energy material decomposition in vivo was feasible, even when they coexisted.

  10. Hepatic retinoid levels in seven fish species (teleosts) from a tropical coastal lagoon receiving effluents from iron-ore mining and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Adriana A; van Hattum, Bert; Brouwer, Abraham

    2012-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible effects of Fe and trace element exposure on hepatic levels of retinoids in seven fish species. Concentrations of retinoids were measured in fish collected from a coastal lagoon in Brazil that receives effluents from an iron-ore mining and processing plant. Fish from nearby coastal lagoons were also included to assess possible differences related to chemical exposure. Results indicated considerable differences in hepatic retinoid composition among the various species investigated. The most striking differences were in retinol and derivative-specific profiles and in didehydro retinol and derivative-specific profiles. The Perciformes species Geophagus brasiliensis, Tilapia rendalli, Mugil liza, and Cichla ocellaris and the Characiforme Hoplias malabaricus were characterized as retinol and derivative-specific, while the Siluriformes species Hoplosternum littorale and Rhamdia quelen were didehydro retinol and derivative-specific fish species. A negative association was observed between Al, Pb, As, and Cd and hepatic didehydro retinoid levels. Fish with higher levels of hepatic Fe, Cu, and Zn showed unexpectedly significant positive correlations with increased hepatic retinol levels. This finding, associated with the positive relationships between retinol and retinyl palmitate with lipid peroxidation, may suggest that vitamin A is mobilized from other tissues to increase hepatic antioxidant levels for protection against oxidative damage. These data show significant but dissimilar associations between trace element exposure and hepatic retinoid levels in fish species exposed to iron-ore mining and processing effluents, without apparent major impacts on fish health and condition. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  11. Stability of iron-rich magnesiowüstite in Earth's lower mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, K.; Fujino, K.; Kuwayama, Y.; Kondo, T.; Shimizu, K.; Ohishi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    At ambient conditions, MgO periclase and FeO wüstite form a solid solution (Mg1-xFex)O, named ferropericlase (x ≤ 0.5) and magnesiowüstite (x > 0.5). (Mg1-xFex)O ferropericlase is considered to be a major component of Earth's lower mantle, and may play an important role for its structure and dynamics. Iron-rich magnesiowüstite also needs to be considered because of possible iron enrichment at the core-mantle boundary region [e.g., Nomura et al., 2011]. Recent laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments on FeO revealed that NaCl-type (B1) structured FeO underwent an insulator-metal transition at about 70 GPa and 1800 K without any structural transformation [Fischer et al., 2011; Ohta et al., 2012]. These results imply that the metallic B1 FeO would require a two-phase field for the MgO-FeO binary system due to different chemical bonding between insulating MgO and metallic FeO. We performed simultaneous electrical conductivity and x-ray diffraction measurements on (Mg0.20Fe0.80)O and (Mg0.05Fe0.95)O magnesiowüstite up to 140 GPa and 2100 K, and then examined recovered samples by using analytical transmission electron microprobe. We obtained some evidences for the dissociation of (Mg0.05Fe0.95)O into lighter and heavier phases than starting material occurring above 70 GPa and 1900 K, which is most likely due to the metallization of FeO component. On the other hand, we did not observe such dissociation and metallization in (Mg0.20Fe0.80)O. Observed dissociation in (Mg0.05Fe0.95)O might contribute to the heterogeneity in seismic wave and electrical conductivity at the Earth's core-mantle boundary region.

  12. Fluoride-induced iron overload contributes to hepatic oxidative damage in mouse and the protective role of Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qiang; He, Ping; Xu, Shangzhi; Ma, Ruling; Ding, Yusong; Mu, Lati; Li, Shugang

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence has demonstrated that iron overload plays an important role in oxidative stress in the liver. This study aimed to explore whether fluoride-induced hepatic oxidative stress is associated with iron overload and whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) alleviates oxidative stress by reducing iron overload. Forty Kunming male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated for 5 weeks with distilled water (control), sodium fluoride (NaF) (100 mg/L), GSPE (400 mg/kg bw), or NaF (100 mg/L) + GSPE (400 mg/kg bw). Mice exposed to NaF showed typical poisoning changes of morphology, increased aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities in the liver. NaF treatment also increased MDA accumulation, decreased GSH-Px, SOD and T-AOC levels in liver, indicative of oxidative stress. Intriguingly, all these detrimental effects were alleviated by GSPE. Further study revealed that NaF induced disorders of iron metabolism, as manifested by elevated iron level with increased hepcidin but decreased ferroportin expression, which contributed to hepatic oxidative stress. Importantly, the iron dysregulation induced by NaF could be normalized by GSPE. Collectively, these data provide a novel insight into mechanisms underlying fluorosis and highlight the potential of GSPE as a naturally occurring prophylactic treatment for fluoride-induced hepatotoxicity associated with iron overload.

  13. The role of hepatic transferrin receptor 2 in the regulation of iron homeostasis in the body.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christal A Worthen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fine tuning of body iron is required to prevent diseases such as iron-overload and anemia. The putative iron-sensor, transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2, is expressed in the liver and mutations in this protein result in the iron-overload disease Type III hereditary hemochromatosis (HH. With the loss of functional TfR2, the liver produces about two-fold less of the peptide hormone hepcidin, which is responsible for negatively regulating iron uptake from the diet. This reduction in hepcidin expression leads to the slow accumulation of iron in the liver, heart, joints, and pancreas and subsequent cirrhosis, heart disease, arthritis, and diabetes. TfR2 can bind iron-loaded transferrin in the bloodstream, and hepatocytes treated with transferrin respond with a two-fold increase in hepcidin expression through stimulation of the BMP-signaling pathway. Loss of functional TfR2 or its binding partner, the original HH protein (HFE, results in a loss of this transferrin-sensitivity. While much is known about the trafficking and regulation of TfR2, the mechanism of its transferrin-sensitivity through the BMP-signaling pathway is still not known.

  14. Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Moen, I W; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    2014-01-01

    and discuss recent evidence, suggesting that iron is a key pathogenic factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a focus on inflammatory pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell death is not fully understood, but may include iron-induced ROS formation resulting in dedifferentiation by activation...... of transcription factors, activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery or of other cell death mechanisms. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β facilitates divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1)-induced β-cell iron uptake and consequently ROS formation and apoptosis, and we propose that this mechanism provides...

  15. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Search the ODS website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Consumer Datos en español Health ... eating a variety of foods, including the following: Lean meat, seafood, and poultry. Iron-fortified breakfast cereals ...

  16. Dose-effect relationship between the thorium lung burden and the hepatic function of the miners at the Bayan Obo Rare-earth Iron Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yong-e; Chen, Xing-an

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the dose effect relationship between the thorium lung burden and the hepatic function of the miners at the Bayun Obo Rare-earth Iron Mine. The methods we used is to carry out the measurement of each miner.s exhaled thoron activity and the thorium lung burden along with the four hepatic functions (thymol turbidity test, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, thymol flocculation test and alkaline phosphatase)of the dust exposed miners in Bayun Obo Rare-earth Iron Mine. We have carried out three investigations in 1983, 1984-1987 and 1994 respectively. Results showed that during the period 1983-1994, 1158 measurements of thorium lung burden estimates and 1158 measurement of every four hepatic functions(altogether 4632 measurements) were performed on 638 dust-exposed miners. No adverse effects were observed. In the same time, none of the above-mentioned 638 exposed miners had a thorium lung burden higher than 11.11 Bq. It is concluded that if any miners. thorium lung burden not higher than 11.11 Bq, his four hepatic functions should not be affected. This first possible threshold for thorium lung burden affecting the hepatic functions was put forward by the authors and confirmed by the Information Center of Chinese Academy of Medical Science in 2003 after searching 23.6 million references. (author)

  17. Coffee Intake Is Associated with a Lower Liver Stiffness in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Hepatitis C, and Hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Alexander; Lim, Sarah; Goh, Evan; Wong, Ophelia; Marsh, Philip; Knight, Virginia; Sievert, William; de Courten, Barbora

    2017-01-10

    There is emerging evidence for the positive effects or benefits of coffee in patients with liver disease. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study on patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection to determine the effects of coffee intake on a non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis: liver stiffness assessed by transient elastography (TE). We assessed coffee and tea intake and measured TE in 1018 patients with NAFLD, HCV, and HBV (155 with NAFLD, 378 with HCV and 485 with HBV). Univariate and multivariate regression models were performed taking into account potential confounders. Liver stiffness was higher in males compared to females ( p disease state (NAFLD, HCV, and HBV status), those who drank 2 or more cups of coffee per day had a lower liver stiffness ( p = 0.044). Tea consumption had no effect ( p = 0.9). Coffee consumption decreases liver stiffness, which may indicate less fibrosis and inflammation, independent of disease state. This study adds further evidence to the notion of coffee maybe beneficial in patients with liver disease.

  18. Multidetector helical CT plus superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced MR imaging for focal hepatic lesions in cirrhotic liver: A comparison with multi-phase CT during hepatic arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukisawa, Seigo; Okugawa, Hidehiro; Masuya, Yoshio; Okabe, Shinichirou; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Masaharu; Ebara, Masaaki; Saisho, Hiromitsu

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate multidetector helical computed tomography (MDCT), superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and CT arterial portography (CTAP) and CT during hepatic arteriography (CTHA) for the detection and diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). This included visual correlations of MDCT and SPIO-MR imaging in the detection of HCC using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Twenty-five patients with 57 nodular HCCs were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 200 segments, including 49 segments with 57 HCCs, were reviewed independently by three observers. Each observer read four sets of images (set 1, MDCT; set 2, unenhanced and SPIO-enhanced MR images; set 3, combined MDCT and SPIO-enhanced MR images; set 4, combined CTAP and CTHA). The mean Az values representing the diagnostic accuracy for HCCs of sets 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 0.777, 0.814, 0.849, and 0.911, respectively, and there was no significant difference between sets 3 and 4. The sensitivity of set 4 was significantly higher than those of set 3 for all the lesions and for lesions 10 mm or smaller (p < 0.05); however, for lesions larger than 10 mm, the sensitivities of the two sets were similar. No significant difference in positive predictive value and specificity was observed between set 3 and set 4. Combined MDCT and SPIO-enhanced MR imaging may obviate the need for more invasive CTAP and CTHA for the pre-therapeutic evaluation of patients with HCC more than 10 mm

  19. Level densities of iron isotopes and lower-energy enhancement of y-strength function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinov, A V; Grimes, S M; Agvaanluvsan, U; Algin, E; Belgya, T; Brune, C R; Guttormsen, M; Hornish, M J; Massey, T N; Mitchell, G; Rekstad, J; Schiller, A; Siem, S

    2005-01-01

    The neutron spectrum from the 55 Mn(d,n) 56 Fe reaction has been measured at E d = 7 MeV. The level density of 56 Fe obtained from neutron evaporation spectrum has been compared to the level density from Oslo-type 57 Fe( 3 He, aγ) 56 Fe experiment [1]. The good agreement supports the recent results [1, 8] including an availability of a low-energy enhancement in the γ-strength function for iron isotopes. The new level density function allowed us to investigate an excitation energy dependence of this enhancement, which is shown to increase with increasing excitation energy

  20. Zinc transporter ZIP14 functions in hepatic zinc, iron and glucose homeostasis during the innate immune response (endotoxemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolunay Beker Aydemir

    Full Text Available ZIP14 (slc39A14 is a zinc transporter induced in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. ZIP14 induction accompanies the reduction in serum zinc (hypozincemia of acute inflammation. ZIP14 can transport Zn(2+ and non-transferrin-bound Fe(2+ in vitro. Using a Zip14(-/- mouse model we demonstrated that ZIP14 was essential for control of phosphatase PTP1B activity and phosphorylation of c-Met during liver regeneration. In the current studies, a global screening of ZIP transporter gene expression in response to LPS-induced endotoxemia was conducted. Following LPS, Zip14 was the most highly up-regulated Zip transcript in liver, but also in white adipose tissue and muscle. Using ZIP14(-/- mice we show that ZIP14 contributes to zinc absorption from the gastrointestinal tract directly or indirectly as zinc absorption was decreased in the KOs. In contrast, Zip14(-/- mice absorbed more iron. The Zip14 KO mice did not exhibit hypozincemia following LPS, but do have hypoferremia. Livers of Zip14-/- mice had increased transcript abundance for hepcidin, divalent metal transporter-1, ferritin and transferrin receptor-1 and greater accumulation of iron. The Zip14(-/- phenotype included greater body fat, hypoglycemia and higher insulin levels, as well as increased liver glucose and greater phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and increased GLUT2, SREBP-1c and FASN expression. The Zip14 KO mice exhibited decreased circulating IL-6 with increased hepatic SOCS-3 following LPS, suggesting SOCS-3 inhibited insulin signaling which produced the hypoglycemia in this genotype. The results are consistent with ZIP14 ablation yielding abnormal labile zinc pools which lead to increased SOCS-3 production through G-coupled receptor activation and increased cAMP production as well as signaled by increased pSTAT3 via the IL-6 receptor, which inhibits IRS 1/2 phosphorylation. Our data show the role of ZIP14 in the hepatocyte is multi-functional since zinc and iron trafficking are

  1. Increased Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence Correlates with Lower CD4+ Cell Counts in HIV-Infected Persons in Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José D Debes

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a single-stranded RNA virus that can cause hepatitis in an epidemic fashion. HEV usually causes asymptomatic or limited acute infections in immunocompetent individuals, whereas in immunosuppressed individuals such as transplant recipients, HEV can cause chronic infections. The risks and outcomes of HEV co-infection in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are poorly characterized. We used a third generation immunoassay to measure serum IgG antibodies specific for HEV in 204 HIV-infected individuals from Argentina and a control group of 433 HIV-negative individuals. We found 15 of 204 (7.3%, 95%CI 3.74-10.96% individuals in the HIV-positive group to have positive HEV IgG levels suggestive of previous infection, compared to 19 of 433 (4.4%, 95% CI 2.5-6.3% individuals in the HIV-negative control group (p = 0.12. Among HIV-positive individuals, those with HEV seropositivity had lower CD4 counts compared to those that were HEV seronegative (average CD4 count of 234 vs 422 mm3, p = 0.01, indicating that patients with lower CD4 counts were more likely to be HEV IgG positive. Moreover, HEV seropositivity in patients with CD4 counts 200 mm3 (p = 0.012. We found a positive PCR result for HEV in one individual. Our study found that increased seroprevalence of HEV IgG correlated with lower CD4 counts in HIV-infected patients in Argentina.

  2. Accumulation of iron and arsenic in the Chandina alluvium of the lower delta plain, Southeastern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, A.; Hassan, M.Q.; Breit, G.N.; Balke, K.-D.; Flegr, M.

    2009-01-01

    Accumulations of iron, manganese, and arsenic occur in the Chandina alluvium of southeastern Bangladesh within 2.5 m of the ground surface. These distinctive orange-brown horizons are subhorizontal and consistently occur within 1 m of the contact of the aerated (yellow-brown) and water-saturated (gray) sediment. Ferric oxyhydroxide precipitates that define the horizons form by oxidation of reduced iron in pore waters near the top of the saturated zone when exposed to air in the unsaturated sediment. Hydrous Fe-oxide has a high specific surface area and thus a high adsorption capacity that absorbs the bulk of arsenic also present in the reduced pore water, resulting in accumulations containing as much as 280 ppm arsenic. The steep redox gradient that characterizes the transition of saturated and unsaturated sediment also favors accumulation of manganese oxides in the oxidized sediment. Anomalous concentrations of phosphate and molybdenum also detected in the ferric oxyhydroxide-enriched sediment are attributed to sorption processes. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  3. Clinical evaluation of multishot echo planar imaging after administration of superparamagnetic iron oxide for hepatic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugai, Yukio; Watanabe, Yorihisa; Ito, Kazushi; Hosoya, Takaaki; Yamaguchi, Koichi

    1998-01-01

    Ten cases of hepatocellular carcinoma and three cases of metastatic liver tumor were evaluated using breath-hold multishot echo planar imaging (EPI) before and after administration of super-paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO), and the results were compared to those with breath-hold fast multi-planar SPGR (T 1 WI) and fat-suppressed respiratory-triggered FSE (T 2 WI). Qualitative imaging evaluation of lesion detectability showed that T 2 WI was much more useful than T 1 WI as previously reported, and more useful than EPI. Quantitative evaluation showed that the signal to noise (S/N) ratios of the liver parenchyma decreased after administration of SPIO and the changes were significant on all pulse sequences. The change ratio of the S/N ratio of the liver parenchyma after administration of SPIO on EPI was significantly higher than on T 1 WI and T 2 WI. The tumor-liver contrast to noise (C/N) ratios increased after administration of SPIO and the changes were significant on T 1 WI and T 2 WI, but not on EPI. These results suggested that the tumor S/N ratio decreased after administration of SPIO on EPI. The tumor diameters on EPI were significantly reduced after administration of SPIO. Magnetization and flow artifacts on EPI were detected in all cases and caused distortion: the signal decreased in the liver parenchyma. We concluded that EPI after administration of SPIO is not currently useful compared to other pulse sequences and cannot yet replace T 2 WI. (author)

  4. Iron content and acid phosphatase activity in hepatic parenchymal lysosomes of patients with hemochromatosis before and after phlebotomy treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleton, M.I.; de Bruijn, W.C.; van Blokland, W.T.; Marx, J.J.; Roelofs, J.M.; Rademakers, L.H.

    1988-01-01

    Lysosomal structures in liver parenchymal cells of 3 patients with iron overload and of 3 subjects without iron-storage disorders were investigated. A combination of enzyme cytochemistry--with cerium as a captive ion to demonstrate lysosomal acid phosphatase activity--and electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) was used. We were able (1) to define and quantify lysosomal structures as lysosomes, siderosomes, or residual bodies, (2) to quantify the amount of iron and cerium simultaneously in these structures, and (3) to evaluate a possible relation between iron storage and enzyme activity. With histopathologically increased iron storage, the number of siderosomes had increased at the cost of lysosomes, with a corresponding increase in acid phosphatase activity in both organelles. In histopahtologically severe iron overload, however, acid phosphatase activity was low or not detectable and most of the iron was stored in residual bodies. After phlebotomy treatment, the number of siderosomes had decreased in favor of the lysosomes, approaching values obtained in control subjects, and acid phosphatase activity was present in all iron-containing structures. In this way a relationship between iron storage and enzyme activity was established. The iron content of the individual lysosomal structures per unit area had increased with histopathologically increased iron storage and had decreased after phlebotomy treatment. From this observation, it is concluded that the iron status of the patient is not only reflected by the amount of iron-containing hepatocytes but, as well, by the iron content lysosomal unit area

  5. Effects of long-term weekly iron and folic acid supplementation on lower genital tract infection - a double blind, randomised controlled trial in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabin, Loretta; Roberts, Stephen A; Gies, Sabine; Nelson, Andrew; Diallo, Salou; Stewart, Christopher J; Kazienga, Adama; Birtles, Julia; Ouedraogo, Sayouba; Claeys, Yves; Tinto, Halidou; d'Alessandro, Umberto; Faragher, E Brian; Brabin, Bernard

    2017-11-23

    Provision of routine iron supplements to prevent anaemia could increase the risk for lower genital tract infections as virulence of some pathogens depends on iron availability. This trial in Burkina Faso assessed whether weekly periconceptional iron supplementation increased the risk of lower genital tract infection in young non-pregnant and pregnant women. Genital tract infections were assessed within a double blind, controlled, non-inferiority trial of malaria risk among nulliparous women, randomised to receive either iron and folic acid or folic acid alone, weekly, under direct observation for 18 months. Women conceiving during this period entered the pregnancy cohort. End assessment (FIN) for women remaining non-pregnant was at 18 months. For the pregnancy cohort, end assessment was at the first scheduled antenatal visit (ANC1). Infection markers included Nugent scores for abnormal flora and bacterial vaginosis (BV), T. vaginalis PCR, vaginal microbiota, reported signs and symptoms, and antibiotic and anti-fungal prescriptions. Iron biomarkers were assessed at baseline, FIN and ANC1. Analysis compared outcomes by intention to treat and in iron replete/deficient categories. A total of 1954 women (mean 16.8 years) were followed and 478 (24.5%) became pregnant. Median supplement adherence was 79% (IQR 59-90%). Baseline BV prevalence was 12.3%. At FIN and ANC1 prevalence was 12.8% and 7.0%, respectively (P Iron-supplemented non-pregnant women received more antibiotic treatments for non-genital infections (P = 0.014; mainly gastrointestinal infections (P = 0.005), anti-fungal treatments for genital infections (P = 0.014) and analgesics (P = 0.008). Weekly iron did not significantly reduce iron deficiency prevalence. At baseline, iron-deficient women were more likely to have normal vaginal flora (P = 0.016). Periconceptional weekly iron supplementation of young women did not increase the risk of lower genital tract infections but did increase

  6. Hepatic magnetic resonance imaging with T2* mapping of ovariectomized rats: correlation between iron overload and postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lingshan; Peng, Xingui; Wang, Yuancheng; Wang, Yaling; Chen, Min; Wang, Qi; Jin, Jiyang [Zhongda Hospital of Southeast University, Department of Radiology, Nanjing (China); Zhu, Zhengqiu [Zhongda Hospital of Southeast University, Department of Endocrinology, Nanjing (China)

    2014-07-15

    To explore the correlation between liver iron overload and bone mineral density (BMD) in an ovariectomy (OVX) rat model, using liver magnetic resonance (MR)-T2* and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Sprague-Dawley rats received deferoxamine (DFO) or phosphate-buffered saline 3 months after bilateral OVX. MRI and DEXA were performed pre- and postoperatively. Five rats per group were killed every month for micro-CT, histopathology and biochemical examinations. Statistical analysis was performed with independent-samples t tests, box plots and Pearson's correlation analysis. At 2 months postoperatively, BMD was significantly lower in the OVX group than in the control group (P < 0.01), corresponding to the increased serum ferritin concentration (SFC; P < 0.01) and liver iron concentration (LIC; P < 0.01). Liver T2* values significantly differed between the two groups at 1 month postoperatively (P < 0.001) and improved 1 month after DFO injection (P < 0.05). These values were significantly and positively correlated with BMD in the control (r = 0.527, P < 0.001) and OVX (r = 0.456, P < 0.001) groups. Liver MRI T2* changed markedly earlier than BMD, LIC and SFC, and correlated well with osteoporosis; it may thus be a valuable early indicator of osteoporosis. (orig.)

  7. Altered serum copper homeostasis suggests higher oxidative stress and lower antioxidant capability in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yansong; Zhang, Yuan; Lin, Zhexuan; Han, Ming; Cheng, Hongqiu

    2018-06-01

    Copper homeostasis can be altered by inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the alteration of serum copper homeostasis and to explore its clinical significance in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).Thirty-two patients with CHB and 10 aged- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited. Analyses included serum levels of total copper (TCu), copper ions (Cu), small molecule copper (SMC), ceruloplasmin (CP), Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), urinary copper, and the activities of serum CP and SOD1.The serum TCu and urinary copper levels in patients with CHB were significantly higher than the controls (P = .04 and .003), while the serum Cu was lower than the controls (P = .0002). CP and SOD1 activities in the serum were significantly lower in patients with CHB compared to controls (P = .005) despite higher serum concentrations. In addition, serum alanine aminotransferase inversely correlated with serum CP activity (P = .0318, r = -0.4065).Serum copper homeostasis was altered in this cohort of patients with CHB. The results suggest increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant capability in patients with CHB, in addition to necroinflammation. These results may provide novel insights into the diagnosis and treatment of patients with CHB.

  8. Hepatic MR imaging for in vivo differentiation of steatosis, iron deposition and combined storage disorder: Single-ratio in/opposed phase analysis vs. dual-ratio Dixon discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, Mustafa R.; Merkle, Elmar M.; Smith, Alastair D.; Boll, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether in vivo dual-ratio Dixon discrimination can improve detection of diffuse liver disease, specifically steatosis, iron deposition and combined disease over traditional single-ratio in/opposed phase analysis. Methods: Seventy-one patients with biopsy-proven (17.7 ± 17.0 days) hepatic steatosis (n = 16), iron deposition (n = 11), combined deposition (n = 3) and neither disease (n = 41) underwent MR examinations. Dual-echo in/opposed-phase MR with Dixon water/fat reconstructions were acquired. Analysis consisted of: (a) single-ratio hepatic region-of-interest (ROI)-based assessment of in/opposed ratios; (b) dual-ratio hepatic ROI assessment of in/opposed and fat/water ratios; (c) computer-aided dual-ratio assessment evaluating all hepatic voxels. Disease-specific thresholds were determined; statistical analyses assessed disease-dependent voxel ratios, based on single-ratio (a) and dual-ratio (b and c) techniques. Results: Single-ratio discrimination succeeded in identifying iron deposition (I/O Ironthreshold Fatthreshold>1.15 ) from normal parenchyma, sensitivity 70.0%; it failed to detect combined disease. Dual-ratio discrimination succeeded in identifying abnormal hepatic parenchyma (F/W Normalthreshold > 0.05), sensitivity 96.7%; logarithmic functions for iron deposition (I/O Iron d iscriminator (0.01−F/W Iron )/0.48 ) and for steatosis (I/O Fatdiscriminator > e (F/W Fat −0.01)/0.48 ) differentiated combined from isolated diseases, sensitivity 100.0%; computer-aided dual-ratio analysis was comparably sensitive but less specific, 90.2% vs. 97.6%. Conclusion: MR two-point-Dixon imaging using dual-ratio post-processing based on in/opposed and fat/water ratios improved in vivo detection of hepatic steatosis, iron deposition, and combined storage disease beyond traditional in/opposed analysis.

  9. The role of T2*-weighted gradient echo in the diagnosis of tumefactive intrahepatic extramedullary hematopoiesis in myelodysplastic syndrome and diffuse hepatic iron overload: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, Abel A; Bellizzi, Andrew M; Stolpen, Alan H

    2018-01-15

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis is the proliferation of hematopoietic cells outside bone marrow secondary to marrow hematopoiesis failure. Extramedullary hematopoiesis rarely presents as a mass-forming hepatic lesion; in this case, imaging-based differentiation from primary and metastatic hepatic neoplasms is difficult, often leading to biopsy for definitive diagnosis. We report a case of tumefactive hepatic extramedullary hematopoiesis in the setting of myelodysplastic syndrome with concurrent hepatic iron overload, and the role of T2*-weighted gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging in differentiating extramedullary hematopoiesis from primary and metastatic hepatic lesions. To the best of our knowledge, T2*-weighted gradient-echo evaluation of extramedullary hematopoiesis in the setting of diffuse hepatic hemochromatosis has not been previously described. A 52-year-old white man with myelodysplastic syndrome and marrow fibrosis was found to have a 4 cm hepatic lesion on ultrasound during workup for bone marrow transplantation. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse hepatic iron overload and non-visualization of the lesion on T2* gradient-echo sequence suggesting the presence of iron deposition within the lesion similar to that in background hepatic parenchyma. Subsequent ultrasound-guided biopsy of the lesion revealed extramedullary hematopoiesis. Six months later, while still being evaluated for bone marrow transplant, our patient was found to have poor pulmonary function tests. Follow-up computed tomography angiogram showed a mass within his right main pulmonary artery. Bronchoscopic biopsy of this mass once again revealed extramedullary hematopoiesis. He received radiation therapy to his chest. However, 2 weeks later, he developed mediastinal hematoma and died shortly afterward, secondary to respiratory arrest. Mass-forming extramedullary hematopoiesis is rare; however, our report emphasizes that it needs to be considered in the initial differential

  10. Iron overload in lower international prognostic scoring system risk patients with myelodysplastic syndrome receiving red blood cell transfusions: Relation to infections and possible benefit of iron chelation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Colleen A C; Wong, Shannon A Y; Leitch, Heather A

    2018-04-01

    An increased incidence of infections and infectious mortality has been reported in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients receiving red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. We examined incidence of infections requiring antibiotics, antifungal or antiviral medications in transfused lower International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) risk MDS patients and whether this differed with iron chelation therapy (ICT). 138 transfused MDS patients were lower IPSS risk. 59 received ICT; median duration was 13 months. There was no significant difference between groups in neutrophil count at first RBC transfusion or first infection. Infections included: bacterial, n = 88; viral; fungal; and mycobacterial; n = 2 each. In ICT and non-ICT patients, respectively, infections were (number [%]): patients, 23 (40.0%) and 22 (27.8%); episodes (median [range]), 2 (1-6) and 2 (1-5); hospitalizations, 16 (27.1%) and 8 (10.1%); and deaths, 0 (0%) and 1 (1.3%), p = NS for all. Median overall survival (OS) from first RBC transfusion was superior in ICT patients, p = 0.01, and remained significant in a multivariate analysis (MVA), p = 0.003. Median time to first infection (TTI) was 27 and 7.8 months, respectively, p < 0.0001, and ICT remained significant for TTI in an MVA, p = 0.02, hazard ratio 0.3. For ICT patients with blast count <5%, TTI was significantly superior (p = 0.004). In this retrospective analysis, for lower IPSS risk MDS patients receiving RBC transfusions, though number and type of infections were similar between groups and despite similar neutrophil counts, time to first infection was significantly longer in ICT patients (p < 0.0001). These results should be confirmed in larger, prospective analyses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Iron overload and genotype 3 are associated with liver steatosis in chronic hepatitis C Sobrecarga de hierro y genotipo 3 se asocian a la presencia de esteatosis en la hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Fernández Salazar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine epidemiological, biochemical, virological, and histological factors associated with liver steatosis in chronic hepatitis C. Subjects: the medical histories of 53 patients biopsied for chronic hepatitis C diagnosis between June 2000 and December 2002 were retrospectively studied. Epidemiological, biochemical, and virological data were collected. Patients with hepatitis B virus or human immunodeficiency virus coinfection were excluded. Liver biopsy specimens were reviewed and scored by one pathologist. Weight and height were measured at liver biopsy time. The statistic association between qualitative and quantitative variables and the presence of liver steatosis was studied. Results: steatosis was identified in 52% of biopsies. There was no statistic association with age, sex, method of transmission, duration of infection, alcohol consumption, other diseases, body mass index, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, AST, ALT, GGT, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, or viral load. Liver steatosis was associated with serum iron, transferrin saturation, and ferritin. Genotype 3 was also associated with steatosis. Piecemeal necrosis, hepatocellular injury, Kupffer cell hyperplasia, liver iron, and portal fibrosis were also associated with steatosis. A multivariate analysis showed that genotype 3, Kupffer cell hyperplasia, and liver iron were associated with the presence of steatosis. Conclusions: liver steatosis in chronic hepatitis C associates with genotype 3, Kupffer cell hyperplasia, and iron overload. Hepatic steatosis also associates with greater inflammation and fibrosis, and must be considered to contribute to disease progression.Objetivo: determinar los factores epidemiológicos, analíticos, virológicos e histológicos a los que se asocia la esteatosis en la hepatitis C. Pacientes: se revisaron de forma retrospectiva 53 historias clínicas de pacientes biopsiados consecutivamente desde junio de 2000 a dicembre de 2002. Se

  12. Institutional care and iron deficiency increase ADHD symptomology and lower IQ 2.5-5 years post-adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doom, Jenalee R; Georgieff, Michael K; Gunnar, Megan R

    2015-05-01

    Increased ADHD symptomology and lower IQ have been reported in internationally adopted (IA) children compared to non-adopted peers (Hostinar, Stellern, Schaefer, Carlson & Gunnar, 2012; Kreppner, O'Connor & Rutter, 2001). However, it is unclear whether these outcomes are due to institutional deprivation specifically or to co-occurring micronutrient deficiencies that disrupt brain development (Fuglestad, Rao & Georgieff, 2008b). In this study, IA children were compared to children raised in their biological families to examine differences in ADHD symptomology and IQ 2.5-5 years post-adoption and to assess the contributions of iron deficiency (ID) and duration of deprivation to these cognitive outcomes. ADHD symptoms (parent- and experimenter-reported) and IQ were evaluated in 88 IA (M = 62.1 months, SD = 2.4) and 35 non-adopted children (M = 61.4 months, SD = 1.6). IA children were assessed 29-64 months post-adoption (M = 41.9 months, SD = 10.2). ID was assessed during the initial post-adoption medical visit in 69 children, and children were classified into four groups by iron status, ranging from normal to ID anemia (most severe). IA children had greater ADHD symptomology, p IQ, p = .001, than non-adopted children. Within the IA group, children with more severe ID at adoption had greater ADHD symptomology, r(69) = 0.40, p = .001, and lower IQ, r(68) = -0.28, p IQ, r(85) = -.08, p = .52. Longitudinal results indicate improvement in IQ from 12 months post-adoption to age 5 for children with greater ID severity at adoption and longer duration of institutional care but no improvement in ADHD symptoms. These results signify continuing effects of early deprivation and ID on ADHD symptoms and IQ years after adoption. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vUFDAS3DD1c. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Increased hepatitis E virus seroprevalence correlates with lower CD4+ cell counts in HIV-infected persons in Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Debes; Martínez Wassaf, M. (Maribel); Pisano, M.B. (María Belén); Isa, M.B. (María Beatriz); Lotto, M. (Martin); Marianelli, L.G. (Leonardo G.); Frassone, N. (Natalia); Ballari, E. (Estefania); Bohjanen, P.R. (Paul R.); B.E. Hansen (Bettina); Ré, V. (Viviana)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that can cause hepatitis in an epidemic fashion. HEV usually causes asymptomatic or limited acute infections in immunocompetent individuals, whereas in immunosuppressed individuals such as transplant recipients, HEV can cause chronic

  14. Effects of calcination and activation conditions on ordered mesoporous carbon supported iron catalysts for production of lower olefins from synthesis gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oschatz, M; van Deelen, T W; Weber, J L; Lamme, W S; Wang, G; Goderis, B; Verkinderen, O; Dugulan, A I; de Jong, K P

    2016-01-01

    Lower C2–C4 olefins are important commodity chemicals usually produced by steam cracking of naphtha or fluid catalytic cracking of vacuum gas oil. The Fischer–Tropsch synthesis of lower olefins (FTO) with iron-based catalysts uses synthesis gas as an alternative feedstock. Nanostructured carbon

  15. An iron-deficient diet stimulates the onset of the hepatitis due to hepatic copper deposition in the Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Naoki; Sugawara, Chieko [Sapporo Medical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Public Health

    1999-09-01

    To study effects of dietary Cu and Fe levels on the onset of hepatitis in Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, female rats (40 days old) were fed a semipurified diet containing 0.1 or 10 mg Cu/kg and 1.5 or 150 mg Fe/kg in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement for 35 days. At 75 days after birth, LEC rats (+Cu-Fe) fed a Cu-sufficient but Fe-deficient diet (Cu, 10 mg/kg; Fe, 1.5 mg/kg) showed jaundice, with lethargy, anorexia, and malaise. The biochemical variables relating to liver function were significantly increased compared to three other groups, a Cu- and Fe-deficient (-Cu-Fe) group, a Cu-deficient but Fe-sufficient (-Cu+Fe) group, and a Cu and Fe sufficient (+Cu+Fe) group. Furthermore, the +Cu-Fe rat liver showed massive necrosis with huge nuclei. The other three groups presented no biochemical and histological findings of hepatitis. Hepatic Cu and metallothionein concentrations were 289 {+-} 87 (mean {+-} SD) {mu}g/g liver and 8.7 {+-} 1.8 mg/g liver, respectively, in the +Cu-Fe rats. However, in the +Cu+Fe group the values were 196 {+-} 28 {mu}g Cu/g liver and 10.8 {+-} 1.0 mg/g liver. Hepatic Fe deposition was not influenced significantly by the dietary Cu level. The +Cu-Fe group with jaundice showed the highest free Cu concentration in the liver among the four groups, but the hepatic free Fe concentration was similar to those in the -Cu+Fe and +Cu+Fe groups. Our results indicate that an Fe-deficient diet enhances the deposition of hepatic Cu due to increased absorption of Cu from the gastrointestinal tract. This deposition stimulated the onset of hepatitis. (orig.)

  16. Hepatic iron overload following liver transplantation of a C282y homozygous allograft: a case report and literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dwyer, Jeremy P

    2011-11-01

    Hereditary haemochromatosis is a common genetic disease associated with progressive iron overload and parenchymal organ damage including liver, pancreas and heart. We report a case of inadvertent transplantation of a liver from a haemochromatosis donor to a 56-year-old Asian female. Progressive iron overload occurred over a 2 year follow up as assessed by liver biopsy and iron studies in the absence of a secondary cause of iron overload, supporting a primary role of liver rather than small intestine in the regulation of iron homeostasis in hereditary haemochromatosis.

  17. TIMP3 deficiency exacerbates iron overload-mediated cardiomyopathy and liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhabyeyev, Pavel; Das, Subhash K; Basu, Ratnadeep; Shen, Mengcheng; Patel, Vaibhav B; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2018-05-01

    Chronic iron overload results in heart and liver diseases and is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with genetic hemochromatosis and secondary iron overload. We investigated the role of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) in iron overload-mediated tissue injury by subjecting male mice lacking Timp3 ( Timp3 -/- ) and wild-type (WT) mice to 12 wk of chronic iron overload. Whereas WT mice with iron overload developed diastolic dysfunction, iron-overloaded Timp3 -/- mice showed worsened cardiac dysfunction coupled with systolic dysfunction. In the heart, loss of Timp3 was associated with increased myocardial fibrosis, greater Timp1, matrix metalloproteinase ( Mmp) 2, and Mmp9 expression, increased active MMP-2 levels, and gelatinase activity. Iron overload in Timp3 -/- mice showed twofold higher iron accumulation in the liver compared with WT mice because of constituently lower levels of ferroportin. Loss of Timp3 enhanced the hepatic inflammatory response to iron overload, leading to greater neutrophil and macrophage infiltration and increased hepatic fibrosis. Expression of inflammation-related MMPs (MMP-12 and MMP-13) and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) was elevated to a greater extent in iron-overloaded Timp3 -/- livers. Gelatin zymography demonstrated equivalent increases in MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels in WT and Timp3 -/- iron-overloaded livers. Loss of Timp3 enhanced the susceptibility to iron overload-mediated heart and liver injury, suggesting that Timp3 is a key protective molecule against iron-mediated pathology. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In mice, loss of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 ( Timp3) was associated with systolic and diastolic dysfunctions, twofold higher hepatic iron accumulation (attributable to constituently lower levels of ferroportin), and increased hepatic inflammation. Loss of Timp3 enhanced the susceptibility to iron overload-mediated injury, suggesting that Timp3 plays a key

  18. JTT-130, a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP inhibitor lowers plasma triglycerides and LDL cholesterol concentrations without increasing hepatic triglycerides in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Sudeep

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsomal transfer protein inhibitors (MTPi have the potential to be used as a drug to lower plasma lipids, mainly plasma triglycerides (TG. However, studies with animal models have indicated that MTPi treatment results in the accumulation of hepatic TG. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether JTT-130, a unique MTPi, targeted to the intestine, would effectively reduce plasma lipids without inducing a fatty liver. Methods Male guinea pigs (n = 10 per group were used for this experiment. Initially all guinea pigs were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet containing 0.08 g/100 g dietary cholesterol for 3 wk. After this period, animals were randomly assigned to diets containing 0 (control, 0.0005 or 0.0015 g/100 g of MTPi for 4 wk. A diet containing 0.05 g/100 g of atorvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor was used as the positive control. At the end of the 7th week, guinea pigs were sacrificed to assess drug effects on plasma and hepatic lipids, composition of LDL and VLDL, hepatic cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism. Results Plasma LDL cholesterol and TG were 25 and 30% lower in guinea pigs treated with MTPi compared to controls (P Conclusion These results suggest that JTT-130 could have potential clinical applications due to its plasma lipid lowering effects with no alterations in hepatic lipid concentrations.

  19. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells ... treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  20. Iron-Mediated Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization in Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Oxidative Damage and Apoptosis: Protective Effects of Quercetin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron, in its free ferrous states, can catalyze Fenton reaction to produce OH∙, which is recognized as a crucial role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD. As a result of continuous decomposition of iron-containing compounds, lysosomes contain a pool of redox-active iron. To investigate the important role of intralysosomal iron in alcoholic liver injury and the potential protection of quercetin, male C57BL/6J mice fed by Lieber De Carli diets containing ethanol (30% of total calories were cotreated by quercetin or deferoxamine (DFO for 15 weeks and ethanol-incubated mice primary hepatocytes were pretreated with FeCl3, DFO, and bafilomycin A1 at their optimal concentrations and exposure times. Chronic ethanol consumption caused an evident increase in lysosomal redox-active iron accompanying sustained oxidative damage. Iron-mediated ROS could trigger lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP and subsequent mitochondria apoptosis. The hepatotoxicity was attenuated by reducing lysosomal iron while being exacerbated by escalating lysosomal iron. Quercetin substantially alleviated the alcoholic liver oxidative damage and apoptosis by decreasing lysosome iron and ameliorating iron-mediated LMP, which provided a new prospective of the use of quercetin against ALD.

  1. Association of opioid agonist therapy with lower incidence of hepatitis C virus infection in young adult injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Judith I; Evans, Jennifer L; Lum, Paula J; Hahn, Judith A; Page, Kimberly

    2014-12-01

    Injection drug use is the primary mode of transmission for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Prior studies suggest opioid agonist therapy may reduce the incidence of HCV infection among injection drug users; however, little is known about the effects of this therapy in younger users. To evaluate whether opioid agonist therapy was associated with a lower incidence of HCV infection in a cohort of young adult injection drug users. Observational cohort study conducted from January 3, 2000, through August 21, 2013, with quarterly interviews and blood sampling. We recruited young adult (younger than 30 years) injection drug users who were negative for anti-HCV antibody and/or HCV RNA. Substance use treatment within the past 3 months, including non-opioid agonist forms of treatment, opioid agonist (methadone hydrochloride or buprenorphine hydrochloride) detoxification or maintenance therapy, or no treatment. Incident HCV infection documented with a new positive result for HCV RNA and/or HCV antibodies. Cumulative incidence rates (95% CI) of HCV infection were calculated assuming a Poisson distribution. Cox proportional hazards regression models were fit adjusting for age, sex, race, years of injection drug use, homelessness, and incarceration. Baseline characteristics of the sample (n = 552) included median age of 23 (interquartile range, 20-26) years; 31.9% female; 73.1% white; 39.7% who did not graduate from high school; and 69.2% who were homeless. During the observation period of 680 person-years, 171 incident cases of HCV infection occurred (incidence rate, 25.1 [95% CI, 21.6-29.2] per 100 person-years). The rate ratio was significantly lower for participants who reported recent maintenance opioid agonist therapy (0.31 [95% CI, 0.14-0.65]; P = .001) but not for those who reported recent non-opioid agonist forms of treatment (0.63 [95% CI, 0.37-1.08]; P = .09) or opioid agonist detoxification (1.45 [95% CI, 0.80-2.69]; P = .23). After adjustment for

  2. The presence of serum alters the properties of iron oxide nanoparticles and lowers their accumulation by cultured brain astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geppert, Mark; Petters, Charlotte; Thiel, Karsten; Dringen, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are considered for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Such particles are able to cross the blood–brain barrier and are taken up into brain cells. To test whether serum components affect the properties of IONPs and/or their uptake into brain cells, we have incubated dimercaptosuccinate-coated magnetic IONPs without and with fetal calf serum (FCS) and have exposed cultured brain astrocytes with IONPs in the absence or presence of FCS. Incubation with FCS caused a concentration-dependent increase in the average hydrodynamic diameter of the particles and of their zeta-potential. In the presence of 10 % FCS, the diameter of the IONPs increased from 57 ± 2 to 107 ± 6 nm and the zeta-potential of the particles from −22 ± 5 to −9 ± 1 mV. FCS affected also strongly the uptake of IONPs by cultured astrocytes. The efficient time- and temperature-dependent cellular accumulation of IONPs was lowered with increasing concentration of FCS by up to 90 %. In addition, in the absence of serum, endocytosis inhibitors did not alter the IONP accumulation by astrocytes, while chlorpromazine or wortmannin lowered significantly the accumulation of IONPs in the presence of FCS, suggesting that clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis are involved in astrocytic IONP uptake from serum-containing medium. These data demonstrate that the presence of FCS strongly affects the properties of IONPs as well as their accumulation by cultured brain cells.

  3. An Antioxidant Extract of the Insectivorous Plant Drosera burmannii Vahl. Alleviates Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress and Hepatic Injury in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Baban Ghate

    Full Text Available Free iron typically leads to the formation of excess free radicals, and additional iron deposition in the liver contributes to the oxidative pathologic processes of liver disease. Many pharmacological properties of the insectivorous plant Drosera burmannii Vahl. have been reported in previous studies; however, there is no evidence of its antioxidant or hepatoprotective potential against iron overload. The antioxidant activity of 70% methanolic extract of D. burmannii (DBME was evaluated. DBME showed excellent DPPH, hydroxyl, hypochlorous, superoxide, singlet oxygen, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. A substantial iron chelation (IC50 = 40.90 ± 0.31 μg/ml and supercoiled DNA protection ([P]50 = 50.41 ± 0.55 μg were observed. DBME also displayed excellent in vivo hepatoprotective activity in iron-overloaded Swiss albino mice compared to the standard desirox treatment. Administration of DBME significantly normalized serum enzyme levels and restored liver antioxidant enzymes levels. DBME lowered the raised levels of liver damage parameters, also reflected from the morphological analysis of the liver sections. DBME also reduced liver iron content by 115.90% which is also seen by Perls' staining. A phytochemical analysis of DBME confirms the presence of various phytoconstituents, including phenols, flavonoids, carbohydrates, tannins, alkaloids and ascorbic acid. Alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids were abundantly found in DBME. An HPLC analysis of DBME revealed the presence of purpurin, catechin, tannic acid, reserpine, methyl gallate and rutin. Purpurin, tannic acid, methyl gallate and rutin displayed excellent iron chelation but exhibited cytotoxicity toward normal (WI-38 cells; while DBME found to be non-toxic to the normal cells. These findings suggest that the constituents present in DBME contributed to its iron chelation activity. Additional studies are needed to determine if DBME can be used as a

  4. The glycolytic shift in fumarate-hydratase-deficient kidney cancer lowers AMPK levels, increases anabolic propensities and lowers cellular iron levels

    KAUST Repository

    Tong, Winghang; Sourbier, Carole; Kovtunovych, Gennadiy; Jeong, Suhyoung; Vira, Manish A.; Ghosh, Manik Chandra; Romero, Vladimir Valera; Sougrat, Rachid; Vaulont, Sophie; Viollet, Benoî t; Kim, Yeongsang; Lee, Sunmin; Trepel, Jane B.; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Yang, Youfeng; Linehan, William Marston; Rouault, Tracey A.

    2011-01-01

    Inactivation of the TCA cycle enzyme, fumarate hydratase (FH), drives a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis in FH-deficient kidney tumors and cell lines from patients with hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell cancer (HLRCC), resulting in decreased levels of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and p53 tumor suppressor, and activation of the anabolic factors, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and ribosomal protein S6. Reduced AMPK levels lead to diminished expression of the DMT1 iron transporter, and the resulting cytosolic iron deficiency activates the iron regulatory proteins, IRP1 and IRP2, and increases expression of the hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1α, but not HIF-2α. Silencing of HIF-1α or activation of AMPK diminishes invasive activities, indicating that alterations of HIF-1α and AMPK contribute to the oncogenic growth of FH-deficient cells. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  5. The glycolytic shift in fumarate-hydratase-deficient kidney cancer lowers AMPK levels, increases anabolic propensities and lowers cellular iron levels

    KAUST Repository

    Tong, Winghang

    2011-09-01

    Inactivation of the TCA cycle enzyme, fumarate hydratase (FH), drives a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis in FH-deficient kidney tumors and cell lines from patients with hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell cancer (HLRCC), resulting in decreased levels of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and p53 tumor suppressor, and activation of the anabolic factors, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and ribosomal protein S6. Reduced AMPK levels lead to diminished expression of the DMT1 iron transporter, and the resulting cytosolic iron deficiency activates the iron regulatory proteins, IRP1 and IRP2, and increases expression of the hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1α, but not HIF-2α. Silencing of HIF-1α or activation of AMPK diminishes invasive activities, indicating that alterations of HIF-1α and AMPK contribute to the oncogenic growth of FH-deficient cells. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  6. A new lactoferrin- and iron-dependent lysosomal death pathway is induced by benzo[a]pyrene in hepatic epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorria, Morgane; Tekpli, Xavier; Rissel, Mary; Sergent, Odile; Huc, Laurence; Landvik, Nina; Fardel, Olivier; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Therese; Holme, Jorn A.; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    While lysosomal disruption seems to be a late step of necrosis, a moderate lysosomal destabilization has been suggested to participate early in the apoptotic cascade. The origin of lysosomal dysfunction and its precise role in apoptosis or apoptosis-like process still needs to be clarified, especially upon carcinogen exposure. In this study, we focused on the implication of lysosomes in cell death induced by the prototype carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P; 50 nM) in rat hepatic epithelial F258 cells. We first demonstrated that B[a]P affected lysosomal morphology (increase in size) and pH (alkalinization), and that these changes were involved in caspase-3 activation and cell death. Subsequently, we showed that lysosomal modifications were partly dependent on mitochondrial dysfunction, and that lysosomes together with mitochondria participate in B[a]P-induced oxidative stress. Using two iron chelators (desferrioxamine and deferiprone) and siRNA targeting the lysosomal iron-binding protease lactoferrin, we further demonstrated that both lysosomal iron content and lactoferrin were required for caspase-3 activation and apoptosis-like cell death

  7. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging of activated hepatic stellate cells with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide targeting integrin αvβ3 for staging liver fibrosis in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang C

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Caiyuan Zhang,1,* Huanhuan Liu,1,* Yanfen Cui,1,* Xiaoming Li,1 Zhongyang Zhang,1 Yong Zhang,2 Dengbin Wang1 1Department of Radiology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 2MR Advanced Application and Research Center, GE Healthcare China, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To evaluate the expression level of integrin αvβ3 on activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs at different stages of liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in rat model and the feasibility to stage liver fibrosis by using molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD peptide modified ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (USPIO specifically targeting integrin αvβ3.Materials and methods: All experiments received approval from our Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Thirty-six rats were randomly divided into three groups of 12 subjects each, and intraperitoneally injected with CCl4 for either 3, 6, or 9 weeks. Controls (n=10 received pure olive oil. The change in T2* relaxation rate (ΔR2* pre- and postintravenous administration of RGD-USPIO or naked USPIO was measured by 3.0T clinical MRI and compared by one-way analysis of variance or the Student’s t-test. The relationship between expression level of integrin αvβ3 and liver fibrotic degree was evaluated by Spearman’s ranked correlation.Results: Activated HSCs were confirmed to be the main cell types expressing integrin αvβ3 during liver fibrogenesis. The protein level of integrin αv and β3 subunit expressed on activated HSCs was upregulated and correlated well with the progression of liver fibrosis (r=0.954, P<0.001; r=0.931, P<0.001, respectively. After injection of RGD-USPIO, there is significant difference in ΔR2* among rats treated with 0, 3, 6, and 9 weeks of CCl4 (P<0.001. The accumulation of iron particles in fibrotic liver specimen is

  8. Hepatic fat quantification using chemical shift MR imaging and MR spectroscopy in the presence of hepatic iron deposition: validation in phantoms and in patients with chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Soo; Lee, Youngjoo; Kim, Namkug; Kim, Seong Who; Byun, Jae Ho; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Moon-Gyu; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2011-06-01

    To compare the accuracy of four chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (CS-MRI) analysis methods and MR spectroscopy (MRS) with and without T2-correction in fat quantification in the presence of excess iron. CS-MRI with six opposed- and in-phase acquisitions and MRS with five-echo acquisitions (TEs of 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 msec) were performed at 1.5 T on phantoms containing various fat fractions (FFs), on phantoms containing various iron concentrations, and in 18 patients with chronic liver disease. For CS-MRI, FFs were estimated with the dual-echo method, with two T2*-correction methods (triple- and multiecho), and with multiinterference methods that corrected for both T2* and spectral interference effects. For MRS, FF was estimated without T2-correction (single-echo MRS) and with T2-correction (multiecho MRS). In the phantoms, T2*- or T2-correction methods for CS-MRI and MRS provided unbiased estimations of FFs (mean bias, -1.1% to 0.5%) regardless of iron concentration, whereas the dual-echo method (-5.5% to -8.4%) and single-echo MRS (12.1% to 37.3%) resulted in large biases in FFs. In patients, the FFs estimated with triple-echo (R = 0.98), multiecho (R = 0.99), and multiinterference (R = 0.99) methods had stronger correlations with multiecho MRS FFs than with the dual-echo method (R = 0.86; P ≤ 0.011). The FFs estimated with multiinterference method showed the closest agreement with multiecho MRS FFs (the 95% limit-of-agreement, -0.2 ± 1.1). T2*- or T2-correction methods are effective in correcting the confounding effects of iron, enabling an accurate fat quantification throughout a wide range of iron concentrations. Spectral modeling of fat may further improve the accuracy of CS-MRI in fat quantification. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Higher baseline viral diversity correlates with lower HBsAg decline following PEGylated interferon-alpha therapy in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Zhang, Li; Ren, Hong; Hu, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Viral diversity seems to predict treatment outcomes in certain viral infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between baseline intra-patient viral diversity and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) decline following PEGylated interferon-alpha (Peg-IFN-α) therapy. Twenty-six HBeAg-positive patients who were treated with Peg-IFN-α were enrolled. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning, and sequencing of the hepatitis B virus S gene were performed on baseline samples, and normalized Shannon entropy (Sn) was calculated as a measure of small hepatitis B surface protein (SHBs) diversity. Multiple regression analysis was used to estimate the association between baseline Sn and HBsAg decline. Of the 26 patients enrolled in the study, 65.4% were male and 61.5% were infected with hepatitis B virus genotype B. The median HBsAg level at baseline was 4.5 log 10 IU/mL (interquartile range: 4.1-4.9) and declined to 3.0 log 10 IU/mL (interquartile range: 1.7-3.9) after 48 weeks of Peg-IFN-α treatment. In models adjusted for baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and HBsAg, the adjusted coefficients (95% CI) for ΔHBsAg and relative percentage HBsAg decrease were -1.3 (-2.5, -0.2) log 10 IU/mL for higher SHBs diversity (Sn≥0.58) patients and -26.4% (-50.2%, -2.5%) for lower diversity (Sndiversity. Baseline intra-patient SHBs diversity was inverse to HBsAg decline in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients receiving Peg-IFN-α monotherapy. Also, more sequence variations within the "a" determinant upstream flanking region and the first loop of the "a" determinant were the main sources of the higher SHBs diversity.

  10. Expression of Hepcidin and Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF-15 Levels in Thalassemia Patients with Iron Overload and Positive Anti Hepatitis C Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Dyah Indrasari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thalassemia patients who undergo life-long recurrent blood transfusion will experience iron overload in various organs including the liver and possibly suffer from chronic hepatitis C infection which may lead to liver impairment. The liver produces hepcidin, a hormone which plays role in the regulation of iron level in the blood. Various factors may influence hepcidin level in the blood. Chronic hepatitis C causes iron overload and liver impairment. Liver impairment and haemolytic anaemia due to haemoglobinopathy will suppress hepcidin production. Anaemia stimulates growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15 to increase erythropoiesis and suppress hepcidin production. Iron overload causes increase in hepcidin level. Presence of factors which decrease or increase hepcidin production will express various levels of hepcidin. This study aimed to identify the expression of hepcidin and GDF-15 levels in thalassemia patients with iron overload and positive anti-HCV. Information on hepcidin and GDF-15 levels are beneficial in the management of iron overload in thalassemia with positive anti-HCV. Method: This study was a descriptive analytic study in thalassemia patients who had received recurrent blood transfusion ≥ 12 times, suffered from iron overload (transferrin saturation > 55% and ferritin > 1,000 ng/mL, which consisted of 31 individuals with positive anti-HCV and 27 individuals with negative anti-HCV. This study was performed in Thalassemia Centre Department of Child Health and Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, in October 2011–January 2012. Serum hepcidin and GDF-15 examinations were performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT examinations were performed using colorimetry method. Data on ferritin and transferrin saturation were obtained from medical records in the last 3

  11. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy ( ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy ( ...

  12. Oxidized Carbo-Iron causes reduced reproduction and lower tolerance of juveniles in the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, Mirco, E-mail: m.weil@ect.de [ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Böttgerstrasse 2-14, 65439 Flörsheim (Germany); Meißner, Tobias, E-mail: tmeiss@gmx.net [Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Springer, Armin, E-mail: armin.springer@nano.tu-dresden.de [Dresden University of Technology, Budapesterstrasse 27, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Bundschuh, Mirco, E-mail: mirco.bundschuh@slu.se [Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Forststrasse 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Hübler, Lydia, E-mail: lydia.huebler@gmail.com [ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Böttgerstrasse 2-14, 65439 Flörsheim (Germany); Schulz, Ralf, E-mail: schulz@uni-landau.de [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Forststrasse 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Duis, Karen, E-mail: k-duis@ect.de [ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Böttgerstrasse 2-14, 65439 Flörsheim (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Effects on growth, reproduction and survival at ≥12.5 mg of oxidized Carbo-Iron/L were studied. • Carbo-Iron significantly increases sensitivity of offspring from exposed amphipods. • Toxicity is most likely mediated by an impaired uptake of nutrients and energy. - Abstract: For in situ remediation of groundwater contaminated by halogenated hydrocarbons Carbo-Iron{sup ®}, a composite of microscale activated carbon and nano Fe{sup 0}, was developed. Against the background of intended release of Carbo-Iron into the environment in concentrations in the g/L-range, potential ecotoxicological consequences were evaluated in the present study. The nano Fei{sup 0} in Carbo-Iron acts as reducing agent and is oxidized in aqueous systems by chlorinated solvents, groundwater constituents (e.g. dissolved oxygen) and anaerobic corrosion. As Carbo-Iron is generally oxidized rapidly after application into the environment, the oxidized state is environmentally most relevant, and Carbo-Iron was used in its oxidized form in the ecotoxicological tests. The amphipod Hyalella azteca was selected as a surrogate test species for functionally important groundwater crustaceans. Effects of Carbo-Iron on H. azteca were determined in a 10-d acute test, a 7-d feeding activity test and a 42-d chronic test. Additionally, a 56-d life cycle test was performed with a modified design to further evaluate effects of Carbo-Iron on adult H. azteca and their offspring. The size of Carbo-Iron particles in stock and test suspensions was determined via dynamic light scattering. Potential uptake of particles into test organisms was investigated using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. At the termination of the feeding and acute toxicity test (i.e. after 7 and 10 d of exposure, respectively), Carbo-Iron had a significant effect on the weight, length and feeding rate of H. azteca at the highest test concentration of 100 mg/L. While an uptake of Carbo-Iron into the gut was

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of dual-echo (in- and opposed-phase) T1-weighted gradient recalled echo for detection and grading of hepatic iron using quantitative and visual assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieda, Nicola; Ramanathan, Subramaniyan; Ryan, John; Khanna, Maneesh; Virmani, Vivek; Avruch, Leonard [The University of Ottawa, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Detection and quantification of hepatic iron with dual-echo gradient recalled echo (GRE) has been proposed as a rapid alternative to other magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. Co-existing steatosis and T1 weighting are limitations. This study assesses the accuracy of routine dual-echo GRE. Between 2010 and 2013, 109 consecutive patients underwent multi-echo (ME) MRI and dual-echo GRE for quantification of hepatic iron. Liver iron concentration (LIC) was calculated from ME-MRI. Relative signal intensity (RSI) and fat signal fraction (FSF) were calculated from dual-echo GRE. Four radiologists subjectively evaluated dual-echo GRE (±subtraction). Diagnostic accuracy was compared between techniques and correlated with biopsy using Fisher's exact test, Spearman correlation and regression. The sensitivity of visual detection of iron ranged from 48 to 55 %. Subtraction did not increase sensitivity (p < 0.001). Inter-observer variability was substantial (κ = 0.72). The specificity of visual detection of iron approached 100 % with false-positive diagnoses observed using subtraction. LIC showed a higher correlation with histopathological iron grade (r = 0.94, p < 0.001) compared with RSI (r = 0.65, p = 0.02). Univariate regression showed an association between RSI and LIC (B = 0.98, p < 0.001, CI 0.73-1.23); however, the association was not significant with multi-variate regression including FSF (p = 0.28). Dual-echo GRE has low sensitivity for hepatic iron. Subtraction imaging can result in false-positive diagnoses. (orig.)

  14. Tetrahydrobiopterin Has a Glucose-Lowering Effect by Suppressing Hepatic Gluconeogenesis in an Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase–Dependent Manner in Diabetic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudukadier, Abulizi; Fujita, Yoshihito; Obara, Akio; Ohashi, Akiko; Fukushima, Toru; Sato, Yuichi; Ogura, Masahito; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Hosokawa, Masaya; Hasegawa, Hiroyuki; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysfunction induces insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor of eNOS that regulates eNOS activity. In the diabetic state, BH4 is oxidized to 7,8-dihydrobiopterin, which leads to eNOS dysfunction owing to eNOS uncoupling. The current study investigates the effects of BH4 on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in diabetic mice. Single administration of BH4 lowered fasting blood glucose levels in wild-type mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and alleviated eNOS dysfunction by increasing eNOS dimerization in the liver of these mice. Liver has a critical role in glucose-lowering effects of BH4 through suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. BH4 activated AMP kinase (AMPK), and the suppressing effect of BH4 on gluconeogenesis was AMPK-dependent. In addition, the glucose-lowering effect and activation of AMPK by BH4 did not appear in mice with STZ-induced diabetes lacking eNOS. Consecutive administration of BH4 in ob/ob mice ameliorated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Taken together, BH4 suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis in an eNOS-dependent manner, and BH4 has a glucose-lowering effect as well as an insulin-sensitizing effect in diabetic mice. BH4 has potential in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23649519

  15. Can multi-slice or navigator-gated R2* MRI replace single-slice breath-hold acquisition for hepatic iron quantification?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, Ralf B.; McCarville, M.B.; Song, Ruitian; Hillenbrand, Claudia M.; Wagstaff, Anne W.; Smeltzer, Matthew P.; Krafft, Axel J.; Hankins, Jane S.

    2017-01-01

    Liver R2* values calculated from multi-gradient echo (mGRE) magnetic resonance images (MRI) are strongly correlated with hepatic iron concentration (HIC) as shown in several independently derived biopsy calibration studies. These calibrations were established for axial single-slice breath-hold imaging at the location of the portal vein. Scanning in multi-slice mode makes the exam more efficient, since whole-liver coverage can be achieved with two breath-holds and the optimal slice can be selected afterward. Navigator echoes remove the need for breath-holds and allow use in sedated patients. To evaluate if the existing biopsy calibrations can be applied to multi-slice and navigator-controlled mGRE imaging in children with hepatic iron overload, by testing if there is a bias-free correlation between single-slice R2* and multi-slice or multi-slice navigator controlled R2*. This study included MRI data from 71 patients with transfusional iron overload, who received an MRI exam to estimate HIC using gradient echo sequences. Patient scans contained 2 or 3 of the following imaging methods used for analysis: single-slice images (n = 71), multi-slice images (n = 69) and navigator-controlled images (n = 17). Small and large blood corrected region of interests were selected on axial images of the liver to obtain R2* values for all data sets. Bland-Altman and linear regression analysis were used to compare R2* values from single-slice images to those of multi-slice images and navigator-controlled images. Bland-Altman analysis showed that all imaging method comparisons were strongly associated with each other and had high correlation coefficients (0.98 ≤ r ≤ 1.00) with P-values ≤0.0001. Linear regression yielded slopes that were close to 1. We found that navigator-gated or breath-held multi-slice R2* MRI for HIC determination measures R2* values comparable to the biopsy-validated single-slice, single breath-hold scan. We conclude that these three R2* methods can be

  16. Can multi-slice or navigator-gated R2* MRI replace single-slice breath-hold acquisition for hepatic iron quantification?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeffler, Ralf B.; McCarville, M.B.; Song, Ruitian; Hillenbrand, Claudia M. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Diagnostic Imaging, Memphis, TN (United States); Wagstaff, Anne W. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Diagnostic Imaging, Memphis, TN (United States); Rhodes College, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL (United States); Smeltzer, Matthew P. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Biostatistics, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Memphis, Division of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Memphis, TN (United States); Krafft, Axel J. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Diagnostic Imaging, Memphis, TN (United States); University Hospital Center Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Hankins, Jane S. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Hematology, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Liver R2* values calculated from multi-gradient echo (mGRE) magnetic resonance images (MRI) are strongly correlated with hepatic iron concentration (HIC) as shown in several independently derived biopsy calibration studies. These calibrations were established for axial single-slice breath-hold imaging at the location of the portal vein. Scanning in multi-slice mode makes the exam more efficient, since whole-liver coverage can be achieved with two breath-holds and the optimal slice can be selected afterward. Navigator echoes remove the need for breath-holds and allow use in sedated patients. To evaluate if the existing biopsy calibrations can be applied to multi-slice and navigator-controlled mGRE imaging in children with hepatic iron overload, by testing if there is a bias-free correlation between single-slice R2* and multi-slice or multi-slice navigator controlled R2*. This study included MRI data from 71 patients with transfusional iron overload, who received an MRI exam to estimate HIC using gradient echo sequences. Patient scans contained 2 or 3 of the following imaging methods used for analysis: single-slice images (n = 71), multi-slice images (n = 69) and navigator-controlled images (n = 17). Small and large blood corrected region of interests were selected on axial images of the liver to obtain R2* values for all data sets. Bland-Altman and linear regression analysis were used to compare R2* values from single-slice images to those of multi-slice images and navigator-controlled images. Bland-Altman analysis showed that all imaging method comparisons were strongly associated with each other and had high correlation coefficients (0.98 ≤ r ≤ 1.00) with P-values ≤0.0001. Linear regression yielded slopes that were close to 1. We found that navigator-gated or breath-held multi-slice R2* MRI for HIC determination measures R2* values comparable to the biopsy-validated single-slice, single breath-hold scan. We conclude that these three R2* methods can be

  17. Stunting, poor iron status and parasite infection are significant risk factors for lower cognitive performance in Cambodian school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Perignon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nutrition is one of many factors affecting the cognitive development of children. In Cambodia, 55% of children <5 y were anemic and 40% stunted in 2010. Currently, no data exists on the nutritional status of Cambodian school-aged children, or on how malnutrition potentially affects their cognitive development. OBJECTIVE: To assess the anthropometric and micronutrient status (iron, vitamin A, zinc, iodine of Cambodian schoolchildren and their associations with cognitive performance. METHODS: School children aged 6-16 y (n = 2443 from 20 primary schools in Cambodia were recruited. Anthropometry, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, transferrin receptors, retinol-binding protein and zinc concentrations, inflammation status, urinary iodine concentration and parasite infection were measured. Socio-economic data were collected in a sub-group of children (n = 616. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM and block design and picture completion, two standardized tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A deficiency were 15.7%; 51.2%, 92.8%, 17.3% and 0.7% respectively. The prevalence of stunting was 40.0%, including 10.9% of severe stunting. Stunted children scored significantly lower than non-stunted children on all tests. In RCPM test, boys with iron-deficiency anemia had lower scores than boys with normal iron status (-1.46, p<0.05. In picture completion test, children with normal iron status tended to score higher than iron-deficient children with anemia (-0.81; p = 0.067 or without anemia (-0.49; p = 0.064. Parasite infection was associated with an increase in risk of scoring below the median value in block design test (OR = 1.62; p<0.05, and with lower scores in other tests, for girls only (both p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Poor cognitive performance of Cambodian school-children was multifactorial and

  18. Ulcerated hemosiderinic dyschromia and iron deposits within lower limbs treated with a topical application of biological chelator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Brizzio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ulcerative haemosiderinic dyschromia of chronic venous insufficiency is difficult to heal and presents a high accumulation of iron. Lactoferrin, a potent natural iron chelator, could help to scar this ulcerative haemosi - derinic dyschromia. The objective of this study was to determine whether the topical application of a liposomal gel with Lactoferrin favors scarring/degradation of the brown colored spot typical of ulcerative haemosiderinic dyschromia. Nine patients with severe chronic venous insufficiency and ulcerative haemosiderinic dyschromia (CEAP-C6, with a natural evolution of over 12 months, were included in the study. Hemo chromatosis gene mutations were investigated. The levels of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation and blood cell counts were analyzed. The presence of hemosiderin was investigated through periulcerous and ulcer fundus biopsies carried out at baseline and 30 days after treatment with Lactoferrin. The severity of the injuries (CEAP classification was evaluated at the beginning of and throughout the whole 3-month treatment period. No patient had received compression treatment during the three months previous to this therapy. Significant improvement in these injuries, with a reduction in the dimensions of the brown spot (9 of 9 at Day 90, and complete scarring with a closure time ranging from 15 to 180 days (7 of 9 were observed. The use of topical lactoferrin is a non-invasive therapeutic tool that favors clearance of hemosiderinic dyschromia and scarring of the ulcer. The success of this study was not influenced either by the hemochromatosis genetics or the iron metabolism profile observed.

  19. Dietary creatine supplementation lowers hepatic triacylglycerol by increasing lipoprotein secretion in rats fed high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Robin P; Leonard, Kelly-Ann; Jacobs, René L

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that dietary creatine supplementation can prevent lipid accumulation in the liver. Creatine is a small molecule that plays a large role in energy metabolism, but since the enzyme creatine kinase is not present in the liver, the classical role in energy metabolism does not hold in this tissue. Fat accumulation in the liver can lead to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a progressive disease that is prevalent in humans. We have previously reported that creatine can directly influence lipid metabolism in cell culture to promote lipid secretion and oxidation. Our goal in the current study was to determine whether similar mechanisms that occur in cell culture were present in vivo. We also sought to determine whether dietary creatine supplementation could be effective in reversing steatosis. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet or a high-fat diet supplemented with creatine for 5 weeks. We found that rats supplemented with creatine had significantly improved rates of lipoprotein secretion and alterations in mitochondrial function that were consistent with greater oxidative capacity. We also find that introducing creatine into a high-fat diet halted hepatic lipid accumulation in rats with fatty liver. Our results support our previous report that liver cells in culture with creatine secrete and oxidize more oleic acid, demonstrating that dietary creatine can effectively change hepatic lipid metabolism by increasing lipoprotein secretion and oxidation in vivo. Our data suggest that creatine might be an effective therapy for NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Diagnostic value of real-time elastography in the assessment of hepatic fibrosis in patients with liver iron overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paparo, Francesco; Cevasco, Luca; Zefiro, Daniele; Biscaldi, Ennio; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Balocco, Manuela; Pongiglione, Marta; Banderali, Simone; Forni, Gian Luca; Rollandi, Gian Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of our prospective monocentric work was to determine the diagnostic value of real-time elastography (RTE) in the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with iron overload, using transient elastography (TE) as reference standard. Methods: Sixty-seven consecutive patients with MRI detectable iron overload (T2* < 6.3 ms) were enrolled. TE and RTE were performed on the same day as MRI. Elastograms were acquired by an experienced operator and analyzed by calculating the elastic ratio between perihepatic soft tissues and liver parenchyma. An elliptical ROI of 1 cm 2 (Z 1 ) was positioned in the liver parenchyma and a smaller elliptical ROI of 2 mm 2 (Z 2 ) was positioned in a homogeneously soft (red) region of the diaphragm, which was considered as internal control to calculate the elastic ratio Z 2 /Z 1 . Results: Seven patients were excluded because of invalid TE or RTE examinations. The remaining 60 patients were 57% males and 43% females (mean age: 42 [21–76] years), including 37 homozygous-β-thalassemics, 13 patients with β-thalassemia intermedia, 6 with primary hemochromatosis, and 4 with myelodysplastic syndrome. Increasing elastic ratios were significantly correlated with increasing TE values (r = 0.645, 95% CI 0.468–0.772, P < 0.0001). The mean elastic ratios for each METAVIR group were as follows: F0/1 = 1.9 ± 0.4; F2 = 2.2 ± 0.4; F3 = 2.9 ± 0.5; F4 = 3.2 ± 0.4. The diagnostic accuracy of RTE for F ≥ 2 evaluated by AUC-ROC analysis was 0.798 (95% CI 0.674–0.890). The diagnostic accuracy of RTE for F ≥ 3 was 0.909 (95% CI 0.806–0.968). At a cut-off ≥ 2.75, RTE showed a sensitivity of 70% (95% CI 45.7–88.1) and a specificity of 97.5% (95% CI 86.8–99.9). Conclusions: In patients with MRI-detectable liver iron-overload RTE allows to discriminate between F0/1–F2 and F3–F4 with a reasonable diagnostic accuracy

  1. Diagnostic value of real-time elastography in the assessment of hepatic fibrosis in patients with liver iron overload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paparo, Francesco [Department of Radiology, E.O. Ospedali Galliera, Mura della Cappuccine 14, 16128 Genoa (Italy); Cevasco, Luca [School of Radiology, University of Genoa, Via Leon Battista Alberti 4, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Zefiro, Daniele [Medical Physics Department, E.O. Ospedali Galliera, Mura della Cappuccine 14, 16128 Genoa (Italy); Biscaldi, Ennio; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo [Department of Radiology, E.O. Ospedali Galliera, Mura della Cappuccine 14, 16128 Genoa (Italy); Balocco, Manuela [Unit of Microcitemia and Hereditary Anaemias, E.O. Ospedali Galliera, Mura della Cappuccine 14, 16128 Genoa (Italy); Pongiglione, Marta; Banderali, Simone [Department of Radiology, E.O. Ospedali Galliera, Mura della Cappuccine 14, 16128 Genoa (Italy); Forni, Gian Luca [Unit of Microcitemia and Hereditary Anaemias, E.O. Ospedali Galliera, Mura della Cappuccine 14, 16128 Genoa (Italy); Rollandi, Gian Andrea, E-mail: gian.andrea.rollandi@galliera.it [Department of Radiology, E.O. Ospedali Galliera, Mura della Cappuccine 14, 16128 Genoa (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    Objective: The objective of our prospective monocentric work was to determine the diagnostic value of real-time elastography (RTE) in the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with iron overload, using transient elastography (TE) as reference standard. Methods: Sixty-seven consecutive patients with MRI detectable iron overload (T2* < 6.3 ms) were enrolled. TE and RTE were performed on the same day as MRI. Elastograms were acquired by an experienced operator and analyzed by calculating the elastic ratio between perihepatic soft tissues and liver parenchyma. An elliptical ROI of 1 cm{sup 2} (Z{sub 1}) was positioned in the liver parenchyma and a smaller elliptical ROI of 2 mm{sup 2} (Z{sub 2}) was positioned in a homogeneously soft (red) region of the diaphragm, which was considered as internal control to calculate the elastic ratio Z{sub 2}/Z{sub 1}. Results: Seven patients were excluded because of invalid TE or RTE examinations. The remaining 60 patients were 57% males and 43% females (mean age: 42 [21–76] years), including 37 homozygous-β-thalassemics, 13 patients with β-thalassemia intermedia, 6 with primary hemochromatosis, and 4 with myelodysplastic syndrome. Increasing elastic ratios were significantly correlated with increasing TE values (r = 0.645, 95% CI 0.468–0.772, P < 0.0001). The mean elastic ratios for each METAVIR group were as follows: F0/1 = 1.9 ± 0.4; F2 = 2.2 ± 0.4; F3 = 2.9 ± 0.5; F4 = 3.2 ± 0.4. The diagnostic accuracy of RTE for F ≥ 2 evaluated by AUC-ROC analysis was 0.798 (95% CI 0.674–0.890). The diagnostic accuracy of RTE for F ≥ 3 was 0.909 (95% CI 0.806–0.968). At a cut-off ≥ 2.75, RTE showed a sensitivity of 70% (95% CI 45.7–88.1) and a specificity of 97.5% (95% CI 86.8–99.9). Conclusions: In patients with MRI-detectable liver iron-overload RTE allows to discriminate between F0/1–F2 and F3–F4 with a reasonable diagnostic accuracy.

  2. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workshops Follow Us Home Health Information Liver Disease Hepatitis (Viral) Hepatitis C Related Topics English English Español Section Navigation Hepatitis (Viral) What Is Viral Hepatitis? Hepatitis A Hepatitis B ...

  3. Lower liver stiffness in patients with sustained virological response 4 years after treatment for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ellen Sloth; Moessner, Belinda Klemmensen; Christensen, Peer Brehm

    2011-01-01

    Transient elastography (TE) is a noninvasive and well validated method for measurement of liver stiffness. The aim of this study was to use TE to evaluate whether patients with sustained virological response (SVR) have lower liver stiffness than patients with non-SVR after treatment for chronic...

  4. Coffee consumption is associated with lower serum aminotransferases in the general Korean population and in those at high risk for hepatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Myueng Guen; Han, Mi Ah; Kim, Man Woo; Park, Chan Guk; Kim, Young Dae; Lee, Jun

    2016-12-01

    The favourable effects of coffee on liver enzymes have been reported worldwide. This study investigated the association between coffee consumption and serum aminotransferase concentration in Korean adults. Data were obtained from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentration were defined as >30 IU/L for men and >19 IU/L for women. The risk of elevated ALT and AST according to general characteristics and frequency of coffee consumption were tested by chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of elevated ALT was 27.4%, 27.8%, and 26.9% in subjects who drank =2 times/day, respectively. The proportions of individuals with elevated AST were 32.5%, 33.1%, and 26.7% in subjects who drank =2 times/day, respectively. The aORs for elevated ALT and AST were significantly lower in subjects who drank >=2 times of coffee/day than in those who drank =2 times/day was associated with lower ORs for elevated ALT in the high-risk group overall and in the viral hepatitis and obesity subgroups, respectively. In sensitivity analysis, reduced frequency of coffee consumption was associated with an increased risk for elevated liver enzymes, although an association between coffee consumption and elevated ALT was not observed in women or current smokers. Higher coffee consumption was associated with lower risk of elevated aminotransferase concentration in Korean adults.

  5. Targeted therapy for human hepatic carcinoma cells using folate-functionalized polymeric micelles loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide and sorafenib in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lei Zhang,1 Faming Gong,2 Fang Zhang,3 Jing Ma,1 Peidong Zhang,1 Jun Shen3 1Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, 2PCFM Laboratory of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 3Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of targeted folate-functionalized micelles containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs and sorafenib on human hepatic carcinoma (HepG2 cells in vitro, and to observe the feasibility of surveillance of this targeting therapeutic effect by magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: Sorafenib and SPIONs were loaded into polymeric micelles. The targeted nanocarrier was synthesized by functionalizing the micelles with folate. Folate-free micelles loaded with sorafenib and SPIONs were used as control (nontargeted micelles. Uptake of the nanocarrier by cells was assessed using Prussian blue staining after 1 hour of incubation with the polymeric micelles. The inhibitory effect of the targeted micelles on HepG2 cell proliferation at various concentrations of sorafenib was assessed in vitro using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT assay and apoptotic analysis using flow cytometry. Magnetic resonance imaging using a clinical 1.5 T scanner was performed to detect changes in the signal intensity of cells after incubation with the targeted micelles. Results: Prussian blue staining showed significantly more intracellular SPIONs in cells incubated with the targeted micelles than those incubated with nontargeted micelles. The MTT assay showed that the average inhibitory ratio in the targeted group was significantly higher than that in the nontargeted group (38.13% versus 22.54%, P = 0.028. The mean apoptotic rate in the targeted cells, nontargeted cells, and untreated cells was 17.01%, 11.04%, and 7.89%, respectively. The apoptotic rate in the

  6. Effects of iron supplementation on growth, gut microbiota, metabolomics and cognitive development of rat pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica E Alexeev

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is common during infancy and therefore iron supplementation is recommended. Recent reports suggest that iron supplementation in already iron replete infants may adversely affect growth, cognitive development, and morbidity.Normal and growth restricted rat pups were given iron daily (30 or 150 μg/d from birth to postnatal day (PD 20, and followed to PD56. At PD20, hematology, tissue iron, and the hepatic metabolome were measured. The plasma metabolome and colonic microbial ecology were assessed at PD20 and PD56. T-maze (PD35 and passive avoidance (PD40 tests were used to evaluate cognitive development.Iron supplementation increased iron status in a dose-dependent manner in both groups, but no significant effect of iron on growth was observed. Passive avoidance was significantly lower only in normal rats given high iron compared with controls. In plasma and liver of normal and growth-restricted rats, excess iron increased 3-hydroxybutyrate and decreased several amino acids, urea and myo-inositol. While a profound difference in gut microbiota of normal and growth-restricted rats was observed, with iron supplementation differences in the abundance of strict anaerobes were observed.Excess iron adversely affects cognitive development, which may be a consequence of altered metabolism and/or shifts in gut microbiota.

  7. Detection of hepatic metastases by superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced MR imaging: prospective comparison between 1.5-T and 3.0-T images in the same patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofue, Keitaro; Miyake, Mototaka; Sakurada, Aine; Arai, Yasuaki; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2010-01-01

    To prospectively compare the diagnostic performance of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 3.0 T and 1.5 T for detection of hepatic metastases. A total of 28 patients (18 men, 10 women; mean age, 61 years) with 80 hepatic metastases were prospectively examined by SPIO-enhanced MR imaging at 3.0 T and 1.5 T. T1-weighted gradient-recalled-echo (GRE) images, T2*-weighted GRE images and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (SE) images were acquired. The tumour-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the lesions was calculated. Three observers independently reviewed each image. Image artefacts and overall image quality were analysed, sensitivity and positive predictive value for the detection of hepatic metastases were calculated, and diagnostic accuracy using the receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) method was evaluated. The tumour-to-liver CNRs were significantly higher at 3.0 T. Chemical shift and motion artefact were more severe, and overall image quality was worse on T2-weighted fast SE images at 3.0 T. Overall image quality of the two systems was similar on T1-weighted GRE images and T2*-weighted GRE images. Sensitivity and area under the ROC curve for the 3.0-T image sets were significantly higher. SPIO-enhanced MR imaging at 3.0 T provided better diagnostic performance for detection of hepatic metastases than 1.5 T. (orig.)

  8. Decreased serum hepcidin concentration correlates with brain iron deposition in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Lin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Excessive brain iron accumulation contributes to cognitive impairments in hepatitis B virus (HBV-related cirrhotic patients. The underlying mechanism remains unclear. Hepcidin, a liver-produced, 25-aminoacid peptide, is the major regulator of systemic iron metabolism. Abnormal hepcidin level is a key factor in some body iron accumulation or deficiency disorders, especially in those associated with liver diseases. Our study was aimed to explore the relationship between brain iron content in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and serum hepcidin level. METHODS: Seventy HBV-related cirrhotic patients and forty age- sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Brain iron content was quantified by susceptibility weighted phase imaging technique. Serum hepcidin as well as serum iron, serum transferrin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin saturation were tested in thirty cirrhotic patients and nineteen healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to investigate correlation between brain iron concentrations and serum hepcidin, or other iron parameters. RESULTS: Cirrhotic patients had increased brain iron accumulation compared to controls in the left red nuclear, the bilateral substantia nigra, the bilateral thalamus, the right caudate, and the right putamen. Cirrhotic patients had significantly decreased serum hepcidin concentration, as well as lower serum transferring level, lower total iron binding capacity and higher transferrin saturation, compared to controls. Serum hepcidin level negatively correlated with the iron content in the right caudate, while serum ferritin level positively correlated with the iron content in the bilateral putamen in cirrhotic patients. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased serum hepcidin level correlated with excessive iron accumulation in the basal ganglia in HBV-related cirrhotic patients. Our results indicated that systemic iron overload underlined regional

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Liver Disease Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Autoimmune Hepatitis Benign Liver Tumors Biliary Atresia Cirrhosis of the ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of ...

  10. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns ... are the common causes of cirrhosis? Hepatitis B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver ...

  11. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which can lower your chances of developing serious health problems. Your doctor may recommend screening for hepatitis B if you ... see a doctor who specializes in liver diseases. Doctors can treat the health problems related to cirrhosis with medicines, surgery, and other ...

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns Diseases of the Liver ... A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns Diseases of the Liver ...

  13. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis Viral hepatitis > A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis (PDF, 90 ... liver. Source: National Cancer Institute Learn more about hepatitis Watch a video. Learn who is at risk ...

  14. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans ... in their blood (sometimes referred to as the hepatitis B viral load) and an unusually high level of a ...

  15. Normal variation of hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Inn; Nam, Myung Hyun; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Koh, Byung Hee; Seo, Heung Suk; Kim, Soon Yong

    1987-01-01

    This study was an analyses of blood supply of the liver in 125 patients who received hepatic arteriography and abdominal aortography from Jan. 1984 to Dec. 1986 at the Department of Radiology of Hanyang University Hospital. A. Variations in extrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal extrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 106 of 125 cases (84.8%) ; Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and hepatic artery proper arising from the common hepatic artery. 2. The most common type of variation of extrahepatic artery was replaced right hepatic artery from superior mesenteric artery: 6 of 125 cases (4.8%). B. Variations in intrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal intrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 83 of 125 cases (66.4%). Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and middle hepatic artery arising from lower portion of the umbilical point of left hepatic artery. 2. The most common variation of intrahepatic arteries was middle hepatic artery. 3. Among the variation of middle hepatic artery; Right, middle and left hepatic arteries arising from the same location at the hepatic artery proper was the most common type; 17 of 125 cases (13.6%)

  16. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice ... diseases. What are the common causes of cirrhosis? Hepatitis B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty ...

  17. Urinary excretion of copper, zinc and iron with and without D-penicillamine administration in relation to hepatic copper concentration in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fieten, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314112596; Hugen, S.; van den Ingh, T.S.G.A.M.; Hendriks, W.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298620936; Vernooij, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/340304596; Bode, P.; Watson, A.L.; Leegwater, P.A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074236539; Rothuizen, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071276033

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Hereditary copper-associated hepatitis in dogs resembles Wilson’s disease, a copper storage disease in humans. Values for urinary copper excretion are well established in the diagnostic protocol of Wilson’s disease, whereas in dogs these have not been evaluated. The objectives of this study

  18. Urinary excretion of copper, zinc and iron with and without D-penicillamine administration in relation to hepatic copper concentration in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fieten, H.; Hugen, S.; Ingh, van den T.S.G.A.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Bode, P.; Watson, A.L.; Leegwater, P.A.J.; Rothuizen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary copper-associated hepatitis in dogs resembles Wilson’s disease, a copper storage disease in humans. Values for urinary copper excretion are well established in the diagnostic protocol of Wilson’s disease, whereas in dogs these have not been evaluated. The objectives of this study were to

  19. Hepatitis Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  20. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Donate Today Enroll in 123 What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that causes temporary ...

  1. Hepatitis A virus antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.; Kselikova, M.; Urbankova, J.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a radioimmunoassay designed to prove the presence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus (HA Ab, anti-Ha) using an Abbott HAVAB set. This proof as well as the proof of the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis B virus is based on competition between a normal antibody against hepatitis A virus and a 125 I-labelled antibody for the binding sites of a specific antigen spread all over the surface of a tiny ball; this is then indirect proof of the antibody under investigation. The method is described of reading the results from the number of impulses per 60 seconds: the higher the titre of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in the serum examined, the lower the activity of the specimen concerned. The rate is reported of incidence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in a total of 68 convalescents after hepatitis A; the antibody was found in 94.1%. The immunoglobulin made from the convalescents' plasma showed the presence of antibodies in dilutions as high as 1:250 000 while the comparable ratio for normal immunoglobulin Norga was only 1:2500. Differences are discussed in the time incidence of the antibodies against the hepatitis A virus, the antibodies against the surface antigen of hepatitis B, and the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis V virus. (author)

  2. Fluctuations in late Neoproterozoic atmospheric oxidation — Cr isotope chemostratigraphy and iron speciation of the late Ediacaran lower Arroyo del Soldado Group (Uruguay)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Robert; Gaucher, Claudio; Stolper, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Oxygenation of the Earth's atmosphere occurred in two major steps, near the beginning and near the end of the Proterozoic Eon (2500 to 542 Ma ago), but the details of this history are unclear. Chromium isotopes in iron-rich chemical sediments offer a potential to highlight fine-scale fluctuations...

  3. PPARα, PPARγ and SREBP-1 pathways mediated waterborne iron (Fe)-induced reduction in hepatic lipid deposition of javelin goby Synechogobius hasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang-Hui; Luo, Zhi; Chen, Feng; Shi, Xi; Song, Yu-Feng; You, Wen-Jing; Liu, Xu

    2017-07-01

    The 42-day experiment was conducted to investigate the effects and mechanism of waterborne Fe exposure influencing hepatic lipid deposition in Synechogobius hasta. For that purpose, S. hasta were exposed to four Fe concentrations (0 (control), 0.36, 0.72 and 1.07μM Fe) for 42days. On days 21 and 42, morphological parameters, hepatic lipid deposition and Fe contents, and activities and mRNA levels of enzymes and genes related to lipid metabolism, including lipogenic enzymes (6PGD, G6PD, ME, ICDH, FAS and ACC) and lipolytic enzymes (CPTI, HSL), were analyzed. With the increase of Fe concentration, hepatic Fe content tended to increase but HSI and lipid content tended to decrease. On day 21, Fe exposure down-regulated the lipogenic activities of 6PGD, G6PD, ICDH and FAS as well as the mRNA levels of G6PD, ACCa, FAS, SREBP-1 and PPARγ, but up-regulated CPT I, HSLa and PPARα mRNA levels. On day 42, Fe exposure down-regulated the lipogenic activities of 6PGD, G6PD, ICDH and FAS as well as the mRNA levels of 6PGD, ACCa, FAS and SREBP-1, but up-regulated CPT I, HSLa, PPARα and PPARγ mRNA levels. Using primary S. hasta hepatocytes, specific pathway inhibitors (GW6471 for PPARα and fatostatin for SREBP-1) and activator (troglitazone for PPARγ) were used to explore the signaling pathways of Fe reducing lipid deposition. The GW6471 attenuated the Fe-induced down-regulation of mRNA levels of 6PGD, G6PD, ME, FAS and ACCa, and attenuated the Fe-induced up-regulation of mRNA levels of CPT I, HSLa and PPARα. Compared with single Fe-incubated group, the mRNA levels of G6PD, ME, FAS, ACCa, ACCb and PPARγ were up-regulated while the CPT I mRNA levels were down-regulated after troglitazone pre-treatment; fatostatin pre-treatment down-regulated the mRNA levels of 6PGD, ME, FAS, ACCa, ACCb and SREBP-1, and increased the CPT I and HSLa mRNA levels. Based on these results above, our study indicated that Fe exposure reduced hepatic lipid deposition by down-regulating lipogenesis

  4. Hepatitis C: Managing Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pain: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  5. liver iron stores in different population groups in south africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular, erc. -2,58. -0·02. +0·71. Neoplasms. +1'56. +0·58. -0'04. Chronic infecTions. +1·61. -1'16. +1'30. HBLE lit EFFECf OF GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION ON HEPATIC NON-HAEM. IRON CONCENTRATIONS (NEOPLASMS. URAEMIA. AND CHRONIC. INFEcnONS. EXCLUDED). No. wirh. No. in hepatic iron.

  6. Normal hepatic parenchyma visibility and ADC quantification on diffusion-weighted MRI at 3 T: influence of age, gender, and iron content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metens, Thierry [MRI Clinics, Department of Radiology, Hopital Erasme, Bruxelles (Belgium); Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics, Department of Radiology, Hopital Erasme, Bruxelles (Belgium); Ferraresi, Kellen Fanstone; Farchione, Alessandra; Bali, Maria Antonietta; Matos, Celso [MRI Clinics, Department of Radiology, Hopital Erasme, Bruxelles (Belgium); Moreno, Christophe [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatopancreatology, and Digestive Oncology, Hopital Erasme, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2014-12-15

    To investigate how normal liver parenchyma visibility on 3 T diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) quantification are influenced by age, gender, and iron content. Between February 2011 and April 2013, 86 patients (52 women) with normal livers who underwent respiratory-triggered abdominal 3 T DWI (b = 0, 150, 600, 1,000 s/mm{sup 2}) were retrospectively included. Normal liver and spleen parenchyma visibility was scored independently by two readers. Correlations between visibility scores or ADC with age, gender, T2*, or recent serum ferritin (SF) were investigated. Liver visibility scores in b = 1,000 s/mm{sup 2} images correlated with the age (Spearman R = -0.56 in women, -0.45 in men), T2* (R = 0.75) and SF (R = -0.64) and were significantly higher in women (P < 0.01). SF and T2* were within normal values (T2*: 13 - 31 ms, SF: 14 - 230 μg/L). Liver ADC correlated with visibility scores (R = 0.69) and T2* (R = 0.64) and was age- and gender-dependent. ADC ROI standard deviation negatively correlated with visibility scores (R = -0.65) and T2* (R = -0.62). The spleen visibility did not depend on age or gender. Normal liver parenchyma visibility in DWI is age- and gender-dependent, according to the iron content. Visibility scores and iron content significantly affect ADC quantification in the normal liver. (orig.)

  7. Normal hepatic parenchyma visibility and ADC quantification on diffusion-weighted MRI at 3 T: influence of age, gender, and iron content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metens, Thierry; Ferraresi, Kellen Fanstone; Farchione, Alessandra; Bali, Maria Antonietta; Matos, Celso; Moreno, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    To investigate how normal liver parenchyma visibility on 3 T diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) quantification are influenced by age, gender, and iron content. Between February 2011 and April 2013, 86 patients (52 women) with normal livers who underwent respiratory-triggered abdominal 3 T DWI (b = 0, 150, 600, 1,000 s/mm 2 ) were retrospectively included. Normal liver and spleen parenchyma visibility was scored independently by two readers. Correlations between visibility scores or ADC with age, gender, T2*, or recent serum ferritin (SF) were investigated. Liver visibility scores in b = 1,000 s/mm 2 images correlated with the age (Spearman R = -0.56 in women, -0.45 in men), T2* (R = 0.75) and SF (R = -0.64) and were significantly higher in women (P < 0.01). SF and T2* were within normal values (T2*: 13 - 31 ms, SF: 14 - 230 μg/L). Liver ADC correlated with visibility scores (R = 0.69) and T2* (R = 0.64) and was age- and gender-dependent. ADC ROI standard deviation negatively correlated with visibility scores (R = -0.65) and T2* (R = -0.62). The spleen visibility did not depend on age or gender. Normal liver parenchyma visibility in DWI is age- and gender-dependent, according to the iron content. Visibility scores and iron content significantly affect ADC quantification in the normal liver. (orig.)

  8. Stunting, poor iron status and parasite infection are significant risk factors for lower cognitive performance in Cambodian school-aged children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perignon, Marlene; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nutrition is one of many factors affecting the cognitive development of children. In Cambodia, 55% of children malnutrition potentially affects...... using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM) and block design and picture completion, two standardized tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III). RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A deficiency were 15.7%; 51.2%, 92.8%, 17.3% and 0...

  9. Blood lipids analysis in patients with hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Jianhong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlationship between blood hepatic fibrosis markers and blood lipids levels. Methods: Serum hepatic fibrosis markers (HA, PC III, IV-C, LN) levels were determined with RIA and serum lipids (TG, TCh HDL; LDL, apoA1, apoB) were measured with biochemical methods in 98 patients with hepatitis in various stages and 50 controls. Liver biopsy was done in all the hepatitis patients. Results: Hepatic fibrosis was classified into 5 grades (S0-S4) according to the pathology shown in the biopsy specimen. The serum lipid levels decreased along with the increase of severity of fibrosis from S0 to S4. Levels in S4 patients were significantly lower than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: The serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels increased and lipids levels decreased along with the progress of hepatitis from acute to cirrhosis. (authors)

  10. An iron-57 Moessbauer spectroscopic study of titania-supported iron- and iron-iridium catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, F.J.; Jobson, S.

    1992-01-01

    57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy shows that titania-supported iron is reduced by treatment in hydrogen at significantly lower temperatures than corresponding silica- and alumina-supported catalysts. The metallic iron formed under hydrogen at 600deg C is partially converted to carbide by treatment in carbon monoxide and hydrogen. In contrast to its alumina- and silica-supported counterparts, the remainder of the titania-supported iron is unchanged by this gaseous mixture. The 57 Fe Moessbauer spectra of EXAFS show that iron and iridium in the titania-supported iron-iridium catalysts are reduced in hydrogen at even lower temperatures and, after treatment at 600deg C, are predominantly present as the iron-iridium alloy. The treatment of these reduced catalysts in carbon monoxide and hydrogen is shown by Moessbauer spectroscopy and EXAFS to induce the segregation of iron from the iron-iridium alloy and its conversion to iron oxide. (orig.)

  11. Pulse sequence optimization for superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhaced MR imaging in the detection of hepatic VX2 tumors in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hyun Jung; Han, Joon Koo; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Se Hyung; Choi, Byung Ihn; Kim, Tae Kyoung

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the optimal pulse sequences for SPIO-enhanced MR imaging in the evaluation of multiple hepatic tumors. Twelve rabbits with multiple VX2 liver tumors underwent SPOI-enhanced MRI using the following nine pulse sequences: TSE T2-weighted imaging (T2W1), TSE proton density-weighted imaging(PDWI), and GRE T2*-weighted imaging (T2*W1) with seven different echo times (TE). Liver-lesion contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were calculated, and images were also assessed qualitatively by two radiologists, who reached a consensus as to lesion conspicuity and imaging artifacts using a four-level scale. By means of pathologic correlation, the sensitivity and positive predictive value of each sequence was calculated. TSE T2W1 and long-TE (35 msec) FLASH T2*W1 showed the highest liver-lesion CNR. The best lesion conspicuity was seen at TSE T2W1 and medium-TE (12 msec) GRE T2*W1. Short TE GRE T2*W1 showed the least imaging artifacts. The four sequences which demonstrated the best sensitivity were medium-TE (12 msec), GRE T2*W1 (FLASH, 84%; FISP, 82%), TSE W2T1 (79%), and TSE PDWI (76%). All nine sequences showed overall high positive predictive value (86-97%), with no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). In terms of image quality and the detection of sensitivity, TSE T2W1 and medium TE (12 msec) GRE T2*W1 were the top two pulse sequences among the various sequences used for no SPIO-enhanced MRI. They are thus considered to be optimal sequences for evaluating multiple malignant hepatic tumors

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... friend, spouse, life partner, parent, sibling or other family member. What is HE? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred ... disease is. It’s important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic ...

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Hepatic Encephalopathy Back Hepatic ... Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Help ALF Improve This ...

  14. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Now Hepatic Encephalopathy Back Hepatic Encephalopathy is a brain disorder that develops in some individuals with liver ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ...

  15. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... heavy drinking, most heavy drinkers have developed cirrhosis. Hepatitis C and cirrhosis In general, someone with hepatitis ...

  16. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  17. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  18. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is Important The Connection Between HE and Liver ... Why it’s Important to Treat HE Symptoms of Liver Failure Glossary of terms ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  19. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is Important The Connection Between HE and Liver ... Why it’s Important to Treat HE Symptoms of Liver Failure Glossary of terms ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  20. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... suggest medicines to help relieve your symptoms. The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent HAV. Good hygiene can also ...

  1. Hypoksisk hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amadid, Hanan; Schiødt, Frank Vinholt

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic hepatitis (HH), also known as ischaemic hepatitis or shock liver, is an acute liver injury caused by hepatic hypoxia. Cardiac failure, respiratory failure and septic shock are the main underlying conditions. In each of these conditions, several haemodynamic mechanisms lead to hepatic...... hypoxia. A shock state is observed in only 50% of cases. Thus, shock liver and ischaemic hepatitis are misnomers. HH can be a diagnostic pitfall but the diagnosis can be established when three criteria are met. Prognosis is poor and prompt identification and treatment of the underlying conditions...

  2. Simple serum markers for significant liver inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients with an alanine aminotransferase level lower than 2 times upper limit of normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the simple serum markers for significant liver inflammation in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients with an alanine aminotransferase (ALT level of <2 times upper limit of normal (ULN. MethodsThe clinical data of 278 CHB patients with ALT <2×ULN (ULN=40 U/L were analyzed retrospectively. Significant liver inflammation was defined as a liver inflammatory activity grade (G ≥2. The t-test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test was used for non-normally distributed continuous data; the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors for significant liver inflammation in CHB patients with ALT <2×ULN. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum markers in significant liver inflammation. ResultsOf the 278 CHB patients enrolled, 175 (62.9% had no significant liver inflammation (G0-1 group and 103 (37.1% had significant liver inflammation (G2-4 group. There were significant differences in ALT, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, albumin, globulin, prothrombin time (PT, platelet, absolute neutrophil count, hyaluronic acid (HA, glycocholic acid, precollagen Ⅲ, and collagen type Ⅳ(ⅣC between the two groups (all P<0.05. The multivariate regression analysis showed that GGT, PT, ⅣC, and HA were independent predictors for significant liver inflammation in CHB patients with ALT<2×ULN (OR=1.015, 1.600, 1.151, and 1.014, P=0.008, 0.021, 0.003, and 0.018. The areas under the ROC curve for GGT, PT, IVC, and HA to diagnose significant liver inflammation were 0.804, 0.722, 0.707, and 0.632, respectively. The cut-off value of 48.5 U/L for GGT to predict significant liver inflammation had a specificity of 90.3% and a negative

  3. Superparamagnetic iron oxides for MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissleder, R.; Reimer, P.

    1993-01-01

    Pharmaceutical iron oxide preparations have been used as MRI contrast agents for a variety of purposes. These agents predominantly decrease T2 relaxation times and therefore cause a decrease in signal intensity of tissues that contain the agent. After intravenous administration, dextran-coated iron oxides typically accumulate in phagocytic cells in liver and spleen. Clinical trials have shown that iron oxide increases lesion/liver and lesion/spleen contrast, that more lesions can be depicted than on plain MRI or CT, and that the size threshold for lesion detection decreases. Decreased uptake of iron oxides in liver has been observed in hepatitis and cirrhosis, potentially allowing the assessment of organ function. More recently a variety of novel, target-specific monocrystalline iron oxides compounds have been used for receptor and immunospecific images. Future development of targeted MRI contrast agents is critical for organ- or tissue-specific quantitative and functional MRI. (orig.)

  4. Superparamagnetic iron oxides for MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissleder, R [MGH-NMR Center, Dept. of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Reimer, P [MGH-NMR Center, Dept. of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Zentrale Roentgendiagnostik, Westfaelische-Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany)

    1993-06-01

    Pharmaceutical iron oxide preparations have been used as MRI contrast agents for a variety of purposes. These agents predominantly decrease T2 relaxation times and therefore cause a decrease in signal intensity of tissues that contain the agent. After intravenous administration, dextran-coated iron oxides typically accumulate in phagocytic cells in liver and spleen. Clinical trials have shown that iron oxide increases lesion/liver and lesion/spleen contrast, that more lesions can be depicted than on plain MRI or CT, and that the size threshold for lesion detection decreases. Decreased uptake of iron oxides in liver has been observed in hepatitis and cirrhosis, potentially allowing the assessment of organ function. More recently a variety of novel, target-specific monocrystalline iron oxides compounds have been used for receptor and immunospecific images. Future development of targeted MRI contrast agents is critical for organ- or tissue-specific quantitative and functional MRI. (orig.)

  5. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Hepatitis (Viral) View or Print All Sections What is Viral Hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation ...

  6. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ogholikhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.

  7. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  8. Institutional Care and Iron Deficiency Increase ADHD Symptomology and Lower IQ 2.5-5 Years Post-Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doom, Jenalee R.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2015-01-01

    Increased ADHD symptomology and lower IQ have been reported in internationally adopted (IA) children compared to non-adopted peers (Hostinar, Stellern, Schaefer, Carlson & Gunnar, 2012; Kreppner, O'Connor & Rutter, 2001). However, it is unclear whether these outcomes are due to institutional deprivation specifically or to co-occurring…

  9. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  10. Foetal life protein restriction in male mink (Neovison vison) kits lowers post-weaning protein oxidation and the relative abundance of hepatic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Connie Marianne Frank; Blache, D.; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl

    2012-01-01

    Foetal life malnutrition has been studied intensively in a number of animal models. Results show that especially foetal life protein malnutrition can lead to metabolic changes later in life. This might be of particular importance for strict carnivores, for example, cat and mink (Neovison vison...... born to mothers fed either a low-protein diet (LP), that is, 14% of metabolizable energy (ME) from protein (foetal low – FL), n = 16, or an adequate-protein (AP) diet, that is, 29% of ME from protein (foetal adequate – FA), n = 16) in the last 16.3 ± 1.8 days of pregnancy were used. The FL offspring...... had lower birth weight and lower relative abundance of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fru-1,6-P2ase) and pyruvate kinase mRNA in foetal hepatic tissue than FA kits. The mothers were fed a diet containing adequate protein until weaning. At weaning (7 weeks of age), half of the kits from each foetal...

  11. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Plan Long-Term Considerations Patient Support Finding Support Services Peer Support Groups Financial Assistance Support for My ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ...

  12. Mild iron overload in patients carrying the HFE S65C gene mutation: a retrospective study in patients with suspected iron overload and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Holmström, P; Marmur, J; Eggertsen, G; Gåfvels, M; Stål, P

    2002-01-01

    Background and aims: The role of the HFE S65C mutation in the development of hepatic iron overload is unknown. The aim of the present study was: (A) to determine the HFE S65C frequency in a Northern European population; and (B) to evaluate whether the presence of the HFE S65C mutation would result in a significant hepatic iron overload.

  13. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Chapter 3 - Hepatitis E Hepatitis C Deborah Holtzman INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis C virus ( ... mother to child. Map 3-05. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  14. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 - Helminths, Soil-Transmitted Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Hepatitis A Noele P. Nelson INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis A ... hepatitis/HAV Table 3-02. Vaccines to prevent hepatitis A VACCINE TRADE NAME (MANUFACTURER) AGE (Y) DOSE ...

  15. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis KidsHealth / For Parents / Hepatitis Print en español Hepatitis What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The ...

  16. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis A Chapter 3 - Hepatitis C Hepatitis B Francisco Averhoff INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis B virus ( ... progression of disease. Map 3-04. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  17. Hepatitis C: Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Public Home » Hepatitis C » Treatment Decisions Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... can I find out about participating in a hepatitis C clinical trial? Many trials are being conducted ...

  18. Hepatitis C: Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting Tested Just Diagnosed Treatment Choice Program ... Pain Mental Health Sex and Sexuality (for Hepatitis C) Success Stories FAQs For Health Care Providers Provider ...

  19. The liver in regulation of iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishi, Gautam; Subramaniam, V Nathan

    2017-09-01

    The liver is one of the largest and most functionally diverse organs in the human body. In addition to roles in detoxification of xenobiotics, digestion, synthesis of important plasma proteins, gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism, and storage, the liver also plays a significant role in iron homeostasis. Apart from being the storage site for excess body iron, it also plays a vital role in regulating the amount of iron released into the blood by enterocytes and macrophages. Since iron is essential for many important physiological and molecular processes, it increases the importance of liver in the proper functioning of the body's metabolism. This hepatic iron-regulatory function can be attributed to the expression of many liver-specific or liver-enriched proteins, all of which play an important role in the regulation of iron homeostasis. This review focuses on these proteins and their known roles in the regulation of body iron metabolism. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Does chronic hepatitis B infection affect the clinical course of acute hepatitis A?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Su Rin; Moh, In Ho; Jung, Sung Won; Kim, Jin Bae; Park, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyoung Su; Jang, Myung Kuk; Lee, Myung Seok

    2013-01-01

    The impact of chronic hepatitis B on the clinical outcome of acute hepatitis A remains controversial. The aim of present study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of acute hepatitis A in cases with underlying chronic hepatitis B compared to cases of acute hepatitis A alone. Data on 758 patients with acute hepatitis A admitted at two university-affiliated hospitals were reviewed. Patients were classified into three groups: group A, patients with both acute hepatitis A and underlying chronic hepatitis B (n = 27); group B, patients infected by acute hepatitis A alone whose sexes and ages were matched with patients in group A (n  = 54); and group C, patients with acute hepatitis A alone (n = 731). None of the demographic features of group A were significantly different from those of group B or C, except for the proportion of males and body weight, which differed from group C. When comparing to group B, clinical symptoms were more frequent, and higher total bilirubin and lower albumin levels were observed in group A. When comparing to group C, the albumin levels were lower in group A. There were no differences in the duration of hospital stay, occurrence of acute kidney injury, acute liver failure, prolonged cholestasis, or relapsing hepatitis. This study revealed that clinical symptoms and laboratory findings were less favorable for patients with acute hepatitis A and chronic hepatitis B compared to those with acute hepatitis A alone. However, there were no differences in fatal outcomes or serious complications. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Correlation between malnutrition and prognosis of hepatitis A in Uygur children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the correlation between malnutrition and prognosis in Uyghur pediatric patients with hepatitis A in Hetian of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. Methods The clinical data of 342 children with hepatitis A admitted to the Infectious Disease Hospital of Hetian from January 2014 to May 2015 were retrospectively analyzed and the patients were divided into malnutrition group with 136 patients and normal nutrition group with 206 patients according to the Z-scores. The data of complete blood count, liver function test, biochemical indices, blood lipids, blood coagulation, and hospitalization days and costs were compared between the two groups. Comparison of categorical data between the two groups was made by chi-square test and comparison of continuous data between the two groups was made by t test. Results Compared with the normal nutrition group, the malnutrition group had significantly lower values of breastfeeding rate, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, serum iron, serum ferritin, glucose, serum albumin, and plasma thromboplastin antecedent but higher values of alanine transaminase, total bilirubin, total bile acid, cholesterol, and hospitalization days and costs (P<0.05. Conclusion Compared with the normal nutrition pediatric patients with hepatitis A, the malnutrition pediatric patients with hepatitis A have more severe iron deficiency anemia, hepatic damage, and abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates and fatty acids, so their recovery time is longer and the hospitalization costs are higher. To effectively protect Uygur children, hepatitis A vaccination in due course and the children′s growth and development monitoring are recommended.

  2. Alcoholic Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... yellow color. Confusion, drowsiness and slurred speech (hepatic encephalopathy). A damaged liver has trouble removing toxins from your body. The ... of toxins can damage your brain. Severe hepatic encephalopathy can result in ... of the liver frequently leads to liver failure. Kidney failure. A ...

  3. Hepatic uptake of technetium-99m diphosphonate in thalassemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, H.M.; Smith, R.

    1986-01-01

    Two cases of thalassemia major are presented in which bone scintigraphy demonstrated diffuse hepatic uptake of Tc-99m diphosphonate. Although abnormal splenic and renal uptake of Tc-99m phosphates has been reported in patients with thalassemia major, hepatic uptake has not been reported previously. This scintigraphic finding is presumably due to increased iron deposition in the liver, resulting from increased iron turnover and retention in these patients and from multiple previous blood transfusions

  4. Hepatic blood flow with colloidal 198Au in the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marian, L.; Szantay, V.

    1975-01-01

    Tracer quantities of colloidal 198 Au were used to estimate the hepatic blood flow in normal children and in children with active or progressive chronic hepatitis and also to obtain scintigrams of the liver. In active chronic hepatitis a significant decrease in HBF values was observed, suggesting that the method may be used as a diagnostic criterion which is superior to hepatic scintigraphy. In progressive chronic hepatitis HBF values even lower than those in active hepatitis were observed. Together with more characteristic clinical findings and abnormal results of biochemical function tests, they underline the value of the method in estimating the severity and the evolution of the disease. (orig.) [de

  5. Iron overload in the liver diagnostic and quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alustiza, Jose M.; Castiella, Agustin; Juan, Maria D. de; Emparanza, Jose I.; Artetxe, Jose; Uranga, Maite

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary Hemochromatosis is the most frequent modality of iron overload. Since 1996 genetic tests have facilitated significantly the non-invasive diagnosis of the disease. There are however many cases of negative genetic tests that require confirmation by hepatic iron quantification which is traditionally performed by hepatic biopsy. There are many studies that have demonstrated the possibility of performing hepatic iron quantification with Magnetic Resonance. However, a consensus has not been reached yet regarding the technique or the possibility to reproduce the same method of calculus in different machines. This article reviews the state of the art of the question and delineates possible future lines to standardise this non-invasive method of hepatic iron quantification

  6. Iron overload in the liver diagnostic and quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alustiza, Jose M. [Osatek SA, P Dr. Beguiristain 109, 20014, San Sebastian, Guipuzcoa (Spain)]. E-mail: jmalustiza@osatek.es; Castiella, Agustin [Osatek SA, P Dr. Beguiristain 109, 20014, San Sebastian, Guipuzcoa (Spain); Juan, Maria D. de [Osatek SA, P Dr. Beguiristain 109, 20014, San Sebastian, Guipuzcoa (Spain); Emparanza, Jose I. [Osatek SA, P Dr. Beguiristain 109, 20014, San Sebastian, Guipuzcoa (Spain); Artetxe, Jose [Osatek SA, P Dr. Beguiristain 109, 20014, San Sebastian, Guipuzcoa (Spain); Uranga, Maite [Osatek SA, P Dr. Beguiristain 109, 20014, San Sebastian, Guipuzcoa (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    Hereditary Hemochromatosis is the most frequent modality of iron overload. Since 1996 genetic tests have facilitated significantly the non-invasive diagnosis of the disease. There are however many cases of negative genetic tests that require confirmation by hepatic iron quantification which is traditionally performed by hepatic biopsy. There are many studies that have demonstrated the possibility of performing hepatic iron quantification with Magnetic Resonance. However, a consensus has not been reached yet regarding the technique or the possibility to reproduce the same method of calculus in different machines. This article reviews the state of the art of the question and delineates possible future lines to standardise this non-invasive method of hepatic iron quantification.

  7. Automated two-point dixon screening for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis and siderosis: comparison with R2-relaxometry and chemical shift-based sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, B; Zoller, H; Rauch, S; Schocke, M; Kannengiesser, S; Zhong, X; Reiter, G; Jaschke, W; Kremser, C

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the automated two-point Dixon screening sequence for the detection and estimated quantification of hepatic iron and fat compared with standard sequences as a reference. One hundred and two patients with suspected diffuse liver disease were included in this prospective study. The following MRI protocol was used: 3D-T1-weighted opposed- and in-phase gradient echo with two-point Dixon reconstruction and dual-ratio signal discrimination algorithm ("screening" sequence); fat-saturated, multi-gradient-echo sequence with 12 echoes; gradient-echo T1 FLASH opposed- and in-phase. Bland-Altman plots were generated and correlation coefficients were calculated to compare the sequences. The screening sequence diagnosed fat in 33, iron in 35 and a combination of both in 4 patients. Correlation between R2* values of the screening sequence and the standard relaxometry was excellent (r = 0.988). A slightly lower correlation (r = 0.978) was found between the fat fraction of the screening sequence and the standard sequence. Bland-Altman revealed systematically lower R2* values obtained from the screening sequence and higher fat fraction values obtained with the standard sequence with a rather high variability in agreement. The screening sequence is a promising method with fast diagnosis of the predominant liver disease. It is capable of estimating the amount of hepatic fat and iron comparable to standard methods. • MRI plays a major role in the clarification of diffuse liver disease. • The screening sequence was introduced for the assessment of diffuse liver disease. • It is a fast and automated algorithm for the evaluation of hepatic iron and fat. • It is capable of estimating the amount of hepatic fat and iron.

  8. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... to continue to work to my full capacity? Will I be able to drive? Patient Stories Angie M. Caregiver for Brother Charles DiAngelo Hepatic Encephalopathy Jason Dedmon Alcohol-related Cirrhosis ...

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... your body when your liver isn’t working well, it may affect your brain and cause HE. ... it apparent that the liver is not doing well. These could be the symptoms of Hepatic Encephalopathy ( ...

  10. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... bad. It sends the good things – such as vitamins and nutrients – into your bloodstream for your body ... for Wife Joyce O. Caregiver for Mother Lynette K. Hepatic Encephalopathy Samantha W. Caregiver for Husband Stan ...

  11. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? Prior to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering ...

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... become familiar with the signs of Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if ... with continuous treatment, HE can usually be controlled. So it’s important to tell your doctor about any ...

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... build-up and painful swelling of the legs (edema) and abdomen (ascites) or hepatic encephalopathy. For more ... build up and painful swelling of the legs (edema) and abdomen (ascites) Bruising and bleeding easily Enlarged ...

  14. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment ... treatment. Being a fully-informed participant in your medical care is an important factor in staying as ...

  15. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... American Liver Foundation © 2018 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Funding for the HE123 - Diagnosis, Treatment and ...

  16. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic Encephalopathy so you ... team evaluates the person’s overall physical and mental health, plan to pay for transplant related medical expenses, ...

  17. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Symptoms to look for Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ... questions about HE, one step at a time. Home About Us Ways to Give Contact Us Privacy ...

  18. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... responsible for the daily needs of another person. Caregivers can be a friend, spouse, life partner, parent, sibling or other family member. What is HE? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as ...

  19. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... viral load (the amount of HCV in your blood), imaging tests, and biopsy results. Treatment is especially important for people who are showing signs liver fibrosis or scarring. Medicines used to treat hepatitis C ...

  20. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that can be corrected . It may also occur as part of a chronic problem from liver disease ... worse over time. Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that ...

  1. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acute liver failure requires a stay in the hospital for monitoring and treatment. Some people with acute liver failure may need a liver transplant. Prevention The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent infection with the virus. The vaccine is typically given ...

  2. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... OVERVIEW Donate Now Join an Event Volunteer Your Time The Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate ... problem from liver disease that gets worse over time. Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  3. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Patient Advisory Council Media Center Careers How You Can Help OVERVIEW Donate Now Join an Event Volunteer ... Hepatic Encephalopathy is a short-term problem that can be corrected . It may also occur as part ...

  4. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... People ALF Near You Events ALF Blogs Financial Information Policies Advocacy Patient Advisory Council Media Center Careers ... and abdomen (ascites) or hepatic encephalopathy. For more information about cirrhosis of the liver and symptoms, call ...

  5. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Disease (NAFLD) & Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) Autoimmune Hepatitis Bile duct disease such as Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) ... spleen (splenomegaly) Stone-like particles in gallbladder and bile duct (gallstones) Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) Chronic liver ...

  6. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hepatitis is the most common form in North America. Type 1 can occur at any age; however, ... eastern time, M-F Follow Us NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® Research & Funding Current Funding Opportunities Research ...

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering to Your Treatment Plan Long-Term Considerations Patient Support Finding Support Services Peer Support Groups Financial Assistance Support for My Loved Ones Resources Find ...

  8. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... Site Map © COPYRIGHT 2017 AMERICAN LIVER FOUNDATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Your Liver Overview

    The Faces ...

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ... travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic ...

  10. Hepatitis B Foundation

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    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 11 Other Languages . Resource Video See ...

  11. What Is Hepatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Alt+1 Content Alt+2 What is hepatitis? Online Q&A Reviewed July 2016 Q: What ... Question and answer archives Submit a question World Hepatitis Day Posters: Eliminate hepatitis World Hepatitis Day 2017 ...

  12. Ascorbate status modulates reticuloendothelial iron stores and response to deferasirox iron chelation in ascorbate-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Casey; Otto-Duessel, Maya; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Iron chelation is essential to patients on chronic blood transfusions to prevent toxicity from iron overload and remove excess iron. Deferasirox (DFX) is the most commonly used iron chelator in the United States; however, some patients are relatively refractory to DFX therapy. We postulated...... that vitamin C supplementation would improve the availability of transfusional iron to DFX treatment by promoting iron's redox cycling, increasing its soluble ferrous form and promoting its release from reticuloendothelial cells. Osteogenic dystrophy rats (n = 54) were given iron dextran injections for 10...... 12 weeks of sham chelation. Most importantly, ascorbate supplementation at 2250 ppm improved DFX efficiency, allowing DFX to remove 21% more hepatic iron than ascorbate supplementation with 900 ppm or 150 ppm (p vitamin C status modulates the release of iron from...

  13. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  14. Cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination for individuals with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapko, Michael K; Yee, Helen S; Monto, Alexander; Dominitz, Jason A

    2010-02-17

    The incidence of hepatitis A infection in the United States has decreased dramatically in recent years because of childhood immunization programs. A decision analysis of the cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination for adults with hepatitis C was conducted. No vaccination strategy is cost-effective for adults with hepatitis C using the recent lower anticipated hepatitis A incidence, private sector costs, and a cost-effectiveness criterion of $100,000/QALY. Vaccination is cost-effective only for individuals who have cleared the hepatitis C virus when Department of Veterans Affairs costs are used. The recommendation to vaccinate adults with hepatitis C against hepatitis A should be reconsidered. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  16. Hepatitis C: Sex and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Sex and Sexuality: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... hepatitis C virus through sex. Can you pass hepatitis C to a sex partner? Yes, but it ...

  17. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Diet and Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... have high cholesterol and have fatty liver. How hepatitis C affects diet If you have hepatitis, you ...

  18. Hepatitis B & C and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find Services HIV SERVICES LOCATOR Locator Search Search Hepatitis B & C Topics Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis ... Infections Sexually Transmitted Diseases Smoking Women's Health Issues Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infection People ...

  19. Estado nutricional e absorção intestinal de ferro em crianças com doença hepática crônica com e sem colestase Nutritional status and intestinal iron absorption in children with chronic hepatic disease with and without cholestasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Helena Guedes da Motta Mattar

    2005-08-01

    cholestatic group (11/14; 78.6% and noncholestatic group (7/11; 63.6%. The cholestatic group presented lower (p < 0.05 intestinal iron absorption (90.6±42.1 µg/dl than the iron deficiency anemia group (159.6±69.9 µg/dl. However, cholestatic patients responded to oral iron therapy. The noncholestatic group showed intestinal iron absorption similar to the iron deficiency anemia group. CONCLUSIONS: The cholestatic group showed more severe nutritional deficits. Despite the evidence of lower iron intestinal absorption, cholestatic patients responded to oral iron therapy, probably, due to the coexistence of iron deficiency.

  20. Cast irons

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Cast iron offers the design engineer a low-cost, high-strength material that can be easily melted and poured into a wide variety of useful, and sometimes complex, shapes. This latest handbook from ASM covers the entire spectrum of one of the most widely used and versatile of all engineered materials. The reader will find the basic, but vital, information on metallurgy, solidification characteristics, and properties. Extensive reviews are presented on the low-alloy gray, ductile, compacted graphite, and malleable irons. New and expanded material has been added covering high-alloy white irons used for abrasion resistance and high-alloy graphitic irons for heat and corrosion resistance. Also discussed are melting furnaces and foundry practices such as melting, inoculation, alloying, pouring, gating and rising, and molding. Heat treating practices including stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering, autempering (of ductile irons), and surface-hardening treatments are covered, too. ASM Spec...

  1. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färkkilä, Martti

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is chronic liver disease with two subtypes, type 1 with anti nuclear or smooth muscle antibodies and type 2 with LKM1 or LC1 antibodies, and both with hypergammaglobulinemia and typical histology. Prevalence of AIH is between 10 to 17 per 100000 in Europe. Up to 20-40 % of cases present with acute hepatitis. Budesonide can be used as a first line induction therapy in non-cirrhotic patients, and tiopurines, mercaptopurine or mycophenolic acid as maintenance therapies. Patients not responding to conventional therapy can be treated with ciclosporin, tacrolimus or rituximab or finally with liver transplantation.

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ...

  3. Hepatitis E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-e","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... E: recognition, investigation and control”. The manual gives information about the epidemiology, clinical manifestations of the disease, ...

  4. Hepatic haemangioma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    successful usage of transhepatic compression sutures using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) pledgets and selective ligation of large feeding vessels from right hepatic artery. Surgical resection may not be technically safe or possible in certain cases due to the massive or diffuse nature of the lesion, proximity to vascular ...

  5. Chronic hepatitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infection by four diagnostic systems: first generation and second generation. ELlSA, second generation recombinant immunoblot assay and nested polymerase chain reaction analysis. HepatoJogy 1992; 16: 300-305. 14. Van der Poel CL, ... Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. Alcoholic hepatitis. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

  6. Radiogenic hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, G; Woellgens, P; Haase, W [Katharinenhospital, Stuttgart (F.R. Germany). Strahlenklinik

    1976-08-01

    The article is about a patient who developed hepatitis after post-operative radiotherapy of a hypernephroma on the right side with /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. radiation. The scintigraph showed a normal-sized liver with parenchymal defects. Therapy consisted of anti-emetics and vitamin preparations.

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lipase Deficiency Liver Cancer Liver Cysts Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Primary Biliary Cholangitis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis What ... B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) & Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) Autoimmune Hepatitis ...

  8. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When your liver is damaged it can no longer remove toxic substances from your blood. These toxins build up and can travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic Encephalopathy often ...

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... damages your liver over many years – such as long-term alcohol abuse or chronic hepatitis – can cause ... treated. It’s important to continue treatment for as long as necessary to keep HE from coming back. ...

  10. Hepatic lesions in 90 captive nondomestic felids presented for autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, J M; Newkirk, K M; McRee, A E; Whittemore, J C; Ramsay, E C

    2015-03-01

    Hepatic lesions in nondomestic felids are poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hepatic lesions in 90 captive, nondomestic felids including tigers, cougars, and lions. Hepatic lesions were histologically characterized as vacuolar change (lipidosis or glycogenosis), biliary cysts, biliary hyperplasia, hepatitis, necrosis, neoplasia, fibrosis, veno-occlusive disease, cholestasis, hematoma, congestion, or hemorrhage. Stepwise logistic regression analyses were performed for vacuolar change, benign biliary lesions, hepatitis, lipogranulomas, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and hepatic stellate cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, with species as the outcome variable. Ninety cats met the inclusion criteria. Seventy livers (78%) contained 1 or more lesions. Hepatocellular vacuolar change (41/90 [46%]) was the most common lesion overall. Extramedullary hematopoiesis, lipogranulomas, and hepatic stellate cell hyperplasia were also common. One snow leopard had veno-occlusive disease. Tigers were more likely than other felids to have no significant hepatic histologic lesions (odds ratio [OR], 12.687; P = .002), and lions were more likely to have biliary cysts (OR, 5.97; P = .021). Six animals (7%) died of hepatic disease: cholangiocellular carcinoma (n = 2) and 1 each of hepatic lipidosis, hepatocellular necrosis, pyogranulomatous hepatitis, and suppurative cholecystitis. Hepatocellular iron and copper accumulations were present in 72 of 90 (80%) and 10 of 90 (11%) sections, respectively. Sinusoidal fibrosis was common (74/90 [82%]) and primarily centrilobular (65/74 [88%]). Hepatocellular iron, copper, and fibrosis were not significantly associated with hepatic lesions. Primary hepatic disease was not a common cause of death in nondomestic felids in this study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Hepatic amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salles José Maria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Amebiasis can be considered the most aggressive disease of the human intestine, responsible in its invasive form for clinical syndromes, ranging from the classic dysentery of acute colitis to extra-intestinal disease, with emphasis on hepatic amebiasis, unsuitably named amebic liver abscess. Found worldwide, with a high incidence in India, tropical regions of Africa, Mexico and other areas of Central America, it has been frequently reported in Amazonia. The trophozoite reaches the liver through the portal system, provoking enzymatic focal necrosis of hepatocytes and multiple micro-abscesses that coalesce to develop a single lesion whose central cavity contains a homogeneous thick liquid, with typically reddish brown and yellow color similar to "anchovy paste". Right upper quadrant pain, fever and hepatomegaly are the predominant symptoms of hepatic amebiasis. Jaundice is reported in cases with multiple lesions or a very large abscess, and it affects the prognosis adversely. Besides chest radiography, ultrasonography and computerized tomography have brought remarkable contributions to the diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. The conclusive diagnosis is made however by the finding of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in the pus and by the detection of serum antibodies to the amoeba. During the evolution of hepatic amebiasis, in spite of the availability of highly effective drugs, some important complications may occur with regularity and are a result of local perforation with extension into the pleural and pericardium cavities, causing pulmonary abscesses and purulent pericarditis, respectively The ruptures into the abdominal cavity may lead to subphrenic abscesses and peritonitis. The treatment of hepatic amebiasis is made by medical therapy, with metronidazole as the initial drug, followed by a luminal amebicide. In patients with large abscesses, showing signs of imminent rupture, and especially those who do not respond to medical treatment, a

  12. Hepatic amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Salles

    Full Text Available Amebiasis can be considered the most aggressive disease of the human intestine, responsible in its invasive form for clinical syndromes, ranging from the classic dysentery of acute colitis to extra-intestinal disease, with emphasis on hepatic amebiasis, unsuitably named amebic liver abscess. Found worldwide, with a high incidence in India, tropical regions of Africa, Mexico and other areas of Central America, it has been frequently reported in Amazonia. The trophozoite reaches the liver through the portal system, provoking enzymatic focal necrosis of hepatocytes and multiple micro-abscesses that coalesce to develop a single lesion whose central cavity contains a homogeneous thick liquid, with typically reddish brown and yellow color similar to "anchovy paste". Right upper quadrant pain, fever and hepatomegaly are the predominant symptoms of hepatic amebiasis. Jaundice is reported in cases with multiple lesions or a very large abscess, and it affects the prognosis adversely. Besides chest radiography, ultrasonography and computerized tomography have brought remarkable contributions to the diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. The conclusive diagnosis is made however by the finding of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in the pus and by the detection of serum antibodies to the amoeba. During the evolution of hepatic amebiasis, in spite of the availability of highly effective drugs, some important complications may occur with regularity and are a result of local perforation with extension into the pleural and pericardium cavities, causing pulmonary abscesses and purulent pericarditis, respectively The ruptures into the abdominal cavity may lead to subphrenic abscesses and peritonitis. The treatment of hepatic amebiasis is made by medical therapy, with metronidazole as the initial drug, followed by a luminal amebicide. In patients with large abscesses, showing signs of imminent rupture, and especially those who do not respond to medical treatment, a

  13. Counter-attack on viral hepatitis. [Hepatitis A; Hepatitis B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prozesky, O W [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Medical Virology; Jupp, P G; Joubert, J J; Taylor, M B; Grabow, W O.K.

    1985-07-01

    The most highly developed radioimmunoassay test system in medical virology is proving of exceptional value in research aimed at controlling and eventually eradicating the scourge of human hepatitis. The use of radioimmunoassay in detecting hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B (HBV) viruses is discussed. The hepatitis A virus is an enterovirus which infects the gastrointestinal tract and is usually transmitted by contaminated food, milk or water. Hepatitis B spreads mainly by the parenteral rate. Bedbugs and ticks are considered as possible transmitters of HBV. Another important contribution of radioimmunoassay is the ability to monitor the immune response of persons at risk who are vaccinated against hepatitis B.

  14. IRON DOME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6 Israeli Navy 'First Arm of the Sea: The Successful Interception of the Iron Dome Rocket .... sky to destroy them whilst in flight to minimise civilian casualties. ..... Including The Moon and Celestial Bodies.53 Demeyere further emphasises the.

  15. Iron overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tracing) X-ray to detect and track iron tablets through the stomach and intestines Treatment may include: ... BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: ...

  16. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis B KidsHealth / For Teens / Hepatitis B What's in ... Prevented? Print en español Hepatitis B What Is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is an infection of the ...

  17. Hepatitis A Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twinrix® (as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... Why get vaccinated against hepatitis A?Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease. It is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is spread from ...

  18. Congenital Hepatic Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Recinos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital hepatic cyst is a rare and nonsymptomatic condition in infants and children. Its incidence is 2.5% in the postnatal life with a much lower incidence in the prenatal period. Incidental finding on antenatal imaging is the most common presentation. We present a case of a newborn in whom fetal ultrasound detected a cyst within the fetal liver. Postnatal imaging revealed a liver cyst in the right lobe of the liver, with no other intrahepatic structure affected. Liver function tests were abnormal, but the patient was asymptomatic. Posterior follow-up imaging showed a minor decrease in size. Management of congenital hepatic cyst is usually conservative, done with periodic ultrasound monitoring. However, surgical treatment is the mainstay of treatment when hydrops, progressive enlargement, hemorrhage, torsion, or compression of adjacent structures occurs. Malignant transformation can occur, but it is extremely rare. Partial or total removal of the cyst is the preferred treatment in neonates with a large lesion.

  19. AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHepatitis autoimun merupakan penyakit inflamasi hati yang berat dengan penyebab pasti yang tidak diketahui yang mengakibatkan morbiditas dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Semua usia dan jenis kelamin dapat dikenai dengan insiden tertinggi pada anak perempuan usia prepubertas, meskipun dapat didiagnosis pada usia 6 bulan. Hepatitis autoimun dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi 2 bagian berdasarkan adanya antibodi spesifik: Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA dengan anti-actin specificity dan/atau Anti Nuclear Antibody (ANA pada tipe 1 dan Liver-Kidney Microsome antibody (LKM1 dan/atau anti-liver cytosol pada tipe 2. Gambaran histologisnya berupa “interface hepatitis”, dengan infiltrasi sel mononuklear pada saluran portal, berbagai tingkat nekrosis, dan fibrosis yang progresf. Penyakit berjalan secara kronik tetapi keadaan yang berat biasanya menjadi sirosis dan gagal hati.Tipe onset yang paling sering sama dengan hepatitis virus akut dengan gagal hati akut pada beberapa pasien; sekitar sepertiga pasien dengan onset tersembunyi dengan kelemahan dan ikterik progresif ketika 10-15% asimptomatik dan mendadak ditemukan hepatomegali dan/atau peningkatan kadar aminotransferase serum. Adanya predominasi perempuan pada kedua tipe. Pasien LKM1 positif menunjukkan keadaan lebih akut, pada usia yang lebih muda, dan biasanya dengan defisiensi Immunoglobulin A (IgA, dengan durasi gejala sebelum diagnosis, tanda klinis, riwayat penyakit autoimun pada keluarga, adanya kaitan dengan gangguan autoimun, respon pengobatan dan prognosis jangka panjang sama pada kedua tipe.Kortikosteroid yang digunakan secara tunggal atau kombinasi azathioprine merupakan terapi pilihan yang dapat menimbulkan remisi pada lebih dari 90% kasus. Strategi terapi alternatif adalah cyclosporine. Penurunan imunosupresi dikaitkan dengan tingginya relap. Transplantasi hati dianjurkan pada penyakit hati dekom-pensata yang tidak respon dengan pengobatan medis lainnya.Kata kunci : hepatitis Autoimmune

  20. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, D; Mieli-Vergani, G

    2004-06-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterised histologically by interface hepatitis, and serologically by the presence of non-organ and liver specific autoantibodies and increased levels of immunoglobulin G. Its onset is often ill-defined, frequently mimicing acute hepatitis. AIH usually responds to immunosuppressive treatment, which should be instituted as soon as diagnosis is made. Two types of AIH are recognized according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1 AIH) or liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibody (LKM1, type 2 AIH). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age and commonly have immunoglobulin A deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment and long-term prognosis are similar in the 2 groups. Susceptibility to AIH type 1 is conferred by possession of HLA DR3 and DR4, while to AIH type 2 by possession of HLA DR7. Liver damage is likely to derive from an immune reaction to liver cell antigens, possibly triggered by a mechanism of molecular mimicry, where immune responses to external pathogens, e.g. viruses, become directed towards structurally similar self-components. In AIH this process would be perpetuated by impairment in immune regulation.

  1. Clinical consequences of iron overload in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes: the case for iron chelation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shammo, Jamile M; Komrokji, Rami S

    2018-06-14

    Patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are at increased risk of iron overload due to ineffective erythropoiesis and chronic transfusion therapy. The clinical consequences of iron overload include cardiac and/or hepatic failure, endocrinopathies, and infection risk. Areas covered: Iron chelation therapy (ICT) can help remove excess iron and ultimately reduce the clinical consequences of iron overload. The authors reviewed recent (last five years) English-language articles from PubMed on the topic of iron overload-related complications and the use of ICT (primarily deferasirox) to improve outcomes in patients with MDS. Expert Commentary: While a benefit of ICT has been more firmly established in other transfusion-dependent conditions such as thalassemia, its role in reducing iron overload in MDS remains controversial due to the lack of prospective controlled data demonstrating a survival benefit. Orally administered chelation agents (e.g., deferasirox), are now available, and observational and/or retrospective data support a survival benefit of using ICT in MDS. The placebo-controlled TELESTO trial (NCT00940602) is currently examining the use of deferasirox in MDS patients with iron overload, and is evaluating specifically whether use of ICT to alleviate iron overload can also reduce iron overload-related complications in MDS and improve survival.

  2. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...

  3. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Cdo to take care of their liver? People with Hepatitis C should not use alcohol or street drugs, as these can hurt the liver. Some other products can also hurt people with Hepatitis C, even if they appear to ...

  4. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  5. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. Are you at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed ...

  6. Secondary Hemochromatosis due to Chronic Oral Iron Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Lands

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron may accumulate in excess due to a mutation in the HFE gene that upregulates absorption or when it is ingested or infused at levels that exceed the body’s ability to clear it. Excess iron deposition in parenchymal tissue causes injury and ultimately organ dysfunction. Diabetes mellitus and hepatic cirrhosis due to pancreas and liver damage are just two examples of diseases that result from iron overload. Despite the rapid growth of information regarding iron metabolism and iron overload states, the most effective treatment is still serial phlebotomies. We present a patient who developed iron overload due to chronic ingestion of oral ferrous sulfate. This case illustrates the importance of querying geriatric patients regarding their use of nonprescription iron products without a medical indication.

  7. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  8. Effect of transferrin saturation on internal iron exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamaschi, G.; Eng, M.J.; Huebers, H.A.; Finch, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Radioiron was introduced into the intestinal lumen to evaluate absorption, injected as nonviable red cells to evaluate reticuloendothelial (RE) processing of iron, and injected as hemoglobin to evaluate hepatocyte iron processing. Redistribution of iron through the plasma was evaluated in control animals and animals whose transferrin was saturated by iron infusion. Radioiron introduced into the lumen of the gut as ferrous sulfate and as transferrin-bound iron was absorbed about half as well in iron-infused animals, and absorbed iron was localized in the liver. The similar absorption of transferrin-bound iron suggested that absorption of ferrous iron occurred via the mucosal cell and did not enter by diffusion. The decrease in absorption was associated with an increase in mucosal iron and ferritin content produced by the iron infusion. An inverse relationship (r = -0.895) was shown between mucosal ferritin iron and absorption. When iron was injected as nonviable red cells, it was deposited predominantly in reticuloendothelial cells of the spleen. Return of this radioiron to the plasma was only 6% of that in control animals. While there was some movement of iron from spleen to liver, this could be accounted for by intravascular hemolysis. Injected hemoglobin tagged with radioiron was for the most part taken up and held by the liver. Some 13% initially localized in the marrow in iron-infused animals was shown to be storage iron unavailable for hemoglobin synthesis. These studies demonstrate the hepatic trapping of absorbed iron and the inability of either RE cell or hepatocyte to release iron in the transferrin-saturated animal

  9. Microclimate Observation at Hermann’s Tortoise (Testudo hermanni boettgeri Habitat in the “Iron Gates” Natural Park. Case Study: Lower Eșelniţa Watershed (Banat, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciocanea Cristiana-Maria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “Iron Gates” Natural Park is located in the South-Western part of Romania and is recognized for its great diversity of ecosystems, wide variety of species and emblematic landscapes. Due to its Mediterranean climatic influences and vegetation structure, the area is a suitable habitat for the existence and development of Testudo hermanni boettgeri.

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron- ... of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark ...

  12. Iron in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reasonable amounts of iron are also found in lamb, pork, and shellfish. Iron from vegetables, fruits, grains, ... strawberries, tomatoes, and potatoes) also increase iron absorption. Cooking foods in a cast-iron skillet can also ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, ... iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, ... iron deficiency. Endurance athletes lose iron through their gastrointestinal tracts. They also lose iron through the breakdown of ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron in your body is low. For this reason, other iron tests are also done. Ferritin measure ... iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron in the body and lead to ... Disease Control and Prevention) Iron - Health Professional Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron- ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to moderate iron-deficiency anemia, or red blood cell transfusion for severe iron-deficiency anemia. You may ... body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the ... pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron added. ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and severity. Treatments may include iron supplements, procedures, surgery, and dietary ... iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ... is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  2. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  3. Superiority of dietary safflower oil over olive oil in lowering serum cholesterol and increasing hepatic mRnas for the LDL receptor and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase in exogenously hypercholesterolemic (exHC) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M; Yoshida, S; Nagao, K; Imaizumi, K

    2000-06-01

    The exogenously hypercholesterolemic (ExHC) rat is a strain segregated from SD rats with a high response to dietary cholesterol. To understand the underlying mechanism(s) for this hypercholesterolemia, the interactive effects of dietary fatty acid and the susceptibility of rats to dietary cholesterol on the serum cholesterol concentration and hepatic mRNA abundance of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (7alpha-hydroxylase) and 3-hydroxyl-3methylglutaryl (HMG) CoA reductase were examined. Both strains were fed on a diet supplemented with 10% each of olive, safflower or coconut oil with or without the addition of 1% cholesterol for one week. The ExHC rats fed on olive, safflower and coconut oil in combination with cholesterol respectively resulted in a 3.5-, 2.0- and 2.1-fold higher serum cholesterol concentration than that in the animals fed on the corresponding dietary fats without any supplementation of cholesterol (p safflower oil-containing diet supplemented with cholesterol resulted in a higher mRNA abundance of the LDL receptor and 7alpha-hydroxylase than in the corresponding fat-fed rats without cholesterol (p<0.05). There was no dietary cholesterol-dependent change of mRNA abundance in either strain fed on olive or coconut oil, except for a decreased abundance of HMG CoA reductase mRNA in the olive oil-fed ExHC rats and coconut oil-fed Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (p<0.05). These results indicate that the hepatic mRNA abundance of the LDL receptor and of 7alpha-hydroxylase depended on the dietary combination of cholesterol and a fatty acid and suggest that a linoleic acid-rich diet may alleviate exogenous hypercholesterolemia by activating the process involved in the hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of serum cholesterol.

  4. Liver iron overloading in captive muriquis (Brachyteles spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Stéfanie V; Strefezzi, Ricardo De F; Pissinatti, Alcides; Catão-Dias, José L

    2011-04-01

    Iron accumulation was investigated qualitatively and quantitatively in the liver of 15 captive Brachyteles spp. Hepatic hemosiderosis index (HHI) was determined as the area percentage of the liver parenchyma occupied by hemosiderin and ferritin deposits, through computerized histomorphometric analysis of Prussian blue-stained histologic sections. All studied animals presented liver hemosiderosis, and HHI ranged from 0.2% to 41.7%. There were no significant differences in HHI between muriqui species or genders, and no correlations were detected among HHI and age, time in captivity or body mass. Iron deposits were accompanied by other hepatic disorders. This is the first study addressing the occurrence and consequences of iron overloading in the liver of muriquis. We propose that hemosiderosis may act as a contribute factor for the development of hepatic injuries. Further studies are advised to clarify the role of diet in the pathogenesis of hemosiderosis in these atelids. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  6. Iron and iron derived radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fast! Think small! In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  7. HIV and Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common causes of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). HBV and HCV are common ... gov/ mmwr/ preview/ mmwrhtml/ rr5516a1. htm? s_ cid= rr5516a1_ e. The Numbers • • Of people with HIV in the ...

  8. The effect of nutrition knowledge and dietary iron intake on iron status in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Alecia J; Chalmers, Kerry A; Collins, Clare E; Patterson, Amanda J

    2014-10-01

    Previous research on the relationships between general nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, and dietary iron intake and iron status has produced inconsistent results. Currently, no study has focused on knowledge of dietary iron and its effect on dietary iron intake. This study aimed to determine whether nutrition knowledge of iron is related to dietary iron intake in young women, and subsequently whether greater knowledge and intake translates into better iron status. A cross-sectional assessment of nutrition knowledge of iron, dietary iron intake and iron status was conducted in women aged 18-35 years living in Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Iron status was assessed by serum ferritin, haemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptor and alpha-1-glycoprotein. One hundred and seven women (27.8 ± 4.7 years) completed the nutrition knowledge questionnaire and FFQ. Of these, 74 (70%) also had biomarkers of iron status measured. Mean iron intake was 11.2 ± 3.8 mg/day. There was no association between nutrition knowledge score and whether the women met the RDI for iron (F (1, 102) = .40, P = .53). A positive correlation was shown between nutrition knowledge score and iron intake (mg/day) (r = 0.25, P = .01). Serum ferritin was positively associated with the frequency of flesh food intake (r = .27 P = .02). Vegetarians (including partial vegetarians) had significantly lower serum ferritin levels than non-vegetarians (F (1, 71) = 7.44, P = .01). Significant positive correlations found between higher flesh food intake and biomarkers of iron status suggest that educating non-vegetarians about the benefits of increased flesh food consumption and vegetarians about dietary iron enhancers and inhibitors may have potential for addressing the high rates of iron deficiency among young women. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Automated two-point dixon screening for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis and siderosis: comparison with R2*-relaxometry and chemical shift-based sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henninger, B.; Rauch, S.; Schocke, M.; Jaschke, W.; Kremser, C. [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Zoller, H. [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Internal Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Kannengiesser, S. [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, MR Applications Development, Erlangen (Germany); Zhong, X. [Siemens Healthcare, MR R and D Collaborations, Atlanta, GA (United States); Reiter, G. [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, MR R and D Collaborations, Graz (Austria)

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the automated two-point Dixon screening sequence for the detection and estimated quantification of hepatic iron and fat compared with standard sequences as a reference. One hundred and two patients with suspected diffuse liver disease were included in this prospective study. The following MRI protocol was used: 3D-T1-weighted opposed- and in-phase gradient echo with two-point Dixon reconstruction and dual-ratio signal discrimination algorithm (''screening'' sequence); fat-saturated, multi-gradient-echo sequence with 12 echoes; gradient-echo T1 FLASH opposed- and in-phase. Bland-Altman plots were generated and correlation coefficients were calculated to compare the sequences. The screening sequence diagnosed fat in 33, iron in 35 and a combination of both in 4 patients. Correlation between R2* values of the screening sequence and the standard relaxometry was excellent (r = 0.988). A slightly lower correlation (r = 0.978) was found between the fat fraction of the screening sequence and the standard sequence. Bland-Altman revealed systematically lower R2* values obtained from the screening sequence and higher fat fraction values obtained with the standard sequence with a rather high variability in agreement. The screening sequence is a promising method with fast diagnosis of the predominant liver disease. It is capable of estimating the amount of hepatic fat and iron comparable to standard methods. (orig.)

  10. Automated two-point dixon screening for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis and siderosis: comparison with R2*-relaxometry and chemical shift-based sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henninger, B.; Rauch, S.; Schocke, M.; Jaschke, W.; Kremser, C.; Zoller, H.; Kannengiesser, S.; Zhong, X.; Reiter, G.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the automated two-point Dixon screening sequence for the detection and estimated quantification of hepatic iron and fat compared with standard sequences as a reference. One hundred and two patients with suspected diffuse liver disease were included in this prospective study. The following MRI protocol was used: 3D-T1-weighted opposed- and in-phase gradient echo with two-point Dixon reconstruction and dual-ratio signal discrimination algorithm (''screening'' sequence); fat-saturated, multi-gradient-echo sequence with 12 echoes; gradient-echo T1 FLASH opposed- and in-phase. Bland-Altman plots were generated and correlation coefficients were calculated to compare the sequences. The screening sequence diagnosed fat in 33, iron in 35 and a combination of both in 4 patients. Correlation between R2* values of the screening sequence and the standard relaxometry was excellent (r = 0.988). A slightly lower correlation (r = 0.978) was found between the fat fraction of the screening sequence and the standard sequence. Bland-Altman revealed systematically lower R2* values obtained from the screening sequence and higher fat fraction values obtained with the standard sequence with a rather high variability in agreement. The screening sequence is a promising method with fast diagnosis of the predominant liver disease. It is capable of estimating the amount of hepatic fat and iron comparable to standard methods. (orig.)

  11. Hepatic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardino, M.E.; Sones, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The past several years have seen significant advances in diagnostic and interventional radiology. These advances have been particularly rewarding for the study of liver disease. Improved imaging and therapeutic procedures in oncology have generated changes in treatment protocols and in evaluating the results of therapy for hepatic malignancies. The enriched understanding of the anatomic and hemodynamic aspects of the portal system has greatly benefited patients with portal hypertension. Now physicians are confidently more aggressive in the therapeutic approach to the variceal bleeder, and they have modified their approach to the preservation of portal flow following shunt. All of the diagnostic modalities used to evaluate the liver are represented in this book. In its structure and organization this volume goes beyond a historical overview of imaging to present greater insight into the current state of the art, as well as possible future developments. Each chapter is designed to elucidate the advantages and weaknesses of the various diagnostic modalities

  12. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzicka, Alex M.; Haack, Henning; Chabot, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    By far most of the melted and differentiated planetesimals that have been sampled as meteorites are metal-rich iron meteorites or stony iron meteorites. The parent asteroids of these meteorites accreted early and differentiated shortly after the solar system formed, producing some of the oldest...... and interpretations for iron and stony iron meteorites (Plate 13.1). Such meteorites provide important constraints on the nature of metal-silicate separation and mixing in planetesimals undergoing partial to complete differentiation. They include iron meteorites that formed by the solidification of cores...... (fractionally crystallized irons), irons in which partly molten metal and silicates of diverse types were mixed together (silicate-bearing irons), stony irons in which partly molten metal and olivine from cores and mantles were mixed together (pallasites), and stony irons in which partly molten metal...

  13. Iron oxides in human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesnek, M.; Miglierini, M.; Lancok, A.

    2015-01-01

    It was confirmed that Moessbauer spectroscopy is an useful tool for measurement of biological tissues even if the concentration of iron in the samples is very low. Moessbauer spectra revealed a presence of particles with non-magnetic behaviour at room temperature. At temperature 4.2 K almost all particles exhibit magnetic behaviour. The rest of the particles still exhibits superparamagnetic behaviour what indicates that their blocking temperature is lower than 4.2 K. It was suggested that those might be very small haemosiderin particles. Parameters the sextet-like components suggest possible presence of goethite, akaganeit or ferrihydrite. Using synchrotron assisted XRD, it was not possible to reveal any iron relevant structural information due to very low concentration of iron atoms in samples. Atomic pairs with the highest contribution to PDF were revealed. All these atomic pairs are characteristic for biological materials. XRD measurement of extracted ferritin could reveal some helpful information about the iron structure. (authors)

  14. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilsanz, Vicente [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chung, Sandra A. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kaplowitz, Neil [USC, Keck School of Medicine, USC Research Center for Liver Disease, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P < 0.0001) but similar measures of IAF and liver tissue density (P = 0.09 and 0.92, respectively). However, when compared to overweight/obese men, overweight/obese women had strikingly similar IAF values (P = 0.85) but lower hepatic fat (P = 0.009). Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after adjusting for age and SAF, IAF independently predicted hepatic density in males (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P = 0.36). Hepatic fat increased with body mass in males from lean to overweight and obese (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P > 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

  15. In vitro evaluation of iron solubility and dialyzability of various iron fortificants and of iron-fortified milk products targeted for infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsokefalou, Maria; Alexandropoulou, Isidora; Komaitis, Michail; Politis, Ioannis

    2005-06-01

    The objectives of the present study were: to compare the solubility and dialyzability of various iron fortificants (iron pyrophosphate, ferrous bis-glycinate, ferrous gluconate, ferrous lactate, ferrous sulfate) added, in the presence of ascorbic acid, to pasteurized milk samples produced under laboratory conditions; and to compare the solubility and dialyzability of iron in commercial pasteurized, UHT and condensed milk products available in the Greek market fortified with various vitamins and minerals including iron and targeted towards infants (6-12 months old) and toddlers. Iron solubility and dialyzability were determined using a simulated gastrointestinal digestive system. Ferrous dialyzable iron (molecular weight lower than 8000) was used as an index for prediction of iron bioavailability. Ferrous dialyzable iron in pasteurized milk samples fortified with iron pyrophosphate, ferrous lactate and ferrous bis-glycinate was higher (P iron in products fortified with ferrous lactate was not different (P > 0.05) from those fortified with ferrous sulfate. Ferrous dialyzable iron in four condensed commercial milk products was higher (P iron was higher (P iron source, milk processing and the overall product composition affect formation of ferrous dialyzable iron and may determine the success and effectiveness of iron fortification of milk.

  16. Iron bioavailibity from a tropical leafy vegetable in anaemic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latunde-Dada Gladys O

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Telfairia occidentalis is a vegetable food crop that is indigenous to West Africa. The leaves and seeds are the edible parts of the plant and are used in everyday meals by incorporation into soups and stews. Previous studies have attributed improved haematological indices to the vegetable and have advocated the use of T. occidentalis in the treatment of anemia. This study investigates the ameliorative effects of T. occidentalis when compared to FeSO4 as a reference salt in anaemic mice. It also compares the bioavailability of test iron and hepatic hepcidin expression for the estimation of iron absorption in the mice. Non-haem iron was determined in the liver of mice after the experimental feeding treatments. Hepcidin mRNA expression was carried out by quantitative RT-PCR. Administration of T. occidentalis leaves led to a modest increase in haemoglobin (Hb levels in anaemic mice that were comparable to the Hb repletion in anaemic mice given FeSO4. Hepatic iron increase in the mice given either T. occidentalis or FeSO4 led to a corresponding enhancement of hepcidin mRNA expression. Induced hepcidin mRNA expression was enhanced by the addition of ascorbic acid to the test dose of iron. Hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression was found to be responsive to increase in the relative bioavailability of iron from test diets.

  17. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus. When first infected, a person can develop ...

  18. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis Information for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  19. Immunoglobulins for preventing hepatitis A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jian Ping; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Fei, Yutong

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention.......Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention....

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency anemia is a ... address the cause of your iron deficiency, such as any underlying bleeding. If undiagnosed or untreated, iron- ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  3. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  4. Overall survival in lower IPSS risk MDS by receipt of iron chelation therapy, adjusting for patient-related factors and measuring from time of first red blood cell transfusion dependence: an MDS-CAN analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, Heather A; Parmar, Ambica; Wells, Richard A; Chodirker, Lisa; Zhu, Nancy; Nevill, Thomas J; Yee, Karen W L; Leber, Brian; Keating, Mary-Margaret; Sabloff, Mitchell; St Hilaire, Eve; Kumar, Rajat; Delage, Robert; Geddes, Michelle; Storring, John M; Kew, Andrea; Shamy, April; Elemary, Mohamed; Lenis, Martha; Mamedov, Alexandre; Ivo, Jessica; Francis, Janika; Zhang, Liying; Buckstein, Rena

    2017-10-01

    Analyses suggest iron overload in red blood cell (RBC) transfusion-dependent (TD) patients with myleodysplastic syndrome (MDS) portends inferior overall survival (OS) that is attenuated by iron chelation therapy (ICT) but may be biassed by unbalanced patient-related factors. The Canadian MDS Registry prospectively measures frailty, comorbidity and disability. We analysed OS by receipt of ICT, adjusting for these patient-related factors. TD International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) low and intermediate-1 risk MDS, at RBC TD, were included. Predictive factors for OS were determined. A matched pair analysis considering age, revised IPSS, TD severity, time from MDS diagnosis to TD, and receipt of disease-modifying agents was conducted. Of 239 patients, 83 received ICT; frailty, comorbidity and disability did not differ from non-ICT patients. Median OS from TD was superior in ICT patients (5·2 vs. 2·1 years; P MDS, adjusting for age, frailty, comorbidity, disability, revised IPSS, TD severity, time to TD and receiving disease-modifying agents. This provides additional evidence that ICT may confer clinical benefit. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... making new blood cells. Visit our Aplastic Anemia Health Topic to learn more. ... recommend that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. ... stored iron has been used. Ferritin is a protein that helps store iron in your body. Reticulocyte ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron- ... and lifestyle changes to avoid complications. Follow your treatment plan Do not stop taking your prescribed iron ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnoses you with iron-deficiency anemia, your treatment will depend on the cause and severity of the ... of iron. The recommended daily amounts of iron will depend on your age, sex, and whether you ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... iron-deficiency anemia may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... because your body’s intake of iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood ... delivery or giving birth to a baby with low birth weight In people with chronic conditions, iron- ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding. Recommended daily iron intake for children and adults. The table lists the recommended amounts of iron, ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. Unhealthy environments Children ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up ... screen blood donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency ...

  15. Iron metabolism and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, G.; Pantopoulos, K.

    2005-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient with limited bioavailability. When present in excess, iron poses a threat to cells and tissues, and therefore iron homeostasis has to be tightly controlled. Iron's toxicity is largely based on its ability to catalyze the generation of radicals, which attack and damage cellular macromolecules and promote cell death and tissue injury. This is lucidly illustrated in diseases of iron overload, such as hereditary hemochromatosis or transfusional siderosis, where excessive iron accumulation results in tissue damage and organ failure. Pathological iron accumulation in the liver has also been linked to the development of hepatocellular cancer. Here we provide a background on the biology and toxicity of iron and the basic concepts of iron homeostasis at the cellular and systemic level. In addition, we provide an overview of the various disorders of iron overload, which are directly linked to iron's toxicity. Finally, we discuss the potential role of iron in malignant transformation and cancer

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... amount of iron, and medical conditions that make it hard for your body to absorb iron from ... hepcidin. Hepcidin prevents iron from leaving cells where it is stored or from being absorbed in the ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bleeding. If undiagnosed or untreated, iron-deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development ... iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood loss, consuming less than ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ... Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) Avoiding Anemia (National ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy ... sources of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... starch. Restless legs syndrome Shortness of breath Weakness Complications Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause ... as complete blood count and iron studies. Prevent complications over your lifetime To prevent complications from iron- ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia ... and where to find more information. Causes Your body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, ... signs of iron-deficiency anemia include: Brittle nails ...

  3. Taking iron supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007478.htm Taking iron supplements To use the sharing features on this page, ... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark ... choose nonmeat sources of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... ESAs are usually used with iron therapy or IV iron, or when iron therapy alone is not enough. Look for Living With will discuss what your doctor may recommend, including lifelong lifestyle changes ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron ... Anemia Restless Legs Syndrome Von Willebrand Disease Other Resources NHLBI resources Your Guide to Anemia [PDF, 1. ...

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and bleeding easily Enlarged veins in the lower esophagus (esophageal varices) and stomach (gastropathy) Enlarged spleen (splenomegaly) Stone-like particles in gallbladder and bile duct (gallstones) Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) Chronic liver failure indicates that the ...

  8. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  9. Hepatitis B - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B children; HBV children; Pregnancy - hepatitis B children; Maternal transmission - hepatitis B children ... growth and development. Regular monitoring plays an important role in managing the disease in children. You should ...

  10. Hepatitis E Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before the discovery of hepatitis E virus (HEV), many epidemics of hepatitis in ... HEV was discovered in 1983 in the ... HEV infection is increased by HIV infection in pregnancy. (Caron et al. .... immunosuppressive therapy on the natural history.

  11. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  12. Hepatitis A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Hepatitis A Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... IgG HAV-Ab total Anti-HAV Formal Name Viral Hepatitis A Antibody This article was last reviewed on ...

  13. Hepatic falciform artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaques, Paul F.; Mauro, Matthew A.; Sandhu, Jeet

    1997-01-01

    The hepatic falciform artery is an occasional terminal branch of the left or middle hepatic artery, and may provide an uncommon but important collateral route when the principal visceral arteries are occluded

  14. Hepatitis A -- children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007670.htm Hepatitis A - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis A in children is swelling and inflamed tissue of ...

  15. Bioavailability of iron to rats from processed soybean fractions determined by intrinsic and extrinsic labeling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, C.M.; Nelson, N.; Elliott, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic labeling techniques were used to measure iron bioavailability from soybean fractions (isolated soy protein, defatted flour, soy hulls, insoluble material and whey) by iron-depleted and non-iron-depleted rats. As expected, absorption of iron was higher in the iron-depleted than in the non-iron-depleted rats. In the iron-depleted group, significantly more iron was absorbed from soy whey than from other fractions. No other significant difference in iron absorption associated with iron source was observed. The higher absorption rate of iron from whey by the iron-depleted rats probably was related to a lower quantity of food consumed during the test meal by this group. Intrinsic and extrinsic labeling techniques produced similar assessments of bioavailability of iron

  16. Pumping Iron and Silica Bodybuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnair, H.; Brzezinski, M. A.; Krause, J. W.; Parker, C.; Brown, M.; Coale, T.; Bruland, K. W.

    2016-02-01

    The availability of dissolved iron influences the stoichiometry of nutrient uptake by diatoms. Under nutrient replete conditions diatoms consume silicic acid and nitrate in a 1:1 ratio, this ratio increases under iron stress. Using the tracers 32Si and PDMPO, the total community and group-specific silica production rates were measured along a gradient of dissolved iron in an upwelling plume off the California coast. At each station, a control (ambient silicic acid) and +20 µM silicic acid treatment were conducted with each tracer to determine whether silicic acid limitation controlled the rate of silica production. Dissolved iron was 1.3 nmol kg-1 nearshore and decreased to 0.15 nmol kg-1 offshore. Silicic acid decreased more rapidly than nitrate, it was nearly 9 µM higher in the nearshore and 7 µM lower than nitrate in the middle of the transect where the iron concentration had decreased. The rate of diatom silica production decreased in tandem with silicic acid concentration, and silica production limitation by low silicic acid was most pronounced when iron concentrations were >0.4 nmol kg-1. The composition of the diatom assemblage shifted from Chaetoceros spp. dominated nearshore to a more sparse pennate-dominated assemblage offshore. Changes in taxa-specific silica production rates will be reported based on examination of PDMPO labeled cells using confocal microscopy.

  17. Hepatitis B Foundation Newsletter: B Informed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  18. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resource Center Anonymous Feedback Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  19. Whey Peptide-Iron Complexes Increase the Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions in Comparison to Iron Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano-Silva, Maria Elisa; Barros Mariutti, Lilian Regina; Bragagnolo, Neura; Bertoldo-Pacheco, Maria Teresa; Netto, Flavia Maria

    2018-02-28

    Food fortification with iron may favor lipid oxidation in both food matrices and the human body. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of peptide-iron complexation on lipid oxidation catalyzed by iron, using oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions as a model system. The extent of lipid oxidation of emulsions containing iron salts (FeSO 4 or FeCl 2 ) or iron complexes (peptide-iron complexes or ferrous bisglycinate) was evaluated during 7 days, measured as primary (peroxide value) and secondary products (TBARS and volatile compounds). Both salts catalyzed lipid oxidation, leading to peroxide values 2.6- to 4.6-fold higher than the values found for the peptide-iron complexes. The addition of the peptide-iron complexes resulted in the formation of lower amounts of secondary volatiles of lipid oxidation (up to 78-fold) than those of iron salts, possibly due to the antioxidant activity of the peptides and their capacity to keep iron apart from the lipid phase, since the iron atom is coordinated and takes part in a stable structure. The peptide-iron complexes showed potential to reduce the undesirable sensory changes in food products and to decrease the side effects related to free iron and the lipid damage of cell membranes in the organism, due to the lower reactivity of iron in the complexed form.

  20. Effects of Protein-Iron Complex Concentrate Supplementation on Iron Metabolism, Oxidative and Immune Status in Preweaning Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kupczyński

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding protein-iron complex (PIC on productive performance and indicators of iron metabolism, hematology parameters, antioxidant and immune status during first 35 days of a calf’s life. Preparation of the complex involved enzymatic hydrolysis of milk casein (serine protease from Yarrowia lipolytica yeast. Iron chloride was then added to the hydrolyzate and lyophilizate. Calves were divided into treated groups: LFe (low iron dose 10 g/day calf of protein-iron complex, HFe (height iron dose 20 g/day calf, and control group. Dietary supplements containing the lower dose of concentrate had a significant positive effect on iron metabolism, while the higher dose of concentrate resulted in increase of total iron binding capacity (TIBC, saturation of transferrin and decrease of and unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC, which suggest iron overload. Additionally, treatment with the lower dose of iron remarkably increased the antioxidant parameters, mainly total antioxidant (TAS and glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx. Higher doses of PIC were related to lower total antioxidant status. IgG, IgM, insulin, glucose, TNFα and IGF-1 concentration did not change significantly in either group after supplementation. In practice, the use of protein-iron complex concentrate requires taking into account the iron content in milk replacers and other feedstuffs.

  1. Effects of Exogenous Antioxidants on Dietary Iron Overload

    OpenAIRE

    Asare, George A.; Kew, Michael C.; Mossanda, Kensese S.; Paterson, Alan C.; Siziba, Kwanele; Kahler-Venter, Christiana P.

    2008-01-01

    In dietary iron overload, excess hepatic iron promotes liver damage. The aim was to attenuate free radical-induced liver damage using vitamins. Four groups of 60 Wistar rats were studied: group 1 (control) was fed normal diet, group 2 (Fe) 2.5% pentacarbonyl iron (CI) followed by 0.5% Ferrocene, group 3 (Fe + V gp) CI, Ferrocene, plus vitamins A and E (42× and 10× RDA, respectively), group 4 (Fe – V gp) CI, Ferrocene diet, minus vitamins A and E. At 20 months, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), su...

  2. Aberrant hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstam, M.A.; Novelline, R.A.; Athanasoulis, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    In a patient undergoing selective hepatic arteriography for suspected liver trauma, a nonopacified area of the liver, initially thought to represent a hepatic hematoma, was later discovered to be due to the presence of an accessory right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery. This case illustrates the need for a search for aberrant vasculature whenever a liver hematoma is suspected on the basis of a selective hepatic arteriogram. (orig.) [de

  3. Iron overload following bone marrow transplantation in children: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornreich, L.; Horev, G.; Grunebaum, M.; Yaniv, I.; Stein, J.; Zaizov, R.

    1997-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of post-transfusional iron overload in children after bone marrow transplantation by reviewing their magnetic resonance imaging (MR) findings. Materials and methods. We reviewed the abdominal MR studies of 13 children after autologous bone marrow transplantation. Nine of the children had also undergone MR prior to transplantation. Iron deposition in the liver, spleen and bone marrow was graded semi-quantitatively on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Serum ferritin levels and number of blood units given after bone marrow transplantation were recorded. Results. None of the pre-transplantation MR studies revealed iron overload. After bone marrow transplantation, three children showed normal liver and spleen. Iron overload in the liver was noted in ten patients (77 %), six of whom also showed iron overload in the spleen (46 %) and five in the bone marrow (38.5 %). The degree of hepatic iron overload was correlated significantly and splenic iron overload was correlated weakly with the number of blood transfusions (P 0.01 and P > 0.01, respectively), but neither was correlated with the serum ferritin level. Conclusion. Iron overload commonly accompanies bone marrow transplantation. The observed pattern of iron deposition, in which the spleen was uninvolved in 40 % of patients demonstrating iron overload, is not typical of post-transfusional hemochromatosis. (orig.)

  4. Iron deficiency alters megakaryopoiesis and platelet phenotype independent of thrombopoietin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstatiev, Rayko; Bukaty, Adam; Jimenez, Kristine; Kulnigg-Dabsch, Stefanie; Surman, Lidia; Schmid, Werner; Eferl, Robert; Lippert, Kathrin; Scheiber-Mojdehkar, Barbara; Kvasnicka, Hans Michael; Khare, Vineeta; Gasche, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Iron deficiency is a common cause of reactive thrombocytosis, however, the exact pathways have not been revealed. Here we aimed to study the mechanisms behind iron deficiency-induced thrombocytosis. Within few weeks, iron-depleted diet caused iron deficiency in young Sprague-Dawley rats, as reflected by a drop in hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, hepatic iron content and hepcidin mRNA in the liver. Thrombocytosis established in parallel. Moreover, platelets produced in iron deficient animals displayed a higher mean platelet volume and increased aggregation. Bone marrow studies revealed subtle alterations that are suggestive of expansion of megakaryocyte progenitors, an increase in megakaryocyte ploidy and accelerated megakaryocyte differentiation. Iron deficiency did not alter the production of hematopoietic growth factors such as thrombopoietin, interleukin 6 or interleukin 11. Megakaryocytic cell lines grown in iron-depleted conditions exhibited reduced proliferation but increased ploidy and cell size. Our data suggest that iron deficiency increases megakaryopoietic differentiation and alters platelet phenotype without changes in megakaryocyte growth factors, specifically TPO. Iron deficiency-induced thrombocytosis may have evolved to maintain or increase the coagulation capacity in conditions with chronic bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Importance of boreal rivers in providing iron to marine waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma S Kritzberg

    Full Text Available This study reports increasing iron concentrations in rivers draining into the Baltic Sea. Given the decisive role of iron to the structure and biogeochemical function of aquatic ecosystems, this trend is likely one with far reaching consequences to the receiving system. What those consequences may be depends on the fate of the iron in estuarine mixing. We here assess the stability of riverine iron by mixing water from seven boreal rivers with artificial sea salts. The results show a gradual loss of iron from suspension with increasing salinity. However, the capacity of the different river waters to maintain iron in suspension varied greatly, i.e. between 1 and 54% of iron was in suspension at a salinity of 30. The variability was best explained by iron:organic carbon ratios in the riverine waters--the lower the ratio the more iron remained in suspension. Water with an initially low iron:organic carbon ratio could keep even higher than ambient concentrations of Fe in suspension across the salinity gradient, as shown in experiments with iron amendments. Moreover, there was a positive relationship between the molecular size of the riverine organic matter and the amount of iron in suspension. In all, the results point towards a remarkably high transport capacity of iron from boreal rivers, suggesting that increasing concentrations of iron in river mouths may result in higher concentrations of potentially bioavailable iron in the marine system.

  6. Iron nutrition in Indian women at different ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPhail, A.P.; Bothwell, T.H.; Torrance, J.D.; Derman, D.P.; Bezwoda, W.R.; Charlton, R.W.; Mayet, F.G.H.

    1981-01-01

    The iron status of 320 Indian women living in Chatsworth, Durban, who had volunteered for iron absorption studies, was assessed using a number of measurements. These included radio-iron absorption, the transferrin saturation, the serum ferritin concentration and the haemoglobin concentration. In the sample as a whole, the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia (haemoglobin concentration smaller than 12 g/dl, with two or more abnormal measurements of iron status) was 14,4%. A further 26% had depleted iron stores (serum ferritin smaller than 12μg/l) and 8,4% also had evidence of iron-deficient erythropoiesis (serum ferritin smaller than 12μg/l and transferrin saturation below 16%). A profile of iron status based on the cumulative frequency distribution of iron stores showed that the sample with calculated median iron stores of 150 mg and lower and upper 10 percentiles of -355 mg and 655 mg respectively, was significantly more iron deficient than a sample of women studied in Washington State, USA. Of interest was the observation that all measurements of iron status were better in the older age groups, presumably as a result of the cessation of menstruation. In addition, there was evidence that the duration of menstruation, as volunteered in a brief history, had a significant effect on several measurements of iron status. This was particularly true of the serum ferritin concentration and radio-iron absorption, both of which reflect the size of the iron stores

  7. Genetics Home Reference: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... refractory iron deficiency anemia Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of many types of anemia , which ...

  8. Research of Blood Characteristics of Concurrent Iron Deficiency Anemia in Patients with Chronic ;Hepatitis B Cirrhosis%慢性乙型肝炎肝硬化并发缺铁性贫血患者的血液特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝婧

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the blood characteristics of concurrent iron deficiency anemia( IDA) in patients with chronic hepatitis B cirrhosis.Methods Total of 65 patients with liver cirrhosis in Hechi Peo-ple′s Hospital from May 2014 to May 2015 were included in the study and divided into an observation group (34 cases complicated with IDA) and a control group(31 cases not complicated with IDA).They were meas-ured and compared with folate, serum ferritin, vitamin B12 , blood clotting function, liver function, blood cells.Results They had no significant difference (P>0.05) with vitamin B12, folate level of the observa-tion group was higher than the control group[(32 ±4) nmol/L vs (24 ±3) nmol/L],SF level lower than the control group[(46 ±3) μg/L vs (142 ±15) μg/L],with statistically significant difference(P0.05).The bile acid,bilirubin,alkaline phosphatase,albumin,aspartate aminotransferase of the two groups had no statistically significant differences(P>0.05).The alanine aminotransferase(ALT), glutamyl transaminase(GGT) of the observation group were higher than the control group[(66 ±11) U/L vs (54 ±8) U/L,(79 ±14) U/L vs (59 ±10) U/L](P0.05 );hematocrit ( Hb ) , mean hemoglobin (MCH),mean hemoglobin concentration(MCHC),mean corpuscular volume(MCV) of the ob-servation group were lower than the control group[( 80 ±13) g/L vs (121 ±14) g/L,(28 ±3) pg vs (32 ± 4) pg,(301 ±21) g/L vs (334 ±25) g/L,(81 ±4) fL vs (92 ±5) fL](P<0.05).Conclusion Meas-uring folate,SF, ALT, GGT, MCH, MCHC, MCV, Hb of patients with liver cirrhosis is helpful for the d iagnosis of cirrhosis complicated with IDA .%目的:研究慢性乙型肝炎肝硬化并发缺铁性贫血( IDA )患者的血液特征。方法选取2014年5月至2015年5月河池市人民医院收治的肝硬化患者65例。按照肝硬化患者是否并发IDA分为观察组(并发IDA的34例)和对照组(无IDA的31例)。对两组患者的叶酸、血清铁蛋白、维生素B12、凝血功能、

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age ... athletes. Athletes, especially young females, are at risk for iron deficiency. Endurance ...

  10. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedix, Gretchen K.; Haack, Henning; McCoy, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Without iron and stony-iron meteorites, our chances of ever sampling the deep interior of a differentiated planetary object would be next to nil. Although we live on a planet with a very substantial core, we will never be able to sample it. Fortunately, asteroid collisions provide us with a rich...... sampling of the deep interiors of differentiated asteroids. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are fragments of a large number of asteroids that underwent significant geological processing in the early solar system. Parent bodies of iron and some stony-iron meteorites completed a geological evolution similar...... to that continuing on Earth – although on much smaller length- and timescales – with melting of the metal and silicates; differentiation into core, mantle, and crust; and probably extensive volcanism. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are our only available analogues to materials found in the deep interiors of Earth...

  11. Hepatitis viruses overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis is major cause of morbidity or mortality worldwide, particularly in the developing world. The major causes of infective hepatitis are hepatitis viruses. A, B, C, D or E. In the acute phase, there are no clinical features that can reliably differentiate between these viruses. Infection may be asymptomatic or can present as.

  12. Hepatitis B Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Hepatitis B Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Known As HBV Tests Hep B anti-HBs Hepatitis B Surface Antibody HBsAg Hepatitis B Surface Antigen HBeAg ...

  13. Virtual iron concentration imaging based on dual-energy CT for noninvasive quantification and grading of liver iron content: An iron overload rabbit model study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xian Fu; Yang, Yi; Xie, Xue Qian; Zhang, Huan; Chai, Wei Min; Yan, Fu Hua [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai (China); Yan, Jing [Siemens Shanghai Medical Equipment Ltd., Shanghai (China); Wang, Li [Fudan University, Center of Analysis and Measurement, Shanghai (China); Schmidt, Bernhard [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    To assess the accuracy of liver iron content (LIC) quantification and grading ability associated with clinical LIC stratification using virtual iron concentration (VIC) imaging on dual-energy CT (DECT) in an iron overload rabbit model. Fifty-one rabbits were prepared as iron-loaded models by intravenous injection of iron dextran. DECT was performed at 80 and 140 kVp. VIC images were derived from an iron-specific algorithm. Postmortem LIC assessments were conducted on an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometer. Correlation between VIC and LIC was analyzed. VIC were stratified according to the corresponding clinical LIC thresholds of 1.8, 3.2, 7.0, and 15.0 mg Fe/g. Diagnostic performance of stratification was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic analysis. VIC linearly correlated with LIC (r = 0.977, P < 0.01). No significant difference was observed between VIC-derived LICs and ICP (P > 0.05). For the four clinical LIC thresholds, the corresponding cutoff values of VIC were 19.6, 25.3, 36.9, and 61.5 HU, respectively. The highest sensitivity (100 %) and specificity (100 %) were achieved at the threshold of 15.0 mg Fe/g. Virtual iron concentration imaging on DECT showed potential ability to accurately quantify and stratify hepatic iron accumulation in the iron overload rabbit model. (orig.)

  14. Iron from Zealandic bog iron ore -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach

    2011-01-01

    og geologiske materiale, metallurgiske analyser og eksperimentel arkæologiske forsøg - konturerne af en jernproduktion med udgangspunkt i den sjællandske myremalm. The frequent application by archaeologists of Werner Christensen’s distribution map for the occurrence of bog iron ore in Denmark (1966...... are sketched of iron production based on bog iron ore from Zealand....

  15. Iron bioavailability: UK Food Standards Agency workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mamta; Sanderson, Peter; Hurrell, Richard F; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Geissler, Catherine; Prentice, Ann; Beard, John L

    2006-11-01

    The UK Food Standards Agency convened a group of expert scientists to review current research investigating factors affecting iron status and the bioavailability of dietary iron. Results presented at the workshop show menstrual blood loss to be the major determinant of body iron stores in premenopausal women. In the presence of abundant and varied food supplies, the health consequences of lower iron bioavailability are unclear and require further investigation.

  16. Native iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Charles Kent

    2015-01-01

    System, was reduced. The oxidized outer layers of the Earth have formed by two processes. Firstly, water is decomposed to oxygen and hydrogen by solar radiation in the upper parts of the atmosphere, the light hydrogen diffusing to space, leaving oxygen behind. Secondly, plants, over the course......, hematite, or FeO.Fe2O3, magnetite), with carbon in the form of coke. This is carried out in a blast furnace. Although the Earth's core consists of metallic iron, which may also be present in parts of the mantle, this is inaccessible to us, so we must make our own. In West Greenland, however, some almost......We live in an oxidized world: oxygen makes up 22 percent of the atmosphere and by reacting with organic matter produces most of our energy, including the energy our bodies use to function: breathe, think, move, etc. It has not always been thus. Originally the Earth, in common with most of the Solar...

  17. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (thesis provides novel warranted epidemiological information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an

  18. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ciećko-Michalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

  19. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223

  20. Impact of iron overload and potential benefit from iron chelation in low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Niraj; Vallumsetla, Nishanth; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer; Verma, Amit; Ginzburg, Yelena

    2014-08-07

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are a group of heterogeneous clonal bone marrow disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, peripheral blood cytopenias, and potential for malignant transformation. Lower/intermediate-risk MDSs are associated with longer survival and high red blood cell (RBC) transfusion requirements resulting in secondary iron overload. Recent data suggest that markers of iron overload portend a relatively poor prognosis, and retrospective analysis demonstrates that iron chelation therapy is associated with prolonged survival in transfusion-dependent MDS patients. New data provide concrete evidence of iron's adverse effects on erythroid precursors in vitro and in vivo. Renewed interest in the iron field was heralded by the discovery of hepcidin, the main serum peptide hormone negative regulator of body iron. Evidence from β-thalassemia suggests that regulation of hepcidin by erythropoiesis dominates regulation by iron. Because iron overload develops in some MDS patients who do not require RBC transfusions, the suppressive effect of ineffective erythropoiesis on hepcidin may also play a role in iron overload. We anticipate that additional novel tools for measuring iron overload and a molecular-mechanism-driven description of MDS subtypes will provide a deeper understanding of how iron metabolism and erythropoiesis intersect in MDSs and improve clinical management of this patient population. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  1. The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) against iron-induced functional and histological damages in rat liver and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholampour, Firouzeh; Behzadi Ghiasabadi, Fatemeh; Owji, Seyed Mohammad; Vatanparast, Jaafar

    2017-01-01

    Iron overload in the body is related with toxic effects and threatens the health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal functional disorders and histological damages in rats. The rats were divided into four groups (n=7): Sham, Sham + G.E (ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS+G.E (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days; ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 11 days from the fourth day of ferrous sulfate injection). After 24 hr, blood, urine and tissue samples were collected. Compared with Sham and Sham + G.E groups, administration of ferrous sulfate resulted in liver and kidney dysfunction as evidenced by significantly higher levels of serum hepatic markers and bilirubin, and lower levels of serum albumin, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose, as well as lower creatinine clearance and higher fractional excretion of sodium (p<0.001). This was accompanied by increased malondialdehyde levels and histological damages (p<0.001). In the FS + G.E, ginger extract significantly (p<0.01) reversed the levels of serum hepatic markers, renal functional markers and lipid peroxidation marker. Furthermore, it restored the levels of serum total protein, albumin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol and decreased bilirubin concentration in the blood. All these changes were corroborated by histological observations of liver and kidney. In conclusion, ginger extract appears to exert protective effects against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal toxicity by reducing lipid peroxidation and chelating iron.

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blocks the intestine from taking up iron. Other medical conditions Other medical conditions that may lead to iron-deficiency anemia ... daily amount of iron. If you have other medical conditions that cause iron-deficiency anemia , such as ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting ...

  4. Serum iron test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++; Ferrous ion; Iron - serum; Anemia - serum iron; Hemochromatosis - serum iron ... A blood sample is needed. Iron levels are highest in the morning. Your health care provider will likely have you do this test in the morning.

  5. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children who do not consume the daily recommended amount of iron. Read less Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials We lead or sponsor many studies related to iron-deficiency anemia. See if you ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, strawberries, ... iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron ... green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron supplement. Follow ...

  8. Iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...

  9. [Comparison of clinical and laboratory characteristics of viral hepatitis A and E in Montenegro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzić, Dragica; Mijović, Gordana; Dupanović, Brankica; Drasković, Nenad; Svirtlih, Neda

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis E has many similarities in with hepatitis A concerning clinical picture, route of transmission and nonexistence of chronicity. Comparison of clinical and laboratory parameters of patients with hepatitis A and E to estimate characteristics of these diseases. Total of 54 patients divided into two groups was investigated: 27 had hepatitis A, others had hepatitis E. Detailed history past, clinical examination, liver function tests and ultrasonography of the upper abdomen, were done in all patients. Aetiology of viral hepatitis was investigated serologically by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) using commercial kits for following viruses: Hepatitis A-E viruses, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus. Asymptomatic infections (29.6%) and clinical forms without jaundice (59.3%) were more frequent in patients with hepatitis E. Splenomegaly was found more frequent in patients with hepatitis A than in hepatitis E (66.7% vs. 33.3%). Patients with hepatitis E had significantly lower activity of aminotransferases than patients with hepatitis A. A significant increase of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase was found in patients with hepatitis E (mean value: 120 IU/L). Our results are in concordance with other reports that hepatitis E virus infection is more common asymptomatic disease than hepatitis A. In addition, hepatocyte necrosis in hepatitis E is less extensive than in hepatitis A measured by the activity of aminotransferases. Contrary to that the value of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase is more increased in hepatitis E than in hepatitis A without exact explanation so far: Viral hepatitis E and A have differences in some clinical features and laboratory parameters although both diseases principally have resolved without consequences after 6-8 weeks.

  10. Iron overload in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattermann, Norbert

    2018-01-01

    Iron overload (IOL) starts to develop in MDS patients before they become transfusion-dependent because ineffective erythropoiesis suppresses hepcidin production in the liver and thus leads to unrestrained intestinal iron uptake. However, the most important cause of iron overload in MDS is chronic transfusion therapy. While transfusion dependency by itself is a negative prognostic factor reflecting poor bone marrow function, the ensuing transfusional iron overload has an additional dose-dependent negative impact on the survival of patients with lower risk MDS. Cardiac dysfunction appears to be important in this context, as a consequence of chronic anemia, age-related cardiac comorbidity, and iron overload. Another potential problem is iron-related endothelial dysfunction. There is some evidence that with increasing age, high circulating iron levels worsen the atherosclerotic phenotype. Transfusional IOL also appears to aggravate bone marrow failure in MDS, through unfavorable effects on mesenchymal stromal cells as well a hematopoietic cells, particularly erythroid precursors. Patient series and clinical trials have shown that the iron chelators deferoxamine and deferasirox can improve hematopoiesis in a minority of transfusion-dependent patients. Analyses of registry data suggest that iron chelation provides a survival benefit for patients with MDS, but data from a prospective randomized clinical trial are still lacking.

  11. Intradermal vaccination against hepatitis B in a group of medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective study of a low-dose (one-tenth) intradermal regimen using recombinant hepatitis B vaccine was undertaken during two consecutive years in 4th-year medical students. Eighty one per cent of the vaccinees (123/152) seroconverted with anti-HBs levels of > 10 lU/l. The lower titre of hepatitis B surface antibodies ...

  12. Direct Reduction of Iron Ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, M.

    1981-04-01

    In the search for a pure, available iron source, steelmakers are focusing their attention on Directly Reduced Iron (DRI). This material is produced by the reaction of a low gangue iron ore with a hydrocarbonaceous substance. Commercially, DRI is generated in four different reactors: shaft (moving-bed), rotary kiln, fluidized bed, and retort (fixed-bed). Annual worldwide production capacity approaches 33 million metric tons. Detailed assessments have been made of the uses of DRI, especially as a substitute for scrap in electric furnace (EF) steelmaking. DRI is generally of a quality superior to current grades of scrap, with steels produced more efficiently in the EF and containing lower levels of impurities. However, present economics favor EF steel production with scrap. But this situation could change within this decade because of a developing scarcity of good quality scrap.

  13. Phytic acid concentration influences iron bioavailability from biofortified beans in Rwandese women with low iron status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nicolai; Egli, Ines; Gahutu, Jean B; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Boy, Erick; Hurrell, Richard

    2014-11-01

    The common bean is a staple crop in many African and Latin American countries and is the focus of biofortification initiatives. Bean iron concentration has been doubled by selective plant breeding, but the additional iron is reported to be of low bioavailability, most likely due to high phytic acid (PA) concentrations. The present study evaluated the impact of PA on iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans. Iron absorption, based on erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes, was measured in 22 Rwandese women who consumed multiple, composite bean meals with potatoes or rice in a crossover design. Iron absorption from meals containing biofortified beans (8.8 mg Fe, 1320 mg PA/100 g) and control beans (5.4 mg Fe, 980 mg PA/100 g) was measured with beans containing either their native PA concentration or with beans that were ∼50% dephytinized or >95% dephytinized. The iron concentration of the cooked composite meals with biofortified beans was 54% higher than in the same meals with control beans. With native PA concentrations, fractional iron absorption from the control bean meals was 9.2%, 30% higher than that from the biofortified bean meals (P bean meals (406 μg) was 19% higher (P bean meals. With ∼50% and >95% dephytinization, the quantity of iron absorbed from the biofortified bean meals increased to 599 and 746 μg, respectively, which was 37% (P bean meals. PA strongly decreases iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans, and a high PA concentration is an important impediment to the optimal effectiveness of bean iron biofortification. Plant breeders should focus on lowering the PA concentration of high-iron beans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01521273. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. [Latest Treatment of Viral Hepatitis--Overcoming Hepatitis C and Reactivation of Hepatitis B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), discovered as causative viruses of post-transfusion hepatitis, become persistent infections, leading to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). For HCV, recent IFN-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies have increased sustained virological response (SVR) rates and reduced adverse events. IFN-based therapies, still the standard of care in Asian countries, are influenced by IL28B genetic variants and the liver fibrosis stage, but the DAA combinations obscure the influence of these factors. These new therapies can eradicate HCV and prevent HCC development. On the other hand, it is difficult to eradicate HBV completely. Although HBV infection can be prevented by vaccination, reactivation of HBV following anti-cancer chemotherapy and immunosuppressive therapy is a well-known complication. HBV reactivation has been reported to be associated with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab-containing chemotherapy and TNF-α inhibitor-containing immunosuppressive therapy in HBV-resolved patients. Our prospective observational study revealed that monthly monitoring of HBV DNA was useful for preventing HBV reactivation-related hepatitis among B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients with resolved HBV infection following rituximab-steroid-chemo, suggesting that preemptive therapy guided by serial HBV DNA monitoring should be recommended. Recently, highly sensitive HBsAg detection by Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ may be useful for several clinical applications. The sensitivity of this assay (5 mIU/mL) was approximately 10-fold higher than Abbott ARCHITECT, but still lower than HBV-DNA assays. The convenient HBsAg-HQ may be useful for detecting occult HBV infection and HBV reactivation in relatively low-risk groups except for those receiving rituximab-steroid-chemo. [

  15. IRON AND HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE IN PIGS FED PHYTASE-ADDED RATIONS WITH LOWER PHOSPHORUS LEVELS FERRO E IMUNIDADE HUMORAL EM SUÍNOS ALIMENTADOS COM FITASE E NÍVEIS REDUZIDOS DE FÓSFORO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Batista Brito

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Endogenous enzymes such as phytase have been widely used in swine production to increase phosphorus, amino acid and energy availability from feeds. This study aimed to evaluate the immune system through quantification of blood components associated to iron metabolism and determine humoral immune response elements in pigs fed phytase-added diets without micro minerals and vitamins and partial or total deletion of inorganic phosphorus. Forty-eight crossbred females with initial weight of 60 kg were randomly sorted into six groups of eight animals each, as follows: G1 -standard (complete ration (control group; G2 - standard ration except that micromineral and vitamin supplement was deleted; G3 - group 2 ration with phytase, G4 - group 2 ration less 1/3 of inorganic P with phytase, G5 -  group 2 ration less 2/3 of inorganic P with phytase and G6 - group 2 ration without inorganic P with phytase. Statistical difference (p>0,05 was not recorded neither in white cells and platelet counts nor hemoglobin, serum iron levels, considering all the animals in all treatments. Nevertheless, pigs up to 100 kg that consumed diet without micro minerals and vitamins, total deletion of inorganic P and phytase addition presented increased ferritin levels (p>0,05 when compared to animals fed similar diet with inorganic phosphorus and phytase. The enzyme guaranteed maintenance of iron stocks even in the absence of supplementation. Such difference was not recorded with 120-kg animals fed similar rations. Average total protein, IgG and IgM levels were not influenced by phytase, mineral and vitamin supplementation or inorganic phosphorus levels. The results demonstrate that decrease of inorganic phos-phorus, withdrawal of vitamin and mineral supplements and phytase addition in diets of finishing pigs do not lead to significant changes in hematological, biochemical and humoral immune response parameters.

  16. Iron absorption in relation to iron status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, B.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.; Hallberg, L.; Rossander, L.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption from a 3 mg dose of ferrous iron was measured in 250 male subjects. The absorption was related to the log concentration of serum ferritin in 186 subjects of whom 99 were regular blood donors (r= -0.76), and to bone marrow haemosiderin grading in 52 subjects with varying iron status. The purpose was to try and establish a percentage absorption from such a dose that is representative of subjects who are borderline iron deficient. This information is necessary for food iron absorption studies in order (1) to calculate the absorption of iron from the diet at a given iron status and (2) compare the absorption of iron from different meals studied in different groups of subjects by different investigarors. The results suggest that an absorption of about 40% of a 3 mg reference dose of ferrous iron is given in a fasting state, roughly corresponds to the absorption in borderline-iron-deficient subjects. The results indicate that this 40% absorption value corresponds to a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l and that food iron absorption in a group of subjects should be expressed preferably as the absorption corresponding to a reference-dose absorption of 45%, or possibly a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l. (author)

  17. Proteomic analysis of iron acquisition, metabolic and regulatory responses of Yersinia pestis to iron starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischmann Robert D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of the bubonic plague. Efficient iron acquisition systems are critical to the ability of Y. pestis to infect, spread and grow in mammalian hosts, because iron is sequestered and is considered part of the innate host immune defence against invading pathogens. We used a proteomic approach to determine expression changes of iron uptake systems and intracellular consequences of iron deficiency in the Y. pestis strain KIM6+ at two physiologically relevant temperatures (26°C and 37°C. Results Differential protein display was performed for three Y. pestis subcellular fractions. Five characterized Y. pestis iron/siderophore acquisition systems (Ybt, Yfe, Yfu, Yiu and Hmu and a putative iron/chelate outer membrane receptor (Y0850 were increased in abundance in iron-starved cells. The iron-sulfur (Fe-S cluster assembly system Suf, adapted to oxidative stress and iron starvation in E. coli, was also more abundant, suggesting functional activity of Suf in Y. pestis under iron-limiting conditions. Metabolic and reactive oxygen-deactivating enzymes dependent on Fe-S clusters or other iron cofactors were decreased in abundance in iron-depleted cells. This data was consistent with lower activities of aconitase and catalase in iron-starved vs. iron-rich cells. In contrast, pyruvate oxidase B which metabolizes pyruvate via electron transfer to ubiquinone-8 for direct utilization in the respiratory chain was strongly increased in abundance and activity in iron-depleted cells. Conclusions Many protein abundance differences were indicative of the important regulatory role of the ferric uptake regulator Fur. Iron deficiency seems to result in a coordinated shift from iron-utilizing to iron-independent biochemical pathways in the cytoplasm of Y. pestis. With growth temperature as an additional variable in proteomic comparisons of the Y. pestis fractions (26°C and 37°C, there was

  18. Intravenous Iron Therapy in Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia: Dosing Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd A. Koch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide clinicians with evidence-based guidance for iron therapy dosing in patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA, we conducted a study examining the benefits of a higher cumulative dose of intravenous (IV iron than what is typically administered. Methods. We first individually analyzed 5 clinical studies, averaging the total iron deficit across all patients utilizing a modified Ganzoni formula; we then similarly analyzed 2 larger clinical studies. For the second of the larger studies (Study 7, we also compared the efficacy and retreatment requirements of a cumulative dose of 1500 mg ferric carboxymaltose (FCM to 1000 mg iron sucrose (IS. Results. The average iron deficit was calculated to be 1531 mg for patients in Studies 1–5 and 1392 mg for patients in Studies 6-7. The percentage of patients who were retreated with IV iron between Days 56 and 90 was significantly (p<0.001 lower (5.6% in the 1500 mg group, compared to the 1000 mg group (11.1%. Conclusions. Our data suggests that a total cumulative dose of 1000 mg of IV iron may be insufficient for iron repletion in a majority of patients with IDA and a dose of 1500 mg is closer to the actual iron deficit in these patients.

  19. Iron-responsive olfactory uptake of manganese improves motor function deficits associated with iron deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghan Kim

    Full Text Available Iron-responsive manganese uptake is increased in iron-deficient rats, suggesting that toxicity related to manganese exposure could be modified by iron status. To explore possible interactions, the distribution of intranasally-instilled manganese in control and iron-deficient rat brain was characterized by quantitative image analysis using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Manganese accumulation in the brain of iron-deficient rats was doubled after intranasal administration of MnCl(2 for 1- or 3-week. Enhanced manganese level was observed in specific brain regions of iron-deficient rats, including the striatum, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. Iron-deficient rats spent reduced time on a standard accelerating rotarod bar before falling and with lower peak speed compared to controls; unexpectedly, these measures of motor function significantly improved in iron-deficient rats intranasally-instilled with MnCl(2. Although tissue dopamine concentrations were similar in the striatum, dopamine transporter (DAT and dopamine receptor D(1 (D1R levels were reduced and dopamine receptor D(2 (D2R levels were increased in manganese-instilled rats, suggesting that manganese-induced changes in post-synaptic dopaminergic signaling contribute to the compensatory effect. Enhanced olfactory manganese uptake during iron deficiency appears to be a programmed "rescue response" with beneficial influence on motor impairment due to low iron status.

  20. Molecular clusters of 3D and lower magnetic dimensionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaefthymiou, G.C

    1991-01-01

    Controlled polymerization of iron leads to the synthesis of molecular clusters of ever-increasing size, tending to extended structures. Polymerization of oxo-bridged octahedrally coordinated iron leads to clusters with 3D magnetic interactions between iron ions, while sulfide- and selenide-bridged tetrahedrally coordinated iron ions produce clusters of lower magnetic dimensionality. In this paper the magnetic properties of the resulting large molecular clusters with N ≥ 17 (where N = the number of iron ions in the cluster) are investigated for the presence of collective magnetic correlations associated with the solid state

  1. Iron overload and HFE gene mutations in Czech patients with chronic liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostalikova-Cimburova, Marketa; Kratka, Karolina; Stransky, Jaroslav; Putova, Ivana; Cieslarova, Blanka; Horak, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence of HFE gene mutations in Czech patients with chronic liver diseases and the influence of the mutations on iron status. The presence of HFE gene mutations (C282Y, H63D, and S65C) analyzed by the PCR-RFLP method, presence of cirrhosis, and serum iron indices were compared among 454 patients with different chronic liver diseases (51 with chronic hepatitis B, 122 with chronic hepatitis C, 218 with alcoholic liver disease, and 63 patients with hemochromatosis). Chronic liver diseases patients other than hemochromatics did not have an increased frequency of HFE gene mutations compared to controls. Although 33.3% of patients with hepatitis B, 43% of patients with hepatitis C, and 73.2% of patients with alcoholic liver disease had elevated transferrin saturation or serum ferritin levels, the presence of HFE gene mutations was not significantly associated with iron overload in these patients. Additionally, patients with cirrhosis did not have frequencies of HFE mutations different from those without cirrhosis. This study emphasizes the importance, not only of C282Y, but also of the H63D homozygous genetic constellation in Czech hemochromatosis patients. Our findings show that increased iron indices are common in chronic liver diseases but {\\it HFE} mutations do not play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis C, and alcoholic liver disease.

  2. Hepatic encephalopathy. Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, Maria Claudia; Bermudez Munoz, Sonia; J Morillo, Anibal

    2007-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy occurs in patients with chronic hepatic insufficiency and can produce abnormalities in the central nervous system, which can be observed in MRI studies. Traditionally, these imaging findings include symmetrical hyper intensities in T1-weighted sequences in the basal ganglia (mainly globus pallidus), involving also the substantia nigra, mesencephalic tegmentum, frontal and occipital cortex. These areas appear of normal intensity in T2-weighted imaging sequences. Other entities that can lead to similar findings include manganese intoxication and type-1 neurofibromatosis. Currently, with the advent of MR spectroscopy, abnormalities in patients with clinical and subclinical hepatic encephalopathy have been described. After hepatic transplantation, hyper intensities of the basal ganglia and the MR spectroscopic findings may disappear within 3 months to 1 year, suggesting a functional, more than a structural damage. This article will demonstrate the MR findings of patients with hepatic encephalopathy due to chronic hepatic insufficiency.

  3. Hepatitis isquémica Ischemic hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Amuchástegui (h

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis isquémica es una complicación sumamente infrecuente de cirugía cardiovascular. Las biopsias muestran necrosis centrolobulillar. El término de "hepatitis" fue propuesto debido al aumento de transaminasas similar a aquellas de origen infeccioso, e "isquémica" por falla en la perfusión hepática. Posteriormente se definió el término de hepatitis isquémica como cuadro de elevación aguda y reversible (dentro de las 72 horas de transaminasas de hasta 20 veces el valor normal, asociado a trastornos en la perfusión hepática, luego de haber excluido otras causas de hepatitis aguda o daño hepatocelular. Se describe el caso de un paciente de 53 años que consulta por dolor epigástrico de 12 h de evolución sin fiebre, náuseas ni vómitos, resistente a la medicación. Tenía antecedentes inmediatos de reemplazo de válvula aórtica, y estaba anticoagulado. Evolucionó con shock y fallo multiorgánico. El examen evidenció marcada ictericia y signos de taponamiento pericárdico, asociado a un aumento considerable de enzimas hepáticas. Un ecocardiograma informó signos de taponamiento cardíaco y ausencia de disección aórtica. Se decidió pericardiocentesis, extrayéndose 970 cc. de líquido sanguinolento, y hemodiálisis, con notable mejoría de su estado hemodinámico. Los valores enzimáticos disminuyeron. Los marcadores virales fueron negativos.Ischemic hepatitis is an uncommon cardiovascular surgery complication. Hepatic biopsies show centrolobulillar necrosis. The term "hepatitis" was proposed because of a raise in hepatic enzymes similar with infectious disease, and "ischemic" because of failure in hepatic perfusion. Ischemic hepatitis was then defined as an acute and reversible elevation of hepatic enzymes (within 72 h, associated with disturbance in hepatic perfusion after excluding other causes of acute hepatitis. A 53 year-old male presented complaining of a 12 h epigastric pain, without nausea or vomiting, resistant

  4. Optoelectronic iron detectors for pharmaceutical flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybkowska, Natalia; Koncki, Robert; Strzelak, Kamil

    2017-10-25

    Compact flow-through optoelectronic detectors fabricated by pairing of light emitting diodes have been applied for development of economic flow analysis systems dedicated for iron ions determination. Three analytical methods with different chromogens selectively recognizing iron ions have been compared. Ferrozine and ferene S based methods offer higher sensitivity and slightly lower detection limits than method with 1,10-phenantroline, but narrower ranges of linear response. Each system allows detection of iron in micromolar range of concentration with comparable sample throughput (20 injections per hour). The developed flow analysis systems have been successfully applied for determination of iron in diet supplements. The utility of developed analytical systems for iron release studies from drug formulations has also been demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hepatic artery infusion (HAI) for hepatic metastases in combination with hepatic resection and hepatic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrick, H.W.; Dobelbower, R.R.; Ringleint, J.F.; Skeel, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    Renewed interest in hepatic artery infusion has been stimulated by the development of a totally implantable pump which eliminates many of the problems encountered by the external pumps and catheters. As the potential benefit of hepatic artery infusion would be greater if either all gross disease were removed by prior resection, or alternatively, if non-resectable disease were irradiated in conjunction with hepatic artery infusion, the authors initiated a phase I-II trial to evaluate combined modality therapy

  6. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and ...

  7. Hepatitis in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the different types of viral hepatitis and how they can be prevented. He also describes how hepatitis is transmitted and treated.

  8. Primary isolated hepatic tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, A.S.F.; Qureshi, I.H.; Saba, K.; Bukhari, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated hepatic tuberculosis without pulmonary or bowel involvement is a diagnostic challenge and can cause considerable morbidity. A young lady from Lahore presented with fever, pain in right hypochondria, nausea and weight loss. CT scan of abdomen showed multiple small hypodense non-enhancing lesions and a heterogeneous texture of liver. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of hepatic tuberculosis. It was concluded a case of isolated hepatic tuberculosis without evidence of other primary sites involvement. It is important to consider tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis when suspecting lymphoproliferative or metastatic diseases in a patient with vague symptoms and abnormal hepatic texture on CT. (author)

  9. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con-A Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Stephanie H.; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R.; Nagaraj, Savitha V.; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E.; Katz, Steven C.; Miller, George

    2016-01-01

    Concanavalin-A (Con-A) hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor (CLR) that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi, but does not have a well-defined role in pre-clinical models of non-pathogen mediated inflammation. Since Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con-A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con-A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle−/−, and Dectin-1−/− mice. The role of C/EBPβ and HIF-1α signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con-A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con-A hepatitis whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other CLRs did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ related signaling intermediates, C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con-A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF1-α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con-A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation. PMID:27559045

  10. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con A Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Stephanie H; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R; Nagaraj, Savitha V; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E; Katz, Steven C; Miller, George

    2016-10-01

    Con A hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi but does not have a well-defined role in preclinical models of non-pathogen-mediated inflammation. Because Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle(-/-), and Dectin-1(-/-) mice. The role of C/EBPβ and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con A hepatitis, whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other C-type lectin receptors did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ-related signaling intermediates C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF-1α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Moessbauer study on the distribution of iron vacancies in iron sulfide Fe sub(1-x)S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igaki, Kenzo; Sato, Masaki; Shinohara, Takeshi.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of iron vacancies in iron sulfide Fe sub(1-x)S with the controlled compositions was investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy at room temperature. Moessbauer spectrum was composed of several component spectra. These component spectra were assigned to the iron atoms with different configurations of neighboring iron vacancies. Judging from the composition dependence of intensity of each component, iron vacancies are considered to lie in every second iron layer for specimens with x between 0.125 and 0.10. For specimens with x between 0.10 and 0.09, this arrangement is nearly kept in the sample quenched from a higher temperature than 473 K, but after annealing at a lower temperature than 473 K iron vacancies are considered to lie not only in every second iron layer but also in every third iron layer or in adjacent iron layers. The iron vacancy arrangement lying in every third iron layer or in adjacent iron layers tends to dominate for specimens with x below 0.09. (author)

  12. Iron-dependent regulation of hepcidin in Hjv-/- mice: evidence that hemojuvelin is dispensable for sensing body iron levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Gkouvatsos

    Full Text Available Hemojuvelin (Hjv is a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP co-receptor involved in the control of systemic iron homeostasis. Functional inactivation of Hjv leads to severe iron overload in humans and mice due to marked suppression of the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. To investigate the role of Hjv in body iron sensing, Hjv-/- mice and isogenic wild type controls were placed on a moderately low, a standard or a high iron diet for four weeks. Hjv-/- mice developed systemic iron overload under all regimens. Transferrin (Tf was highly saturated regardless of the dietary iron content, while liver iron deposition was proportional to it. Hepcidin mRNA expression responded to fluctuations in dietary iron intake, despite the absence of Hjv. Nevertheless, iron-dependent upregulation of hepcidin was more than an order of magnitude lower compared to that seen in wild type controls. Likewise, iron signaling via the BMP/Smad pathway was preserved but substantially attenuated. These findings suggest that Hjv is not required for sensing of body iron levels and merely functions as an enhancer for iron signaling to hepcidin.

  13. Iron inhibits hydroxyapatite crystal growth in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenbuhl, Pascal; Filmon, Robert; Mabilleau, Guillaume; Baslé, Michel F; Chappard, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    Hemochromatosis is a known cause of osteoporosis in which the pathophysiology of bone loss is largely unknown and the role of iron remains questionable. We have investigated the effects of iron on the growth of hydroxyapatite crystals in vitro on carboxymethylated poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) pellets. This noncellular and enzyme-independent model mimics the calcification of woven bone (composed of calcospherites made of hydroxyapatite crystals). Polymer pellets were incubated with body fluid containing iron at increasing concentrations (20, 40, 60 micromol/L). Hydroxyapatite growth was studied by chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman microscopy. When incubated in body fluid containing iron, significant differences were observed with control pellets. Iron was detected at a concentration of 5.41- to 7.16-fold that of controls. In pellets incubated with iron, there was a approximately 3- to 4-fold decrease of Ca and P and a approximately 1.3- to 1.4-fold increase in the Ca/P ratio. There was no significant difference among the iron groups of pellets, but a trend to a decrease of Ca with the increase of iron concentration was noted. Calcospherite diameters were significantly lower on pellets incubated with iron. Raman microspectroscopy showed a decrease in crystallinity (measured by the full width of the half height of the 960 Deltacm(-1) band) with a significant increase in carbonate substitution (measured by the intensity ratio of 1071 to 960 Deltacm(-1) band). Energy dispersive x-ray analysis identified iron in the calcospherites. In vitro, iron is capable to inhibit bone crystal growth with significant changes in crystallinity and carbonate substitution.

  14. Iron deficiency anaemia in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liyanage, K.D.C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The commonest cause of nutritional anaemia in the Sri Lankan population is iron deficiency. The diets of the population belonging to the lower socio-economic groups contain little food of animal origin. Thus, their diets are deficient in easily absorbable (haem) iron; and are also heavily cereal-based. Therefore interference in the absorption of dietary iron also occurs. Iron-deficiency anaemia is not restricted to the so-called ''vulnerable groups'' in Sri Lanka, however, their greater demands make the problem not only commoner but also more severe. Among pregnant and lactating women anaemia is often associated with folate deficiency. It must also be noted that the low availability of dietary iron is compounded in large population groups. Malaria, presently raging on an epidemic scale is also a major contributory factor to the incidence of anaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the iron status of pre-school children and pregnant women; to establish normal levels of biochemical indices at different trimesters; to record the effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy; and to record the bioavailability of iron from weaning foods and common adult diets. 6 figs, 14 tabs

  15. Influence of IL28B polymorphisms on response to a lower-than-standard dose peg-IFN-α 2a for genotype 3 chronic hepatitis C in HIV-coinfected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F López-Cortés

    Full Text Available Data on which to base definitive recommendations on the doses and duration of therapy for genotype 3 HCV/HIV-coinfected patients are scarce. We evaluated the efficacy of a lower peginterferon-α 2a dose and a shorter duration of therapy than the current standard of care in genotype 3 HCV/HIV-coinfected patients.Pilot, open-label, single arm clinical trial which involved 58 Caucasian HCV/HIV-coinfected patients who received weekly 135 µg peginterferon-α 2a plus ribavirin 400 mg twice daily during 20 weeks after attaining undetectable viremia. The relationships between baseline patient-related variables, including IL28B genotype, plasma HCV-RNA, ribavirin dose/kg, peginterferon-α 2a and ribavirin levels with virological responses were analyzed. Only 4 patients showed lack of response and 5 patients dropped out due to adverse events related to the study medication. Overall, sustained virologic response (SVR rates were 58.3% by intention-to-treat and 71.4% by per protocol analysis, respectively. Among patients with rapid virologic response (RVR, SVR and relapses rates were 92.6% and 7.4%, respectively. No relationships were observed between viral responses and ribavirin dose/kg, peginterferon-α 2a concentrations, ribavirin levels or rs129679860 genotype.Weekly 135 µg pegIFN-α 2a could be as effective as the standard 180 µg dose, with a very low incidence of severe adverse events. A 24-week treatment duration appears to be appropriate in patients achieving RVR, but extending treatment up to just 20 weeks beyond negativization of viremia is associated with a high relapse rate in those patients not achieving RVR. There was no influence of IL28B genotype on the virological responses.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00553930.

  16. Management of chronic hepatitis Band C

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disorders must be excluded. Serum copper, urinary copper ... storage diseases and a,-antitrypsin deficiency. ... s absent, the specimen should be sent to a centre of excellence for .... Drug-induced chronic liver disease with emphasis on chronic active hepatitis. ..... interferon represent a difficult management problem. Lower.

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... fatigue or tiredness, shortness of breath, or chest pain. If your doctor diagnoses you with iron-deficiency ... Common symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia include: Chest pain Coldness in the hands and feet Difficulty concentrating ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, you ... to iron-deficiency anemia include: Bleeding in your GI tract, from an ulcer, colon cancer, or regular ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about exciting research areas that NHLBI is exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat premature newborns with low hemoglobin levels. ... are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children who ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... your doctor may recommend changes to help you meet the recommended daily amount of iron. If you ... stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron levels, your doctor may ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... an MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such ... drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron- ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... same for boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. ... for iron deficiency at certain ages: Infants between 6 and 12 months, especially if they are fed ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... your blood may be normal even if the total amount of iron in your body is low. ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... of the condition. Your doctor may recommend healthy eating changes, iron supplements, intravenous iron therapy for mild ... less Look for Treatment will discuss medicines and eating pattern changes that your doctors may recommend if ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and ... lose blood, you lose iron. Certain conditions or medicines can cause blood loss and lead to iron- ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... absorb iron and lead to iron-deficiency anemia. These conditions include: Intestinal and digestive conditions, such as ... tract. Inflammation from congestive heart failure or obesity . These chronic conditions can lead to inflammation that may ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments ... improve health through research and scientific discovery. Improving health with current research Learn about the following ways ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... higher risk, as most of a newborn’s iron stores are developed during the third trimester of pregnancy. ... red blood cells on hand, their bodies can store iron to prepare for blood loss during delivery. ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may be diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia if you have low iron or ferritin levels in your blood. More testing may be needed to rule out other types of anemia. Tests for gastrointestinal ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... were born prematurely may be at an even higher risk, as most of a newborn’s iron stores ... men of the same age. Women are at higher risk for iron-deficiency anemia under some circumstances, ...

  13. Iron supplements (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  14. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor may recommend that you ... Anemia Aplastic Anemia Arrhythmia Blood Donation Blood Tests Blood Transfusion Heart-Healthy Lifestyle Changes Heart Failure Hemolytic Anemia ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, you lose iron. Certain ... domestic small businesses that have strong potential for technology commercialization through the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as ... to advancing science and translating discoveries into clinical practice to promote ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... also often take other medicines—such as proton pump inhibitors, anticoagulants, or blood thinners—that may cause iron-deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Look for Treatment will discuss medicines and eating pattern changes that your doctors may recommend if you ... iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... striking the ground, such as with marathon runners. Sex Girls and women between the ages of 14 ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron- ... factors , such as if you are following a vegetarian eating pattern, your doctor may recommend changes to ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners increase the likelihood of bleeding ... oranges, strawberries, and tomatoes, may help increase your absorption of iron. If you are pregnant, talk to ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less ... include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... mg and women need 18 mg. After age 51, both men and women need 8 mg. Pregnant ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about exciting research areas that NHLBI is exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia. These conditions include: Intestinal and digestive conditions, such as celiac disease; inflammatory bowel diseases, ... iron-deficiency anemia , such as bleeding in the digestive or urinary tract or heavy menstrual bleeding, your ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... prevent complications such as abnormal heart rhythms and depression. Learn the warning signs of serious complications and ... donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency before potentially ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding women older than 18 need 9 mg. Problems absorbing iron Even if you consume the recommended ... interested in learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ... the size of your liver and spleen. Blood tests Based on results from blood tests to screen ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... as most of a newborn’s iron stores are developed during the third trimester of pregnancy. Children between ... This makes it harder to stop bleeding and can increase the risk of iron-deficiency anemia from ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... have less hemoglobin than normal. Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen from ... stored iron has been used. Ferritin is a protein that helps store iron in your body. Reticulocyte ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ... be hard to get the recommended amount from food alone. Pregnant women need more iron to support ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ... Cells From Iron-deficient Donors: Recovery and Storage Quality. Learn more about participating in a clinical trial . ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... family history and genetics , lifestyle habits, or sex. Age You may be at increased risk for iron ... Signs, Symptoms, and Complications Iron-deficiency anemia can range from mild to severe. People with mild or ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... leaving cells where it is stored or from being absorbed in the duodenum, the first part of ... treatments for iron-deficiency anemia. Living With After being diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia, it is important ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron to prepare for blood loss during delivery. Screening and Prevention Your doctor may screen you for ... and symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia. Return to Screening and Prevention to review tests to screen for ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. ... need for iron increases during these periods of growth and development, and it may be hard to ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron ... tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron ...

  2. Altered biodistribution of gallium-67 in a patient with multiple factors influencing iron-transport protein saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeon Young; Kim, Sang Eun; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Byung Tae [College of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    We present a case of a young female patient with fulminant hepatitis who showed an altered biodistribution of Ga-67, after being scanned twice at 10 month intervals. On initial scan, uptake of Ga-67 was increased in the liver, kidneys, and skeletons. Increased hepatic Ga-67 uptake may be explained by increased transferrin unbound Ga-67 that was taken up by the inflamed liver. The saturation of iron-binding proteins due to multiple transfusions may lead to increased renal and skeletal Ga-67 uptake. On follow-up scan hepatic Ga-67 uptake was markedly increased. Also increased Ga-67 uptake in the axial skeleton and normalized renal uptake were shown. The findings were consistent with iron deficiency anemia. This case demonstrates altered Ga-67 biodistribution associated with multiple transfusions, fulminant hepatitis, and iron deficiency anemia.

  3. The hepatic bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbaker, Paul H

    2018-07-01

    The hepatic bridge forms a tunnel of liver parenchyma that may obscure peritoneal metastases associated with the round ligament. Visualization and then resection of nodules associated with this structure is necessary. The incidence of a hepatic bridge and the extent that it covered the round ligament was determined in consecutive patients. Extent of coverage of the round ligament by the hepatic bridge was determined: Class 1 indicates up to one-third of the round ligament obscured, Class 2 up to two-thirds and Class 3 more than two-thirds. In 102 patients in whom the round ligament of the liver could be completely visualized, 50 had a hepatic bridge. Class 1 was 22 (44%) of the bridges, Class 2 was 16 (32%) and Class 3 was 12 (24%). A hepatic bridge was more frequently present in 28 of 45 male patients (62%) vs. 22 of 57 female patients (38%). Approximately one-half of our patients having cytoreductive surgery for peritoneal metastases were observed to have a hepatic bridge. Up to 56% of these patients have Class 2 or 3 hepatic bridge and may require division of the hepatic bridge to completely visualize the contents of the tunnel created by this structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  4. Hepatitis C Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prevention. Recommendations for the Identification of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Persons Born During 1945–1965. Prepared by ... Disease Control and Prevention. Vital Signs: Evaluation of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Testing and Reporting — Eight U.S. Sites, 2005–2011. ...

  5. [History of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da

    2010-01-01

    The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives. This article reviews the available scientific information on the history of viral hepatitis. All the information was obtained through extensive bibliographic review, including original and review articles and consultations on the internet. There are reports on outbreaks of jaundice epidemics in China 5,000 years ago and in Babylon more than 2,500 years ago. The catastrophic history of great jaundice epidemics and pandemics is well known and generally associated with major wars. In the American Civil War, 40,000 cases occurred among Union troops. In 1885, an outbreak of catarrhal jaundice affected 191 workers at the Bremen shipyard (Germany) after vaccination against smallpox. In 1942, 28,585 soldiers became infected with hepatitis after inoculation with the yellow fever vaccine. The number of cases of hepatitis during the Second World War was estimated to be 16 million. Only in the twentieth century were the main agents causing viral hepatitis identified. The hepatitis B virus was the first to be discovered. In this paper, through reviewing the history of major epidemics caused by hepatitis viruses and the history of discovery of these agents, singular peculiarities were revealed. Examples of this include the accidental or chance discovery of the hepatitis B and D viruses.

  6. Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although cytomegalovirus (CMV is an uncommon cause of viral hepatitis during pregnancy, a definitive diagnosis is important because of the potential for congenital CMV. In the case reported here, a diagnosis of hepatitis caused by CMV was made after the more common viral pathogens had been ruled out.

  7. Hepatitis E og graviditet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannheimer, Ebba Elisabeth; Harritshøj, Lene Holm; Katzenstein, Terese Lea

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection among pregnant women is severe, often leading to fulminant hepatic failure and death, with mortality rates up to 15-25%. Studies suggest that differences in genotypes/subgenotypes, hormonal and immunological changes during pregnancy may contribute to the severe...

  8. Iron absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekenved, G.

    1976-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study iron absorption from different iron preparations in different types of subjects and under varying therapeutic conditions. The studies were performed with different radioiron isotope techniques and with a serum iron technique. The preparations used were solutions of ferrous sulphate and rapidly-disintegrating tablets containing ferrous sulphate, ferrous fumarate and ferrous carbonate and a slow-release ferrous sulphate tablet of an insoluble matrix type (Duroferon Durules). The serum iron method was evaluated and good correlation was found between the serum iron response and the total amount of iron absorbed after an oral dose of iron given in solution or in tablet form. New technique for studying the in-vivo release properties of tablets was presented. Iron tablets labelled with a radio-isotope were given to healthy subjects. The decline of the radioactivity in the tablets was followed by a profile scanning technique applied to different types of iron tablets. The release of iron from the two types of tablets was shown to be slower in vivo than in vitro. It was found that co-administration of antacids and iron tablets led to a marked reduction in the iron absorption and that these drugs should not be administered sumultaneously. A standardized meal markedly decreased the absorbability of iron from iron tablets. The influence of the meal was more marked with rapidly-disintegrating than with slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets. The absorption from rapidly-disintegrating and slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets was compared under practical clinical conditions during an extended treatment period. The studies were performed in healthy subjects, blood donors and patients with iron deficiency anaemia and it was found that the absorption of iron from the slow-release tablets was significantly better than from the rapidly-disintegrating tablets in all three groups of subjects. (author)

  9. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  10. Evaluation of Ferric and Ferrous Iron Therapies in Women with Iron Deficiency Anaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Ilhami; Erkurt, Mehmet Ali; Aydogdu, Ismet; Kuku, Irfan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Different ferric and ferrous iron preparations can be used as oral iron supplements. Our aim was to compare the effects of oral ferric and ferrous iron therapies in women with iron deficiency anaemia. Methods. The present study included 104 women diagnosed with iron deficiency anaemia after evaluation. In the evaluations performed to detect the aetiology underlying the iron deficiency anaemia, it was found and treated. After the detection of the iron deficiency anaemia aetiology and treatment of the underlying aetiology, the ferric group consisted of 30 patients treated with oral ferric protein succinylate tablets (2 × 40 mg elemental iron/day), and the second group consisted of 34 patients treated with oral ferrous glycine sulphate tablets (2 × 40 mg elemental iron/day) for three months. In all patients, the following laboratory evaluations were performed before beginning treatment and after treatment. Results. The mean haemoglobin and haematocrit increases were 0.95 g/dL and 2.62% in the ferric group, while they were 2.25 g/dL and 5.91% in the ferrous group, respectively. A significant difference was found between the groups regarding the increase in haemoglobin and haematocrit values (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Data are submitted on the good tolerability, higher efficacy, and lower cost of the ferrous preparation used in our study. PMID:25006339

  11. Serum Hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B surface antigenaemia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute hepatitis is common in Nigeria and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been a major aetiological factor. However, the role of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is yet undetermined. Forty-five consecutive Nigerian patients with acute Icteric hepatitis (AIH) attending the Medical Clinic of the University College Hospital, ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of ... and choosing iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron supplement. Follow ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... because your body’s intake of iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood ... a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... This is sometimes used to deliver iron through a blood vessel to increase iron levels in the blood. One benefit of IV iron ... over 65 years of age had low hemoglobin levels. This was associated with a greater risk of death even with mild anemia. ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s ... making new blood cells. Visit our Aplastic Anemia Health Topic to learn more. ... recommend that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... supplements. Iron supplements can change how certain medicines work. Your doctor may suggest check-ups to make sure your ... To prevent complications from iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may ... during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron-deficiency anemia because of your age, ... or sex. Age You may be at increased risk for iron deficiency at certain ages: Infants between ...

  19. Iron and Immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbon, E.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413534049; Trapet, P.L.; Stringlis, I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41185206X; Kruijs, Sophie; Bakker, P.A.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074744623; Pieterse, C.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113

    2017-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for most life on Earth because it functions as a crucial redox catalyst in many cellular processes. However, when present in excess iron can lead to the formation of harmful hydroxyl radicals. Hence, the cellular iron balance must be tightly controlled. Perturbation of

  20. Glutathione, Glutaredoxins, and Iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Carsten; Lillig, Christopher Horst

    2017-11-20

    Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant cellular low-molecular-weight thiol in the majority of organisms in all kingdoms of life. Therefore, functions of GSH and disturbed regulation of its concentration are associated with numerous physiological and pathological situations. Recent Advances: The function of GSH as redox buffer or antioxidant is increasingly being questioned. New functions, especially functions connected to the cellular iron homeostasis, were elucidated. Via the formation of iron complexes, GSH is an important player in all aspects of iron metabolism: sensing and regulation of iron levels, iron trafficking, and biosynthesis of iron cofactors. The variety of GSH coordinated iron complexes and their functions with a special focus on FeS-glutaredoxins are summarized in this review. Interestingly, GSH analogues that function as major low-molecular-weight thiols in organisms lacking GSH resemble the functions in iron homeostasis. Since these iron-related functions are most likely also connected to thiol redox chemistry, it is difficult to distinguish between mechanisms related to either redox or iron metabolisms. The ability of GSH to coordinate iron in different complexes with or without proteins needs further investigation. The discovery of new Fe-GSH complexes and their physiological functions will significantly advance our understanding of cellular iron homeostasis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1235-1251.

  1. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... amounts of iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the same for boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up to 11 mg for children ages 7 to 12 months, and down to 7 ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bleeding or other abnormalities, such as growths or cancer of the lining of the colon. For this test, a ... that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  4. Iron homeostasis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Allison L; Nemeth, Elizabeta

    2017-12-01

    During pregnancy, iron needs to increase substantially to support fetoplacental development and maternal adaptation to pregnancy. To meet these iron requirements, both dietary iron absorption and the mobilization of iron from stores increase, a mechanism that is in large part dependent on the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. In healthy human pregnancies, maternal hepcidin concentrations are suppressed in the second and third trimesters, thereby facilitating an increased supply of iron into the circulation. The mechanism of maternal hepcidin suppression in pregnancy is unknown, but hepcidin regulation by the known stimuli (i.e., iron, erythropoietic activity, and inflammation) appears to be preserved during pregnancy. Inappropriately increased maternal hepcidin during pregnancy can compromise the iron availability for placental transfer and impair the efficacy of iron supplementation. The role of fetal hepcidin in the regulation of placental iron transfer still remains to be characterized. This review summarizes the current understanding and addresses the gaps in knowledge about gestational changes in hematologic and iron variables and regulatory aspects of maternal, fetal, and placental iron homeostasis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics section only, or the News and Resources section. NHLBI Entire Site NHLBI Entire Site Health ... español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia that occurs if you do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... severity of the condition. Your doctor may recommend healthy eating changes, iron supplements, intravenous iron therapy for mild ... you: Adopt healthy lifestyle changes such as heart-healthy eating patterns. Increase your daily intake of iron-rich ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the recommended daily amount of iron. Frequent blood donation. Individuals who donate blood often may be ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer ... and symptoms as well as complications from iron-deficiency anemia. Research for Your Health The NHLBI is part of the U.S. Department ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia, your doctor may order the following blood tests to diagnose iron-deficiency anemia: Complete blood count (CBC) to ... than normal when viewed under a microscope. Different tests help your doctor diagnose iron-deficiency anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, blood ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  13. Iron and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deficiency isn't corrected, it can lead to iron-deficiency anemia (a decrease in the number of red blood ... Parents Kids Teens Anemia Blood Test: Ferritin (Iron) Iron-Deficiency Anemia Vegetarianism Menstrual Problems Pregnant or Breastfeeding? Nutrients You ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... normally stores but has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the ... cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth ...

  16. Heme Oxygenase Induction Suppresses Hepatic Hepcidin and Rescues Ferroportin and Ferritin Expression in Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Puri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepcidin, a phase II reactant secreted by hepatocytes, regulates cellular iron levels by increasing internalization of ferroportin-a transmembrane protein facilitating egress of cellular iron. Chronic low-grade inflammatory states, such as obesity, have been shown to increase oxidative stress and enhance hepcidin secretion from hepatocytes and macrophages. Heme-heme oxygenase (HO is a stress response system which reduces oxidative stress. We investigated the effects of HO-1 induction on hepatic hepcidin levels and on iron homeostasis in hepatic tissues from lean and obese mice. Obese mice exhibited hyperglycemia (p<0.05; increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IL-6, p<0.05; oxidative stress (p<0.05; and increased hepatic hepcidin levels (p<0.05. Enhancement of hepcidin was reflected in the reduced expression of ferroportin in obese mice (p<0.05. However, this effect is accompanied by a significant decline in ferritin expression. Additionally, there are reduced insulin receptor phosphorylation and attenuation of metabolic regulators pAMPK, pAKT, and pLKB1. Cobalt protoporphyrin- (CoPP- induced HO-1 upregulation in obese mice reversed these alterations (p<0.05, while attenuating hepatic hepcidin levels. These effects of CoPP were prevented in obese mice concurrently exposed to an inhibitor of HO (SnMP (p<0.05. Our results highlight a modulatory effect of HO on iron homeostasis mediated through the suppression of hepatic hepcidin.

  17. Internal distribution of excess iron and sources of serum ferritin in patients with thalassemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzola, M; Bergamaschi, G; Dezza, L; Borgna-Pignatti, C C; De Stefano, P; Bongo, I G; Avato, F [Pavia Univ. (Italy)

    1983-01-01

    Liver and spleen iron concentrations, serum ferritin level and binding of S-ferritin to concanavalin A (Con A) were measured in 12 patients with thalassemia major or intermedia at the time of splenectomy. All these subjects had increased liver iron concentration, most of them had hepatic fibrosis but none of them had histological evidence of chronic hepatitis. No patient had ascorbic acid deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration was increased in all cases, ranging from 266 to 5504 ..mu..g/l. In all but 2 subjects most of the protein did not bind to Con A, thus behaving as tissue ferritin. There were highly significant correlations between serum ferritin concentration, amount of blood transfused and liver iron concentration. On the average, iron concentration in the liver was about 3 times that in the spleen. The findings obtained suggest that in patients with thalassemia major or intermedia most of the iron is deposited in parenchymal tissues and most of the S-ferritin derives by leakage from the cytosol of iron-loaded parenchymal cells. S-ferritin is a valid index of liver iron overload in thalassemic patients witout complications such as viral hepatitis and/or ascorbic acid defiency.

  18. Internal distribution of excess iron and sources of serum ferritin in patients with thalassaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazzola, M.; Bergamaschi, G.; Dezza, L.; Borgna-Pignatti, C.C.; De Stefano, P.; Bongo, I.G.; Avato, F.

    1983-01-01

    Liver and spleen iron concentrations, serum ferritin level and binding of S-ferritin to concanavalin A (Con A) were measured in 12 patients with thalassaemia major or intermedia at the time of splenectomy. All these subjects had increased liver iron concentration, most of them had hepatic fibrosis but none of them had histological evidence of chronic hepatitis. No patient had ascorbic acid deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration was increased in all cases, ranging from 266 to 5504 μg/l. In all but 2 subjects most of the protein did not bind to Con A, thus behaving as tissue ferritin. There were highly significant correlations between serum ferritin concentration, amount of blood transfused and liver iron concentration. On the avarage, iron concentration in the liver was about 3 times that in the spleen. The findings obtained suggest that in patients with thalassaemia major or intermedia most of the iron is deposited in parenchymal tissues and most of the S-ferritin derives by leakage from the cytosol of iron-loaded parenchymal cells. S-ferritin is a valid index of liver iron overload in thalassaemic patients witout complications such as viral hepatitis and/or ascorbic acid defiency. (author)

  19. The actin-binding protein profilin 2 is a novel regulator of iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscieti, Sara; Galy, Bruno; Gutierrez, Lucia; Reinke, Michael; Couso, Jorge; Shvartsman, Maya; Di Pascale, Antonio; Witke, Walter; Hentze, Matthias W; Pilo Boyl, Pietro; Sanchez, Mayka

    2017-10-26

    Cellular iron homeostasis is controlled by the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) 1 and 2 that bind cis -regulatory iron-responsive elements (IRE) on target messenger RNAs (mRNA). We identified profilin 2 ( Pfn2 ) mRNA, which encodes an actin-binding protein involved in endocytosis and neurotransmitter release, as a novel IRP-interacting transcript, and studied its role in iron metabolism. A combination of electrophoretic mobility shift assay experiments and bioinformatic analyses led to the identification of an atypical and conserved IRE in the 3' untranslated region of Pfn2 mRNA. Pfn2 mRNA levels were significantly reduced in duodenal samples from mice with intestinal IRP ablation, suggesting that IRPs exert a positive effect on Pfn2 mRNA expression in vivo. Overexpression of Pfn2 in HeLa and Hepa1-6 cells reduced their metabolically active iron pool. Importantly, Pfn2-deficient mice showed iron accumulation in discrete areas of the brain (olfactory bulb, hippocampus, and midbrain) and reduction of the hepatic iron store without anemia. Despite low liver iron levels, hepatic hepcidin expression remained high, likely because of compensatory activation of hepcidin by mild inflammation. Splenic ferroportin was increased probably to sustain hematopoiesis. Overall, our results indicate that Pfn2 expression is controlled by the IRPs in vivo and that Pfn2 contributes to maintaining iron homeostasis in cell lines and mice. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  20. Hemorrhage-Adjusted Iron Requirements, Hematinics and Hepcidin Define Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia as a Model of Hemorrhagic Iron Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnamore, Helen; Le Couteur, James; Hickson, Mary; Busbridge, Mark; Whelan, Kevin; Shovlin, Claire L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency anemia remains a major global health problem. Higher iron demands provide the potential for a targeted preventative approach before anemia develops. The primary study objective was to develop and validate a metric that stratifies recommended dietary iron intake to compensate for patient-specific non-menstrual hemorrhagic losses. The secondary objective was to examine whether iron deficiency can be attributed to under-replacement of epistaxis (nosebleed) hemorrhagic iron losses in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Methodology/Principal Findings The hemorrhage adjusted iron requirement (HAIR) sums the recommended dietary allowance, and iron required to replace additional quantified hemorrhagic losses, based on the pre-menopausal increment to compensate for menstrual losses (formula provided). In a study population of 50 HHT patients completing concurrent dietary and nosebleed questionnaires, 43/50 (86%) met their recommended dietary allowance, but only 10/50 (20%) met their HAIR. Higher HAIR was a powerful predictor of lower hemoglobin (p = 0.009), lower mean corpuscular hemoglobin content (pstopped. Conclusions/significance HAIR values, providing an indication of individuals’ iron requirements, may be a useful tool in prevention, assessment and management of iron deficiency. Iron deficiency in HHT can be explained by under-replacement of nosebleed hemorrhagic iron losses. PMID:24146883

  1. Assessment of iron deficiency in pregnant women by determining iron status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, N.; Munazza, B.; Ayub, M.; Sarwar, I

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pregnant women constitute a high risk group for iron deficiency. Maternal iron deficiency and particularly iron deficiency anaemia may be associated with detrimental effects on maternal and infant function and particularly with a higher risk of preterm delivery and delivery of low birth weight neonates. Objective of this study was to assess and compare the iron status of normal healthy non-pregnant women with that of pregnant women of Hazara Division. Methods: This study was conducted at Faculty of Health Sciences, Hazara University, and Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad from first March to /31 August 2006. Altogether 120 women, 90 pregnant at various stages of pregnancy and 30 non-pregnant women as control group were included in this study by convenience sampling. Their iron status was assessed by determination of haemoglobin (Hb), Serum ferritin, Serum-iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC), Unsaturated Iron Binding Capacity (UIBC), and Percentage saturation of transferrin. Data generated on these variables were subjected to ANOVA and correlation analysis. Results: The salient finding of this study is a significant decrease in Hb, Serum ferritin, Serum iron, percentage saturation of transferrin and a significant increase in values of TIBC and a pronounced increase in UIBC in second and third trimester compared to first trimester in iron deficient pregnant women. The mean values of Hb, SF, and Fe/TIBC% were significantly lower in the cases than in the control and significantly higher values of TIBC and UIBC were observed in the cases compared to controls. Significant correlations were observed for TIBC, UIBC and Fe/TIBC% against serum iron in different trimesters of pregnancy. Conclusion: A high percentage of the pregnant women are iron deficient due to factors such as high parity, poor dietary habits and socioeconomic status. (author)

  2. Iron status in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankowiak-Kulpa, Hanna; Kargulewicz, Angelika; Styszyński, Arkadiusz; Swora-Cwynar, Ewelina; Grzymisławski, Marian

    2017-12-23

    A decreased concentration of iron, and consecutively haemoglobin, ferritin and decreased level of saturated transferrin, were observed in obese individuals more often than in healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine whether iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation are significantly diminished in obese female patients compared to non-obese counterparts, and whether excess adiposity and inflammation were associated with depleted iron. Female patients (n=48) diagnosed with obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2), aged 18-40 were accepted for the study. A control group (n=30) encompassed normal weight women, aged 18-30. All obese women obtained an individually adjusted dietary plan with an energy content of 1,500 kcal. Blood glucose, insulin, lipids, ferritin, TIBC and iron concentrations were assayed in serum twice, initially and after 8 weeks of dieting. The obese women at the initial evaluation, in comparison to non-obese control women, were characterized by a significantly lower mean red blood cell volume (MCV; 84.2±12.4 vs. 91.3±9.3 fL; piron level (92.6±42.4 vs. 119.8±44.0 μg/dL; piron homeostasis. Weight loss leads to decrease in the CRP level, but it does not change haematologic parameters in the period of 8 weeks.

  3. Mice lacking liver-specific β-catenin develop steatohepatitis and fibrosis after iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, Morgan E; Singh, Sucha; Valore, Erika V; Jung, Grace; Popovic, Branimir; Poddar, Minakshi; Nagarajan, Shanmugam; Ganz, Tomas; Monga, Satdarshan P

    2017-08-01

    Iron overload disorders such as hereditary hemochromatosis and iron loading anemias are a common cause of morbidity from liver diseases and increase risk of hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Treatment options for iron-induced damage are limited, partly because there is lack of animal models of human disease. Therefore, we investigated the effect of iron overload in liver-specific β-catenin knockout mice (KO), which are susceptible to injury, fibrosis and tumorigenesis following chemical carcinogen exposure. Iron overload diet was administered to KO and littermate control (CON) mice for various times. To ameliorate an oxidant-mediated component of tissue injury, N-Acetyl-L-(+)-cysteine (NAC) was added to drinking water of mice on iron overload diet. KO on iron diet (KO +Fe) exhibited remarkable inflammation, followed by steatosis, oxidative stress, fibrosis, regenerating nodules and occurrence of occasional HCC. Increased injury in KO +Fe was associated with activated protein kinase B (AKT), ERK, and NF-κB, along with reappearance of β-catenin and target gene Cyp2e1, which promoted lipid peroxidation and hepatic damage. Addition of NAC to drinking water protected KO +Fe from hepatic steatosis, injury and fibrosis, and prevented activation of AKT, ERK, NF-κB and reappearance of β-catenin. The absence of hepatic β-catenin predisposes mice to hepatic injury and fibrosis following iron overload, which was reminiscent of hemochromatosis and associated with enhanced steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Disease progression was notably alleviated by antioxidant therapy, which supports its chemopreventive role in the management of chronic iron overload disorders. Lack of animal models for iron overload disorders makes it hard to study the disease process for improving therapies. Feeding high iron diet to mice that lack the β-catenin gene in liver cells led to increased inflammation followed by fat accumulation, cell death and wound healing that mimicked

  4. Dopaminergic agonists for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C

    2004-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with an impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with an impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  5. Glucocorticosteroids for viral hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Mellerup, M T; Krogsgaard, K

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection.......Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection....

  6. Hepatic involvement of histiocytic sarcoma: CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Takatosh; Ohtomo, Kuni [Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Kiryu, Shigeru; Akai, Hiroyuki; Ora, Yasunori; Tojo, Arinobu; Yoshida, Hideo; Kato, Naoya; Nakano, Yoshiyasu [Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    Histiocytic sarcoma in the liver is an extremely rare hematological malignancy. Herein, we reported the case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with characteristic wedge-shaped abnormality bounded by hepatic veins on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the liver. In the wedge-shaped area, decreased portal flow and the deposition of iron were observed. These imaging findings are consistent with intrasinusoidal tumor cell infiltration. A liver biopsy was performed, and histiocytic sarcoma was confirmed histopathologically.

  7. Hepatic Involvement of Histiocytic Sarcoma: CT and MRI Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Takatoshi [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan); Kiryu, Shigeru; Akai, Hiroyuki [Department of Radiology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Ota, Yasunori [Department of Pathology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Tojo, Arinobu [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Yoshida, Hideo [Department of Gastroenterology, Japanese Red Cross Medical Center, Tokyo 150-8935 (Japan); Kato, Naoya [Advanced Medical Science, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Nakano, Yoshiyasu [Department of Radiology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Ohtomo, Kuni [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma in the liver is an extremely rare hematological malignancy. Herein, we reported the case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with characteristic wedge-shaped abnormality bounded by hepatic veins on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the liver. In the wedge-shaped area, decreased portal flow and the deposition of iron were observed. These imaging findings are consistent with intrasinusoidal tumor cell infiltration. A liver biopsy was performed, and histiocytic sarcoma was confirmed histopathologically.

  8. Hepatic Involvement of Histiocytic Sarcoma: CT and MRI Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Takatoshi; Kiryu, Shigeru; Akai, Hiroyuki; Ota, Yasunori; Tojo, Arinobu; Yoshida, Hideo; Kato, Naoya; Nakano, Yoshiyasu; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2016-01-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma in the liver is an extremely rare hematological malignancy. Herein, we reported the case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with characteristic wedge-shaped abnormality bounded by hepatic veins on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the liver. In the wedge-shaped area, decreased portal flow and the deposition of iron were observed. These imaging findings are consistent with intrasinusoidal tumor cell infiltration. A liver biopsy was performed, and histiocytic sarcoma was confirmed histopathologically

  9. Impaired plasma lipid profiles in acute hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yongzhong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study examined plasma lipid profiles in thirty patients suffered from acute viral hepatitis. Patients' blood samples were collected at both the debut and recovery of diseases. Thirty sex and age matched normal subjects were included as controls. Plasma total triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI, apolipoprotein B (ApoB, lipoprotein (a (Lp(a, blood coagulation status including prothrombin complex activity and activated partial tromboplastin time (APTT, and hepatic functions were determined by the automatic biochemical analytical instrument. It demonstrated that plasma levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C and apoAI were significantly lower in the patients at the acute phase of hepatitis than those in normal subjects, whereas plasma levels of TG and LDL-C were obviously higher in the patients than in normal subjects (P

  10. Evaluation of a new tablet formulation of deferasirox to reduce chronic iron overload after long-term blood transfusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalmers AW

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anna W Chalmers, Jamile M Shammo Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Transfusion-dependent anemia is a common feature in a wide array of hematological disorders, including thalassemia, sickle cell disease, aplastic anemia, myelofibrosis, and myelodysplastic syndromes. In the absence of a physiological mechanism to excrete excess iron, chronic transfusions ultimately cause iron overload. Without correction, iron overload can lead to end-organ damage, resulting in cardiac, hepatic, and endocrine dysfunction/failure. Iron chelating agents are utilized to reduce iron overload, as they form a complex with iron, leading to its clearance. Iron chelation has been proven to decrease organ dysfunction and improve survival in certain transfusion-dependent anemias, such as β-thalassemia. Several chelating agents have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of iron overload, including deferoxamine, deferiprone, and deferasirox. A variety of factors have to be considered when choosing an iron chelator, including dosing schedule, route of administration, tolerability, and side effect profile. Deferasirox is an orally administered iron chelator with proven efficacy and safety in multiple hematological disorders. There are two formulations of deferasirox, a tablet for suspension, and a new tablet form. This paper is intended to provide an overview of iron overload, with a focus on deferasirox, and its recently approved formulation Jadenu® for the reduction of transfusional iron overload in hematological disorders. Keywords: iron chelation therapy, transfusional iron overload, deferasirox

  11. Autoimmune hepatitis in Italy: the Bologna experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Quarneti, Chiara; Ferri, Silvia; Menichella, Rita; Cassani, Fabio; Pappas, Georgios; Bianchi, Francesco B; Lenzi, Marco; Muratori, Luigi

    2009-06-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis affects mainly women. It is subdivided into type 1 and type 2 according to the autoantibody profile and without immunosuppression usually evolves to cirrhosis and end-stage liver failure. We evaluated clinical, biochemical, immunological and genetic features and treatment response of 163 consecutive Italian patients with autoimmune hepatitis. At diagnosis, type 1 autoimmune hepatitis showed more inflamed liver histology and more pronounced cholestasis, whereas type 2 was more common in children. Male and female patients shared similar clinical, biochemical and immunological features. Of 89 patients with 5-year follow-up or longer, 23 patients irrespective of presenting clinical, biochemical and immunological features achieved complete remission (normal transaminases and gammaglobulin levels) which was maintained with minimal steroid dosage; attempt at treatment withdrawal led to disease exacerbation. Complete responders had more often HLA DRB1*0401 (p = 0.011) and their risk of disease progression was lower (p < 0.0001). Type 1 and type 2 autoimmune hepatitis is one and the same disease. Autoimmune hepatitis has similar features in male and female patients. HLA DRB1*0401 positive patients are more likely to achieve complete remission. Continuous low-dose steroids are necessary to maintain remission, significantly reducing the risk of disease progression.

  12. Influence of iron impurities on defected graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faccio, Ricardo; Pardo, Helena [Centro NanoMat, Cryssmat-Lab, DETEMA, Polo Tecnológico de Pando, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, Cno. Saravia s/n, CP 91000 Pando (Uruguay); Centro Interdisciplinario en Nanotecnología, Química y Física de Materiales, Espacio Interdisciplinario, Universidad de la República, Montevideo (Uruguay); Araújo-Moreira, Fernando M. [Materials and Devices Group, Department of Physics, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, SP 13565-905 (Brazil); Mombrú, Alvaro W., E-mail: amombru@fq.edu.uy [Centro NanoMat, Cryssmat-Lab, DETEMA, Polo Tecnológico de Pando, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, Cno. Saravia s/n, CP 91000 Pando (Uruguay); Centro Interdisciplinario en Nanotecnología, Química y Física de Materiales, Espacio Interdisciplinario, Universidad de la República, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2015-03-01

    Highlights: • The interaction among a multivacancy graphene system and iron impurities is studied. • The studied iron impurities were single atom and tetrahedral and octahedral clusters. • DFT calculations using the VASP code were performed. • The embedding of Fe affects the structure and electronic behavior in the graphene. • Half metal or semimetal behavior can be obtained, depending on the Fe impurities. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to study the interaction of selected iron cluster impurities and a multivacancy graphene system, in terms of the structural distortion that the impurities cause as well as their magnetic response. While originally, the interaction has been limited to vacancies and isolated metallic atoms, in this case, we consider small iron clusters. This study was undertaken using Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The influence of the iron impurities in the electronic structure of the vacant graphene system is discussed. The main conclusion of this work is that the presence of iron impurities acts lowering the magnetic signal due to the occurrence of spin pairing between carbon and iron, instead of enhancing the possible intrinsic carbon magnetism.

  13. Influence of iron impurities on defected graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccio, Ricardo; Pardo, Helena; Araújo-Moreira, Fernando M.; Mombrú, Alvaro W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The interaction among a multivacancy graphene system and iron impurities is studied. • The studied iron impurities were single atom and tetrahedral and octahedral clusters. • DFT calculations using the VASP code were performed. • The embedding of Fe affects the structure and electronic behavior in the graphene. • Half metal or semimetal behavior can be obtained, depending on the Fe impurities. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to study the interaction of selected iron cluster impurities and a multivacancy graphene system, in terms of the structural distortion that the impurities cause as well as their magnetic response. While originally, the interaction has been limited to vacancies and isolated metallic atoms, in this case, we consider small iron clusters. This study was undertaken using Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The influence of the iron impurities in the electronic structure of the vacant graphene system is discussed. The main conclusion of this work is that the presence of iron impurities acts lowering the magnetic signal due to the occurrence of spin pairing between carbon and iron, instead of enhancing the possible intrinsic carbon magnetism

  14. Feline Hepatic Lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtolina, Chiara; Favier, Robert P

    2017-05-01

    Feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL) is a common and potentially fatal liver disorder. Although the pathophysiologic mechanisms of FHL remain elusive, there is an imbalance between the influx of fatty acids from peripheral fat stores into the liver, de novo liposynthesis, and the rate of hepatic oxidation and dispersal of hepatic TAG via excretion of very-low density lipoproteins. The diagnosis of FHL is based on anamnestic, clinical, and clinicopathologic findings, associated with diagnostic imaging of the liver, and cytology, or histological examination of liver biopsies. Fluid therapy, electrolyte correction and adequate early nutrition are essential components of the therapy for FHL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulation of iron metabolism during Neisseria meningitidis infection in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letendre, E.D.

    1984-01-01

    Bacterial invasion of vertebrates triggers a marked reduction in the levels of iron associated with the plasma transferrin (Tf) pool. This hypoferremic response has been regarded as a host attempt to withhold essential iron from the invading pathogen. The exact nature of the mechanisms involved remains obscure. The kinetics of iron processing by the RE system were studied by labeling the RE compartments with /sup 59/Fe-labeled denatured red blood cells. Uptake and redistribution of the label indicated the RE-processed iron was not returned to the plasma Tf pool during the hypoferremia. Fractionation of hepatic cellular compartments showed that this impaired release of iron resulted from a preferential incorporation of home-derived iron into the intracellular ferritin pool and this produces the hypoferremia. The role of ceruloplasmin (ferroxidase I,EC.1.16.3.1) (Cp) in iron metabolism during meningococcal infection was investigated. Plasma Cp ferroxidase activity was found to increase greatly in mice during the convalescence phase.

  16. Soluble and colloidal iron in the oligotrophic North Atlantic and North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Boyle, E; Sunda, W; Wen, L S

    2001-08-03

    In the oligotrophic North Atlantic and North Pacific, ultrafiltration studies show that concentrations of soluble iron and soluble iron-binding organic ligands are much lower than previously presumed "dissolved" concentrations, which were operationally defined as that passing through a 0.4-micrometer pore filter. Our studies indicate that substantial portions of the previously presumed "dissolved" iron (and probably also iron-binding ligands) are present in colloidal size range. The soluble iron and iron-binding organic ligands are depleted at the surface and enriched at depth, similar to distributions of major nutrients. By contrast, colloidal iron shows a maximum at the surface and a minimum in the upper nutricline. Our results suggest that "dissolved" iron may be less bioavailable to phytoplankton than previously thought and that iron removal through colloid aggregation and settling should be considered in models of the oceanic iron cycle.

  17. Current status and strategies for the control of viral hepatitis A in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eileen L; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Lee, Hyun Woong; Kim, Ji Hoon

    2017-09-01

    Hepatitis A virus is one of the most frequent causes of foodborne infection, which is closely associated with sanitary conditions and hygienic practices. The clinical spectrum of acute hepatitis A is wide, ranging from mild case without any noticeable symptoms to severe case with acute liver failure leading to mortality. The severity and outcome are highly correlated with age at infection. In developing countries, most people are infected in early childhood without significant symptom. Ironically, in area where sanitary condition has improved rapidly, adults who do not have immunity for viral hepatitis A (VH-A) in early childhood is accumulating. Adults without immunity are exposed to risks of symptomatic disease and large outbreaks in society. In Korea, where hygiene has improved rapidly, acute hepatitis A is a significant health burden that needs to be managed with nationwide health policy. The incidence of symptomatic VH-A has increased since 2000 and peaked in 2009. Korea has designated hepatitis A as a group 1 nationally notifiable infectious disease in 2001. Since 2001, mandatory surveillance system has been established to detect every single case of acute hepatitis A. Universal, nationwide vaccination program for newborns was introduced in 2015. In this review, we will present the current epidemiologic status of viral hepatitis A, and evaluate the effectiveness of the current nationwide strategies for the control of viral hepatitis A in Korea. Furthermore, we presented some action proposals that can help eliminate viral hepatitis A, which is a significant health burden in Korea.

  18. The expression of the soluble HFE corresponding transcript is up-regulated by intracellular iron and inhibits iron absorption in a duodenal cell model

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Bruno; Ferreira, Joana; Santos, Vera; Baldaia, Cilénia; Serejo, Fátima; Faustino, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Dietary iron absorption regulation is a key-step for the maintenance of body iron homeostasis. Besides the HFE full-length protein, the HFE gene codes for alternative splicing variants responsible for the synthesis of a soluble form of HFE protein (sHFE). Here we aimed to determine whether sHFE transcript levels respond to different iron conditions in duodenal, macrophage and hepatic cell models, as well, in vivo, in the liver. Furthermore, we determined the functional ef...

  19. Change in iron metabolism in rats after renal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Liang Xie

    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated that hepcidin, which can regulate iron efflux by binding to ferroportin-1 (FPN1 and inducing its internalization and degradation, acts as the critical factor in the regulation of iron metabolism. However, it is unknown whether hepcidin is involved in acute renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI. In this study, an IRI rat model was established via right renal excision and blood interruption for 45 min in the left kidney, and iron metabolism indexes were examined to investigate the change in iron metabolism and to analyze the role of hepcidin during IRI. From 1 to 24 h after renal reperfusion, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were found to be time-dependently increased with different degrees of kidney injury. Regular variations in iron metabolism indexes in the blood and kidneys were observed in renal IRI. Renal iron content, serum iron and serum ferritin increased early after reperfusion and then declined. Hepcidin expression in the liver significantly increased early after reperfusion, and its serum concentration increased beginning at 8 h after reperfusion. The splenic iron content decreased significantly in the early stage after reperfusion and then increased time-dependently with increasing reperfusion time, and the hepatic iron content showed a decrease in the early stage after reperfusion. The early decrease of the splenic iron content and hepatic iron content might indicate their contribution to the increase in serum iron in renal IRI. In addition, the duodenal iron content showed time-dependently decreased since 12 h after reperfusion in the IRI groups compared to the control group. Along with the spleen, the duodenum might contribute to the decrease in serum iron in the later stage after reperfusion. The changes in iron metabolism indexes observed in our study demonstrate an iron metabolism disorder in renal IRI, and hepcidin might be involved in maintaining iron homeostasis in renal IRI. These

  20. LIVER TRANSPLANTATION IN HEPATITIS DELTA: SOUTH AMERICA EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Souza LIMA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The Amazon region is one of the main endemic areas of hepatitis delta in the world and the only one related to the presence of genotype 3 of the delta virus. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the profile, mortality and survival of cirrhotic patients submitted to liver transplantation for chronic hepatitis delta virus and compare with those transplanted by hepatitis B virus monoinfection. METHODS: Retrospective, observational and descriptive study. From May 2002 to December 2011, 629 liver transplants were performed at the Walter Cantídio University Hospital, of which 29 patients were transplanted due to cirrhosis caused by chronic delta virus infection and 40 by hepatitis B chronic monoinfection. The variables analyzed were: age, sex, MELD score, Child-Pugh score, upper gastrointestinal bleeding and hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence before the transplantation, perioperative platelet count, mortality and survival. RESULTS: The Delta Group was younger and all came from the Brazilian Amazon Region. Group B presented a higher proportion of male patients (92.5% compared to Group D (58.6%. The occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding before transplantation, MELD score, and Child-Pugh score did not show statistical differences between groups. The occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality were higher in the hepatitis B Group. The survival in 4 years was 95% in the Delta Group and 75% in the B Group, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.034. Patients with hepatitis delta presented more evident thrombocytopenia in the pre-transplantation and in the immediate postoperative period. CONCLUSION: The hepatitis by delta virus patients who underwent liver transplantation were predominantly male, coming from the Brazilian Amazon region and with similar liver function to the hepatitis B virus patients. They had a lower incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma, more marked perioperative thrombocytopenia levels and frequent

  1. Feature Hepatitis: The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E ... drugs. In some cases, hepatitis lasts a lifetime. Hepatitis: Acute or Chronic? Acute hepatitis is the initial ...

  2. HIV and Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Hepatitis C Last Reviewed: July 25, 2017 ...

  3. HIV and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Hepatitis B Last Reviewed: July 24, 2017 ...

  4. Imaging of hepatic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, D.J.; Hanbidge, A.E.; O'Malley, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented

  5. Imaging of hepatic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: doyledj@hotmail.com; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.

  6. hy viral hepatitis?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jelivery.6 They may be confused with surgical conditions and apart from being an ... of the viruses, the diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis, the relationship of .... myocarditis and cardiomyopathy, pancreatitis and CSF abnormalities!

  7. Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Luigi; Deleonardi, Gaia; Lalanne, Claudine; Barbato, Erica; Tovoli, Alessandra; Libra, Alessia; Lenzi, Marco; Cassani, Fabio; Muratori, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The detection of diagnostic autoantibodies such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibodies (SMA), anti-liver/kidney microsomal type 1 (anti-LKM1), anti-liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1) and anti-soluble liver antigen (anti-SLA) is historically associated with the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. When autoimmune hepatitis is suspected, the detection of one or any combination of diagnostic autoantibodies, by indirect immunofluorescence or immuno-enzymatic techniques with recombinant antigens, is a pivotal step to reach a diagnostic score of probable or definite autoimmune hepatitis. Diagnostic autoantibodies (ANA, SMA, anti-LKM1, anti-LC1, anti-SLA) are a cornerstone in the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. Other ancillary autoantibodies, associated with peculiar clinical correlations, appear to be assay-dependent and institution-specific, and validation studies are needed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Hepatic abscesses after adhesiolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Antonsen

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Febrilia and pain in upper right quadrant of the abdomen days after a simple operation for bowel obstruction could be caused by translocation of intestinal bacteria and subsequent formation of hepatic abscesses.

  9. Effects of microbial redox cycling of iron on cast iron pipe corrosion in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibo; Hu, Chun; Zhang, Lili; Li, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min

    2014-11-15

    Bacterial characteristics in corrosion products and their effect on the formation of dense corrosion scales on cast iron coupons were studied in drinking water, with sterile water acting as a reference. The corrosion process and corrosion scales were characterized by electrochemical and physico-chemical measurements. The results indicated that the corrosion was more rapidly inhibited and iron release was lower due to formation of more dense protective corrosion scales in drinking water than in sterile water. The microbial community and denitrifying functional genes were analyzed by pyrosequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCR), respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the bacteria in corrosion products played an important role in the corrosion process in drinking water. Nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) Acidovorax and Hydrogenophaga enhanced iron corrosion before 6 days. After 20 days, the dominant bacteria became NRB Dechloromonas (40.08%) with the protective corrosion layer formation. The Dechloromonas exhibited the stronger corrosion inhibition by inducing the redox cycling of iron, to enhance the precipitation of iron oxides and formation of Fe3O4. Subsequently, other minor bacteria appeared in the corrosion scales, including iron-respiring bacteria and Rhizobium which captured iron by the produced siderophores, having a weaker corrosion-inhibition effect. Therefore, the microbially-driven redox cycling of iron with associated microbial capture of iron caused more compact corrosion scales formation and lower iron release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hepatitis C pada Anak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakInfeksi virus hepatitis C saat ini masih merupakan persoalan yang serius. Penularan infeksi HCV pada anak yang utama adalah melalui transfusi darah atau produk darah yang saat ini bertanggung jawab menyebabkan kasus hepatitis C kronis. Selain itu infeksi HCV pada anak dapat disebabkan oleh transmisi perinatal (vertikal. Infeksi HCV akut dapat berakhir dengan sirosis dan karsinoma hepatoselular setelah dekade ketiga (sekitar 20%, karena progresivitas infeksi HCV lebih lambat dari infeksi hepatitis B virus. Pada umumnya infeksi HCV bersifat asimptomatik termasuk pada anak. Karena tidak ada gejala yang jelas pada infeksi HCV tersebut maka diagnosis infeksi HCV hanya dapat ditegakkan dengan pemeriksaan awal laboratorium dan uji serologi, dan bila perlu dengan uji molekuler pada pasien dengan risiko tinggi. Kebijakan kuratif khusus terhadap HCV adalah terapi antivirus berupa interferon dan ribavirin yang diberikan bila diagnosis HCV sudah ditegakkanKata kunci: Hepatitis C, diagnosis and management problem, childrenAbstractHepatitis C virus infection is still a serious problem. Transmission of HCV infection in children is a major blood transfusion or blood products that are currently responsible for causing chronic hepatitis C cases. Additionally HCV infection in children can be caused by perinatal transmission (vertical. Acute HCV infection may end up with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma after the third decade (around 20%, due to a slower progression of HCV infection of hepatitis B virus infection. In most cases of HCV infection are asymptomatic, including in children. Since there are no obvious symptoms in the diagnosis of HCV infection HCV infection can only be confirmed by laboratory examinations and serologic testing early, and if necessary with molecular testing in patients at high risk. Curative policy is specific to HCV antiviral therapy such as interferon and ribavirin are given when the diagnosis of HCV has been establishedKeywords:Hepatitis

  11. Crioglobulinemia y hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Rousseau González, Georgina

    1998-01-01

    Se describieron las manifestaciones principales de la crioglobulinemia mixta esencial su clasificación inmunoquímica, su asociación con los distintos virus de la hepatitis, las distintas alteraciones inmunológicas asociadas y los principales tratamientos utilizados. The main manifestations of essential mixed cryoglobulinemia were described: its immunochemical classification, its association with different hepatitis virus, the different associated immunological alterations, and the main tre...

  12. Hepatic rupture in preeclampsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winer-Muram, H.T.; Muram, D.; Salazar, J.; Massie, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of hepatic rupture in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia and eclampsia) is rarely made preoperatively. Diagnostic imaging can be utilized in some patients to confirm the preoperative diagnosis. Since hematoma formation precedes hepatic rupture, then, when diagnostic modalities such as sonography and computed tomography identify patients with hematomas, these patients are at risk of rupture, and should be hospitalized until the hematomas resolve

  13. Torsed pedunculated hepatic hamartoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Lima, Ignacio; Vazquez, Jose L.; Gallego, Marta; Fernandez, Rebeca; Fernandez, Pilar

    2009-01-01

    We report a 9-year-old boy with a 6-h history of acute abdominal pain due to torsion of a pedunculated hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma. The lesion was seen, on US and CT, to connect to the liver through a pedicle. Mesenchymal hepatic hamartomas are unusual tumours that may be pedunculated, and this is a unique case complicated by torsion. The radiological and pathological findings, differential diagnosis, and clinical course are discussed. (orig.)

  14. FELINE HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    C. Masotti; M. O. Lima; A. M. Cruz; G. D. Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Since the first description of feline hepatic lipidosis occurred in 1977, it becames the most diagnosed liver disease in cats. Several factors have been proposed as causes of disease, and obesity being a predisposing factor. The disease can be considered primary or idiopathic when its underlying cause is unknown, or secondary when there is another concomitant disease lipidosis. Cats with hepatic lipidosis have anorexia usually ranging from several days to weeks and weight loss, followed by ja...

  15. CT in hepatic abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Nobuyuki; Hiromura, Tadao; Saitoh, Hiroya; Choji, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Hiromichi; Shinohara, Masahiro; Irie, Goroh; Nojima, Takayuki; Morita, Yuzuru.

    1987-01-01

    Fifteen CT pictures from 10 cases of hepatic abscess were reviewed. Rim enhancement was noted only in 2. On the other hand, ill defined low density surrounding central cystic structure was demonstrated in 11. Following contrast injection, this ill defined low density becomes isodense to the normal liver. Histologically, the ill defined low density was granulation tissue composed of neutrophils, lymphocytes and Macrophages. We emphasized the importance of the recognition of the granulation tissue surraounding a cyst of hepatic abscess. (author)

  16. Hepatitis C in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C is a serious public health problem all over the world. It is caused by a single stranded RNA virus. Most acute infections are subclinical, but in 75% of individuals, infection leads to a chronic hepatitis, which in some cases can progress to cirrhosis and occasionally development of hepatoma. It has wide range of dermatological manifestations. This review article deals with the overview of epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, management and prevention.

  17. Effects of strain and age on hepatic gene expression profiles in murine models of HFE-associated hereditary hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Min; Loguinov, Alexandre; Fleming, Robert E; Vulpe, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis is an iron overload disorder most commonly caused by a defect in the HFE gene. While the genetic defect is highly prevalent, the majority of individuals do not develop clinically significant iron overload, suggesting the importance of genetic modifiers. Murine hfe knockout models have demonstrated that strain background has a strong effect on the severity of iron loading. We noted that hepatic iron loading in hfe-/- mice occurs primarily over the first postnatal weeks (loading phase) followed by a timeframe of relatively static iron concentrations (plateau phase). We thus evaluated the effects of background strain and of age on hepatic gene expression in Hfe knockout mice (hfe-/-). Hepatic gene expression profiles were examined using cDNA microarrays in 4- and 8-week-old hfe-/- and wild-type mice on two different genetic backgrounds, C57BL/6J (C57) and AKR/J (AKR). Genes differentially regulated in all hfe-/- mice groups, compared with wild-type mice, including those involved in cell survival, stress and damage responses and lipid metabolism. AKR strain-specific changes in lipid metabolism genes and C57 strain-specific changes in cell adhesion and extracellular matrix protein genes were detected in hfe-/- mice. Mouse strain and age are each significantly associated with hepatic gene expression profiles in hfe-/- mice. These affects may underlie or reflect differences in iron loading in these mice.

  18. FELINE HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Masotti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the first description of feline hepatic lipidosis occurred in 1977, it becames the most diagnosed liver disease in cats. Several factors have been proposed as causes of disease, and obesity being a predisposing factor. The disease can be considered primary or idiopathic when its underlying cause is unknown, or secondary when there is another concomitant disease lipidosis. Cats with hepatic lipidosis have anorexia usually ranging from several days to weeks and weight loss, followed by jaundice and varying degrees of dehydration, diarrhea and vomiting episodes may occur. A worsening of the disease shows signs of hepatic encephalopathy, drooling and retroflexion of the neck. In clinical examination can be observed depression, lethargy and hepatomegaly. The definitive diagnosis of the disease can be performed by fine needle aspiration biopsy guided by ultrasound and cytology or biopsy. The treatment of hepatic lipidosis is based on stabilizing the patient by supplying water and electrolyte losses and provide adequate nutritional support. The diet is usually provided through feeding tubes for a period ranging from 4 to 6 weeks may occur depending on the patient's condition. The prognosis for cats with hepatic lipidosis is favored in cases of identification followed by intensive treatment of underlying causes and for patients receiving therapy necessary in cases of idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

  19. Cellular iron transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Michael D; Garrick, Laura M

    2009-05-01

    Iron has a split personality as an essential nutrient that also has the potential to generate reactive oxygen species. We discuss how different cell types within specific tissues manage this schizophrenia. The emphasis in enterocytes is on regulating the body's supply of iron by regulating transport into the blood stream. In developing red blood cells, adaptations in transport manage the body's highest flux of iron. Hepatocytes buffer the body's stock of iron. Macrophage recycle the iron from effete red cells among other iron management tasks. Pneumocytes provide a barrier to prevent illicit entry that, when at risk of breaching, leads to a need to handle the dangers in a fashion essentially shared with macrophage. We also discuss or introduce cell types including renal cells, neurons, other brain cells, and more where our ignorance, currently still vast, needs to be removed by future research.

  20. Diagnostic discordance for hepatitis C virus infection in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Miller, Loren G; Daar, Eric S

    2005-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with an increase in proinflammatory cytokine levels. Similar changes are seen in maintenance hemodialysis patients with malnutrition-inflammation-cachexia syndrome (MICS), which is associated with poor clinical outcomes in this population. We hypothesized that HCV transcription-mediated amplification (TMA), a sensitive qualitative molecular test for HCV RNA, may identify maintenance hemodialysis patients with HCV infection not detected by means of antibody enzyme immunoassay (EIA), particularly in those with MICS. We evaluated HCV status in 314 maintenance hemodialysis patients by using HCV antibody EIA (version 2.0; Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL) and HCV TMA (Bayer Diagnostics Laboratories, Berkeley, CA). Twenty-five patients (8%) were EIA positive (EIA+)/TMA+; 4 patients (1%), EIA+/TMA negative (TMA-), and 22 patients (7%), EIA-/TMA+. In the 47 TMA+ patients, the sensitivity of EIA for HCV infection was only 53%. TMA+ patients had lower albumin levels and higher tumor necrosis factor alpha and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase levels than TMA- patients. EIA+/TMA+ patients were more likely than EIA-/TMA+ or EIA-/TMA- patients to have hypoalbuminemia and higher iron and transaminase levels. Of all TMA+ patients, EIA- patients were more likely to have diabetes, be on dialysis therapy longer, and have lower liver enzyme levels and higher proinflammatory cytokine levels, including tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6. Maintenance hemodialysis patients infected with HCV according to TMA have clinical features suggestive of MICS. In this population, HCV EIA appears to have a low sensitivity for the identification of HCV infection, which may be caused by the confounding effect of MICS or other demographic or clinical factors. These apparently false-negative HCV antibody test results are seen in persons with a longer time on hemodialysis therapy, mirroring observations in other populations with serious

  1. Iron oxides as a cause of GPR reflections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, R.L.; Schlager, W.; Dekkers, M.; Huisman, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Iron oxides frequently occur as secondary precipitates in both modern and ancient sediments and may form bands or irregular patterns. We show from time-domain reflectometry (TDR) field studies that goethite iron-oxide precipitates significantly lower the electromagnetic wave velocity of sediments.

  2. Iron overload and pregnancy outcome among Sudanese women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean babies' birth weights were comparable among the IOL and the LSI groups but both were significantly lower than that among the NSI group. Conclusion: Iron supplementation to pregnant women must be rationalized so that women will benefit without developing undesirable effects. Key words: iron, oxidative stress ...

  3. Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  4. Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professional Resources Patient Education Resources Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for the Public Recommend ...

  5. Alternative and Complementary Therapies for Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Complementary Therapies Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans ... treatments which have been proven to reduce the hepatitis C viral load. Just because something is "natural" (an herb, ...

  6. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by ... and serious. Drugs are available to treat chronic hepatitis. 4 Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond What else ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. Our ... more information about Donor Iron Deficiency Study - Red Blood Cells ...

  8. Mineralogy and geochemistry of banded iron formation and iron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The geological complexities of banded iron formation (BIF) and associated iron ores of Jilling–. Langalata iron ore ...... sure to sea water. Uranium in these samples varies ..... Ce oxidation and removal (Elderfield and Greaves. 1982; De Baar et ...

  9. Hepatic manifestations of celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hugh James FreemanDepartment of Medicine (Gastroenterology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Different hepatic and biliary tract disorders may occur with celiac disease. Some have been hypothesized to share genetic or immunopathogenetic factors, such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and autoimmune hepatitis. Other hepatic changes in celiac disease may occur with malnutrition resulting from impaired nutrient absorption, including hepatic steatosis. In addition, celiac disease may be associated with rare hepatic complications, such as hepatic T-cell lymphoma.Keywords: celiac disease, autoimmune liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, fatty liver, gluten-free diet

  10. CLINICAL FEATURES OF REFRACTORY FORMS OF ANEMIA IN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS В

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. I. Inoyаtova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of 125 children with chronic hepatitis В and concomitant anemia has determined the frequency of refractory forms of anemia (52,5%. The disease progressed more severely on the background of anemia, which was indicated by the prevalence of CHВ forms with severe activity (71,4%. The pathognomonic symptoms of anemic processes were revealed. Two pathogenetic variants of the anemia genesis in children with CHВ are being considered: the first is defined by veritable iron deficiency with ferrokinetic markers of iron-deficiency anemia; the second — by relocationable iron deficit that is typical for hemosiderosis and refractoriness development.

  11. Quantification of liver iron concentration with magnetic resonance imaging by combining T1-, T2-weighted spin echo sequences and a gradient echo sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreeftenberg, HG; Mooyaart, EL; Sluiter, WJ; Kreeftenberg, HG; Huizenga, Reint

    Background: The aim of the study was to quantify hepatic iron by MRI for practical use. Methods: In twenty-three patients with various degrees of iron overload, measurements were carried out with a 1.5 Tesla MR unit. A combination of pulse sequences (T1, T2 and gradient echo) enabled us to quantify

  12. 18F-FAC PET selectively images hepatic infiltrating CD4 and CD8 T cells in a mouse model of autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Jessica R; Chen, Bao Ying; Wong, Alicia; Cheng, Donghui; Van Arnam, John S; Witte, Owen N; Clark, Peter M

    2018-04-26

    Immune cell-mediated attack on the liver is a defining feature of autoimmune hepatitis and hepatic allograft rejection. Despite an assortment of diagnostic tools, invasive biopsies remain the only method for identifying immune cells in the liver. We evaluated whether PET imaging with radiotracers that quantify immune activation ( 18 F-FDG and 18 F-FAC) and hepatocyte biology ( 18 F-DFA) can visualize and quantify hepatic infiltrating immune cells and hepatocyte inflammation, respectively, in a preclinical model of autoimmune hepatitis. Methods: Mice treated with Concanavalin A (ConA) to induce a model of autoimmune hepatitis or vehicle were imaged with 18 F-FDG, 18 F-FAC, and 18 F-DFA PET. Immunohistochemistry, digital autoradiography, and ex vivo accumulation assays were used to localize areas of altered radiotracer accumulation in the liver. For comparison, mice treated with an adenovirus to induce a viral hepatitis or vehicle were imaged with 18 F-FDG, 18 F-FAC, and 18 F-DFA PET. 18 F-FAC PET was performed on mice treated with ConA, and vehicle or dexamethasone. Biopsy samples of patients suffering from autoimmune hepatitis were immunostained for deoxycytidine kinase (dCK). Results: Hepatic accumulation of 18 F-FDG and 18 F-FAC was 173% and 61% higher, respectively, and hepatic accumulation of 18 F-DFA was 41% lower in a mouse model of autoimmune hepatitis compared to control mice. Increased hepatic 18 F-FDG accumulation was localized to infiltrating leukocytes and inflamed sinusoidal endothelial cells, increased hepatic 18 F-FAC accumulation was concentrated in infiltrating CD4 and CD8 cells, and decreased hepatic 18 F-DFA accumulation was apparent in hepatocytes throughout the liver. In contrast, viral hepatitis increased hepatic 18 F-FDG accumulation by 109% and decreased hepatic 18 F-DFA accumulation by 20% but had no effect on hepatic 18 F-FAC accumulation (non-significant 2% decrease). 18 F-FAC PET provided a non-invasive biomarker of the efficacy of

  13. Response to hepatitis A and B vaccination in patients with chronic hepatitis C: 8-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyoncu, Derya; Urganci, Nafiye

    2012-08-01

    In patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), superinfection with hepatitis A (HAV) or B (HAB) viruses is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The seroconversion rate of these patients following vaccination is considered to be lower than in healthy subjects. To evaluate the response to HAV and HBV vaccination in children with CHC. Thirty patients with CHC aged from 7.3 to 18 years were compared with 50 healthy age-, gender- and body-mass-index-matched controls. Post-vaccination serological evaluation was performed 1 month after the last dose of primary vaccination, 1 month after the booster dose and once a year during follow-up. Twenty-two patients received hepatitis A vaccine and response rate was 95.4%. Thirty patients received hepatitis B vaccine and 80% responded (hepatitis Bs titres ≥10 mIU/ml). Thirty-five controls received hepatitis A vaccine and protective anti-HAV antibodies developed in all. All of the controls were vaccinated against hepatitis B virus and 90% responded. After the whole vaccination series, overall seroprotection rates were 86% in patients and 96% in controls. No significant reduction in antibody response was observed in patients or controls during 8-years follow-up. The rate of seroconversion to the HBV vaccine is lower in patients with CHC than in healthy controls but response to HAV is adequate.

  14. Intradermal vaccination against hepatitis B in a group of medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective study of a low-dose (one-tenth) intradermal regimen using recombinant hepatitis B vaccine was under- taken during two consecutive years in 4th-year medical stu- dents. Eightj;one per cent of the vaccinees (123/152) sero- converted with anti.HBs levels of> 10 lUll. The lower titre of hepatitis B surface ...

  15. Hepatic encephalopathy associated with hepatic lipidosis in llamas (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillitteri, C A; Craig, L E

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy has been listed as a differential for llamas displaying neurologic signs, but it has not been histopathologically described. This report details the neurologic histopathologic findings associated with 3 cases of hepatic lipidosis with concurrent neurologic signs and compares them to 3 cases of hepatic lipidosis in the absence of neurologic signs and 3 cases without hepatic lipidosis. Brain from all 3 llamas displaying neurologic signs contained Alzheimer type II cells, which were not detected in either subset of llamas without neurologic signs. Astrocytic immunohistochemical staining intensity for glial fibrillary acid protein was decreased in llamas with neurologic signs as compared to 2 of 3 llamas with hepatic lipidosis and without neurologic signs and to 2 of 3 llamas without hepatic lipidosis. Immunohistochemical staining for S100 did not vary between groups. These findings suggest that hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with hepatic lipidosis in llamas.

  16. Severe atrophy of right hepatic lobe simulating right hepatic lobectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, C.W.; Strashun, A.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Absence of the right hepatic lobe following blunt abdominal trauma without surgical resection is reported. The usual site of the right hepatic lobe is demonstrated to be occupied by bowel by hepatobiliary imaging

  17. Iron Refractory Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Rare Cause of Iron Deficiency Anaemia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, T

    2018-01-01

    We describe the case of a 17-month-old boy with a hypochromic microcytic anaemia, refractory to oral iron treatment. After exclusion of dietary and gastrointestinal causes of iron deficiency, a genetic cause for iron deficiency was confirmed by finding two mutations in the TMPRSS6 gene, consistent with a diagnosis of iron-refractory iron deficiency anaemia (IRIDA).

  18. Deferoxamine inhibition of malaria is independent of host iron status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershko, C.; Peto, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism whereby deferoxamine (DF) inhibits the growth of malaria parasites was studied in rats infected with Plasmodium berghei. Peak parasitemia was 32.6% (day 14) in untreated controls and 0.15% (day 7) in rats receiving 0.33 mg/g in 8 hourly DF injections, subcutaneously. DF inhibition of parasite growth was achieved without any reduction in transferrin saturation or hemoglobin synthesis and with only a partial (56%) depletion of hepatic iron stores. Dietary iron depletion resulted in anemia (hematocrit 25 vs. 46%), microcytosis (MCV 54 vs. 60 fl), and reduced transferrin saturation (17 vs. 96%) without any effect on infection (peak parasitemia 30 vs. 36%). Similarly, parenteral iron loading with ferric citrate over 10 d (75 mg iron/kg) failed to aggravate infection. In a search for evidence of direct interaction between DF and parasitized erythrocytes, gel filtration and ultrafiltration was performed on hemolysates obtained from in vivo 59 Fe-labeled parasitized erythrocytes. This showed that 1.1-1.9% of the intracellular radioiron was located in a chelatable, labile iron pool. Incubation of intact cells with 0-500 microM DF resulted in a proportional increase in intracellular iron chelation, and the chelation of all available labile intracellular iron was completed within 6 h. These observations indicate that the severity of P. berghei infection in rats and its in vivo suppression by DF are independent of host iron status and suggest that DF inhibition of malaria involves intracellular chelation of a labile iron pool in parasitized erythrocytes

  19. Correlations of Hepatic Hemodynamics, Liver Function, and Fibrosis Markers in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Comparison with Chronic Hepatitis Related to Hepatitis C Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Shigefuku

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The progression of chronic liver disease differs by etiology. The aim of this study was to elucidate the difference in disease progression between chronic hepatitis C (CHC and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD by means of fibrosis markers, liver function, and hepatic tissue blood flow (TBF. Xenon computed tomography (Xe-CT was performed in 139 patients with NAFLD and 152 patients with CHC (including liver cirrhosis (LC. The cutoff values for fibrosis markers were compared between NAFLD and CHC, and correlations between hepatic TBF and liver function tests were examined at each fibrosis stage. The cutoff values for detection of the advanced fibrosis stage were lower in NAFLD than in CHC. Although portal venous TBF (PVTBF correlated with liver function tests, PVTBF in initial LC caused by nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH-LC was significantly lower than that in hepatitis C virus (C-LC (p = 0.014. Conversely, the liver function tests in NASH-LC were higher than those in C-LC (p < 0.05. It is important to recognize the difference between NAFLD and CHC. We concluded that changes in hepatic blood flow occurred during the earliest stage of hepatic fibrosis in patients with NAFLD; therefore, patients with NAFLD need to be followed carefully.

  20. Viral kinetics of the Hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Bekkering (Frank)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus were identified as the cause of infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis respectively in the beginning of the seventies. After introduction of screening tests for hepatitis A and B 4 only 25% of the cases of post transfusion hepatitis were found to