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Sample records for low-temperature geothermal potential

  1. District space heating potential of low temperature hydrothermal geothermal resources in the southwestern United States. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDevitt, P.K.; Rao, C.R.

    1978-10-01

    A computer simulation model (GIRORA-Nonelectric) is developed to study the economics of district space heating using geothermal energy. GIRORA-Nonelectric is a discounted cashflow investment model which evaluates the financial return on investment for space heating. This model consists of two major submodels: the exploration for and development of a geothermal anomaly by a geothermal producer, and the purchase of geothermal fluid by a district heating unit. The primary output of the model is a calculated rate of return on investment earned by the geothermal producer. The results of the sensitivity analysis of the model subject to changes in physical and economic parameters are given in this report. Using the results of the economic analysis and technological screening criteria, all the low temperature geothermal sites in Southwestern United States are examined for economic viability for space heating application. The methodology adopted and the results are given.

  2. Evaluation of low-temperature geothermal potential in Cache Valley, Utah. Report of investigation No. 174

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Vries, J.L.

    1982-11-01

    Field work consisted of locating 90 wells and springs throughout the study area, collecting water samples for later laboratory analyses, and field measurement of pH, temperature, bicarbonate alkalinity, and electrical conductivity. Na/sup +/, K/sup +/, Ca/sup +2/, Mg/sup +2/, SiO/sub 2/, Fe, SO/sub 4//sup -2/, Cl/sup -/, F/sup -/, and total dissolved solids were determined in the laboratory. Temperature profiles were measured in 12 additional, unused walls. Thermal gradients calculated from the profiles were approximately the same as the average for the Basin and Range province, about 35/sup 0/C/km. One well produced a gradient of 297/sup 0/C/km, most probably as a result of a near-surface occurrence of warm water. Possible warm water reservoir temperatures were calculated using both the silica and the Na-K-Ca geothermometers, with the results averaging about 50 to 100/sup 0/C. If mixing calculations were applied, taking into account the temperatures and silica contents of both warm springs or wells and the cold groundwater, reservoir temperatures up to about 200/sup 0/C were indicated. Considering measured surface water temperatures, calculated reservoir temperatures, thermal gradients, and the local geology, most of the Cache Valley, Utah area is unsuited for geothermal development. However, the areas of North Logan, Benson, and Trenton were found to have anomalously warm groundwater in comparison to the background temperature of 13.0/sup 0/C for the study area. The warm water has potential for isolated energy development but is not warm enough for major commercial development.

  3. Analysis of Low-Temperature Utilization of Geothermal Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Brian

    2015-06-30

    Full realization of the potential of what might be considered “low-grade” geothermal resources will require that we examine many more uses for the heat than traditional electricity generation. To demonstrate that geothermal energy truly has the potential to be a national energy source we will be designing, assessing, and evaluating innovative uses for geothermal-produced water such as hybrid biomass-geothermal cogeneration of electricity and district heating and efficiency improvements to the use of cellulosic biomass in addition to utilization of geothermal in district heating for community redevelopment projects. The objectives of this project were: 1) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the integration and utilization potential of low-temperature geothermal sources. Innovative uses of low-enthalpy geothermal water were designed and examined for their ability to offset fossil fuels and decrease CO2 emissions. 2) To perform process optimizations and economic analyses of processes that can utilize low-temperature geothermal fluids. These processes included electricity generation using biomass and district heating systems. 3) To scale up and generalize the results of three case study locations to develop a regionalized model of the utilization of low-temperature geothermal resources. A national-level, GIS-based, low-temperature geothermal resource supply model was developed and used to develop a series of national supply curves. We performed an in-depth analysis of the low-temperature geothermal resources that dominate the eastern half of the United States. The final products of this study include 17 publications, an updated version of the cost estimation software GEOPHIRES, and direct-use supply curves for low-temperature utilization of geothermal resources. The supply curves for direct use geothermal include utilization from known hydrothermal, undiscovered hydrothermal, and near-hydrothermal EGS resources and presented these results at the Stanford

  4. A hybrid geothermal energy conversion technology: Auxiliary heating of geothermally preheated water or CO2 - a potential solution for low-temperature resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Martin; Garapati, Nagasree; Adams, Benjamin; Randolph, Jimmy; Kuehn, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Safe, sustainable, and economic development of deep geothermal resources, particularly in less favourable regions, often requires employment of unconventional geothermal energy extraction and utilization methods. Often "unconventional geothermal methods" is synonymously and solely used as meaning enhanced geothermal systems, where the permeability of hot, dry rock with naturally low permeability at greater depths (4-6 km), is enhanced. Here we present an alternative unconventional geothermal energy utilization approach that uses low-temperature regions that are shallower, thereby drastically reducing drilling costs. While not a pure geothermal energy system, this hybrid approach may enable utilization of geothermal energy in many regions worldwide that can otherwise not be used for geothermal electricity generation, thereby increasing the global geothermal resource base. Moreover, in some realizations of this hybrid approach that generate carbon dioxide (CO2), the technology may be combined with carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) and CO2-based geothermal energy utilization, resulting in a high-efficiency (hybrid) geothermal power plant with a negative carbon footprint. Typically, low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resources are more effectively used for direct heat energy applications. However, due to high thermal losses during transport, direct use requires that the heat resource is located near the user. Alternatively, we show here that if such a low-temperature geothermal resource is combined with an additional or secondary energy resource, the power production is increased compared to the sum from two separate (geothermal and secondary fuel) power plants (DiPippo et al. 1978) and the thermal losses are minimized because the thermal energy is utilized where it is produced. Since Adams et al. (2015) found that using CO2 as a subsurface working fluid produces more net power than brine at low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource conditions, we

  5. Low-temperature geothermal resources of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, J.E. [Washington State Dept. of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA (United States). Div. of Geology and Earth Resources; Bloomquist, R.G. [Washington State Energy Office, Olympia, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents information on the location, physical characteristics, and water chemistry of low-temperature geothermal resources in Washington. The database includes 941 thermal (>20C or 68F) wells, 34 thermal springs, lakes, and fumaroles, and 238 chemical analyses. Most thermal springs occur in the Cascade Range, and many are associated with stratovolcanoes. In contrast, 97 percent of thermal wells are located in the Columbia Basin of southeastern Washington. Some 83.5 percent are located in Adams, Benton, Franklin, Grant, Walla Walla, and Yakima Counties. Yakima County, with 259 thermal wells, has the most. Thermal wells do not seem to owe their origin to local sources of heat, such as cooling magma in the Earth`s upper crust, but to moderate to deep circulation of ground water in extensive aquifers of the Columbia River Basalt Group and interflow sedimentary deposits, under the influence of a moderately elevated (41C/km) average geothermal gradient.

  6. 2014 Low-Temperature and Coproduced Geothermal Resources Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Reinhardt, Program Manager

    2014-09-01

    As a growing sector of geothermal energy development, the Low-Temperature Program supports innovative technologies that enable electricity production and cascaded uses from geothermal resources below 300° Fahrenheit.

  7. An Estimate of Shallow, Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullane, Michelle; Gleason, Michael; Reber, Tim; McCabe, Kevin; Mooney, Meghan; Young, Katherine R.

    2017-05-01

    Low-temperature geothermal resources in the United States potentially hold an enormous quantity of thermal energy, useful for direct use in residential, commercial and industrial applications such as space and water heating, greenhouse warming, pool heating, aquaculture, and low-temperature manufacturing processes. Several studies published over the past 40 years have provided assessments of the resource potential for multiple types of low-temperature geothermal systems (e.g. hydrothermal convection, hydrothermal conduction, and enhanced geothermal systems) with varying temperature ranges and depths. This paper provides a summary and additional analysis of these assessments of shallow (= 3 km), low-temperature (30-150 degrees C) geothermal resources in the United States, suitable for use in direct-use applications. This analysis considers six types of geothermal systems, spanning both hydrothermal and enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). We outline the primary data sources and quantitative parameters used to describe resources in each of these categories, and present summary statistics of the total resources available. In sum, we find that low-temperature hydrothermal resources and EGS resources contain approximately 8 million and 800 million TWh of heat-in-place, respectively. In future work, these resource potential estimates will be used for modeling of the technical and market potential for direct-use geothermal applications for the U.S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Vision Study.

  8. An Estimate of Shallow, Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources of the United States: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullane, Michelle; Gleason, Michael; McCabe, Kevin; Mooney, Meghan; Reber, Timothy; Young, Katherine R.

    2016-10-01

    Low-temperature geothermal resources in the United States potentially hold an enormous quantity of thermal energy, useful for direct use in residential, commercial and industrial applications such as space and water heating, greenhouse warming, pool heating, aquaculture, and low-temperature manufacturing processes. Several studies published over the past 40 years have provided assessments of the resource potential for multiple types of low-temperature geothermal systems (e.g. hydrothermal convection, hydrothermal conduction, and enhanced geothermal systems) with varying temperature ranges and depths. This paper provides a summary and additional analysis of these assessments of shallow (= 3 km), low-temperature (30-150 degrees C) geothermal resources in the United States, suitable for use in direct-use applications. This analysis considers six types of geothermal systems, spanning both hydrothermal and enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). We outline the primary data sources and quantitative parameters used to describe resources in each of these categories, and present summary statistics of the total resources available. In sum, we find that low-temperature hydrothermal resources and EGS resources contain approximately 8 million and 800 million TWh of heat-in-place, respectively. In future work, these resource potential estimates will be used for modeling of the technical and market potential for direct-use geothermal applications for the U.S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Vision Study.

  9. California low-temperature geothermal resources update: 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngs, L.G.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy -- Geothermal Division (DOE/GD) recently sponsored the Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources and Technology Transfer Program to bring the inventory of the nation`s low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resources up to date and to encourage development of the resources. The Oregon Institute of Technology, Geo-Heat Center (OIT/GHC) and the University of Utah Research Institute (UURI) established subcontracts and coordinated the project with the state resource teams from the western states that participated in the program. The California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology (DMG) entered into contract numbered 1092--023(R) with the OIT/GHC to provide the California data for the program. This report is submitted in fulfillment of that contract.

  10. Low Temperature Geothermal Resource Assessment for Membrane Distillation Desalination in the United States: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akar, Sertac; Turchi, Craig

    2016-10-01

    Substantial drought and declines in potable groundwater in the United States over the last decade has increased the demand for fresh water. Desalination of saline water such as brackish surface or groundwater, seawater, brines co-produced from oil and gas operations, industrial wastewater, blow-down water from power plant cooling towers, and agriculture drainage water can reduce the volume of water that requires disposal while providing a source of high-quality fresh water for industrial or commercial use. Membrane distillation (MD) is a developing technology that uses low-temperature thermal energy for desalination. Geothermal heat can be an ideal thermal-energy source for MD desalination technology, with a target range of $1/m3 to $2/m3 for desalinated water depending on the cost of heat. Three different cases were analyzed to estimate levelized cost of heat (LCOH) for integration of MD desalination technology with low-grade geothermal heat: (1) residual heat from injection brine at a geothermal power plant, (2) heat from existing underutilized low-temperature wells, and (3) drilling new wells for low-temperature resources. The Central and Western United States have important low-temperature (<90 degrees C) geothermal resource potential with wide geographic distribution, but these resources are highly underutilized because they are inefficient for power production. According to the USGS, there are 1,075 identified low temperature hydrothermal systems, 55 low temperature sedimentary systems and 248 identified medium to high temperature geothermal systems in the United States. The estimated total beneficial heat potential from identified low temperature hydrothermal geothermal systems and residual beneficial heat from medium to high temperature systems is estimated as 36,300 MWth, which could theoretically produce 1.4 to 7 million m3/day of potable water, depending on desalination efficiency.

  11. Low Temperature Geothermal Resource Assessment for Membrane Distillation Desalination in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akar, Sertac; Turchi, Craig

    2017-05-01

    Substantial drought and declines in potable groundwater in the United States over the last decade has increased the demand for fresh water. Desalination of saline water such as brackish surface or groundwater, seawater, brines co-produced from oil and gas operations, industrial wastewater, blow-down water from power plant cooling towers, and agriculture drainage water can reduce the volume of water that requires disposal while providing a source of high-quality fresh water for industrial or commercial use. Membrane distillation (MD) is a developing technology that uses low-temperature thermal energy for desalination. Geothermal heat can be an ideal thermal-energy source for MD desalination technology, with a target range of $1/m3 to $2/m3 for desalinated water depending on the cost of heat. Three different cases were analyzed to estimate levelized cost of heat (LCOH) for integration of MD desalination technology with low-grade geothermal heat: (1) residual heat from injection brine at a geothermal power plant, (2) heat from existing underutilized low-temperature wells, and (3) drilling new wells for low-temperature resources. The Central and Western United States have important low-temperature (<90 degrees C) geothermal resource potential with wide geographic distribution, but these resources are highly underutilized because they are inefficient for power production. According to the USGS, there are 1,075 identified low temperature hydrothermal systems, 55 low temperature sedimentary systems and 248 identified medium to high temperature geothermal systems in the United States. The estimated total beneficial heat potential from identified low temperature hydrothermal geothermal systems and residual beneficial heat from medium to high temperature systems is estimated as 36,300 MWth, which could theoretically produce 1.4 to 7 million m3/day of potable water, depending on desalination efficiency.

  12. State-coupled low-temperature geothermal-resource assessment program, Fiscal Year 1979. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icerman, L.; Starkey, A.; Trentman, N. (eds.)

    1980-10-01

    The results of low-temperature geothermal energy resource assessment efforts in New Mexico during the period from 1 October 1978 to 30 June 1980 are summarized. The results of the efforts to extend the inventory of geothermal energy resources in New Mexico to low-temperature geothermal reservoirs with the potential for direct heating applications are given. These efforts focused on compiling basic geothermal data and new hydrology and temperature gradient data throughout New Mexico in a format suitable for direct transfer to the US Geological Survey and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for inclusion in the GEOTHERM data file and for preparation of New Mexico low-temperature geothermal resources maps. The results of geothermal reservoir confirmation studies are presented. (MHR)

  13. Use of Low-Temperature Geothermal Energy for Desalination in the Western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Craig S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cath, Tzahi [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Vanneste, Johan [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Geza, Mengistu [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This joint project between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Colorado School of Mines has examined the potential of using low-temperature geothermal resources for desalination. The temperature range in question is not well suited for electricity generation, but can be used for direct heating. Accordingly, the best integration approaches use thermal desalination technologies such as multi-effect distillation (MED) or membrane distillation (MD), rather than electric-driven technologies such as reverse osmosis (RO). The examination of different desalination technologies led to the selection of MD for pairing with geothermal energy. MD operates at near-ambient pressure and temperatures less than 100°C with hydrophobic membranes. The technology is modular like RO, but the equipment costs are lower. The thermal energy demands of MD are higher than MED, but this is offset by an ability to run at lower temperatures and a low capital cost. Consequently, a geothermal-MD system could offer a low capital cost and, if paired with low-cost geothermal energy, a low operating cost. The target product water cost is $1.0 to $1.5 per cubic meter depending on system capacity and the cost of thermal energy.

  14. Data Acquisition for Low-Temperature Geothermal Well Tests and Long-Term Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P J

    1992-03-01

    Groundwater monitoring is an essential part of the development of a low-temperature geothermal field for production and injection wells. State water resource and environmental departments are requiring both geothermal well testing and long-term monitoring as a part of the permitting process for geothermal developments. This report covers water-level measurement methods, instruments used for well testing, geochemical sampling, examples of data acquisition and regulatory mandates on groundwater monitoring.

  15. Data acquisition for low-temperature geothermal well tests and long-term monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.

    1992-09-01

    Groundwater monitoring is an essential part of the development of a low-temperature geothermal field for production and injection wells. State water resource and environmental departments are requiring both geothermal well testing and long-term monitoring as a part of the permitting process for geothermal developments. This report covers water-level measurement methods, instruments used for well testing, geochemical sampling, examples of data acquisition and regulatory mandates on groundwater monitoring.

  16. Economic study of low temperature geothermal energy in Lassen and Modoc counties, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using low cost, low temperature geothermal energy in job-producing industries to increase employment and encourage economic development. The study, encompassing all of Lassen and modoc Counties, was to be site-specific, referencing candidate geothermal applications to known hot wells and springs as previously determined, or to new wells with specific characteristics as defined in the Scope of Work. The emphasis was to be placed on economically practical and readily achievable applications from known resources, thus complimenting the recently completed ERDA-Susanville Study where a designated community was used as a ''laboratory'' in which land-use planning, institutional aspects, geological assessments, technical modeling and socioeconomic impacts were all examined in overview. During the course of the study, monthly progress reports were prepared and reviewed with the Commission so that emphasis on particular features of study could be changed as necessary to reflect updated findings and to redirect efforts into additional areas of potential promise as they became apparent. In this manner, a degree of flexibility was maintained which allowed a more comprehensive study than would have been otherwise possible. Although the report generates both positive and negative findings in specific areas of investigation, it is felt that the overall long term prognosis for geothermal energy stimulus to industry in the area is excellent.

  17. Geothermal low-temperature reservoir assessment program: A new DOE geothermal initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, P.M.; Lienau, P.J.; Mink, L.L.

    1992-01-01

    In Fiscal Year 1991, Congress appropriated money for the Department of Energy to begin a new program in the evaluation and use of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resources. The objective of this program is to promote accelerated development of these resources to offset fossil-fuel use and help improve the environment. The program will consist of several components, including: (1) compilation of all available information on resource location and characteristics, with emphasis on resources located within 5 miles of population centers; (2) development and testing of techniques to discover and evaluate low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resources; (3) technical assistance to potential developers of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resources; and (4) evaluation of the use of geothermal heat pumps in domestic and commercial applications. Program participants will include the Geo-Heat Center at the Oregon Institute of Technology, the University of Utah Research Institute, the Idaho Water Resources Research Institute and agencies of state governments in most of the western states

  18. Transported Low-Temperature Geothermal Energy for Thermal End Uses Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhiyao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mehdizadeh Momen, Ayyoub [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Li, Jan-Mou [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The use of geothermal energy is an emerging area for improving the nation’s energy resiliency. Conventionally, geothermal energy applications have focused on power generation using high temperature hydrothermal resources or enhanced geothermal systems. However, many low temperature (below 150°C/300°F) geothermal resources are also available but have not been fully utilized. For example, it is estimated that 25 billion barrels of geothermal fluid (mostly water and some dissolved solids) at 176°F to 302°F (80°C to 150°C) is coproduced annually at oil and gas wells in the United States (DOE 2015). The heat contained in coproduced geothermal fluid (also referred as “coproduced water”) is typically wasted because the fluid is reinjected back into the ground without extracting the heat.

  19. Off-design performance analysis of Kalina cycle for low temperature geothermal source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hang; Hu, Dongshuai; Wang, Mingkun; Dai, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The off-design performance analysis of Kalina cycle is conducted. • The off-design models are established. • The genetic algorithm is used in the design phase. • The sliding pressure control strategy is applied. - Abstract: Low temperature geothermal sources with brilliant prospects have attracted more and more people’s attention. Kalina cycle system using ammonia water as working fluid could exploit geothermal energy effectively. In this paper, the quantitative analysis of off-design performance of Kalina cycle for the low temperature geothermal source is conducted. The off-design models including turbine, pump and heat exchangers are established preliminarily. Genetic algorithm is used to maximize the net power output and determine the thermodynamic parameters in the design phase. The sliding pressure control strategy applied widely in existing Rankine cycle power plants is adopted to response to the variations of geothermal source mass flow rate ratio (70–120%), geothermal source temperature (116–128 °C) and heat sink temperature (0–35 °C). In the off-design research scopes, the guidance for pump rotational speed adjustment is listed to provide some reference for off-design operation of geothermal power plants. The required adjustment rate of pump rotational speed is more sensitive to per unit geothermal source temperature than per unit heat sink temperature. Influence of the heat sink variation is greater than that of the geothermal source variation on the ranges of net power output and thermal efficiency.

  20. Companion Study Guide to Short Course on Geothermal Corrosion and Mitigation in Low Temperature Geothermal Heating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, II, P F

    1985-04-24

    The economic utilization of geothermal resources with temperatures less than 220 degrees Fahrenheit for purposes other than electric power generation (direct utilization) requires creation of systems with long plant life and minimum operation and maintenance costs. Development of such systems requires careful corrosion engineering if the most cost effective material selections and design choices are to be made. This study guide presents guidelines for materials selection for low-temperature geothermal systems (120 - 200 degrees Fahrenheit), as well as guidance in materials design of heat pump systems for very-lowtemperature geothermal resources (less than 120 degrees Fahrenheit). This guideline is divided into five sections and an Appendix.

  1. Scale Resistant Heat Exchanger for Low Temperature Geothermal Binary Cycle Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, Lance G. [Energent Corporation, Santa Ana, CA (United States)

    2014-11-18

    Phase 1 of the investigation of improvements to low temperature geothermal power systems was completed. The improvements considered were reduction of scaling in heat exchangers and a hermetic turbine generator (eliminating seals, seal system, gearbox, and lube oil system). A scaling test system with several experiments was designed and operated at Coso geothermal resource with brine having a high scaling potential. Several methods were investigated at the brine temperature of 235 ºF. One method, circulation of abradable balls through the brine passages, was found to substantially reduce scale deposits. The test heat exchanger was operated with brine outlet temperatures as low as 125 ºF, which enables increased heat input available to power conversion systems. For advanced low temperature cycles, such as the Variable Phase Cycle (VPC) or Kalina Cycle, the lower brine temperature will result in a 20-30% increase in power production from low temperature resources. A preliminary design of an abradable ball system (ABS) was done for the heat exchanger of the 1 megawatt VPC system at Coso resource. The ABS will be installed and demonstrated in Phase 2 of this project, increasing the power production above that possible with the present 175 ºF brine outlet limit. A hermetic turbine generator (TGH) was designed and manufacturing drawings produced. This unit will use the working fluid (R134a) to lubricate the bearings and cool the generator. The 200 kW turbine directly drives the generator, eliminating a gearbox and lube oil system. Elimination of external seals eliminates the potential of leakage of the refrigerant or hydrocarbon working fluids, resulting in environmental improvement. A similar design has been demonstrated by Energent in an ORC waste heat recovery system. The existing VPC power plant at Coso was modified to enable the “piggyback” demonstration of the TGH. The existing heat exchanger, pumps, and condenser will be operated to provide the required

  2. Advanced Low Temperature Geothermal Power Cycles (The ENTIV Organic Project) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugerwa, Michael [Technip USA, Inc., Claremont, CA (United States)

    2015-11-18

    Feasibility study of advanced low temperature thermal power cycles for the Entiv Organic Project. Study evaluates amonia-water mixed working fluid energy conversion processes developed and licensed under Kalex in comparison with Kalina cycles. Both cycles are developed using low temperature thermal resource from the Lower Klamath Lake Geothermal Area. An economic feasibility evaluation was conducted for a pilot plant which was deemed unfeasible by the Project Sponsor (Entiv).

  3. Demonstration of a Variable Phase Turbine Power System for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, Lance G

    2014-07-07

    A variable phase turbine assembly will be designed and manufactured having a turbine, operable with transcritical, two-phase or vapor flow, and a generator – on the same shaft supported by process lubricated bearings. The assembly will be hermetically sealed and the generator cooled by the refrigerant. A compact plate-fin heat exchanger or tube and shell heat exchanger will be used to transfer heat from the geothermal fluid to the refrigerant. The demonstration turbine will be operated separately with two-phase flow and with vapor flow to demonstrate performance and applicability to the entire range of low temperature geothermal resources. The vapor leaving the turbine is condensed in a plate-fin refrigerant condenser. The heat exchanger, variable phase turbine assembly and condenser are all mounted on single skids to enable factory assembly and checkout and minimize installation costs. The system will be demonstrated using low temperature (237F) well flow from an existing large geothermal field. The net power generated, 1 megawatt, will be fed into the existing power system at the demonstration site. The system will demonstrate reliable generation of inexpensive power from low temperature resources. The system will be designed for mass manufacturing and factory assembly and should cost less than $1,200/kWe installed, when manufactured in large quantities. The estimated cost of power for 300F resources is predicted to be less than 5 cents/kWh. This should enable a substantial increase in power generated from low temperature geothermal resources.

  4. Performance analysis of low temperature heat source of organic Rankine cycle for geothermal application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintoro, A.; Ambarita, H.; Nur, T. B.; Napitupulu, F. H.

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia has a high potential energy resources from geothermal activities. Base on the report of Asian Development Bank and World Bank, the estimated of Indonesian hydrothermal geothermal resource considered to be the largest among the world. If it’s can be utilized to produce the electric power, it’s can contribute to increasing the electrification rates in Indonesia. In this study, an experimental studied of electric power generation, utilizing the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system to convert the low level heat of hydrothermal as an energy source. The temperature of hydrothermal was modelled as hot water from water boiler which has a temperature range from 60 °C - 100 °C to heat up the organic working fluid of ORC system. The system can generated 1,337.7 watts of electricity when operated using R134A with hot water inlet temperature of 100 °C. Changing system working fluid to R245fa, the net power obtained increase to 1,908.9 watts with the same heat source condition. This study showed that the ORC system can be implemented to utilize low temperature heat source of hydrothermal in Indonesia.

  5. New Mexico low-temperature geothermal resources and economic development programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittier, J.; Schoenmackers, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on New Mexico's low-temperature geothermal resources which have been utilized to promote economic development initiatives within the state. Public funds have been leveraged to foster exploration activities which have led to the establishment of several direct-use projects at various sites within New Mexico. State policies have focused on attracting one business sector, the commercial greenhouse industry, to expand and/or relocate in New Mexico. Geothermal-related promotional activities have begun to show success in achieving economic growth. New Mexico now has almost half of the geothermally-heated greenhouse space in the nation. It is anticipated that the greenhouse sector will continue to grow within the state. Future economic development activities, also relying upon the geothermal resource base, will include vegetable dehydration and aquaculture with a focus on the microalgae sector

  6. Sperry Low Temperature Geothermal Conversion System, Phase 1 and Phase 2. Volume 3: Systems description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, H. B.

    The major fraction of hydrothermal resources with the prospect of economic usefulness for the generation of electricity are in the 300(0)F to 425(0)F temperature range. Cost effective conversion of the geothermal energy to electricity requires new ideas to improve conversion efficiency, enhance brine flow, reduce plant costs, increase plant availability, and shorten the time between investment and return. The problems addressed are those inherent in the geothermal environment, in the binary fluid cycle, in the difficulty of efficiently converting the energy of a low temperature resource, and in geothermal economics some of these problems are explained. The energy expended by the down hole pump; the difficulty in designing reliable down hole equipment; fouling of heat exchanger surfaces by geothermal fluids; the unavailability of condenser cooling water at most geothermal sites; the large portion of the available energy used by the feed pump in a binary system; the pinch effect, a loss in available energy in transferring heat from water to an organic fluid; flow losses in fluids that carry only a small amount of useful energy to begin with; high heat exchanger costs, the lower the temperature interval of the cycle, the higher the heat exchanger costs in $/kW; the complexity and cost of the many auxiliary elements of proposed geothermal plants; and the unfortunate cash flow vs. investment curve caused by the many years of investment required to bring a field into production before any income is realized.

  7. Economic study of low temperature geothermal energy in Lassen and Modoc Counties, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    The feasibility of using low cost, low temperature geothermal energy in job-producing industries to increase employment and encourage economic development was investigated. The study, encompassing all of Lassen and Modoc Counties, was to be site-specific, referencing candidate geothermal applications to known hot wells and springs as previously determined, or to new wells with specific characteristics as defined in the Scope of Work. The emphasis was to be placed on economically practical and readily achievable applications from known resources. Although both positive and negative findings were found in specific areas of investigation, it is felt that the overall long term prognosis for geothermal energy stimulus to industry in the area is excellent. The applications studied were; greenhouse heating, kiln drying, onion dehydration, feedlots, and aquaculture.

  8. An innovative ORC power plant layout for heat and power generation from medium- to low-temperature geothermal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiaschi, Daniele; Lifshitz, Adi; Manfrida, Giampaolo; Tempesti, Duccio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Explotation of medium temperature geothermal resource with ORC–CHP is investigated. • A new CHP configuration to provide higher temperature to thermal user is proposed. • Several organic fluids and wide range of heat demand are studied. • The system produces higher power (almost 55%) in comparison to typical layouts. • Optimal working fluids vary with the characteristics of the heat demand. - Abstract: Medium temperature (up to 170 °C), water dominated geothermal resources are the most widespread in the world. The binary geothermal-ORC power plants are the most suitable energy conversion systems for this kind of resource. Specifically, combined heat and power (CHP) systems have the potential to improve the efficiency in exploiting the geothermal resources by cascading the geothermal fluid heat carrier to successively lower temperature users, thus increasing first and second law efficiency of the entire power plant. However, geothermal CHPs usually extract heat from the geofluid either in parallel or in series to the ORC, and usually provide only low temperature heat, which is seldom suitable for industrial use. In this paper, a new CHP configuration, called Cross Parallel CHP, has been proposed and analyzed. It aims to provide higher temperature heat suitable for industrial use, allowing the exploitation of geothermal resources even in areas where district heating is not needed. The proposed CHP allows the reduction of the irreversibilities in the heat exchangers and the loss to the environment related to the re-injection of geofluid, thus producing higher electric power output while satisfying, at the same time, the heat demand of the thermal utility for a wide range of temperatures and mass flow rates (80–140 °C; 3–13 kg/s). Several organic fluids are investigated and the related optimizing working conditions are found by a built in procedure making use of genetic algorithms. The results show that the optimal working fluids and

  9. GIS to support cost-effective decisions on renewable sources applications for low temperature geothermal energy

    CERN Document Server

    Gemelli, Alberto; Diamantini, Claudia; Longhi, Sauro

    2013-01-01

    Through the results of a developed case study of information system for low temperature geothermal energy, GIS to Support Cost-effective Decisions on Renewable Sources addresses the issue of the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in evaluating cost-effectiveness of renewable resource exploitation regional scale. Focusing on the design of a Decision Support System, a process is presented aimed to transform geographic data into knowledge useful for analysis and decision-making on the economic exploitation of geothermal energy. This detailed description includes a literature review and technical issues related to data collection, data mining, decision analysis for the informative system developed for the case study. A multi-disciplinary approach to GIS design is presented which is also an innovative example of fusion of georeferenced data acquired from multiple sources including remote sensing, networks of sensors and socio-economic censuses. GIS to Support Cost-effective Decisions on Renewable Sources ...

  10. Utilization of low temperature geothermal water in traditional and advanced agricultural applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, L.; Pacciaroni, F.

    1992-01-01

    The locations of large amounts of low temperature geothermal sources (30 to 80 degrees C) have been identified in Italy and in many European countries; one of the most interesting utilization of these sources is greenhouse heating. Surplus investment in comparison with conventional heating systems is justified only by the application of low cost technologies for well completion, heating distribution and waste heat treatment. In the last few years, many efforts have been made in the development of these technologies and selection of more profitable crops. Since 1984, ENEA (Italian Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment) has carried out experimental work in two geothermal stations located in Canino (VT) and in Gorgo di Latisana (UD). In these plants, a number of greenhouses enveloped with plastic film are provided with different heating systems; the combination of soil and forced air heating is preferred. Plastic pipes, buried in the soil, are used as soil heating for horticulture and fruit production. For plot plant cultivation, soil heating is obtained by plastic pipes half-buried in a concrete floor. Asparagus cultivation is carried out with buried pipes. No additional heating with conventional fuel is provided in any greenhouse. During these years, ENEA has developed heating and water distribution technologies: current industrial components are generally utilized. Moreover, ENEA has recently completed an advanced automatic control system able to control geothermal greenhouses, manage water distribution, save energy and optimize environmental conditions

  11. Utilization of low temperature geothermal water in traditional and advanced agricultural applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, L.; Pacciaroni, F.

    1992-12-31

    The locations of large amounts of low temperature geothermal sources (30 to 80 degrees C) have been identified in Italy and in many European countries; one of the most interesting utilization of these sources is greenhouse heating. Surplus investment in comparison with conventional heating systems is justified only by the application of low cost technologies for well completion, heating distribution and waste heat treatment. In the last few years, many efforts have been made in the development of these technologies and selection of more profitable crops. Since 1984, ENEA (Italian Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment) has carried out experimental work in two geothermal stations located in Canino (VT) and in Gorgo di Latisana (UD). In these plants, a number of greenhouses enveloped with plastic film are provided with different heating systems; the combination of soil and forced air heating is preferred. Plastic pipes, buried in the soil, are used as soil heating for horticulture and fruit production. For plot plant cultivation, soil heating is obtained by plastic pipes half-buried in a concrete floor. Asparagus cultivation is carried out with buried pipes. No additional heating with conventional fuel is provided in any greenhouse. During these years, ENEA has developed heating and water distribution technologies: current industrial components are generally utilized. Moreover, ENEA has recently completed an advanced automatic control system able to control geothermal greenhouses, manage water distribution, save energy and optimize environmental conditions.

  12. Design and optimization of organic rankine cycle for low temperature geothermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barse, Kirtipal A.

    Rising oil prices and environmental concerns have increased attention to renewable energy. Geothermal energy is a very attractive source of renewable energy. Although low temperature resources (90°C to 150°C) are the most common and most abundant source of geothermal energy, they were not considered economical and technologically feasible for commercial power generation. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technology makes it feasible to use low temperature resources to generate power by using low boiling temperature organic liquids. The first hypothesis for this research is that using ORC is technologically and economically feasible to generate electricity from low temperature geothermal resources. The second hypothesis for this research is redesigning the ORC system for the given resource condition will improve efficiency along with improving economics. ORC model was developed using process simulator and validated with the data obtained from Chena Hot Springs, Alaska. A correlation was observed between the critical temperature of the working fluid and the efficiency for the cycle. Exergy analysis of the cycle revealed that the highest exergy destruction occurs in evaporator followed by condenser, turbine and working fluid pump for the base case scenarios. Performance of ORC was studied using twelve working fluids in base, Internal Heat Exchanger and turbine bleeding constrained and non-constrained configurations. R601a, R245ca, R600 showed highest first and second law efficiency in the non-constrained IHX configuration. The highest net power was observed for R245ca, R601a and R601 working fluids in the non-constrained base configuration. Combined heat exchanger area and size parameter of the turbine showed an increasing trend as the critical temperature of the working fluid decreased. The lowest levelized cost of electricity was observed for R245ca followed by R601a, R236ea in non-constrained base configuration. The next best candidates in terms of LCOE were R601a, R

  13. Potential of geothermal systems in Picardy

    OpenAIRE

    Dourlat, Estelle

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal systems are not only about electrical plants or urban heating networks, but also concerned with geothermal energy assisted with a heat pump. In the former region of Picardy (North of France), 97% of the territory is suitable for very low temperature geothermal power. The French Agency for the Environment and Energy Management and the Picardy Region decided in 2016 to finance a facilitator to encourage geothermal use. To carry out this aim, it is important to consider the geothermal...

  14. A renewable energy scenario for Aalborg Municipality based on low-temperature geothermal heat, wind power and biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Möller, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Aalborg Municipality, Denmark, wishes to investigate the possibilities of becoming independent of fossil fuels. This article describes a scenario for supplying Aalborg Municipality’s energy needs through a combination of low-temperature geothermal heat, wind power and biomass. Of particular focus...... in the scenario is how low-temperature geothermal heat may be utilised in district heating (DH) systems. The analyses show that it is possible to cover Aalborg Municipality’s energy needs through the use of locally available sources in combination with significant electricity savings, heat savings, reductions...... in industrial fuel use and savings and fuel-substitutions in the transport sector. With biomass resources being finite, the two marginal energy resources in Aalborg are geothermal heat and wind power. If geothermal heat is utilised more, wind power may be limited and vice versa. The system still relies...

  15. Selected data for low-temperature (less than 90{sup 0}C) geothermal systems in the United States: reference data for US Geological Survey Circular 892

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, M.J.; Mariner, R.H.; Brook, C.A.; Sorey, M.L.

    1983-12-15

    Supporting data are presented for the 1982 low-temperature geothermal resource assessment of the United States. Data are presented for 2072 geothermal sites which are representative of 1168 low-temperature geothermal systems identified in 26 States. The low-temperature geothermal systems consist of 978 isolated hydrothermal-convection systems, 148 delineated-area hydrothermal-convection systems, and 42 delineated-area conduction-dominated systems. The basic data and estimates of reservoir conditions are presented for each geothermal system, and energy estimates are given for the accessible resource base, resource, and beneficial heat for each isolated system.

  16. Low Temperature Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis For The Appalachian Basin: Phase 1 Revised Report November 18, 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Teresa E. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Richards, Maria C. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Horowitz, Franklin G. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Camp, Erin [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Smith, Jared D. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Whealton, Calvin A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Stedinger, Jery R. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Hornbach, Matthew J. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Frone, Zachary S. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Tester, Jefferson W. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Anderson, Brian [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Welcker, Kelydra [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Chickering Pace, Catherine [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); He, Xiaoning [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Magnani, Maria Beatrice [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Bolat, Rahmi [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-11-18

    Geothermal energy is an attractive sustainable energy source. Yet project developers need confirmation of the resource base to warrant their time and financial resources. The Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis of the Appalachian Basin evaluated risk metrics that communicate the favorability of potential low-temperature geothermal energy resources in reservoirs more than 1000 m below the surface. This analysis is focused on the direct use of the heat, rather than on electricity production. Four risk factors of concern for direct-use geothermal plays in the Appalachian Basin portions of New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia are examined individually, and then in combination: 1) thermal resource quality, 2) natural reservoir quality, 3) induced seismicity, and 4) utilization opportunities. Uncertainty in the risk estimation is quantified. Based on these metrics, geothermal plays in the Appalachian Basin were identified as potentially viable for a variety of direct-use-heat applications. The methodologies developed in this project may be applied in other sedimentary basins as a foundation for low temperature (50-150 °C), direct use geothermal resource, risk, and uncertainty assessment. Three methods with which to combine the four risk factors were used. Among these, the averaging of the individual risk factors indicates the most favorable counties within the study area are the West Virginia counties of Monongalia, Harrison, Lewis (dubbed the Morgantown–Clarksburg play fairway), Putnam, and Kanawha (Charleston play fairway), the New York counties of Chemung and Steuben plus adjacent Bradford county in Pennsylvania (Corning–Ithaca play fairway), and the Pennsylvania counties of Mercer, Crawford, Erie, and Warren, and adjacent Chautauqua county in New York (together, the Meadville–Jamestown play fairway). These higher priority regions are surrounded by broader medium priority zones. Also worthy of additional exploration is a broad region near Pittsburgh

  17. Hydrochemistry and geothermometrical modeling of low-temperature Panticosa geothermal system (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asta, Maria P.; Gimeno, Maria J.; Auqué, Luis F.; Gómez, Javier; Acero, Patricia; Lapuente, Pilar

    2012-08-01

    The chemical characteristics of the low-temperature geothermal system of Panticosa (Spain) were investigated in order to determine the water temperature at the reservoir and to identify the main geochemical processes that affect the water composition during the ascent of the thermal waters. In general, the studied waters are similar to other geothermal systems in the Pyrenees, belonging to the group of granite-related alkaline thermal waters (high pH, low total dissolved solids, very low magnesium concentration, and sodium as the dominant cation). According to the alkaline pH of these waters, they have a very low CO2 partial pressure, bicarbonate is the dominant anion and silica is partially ionized as H3SiO4-. The unusually active acid-base pairs (HCO3-/CO32 - and, mainly, H4SiO4/H3SiO4-) act as homogeneous pH buffers and contribute to the total alkalinity in these alkaline waters. On the basis of the study of the conservative elements, a mixing process between a hot and a cold end-member has been identified. Additionally, in order to determinate the water temperature at the reservoir, several geothermometric techniques have been applied, including both geothermometrical modeling and classical geothermometrical calculations. The geothermometrical modeling seems to indicate that thermal waters re-equilibrate with respect to calcite and kaolinite during their ascent to the surface. Modeling results suggest that these thermal waters would be in equilibrium with respect to albite, K-feldspar, quartz, calcite, kaolinite and zoisite at a similar temperature of 90 ± 20 °C in the reservoir, which is in good agreement with the results obtained by applying the classical geothermometers.

  18. Selection of working fluids for a novel low-temperature geothermally-powered ORC based cogeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, T.; Wang, H.X.; Zhang, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Performances of a novel cogeneration system using low-temperature geothermal sources under disturbance conditions were investigated. → It aimed at identifying appropriate fluids yielding high PPR and QQR values. → Fluids group presenting higher normal boiling point values showed averagely 7.7% higher PPR with a larger variation than QQR values under disturbance conditions. → Smaller T P value, higher η t value, higher geothermal source parameters and lower heating supply parameters led to higher PPR values but lower QQR values. -- Abstract: A novel cogeneration system driven by low-temperature geothermal sources was investigated in this study. This system consists of a low-temperature geothermally-powered organic Rankine cycle (ORC) subsystem, an intermediate heat exchanger and a commercial R134a-based heat pump subsystem. The main purpose is to identify appropriate fluids which may yield high PPR (the ratio of power produced by the power generation subsystem to power consumed by the heat pump subsystem) value and QQR (the ratio of heat supplied to the user to heat produced by the geothermal source) value. Performances of the novel cogeneration system under disturbance conditions have also been studied. Results indicate that fluids group presenting higher normal boiling point values shows averagely 7.7% higher PPR values and R236ea and R245ca outstand among the group. ΔT P (pinch temperature difference in heat exchangers) and η t (turbine efficiency) values play more important roles on the variation of PPR values. QQR values change slightly with various ΔT P , η t and η rp (refrigerant pump efficiency) values while the variation range is larger under various geothermal source and heating supply parameters. Smaller ΔT P value, higher η t value, higher geothermal source parameters and lower heating supply parameters lead to higher PPR values but lower QQR values.

  19. Low-Temperature Projects of the Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Program: Evaluation and Lessons Learned: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Tom; Snyder, Neil; Gosnold, Will

    2016-12-01

    This paper discusses opportunities and challenges related to the technical and economic feasibility of developing power generation from geothermal resources at temperatures of 150 degrees C and lower. Insights from projects funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Geothermal Technologies Office inform these discussions and provide the basis for some lessons learned to help guide decisions by DOE and the industry in further developing this resource. The technical basis for low-temperature geothermal energy is well established and the systems can be economic today in certain situations. However, these applications are far from a 'plug and play' product; successful development today requires a good knowledge of geothermal system design and operation.

  20. Low-Temperature Projects of the Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Program: Evaluation and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Tom; Snyder, Neil; Gosnold, Will

    2016-10-23

    This paper discusses opportunities and challenges related to the technical and economic feasibility of developing power generation from geothermal resources at temperatures of 150 degrees C and lower. Insights from projects funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Geothermal Technologies Office inform these discussions and provide the basis for some lessons learned to help guide decisions by DOE and the industry in further developing this resource. The technical basis for low-temperature geothermal energy is well established and the systems can be economic today in certain situations. However, these applications are far from a 'plug and play' product; successful development today requires a good knowledge of geothermal system design and operation.

  1. Low-temperature geothermal water in Utah: A compilation of data for thermal wells and springs through 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackett, R.E.

    1994-07-01

    The Geothermal Division of DOE initiated the Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources and Technology Transfer Program, following a special appropriation by Congress in 1991, to encourage wider use of lower-temperature geothermal resources through direct-use, geothermal heat-pump, and binary-cycle power conversion technologies. The Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT), the University of Utah Research Institute (UURI), and the Idaho Water Resources Research Institute organized the federally-funded program and enlisted the help of ten western states to carry out phase one. This first phase involves updating the inventory of thermal wells and springs with the help of the participating state agencies. The state resource teams inventory thermal wells and springs, and compile relevant information on each sources. OIT and UURI cooperatively administer the program. OIT provides overall contract management while UURI provides technical direction to the state teams. Phase one of the program focuses on replacing part of GEOTHERM by building a new database of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal systems for use on personal computers. For Utah, this involved (1) identifying sources of geothermal date, (2) designing a database structure, (3) entering the new date; (4) checking for errors, inconsistencies, and duplicate records; (5) organizing the data into reporting formats; and (6) generating a map (1:750,000 scale) of Utah showing the locations and record identification numbers of thermal wells and springs.

  2. Potential of low-temperature nuclear heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    At present, more than one third of the fossil fuel currently used is being consumed to produce space heating and to meet industrial needs in many countries of the world. Imported oil still represents a large portion of this fossil fuel and despite its present relatively low price future market evolutions with consequent upward cost revisions cannot be excluded. Thus the displacement of the fossil fuel by cheaper low-temperature heat produced in nuclear power plants is a matter which deserves careful consideration. Technico-economic studies in many countries have shown that the use of nuclear heat is fully competitive with most of fossil-fuelled plants, the higher investment costs being offset by lower production cost. Another point in favour of heat generation by nuclear source is its indisputable advantage in terms of benefits to the environment. The IAEA activity plans for 1985-86 concentrate on information exchange with specific emphasis on the design criteria, operating experience, safety requirements and specifications of heat-only reactors, co-generation plants and existing power plants backfitted for additional heat applications. The information gained up to 1985 was discussed during the Advisory Group Meeting on the Potential of Low-Temperature Nuclear Heat Applications held in the Federal Institute for Reactor Research, Wuerenlingen, Switzerland in September 1985 and, is included in the present Technical Document

  3. Bacterial corrosion in low-temperature geothermal. Mechanisms of corrosion by sulphate-reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daumas, Sylvie

    1987-01-01

    Within the frame of researches aimed at determining the causes of damages noticed on geothermal equipment, this research thesis aims at assessing the respective importance of physical-chemical processes and bacterial intervention in corrosion phenomena. It proposes an ecological approach of the fluid sampled in the Creil geothermal power station. The aim is to define the adaptation and activity degree of isolated sulphate-reducing bacteria with respect to their environment conditions. The author studied the effect of the development of these bacteria on the corrosion of carbon steel used in geothermal. Thus, he proposes a contribution to the understanding of mechanisms related to iron attack by these bacteria. Electrochemical techniques have been adapted to biological processes and used to measure corrosion [fr

  4. Evaluation of the environmental sustainability of a micro CHP system fueled by low-temperature geothermal and solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzzenenti, Franco; Bravi, Mirko; Tempesti, Duccio; Salvatici, Enrica; Manfrida, Giampaolo; Basosi, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Binary, ORC technology avoids CO 2 , but raises questions about environmental impact. • We proposed a micro-size system that combines geothermal energy with solar energy. • The small scale and the solar energy input edges the energy profitability. • The system’s performance is appreciable if applied to existing wells. • The feasibility of exploiting abandoned wells is preliminarily evaluated. - Abstract: In this paper we evaluate the environmental sustainability of a small combined heat and power (CHP) plant operating through an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). The heat sources of the system are from geothermal energy at low temperature (90–95 °C) and solar energy. The designed system uses a solar field composed only of evacuated, non-concentrating solar collectors, and work is produced by a single turbine of 50 kW. The project addresses an area of Tuscany, but it could be reproduced in areas where geothermal energy is extensively developed. Therefore, the aim is to exploit existing wells that are either unfit for high-enthalpy technology, abandoned or never fully developed. Furthermore, this project aims to aid in downsizing the geothermal technology in order to reduce the environmental impact and better tailor the production system to the local demand of combined electric and thermal energy. The environmental impact assessment was performed through a Life Cycle Analysis and an Exergy Life Cycle Analysis. According to our findings the reservoir is suitable for a long-term exploitation of the designed system, however, the sustainability and the energy return of this latter is edged by the surface of the heat exchanger and the limited running hours due to the solar plant. Therefore, in order to be comparable to other renewable resources or geothermal systems, the system needs to develop existing wells, previously abandoned

  5. Potential market and characteristics of low-temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerouge, B.

    1975-01-01

    The low-temperature (100 to 200 deg C) heat market for industrial applications and district heating is very important. Two main studies have been developed: a swimming pool reactor delivering water at 110 deg C and a prestressed concrete vessel reactor delivering water at 200 deg C [fr

  6. Geothermal Direct Heat Application Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J

    1989-01-01

    The geothermal direct-use industry growth trends, potential, needs, and how they can be met, are addressed. Recent investigations about the current status of the industry and the identification of institutional and technical needs provide the basis on which this paper is presented. Initial drilling risk is the major obstacle to direct-use development. The applications presented include space and district heating projects, heat pumps (heating and cooling), industrial processes, resorts and pools, aquaculture and agriculture.

  7. Low-Temperature Enhanced Geothermal System using Carbon Dioxide as the Heat-Transfer Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastman, Alan D. [GreenFire Energy, Emeryville, CA (United States)

    2014-07-24

    This report describes work toward a supercritical CO2-based EGS system at the St. Johns Dome in Eastern Arizona, including a comprehensive literature search on CO2-based geothermal technologies, background seismic study, geological information, and a study of the possible use of metal oxide heat carriers to enhance the heat capacity of sCO2. It also includes cost estimates for the project, and the reasons why the project would probably not be cost effective at the proposed location.

  8. Techno-Economic Analysis of Integration of Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources for Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearden, Mark D.; Davidson, Casie L.; Horner, Jacob A.; Heldebrant, David J.; Freeman, Charles J.

    2016-05-11

    Presented here are the results of a techno-economic (TEA) study of the potential for coupling low-grade geothermal resources to boost the electrical output from coal-fired power plants. This study includes identification of candidate 500 MW subcritical coal-fired power plants in the continental United States, followed by down-selection and characterization of the North Valmy generating station, a Nevada coal-fired plant. Based on site and plant characteristics, ASPEN Plus models were designed to evaluate options to integrate geothermal resources directly into existing processes at North Valmy. Energy outputs and capital costing are presented for numerous hybrid strategies, including integration with Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs), which currently represent the primary technology for baseload geothermal power generation.

  9. Status report on direct heat and low temperature utilization of geothermal energy in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumb, J.T.; Clelland, L.

    1990-01-01

    The Tasman Pulp and Paper Company's mill at Kawerau continues to be the dominant direct user of geothermal energy in New Zealand. Recent plant changes have increased the effectiveness of the company's use of the resource. Other uses are relatively small in scale and include air and water heating for homes, motels and other commercial and industrial premises. Commercial swimming-pool complexes and pools at hotels, motels and private homes are the other major direct users. This paper reports that overall direct use of the resource has shown a slow increase during the last five years except at Rotorua where the enforced closure of bores has led to more than 70% reduction in use

  10. Parametric Analysis of the feasibility of low-temperature geothermal heat recovery in sedimentary basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomac, I.; Caulk, R.

    2016-12-01

    The current study explored the feasibility of heat recovery through the installation of heat exchangers in abandoned oil and gas wells. Finite Element Methods (FEM) were employed to determine the effects of various site specific parameters on production fluid temperature. Specifically, the study parameterized depth of well, subsurface temperature gradient, sedimentary rock conductivity, and flow rate. Results show that greater well depth is associated with greater heat flow, with the greatest returns occurring between depths of 1.5 km and 7 km. Beyond 7 km, the rate of return decreases due to a non-linear increase of heat flow combined with a continued linear increase of pumping cost. One cause for the drop of heat flow was the loss of heat as the fluid travels from depth to the surface. Further analyses demonstrated the benefit of an alternative heat exchanger configuration characterized by thermally insulated sections of the upward heat exchanger. These simulations predict production fluid temperature gains between 5 - 10 oC, which may be suitable for geothermal heat pump applications.

  11. World status of geothermal energy use: past and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, John

    2000-01-01

    The past and potential development of geothermal energy is reviewed, and the use of geothermal energy for power generation and direct heat utilisation is examined. The energy savings that geothermal energy provides in terms of fuel oil and carbon savings are discussed. Worldwide development of geothermal electric power (1940-2000) and direct heat utilisation (1960 to 2000), regional geothermal use in 2000, the national geothermal contributions of geothermal energy, and the installed geothermal electric generating capacities in 2000 are tabulated

  12. Low temperature geothermal energy applications in the Albuquerque area. Final report, July 1, 1978-August 18, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffman, D.; Houghton, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made of the engineering and economic feasibility of hot water geothermal energy applications in the Albuquerque area. A generalized system design was developed and used as the basis for a series of economic case studies. Reservoir and user siting considerations were studied in light of the economic findings. Several specific potential applications were identified, including university campuses, industrial and commercial facilities, and residential buildings. Specific key technical problems relating to Albuquerque area applications were studied. These included environmental impacts, corrosion, scaling, heat losses in wells and transmission lines, heat exchangers, control systems, and system utilization and reliability. It is concluded that geothermal energy could be competitive with other energy sources for space heating and limited industrial use for moderate to large (10 million Btu/hr or more) energy using systems.

  13. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  14. Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Ground source geothermal energy enables one to tap into the earth's stored renewable energy for heating and cooling facilities. Proper application of ground-source geothermal technology can have a dramatic impact on the efficiency and financial performance of building energy utilization (30%+). At the same time, using this alternative energy…

  15. Assessment of the Appalachian Basin Geothermal Field: Combining Risk Factors to Inform Development of Low Temperature Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. D.; Whealton, C.; Camp, E. R.; Horowitz, F.; Frone, Z. S.; Jordan, T. E.; Stedinger, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Exploration methods for deep geothermal energy projects must primarily consider whether or not a location has favorable thermal resources. Even where the thermal field is favorable, other factors may impede project development and success. A combined analysis of these factors and their uncertainty is a strategy for moving geothermal energy proposals forward from the exploration phase at the scale of a basin to the scale of a project, and further to design of geothermal systems. For a Department of Energy Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis we assessed quality metrics, which we call risk factors, in the Appalachian Basin of New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. These included 1) thermal field variability, 2) productivity of natural reservoirs from which to extract heat, 3) potential for induced seismicity, and 4) presence of thermal utilization centers. The thermal field was determined using a 1D heat flow model for 13,400 bottomhole temperatures (BHT) from oil and gas wells. Steps included the development of i) a set of corrections to BHT data and ii) depth models of conductivity stratigraphy at each borehole based on generalized stratigraphy that was verified for a select set of wells. Wells are control points in a spatial statistical analysis that resulted in maps of the predicted mean thermal field properties and of the standard error of the predicted mean. Seismic risk was analyzed by comparing earthquakes and stress orientations in the basin to gravity and magnetic potential field edges at depth. Major edges in the potential fields served as interpolation boundaries for the thermal maps (Figure 1). Natural reservoirs were identified from published studies, and productivity was determined based on the expected permeability and dimensions of each reservoir. Visualizing the natural reservoirs and population centers on a map of the thermal field communicates options for viable pilot sites and project designs (Figure 1). Furthermore, combining the four risk

  16. Direct use of low temperature geothermal water by Aquafarms International, Inc. for freshwater aquaculture (prawns and associated species). An operations and maintenance manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broughton, R.; Price, M.; Price, V.; Grajcer, D.

    1984-04-01

    In connection with an ongoing commercial aquaculture project in the Coachella Valley, California; a twelve month prawn growout demonstration project was conducted. This project began in August, 1979 and involved the use of low temperature (85/sup 0/F) geothermal waters to raise freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (deMan), in earthen ponds. The following publication is an operations and maintenance guide which may by useful for those interested in conducting similar enterprises.

  17. Effect of the potential well on low temperature pressure broadening in CO-He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, A.; Green, S.

    1986-01-01

    Previously reported low-temperature pressure-broadening calculations (Green, 1985) for CO-He interacting via an SCF-CI potential are compared with new calculations in which the attractive part of the potential is either reduced by half or eliminated entirely. Results demonstrate that the attractive well is responsible for low-temperature enhancement of pressure-broadening cross sections and suggest that agreement with recent experimental values at 4 K (Messer and DeLucia, 1984) can be obtained by a modest reduction, probably within the expected uncertainty, in the attractive part of the SCF-CI potential.

  18. Classification of geothermal resources by potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybach, L.

    2015-03-01

    When considering and reporting resources, the term "geothermal potential" is often used without clearly stating what kind of potential is meant. For renewable energy resources it is nowadays common to use different potentials: theoretical, technical, economic, sustainable, developable - decreasing successively in size. In such a sequence, the potentials are progressively realizable and more and more rewarding financially. The theoretical potential describes the physically present energy, the technical potential the fraction of this energy that can be used by currently available technology and the economic potential the time- and location-dependent fraction of the previous category; the sustainable potential constrains the fraction of the economic potential that can be utilized in the long term; the developable potential is the fraction of the economic resource which can be developed under realistic conditions. In converting theoretical to technical potential, the recovery factor (the ratio extractable heat/heat present at depth) is of key importance. An example (global geothermal resources) is given, with numerical values of the various potentials. The proposed classification could and should be used as a kind of general template for future geothermal energy resources reporting.

  19. Analysis of the Potential of Low-Temperature Heat Pump Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Neuberger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an analysis of temperatures of ground masses in the proximities of linear and slinky-type HGHE (horizontal ground heat exchanger. It evaluates and compares the potentials of HGHEs and ambient air. The reason and aim of the verification was to gain knowledge of the temperature course of the monitored low-temperature heat pump energy sources during heating periods and periods of stagnation and to analyse the knowledge in terms of the potential to use those sources for heat pumps. The study was conducted in the years 2012–2015 during three heating periods and three periods of HGHEs stagnation. The results revealed that linear HGHE had the highest temperature potential of the observed low-temperature heat pump energy sources. The average daily temperatures of the ground mass surrounding the linear HGHE were the highest ranging from 7.08 °C to 9.20 °C during the heating periods, and having the lowest temperature variation range of 12.62–15.14 K, the relative frequency of the average daily temperatures of the ground mass being the highest at 22.64% in the temperature range containing the mode of all monitored temperatures in a recorded interval of [4.10, 6.00] °C. Ambient air had lower temperature potential than the monitored HGHEs.

  20. Summary of the 2010 assessment on medium- to low-temperature geothermal resources in Mexico; Resumen de la evaluacion 2010 de los recursos geotermicos mexicanos de temperatura intermedia a baja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, Eduardo R.; Torres, Rodolfo J.; Martinez Estrella, J. Ignacio; Reyes Picasso, Neftali [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: iglesias@iie.org.mx

    2011-07-15

    In 2003 we published our first assessment of the medium- to low-temperature (T {<=} 200 degrees Celsius) Mexican geothermal resources. The assessment was based on a database of 1,358 geothermal manifestations (surface manifestations, e.g. springs, fumaroles, water wells, etc.) identified at that time. Due to a lack of information on one or more relevant parameters, such as geographical coordinates, reservoir or surface temperatures, types of fluid, etc., that assessment included only about 30% of the geothermal manifestations in the database. Since then our group has increased significantly the amount of information in the database, using field work and data compilation from different sources. We have developed a database linked with a Geographical Information System (GIS). This work presents an updated assessment of the medium- to low-temperature Mexican geothermal resources based on our current database, which includes 2,361 geothermal manifestations. As before, we have relied on the volume method and Montecarlo simulations to estimate geothermal resources and their uncertainties for each identified geothermal system. These geothermal systems very often include more than one geothermal manifestation, generally increasing the reliability of the individual estimations. In all, we estimated the geothermal resources of 918 individual geothermal systems which included 1,797 geothermal manifestations (as before, a significant fraction of the identified manifestations lack relevant information) located in 26 of the 32 Mexican States. In most cases these resources would be classified as inferred resources, according to the Australian Geothermal Code. We then added the inferred thermal-energy statistical distributions of the 918 geothermal systems by Montecarlo simulation, obtaining the total estimated geothermal resources of the 26 Mexican States and its uncertainty. With the resulting statistical distribution, we estimated the total-thermal energy stored in the 918

  1. Geothermal Power Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montagud, Maria E. Mondejar; Chamorro, C.R.

    2017-01-01

    Although geothermal energy has been widely deployed for direct use in locations with especial geologic manifestations, its potential for power generation has been traditionally underestimated. Recent technology developments in drilling techniques and power conversion technologies from low......-temperature heat resources are bringing geothermal energy to the spotlight as a renewable baseload energy option for a sustainable energy mix. Although the environmental impact and economic viability of geothermal exploitation must be carefully evaluated for each case, the use of deep low-temperature geothermal...... reservoirs could soon become an important contributor to the energy generation around the world....

  2. A numerical analysis of a composition-adjustable Kalina cycle power plant for power generation from low-temperature geothermal sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Enhua; Yu, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A composition-adjustable Kalina cycle is analysed and presented. • An air-cooled condenser is used and thermodynamic performance is analysed. • Composition adjustment can improve system performance significantly. - Abstract: The Kalina cycle is believed to be one of the most promising technologies for power generation from low temperature heat sources such as geothermal energy. So far, most Kalina cycle power plants are designed with a working fluid mixture having a fixed composition, and thus normally operate at a fixed condensing temperature. However, the ambient temperature (i.e., heat sink) varies over a large range as the season changes over a year, particularly in continental climates. Recently, a new concept, i.e., composition-adjustable Kalina cycle, was proposed to develop power plants that can match their condensing temperature with the changing ambient conditions, aiming at improving the cycle’s overall thermal efficiency. However, no detailed analysis of its implementation and the potential benefits under various climate conditions has been reported. For this reason, this paper carried out a comprehensive numerical research on its implementation and performance analysis under several different climate conditions. A mathematical model is firstly established to simulate the working principle of a composition-adjustable Kalina cycle, based on which a numerical program is then developed to analyse the cycle’s performance under various climate conditions. The developed numerical model is verified with some published data. The dynamic composition adjustment in response to the changing ambient temperature is simulated to evaluate its effect on the plant’s performance over a year. The results show that a composition-adjustable Kalina cycle could achieve higher annual-average thermal efficiency than a conventional one with a fixed mixture composition. However, such an improvement of thermal efficiency strongly depends on the heat source

  3. Low temperature geothermal systems in carbonate-evaporitic rocks: Mineral equilibria assumptions and geothermometrical calculations. Insights from the Arnedillo thermal waters (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Mónica; Gimeno, María J; Auqué, Luis F

    2018-02-15

    Geothermometrical calculations in low-medium temperature geothermal systems hosted in carbonate-evaporitic rocks are complicated because 1) some of the classical chemical geothermometers are, usually, inadequate (since they were developed for higher temperature systems with different mineral-water equilibria at depth) and 2) the chemical geothermometers calibrated for these systems (based on the Ca and Mg or SO 4 and F contents) are not free of problems either. The case study of the Arnedillo thermal system, a carbonate-evaporitic system of low temperature, will be used to deal with these problems through the combination of several geothermometrical techniques (chemical and isotopic geothermometers and geochemical modelling). The reservoir temperature of the Arnedillo geothermal system has been established to be in the range of 87±13°C being the waters in equilibrium with respect to calcite, dolomite, anhydrite, quartz, albite, K-feldspar and other aluminosilicates. Anhydrite and quartz equilibria are highly reliable to stablish the reservoir temperature. Additionally, the anhydrite equilibrium explains the coherent results obtained with the δ 18 O anhydrite - water geothermometer. The equilibrium with respect to feldspars and other aluminosilicates is unusual in carbonate-evaporitic systems and it is probably related to the presence of detrital material in the aquifer. The identification of the expected equilibria with calcite and dolomite presents an interesting problem associated to dolomite. Variable order degrees of dolomite can be found in natural systems and this fact affects the associated equilibrium temperature in the geothermometrical modelling and also the results from the Ca-Mg geothermometer. To avoid this uncertainty, the order degree of the dolomite present in the Arnedillo reservoir has been determined and the results indicate 18.4% of ordered dolomite and 81.6% of disordered dolomite. Overall, the results suggest that this multi

  4. Geothermal Energy: Delivering on the Global Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L. Younger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy has been harnessed for recreational uses for millennia, but only for electricity generation for a little over a century. Although geothermal is unique amongst renewables for its baseload and renewable heat provision capabilities, uptake continues to lag far behind that of solar and wind. This is mainly attributable to (i uncertainties over resource availability in poorly-explored reservoirs and (ii the concentration of full-lifetime costs into early-stage capital expenditure (capex. Recent advances in reservoir characterization techniques are beginning to narrow the bounds of exploration uncertainty, both by improving estimates of reservoir geometry and properties, and by providing pre-drilling estimates of temperature at depth. Advances in drilling technologies and management have potential to significantly lower initial capex, while operating expenditure is being further reduced by more effective reservoir management—supported by robust models—and increasingly efficient energy conversion systems (flash, binary and combined-heat-and-power. Advances in characterization and modelling are also improving management of shallow low-enthalpy resources that can only be exploited using heat-pump technology. Taken together with increased public appreciation of the benefits of geothermal, the technology is finally ready to take its place as a mainstream renewable technology, exploited far beyond its traditional confines in the world’s volcanic regions.

  5. Performance comparison and parametric optimization of subcritical Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) and transcritical power cycle system for low-temperature geothermal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shengjun, Zhang; Huaixin, Wang; Tao, Guo

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We conduct the thermodynamic and economic performance comparison of the fluids in both subcritical ORC and transcritical power cycle. → We perform parameter optimization based on five indicators. → The optimum operation parameters and working fluids are not the same for different indicators. → The LEC value is used as the determining factor for fluids screening. → The transcritical power cycle with R125 as the working fluid was a cost-effective approach. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a promising technology for converting the low-grade energy to electricity. This paper presents an investigation on the parameter optimization and performance comparison of the fluids in subcritical ORC and transcritical power cycle in low-temperature (i.e. 80-100 o C) binary geothermal power system. The optimization procedure was conducted with a simulation program written in Matlab using five indicators: thermal efficiency, exergy efficiency, recovery efficiency, heat exchanger area per unit power output (APR) and the levelized energy cost (LEC). With the given heat source and heat sink conditions, performances of the working fluids were evaluated and compared under their optimized internal operation parameters. The optimum cycle design and the corresponding operation parameters were provided simultaneously. The results indicate that the choice of working fluid varies the objective function and the value of the optimized operation parameters are not all the same for different indicators. R123 in subcritical ORC system yields the highest thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency of 11.1% and 54.1%, respectively. Although the thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency of R125 in transcritical cycle is 46.4% and 20% lower than that of R123 in subcritical ORC, it provides 20.7% larger recovery efficiency. And the LEC value is relatively low. Moreover, 22032L petroleum is saved and 74,019 kg CO 2 is reduced per year when the LEC value is used as

  6. Assessing geothermal energy potential in upstate New York. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, D.S. [SUNY, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The potential of geothermal energy for future electric power generation in New York State is evaluated using estimates of temperatures of geothermal reservoir rocks. Bottom hole temperatures from over 2000 oil and gas wells in the region were integrated into subsurface maps of the temperatures for specific geothermal reservoirs. The Theresa/Potsdam formation provides the best potential for extraction of high volumes of geothermal fluids. The evaluation of the Theresa/Potsdam geothermal reservoir in upstate New York suggests that an area 30 miles east of Elmira, New York has the highest temperatures in the reservoir rock. The Theresa/Potsdam reservoir rock should have temperatures about 136 {degrees}C and may have as much as 450 feet of porosity in excess of 8%. Estimates of the volumes of geothermal fluids that can be extracted are provided and environmental considerations for production from a geothermal well is discussed.

  7. Exergetic and economic comparison of ORC and Kalina cycle for low temperature enhanced geothermal system in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Rodríguez, Carlos Eymel; Escobar Palacio, José Carlos; Venturini, Osvaldo J.; Silva Lora, Electo E.; Cobas, Vladimir Melián; Marques dos Santos, Daniel; Lofrano Dotto, Fábio R.; Gialluca, Vernei

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the thermodynamic analysis, of both the first and second law of thermodynamic of two different technologies, (ORC and Kalina cycle) for power production through an enhanced geothermal system (EGS). In order to find a better performance of both thermal cycles it were evaluated 15 different working fluids for ORC and three different composition of the ammonia–water mixture for the Kalina cycle. In this work, the Aspen-HYSYS software was used to simulate both thermal cycles and to calculate the thermodynamic properties based on Peng–Robinson Stryjek–Vera (PRSV) Equation of State (EoS). At the end the two cycles was compared using an economic analysis with the fluid that offers the best performance for each thermal cycle which are R-290 for ORC and for Kalina cycle a composition of the mixture of 84% of ammonia mass fraction and 16% of water mass fraction. For this conditions the Kalina cycle produce 18% more net power than the ORC. A levelized electricity costs of 0.22 €/kW h was reached for ORC and 0.18 €/kW h for Kalina cycle. Finally a sensitivity analysis of the EGS LCOE was carried out for a few economic parameters to determinate how is the variation of LCOE for a % change from the base case. -- Highlights: ► The aim of this paper is to compare both cycles (ORC and Kalina). ► Kalina cycle offer 18% more net power than ORC and require 37% less mass flow rate. ► It was obtained 17.8% lower levelized electricity costs for Kalina cycle over the ORC

  8. Exergetic and economic comparison of ORC and Kalina cycle for low temperature enhanced geothermal system in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Rodríguez, Carlos Eymel, E-mail: eymelcampos@hotmail.com [Federal University of Itajuba (UNIFEI), Mechanical Engineering Institute – IEM, Excellence Group in Thermal Power and Distributed Generation (NEST), Minas Gerais (Brazil); Escobar Palacio, José Carlos; Venturini, Osvaldo J.; Silva Lora, Electo E.; Cobas, Vladimir Melián [Federal University of Itajuba (UNIFEI), Mechanical Engineering Institute – IEM, Excellence Group in Thermal Power and Distributed Generation (NEST), Minas Gerais (Brazil); Marques dos Santos, Daniel, E-mail: danielmarques.Santos@aes.com [AES Tietê, Bauru, São Paulo (Brazil); Lofrano Dotto, Fábio R., E-mail: fabio@farolconsultoria.com.br [FAROL Pesquisa, Desenvolvimento e Consultoria (Brazil); Gialluca, Vernei [Gênera Serviços e Comércio LTDA (Brazil)

    2013-04-05

    This paper deals with the thermodynamic analysis, of both the first and second law of thermodynamic of two different technologies, (ORC and Kalina cycle) for power production through an enhanced geothermal system (EGS). In order to find a better performance of both thermal cycles it were evaluated 15 different working fluids for ORC and three different composition of the ammonia–water mixture for the Kalina cycle. In this work, the Aspen-HYSYS software was used to simulate both thermal cycles and to calculate the thermodynamic properties based on Peng–Robinson Stryjek–Vera (PRSV) Equation of State (EoS). At the end the two cycles was compared using an economic analysis with the fluid that offers the best performance for each thermal cycle which are R-290 for ORC and for Kalina cycle a composition of the mixture of 84% of ammonia mass fraction and 16% of water mass fraction. For this conditions the Kalina cycle produce 18% more net power than the ORC. A levelized electricity costs of 0.22 €/kW h was reached for ORC and 0.18 €/kW h for Kalina cycle. Finally a sensitivity analysis of the EGS LCOE was carried out for a few economic parameters to determinate how is the variation of LCOE for a % change from the base case. -- Highlights: ► The aim of this paper is to compare both cycles (ORC and Kalina). ► Kalina cycle offer 18% more net power than ORC and require 37% less mass flow rate. ► It was obtained 17.8% lower levelized electricity costs for Kalina cycle over the ORC.

  9. Characterizing U.S. Heat Demand for Potential Application of Geothermal Direct Use: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Kevin; Gleason, Michael; Reber, Tim; Young, Katherine R.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we assess the U.S. demand for low-temperature thermal energy at the county resolution for four major end-use sectors: residential buildings, commercial buildings, manufacturing facilities, and agricultural facilities. Existing, publicly available data on the U.S. thermal demand market are characterized by coarse spatial resolution, with assessments typically at the state-level or larger. For many uses, these data are sufficient; however, our research was motivated by an interest in assessing the potential demand for direct use (DU) of low-temperature (30 degrees to 150 degrees C) geothermal heat. The availability and quality of geothermal resources for DU applications are highly spatially heterogeneous; therefore, to assess the potential market for these resources, it is necessary to understand the spatial variation in demand for low-temperature resources at a local resolution. This paper presents the datasets and methods we used to develop county-level estimates of the thermal demand for the residential, commercial, manufacturing, and agricultural sectors. Although this analysis was motivated by an interest in geothermal energy deployment, the results are likely to have broader applications throughout the energy industry. The county-resolution thermal demand data developed in this study for four major U.S. sectors may have far-reaching implications for building technologies, industrial processes, and various distributed renewable energy thermal resources (e.g. biomass, solar).

  10. Characterizing U.S. Heat Demand Market for Potential Application of Geothermal Direct Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Kevin; Gleason, Michael; Reber, Tim; Young, Katherine R.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we assess the U.S. demand for low-temperature thermal energy at the county resolution for four major end-use sectors: residential buildings, commercial buildings, manufacturing facilities, and agricultural facilities. Existing, publicly available data on the U.S. thermal demand market are characterized by coarse spatial resolution, with assessments typically at the state-level or larger. For many uses, these data are sufficient; however, our research was motivated by an interest in assessing the potential demand for direct use (DU) of low-temperature (30 degrees to 150 degrees C) geothermal heat. The availability and quality of geothermal resources for DU applications are highly spatially heterogeneous; therefore, to assess the potential market for these resources, it is necessary to understand the spatial variation in demand for low-temperature resources at a local resolution. This paper presents the datasets and methods we used to develop county-level estimates of the thermal demand for the residential, commercial, manufacturing, and agricultural sectors. Although this analysis was motivated by an interest in geothermal energy deployment, the results are likely to have broader applications throughout the energy industry. The county-resolution thermal demand data developed in this study for four major U.S. sectors may have far-reaching implications for building technologies, industrial processes, and various distributed renewable energy thermal resources (e.g. biomass, solar).

  11. Geothermal system 'Toplets' and geothermal potential of Dojran region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakashev, Deljo; Delipetrov, Marjan; Jovanov, Kosta

    2008-01-01

    The Toplets geothermal spring that expands into a wide geothermal net in the watershed of Lake Dojran along the geophysical exploration work carried out in the terrain, indicated the presence of a significant geothermal potential in the region. In the future it may become the major factor for the development of vegetable growing, the use of the medicinal properties of the mineral spas and tourism as well as the prosperity of the region. Water temperature in Lake Dojran amounts 15°C to 28°C during the year that is mach higher compared with the temperature of water lakes in neighbouring Greece. This indicates that beneath Lake Dojran there are other geothermal sources that replenish the lake with thermal water. Such manifestations of geothermal energy in the region along with other thermal phenomena speak for the presence of large reserves of geothermal energy in the Dojran depression. (Author)

  12. Geothermal system 'Toplets' and geothermal potential of Dojran region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakashev, Deljo; Delipetrov, Marjan; Jovanov, Kosta

    2007-01-01

    The Toplets geothermal spring that expands into a wide geothermal net in the watershed of Lake Dojran along the geophysical exploration work carried out in the terrain, indicated the presence of a significant geothermal potential in the region. In the future it may become the major factor for the development of vegetable growing, the use of the medicinal properties of the mineral spas and tourism as well as the prosperity of the region. Water temperature in Lake Dojran amounts 15°C to 28°C during the year that is mach higher compared with the temperature of water lakes in neighbouring Greece. This indicates that beneath Lake Dojran there are other geothermal sources that replenish the lake with thermal water. Such manifestations of geothermal energy in the region along with other thermal phenomena speak for the presence of large reserves of geothermal energy in the Dojran depression. (Author)

  13. The Potential for Low-Temperature Abiotic Hydrogen Generation and a Hydrogen-Driven Deep Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shanshan; Thorseth, Ingunn H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The release and oxidation of ferrous iron during aqueous alteration of the mineral olivine is known to reduce aqueous solutions to such extent that molecular hydrogen, H2, forms. H2 is an efficient energy carrier and is considered basal to the deep subsurface biosphere. Knowledge of the potential for H2 generation is therefore vital to understanding the deep biosphere on Earth and on extraterrestrial bodies. Here, we provide a review of factors that may reduce the potential for H2 generation with a focus on systems in the core temperature region for thermophilic to hyperthermophilic microbial life. We show that aqueous sulfate may inhibit the formation of H2, whereas redox-sensitive compounds of carbon and nitrogen are unlikely to have significant effect at low temperatures. In addition, we suggest that the rate of H2 generation is proportional to the dissolution rate of olivine and, hence, limited by factors such as reactive surface areas and the access of water to fresh surfaces. We furthermore suggest that the availability of water and pore/fracture space are the most important factors that limit the generation of H2. Our study implies that, because of large heat flows, abundant olivine-bearing rocks, large thermodynamic gradients, and reduced atmospheres, young Earth and Mars probably offered abundant systems where microbial life could possibly have emerged. Key Words: Serpentinization—Olivine—Hydrogen—Deep biosphere—Water—Mars. Astrobiology 11, 711–724. PMID:21923409

  14. Synergy potential for oil and geothermal energy exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziabakhsh-Ganji, Zaman; Nick, Hamidreza M.; Donselaar, Marinus E.

    2018-01-01

    A new solution for harvesting energy simultaneously from two different sources of energy by combining geothermal energy production and thermal enhanced heavy oil recovery is introduced. Numerical simulations are employed to evaluate the feasibility of generating energy from geothermal resources...... and feasibility analyses of the synergy potential of thermally-enhanced oil recovery and geothermal energy production are performed. A series of simulations are carried out to examine the effects of reservoir properties on energy consumption and oil recovery for different injection rates and injection temperature...... the geothermal energy could make the geothermal business case independent and may be a viable option to reduce the overall project cost. Furthermore, the results display that the enhance oil productions are able to reduce the required subsidy for a single doublet geothermal project up to 50%....

  15. Volcanostratigraphic Approach for Evaluation of Geothermal Potential in Galunggung Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhan, Q. S.; Sianipar, J. Y.; Pratopo, A. K.

    2016-09-01

    he geothermal systems in Indonesia are primarily associated with volcanoes. There are over 100 volcanoes located on Sumatra, Java, and in the eastern part of Indonesia. Volcanostratigraphy is one of the methods that is used in the early stage for the exploration of volcanic geothermal system to identify the characteristics of the volcano. The stratigraphy of Galunggung Volcano is identified based on 1:100.000 scale topographic map of Tasikmalaya sheet, 1:50.000 scale topographic map and also geological map. The schematic flowchart for evaluation of geothermal exploration is used to interpret and evaluate geothermal potential in volcanic regions. Volcanostratigraphy study has been done on Galunggung Volcano and Talaga Bodas Volcano, West Java, Indonesia. Based on the interpretation of topographic map and analysis of the dimension, rock composition, age and stress regime, we conclude that both Galunggung Volcano and Talaga Bodas Volcano have a geothermal resource potential that deserve further investigation.

  16. Realizing the geothermal electricity potential-water use and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Gouri Shankar; Yeh, Sonia; Glassley, William E

    2011-01-01

    Electricity from geothermal resources has the potential to supply a significant portion of US baseload electricity. We estimate the water requirements of geothermal electricity and the impact of potential scaling up of such electricity on water demand in various western states with rich geothermal resources but stressed water resources. Freshwater, degraded water, and geothermal fluid requirements are estimated explicitly. In general, geothermal electricity has higher water intensity (l kWh -1 ) than thermoelectric or solar thermal electricity. Water intensity decreases with increase in resource enthalpy, and freshwater gets substituted by degraded water at higher resource temperatures. Electricity from enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) could displace 8-100% of thermoelectricity generated in most western states. Such displacement would increase stress on water resources if re-circulating evaporative cooling, the dominant cooling system in the thermoelectric sector, is adopted. Adoption of dry cooling, which accounts for 78% of geothermal capacity today, will limit changes in state-wide freshwater abstraction, but increase degraded water requirements. We suggest a research and development focus to develop advanced energy conversion and cooling technologies that reduce water use without imposing energy and consequent financial penalties. Policies should incentivize the development of higher enthalpy resources, and support identification of non-traditional degraded water sources and optimized siting of geothermal plants.

  17. A snapshot of geothermal energy potential and utilization in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    Turkey is one of the countries with significant potential in geothermal energy. It is estimated that if Turkey utilizes all of her geothermal potential, she can meet 14% of her total energy need (heat and electricity) from geothermal sources. Therefore, today geothermal energy is an attractive option in Turkey to replace fossil fuels. Besides, increase in negative effects of fossil fuels on the environment has forced many countries, including Turkey, to use renewable energy sources. Also, Turkey is an energy importing country; more than two-thirds of her energy requirement is supplied by imports. In this context, geothermal energy appears to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Since geothermal energy will be used more and more in the future, its current potential, usage, and assessment in Turkey is the focus of the present study. The paper not only presents a review of the potential and utilization of the geothermal energy in Turkey but also provides some guidelines for policy makers. (author)

  18. Physiological potential of Oryza sativa seeds treated with growth regulators at low temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Grohs

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The rapid and uniform establishment of rice crops is important for improving production. However, this condition is influenced by several factors, including the soil temperature when planting, which may delay seed germination and compromise the final stand. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of substances which have the effect of growth regulator when applied to the seeds of different rice cultivars under low-temperature conditions. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomised design with four replications in a bi-factorial scheme, where factor A was represented by the different products (gibberellic acid - AG3, tiamethoxam - TMX, Haf Plus® - HAF, and a control with water - TEST, and factor B by the irrigated rice cultivars (IRGA 424, IRGA 425, Puitá INTA CL, and Avaxi CL. In addition, the experiment was repeated at temperatures of 17 °C and 25 °C in order to simulate low-temperature conditions. The results showed that AG3 is effective in increasing seed vigour in the rice cultivars at both temperatures, with the AG3, TMX and HAF responsible for increasing germination percentage only at the temperature of 17 °C. The effect of the products is more pronounced at low temperatures, and is dependent on the cultivar; in cultivars which are sensitive to cold there is no effect from the products used.

  19. Assessment of the geothermal energy potential of the 'Canton de Vaud', Switzerland; Evaluation du potentiel geothermique du canton de Vaud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, J. [Jules Wilhelm, Pully (Switzerland); Bianchetti, G. [ALPGEO, Sierre (Switzerland); Vuataz, F.-D. [University of Neuchatel, Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This report presents an assessment of the geothermal energy potential in the provincial state of Vaud in western Switzerland. According to the authors the prospect for the three current main technologies: low-temperature surface water, deep hot water springs and advanced geothermal systems, is good. In about 10 years it would be possible to extract some 3.6x10{sup 6} MJ per year from low-temperature surface water while the energy production from deep hot springs could be near to 2x10{sup 4} MJ. Finally, in the forthcoming 20 years the construction of 3 advanced geothermal power plants ('Deep Heat Mining', i.e. the extraction of deep-rock thermal energy by water circulation) could produce about 30 MW electricity in a cogeneration operation mode. Recommendations are given regarding measures needed at the political level to promote geothermal power plants.

  20. Potential for enhanced geothermal systems in Alberta, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Hannes; Weides, Simon; Babadagli, Tayfun; Zimmermann, Günter; Moeck, Inga; Majorowicz, Jacek; Unsworth, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    The province of Alberta has a high demand of thermal energy for both industrial and residential applications. Currently, the vast majority of the heat used in these applications is obtained by burning natural gas. Geothermal energy production from deep aquifer systems in the sedimentary basin could provide an alternative sustainable source of heat that would significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To date there has been no geothermal field development in Alberta because the average geothermal gradient was considered to be too low for economic geothermal energy generation. However, with new technologies for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), it may be possible to develop geothermal resources from the sedimentary rocks in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). A numerical feasibility study based on a regional geological model and existing and newly gained data was conducted to identify scenarios for geothermal energy production in the region. In central Alberta, three Devonian carbonate formations (Cooking Lake, Nisku, Wabamun) and the Cambrian Basal Sandstone Unit were identified as the highest geothermal potential zones. Thermal-hydraulic reservoir simulations for a 5 km × 5 km site in the city of Edmonton were performed to evaluate reservoir development concepts for these four potential target formations; therefore, hydraulic fracturing treatments were also simulated. Different utilization concepts are presented for possible applications of geothermal energy generation in residential, industrial and agricultural areas. The Cooking Lake formation and the Basal Sandstone Unit are potentially the most promising reservoirs because the most heat can be extracted and the applications for the heat are widespread although the costs are higher than utilizing the shallower formations. Reservoir stimulation considerably improves the economics in all formations

  1. The potential to supply low temperature district heating to existing building area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    Low-temperature district heating (LTDH) has the advantages as reduced network heat loss, improved quality match between energy supply and energy demand, and increased utilization of low-grade waste heat and renewable energy. The LTDH represents the next generation district heating (DH) system...... to supply existing building areas which are characterized with high heating demand needs to be examined. In this paper, the DH network deliverable capacity to supply LTDH to an existing building area is studied based on building thermal performance and DH network hydraulic performance simulation....

  2. The diffusion cross section for atomic hydrogen in helium gas at low temperature and the H-He potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochemsen, R.; Berlinsky, A.J.; Hardy, W.N.

    1984-01-01

    A calculation of the diffusion cross section Q sub(D) of hydrogen atoms in helium gas at low temperature is performed and compared with recent experimental results. The comparison allows an improved determination of the H-He potential. Calculations were done for three different potentials: our own empirical potential based on experimental high-energy scattering results and calculated long-range dispersion terms, which gives good results for Q sub(D) and total collision cross sections; a recently determined semi-empirical potential, and an ab initio calculated potential. All three potentials imply a strong temperature dependence of Q sub(D) for T < 1.5 K

  3. Chlorella mirabilis as a Potential Species for Biomass Production in Low-Temperature Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S P; Kvíderová, J; Tříska, J; Elster, J

    2013-01-01

    Successful adaptation/acclimatization to low temperatures in micro-algae is usually connected with production of specific biotechnologically important compounds. In this study, we evaluated the growth characteristics in a micro-scale mass cultivation of the Antarctic soil green alga Chlorella mirabilis under different nitrogen and carbon sources followed by analyses of fatty acid contents. The micro-scale mass cultivation was performed in stable (in-door) and variable (out-door) conditions during winter and/or early spring in the Czech Republic. In the in-door cultivation, the treatments for nitrogen and carbon sources determination included pure Z medium (control, Z), Z medium + 5% glycerol (ZG), Z medium + 5% glycerol + 50 μM KNO3 (ZGN), Z medium + 5% glycerol + 200 μM NH4Cl (ZGA), Z medium + 5% glycerol + 1 mM Na2CO3 (ZNC), Z medium + 5% glycerol + 1 mM Na2CO3 + 200 μM NH4Cl (ZGCA) and Z medium + 5% glycerol + 1 mM Na2CO3 + 50 μM KNO3 (ZGCN) and were performed at 15°C with an irradiance of 75 μmol m(-2) s(-1). During the out-door experiments, the night-day temperature ranged from -6.6 to 17.5°C (daily average 3.1 ± 5.3°C) and irradiance ranged from 0 to 2,300 μmol m(-2) s(-1) (daily average 1,500 ± 1,090 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). Only the Z, ZG, ZGN, and ZGC treatments were used in the out-door cultivation. In the in-door mass cultivation, all nitrogen and carbon sources additions increased the growth rate with the exception of ZGA. When individual sources were considered, only the effect of 5% glycerol addition was significant. On the other hand, the growth rate decreased in the ZG and ZGN treatments in the out-door experiment, probably due to carbon limitation. Fatty acid composition showed increased production of linoleic acid in the glycerol treatments. The studied strain of C. mirabilis is proposed to be a promising source of linoleic acid in low-temperature

  4. Chlorella mirabilis as a potential species for biomass production in low temperature environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Prakash Shukla

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful adaptation/acclimatization to low temperatures in micro-algae is usually connected with production of specific biotechnologically important compounds. In this study, we evaluated the growth characteristics in a micro-scale mass cultivation of the Antarctic soil green alga Chlorella mirabilis under different nitrogen and carbon sources followed by analyses of fatty acid contents. The micro-scale mass cultivation was performed in stable (in-door and variable (out-door conditions during winter and/or early spring in the Czech Republic. In the in-door cultivation, the treatments for nitrogen and carbon sources determination included pure Z medium (control, Z, Z medium + 5% glycerol (ZG, Z medium + 5% glycerol + 50 µM KNO3 (ZGN, Z medium + 5% glycerol + 200µM NH4Cl (ZGA, Z medium + 5% glycerol + 1 mM Na2CO3 (ZNC, Z medium + 5% glycerol + 1 mM Na2CO3 + 200µM NH4Cl (ZGCA and Z medium + 5% glycerol + 1 mM Na2CO3 + 50 µM KNO3 (ZGCN and were performed at 15°C with an irradiance of 75 µmol m-2 s-1. During the out-door experiments, the night-day temperature ranged from -6.6°C to 17.5°C (daily average 3.1±5.3 °C and irradiance ranged from 0 to 2300 µmol m-2 s-1 (daily average 1500±1090 µmol m-2 s-1. Only the Z, ZG, ZGN and ZGC treatments were used in the out-door cultivation. In the in-door mass cultivation, all nitrogen and carbon sources additions increased the growth rate with the exception of ZGA. When individual sources were considered, only the effect of 5% glycerol addition was significant. On the other hand, the growth rate decreased in the ZG and ZGN treatments in the out-door experiment, probably due to carbon limitation. Fatty acid composition showed increased production of linoleic acid in the glycerol treatments. The studied strain of C. mirabilis is proposed to be a promising source of linoleic acid in low temperature mass cultivation biotechnology. This strain is a perspective model organism for biotechnology in low-temperature

  5. The geothermal potentials for electric development in Maluku Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Isnaniawardhani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic of small to medium size islands is the limited amount of natural resources for electric generation. Presently the needs of energy in Maluku Province are supplied by the diesel generation units. The electricity distributes through an isolated grid system of each island. There are 10 separate systems in Maluku Province, namely Ambon, Namlea, Tual, Saumlaki, Mako, Piru, Bula, Masohi, Dobo and Langgur. From the geothermal point of view, this condition is suitable because the nature of the generation is small to medium and the locations are dispersed. The geological condition of Maluku Province is conducive for the formation of geothermal resources. The advanced utilization of geothermal energy in Maluku Province is in Tulehu located about 8 kilometers NE of Ambon. It is expected that 60 MW electric will be produced at the first stage in 2019. A total of 100 MW resources were estimated. Other places of geothermal potentials are Lauke and Tawen both located in Ambon Island with the potentials of 25 MW respectively. In Oma Haruku, Saparua and Nusa Laut the geothermal potentials were estimated to be 25 MW each. The total amount of geothermal energy in Maluku Province is thus, 225 MW which will contribute significantly to the needs of projected 184 MW in the year 2025.

  6. Oregon Low-Temperature-Resource Assessment Program. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priest, G.R.; Black, G.L.; Woller, N.M.

    1981-01-01

    Numerous low-temperature hydrothermal systems are available for exploitation throughout the Cascades and eastern Oregon. All of these areas have heat flow significantly higher than crustal averages and many thermal aquifers. In northeastern Oregon, low temperature geothermal resources are controlled by regional stratigraphic aquifers of the Columbia River Basalt Group at shallow depths and possibly by faults at greater depths. In southeastern Oregon most hydrothermal systems are of higher temperature than those of northeastern Oregon and are controlled by high-angle fault zones and layered volcanic aquifers. The Cascades have very high heat flow but few large population centers. Direct use potential in the Cascades is therefore limited, except possibly in the cities of Oakridge and Ashland, where load may be great enough to stimulate development. Absence of large population centers also inhibits initial low temperature geothermal development in eastern Oregon. It may be that uses for the abundant low temperature geothermal resources of the state will have to be found which do not require large nearby population centers. One promising use is generation of electricity from freon-based biphase electrical generators. These generators will be installed on wells at Vale and Lakeview in the summer of 1982 to evaluate their potential use on geothermal waters with temperatures as low as 80/sup 0/C (176/sup 0/F).

  7. Geothermal energy in Yugoslavia, potentials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boreli, F.; Paradjanin, Lj.; Stankovic, Srb.

    2002-01-01

    This paper promotes the use of Geothermal energy (GTE) in Serbia, and argues that while GTE is both a viable and environmentally friendly energy source, as demonstrated elsewhere in the world, there is also a multitude of opportunities in this region, and the local knowledge and capabilities required for implementing the GTE plants. First, a general introduction to GTE in is given. The basis of GTE is the thermal energy accumulated in fluids and rocks masses in the Earth's Crust. The main GTE advantage compared to the traditional energy sources like thermo-electric plants is the absence of environmental deterioration, however GTE also has advantages compared to other NARES, as the GT sources are permanently available and independent of weather conditions. Worldwide energy potential of GTE is huge, as the reduction of Earth Crust temperature for just 0.1 deg. C would give enough Energy to produce Electrical Energy, at the present dissipation level, for the next 15,000 years. An overview of the regions in Yugoslavia which have a high GTE potential is given. There are two distinct regions with higher GTE values in Serbia: the first is a part of the South Panonian basin including Vojvodina, with Macva and Yu-part along Danube and Morava rivers. This is a sedimental part of the Tercier's Panonic Sea 'Parathetis', with partial depression and Backa subsupression, and is well investigated due to oil and gas holeboring. The second region includes Central and Southern part of Serbia, south from the Panonia basin, with pretercier's and tercier's magmatic volcanic intrusions, which produce a very high and stable thermal flux. This Region is rich in GT-warm water springs with stable yields, and includes 217 locations with 970 natural springs with temperature above 20 deg. C. These compare very favorably with international locations where GTE is exploited. GTE can be used for Electric Energy production using corresponding heat pump systems, for house heating and warm water

  8. Potential for Geothermal Energy in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin Soe Moe

    2010-12-01

    Geothermal energy is energy obtained by tapping the heat of the earth itself from kilometers deep into the earth's crust in some places of world. It is power extracted from heat stored in the earth. It is a renewable energy source because the heat is continuously produced inside the earth. Geothermal energy originates from the heat retained within the Earth's core since the orginal formation of the planet, from radioactive decay of minerals, and from solar energy absorbed at the surface. Most high temperature geothermal heat is harvested in regions close to tectonic plate boundaries where volcanic activity rises up to the surface of the Earth. It is one of the best renewable sources of energy and is capable of maintaining its temperature. The heating cost is very low. It uses less electricity and 75 per cent more efficient than the oil furnace and 48 per cent more efficient than the gas furnace. The energy is not only used for heating a place but also for cooling down the site. It generates uniform energy and creates no sound pollution. Maintenance cost is very cheap. The life of the underground piping is more than 50 year.

  9. Silicotungstate, a Potential Electron Transporting Layer for Low-Temperature Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Ho; Kim, Hyun Bin; Yang, In Seok; Sung, Sang Do; Choi, Young Sik; Kim, Jeongho; Lee, Wan In

    2017-08-02

    Thin films of a heteropolytungstate, lithium silicotungstate (Li 4 SiW 12 O 40 , termed Li-ST), prepared by a solution process at low temperature, were successfully applied as electron transporting layer (ETL) of planar-type perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Dense and uniform Li-ST films were prepared on FTO glass by depositing a thin Li-ST buffer layer, followed by coating of a main Li-ST layer. The film thickness was controlled by varying the number of coating cycles, consisting of spin-coating and thermal treatment at 150 °C. In particular, by employing 60 nm-thick Li-ST layer obtained by two cycles of coating, the fabricated CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 PSC device demonstrates the photovoltaic conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.26% with J SC of 22.16 mA cm -2 , V OC of 0.993 mV and FF of 64.81%. The obtained PCE is significantly higher than that of the PSC employing a TiO 2 layer processed at the same temperature (PCE = 12.27%). Spectroscopic analyses by time-resolved photoluminescence and pulsed light-induced transient measurement of photocurrent indicate that the Li-ST layer collects electrons from CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 more efficiently and also exhibits longer electron lifetime than the TiO 2 layer thermally treated at 150 °C. Thus, Li-ST is considered to be a promising ETL material that can be applied for the fabrication of flexible PSC devices.

  10. Potential for offshore geothermal developments using deep gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teodoriu, C.; Falcone, G. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE

    2013-08-01

    The development of geothermal resources is steadily increasing as operators meet the challenge of maximising the temperature difference between production and injection wells, while minimising the wellhead temperature of the latter. At present, the minimum working wellhead temperature reported for the heat-to-electricity conversion cycles is limited to about 80 C. The cycle efficiency can be improved by reducing the injection temperature, which is the temperature at which the fluid exits the process. This paper evaluates the potential for generating electricity with a subsea geothermal plant using the difference between downhole reservoir temperature and that of the cold seawater at the mud line. The temperature in the world's oceans is relatively constant, ranging from 0 to 4 C at around 400 meters water depth. The use of these lower offshore water temperatures may help boost geothermal energy development. Deep gas resources are considered to be held within reservoirs below 4600 meters (15000 feet) and are relatively undeveloped as the risks and costs involved in drilling and producing such resources are extremely high. These deep resources have high reservoir temperatures, which offer an opportunity for geothermal exploitation if a new development concept can be formulated. In particular, the well design and reservoir development plan should consider reutilising existing well stock, including dry and plugged and abandoned wells for geothermal application once the gas field has been depleted. The major risks considered in this study include alternative uses of wells in no flow or rapid depletion situations. Reutilisation of the wells of depleted gas reservoirs will invariably lead to lower geothermal development costs compared with starting a geothermal campaign by drilling new wells. In particular, the well design and reservoir development plan should consider reutilising existing well stock, including dry and plugged and abandoned wells for geothermal

  11. Geothermal potential of the Meuse/Haute-Marne site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This report aims to analyze the geothermal potential of the Meuse/Haute-Marne site selected for the Cigeo project, primarily based on data available in the literature and particularly on those recently Acquired by Andra near this site. It also analyzes the report made on the same topic by Geowatt AG at The request of the CLIS of Bure. For the Meuse/Haute-Marne area relevant to Cigeo, the present report concludes to the existence of A low-energy geothermal resource in the lower Triassic. For the Permian and the basement, a medium To high-energy geothermal resource is conceivable, but its occurrence is hypothetical. Beneath the site, exploiting the Triassic would depend on the possibility of re-injecting the produced Brine. National and international experiences show the difficulty to carry out such a reinjection in Silty-clayey formations. The profitability of such exploitation in the Triassic, the Permian or in the basement is questionable. Indeed, the Meuse/Haute-Marne area neither shows an exceptional nature nor a specific interest Compared to other formations or zones for which either the geothermal potential is better Demonstrated, such as for instance the Dogger formation in the central part of the Paris basin with Easier exploitation conditions, or where the geothermal gradients are higher. (authors)

  12. Turkey's High Temperature Geothermal Energy Resources and Electricity Production Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ö.

    2012-04-01

    Turkey is in the first 7 countries in the world in terms of potential and applications. Geothermal energy which is an alternative energy resource has advantages such as low-cost, clean, safe and natural resource. Geothermal energy is defined as hot water and steam which is formed by heat that accumulated in various depths of the Earth's crust; with more than 20oC temperature and which contain more than fused minerals, various salts and gases than normal underground and ground water. It is divided into three groups as low, medium and high temperature. High-temperature fluid is used in electricity generation, low and medium temperature fluids are used in greenhouses, houses, airport runways, animal farms and places such as swimming pools heating. In this study high temperature geothermal fields in Turkey which is suitable for electricity production, properties and electricity production potential was investigated.

  13. Trace element chemistry and textures of low-temperature pyrites associated with shallow fossil subsurface geothermal discharge in the Eger Graben, northwestern Bohemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zachariáš, J.; Adamovič, Jiří; Langrová, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 37, 29 (2006), s. 237-239 ISSN 0032-6267 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3013302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : pyrite * geothermal fluids * Eger Graben Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  14. A review on potential use of low-temperature water in the urban environment as a thermal-energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanearu, J.; Borodinecs, A.; Rimeika, M.; Palm, B.

    2017-10-01

    The thermal-energy potential of urban water sources is largely unused to accomplish the up-to-date requirements of the buildings energy demands in the cities of Baltic Sea Region. A reason is that the natural and excess-heat water sources have a low temperature and heat that should be upgraded before usage. The demand for space cooling should increase in near future with thermal insulation of buildings. There are a number of options to recover heat also from wastewater. It is proposed that a network of heat extraction and insertion including the thermal-energy recovery schemes has potential to be broadly implemented in the region with seasonally alternating temperature. The mapping of local conditions is essential in finding the suitable regions (hot spots) for future application of a heat recovery schemes by combining information about demands with information about available sources. The low-temperature water in the urban environment is viewed as a potential thermal-energy source. To recover thermal energy efficiently, it is also essential to ensure that it is used locally, and adverse effects on environment and industrial processes are avoided. Some characteristics reflecting the energy usage are discussed in respect of possible improvements of energy efficiency.

  15. District Heating Expansion Potential with Low-Temperature and End-Use Heat Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Grundahl, Lars

    2018-01-01

    District heating has the potential to play a key role in the transition towards a renewable energy system. However, the development towards reduced heat demands threatens the feasibility of district heating. Despite this challenge, opportunity exists in the form of fourth generation district...... heating, which operates at lower temperatures and enables better renewable integration. This article investigates this challenge by examining the district heating potential within three scenarios: The first is a reference scenario with current heat demand and temperatures, the second includes heat demand...... costs. The models are applied using an example case of The Northern Region of Denmark. The article concludes that the district heating potential is highest in the reference scenario. When heat savings are introduced, district heating expansions, in most cases, will not be feasible. Introducing low...

  16. A novel extracellular low-temperature active phytase from Bacillus aryabhattai RS1 with potential application in plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal Roy, Moushree; Datta, Subhabrata; Ghosh, Shilpi

    2017-05-01

    Bacillus aryabhattai RS1 isolated from rhizosphere produced an extracellular, low temperature active phytase. The cultural conditions for enzyme production were optimized to obtain 35 U mL -1 of activity. Purified phytase had specific activity and molecular weight of 72.97 U mg -1 and ∼40 kDa, respectively. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 6.5 and 40°C and was highly specific to phytate. It exhibited higher catalytic activity at low temperature, retaining over 40% activity at 10°C. Phytase was more thermostable in presence of Ca 2+ ion and retained 100% residual activity on preincubation at 20-50°C for 30 min. Partial phytase encoding gene, phy B (816 bp) was cloned and sequenced. The encoded amino acid sequence (272 aa) contained two conserved motifs, DA[A/T/E]DDPA[I/L/V]W and NN[V/I]D[I/L/V]R[Y/D/Q] of β-propellar phytase and had lower sequence homology with other Bacillus phytases, indicating its novelty. Phytase and the bacterial inoculum were effective in improving germination and growth of chickpea seedlings under phosphate limiting condition. Moreover, the potential applications of the enzyme with relatively high activity at lower temperatures (20-30°C) could also be extended to aquaculture and food processing. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:633-641, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  17. Potential of low-temperature anaerobic digestion to address current environmental concerns on swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, D I; Masse, L; Xia, Y; Gilbert, Y

    2010-04-01

    Environmental issues associated with swine production are becoming a major concern among the general public and are thus an important challenge for the swine industry. There is now a renewed interest in environmental biotechnologies that can minimize the impact of swine production and add value to livestock by-products. An anaerobic biotechnology called psychrophilic anaerobic digestion (PAD) in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) has been developed at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. This very stable biotechnology recovers usable energy, stabilizes and deodorizes manure, and increases the availability of plant nutrients. Experimental results indicated that PAD of swine manure slurry at 15 to 25 degrees C in intermittently fed SBR reduces the pollution potential of manure by removing up to 90% of the soluble chemical oxygen demand. The process performs well under intermittent feeding, once to 3 times a week, and without external mixing. Bioreactor feeding activities can thus be easily integrated into the routine manure removal procedures in the barn, with minimal interference with other farm operations and use of existing manure-handling equipment. Process stability was not affected by the presence of antibiotics in manure. The PAD process was efficient in eliminating populations of zoonotic pathogens and parasites present in raw livestock manure slurries. Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion in SBR could also be used for swine mortality disposal. The addition of swine carcasses, at loading rates representing up to 8 times the normal mortality rates on commercial farms, did not affect the stability of SBR. No operational problems were related to the formation of foam and scum. The biotechnology was successfully operated at semi-industrial and full commercial scales. Biogas production rate exceeded 0.20 L of methane per gram of total chemical oxygen demand fed to the SBR. The biogas was of excellent quality, with a methane concentration ranging from 70 to 80%. The

  18. Geothermal source potential and utilization for alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of using a potential geothermal source to drive a fuel grade alcohol plant. Test data from the well at the site indicated that the water temperature at approximately 8500 feet should approach 275/sup 0/F. However, no flow data was available, and so the volume of hot water that can be expected from a well at this site is unknown. Using the available data, numerous fuel alcohol production processes and various heat utilization schemes were investigated to determine the most cost effective system for using the geothermal resource. The study found the direct application of hot water for alcohol production based on atmospheric processes using low pressure steam to be most cost effective. The geothermal flow rates were determined for various sizes of alcohol production facility using 275/sup 0/F water, 235/sup 0/F maximum processing temperature, 31,000 and 53,000 Btu per gallon energy requirements, and appropriate process approach temperatures. It was determined that a 3 million gpy alcohol plant is the largest facility that can practically be powered by the flow from one large geothermal well. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared, operating costs were calculated, the economic feasibility of the propsed project was examined, and a sensitivity analysis was performed.

  19. Mapping of low temperature heat sources in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Holm, Fridolin Müller; Huang, Baijia

    2015-01-01

    heat. The total accessible waste heat potential is found to be approximately 266 PJ per year with 58 % of it below 100 °C. In the natural heat category, temperatures below 20 °C originate from ambient air, sea water and shallow geothermal energy, and temperatures up to 100 °C are found for solar...... and deep geothermal energy. The theoretical solar thermal potential alone would be above 500 PJ per year. For the development of advanced thermodynamic cycles for the integration of heat sources in the Danish energy system, several areas of interest are determined. In the maritime transport sector a high......Low temperature heat sources are available in many applications, ranging from waste heat from industrial processes and buildings to geothermal and solar heat sources. Technical advancements, such as heat pumps with novel cycle design and multi-component working fluids, make the utilisation of many...

  20. Strategies towards an optimized use of the shallow geothermal potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelenz, S.; Firmbach, L.; Kalbacher, T.; Goerke, U.; Kolditz, O.; Dietrich, P.; Vienken, T.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal use of the shallow subsurface for heat generation, cooling and thermal energy storage is increasingly gaining importance in reconsideration of future energy supplies, e.g. in the course of German energy transition, with application shifting from isolated to intensive use. The planning and dimensioning of (geo-)thermal applications is strongly influenced by the availability of exploration data. Hence, reliable site-specific dimensioning of systems for the thermal use of the shallow subsurface will contribute to an increase in resource efficiency, cost reduction during installation and operation, as well as reduction of environmental impacts and prevention of resource over-exploitation. Despite large cumulative investments that are being made for the utilization of the shallow thermal potential, thermal energy is in many cases exploited without prior on-site exploration and investigation of the local geothermal potential, due to the lack of adequate and cost-efficient exploration techniques. We will present new strategies for an optimized utilization of urban thermal potential, showcased at a currently developed residential neighborhood with high demand for shallow geothermal applications, based on a) enhanced site characterization and b) simulation of different site specific application scenarios. For enhanced site characterization, surface geophysics and vertical high resolution direct push-profiling were combined for reliable determination of aquifer structure and aquifer parameterization. Based on the site characterization, different site specific geothermal application scenarios, including different system types and system configurations, were simulated using OpenGeoSys to guarantee an environmental and economic sustainable thermal use of the shallow subsurface.

  1. Geothermal potential in Mexico; Potencial geotermico de la republica mexicana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordaz Mendez, Christian Arturo; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Ramirez Silva, German [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: christian.ordaz@cfe.gob.mx

    2011-01-15

    Globally, Mexico is the fourth largest generator of geothermal electricity with an installed capacity of 958 MWe. The Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos (GPG, Geothermal-electric division of the Federal Commision for Electricity -CFE) is responsible for using geothermal resources. The GPG calculated the country's geothermal potential as part of CFE's strategy to increase power generation through non-conventional sources. The calculation departed from the GPG's national inventory of thermal manifestations, which is composed of 1380 manifestations scattered throughout the country. At each, surface temperatures were measured and subsurface temperatures estimated by geo-thermometers. The calculation of the geothermal potential was based on the classifying these manifestations by geo-thermometric temperature ranges, providing for high, medium and low enthalpy resources. The volumetric method was used to obtain the national geothermal potential. The results indicate that the Potential Reserves of high-enthalpy resources amounts to 5691 MWe; of moderate-enthalpy resources, 881 MWe; and of low-enthalpy resources, 849 MWe -a total of 7422 MWe. Moreover, the Probable Reserves for high-enthalpy resources amounts to 1643 MWe; of moderate-enthalpy resources, 220 MWe; and of low-enthalpy resources, 212 MWe -a total of 2077 MWe. Finally the Proved Reserves were considered, defined as the additional capacity able to be installed in each known geothermal field, for a total of 186 MWe. All the information was processed and integrated using the Geographic Information System (GIS) ArcGis 9.2 (copyright), resulting in the CFE's intranet publication of the Geothermal Potential Map of Mexico. [Spanish] A nivel mundial, Mexico ocupa el cuarto lugar como generador de electricidad por medio de la energia geotermica con una capacidad instalada de 958 MWe. La Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos (GPG) es la responsable del aprovechamiento de estos recursos y como

  2. Spatial data analysis and integration for regional-scale geothermal potential mapping, West Java, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Barritt, Sally D. [Department of Earth Systems Analysis, International Institute for Geo-information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Enschede (Netherlands); Wibowo, Hendro; Sumintadireja, Prihadi [Laboratory of Volcanology and Geothermal, Geology Department, Institute of Technology Bandung (ITB), Bandung (Indonesia)

    2008-06-15

    Conceptual modeling and predictive mapping of potential for geothermal resources at the regional-scale in West Java are supported by analysis of the spatial distribution of geothermal prospects and thermal springs, and their spatial associations with geologic features derived from publicly available regional-scale spatial data sets. Fry analysis shows that geothermal occurrences have regional-scale spatial distributions that are related to Quaternary volcanic centers and shallow earthquake epicenters. Spatial frequency distribution analysis shows that geothermal occurrences have strong positive spatial associations with Quaternary volcanic centers, Quaternary volcanic rocks, quasi-gravity lows, and NE-, NNW-, WNW-trending faults. These geological features, with their strong positive spatial associations with geothermal occurrences, constitute spatial recognition criteria of regional-scale geothermal potential in a study area. Application of data-driven evidential belief functions in GIS-based predictive mapping of regional-scale geothermal potential resulted in delineation of high potential zones occupying 25% of West Java, which is a substantial reduction of the search area for further exploration of geothermal resources. The predicted high potential zones delineate about 53-58% of the training geothermal areas and 94% of the validated geothermal occurrences. The results of this study demonstrate the value of regional-scale geothermal potential mapping in: (a) data-poor situations, such as West Java, and (b) regions with geotectonic environments similar to the study area. (author)

  3. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummel, F.; Kappelmeyer, O.; Herde, O.A.

    1992-01-01

    Objective of this brochure is to present the subject Geothermics and the possible use of geothermal energy to the public. The following aspects will be refered to: -present energy situation -geothermal potential -use of geothermal energy -environemental aspects -economics. In addition, it presents an up-dated overview of geothermal projects funded by the German government, and a list of institutions and companies active in geothermal research and developments. (orig./HP) [de

  4. The Potential of Geothermal as a Major Supplier of U.S. Primary Energy using EGS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Recent national focus on the value of increasing our supply of indigenous, renewable energy underscores the need for re-evaluating all alternatives, particularly those that are large and well-distributed nationally. To transition from our current hydrocarbon-based energy system, we will need to expand and diversify the portfolio of options we currently have. One such option that has been undervalued and often ignored completely in national assessments is geothermal energy from both conventional hydrothermal resources and enhanced or engineered geothermal systems (EGS). Although geothermal energy is currently used for both electric and non-electric applications worldwide from conventional hydrothermal resources and in groundsource heat pumps, most of the emphasis in the US has been generating electricity. For example, a 2006 MIT-led study focused on the potential for EGS to provide 100,000 MWe of base-load electric generating capacity in the US by 2050. Since that time, a Cornell-led study has evaluated the potential for geothermal to meet the more than 25 EJ per year demand in the US for low temperature thermal energy for heating and other direct process applications Field testing of EGS in the US, Europe, and Australia is reviewed to outline what remains to be done for large-scale deployment. Research, Development and Demonstration (RD&D) needs in five areas important to geothermal deployment on a national scale will be reviewed: 1. Resource - estimating the magnitude and distribution of the US resource 2. Reservoir Technology - establishing requirements for extracting and utilizing energy from EGS reservoirs including drilling, reservoir design and stimulation 3. Utilization - exploring end use options for district heating, electricity generation and co-generation. 4. Environmental impacts and tradeoffs -- dealing with water and land use and seismic risk and quantifying the reduction in carbon emissions with increased deployment 5. Economics - projecting costs

  5. Utilization of low-temperature heat sources for heat and power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Low-temperature heat sources are available in many applications, ranging from waste heat from marine diesel engines, industries and refrigeration plants to biomass, geothermal and solar heat sources. There is a great potential for enhancing the utilization of these heat sources by novel...

  6. Preliminary Assessment of Geothermal Resource Potential at the UTTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard P. Smith, PhD., PG; Robert P. Breckenridge, PhD.; Thomas R. Wood, PhD.

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the current state of geologic knowledge concerning potential high-temperature geothermal development on the lands controlled by Hill Air Force Base (HAFB) at the Utah Testing and Training Range (UTTR) and the lands encompassed by the Dugway Proving Grounds (Dugway). This report is based on currently available published and publically available information. Most of the information presented here is purely geologic in nature. Therefore, the logistical issues (such as military exclusion areas, proximity to electrical infrastructure, and access) are additional considerations that are being addressed in a separate report that will be issued to HAFB by the SES corporation.

  7. Potential and Geochemical Characteristics of Geothermal Resources in Eastern Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Spasovski, Orce

    2012-01-01

    Geothermal explorations in the Republic of Macedonia were intensified in the 70's, during the first effects from the energetic crisis. As a result of those explorations, there were established over 50 springs with mineral and thermo-mineral water, with maximum potential of over 1400 l/s and evidenced reserves as deposit for exploitation of around 1000 l/s, with temperature higher than the mean season swings for this part of the Earth in the range 20-79 °C, accumulated quantities of geothe...

  8. The missing link between submarine volcano and promising geothermal potential in Jinshan, Northern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. C.; Hutchings, L.; Chang, C. C.; Lee, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Tatun volcanic group (TVG) and the Keelung submarine volcano (KSV) are active volcanoes and surrounding three nuclear plant sites in north Taiwan. The famous Jinshan-Wanli hot springs locates between TVG and KSV, moreover, the geochemical anomalies of acidic boiling springs on the seacoast infer that the origin is from magmatic fluids, sea water and meteoric water mixture, strongly implying that mantle fluids ascends into the shallow crust. The evidence for a magma chamber, submarine volcano, and boiling springs have a close spatial relationship. Based on UNECE specifications to Geothermal Energy Resources (2016), the Jinshan-Wanli geothermal area could be classified as Known Geothermal Energy Source for geothermal direct use and Potential Geothermal Energy Source for conventional geothermal system. High resolution reservoir exploration and modeling in Jinshan-Wanli geothermal area is developing for drilling risk mitigation. The geothermal team of National Taiwan Ocean University and local experts are cooperating for further exploration drilling and geothermal source evaluation. Keywords: geothermal resource evaluation, Jinshan-Wanli geothermal area, submarine volcano

  9. Low-temperature phase MnBi compound: A potential candidate for rare-earth free permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ly, V.; Wu, X.; Smillie, L.; Shoji, T.; Kato, A.; Manabe, A.; Suzuki, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The spin reorientation temperature of MnBi is suppressed by nanoscale grain refinement. • Hardness parameter of MnBi reaches as large as 2.8 at 580 K. • MnBi has a great potential as a hard phase in rare-earth free nanocomposite magnets. • Improving the surface passivity is a remaining task for MnBi-based permanent magnets. - Abstract: The low-temperature phase (LTP) MnBi is one of the few rare-earth free compounds that exhibit a large magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy in the order of 10 6 J/m 3 . A large coercive field (μ 0 H cj ) above 1 T can be obtained readily by reducing the crystallite size (D) through mechanical grinding (MG). The room-temperature H cj values follow a phenomenological expression μ 0 H cj = μ 0 H a (δ/D) n where the anisotropy field (μ 0 H a ) is ∼4 T, the Bloch wall width (δ) is 7 nm and the exponent (n) is about 0.7 in our study. The grain refinement upon MG is accompanied by suppression of the spin reorientation transition temperature (T SR ) from 110 K to below 50 K. The coercive field starts to exhibit positive temperature dependence approximately 50 K above T SR and the room-temperature magnetic hardening induced by MG could partially be brought about by the lowered onset of this positive temperature dependence. The suppression of T SR by MG is likely to be induced by the surface anisotropy with which the 2nd order crystal field term is enhanced. One of the shortcomings of LTP-MnBi is its poor phase stability under the ambient atmosphere. The spontaneous magnetization decreases considerably after room-temperature aging for 1 week. This is due to oxidation of Mn which leads to decomposition of the MnBi phase. Hence, the surface passivity needs to be established before this material is considered for a permanent magnet in practical uses. Another shortcoming is the limited spontaneous magnetization. The theoretical upper limit of the maximum energy product in LTP-MnBi remains only a quarter of that in Nd 2

  10. Geothermal Potential Based on Physical Characteristics of the Region (Case Study: Mount Karang, Pandeglang Regency and Banten Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russel Fhillipo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is about geothermal potential of Mount Karang, Banten Province which is based on the characteristics of the region. This research method used is geochemistry sample of hot springs and integrated with GIS method for spatial of geothermal potential. Based on the geothermal potential, Mount Karang is divided into three regions, ie high potential, normal potential, and low potential. The high geothermal potential region covers an area of 24.16 Km2 and which there are Cisolong and Banjar 2 hot springs. The normal potential covers Kawah hot spring. Index of the fault of Mount Karang region is one of the significant physical characteristics to determine geothermal potential.

  11. Geothermal energy in Italy - its importance, potential and projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, W.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the perspectives for the use of geothermal energy in Italy. Starting with an overview of the principles of the use of geothermal energy in general, the article goes on to review Italy's geothermal resources and their relevance to energy supply. Figures are given on the political situation in Italy concerning energy and the rapidly increasing demands made on electricity supply. Political support for renewable energy in Italy is looked at and models for financing projects are examined. Examples of geothermal energy projects are given and the perspectives for further developments in this industry are looked at

  12. Low-temperature phase MnBi compound: A potential candidate for rare-earth free permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ly, V.; Wu, X.; Smillie, L. [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Shoji, T.; Kato, A.; Manabe, A. [Toyota Motor Corporation, Mishuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193 (Japan); Suzuki, K., E-mail: kiyonori.suzuki@monash.edu [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • The spin reorientation temperature of MnBi is suppressed by nanoscale grain refinement. • Hardness parameter of MnBi reaches as large as 2.8 at 580 K. • MnBi has a great potential as a hard phase in rare-earth free nanocomposite magnets. • Improving the surface passivity is a remaining task for MnBi-based permanent magnets. - Abstract: The low-temperature phase (LTP) MnBi is one of the few rare-earth free compounds that exhibit a large magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy in the order of 10{sup 6} J/m{sup 3}. A large coercive field (μ{sub 0}H{sub cj}) above 1 T can be obtained readily by reducing the crystallite size (D) through mechanical grinding (MG). The room-temperature H{sub cj} values follow a phenomenological expression μ{sub 0}H{sub cj} = μ{sub 0}H{sub a}(δ/D){sup n} where the anisotropy field (μ{sub 0}H{sub a}) is ∼4 T, the Bloch wall width (δ) is 7 nm and the exponent (n) is about 0.7 in our study. The grain refinement upon MG is accompanied by suppression of the spin reorientation transition temperature (T{sub SR}) from 110 K to below 50 K. The coercive field starts to exhibit positive temperature dependence approximately 50 K above T{sub SR} and the room-temperature magnetic hardening induced by MG could partially be brought about by the lowered onset of this positive temperature dependence. The suppression of T{sub SR} by MG is likely to be induced by the surface anisotropy with which the 2nd order crystal field term is enhanced. One of the shortcomings of LTP-MnBi is its poor phase stability under the ambient atmosphere. The spontaneous magnetization decreases considerably after room-temperature aging for 1 week. This is due to oxidation of Mn which leads to decomposition of the MnBi phase. Hence, the surface passivity needs to be established before this material is considered for a permanent magnet in practical uses. Another shortcoming is the limited spontaneous magnetization. The theoretical upper limit of the maximum

  13. Application of telluric-telluric profiling combined with magnetotelluric and self-potential methods to geothermal exploration in the Fujian Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Van-Ngoc; Boyer, Danièle; Yuan, Xue Cheng; Liu, Shao Cheng

    1995-05-01

    In the Fujian Province, southeastern China, most of the hot springs emerge in fluviatile valleys and the geothermal resources are mainly medium and low temperature ones by mixing of hot water with cold superficial groundwater. The occurrence of the thermal waters is controlled by deep tectonic fractures in the bedrock where higher-temperature geothermal reservoirs of economic interest are present. The objective of this study is to detect the deeper active hydrothermal zone under a thick sedimentary cover by geoelectrical methods. In the Gui-An site, the combination of telluric-telluric profiling and magnetotelluric methods turns out very efficient to delineate more accurately the width of the deep conductive fracture zone. Moreover, the self-potential method allows us to localize the most active geothermal zone by electrofiltration processes above a convective cell of hot water which flows up from a deep source. The combined results constitute a possible guide for deep geothermal exploration currently encountered in several geothermal regions over the world.

  14. Synergy potential for oil and geothermal energy exploitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziabakhshganji, Z.; Maghami Nick, Hamidreza M.; Donselaar, Rick; Bruhn, D.F.

    2018-01-01

    A new solution for harvesting energy simultaneously from two different sources of energy by combining geothermal energy production and thermal enhanced heavy oil recovery is introduced. Numerical simulations are employed to evaluate the feasibility of generating energy from geothermal resources,

  15. Crossing the Barriers: An Analysis of Land Access Barriers to Geothermal Development and Potential Improvement Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Developers have identified many non-technical barriers to geothermal power development, including access to land. Activities required for accessing land, such as environmental review and private and public leasing can take a considerable amount of time and can delay or prevent project development. This paper discusses the impacts to available geothermal resources and deployment caused by land access challenges, including tribal and cultural resources, environmentally sensitive areas, biological resources, land ownership, federal and state lease queues, and proximity to military installations. In this analysis, we identified challenges that have the potential to prevent development of identified and undiscovered hydrothermal geothermal resources. We found that an estimated 400 MW of identified geothermal resource potential and 4,000 MW of undiscovered geothermal resource potential were either unallowed for development or contained one or more significant barriers that could prevent development at the site. Potential improvement scenarios that could be employed to overcome these barriers include (1) providing continuous funding to the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) for processing geothermal leases and permit applications and (2) the creation of advanced environmental mitigation measures. The model results forecast that continuous funding to the USFS could result in deployment of an additional 80 MW of geothermal capacity by 2030 and 124 MW of geothermal capacity by 2050 when compared to the business-as-usual scenario. The creation of advanced environmental mitigation measures coupled with continuous funding to the USFS could result in deployment of an additional 97 MW of geothermal capacity by 2030 and 152 MW of geothermal capacity by 2050 when compared to the business-as-usual scenario. The small impact on potential deployment in these improvement scenarios suggests that these 4,400 MW have other barriers to development in addition to land access. In other words, simply

  16. Potentially exploitable supercritical geothermal resources in the ductile crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Noriaki; Numakura, Tatsuya; Sakaguchi, Kiyotoshi; Saishu, Hanae; Okamoto, Atsushi; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2017-01-01

    The hypothesis that the brittle–ductile transition (BDT) drastically reduces permeability implies that potentially exploitable geothermal resources (permeability >10−16 m2) consisting of supercritical water could occur only in rocks with unusually high transition temperatures such as basalt. However, tensile fracturing is possible even in ductile rocks, and some permeability–depth relations proposed for the continental crust show no drastic permeability reduction at the BDT. Here we present experimental results suggesting that the BDT is not the first-order control on rock permeability, and that potentially exploitable resources may occur in rocks with much lower BDT temperatures, such as the granitic rocks that comprise the bulk of the continental crust. We find that permeability behaviour for fractured granite samples at 350–500 °C under effective confining stress is characterized by a transition from a weakly stress-dependent and reversible behaviour to a strongly stress-dependent and irreversible behaviour at a specific, temperature-dependent effective confining stress level. This transition is induced by onset of plastic normal deformation of the fracture surface (elastic–plastic transition) and, importantly, causes no ‘jump’ in the permeability. Empirical equations for this permeability behaviour suggest that potentially exploitable resources exceeding 450 °C may form at depths of 2–6 km even in the nominally ductile crust.

  17. On the potential of Hg-Photo-CVD process for the low temperature growth of nano-crystalline silicon (Topical review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barhdadi, A.

    2005-08-01

    Mercury-Sensitized Photo-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (Hg-Photo-CVD) technique opens new possibilities for reducing thin film growth temperature and producing novel semiconductor materials suitable for the future generation of high efficiency thin film solar cells onto low cost flexible plastic substrates. This paper provides an overview of this technique, with the emphasis on its potential in low temperature elaboration of nano-crystalline silicon for the development of thin films photovoltaic technology. (author)

  18. National Geothermal Data System: Interactive Assessment of Geothermal Energy Potential in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Lee [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey); Richard, Stephen [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey); Clark, Ryan; Patten, Kim; Love, Diane; Coleman, Celia; Chen, Genhan; Matti, Jordan; Pape, Estelle; Musil, Leah

    2012-01-30

    Geothermal-relevant geosciences data from all 50 states (www.stategeothermaldata.org), federal agencies, national labs, and academic centers are being digitized and linked in a distributed online network via the U.S. Department of Energy-funded National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) to foster geothermal energy exploration and development through use of interactive online ‘mashups,’data integration, and applications. Emphasis is first to make as much information as possible accessible online, with a long range goal to make data interoperable through standardized services and interchange formats. An initial set of thirty geoscience data content models is in use or under development to define a standardized interchange format: aqueous chemistry, borehole temperature data, direct use feature, drill stem test, earthquake hypocenter, fault feature, geologic contact feature, geologic unit feature, thermal/hot spring description, metadata, quaternary fault, volcanic vent description, well header feature, borehole lithology log, crustal stress, gravity, heat flow/temperature gradient, permeability, and feature descriptions data like developed geothermal systems, geologic unit geothermal properties, permeability, production data, rock alteration description, rock chemistry, and thermal conductivity. Map services are also being developed for isopach maps, aquifer temperature maps, and several states are working on geothermal resource overview maps. Content models are developed preferentially from existing community use in order to encourage widespread adoption and promulgate minimum metadata quality standards. Geoscience data and maps from other NGDS participating institutions, or “nodes” (USGS, Southern Methodist University, Boise State University Geothermal Data Coalition) are being supplemented with extensive land management and land use resources from the Western Regional Partnership (15 federal agencies and 5 Western states) to provide access to a comprehensive

  19. Geothermal Potential Analysis Using Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2 (Case Study: Mount Ijen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukojo, B. M.; Mardiana, R.

    2017-12-01

    Geothermal energy is also a heat energy contained in the earth’s internal. Indonesia has a total geothermal potential of around 27 GWe. The government is eager for the development of geothermal in Indonesia can run well so that geothermal can act as one of the pillars of national energy. However, the geothermal potential has not been fully utilized. One of the geothermal potention is Mount Ijen. Mount Ijen is a strato volcano that has a crater lake with a depth of about 190 m and has a very high degree of acidity and the volume of lake water is very large. With the abundance of potential geothermal potential in Indonesia, it is necessary to have an activity in the form of integrated geoscience studies to be able to maximize the potential content that exists in a geothermal area. One of the studies conducted is to do potential mapping. This research performs image data processing of Landsat 8, Sentinel 2, RBI Map, and preliminary survey data. This research carried out the Vegetation Index, surface temperature and altitude. The equipment used in this research includes image processing software, number processing software, GPS Handheld and Laptop. Surface Temperatures in the Mount Ijen have anomalies with large temperatures ranging between 18° C to 38° C. The best correlation value of altitude and ground surface temperature is -0.89 ie the correlation of January surface temperature. While the correlation value of Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2 vegetation index was 0.81. The land cover confidence matrix scored 80%. Land cover in the research area is dominated by forests by 35% of the research area. There is a potential area of geothermal potential is very high on Mount Ijen with an area of 39.43 hectares located in Wongsorejo District and adjacent to District Sempol.

  20. The Gabbs Valley, Nevada, geothermal prospect: Exploring for a potential blind geothermal resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J.; Bell, J. W.; Calvin, W. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Gabbs Valley prospect in west-central Nevada is a potential blind geothermal resource system. Possible structural controls on this system were investigated using high-resolution LiDAR, low sun-angle aerial (LSA) photography, exploratory fault trenching and a shallow temperature survey. Active Holocene faults have previously been identified at 37 geothermal systems with indication of temperatures greater than 100° C in the western Nevada region. Active fault controls in Gabbs Valley include both Holocene and historical structures. Two historical earthquakes occurring in 1932 and 1954 have overlapping surface rupture patterns in Gabbs Valley. Three active fault systems identified through LSA and LiDAR mapping have characteristics of Basin and Range normal faulting and Walker Lane oblique dextral faulting. The East Monte Cristo Mountains fault zone is an 8.5 km long continuous NNE striking, discrete fault with roughly 0.5 m right-normal historic motion and 3 m vertical Quaternary separation. The Phillips Wash fault zone is an 8.2 km long distributed fault system striking NE to N, with Quaternary fault scarps of 1-3 m vertical separation and a 500 m wide graben adjacent to the Cobble Cuesta anticline. This fault displays ponded drainages, an offset terrace riser and right stepping en echelon fault patterns suggestive of left lateral offset, and fault trenching exposed non-matching stratigraphy typical of a significant component of lateral offset. The unnamed faults of Gabbs Valley are a 10.6 km long system of normal faults striking NNE and Quaternary scarps are up to 4 m high. These normal faults largely do not have historic surface rupture, but a small segment of 1932 rupture has been identified. A shallow (2 m deep) temperature survey of 80 points covering roughly 65 square kilometers was completed. Data were collected over approximately 2 months, and continual base station temperature measurements were used to seasonally correct temperature measurements. A 2

  1. Coupling Empowerment Based Application of Extension Method for Geothermal Potential Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Plenty of mathematics researches provide feasibility to calculate the weights of geothermal controlling factors and have been applied in geothermal potential assessment. In order to avoid the disadvantages of subjective and objective weighting calculation methods, an extension theory integrated weighting method was put forward, by combining with the process of AHP and mean variance method. The improved method can reach an agreement on subjective understanding of impact factors’ roles and data-based calculation weights. Then by replacing the point values with intervals, the extension theory was used in classification of geothermal assessment, according to extension judgment matrix. The evaluation results showed perfect performance in classification of impact factors, especially in Wudalianchi area, where 10 out of 11 selected impact factors agreed well with the actual evaluation grades. The study can provide a guidance for primary stage of geothermal investigation including the impact factor selection, weights calculation for impact factors, and the factors’ classification in geothermal assessment.

  2. Geothermal energy from the earth: Its potential impact as an environmentally sustainable resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mock, J.E.; Tester, J.W.; Wright, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    Geothermal energy technology is reviewed in terms of its current impact and future potential as an energy source. In general, the geothermal energy resource base is large and well distributed globally. Geothermal systems have a number of positive social characteristics (they are simple, safe, and adaptable systems with modular 1--50 MW [thermal (t) or electric (e)] plants capable of providing continuous baseload, load following, or peaking capacity) and benign environmental attributes (negligible emissions of CO 2 , SO x , NO x , and particulates, and modest land and water use). Because these features are compatible with sustainable growth of global energy supplies in both developed and developing countries, geothermal energy is an attractive option to replace fossil and fissile fuels. In 1997, about 7,000 MWe of base-load generating capacity and over 15,000 MWt of heating capacity from high-grade geothermal resources are in commercial use worldwide. 114 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Anaerobic fermentation combined with low-temperature thermal pretreatment for phosphorus-accumulating granular sludge: Release of carbon source and phosphorus as well as hydrogen production potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jinte; Li, Yongmei

    2016-10-01

    Releases of organic compounds and phosphorus from phosphorus-accumulating granular sludge (PGS) and phosphorus-accumulating flocculent sludge (PFS) during low-temperature thermal pretreatment and anaerobic fermentation were investigated. Meanwhile, biogas production potential and microbial community structures were explored. The results indicate that much more soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and phosphorus were released from PGS than from PFS via low-temperature thermal pretreatment because of the higher extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content in PGS and higher ratio of phosphorus reserved in EPS. Furthermore, PGS contains more anaerobes and dead cells, resulting in much higher SCOD and volatile fatty acids release from PGS than those from PFS during fermentation. PGS fermentation facilitated the n-butyric acid production, and PGS exhibited the hydrogen production potential during fermentation due to the presence of hydrogen-producing bacteria. Therefore, anaerobic fermentation combined with low-temperature thermal pretreatment can facilitate the recovery of carbon and phosphorus as well as producing hydrogen from PGS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. METHODOLOGY TO EVALUATE THE POTENTIAL FOR GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION FROM GEOTHERMAL FLUID RELEASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides analytical methods and graphical techniques to predict potential ground water contamination from geothermal energy development. Overflows and leaks from ponds, pipe leaks, well blowouts, leaks from well casing, and migration from injection zones can be handle...

  5. Potential of near-surface geothermal heat - Experiences from the planning practice; Potential der oberflaechennahen Geothermie. Erfahrungen aus der Planungspraxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuebert, Markus; Kuntz, David; Walker-Hertkorn, Simone [systherma GmbH, Planungsbuero fuer Erdwaermesysteme, Starzach-Felldorf (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Near-surface geothermal applications as a heat source for ground source heat pump systems are an approved energy source in the area of residential buildings. Within the commercial range, the near-surface geothermal energy also can supply coldness in order to cool buildings. In the contribution under consideration, a flow chart of a geothermal project is presented by examining the feasibility up to the acceptance of work. With this approach it is possible to exhaust optimally the geothermal potential at a location including the trades and planners involved. In particular, the significance of the preliminary design for the entire later smooth course of the project is to be stated. Practical examples for possible operational areas of the geothermal energy and to their borders are described.

  6. INTEGRATED EXPLORATION OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Alkhasov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim. The aim is to develop the energy efficient technologies to explore hydro geothermal resources of different energy potential.Methods. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed technologies has been carried out with the use of physical and mathematical, thermodynamic and optimization methods of calculation and the physical and chemical experimental research.Results. We propose the technology of integrated exploration of low-grade geothermal resources with the application of heat and water resource potential on various purposes. We also argue for the possibility of effective exploration of geothermal resources by building a binary geothermal power plant using idle oil and gas wells. We prove the prospect of geothermal steam and gas technologies enabling highly efficient use of thermal water of low energy potential (80 - 100 ° C degrees to generate electricity; the prospects of complex processing of high-temperature geothermal brine of Tarumovsky field. Thermal energy is utilized in a binary geothermal power plant in the supercritical Rankine cycle operating with a low-boiling agent. The low temperature spent brine from the geothermal power plant with is supplied to the chemical plant, where the main chemical components are extracted - lithium carbonate, magnesium burning, calcium carbonate and sodium chloride. Next, the waste water is used for various water management objectives. Electricity generated in the binary geothermal power plant is used for the extraction of chemical components.Conclusions. Implementation of the proposed technologies will facilitate the most efficient development of hydro geothermal resources of the North Caucasus region. Integrated exploration of the Tarumovsky field resources will fully meet Russian demand for lithium carbonate and sodium chloride.

  7. The Potential Impacts on Aquatic Ecosystems from the Release of Trace Elements in Geothermal Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R.M.

    2000-03-14

    Geothermal energy will likely constitute an increasing percentage of our nation's future energy ''mix,'' both for electrical and nonelectrical uses. Associated with the exploitation of geothermal resources is the handling and disposal of fluids which contain a wide variety of potentially toxic trace elements. We present analyses of 14 trace elements found in hydrothermal fluids from various geothermal reservoirs in the western United States. The concentrations of these elements vary over orders of magnitude between reservoirs. Potential impacts are conservatively assessed on the basis of (1) toxicity to freshwater biota, and (2) bioaccumulation in food fish to the point where consumption might be hazardous to human health. Trace element concentrations generally range from benign levels to levels which might prove toxic to freshwater biota and contaminate food fisheries. We stress the need for site-specific analyses and careful handling of geothermal fluids in order to minimize potential impacts.

  8. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as well as for quantifying the reduction in CO2 emissions associated with using the mines instead of conventional heating/cooling technologies. On this basis the authors have been able to estimate that the geothermal energy available from underground coal mines in Europe is on the order of several thousand megawatts thermal. Although this is a gross value, it can be considered a minimum, which in itself vindicates all efforts to investigate harnessing it.

  9. Using Facilities And Potential Of Geothermal Resources In The Canakkale Province - NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Ozan; Acar Deniz, Zahide

    2016-04-01

    Turkey, due to its geological location, has a rich potential in point of geothermal resources. Çanakkale province is located northwestern (NW) part of Turkey and it has important geothermal fields in terms of geothermal energy potential. Geothermal resources reach to the surface both effects of past volcanic activity and extensions of fault zones associated with complex tectonic systems in the region. The aim of this study is to summarize hydrogeochemical characteristics, using facilities and potential of hot springs and spas located in the Çanakkale province. There are 13 geothermal fields in the region and the surface temperatures of hot springs are ranging between 28 centigrade degree and 175 centigrade degree. Hydrogeochemical compositions of thermal water display variable chemical compositions. Na, Ca, SO4, HCO3 and Cl are the dominant ions in these waters. Thermal waters of Tuzla and Kestanbol geothermal fields which is located the near coastal area can be noted NaCl type. Because these two geothermal waters have high TDS values, scaling problems are seen around the hot springs and pipelines. Geothermal waters in the province are meteoric origin according to oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium isotopes data. Long underground residence times of these waters and its temperatures have caused both more water - rock interaction and low tritium values. Geothermal energy is utilized in many areas in Turkey today. It is generally used for space heating, balneotherapy and electricity generation. Explorations of geothermal resources and investments in geothermal energy sector have risen rapidly in the recent years particularly in western Turkey. High-temperature geothermal fields are generally located in this region related to the Aegean Graben System and the North Anotalian Fault Zone. All geothermal power plants in Turkey are located in this region. Considering the Çanakkale province, most geothermal fields are suitable for multipurpose usage but many of them have

  10. Influence of biostimulants-seed-priming on Ceratotheca triloba germination and seedling growth under low temperatures, low osmotic potential and salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masondo, Nqobile A; Kulkarni, Manoj G; Finnie, Jeffrey F; Van Staden, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Extreme temperatures, drought and salinity stress adversely affect seed germination and seedling growth in crop species. Seed priming has been recognized as an indispensable technique in the production of stress-tolerant plants. Seed priming increases seed water content, improves protein synthesis using mRNA and DNA and repair mitochondria in seeds prior to germination. The current study aimed to determine the role of biostimulants-seed-priming during germination and seedling growth of Ceratotheca triloba (Bernh.) Hook.f. (an indigenous African leafy vegetable) under low temperature, low osmotic potential and salinity stress conditions. Ceratotheca triloba seeds were primed with biostimulants [smoke-water (SW), synthesized smoke-compound karrikinolide (KAR 1 ), Kelpak ® (commercial seaweed extract), phloroglucinol (PG) and distilled water (control)] for 48h at 25°C. Thereafter, primed seeds were germinated at low temperatures, low osmotic potential and high NaCl concentrations. Low temperature (10°C) completely inhibited seed germination. However, temperature shift to 15°C improved germination. Smoke-water and KAR 1 enhanced seed germination with SW improving seedling growth under different stress conditions. Furthermore, priming seeds with Kelpak ® stimulated percentage germination, while PG and the control treatment improved seedling growth at different PEG and NaCl concentrations. Generally, high concentrations of PEG and NaCl brought about detrimental effects on seed germination and seedling growth. Findings from this study show the potential role of seed priming with biostimulants in the alleviation of abiotic stress conditions during seed germination and seedling growth in C. triloba plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. High temperature solution-nitriding and low-temperature nitriding of AISI 316: Effect on pitting potential and crevice corrosion performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottoli, Federico; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin

    2018-01-01

    in a 0.1M NaCl solution and crevice corrosion immersion tests in 3wt% FeCl3 solution were studied before and after the bulk and surface treatments.Nitrogen addition in the bulk proved to have a beneficial effect on the pitting resistance of the alloy. The formation of a zone of expanded austenite...... at the material surface through low-temperature nitriding resulted in a considerable improvement of the pitting potential and the crevice corrosion performance of the steels....

  12. Geothermal heat potential - the source for heating greenhouses in Southestern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbancl Danijela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents economically evaluated solutions for heating greenhouses with geothermal potential, if the same greenhouse is placed in two different locations in Southeastern Europe, one in Slovenia and the other in Serbia. The direct geothermal water exploitation using heat exchangers is presented and the remaining heat potential of already used geothermal water is exploited using high temperature heat pumps. Energy demands for heating greenhouses are calculated considering climatic parameters of both locations. Furthermore, different constructions materials are taken into account, and energy demands are evaluated if the same greenhouse is made of 4 mm toughened single glass, double insulated glass or polycarbonate plates. The results show that the geothermal energy usage is economically feasible in both locations, because payback periods are in range from two to almost eight years for different scenarios.

  13. Comparative measurements of plasma potential with ball-pen and Langmuir probe in low-temperature magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanáška, M.; Kudrna, P.; Tichý, M.; Adámek, J.; Peterka, M.

    2015-01-01

    The ball-pen probe (BPP) is used for direct plasma potential measurements in magnetized plasma. The probe can adjust the ratio of the electron and ion saturation currents I sat − /I sat + to be close to one and therefore its I-V characteristic becomes nearly symmetric. If this is achieved, the floating potential of the BPP is close to the plasma potential. Because of its rather simple construction, it offers an attractive probe for measurements in magnetized plasma. Comparative measurements of plasma potential by BPPs of different dimensions as well as one Langmuir probe (LP) in an argon discharge plasma of a cylindrical magnetron were performed at various experimental conditions. An additional comparison by an emissive probe was also performed. All these types of probes provide similar values of plasma potential in a wide range of plasma parameters. Our results for three different BPP dimensions indicate that the BPP can be operated in a cylindrical magnetron DC argon discharge if the value of the ratio of the magnetic field and neutral gas pressure, B/p, is greater than approximately 10 mT/Pa

  14. Comparative measurements of plasma potential with ball-pen and Langmuir probe in low-temperature magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanáška, M.; Adámek, J.; Peterka, M.; Kudrna, P.; Tichý, M.

    2015-03-01

    The ball-pen probe (BPP) is used for direct plasma potential measurements in magnetized plasma. The probe can adjust the ratio of the electron and ion saturation currents Isat-/Isat+ to be close to one and therefore its I-V characteristic becomes nearly symmetric. If this is achieved, the floating potential of the BPP is close to the plasma potential. Because of its rather simple construction, it offers an attractive probe for measurements in magnetized plasma. Comparative measurements of plasma potential by BPPs of different dimensions as well as one Langmuir probe (LP) in an argon discharge plasma of a cylindrical magnetron were performed at various experimental conditions. An additional comparison by an emissive probe was also performed. All these types of probes provide similar values of plasma potential in a wide range of plasma parameters. Our results for three different BPP dimensions indicate that the BPP can be operated in a cylindrical magnetron DC argon discharge if the value of the ratio of the magnetic field and neutral gas pressure, B/p, is greater than approximately 10 mT/Pa.

  15. Comparative measurements of plasma potential with ball-pen and Langmuir probe in low-temperature magnetized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanáška, M.; Kudrna, P.; Tichý, M. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 3, 12116 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Adámek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Za Slovankou 3, 18200 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Peterka, M. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 3, 12116 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Za Slovankou 3, 18200 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-15

    The ball-pen probe (BPP) is used for direct plasma potential measurements in magnetized plasma. The probe can adjust the ratio of the electron and ion saturation currents I{sub sat}{sup −}/I{sub sat}{sup +} to be close to one and therefore its I-V characteristic becomes nearly symmetric. If this is achieved, the floating potential of the BPP is close to the plasma potential. Because of its rather simple construction, it offers an attractive probe for measurements in magnetized plasma. Comparative measurements of plasma potential by BPPs of different dimensions as well as one Langmuir probe (LP) in an argon discharge plasma of a cylindrical magnetron were performed at various experimental conditions. An additional comparison by an emissive probe was also performed. All these types of probes provide similar values of plasma potential in a wide range of plasma parameters. Our results for three different BPP dimensions indicate that the BPP can be operated in a cylindrical magnetron DC argon discharge if the value of the ratio of the magnetic field and neutral gas pressure, B/p, is greater than approximately 10 mT/Pa.

  16. Extended geothermal potential of clastic aquifers by hydraulic stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.G.; Pluymaekers, M.P.D.; Wees, J.D.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the implications of hydraulic stimulation in a Dutch context for low permeability clastic aquifers at a depth of 2000 to 4000 m, whose transmissivity has been mapped in the framework of the Dutch subsurface information system on geothermal energy in the Netherlands. For the simulation

  17. WORKSHOP: Low temperature devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    With extraterrestrial neutrinos (whether from the sun or further afield) continuing to make science news, and with the search for the so far invisible 'dark matter' of the universe a continual preoccupation, physicists from different walks of life (solid state, low temperature, particles, astrophysics) gathered at a workshop on low temperature devices for the detection of neutrinos and dark matter, held from 12-13 March at Ringberg Castle on Lake Tegernsee in the Bavarian Alps, and organized by the Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics in Munich

  18. WORKSHOP: Low temperature devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-06-15

    With extraterrestrial neutrinos (whether from the sun or further afield) continuing to make science news, and with the search for the so far invisible 'dark matter' of the universe a continual preoccupation, physicists from different walks of life (solid state, low temperature, particles, astrophysics) gathered at a workshop on low temperature devices for the detection of neutrinos and dark matter, held from 12-13 March at Ringberg Castle on Lake Tegernsee in the Bavarian Alps, and organized by the Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics in Munich.

  19. The Pyrexia transient receptor potential channel mediates circadian clock synchronization to low temperature cycles in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, Werner; Simoni, Alekos; Gentile, Carla; Stanewsky, Ralf

    2013-10-07

    Circadian clocks are endogenous approximately 24 h oscillators that temporally regulate many physiological and behavioural processes. In order to be beneficial for the organism, these clocks must be synchronized with the environmental cycles on a daily basis. Both light : dark and the concomitant daily temperature cycles (TCs) function as Zeitgeber ('time giver') and efficiently entrain circadian clocks. The temperature receptors mediating this synchronization have not been identified. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels function as thermo-receptors in animals, and here we show that the Pyrexia (Pyx) TRP channel mediates temperature synchronization in Drosophila melanogaster. Pyx is expressed in peripheral sensory organs (chordotonal organs), which previously have been implicated in temperature synchronization. Flies deficient for Pyx function fail to synchronize their behaviour to TCs in the lower range (16-20°C), and this deficit can be partially rescued by introducing a wild-type copy of the pyx gene. Synchronization to higher TCs is not affected, demonstrating a specific role for Pyx at lower temperatures. In addition, pyx mutants speed up their clock after being exposed to TCs. Our results identify the first TRP channel involved in temperature synchronization of circadian clocks.

  20. The The geothermal potentials for electric development in Maluku Province

    OpenAIRE

    Isnaniawardhani, Vijaya; Sukiyah, Emi; Sudradjat, Adjat; Nanlohy, Martha Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    The characteristic of small to medium size islands is the limited amount of natural resources for electric generation. Presently the needs of energy in Maluku Province are supplied by the diesel generation units. The electricity distributes through an isolated grid system of each island. There are 10 separate systems in Maluku Province, namely Ambon, Namlea, Tual, Saumlaki, Mako, Piru, Bula, Masohi, Dobo and Langgur. From the geothermal point of view, this condition is suitable because the na...

  1. Geothermal potential on Kirtland Air Force Base lands, Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, P. R., Jr.

    1981-10-01

    Public policy expressed in a number of national directives in recent years stresses the conservation of conventional fuel supplies, a switch to alternative fuels, and the application of advanced energy technologies at federal installations. Natural gas currently furnishes 85 to 95 percent of the average 94 x 1,000,000 Btu/hr energy requirements for space heating and cooling at Kirtland Air Force Base. Studies of alternatives to the use of natural gas at the base include examination of the geothermal option. Four of North America's major physiographic provinces coalesce in central New Mexico on or near Kirtland AFB. Their junction is identified throughout much of this region by a tectonic depression occupied by the Rio Grande that is structurally complex, stratigraphically and hydrologically unique, and coincides with geologically recent volcanic centers. This trough, the Rio Grande rift, has been identified as a major geothermal resource area. The western part of Kirtland AFB is in the Albuquerque Basin segment of the Rio Grande rift. Extensive sampling and geochemical analysis of groundwater in and near the base disclosed no significant geothermal parameters. However, structural conditions and current hydrologics regimes strongly suggest that thermal waters would be masked by near surface, low temperature meteoric water originating as rain and snowfall in the nearby mountains.

  2. Assessment of geothermal energy potential by geophysical methods: Nevşehir Region, Central Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıyak, Alper; Karavul, Can; Gülen, Levent; Pekşen, Ertan; Kılıç, A. Rıza

    2015-03-01

    In this study, geothermal potential of the Nevşehir region (Central Anatolia) was assessed by using vertical electrical sounding (VES), self-potential (SP), magnetotelluric (MT), gravity and gravity 3D Euler deconvolution structure analysis methods. Extensive volcanic activity occurred in this region from Upper Miocene to Holocene time. Due to the young volcanic activity Nevşehir region can be viewed as a potential geothermal area. We collected data from 54 VES points along 5 profiles, from 28 MT measurement points along 2 profiles (at frequency range between 320 and 0.0001 Hz), and from 4 SP profiles (total 19 km long). The obtained results based on different geophysical methods are consistent with each other. Joint interpretation of all geological and geophysical data suggests that this region has geothermal potential and an exploration well validated this assessment beyond doubt.

  3. Assessment of the geothermal/geopressure potential of the Gulf Coastal Plan of Alabama. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G.V.; Wang, G.C.; Mancini, E.A.; Benson, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    Geothermal and geopressure as well as geologic and geophysical data were studied to evaluate the potential for future development of geothermal resources underlying the Alabama Coastal Plain. Wire-line log data compiled and interpreted from more than 1300 oil and gas test wells included maximum recorded temperatures, mud weights, rock resistivities as related to geopressure, formation tops, fault locations, and depths to basement rock. The Alabama Coastal Plain area is underlain by a conduction dominated, deep sedimentary basin where geothermal gradients are low to moderate (1.0 to 1.8/sup 0/F/100 feet). In some areas of southwest Alabama, abnormally high temperatures are found in association with geopressured zones within the Haynesville Formation of Jurassic age; however, rocks of poor reservoir quality dominate this formation, with the exception of a 200-square-mile area centered in southernmost Clarke County where a porous and permeable sand unit is encased within massive salt deposits of the lower Haynesville. The results of a petrograhic study of the Smackover Formation, which underlies the Haynesville, indicate that this carbonate rock unit has sufficient porosity in some areas to be considered a potential geothermal reservoir. Future development of geothermal resources in south Alabama will be restricted to low or moderate temperature, non-electric applications, which constitute a significant potential energy source for applications in space heating and cooling and certain agricultural and industrial processes.

  4. Biocontrol Potential of Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) Against Sitophilus granarius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) at Low Temperatures: Reproduction and Parasitoid-Induced Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise Stengård

    2007-01-01

    Lariophagus distinguendus Förster (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) has been suggested as a biological control agent against the granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius (L.), in grain stores. Information on the effect of low temperatures prevailing in grain stores is necessary to be able to predict...... the potential of this parasitoid against S. granarius in temperate regions, where grain is cooled with ambient air to achieve safe storage conditions. The influence of constant temperatures of 16, 18, and 20°C on life table parameters and parasitoid-induced mortality (PIM) was investigated in the laboratory. L...... is quicker than that of its host, estimated from the literature; and it kills many hosts in addition to those used for reproduction....

  5. Low temperatures - hot topic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1988-09-15

    Neutrino mass measurements, next-generation double beta experiments, solar neutrino detection, searches for magnetic monopoles and the challenge of discovering what most of the Universe is made of (dark matter), not to mention axions (cosmic and solar), supersymmetric neutral particles and cosmic neutrinos. All this physics could use cryogenic techniques. Thus the second European Workshop on Low Temperature Devices for the Detection of Low Energy Neutrinos and Dark Matter, held at LAPP (Annecy) in May, covered an active and promising field.

  6. Low temperatures - hot topic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Neutrino mass measurements, next-generation double beta experiments, solar neutrino detection, searches for magnetic monopoles and the challenge of discovering what most of the Universe is made of (dark matter), not to mention axions (cosmic and solar), supersymmetric neutral particles and cosmic neutrinos. All this physics could use cryogenic techniques. Thus the second European Workshop on Low Temperature Devices for the Detection of Low Energy Neutrinos and Dark Matter, held at LAPP (Annecy) in May, covered an active and promising field

  7. Low temperature carbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, A A

    1934-01-10

    A process is described in which coal is passed through a distillation chamber in one retort at a comparatively low temperature, then passing the coal through a distillation chamber of a second retort subjected to a higher temperature, thence passing the coal through the distillation chamber of a third retort at a still higher temperature and separately collecting the liquid and vapors produced from each retort.

  8. Sweating at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalaye, H.; Launay, J.P.

    1980-11-01

    Tests of penetration liquids normally used between 10 and 40 0 C have shown that the arrangement of operationaal conditions (penetration and revealing times) was not sufficient to maintain their sensitivity below 10 0 C, thereby confirming that this temperature is a limit below which such products cannot be employed. The results achieved with a penetrant and a tracer specially devised for low temperatures (SHERWIN B 305 + D100) are satisfactory between 0 0 C and 15 0 C [fr

  9. The Marsili Volcanic Seamount (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea: A Potential Offshore Geothermal Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Italiano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Italy has a strong geothermal potential for power generation, although, at present, the only two geothermal fields being exploited are Larderello-Travale/Radicondoli and Mt. Amiata in the Tyrrhenian pre-Apennine volcanic district of Southern Tuscany. A new target for geothermal exploration and exploitation in Italy is represented by the Southern Tyrrhenian submarine volcanic district, a geologically young basin (Upper Pliocene-Pleistocene characterised by tectonic extension where many seamounts have developed. Heat-flow data from that area show significant anomalies comparable to those of onshore geothermal fields. Fractured basaltic rocks facilitate seawater infiltration and circulation of hot water chemically altered by rock/water interactions, as shown by the widespread presence of hydrothermal deposits. The persistence of active hydrothermal activity is consistently shown by many different sources of evidence, including: heat-flow data, gravity and magnetic anomalies, widespread presence of hydrothermal-derived gases (CO2, CO, CH4, 3He/4He isotopic ratios, as well as broadband OBS/H seismological information, which demonstrates persistence of volcano-tectonic events and High Frequency Tremor (HFT. The Marsili and Tyrrhenian seamounts are thus an important—and likely long-lasting-renewable energy resource. This raises the possibility of future development of the world’s first offshore geothermal power plant.

  10. Comprehensive Evaluation of the Geothermal Resource Potential within the Pyramid Lake Paiute Reservation Phase III Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, Donna [Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe, Nixon, NV (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This project integrated state-of-the-art exploration technologies with a geologic framework and reservoir modeling to ultimately determine the efficacy of future geothermal production within the PLPT reservation. The information gained during this study should help the PLPT to make informed decisions regarding construction of a geothermal power plant. Additional benefits included the transfer of new technologies and geothermal data to the geothermal industry and it created and/or preserved nearly three dozen jobs accordance with the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. A variety of tasks were conducted to achieve the above stated objectives. The following are the tasks completed within the project: 1. Permitting 2. Shallow temperature survey 3. Seismic data collection and analysis 4. Fracture stress analysis 5. Phase I reporting Permitting 7. Shallow temperature survey 8. Seismic data collection and analysis 9. Fracture stress analysis 10. Phase I reporting 11. Drilling two new wells 12. Borehole geophysics 13. Phase II reporting 14. Well testing and geochemical analysis 15. Three-dimensional geologic model 16. Three-dimensional reservoir analysis 17. Reservation wide geothermal potential analysis 18. Phase III reporting Phase I consisted of tasks 1 – 5, Phase II tasks 6 – 8, and Phase III tasks 9 – 13. This report details the results of Phase III tasks. Reports are available for Phase I, and II as separate documents.

  11. Low temperature destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-07-05

    A process is given and apparatus is described for the destructive distillation at low temperature of coal, oil shale, and the like by subjection to the action of a stream of hot gases or superhearted steam, flowing in a closed circuit. Subsequent treatment of the distillation residues with a gas stream containing oxygen results in combustion of the carbon-containing material therein brings to a high temperature the solid residue, in which the process comprises subsequently contacting the hot solid residue with the fluid stream effecting the distillation.

  12. A geographically weighted regression model for geothermal potential assessment in mediterranean cultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arpa, S.; Zaccarelli, N.; Bruno, D. E.; Leucci, G.; Uricchio, V. F.; Zurlini, G.

    2012-04-01

    Geothermal heat can be used directly in many applications (agro-industrial processes, sanitary hot water production, heating/cooling systems, etc.). These applications respond to energetic and environmental sustainability criteria, ensuring substantial energy savings with low environmental impacts. In particular, in Mediterranean cultural landscapes the exploitation of geothermal energy offers a valuable alternative compared to other exploitation systems more land-consuming and visual-impact. However, low enthalpy geothermal energy applications at regional scale, require careful design and planning to fully exploit benefits and reduce drawbacks. We propose a first example of application of a Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) for the modeling of geothermal potential in the Apulia Region (South Italy) by integrating hydrological (e.g. depth to water table, water speed and temperature), geological-geotechnical (e.g. lithology, thermal conductivity) parameters and land-use indicators. The GWR model can effectively cope with data quality, spatial anisotropy, lack of stationarity and presence of discontinuities in the underlying data maps. The geothermal potential assessment required a good knowledge of the space-time variation of the numerous parameters related to the status of geothermal resource, a contextual analysis of spatial and environmental features, as well as the presence and nature of regulations or infrastructures constraints. We create an ad hoc geodatabase within ArcGIS 10 collecting relevant data and performing a quality assessment. Cross-validation shows high level of consistency of the spatial local models, as well as error maps can depict areas of lower reliability. Based on low enthalpy geothermal potential map created, a first zoning of the study area is proposed, considering four level of possible exploitation. Such zoning is linked and refined by the actual legal constraints acting at regional or province level as enforced by the regional

  13. Low temperature distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandegrift, J N; Postel, C

    1929-04-09

    To recover gas, oil tars, and coked residues by low temperature distillation from bituminous coals, lignites, oil shales, and the like, the raw material is fed from a hopper into a rotary retort which is zonally heated, the temperature being greatest at the discharge end. The material is heated first to a relatively low temperature, thereby removing the moisture and lighter volatiles which are withdrawn through a pipe by the suction of a pump, while the higher boiling point volatiles and fixed gases are withdrawn by suction through an outlet from the higher temperature zone. The vapors withdrawn from the opposite ends of the retort pass through separate vapor lines and condensers, and the suction in each end of the retort, caused by the pumps, is controlled by valves, which also control the location of the neutral point in the retort formed by said suction. Air and inert gas may be introduced into the retort from pipe and stack respectively through a pipe, and steam may be admitted into the high temperature zone through a pipe.

  14. Low-temperature carbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strankmuller, J

    1954-01-01

    The low-temperature carbonization plant at Boehlen in Eastern Germany (the first in which Lurgi type ovens were installed) worked with a throughput of 300 tons of brown-coal briquets per day per oven since 1936, later increased to 365 tons per day. The rising demand for low-temperature tar for hydrogenation purposes led to development of a modified oven of 450 tons throughput. This was achieved by stepping up the flow of the circulating gas and air mixture from 420,000 to 560,000 cubic feet per hour and by additional rows of V-shaped deflectors across the width of the oven chamber, which break up and loosen the charge, thus reducing cooling-gas pressure and allowing a greater flow of scavenging gas. The distance traversed by each briquet is nearly doubled, and the temperature gradient is less. It is claimed that the tar and the coke from modified ovens are of comparable quality. The compressive strength of the briquets was found to have an appreciable effect on the output. Better qts the chemistry, mechanism and thermodynamics of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction and aectromagnetic radiation.

  15. Spatial Analysis of Geothermal Resource Potential in New York and Pennsylvania: A Stratified Kriging Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. D.; Whealton, C. A.; Stedinger, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Resource assessments for low-grade geothermal applications employ available well temperature measurements to determine if the resource potential is sufficient for supporting district heating opportunities. This study used a compilation of bottomhole temperature (BHT) data from recent unconventional shale oil and gas wells, along with legacy oil, gas, and storage wells, in Pennsylvania (PA) and New York (NY). Our study's goal was to predict the geothermal resource potential and associated uncertainty for the NY-PA region using kriging interpolation. The dataset was scanned for outliers, and some observations were removed. Because these wells were drilled for reasons other than geothermal resource assessment, their spatial density varied widely. An exploratory spatial statistical analysis revealed differences in the spatial structure of the geothermal gradient data (the kriging semi-variogram and its nugget variance, shape, sill, and the degree of anisotropy). As a result, a stratified kriging procedure was adopted to better capture the statistical structure of the data, to generate an interpolated surface, and to quantify the uncertainty of the computed surface. The area was stratified reflecting different physiographic provinces in NY and PA that have geologic properties likely related to variations in the value of the geothermal gradient. The kriging prediction and the variance-of-prediction were determined for each province by the generation of a semi-variogram using only the wells that were located within that province. A leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) was conducted as a diagnostic tool. The results of stratified kriging were compared to kriging using the whole region to determine the impact of stratification. The two approaches provided similar predictions of the geothermal gradient. However, the variance-of-prediction was different. The stratified approach is recommended because it gave a more appropriate site-specific characterization of uncertainty

  16. Geothermal potential assessment for a low carbon strategy : A new systematic approach applied in southern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trumpy, E.; Botteghi, S.; Caiozzi, F.; Donato, A.; Gola, G.; Montanari, D.; Pluymaekers, M. P D; Santilano, A.; van Wees, J. D.; Manzella, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study a new approach to geothermal potential assessment was set up and applied in four regions in southern Italy. Our procedure, VIGORThermoGIS, relies on the volume method of assessment and uses a 3D model of the subsurface to integrate thermal, geological and petro-physical data. The

  17. Geothermal potential assessment for a low carbon strategy: A new systematic approach applied in southern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trumpy, E.; Botteghi, S.; Caiozzi, F.; Donato, A.; Gola, G.; Montanari, D.; Pluymaekers, M.P.D.; Santilano, A.; Wees, J.D. van; Manzella, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study a new approach to geothermal potential assessment was set up and applied in four regions in southern Italy. Our procedure, VIGORThermoGIS, relies on the volume method of assessment and uses a 3D model of the subsurface to integrate thermal, geological and petro-physical data. The

  18. Low temperature caused modifications in the arrangement of cell wall pectins due to changes of osmotic potential of cells of maize leaves (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilska-Kos, Anna; Solecka, Danuta; Dziewulska, Aleksandra; Ochodzki, Piotr; Jończyk, Maciej; Bilski, Henryk; Sowiński, Paweł

    2017-03-01

    The cell wall emerged as one of the important structures in plant stress responses. To investigate the effect of cold on the cell wall properties, the content and localization of pectins and pectin methylesterase (PME) activity, were studied in two maize inbred lines characterized by different sensitivity to cold. Low temperature (14/12 °C) caused a reduction of pectin content and PME activity in leaves of chilling-sensitive maize line, especially after prolonged treatment (28 h and 7 days). Furthermore, immunocytohistological studies, using JIM5 and JIM7 antibodies, revealed a decrease of labeling of both low- and high-methylesterified pectins in this maize line. The osmotic potential, quantified by means of incipient plasmolysis was lower in several types of cells of chilling-sensitive maize line which was correlated with the accumulation of sucrose. These studies present new finding on the effect of cold stress on the cell wall properties in conjunction with changes in the osmotic potential of maize leaf cells.

  19. Young (gold deposits and active geothermal systems of the Great Basin: Enigmas, questions, and exploration potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolbaugh, Mark F.; Vikre, Peter G.; Faulds, James E.

    2011-01-01

    remobilized from older gold mineralization? Current research is investigating these and other questions to improve our genetic understanding of these young gold systems, which in turn can lead to improved exploration targeting. The recent rapid growth in resources for both young gold deposits and geothermal systems underscores their underdeveloped exploration potential. Even though many young gold deposits exhibit relatively shallow hot-springs-style mineralization, their young age may preclude exposure by erosion. Uplift along active normal faults has exposed some deposits (e.g., Florida Canyon, Dixie Comstock, Wind Mountain), but in other areas, such as the Walker Lane, where strike-slip faulting is prevalent, the opportunities for exposure can be limited. Many active geothermal systems are also concealed below the surface in that hot springs or steam vents may be absent above areas of thermal groundwater.With sources of energy to support mine production becoming more problematic, the potential advantages of simultaneously exploring for young gold deposits and spatially associated geothermal systems are becoming more apparent. Exploration methods recently proven effective in geothermal exploration that can be adapted to gold exploration include temperature surveys, hyperspectral remote sensing, geophysical surveys, water analyses, and detailed mapping of geothermal-related features and related fault systems.

  20. Potential decline in geothermal energy generation due to rising temperatures under climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, E.; Ortega, S.; Gonzalez-Duque, D.; Ruiz-Carrascal, D.

    2016-12-01

    Geothermal energy production depends on the difference between air temperature and the geothermal fluid temperature. The latter remains approximately constant over time, so the power generation varies according to local atmospheric conditions. Projected changes in near-surface air temperatures in the upper levels of the tropical belt are likely to exceed the projected temperature anomalies across many other latitudes, which implies that geothermal plants located in these regions may be affected, reducing their energy output. This study focuses on a hypothetical geothermal power plant, located in the headwaters of the Claro River watershed, a key high-altitude basin in Los Nevados Natural Park, on the El Ruiz-Tolima volcanic massif, in the Colombian Central Andes, a region with a known geothermal potential. Four different Atmospheric General Circulation Models where used to project temperature anomalies for the 2040-2069 prospective period. Their simulation outputs were merged in a differentially-weighted multi-model ensemble, whose weighting factors were defined according to the capability of individual models to reproduce ground truth data from a set of digital data-loggers installed in the basin since 2008 and from weather stations gathering climatic variables since the early 50s. Projected anomalies were computed for each of the Representative Concentration Pathways defined by the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report in the studied region. These climate change projections indicate that air temperatures will likely reach positive anomalies in the range +1.27 ºC to +3.47 ºC, with a mean value of +2.18 ºC. Under these conditions, the annual energy output declines roughly 1% per each degree of increase in near-surface temperature. These results must be taken into account in geothermal project evaluations in the region.

  1. Heat Flow and Geothermal Potential in the South-Central United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negraru, Petru T.; Blackwell, David D.; Erkan, Kamil

    2008-01-01

    Geothermal exploration is typically limited to high-grade hydrothermal reservoirs that are usually found in the western United States, yet large areas with subsurface temperatures above 150 deg. C at economic drilling depths can be found east of the Rocky Mountains. The object of this paper is to present new heat flow data and to evaluate the geothermal potential of Texas and adjacent areas. The new data show that, west of the Ouachita Thrust Belt, the heat flow values are lower than east of the fault zone. Basement heat flow values for the Palo Duro and Fort Worth Basins are below 50 mW/m 2 while, in the frontal zone of the belt, they can exceed 60 mW/m 2 . Further east, along the Balcones fault system the heat flow is in general higher than 55 mW/m 2 . The eastern most heat flow sites are in Louisiana and they show very high heat flow (over 80 mW/m 2 ), which is associated with the apparently highly radioactive basement of the Sabine uplift. The geothermal resource in this area is large and diverse, and can be divided in high grade (temperature above 150 deg. C) convective systems, conductive based enhanced geothermal systems and geothermal/geopressured systems. One of the most attractive areas east of the cordillera extends from eastern Texas across Louisiana and Arkansas to western Mississippi. Here temperatures reach exploitation range at depths below 4 km, and tapping such a resource from shut in hydrocarbon fields is relatively easy. The initial costs of the development can be greatly reduced if existing hydrocarbon infrastructure is used, and therefore using shut-in hydrocarbon fields for geothermal purposes should not be neglected

  2. Economic analysis of potential uses of geothermal energy in agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, B.W.

    1978-02-01

    The economic feasibility and water quality considerations of the cultural practice of soil warming was evaluated using existing technical, agronomic, and economic data. It was hypothesized that it is technically and economically feasible to use geothermal energy in the cultural practice of soil warming for specific crops. The analysis attempted to reject the hypothesis. Since the hypothesis could not be rejected, the results are presented as a profit equation suitable for inclusion in the GEOCOST computer program. This determination of economic feasibility utilized heterogeneous crop yield data by comparing the elasticity of response with a normalized product-factor price ratio. Soil warming was determined to be feasible when the elasticity of production was equal to or greater than the normalized product-factor price ratio. A farm enterprise was determined profitable if net returns were positive. An empirical model in which the energy dissipation rate is a function of the difference between heat source temperature and mean monthly air temperature was transformed to utilize data describing the total heat applied during the growing season. Heat input was then measured as the total number of calories per square centimeter applied during the growing season.

  3. Adsorption behavior of modified Iron stick yam skin with Polyethyleneimine as a potential biosorbent for the removal of anionic dyes in single and ternary systems at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Zhuo; Li, Jun; Zhao, Jing; Bian, Wei; Li, Yun; Wang, Xiu-Jie

    2016-12-01

    The skin of Iron stick yam (ISY) was modified with Polyethyleneimine (ISY@PEI) and evaluated for use as a potential biosorbent to remove the anionic dyes Sunset yellow (SY), Lemon yellow (LY), and Carmine (CM) from wastewater under low temperature conditions (5-15°C) in single and ternary dye systems. Both in the single and ternary systems, experimental data showed that adsorption capacity reached the highest value at 5°C, and adsorption capacity decreased when the temperature increased (10-50°C). The equilibrium data fitted very well to the Langmuir model and the extended Langmuir isotherm, for the single and ternary systems, respectively. The maximum adsorption capability was 138.92, 476.31, and 500.13mg/g for LY, SY, and CM, respectively, in a single system and 36.63, 303.31, and 294.12mg/g for LY, SY, and CM, respectively, in a ternary system. The adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that it was a spontaneous and exothermic process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Du, H.; Bouchot, V.; Lopez, S.; Bialkowski, A.; Colnot, A.; Rigollet, C.; Sanjuan, B.; Millot, R.; Brach, M.; Asmundsson, R.; Giroud, N.

    2010-01-01

    Geothermal energy has shown a revival for several years and should strongly develop in a near future. Its potentiality is virtually unexhaustible. Its uses are multiple and various: individual and collective space heating, heat networks, power generation, heat storage, heat exchanges etc.. Re-launched by the demand of renewable energy sources, geothermal energy has become credible thanks to the scientific works published recently which have demonstrated its economical and technical relevance. Its image to the public is changing as well. However, lot of work remains to do to make geothermal energy a real industry in France. Several brakes have to be removed rapidly which concern the noise pollution of geothermal facilities, the risk of bad results of drillings, the electricity costs etc. This dossier gives an overview of today's main research paths in the domain of geothermal energy: 1 - geothermal energy in France: historical development, surface and deep resources, ambitions of the French national energy plan (pluri-annual investment plan for heat generation, incentives, regional 'climate-air-energy' schemes), specific regulations; 2 - geothermal energy at the city scale - sedimentary basins: Ile-de-France 40 years of Dogger reservoir exploitation, potentialities of clastic reservoirs - the Chaunoy sandstones example; 3 - geothermal power generation: conventional reservoirs - the Bouillante model (Guadeloupe, French Indies); the Soultz-sous-Forets pilot plant (Bas-Rhin, France); the supercritical reservoirs - the Krafla geothermal area (Iceland). (J.S.)

  5. Low temperature rate coefficients of the H + CH(+) → C(+) + H2 reaction: New potential energy surface and time-independent quantum scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfelli, Ghofran; Halvick, Philippe; Honvault, Pascal; Kerkeni, Boutheïna; Stoecklin, Thierry

    2015-09-21

    The observed abundances of the methylidyne cation, CH(+), in diffuse molecular clouds can be two orders of magnitude higher than the prediction of the standard gas-phase models which, in turn, predict rather well the abundances of neutral CH. It is therefore necessary to investigate all the possible formation and destruction processes of CH(+) in the interstellar medium with the most abundant species H, H2, and e(-). In this work, we address the destruction process of CH(+) by hydrogen abstraction. We report a new calculation of the low temperature rate coefficients for the abstraction reaction, using accurate time-independent quantum scattering and a new high-level ab initio global potential energy surface including a realistic model of the long-range interaction between the reactants H and CH(+). The calculated thermal rate coefficient is in good agreement with the experimental data in the range 50 K-800 K. However, at lower temperatures, the experimental rate coefficient takes exceedingly small values which are not reproduced by the calculated rate coefficient. Instead, the latter rate coefficient is close to the one given by the Langevin capture model, as expected for a reaction involving an ion and a neutral species. Several recent theoretical works have reported a seemingly good agreement with the experiment below 50 K, but an analysis of these works show that they are based on potential energy surfaces with incorrect long-range behavior. The experimental results were explained by a loss of reactivity of the lowest rotational states of the reactant; however, the quantum scattering calculations show the opposite, namely, a reactivity enhancement with rotational excitation.

  6. Effect of ultrasound, low-temperature thermal and alkali pre-treatments on waste activated sludge rheology, hygienization and methane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Hernando, M; Martín-Díaz, J; Labanda, J; Mata-Alvarez, J; Llorens, J; Lucena, F; Astals, S

    2014-09-15

    Waste activated sludge is slower to biodegrade under anaerobic conditions than is primary sludge due to the glycan strands present in microbial cell walls. The use of pre-treatments may help to disrupt cell membranes and improve waste activated sludge biodegradability. In the present study, the effect of ultrasound, low-temperature thermal and alkali pre-treatments on the rheology, hygienization and biodegradability of waste activated sludge was evaluated. The optimum condition of each pre-treatment was selected based on rheological criteria (reduction of steady state viscosity) and hygienization levels (reduction of Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and spores of sulfite-reducing clostridia). The three pre-treatments were able to reduce the viscosity of the sludge, and this reduction was greater with increasing treatment intensity. However, only the alkali and thermal conditioning allowed the hygienization of the sludge, whereas the ultrasonication did not exhibit any notorious effect on microbial indicators populations. The selected optimum conditions were as follows: 27,000 kJ/kg TS for the ultrasound, 80 °C during 15 min for the thermal and 157 g NaOH/kg TS for the alkali. Afterward, the specific methane production was evaluated through biomethane potential tests at the specified optimum conditions. The alkali pre-treatment exhibited the greatest methane production increase (34%) followed by the ultrasonication (13%), whereas the thermal pre-treatment presented a methane potential similar to the untreated sludge. Finally, an assessment of the different treatment scenarios was conducted considering the results together with an energy balance, which revealed that the ultrasound and alkali treatments entailed higher costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Replacing critical radiators to increase the potential to use low-temperature district heating – A case study of 4 Danish single-family houses from the 1930s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Dorte Skaarup; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    radiator sizes and heating demands in 4 existing Danish single-family houses from the 1930s. A year-long dynamic simulation was performed for each of the houses to evaluate the potential to lower the heating system temperatures. The results indicate that there is a large potential to use low......-temperature district heating in existing single-family houses. In order to obtain the full potential of low-temperature district heating, critical radiators must be replaced. Based on a novel method, a total of nine radiators were identified to be critical to ensure thermal comfort and low return temperatures in two...

  8. Low Temperature Plasma Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, David

    2013-10-01

    Ionized gas plasmas near room temperature are used in a remarkable number of technological applications mainly because they are extraordinarily efficient at exploiting electrical power for useful chemical and material transformations near room temperature. In this tutorial address, I will focus on the newest area of low temperature ionized gas plasmas (LTP), in this case operating under atmospheric pressure conditions, in which the temperature-sensitive material is living tissue. LTP research directed towards biomedical applications such as sterilization, surgery, wound healing and anti-cancer therapy has seen remarkable growth in the last 3-5 years, but the mechanisms responsible for the biomedical effects have remained mysterious. It is known that LTP readily create reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). ROS and RNS (or RONS), in addition to a suite of other radical and non-radical reactive species, are essential actors in an important sub-field of aerobic biology termed ``redox'' (or oxidation-reduction) biology. I will review the evidence suggesting that RONS generated by plasmas are responsible for their observed therapeutic effects. Other possible bio-active mechanisms include electric fields, charges and photons. It is common in LTP applications that synergies between different mechanisms can play a role and I will review the evidence for synergies in plasma biomedicine. Finally, I will address the challenges and opportunities for plasma physicists to enter this novel, multidisciplinary field.

  9. Low-Temperature Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Erik J.; West, William C.; Smart, Marshall C.

    2008-01-01

    An effort to extend the low-temperature operational limit of supercapacitors is currently underway. At present, commercially available non-aqueous supercapacitors are rated for a minimum operating temperature of -40 C. A capability to operate at lower temperatures would be desirable for delivering power to systems that must operate in outer space or in the Polar Regions on Earth. Supercapacitors (also known as double-layer or electrochemical capacitors) offer a high power density (>1,000 W/kg) and moderate energy density (about 5 to 10 Wh/kg) technology for storing energy and delivering power. This combination of properties enables delivery of large currents for pulsed applications, or alternatively, smaller currents for low duty cycle applications. The mechanism of storage of electric charge in a supercapacitor -- at the electrical double-layer formed at a solid-electrode/liquid-electrolyte interface -- differs from that of a primary or secondary electrochemical cell (i.e., a battery) in such a manner as to impart a long cycle life (typically >10(exp 6) charge/discharge cycles).

  10. Geothermal Potential Evaluation for Northern Chile and Suggestions for New Energy Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monia Procesi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chile is a country rich in natural resources, and it is the world’s largest producer and exporter of copper. Mining is the main industry and is an essential part of the Chilean economy, but the country has limited indigenous fossil fuels—over 90% of the country’s fossil fuels must be imported. The electricity market in Chile comprises two main independent systems: the Northern Interconnected Power Grid (SING and the Central Interconnected Power Grid (SIC. Currently, the primary Chilean energy source is imported fossil fuels, whereas hydropower represents the main indigenous source. Other renewables such as wind, solar, biomass and geothermics are as yet poorly developed. Specifically, geothermal energy has not been exploited in Chile, but among all renewables it has the greatest potential. The transition from thermal power plants to renewable energy power plants is an important target for the Chilean Government in order to reduce dependence on imported fossil fuels. In this framework, the proposed study presents an evaluation of the geothermal potential for northern Chile in terms of power generation. The El Tatio, Surire, Puchuldiza, Orriputunco-Olca and Apacheta geothermal fields are considered for the analysis. The estimated electrical power is approximately 1300 MWe, and the energy supply is 10,200 GWh/year. This means that more than 30% of the SING energy could be provided from geothermal energy, reducing the dependence on imported fossil fuels, saving 8 Mton/year of CO2 and supplying the mining industry, which is Chile’s primary energy user.

  11. THE ASSESSMENT OF GEOTHERMAL POTENTIAL OF TURKEY BY MEANS OF HEAT FLOW ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UĞUR AKIN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the heat flow distribution of Turkey was investigated in the interest ofexploring new geothermal fields in addition to known ones. For this purposes, thegeothermal gradient was estimated from the Curie point depth map obtained from airbornemagnetic data by means of power spectrum method. By multiplying geothermal gradientwith thermal conductivity values, the heat flow map of Turkey was obtained. The averagevalue in the heat flow map of Turkey was determined as 74 mW/m2. It points out existenceof resources of geothermal energy larger than the average of the world resources. in termsof geothermal potential, the most significant region of Turkey is the Aydin and itssurrounding with a value exceeding 200 mW/m2. On the contrary, the value decreasesbelow 30 mW/m2in the region bordered by Aksaray, Niğde, Karaman and Konya. Thenecessity of conducting a detailed additional studies for East Black sea, East and SoutheastAnatolia is also revealed

  12. The geothermal energy potential in Denmark - updating the database and new structural and thermal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Sparre Andersen, Morten; Balling, Niels; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Fuchs, Sven; Leth Hjuler, Morten; Kristensen, Lars; Mathiesen, Anders; Olivarius, Mette; Weibel, Rikke

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of structural, hydraulic and thermal conditions of the subsurface is fundamental for the planning and use of hydrothermal energy. In the framework of a project under the Danish Research program 'Sustainable Energy and Environment' funded by the 'Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation', fundamental geological and geophysical information of importance for the utilization of geothermal energy in Denmark was compiled, analyzed and re-interpreted. A 3D geological model was constructed and used as structural basis for the development of a national subsurface temperature model. In that frame, all available reflection seismic data were interpreted, quality controlled and integrated to improve the regional structural understanding. The analyses and interpretation of available relevant data (i.e. old and new seismic profiles, core and well-log data, literature data) and a new time-depth conversion allowed a consistent correlation of seismic surfaces for whole Denmark and across tectonic features. On this basis, new topologically consistent depth and thickness maps for 16 geological units from the top pre-Zechstein to the surface were drawn. A new 3D structural geological model was developed with special emphasis on potential geothermal reservoirs. The interpretation of petrophysical data (core data and well-logs) allows to evaluate the hydraulic and thermal properties of potential geothermal reservoirs and to develop a parameterized numerical 3D conductive subsurface temperature model. Reservoir properties and quality were estimated by integrating petrography and diagenesis studies with porosity-permeability data. Detailed interpretation of the reservoir quality of the geological formations was made by estimating net reservoir sandstone thickness based on well-log analysis, determination of mineralogy including sediment provenance analysis, and burial history data. New local surface heat-flow values (range: 64-84 mW/m2) were determined for the Danish

  13. Application of the geothermal energy in the industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovska-Vasilevska, Sanja

    2001-01-01

    In the worldwide practice, the geothermal energy application, as an alternative energy resource, can be of great importance. This is especially case in the countries where exceptional natural geothermal potential exists. Despite using geothermal energy for both greenhouses heating and balneology, the one can be successfully implemented in the heat requiring industrial processes. This kind of use always provides greater annual heat loading factor, since the industrial processes are not seasonal (or not the greater part of them). The quality of the geothermal resources that are available in Europe, dictates the use within the low-temperature range technological processes. However, these processes are significantly engaged in different groups of processing industries. But, beside this fact the industrial application of geothermal energy is at the beginning in the Europe. (Original)

  14. The transformative potential of geothermal heating in the U.S. energy market: A regional study of New York and Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reber, Timothy J.; Beckers, Koenraad F.; Tester, Jefferson W.

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) could supply a significant fraction of the low-temperature (<125 °C) thermal energy used in the United States through Geothermal District Heating (GDH). In this study we develop a regional model to evaluate the potential for EGS district heating in the states of New York and Pennsylvania by simulating an EGS district heating network at each population center within the study region and estimating the levelized cost of heat (LCOH) from GDH for each community. LCOHs were then compiled into a supply curve from which several conclusions could be drawn. Our evaluation revealed that EGS district heating has the potential to supply cost-effective energy for space and water heating in several New York and Pennsylvania communities in the near future. To realize wider deployment, modest improvements in EGS technology, escalation of natural gas prices, and/or government incentives will likely be required to enable GDH to compete with other heating alternatives today. EGS reservoir flow rates, drilling costs, system lifetimes, and fluid return temperatures have significant effects on the LCOH of GDH and thus will provide the highest return on R and D investment, while creative implementation strategies can help EGS district heating overcome initial cost barriers that exist today. - Highlights: • EGS district heating potential evaluated for 2894 towns in New York and Pennsylvania. • Supply curves developed using estimated levelized cost of heat (LCOH) for each town. • Geothermal district heating has cost-saving potential in NY, PA and the US. • Initial candidate communities, R and D targets, and deployment strategies identified

  15. Geothermal direct heat use: Market potential/penetration analysis for Federal Region 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, W. (Editor); Tang, K. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential for geothermal direct heat use in Arizona, California, Hawaii, and Nevada (Federal Region 9). An analysis was made of each state to: (1) define the resource, based on the latest available data; (2) assess the potential market growth for geothermal energy; and (3) estimate the market penetration, projected to 2020. Findings of the study include the following: (1) Potentially economical hydrothermal resources exist in all four states of the Region: however, the resource data base is largely incomplete, particularly for low to moderate temperature resources. (2) In terms of beneficial heat, the total hydrothermal resource identified so far for the four states is on the order of 43 Quads, including an estimated 34 Quads of high temperature resources which are suitable for direct as well as electrical applications. (3) In California, Hawaii, and Nevada, the industrial market sector has somewhat greater potential for penetration than the residential/commercial sector. In Arizona, however, the situation is reversed, due to the collocation of two major metropolitan areas (Phoenix and Tucson) with potential geothermal resources.

  16. Effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area, Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorey, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    A two-year study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the National Park Service, Argonne National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory was initiated in 1988 to determine the effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA), Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. The study addressed three principal issues: (1) the sources of thermal water in the hot springs at Mammoth, La Duke, and Bear Creek; (2) the degree of subsurface connection between these areas; and (3) the effects of geothermal development in the Corwin Springs KGRA on the Park's thermal features. The authors investigations included, but were not limited to, geologic mapping, electrical geophysical surveys, chemical sampling and analyses of waters and rocks, determinations of the rates of discharge of various thermal springs, and hydrologic tracer tests

  17. Potential for a significant deep basin geothermal system in Tintic Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, C.; Kirby, S.

    2014-12-01

    The combination of regionally high heat flow, deep basins, and permeable reservoir rocks in the eastern Great Basin may yield substantial new geothermal resources. We explore a deep sedimentary basin geothermal prospect beneath Tintic Valley in central Utah using new 2D and 3D models coupled with existing estimates of heat flow, geothermometry, and shallow hydrologic data. Tintic Valley is a sediment-filled basin bounded to the east and west by bedrock mountain ranges where heat-flow values vary from 85 to over 240 mW/m2. Based on modeling of new and existing gravity data, a prominent 30 mGal low indicates basin fill thickness may exceed 2 km. The insulating effect of relatively low thermal conductivity basin fill in Tintic Valley, combined with typical Great Basin heat flow, predict temperatures greater than 150 °C at 3 km depth. The potential reservoir beneath the basin fill is comprised of Paleozoic carbonate and clastic rocks. The hydrology of the Tintic Valley is characterized by a shallow, cool groundwater system that recharges along the upper reaches of the basin and discharges along the valley axis and to a series of wells. The east mountain block is warm and dry, with groundwater levels just above the basin floor and temperatures >50 °C at depth. The west mountain block contains a shallow, cool meteoric groundwater system. Fluid temperatures over 50 °C are sufficient for direct-use applications, such as greenhouses and aquaculture, while temperatures exceeding 140°C are suitable for binary geothermal power plants. The geologic setting and regionally high heat flow in Tintic Valley suggest a geothermal resource capable of supporting direct-use geothermal applications and binary power production could be present.

  18. Letting Off Steam and Getting Into Hot Water - Harnessing the Geothermal Energy Potential of Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teodoriu, Catalin; Falcone, Gioia; Espinel, Arnaldo

    2007-07-01

    The oil industry is turning its attention to the more complex development of heavy oil fields in order to meet the ever increasing demands of the manufacturing sector. The current thermal recovery techniques of heavy oil developments provide an opportunity to benefit from the geothermal energy created during the heavy oil production process. There is scope to improve the current recovery factors of heavy oil reservoirs, and there is a need to investigate the associated geothermal energy potential that has been historically neglected. This paper presents a new concept of harnessing the geothermal energy potential of heavy oil reservoirs with the co-production of incremental reserves. (auth)

  19. Shallow geothermal field in Lanzarote (Canary Island). Potential evaluation and heat extraction test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez-Gil, J.L.; Valentin, A. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain); Torres, F. [Universidad de Barcelona (Spain); Albert, J.F.

    1994-12-31

    Boreholes were used to perform various experiments. A thermometry was carried out, as well as chemical analysis and an hydrodynamic modelling. This paper presents the scientific aims and conclusions of the whole project called ``Shallow H.D.R. geothermal field`` in Lanzarote (Canary Islands). Potential evaluation and heat extraction test are presented. (Project JOUG-0004 ES -JR - JOULE Program of the EEC). (TEC). 2 tabs.

  20. Implication of post-glacial warming for Northern Alberta heat flow - correcting for the underestimate of the geothermal potential

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majorowicz, J.; Gosnold, W.; Gray, A.; Šafanda, Jan; Klenner, R.; Unsworth, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2012), s. 693-698 ISSN 0193-5933 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : geothermal energy potential * Canadian sedimentary basin * heat flow * paleoclimatic correction Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  1. Modeling low-temperature serpentinization reactions to estimate molecular hydrogen production with implications for potential microbial life on Saturn's moon Enceladus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, Jennifer; Smrzka, Daniel; Taubner, Ruth-Sophie; Bach, Wolfgang; Rittmann, Simon; Schleper, Christa; Peckmann, Jörn

    2017-04-01

    Serpentinization of ultramafic rocks attracts much interest in research on the origin of life on Earth and the search for life on extraterrestrial bodies including icy moons like Enceladus. Serpentinization on Earth occurs in peridotite-hosted systems at slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges, and produces large amounts of molecular hydrogen and methane. These reduced compounds can be utilized by diverse chemosynthetic microbial consortia as a metabolic energy source. Although many hydrothermal vents emit hot and acidic fluids today, it is more likely that life originated in the Archean at sites producing much cooler and more alkaline fluids that allowed for the synthesis and stability of essential organic molecules necessary for life. Therefore, a detailed understanding of water-rock interaction processes during low-temperature serpentinization is of crucial importance in assessing the life-sustaining potential of these environments. In the course of serpentinization, the metasomatic hydration of olivine and pyroxene produces various minerals including serpentine minerals, magnetite, brucite, and carbonates. Hydrogen production only occurs if ferrous iron within iron-bearing minerals is oxidized and incorporated as ferric iron into magnetite. The PHREEQC code was used to model the pH- and temperature-dependent dissolution of olivine and pyroxene to form serpentine, magnetite and hydrogen under pressure and temperature conditions that may exist on Saturn's icy moon Enceladus. Various model setups at 25 and 50°C were run to assess the influence of environmental parameters on hydrogen production. The results reveal that hydrogen production rates depend on the composition of the initial mineral assemblage and temperature. The current assumption is that there is a gaseous phase between Enceladus' ice sheet and subsurface ocean. To test various scenarios, model runs were conducted with and without the presence of a gas phase. The model results show that hydrogen production is

  2. Status and potential of geothermal power in East Africa; Status quo und Entwicklungspotential der Geothermie in Ostafrika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraml, M.; Kessels, K.; Kalberkamp, U.; Kehrer, P.; Ochmann, N.; Reitmayr, G.; Stadtler, C. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Delvaux, D. [Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren (Belgium)

    2006-10-15

    Each country of the East African rift has potential sites for geothermal power generation. The biggest resources are expected in Kenya and Ethiopia, where conventional steam power plants can be constructed. In 2003, the six states of the region, i.e. Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda come together and decided, together with the UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme), to work on the systematic development of geothermal power in the region. Together with several investors, the ''African Rift Geothermal Development Facility'' (ARGeo) was founded with total funds of nearly 24 million US dollars. (orig.)

  3. Potential effects of the Hawaii Geothermal Project on ground-water resources on the island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorey, M.L.; Colvard, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, the State of Hawaii proposed the Hawaii Geothermal Project for the development of as much as 500 MW of electric power from the geothermal system in the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano. This report uses data from 31 wells and 8 springs to describe the properties of the ground-water system in and adjacent to the East Rift Zone. Potential effects of this project on ground-water resources are also discussed. Data show differences in ground-water chemistry and heads within the study area that appear to be related to mixing of waters of different origins and ground-water impoundment by volcanic dikes. East of Pahoa, the ground-water system within the rift is highly transmissive and receives abundant recharge from precipitation; therefore, the pumping of freshwater to support geothermal development in that part of the rift zone would have a minimal effect on ground-water levels. To the southwest of Pahoa, dike impoundment reduces the transmissivity of the ground-water system to such an extent that wells might not be capable of supplying sufficient fresh water to support geothermal operations. Contamination of ground-water resources by accidental release of geothermal fluids into shallow aquifers is possible because of corrosive conditions in the geothermal wells, potential well blowouts, and high ground-water velocities in parts of the region. Hydrologic monitoring of water level, temperature, and chemistry in observation wells should continue throughout development of geothermal resources for the Hawaii Geothermal Project for early detection of leakage and migration of geothermal fluids within the groundwater system.

  4. Geothermal Potential of the Cascade and Aleutian Arcs, with Ranking of Individual Volcanic Centers for their Potential to Host Electricity-Grade Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevenell, Lisa [ATLAS Geosciences, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Coolbaugh, Mark [ATLAS Geosciences, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Hinz, Nick [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Stelling, Pete [Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA (United States); Melosh, Glenn [GEODE, Santa Rosa, CA (United States); Cumming, William [Cumming Geoscience, Santa Rosa, CA (United States)

    2015-10-16

    This project brings a global perspective to volcanic arc geothermal play fairway analysis by developing statistics for the occurrence of geothermal reservoirs and their geoscience context worldwide in order to rank U.S. prospects. The focus of the work was to develop play fairways for the Cascade and Aleutian arcs to rank the individual volcanic centers in these arcs by their potential to host electricity grade geothermal systems. The Fairway models were developed by describing key geologic factors expected to be indicative of productive geothermal systems in a global training set, which includes 74 volcanic centers world-wide with current power production. To our knowledge, this is the most robust geothermal benchmark training set for magmatic systems to date that will be made public.

  5. Replacing critical radiators to increase the potential to use low-temperature district heating – A case study of 4 Danish single-family houses from the 1930s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Østergaard, Dorte Skaarup; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    Low-temperature district heating is a promising technology for providing homes with energy-efficient heating in the future. However, it is of great importance to maintain thermal comfort in existing buildings when district heating temperatures are lowered. This case study evaluated the actual radiator sizes and heating demands in 4 existing Danish single-family houses from the 1930s. A year-long dynamic simulation was performed for each of the houses to evaluate the potential to lower the heating system temperatures. The results indicate that there is a large potential to use low-temperature district heating in existing single-family houses. In order to obtain the full potential of low-temperature district heating, critical radiators must be replaced. Based on a novel method, a total of nine radiators were identified to be critical to ensure thermal comfort and low return temperatures in two of the case-houses. If these radiators were replaced it would be possible to lower the average heating system temperatures to 50 °C/27 °C in all four houses. - Highlights: • Comparison of dynamically calculated heat demands and radiator sizes. • Method for identification and evaluation of critical radiators was tested. • Existing houses can be heated with low-temperature heating for most of the year. • Replacing critical radiators helps ensure comfort and low return temperatures.

  6. Determination of the Geothermal Potential by Geophysical Investigations in the Karbinci-Tarinci Area, in the Vicinity of Shtip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, Goshe; Panovska, Sanja; Delipetrov, Marjan; Dimov, Gjorgji; Jovanovski, Vlatko

    2005-01-01

    Geophysical methods used in the determination of geothermal potential by geophysical investigations in the Karbinci-Tarinci area included as follows: detailed reflective seismic scanning, geomagnetic profiling, geo electric probe and electromagnetic VLF prospecting. The site investigated consists of rocks of Precambrian, Mesozoic (Jurassic), Tertiary (Paleogene Neogene) and Quaternary age. From earlier investigations carried out in the wider vicinity and from investigations carried out by the present authors, one can expect occurrence geothermal water in the area. (Author)

  7. Potential effects of the Hawaii geothermal project on ground-water resources on the Island of Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorey, M.L.; Colvard, E.M.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides data and information on the quantity and quality of ground-water resources in and adjacent to proposed geothermal development areas on the Island of Hawaii Geothermal project for the development of as much as 500 MW of electric power from the geothermal system in the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano. Data presented for about 31 wells and 8 springs describe the chemical, thermal, and hydraulic properties of the ground-water system in and adjacent to the East Rift Zone. On the basis of this information, potential effects of this geothermal development on drawdown of ground-water levels and contamination of ground-water resources are discussed. Significant differences in ground-water levels and in the salinity and temperature of ground water within the study area appear to be related to mixing of waters from different sources and varying degrees of ground-water impoundment by volcanic dikes. Near Pahoa and to the east, the ground-water system within the rift is highly transmissive and receives abundant recharge from precipitation; therefore, the relatively modest requirements for fresh water to support geothermal development in that part of the east rift zone would result in minimal effects on ground-water levels in and adjacent to the rift. To the southwest of Pahoa, dike impoundment reduces the transmissivity of the ground-water system to such an extent that wells might not be capable of supplying fresh water at rates sufficient to support geothermal operations. Water would have to be transported to such developments from supply systems located outside the rift or farther downrift. Contaminant migration resulting from well accidents could be rapid because of relatively high ground-water velocities in parts of the region. Hydrologic monitoring of observation wells needs to be continued throughout development of geothermal resources for the Hawaii Geothermal Project to enable the early detection of leakage and migration of geothermal fluids.

  8. NiTi shape-memory alloy oxidized in low-temperature plasma with carbon coating: Characteristic and a potential for cardiovascular applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Justyna; Sowińska, Agnieszka; Czarnowska, Elżbieta; Płociński, Tomasz; Borowski, Tomasz; Wierzchoń, Tadeusz

    2017-11-01

    Surface layers currently produced on NiTi alloys do not meet all the requirements for materials intended for use in cardiology. Plasma surface treatments of titanium and its alloys under glow discharge conditions make it possible to produce surface layers, such as TiN or TiO2, which increases corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. The production of layers on NiTi alloys with the same properties, and maintaining their shape memory and superelasticity features, requires the use of low-temperature processes. At the same time, since it is known that the carbon-based layers could prevent excessive adhesion and aggregation of platelets, we examined the composite a-CNH + TiO2 type surface layer produced by means of a hybrid method combining oxidation in low-temperature plasma and Radio Frequency Chemical Vapor Deposition (RFCVD) processes. Investigations have shown that this composite layer increases the corrosion resistance of the material, and both the low degree of roughness and the chemical composition of the surface produced lead to decreased platelet adhesion and aggregation and proper endothelialization, which could extend the range of applications of NiTi shape memory alloys.

  9. Geothermal energy utilization in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svalova, V. [Institute of Environmental Geoscience, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Geothermal energy use is the way to clean, sustainable energy development for the world. Russia has rich high and low temperature geothermal resources and is making progress using them - mostly with low-temperature geothermal resources and heat pumps This is optimal for many regions of Russia -in the European part, in the Urals and others. Electricity is generated by some geothermal power plants (GeoPP) only in the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands There are two possible ways of using geothermal resources, depending on the properties of thermal waters heat/power and mineral extraction. The mineral-extraction direction is basic for geothermal waters, which contain valuable components in industrial quantities The most significant deposits of thermal waters represent the brines containing from 35 up to 400 and more g/l of salts. These are the minerals of many chemical dements. (author)

  10. Near-surface geothermal potential assessment of the region Leogang - Saalbach-Hinterglemm in Salzburg, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottig, Magdalena; Rupprecht, Doris; Hoyer, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Within the EU-funded Alpine Space project GRETA (Near-surface Geothermal Resources in the Territory of the Alpine space), a potential assessment for the use of near-surface geothermal energy is being performed. The focus region for Austria is represented by the two communities Leogang and Saalbach-Hinterglemm where settlements are located in altitudes of about 800 - 1.000 m. In these communities, as well as in large parts of the alpine space region in Austria, winter sports tourism is an important economic factor. The demand for heating and domestic hot water in this region of about 6.000 inhabitants rises significantly in the winter months due to around 2 million guest nights per year. This makes clear why the focus is on touristic infrastructure like alpine huts or hotels. It is a high-altitude area with a large number of remote houses, thus district-heating is not ubiquitous - thus, near-surface geothermal energy can be a useful solution for a self-sufficient energy supply. The objective of detailed investigation within the project is, to which extent the elevation, the gradient and the orientation of the hillside influence the geothermal usability of the shallow underground. To predict temperatures in depths of up to 100 m and therefore make statements on the geothermal usability of a certain piece of land, it is necessary to attain a precise ground-temperature map which reflects the upper model boundary. As there are no ground temperature measurement stations within the region, the GBA has installed four monitoring stations. Two are located in the valley, at altitudes of about 800 m, and two in higher altitudes of about 1.200 m, one on a south- and one on a north-slope. Using a software invented by the University of Soil Sciences in Vienna a ground-temperature map will be calculated. The calculation is based on climatic data considering parameters like soil composition. Measured values from the installed monitoring stations will help to validate or to

  11. Improving geothermal power plants with a binary cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Sorokina, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    The recent development of binary geothermal technology is analyzed. General trends in the introduction of low-temperature geothermal sources are summarized. The use of single-phase low-temperature geothermal fluids in binary power plants proves possible and expedient. The benefits of power plants with a binary cycle in comparison with traditional systems are shown. The selection of the working fluid is considered, and the influence of the fluid's physicochemical properties on the design of the binary power plant is discussed. The design of binary power plants is based on the chemical composition and energy potential of the geothermal fluids and on the landscape and climatic conditions at the intended location. Experience in developing a prototype 2.5 MW Russian binary power unit at Pauzhetka geothermal power plant (Kamchatka) is outlined. Most binary systems are designed individually for a specific location. Means of improving the technology and equipment at binary geothermal power plants are identified. One option is the development of modular systems based on several binary systems that employ the heat from the working fluid at different temperatures.

  12. Geothermal Technologies Program: Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-02-01

    This fact sheets provides a summary of geothermal potential, issues, and current development in Alaska. This fact sheet was developed as part of DOE's GeoPowering the West initiative, part of the Geothermal Technologies Program.

  13. The Efficacy and Potential of Renewable Energy from Carbon Dioxide that is Sequestered in Sedimentary Basin Geothermal Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielicki, J. M.; Adams, B. M.; Choi, H.; Saar, M. O.; Taff, S. J.; Jamiyansuren, B.; Buscheck, T. A.; Ogland-Hand, J.

    2015-12-01

    Mitigating climate change requires increasing the amount of electricity that is generated from renewable energy technologies and while simultaneously reducing the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) that is emitted to the atmosphere from present energy and industrial facilities. We investigated the efficacy of generating electricity using renewable geothermal heat that is extracted by CO2 that is sequestered in sedimentary basins. To determine the efficacy of CO2-Geothermal power production in the United States, we conducted a geospatial resource assessment of the combination of subsurface CO2 storage capacity and heat flow in sedimentary basins and developed an integrated systems model that combines reservoir modeling with power plant modeling and economic costs. The geospatial resource assessment estimates the potential resource base for CO2-Geothermal power plants, and the integrated systems model estimates the physical (e.g., net power) and economic (e.g., levelized cost of electricity, capital cost) performance of an individual CO2-Geothermal power plant for a range of reservoir characteristics (permeability, depth, geothermal temperature gradient). Using coupled inverted five-spot injection patterns that are common in CO2-enhanced oil recovery operations, we determined the well pattern size that best leveraged physical and economic economies of scale for the integrated system. Our results indicate that CO2-Geothermal plants can be cost-effectively deployed in a much larger region of the United States than typical approaches to geothermal electricity production. These cost-effective CO2-Geothermal electricity facilities can also be capacity-competitive with many existing baseload and renewable energy technologies over a range of reservoir parameters. For example, our results suggest that, given the right combination of reservoir parameters, LCOEs can be as low as $25/MWh and capacities can be as high as a few hundred MW.

  14. Potential effects of geothermal energy conversion on Imperial Valley ecosystems. [Seven workshop presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinn, J.H. (ed.)

    1976-12-17

    This workshop on potential effcts of geothermal energy conversion on the ecology of Imperial Valley brought together personnel of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and many collaborators under the sponsorship of the ERDA Imperial Valley Environmental Project (IVEP). The LLL Integrated Assessment Team identified the electric power potential and its associated effluents, discharges, subsidence, water requirements, land use, and noise. The Working Groups addressed the ecological problems. Water resource management problems include forces on water use, irrigation methods and water use for crops, water production, and water allocation. Agricultural problems are the contamination of edible crops and the reclamation of soil. A strategy is discussed for predevelopment baseline data and for identification of source term tracers. Wildlife resources might be threatened by habitat destruction, powerline impacts, noise and disturbance effects, gas emissions, and secondary impacts such as population pressure. Aquatic ecosystems in both the Salton Sea and fresh waters have potential hazards of salinity and trace metal effects, as well as existing stresses; baseline and bioassay studies are discussed. Problems from air pollution resulting from geothermal resource development might occur, particularly to vegetation and pollinator insects. Conversion of injury data to predicted economic damage isneeded. Finally, Imperial Valley desert ecosystems might be threatened by destruction of habitat and the possible effects on community structure such as those resulting from brine spills.

  15. Project Title: Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis of Potential Geothermal Resources in NE California, NW Nevada, and Southern Oregon: A Transition between Extension$-$Hosted and Volcanically$-$Hosted Geothermal Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, James S. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of; Dobson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Glassley, William [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Schiffman, Peter [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Zierenberg, Robert [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Zhang, Yingqi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Conrad, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Siler, Drew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gasperikova, Erika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spycher, Nicolas F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Final report for the UCD-LBNL effort to apply Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis to a transition zone between a volcanically-hosted and extensionally-hosted geothermal. The project focusses on the geothermal resources in northeastern California.

  16. Overview of Resources for Geothermal Absorption Cooling for Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mehdizadeh Momen, Ayyoub [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of a literature review in three areas: available low-temperature/coproduced geothermal resources in the United States, energy use for space conditioning in commercial buildings, and state of the art of geothermal absorption cooling.

  17. GIS based geothermal potential assessment: A case study from Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuefekci, Nesrin; Luetfi Suezen, M.; Guelec, Nilguen [Geological Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    Potential geothermal areas are identified through investigation of spatial relations between geothermal occurrences and their surrounding geological phenomena in western Anatolia, Turkey. The identification is based on only publicly available data. It is expected that the study will guide further preliminary investigations performed for large areas having limited information. Magnetic anomaly, Bouger gravity anomaly, earthquake epicenter and lineament datasets are used for the analysis. The first is used without any modification whereas the rest are utilized to extract three evidence maps; distance to major grabens, Gutenberg-Richter b-value and distance to lineaments, respectively. Predictor maps are produced from these evidence maps as well as from the unprocessed magnetic anomaly map by applying two different binarization procedures. From each binarization procedure a favorability map is produced separately using Index Overlay (IO) and Weights of Evidence (WofE) methods. The findings reveal that weighting predictor maps according to spatial association between evidence maps and training points lead to more accurate prediction in both WofE and IO methods. The potential areas in the final maps are Aydin, Denizli, Manisa, Balikesir and Kutahya of which first two have been explored and exploited, and thus found to be favorable, while the rest are nearly unexplored. (author)

  18. Potential Fluctuations at Low Temperatures in Mesoscopic-Scale SmTiO3/SrTiO3/SmTiO3 Quantum Well Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Will J; Isaac, Brandon; Marshall, Patrick; Mikheev, Evgeny; Zhou, Panpan; Stemmer, Susanne; Natelson, Douglas

    2017-04-25

    Heterointerfaces of SrTiO 3 with other transition metal oxides make up an intriguing family of systems with a bounty of coexisting and competing physical orders. Some examples, such as LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 , support a high carrier density electron gas at the interface whose electronic properties are determined by a combination of lattice distortions, spin-orbit coupling, defects, and various regimes of magnetic and charge ordering. Here, we study electronic transport in mesoscale devices made with heterostructures of SrTiO 3 sandwiched between layers of SmTiO 3 , in which the transport properties can be tuned from a regime of Fermi-liquid like resistivity (ρ ∝ T 2 ) to a non-Fermi liquid (ρ ∝ T 5/3 ) by controlling the SrTiO 3 thickness. In mesoscale devices at low temperatures, we find unexpected voltage fluctuations that grow in magnitude as T is decreased below 20 K, are suppressed with increasing contact electrode size, and are independent of the drive current and contact spacing distance. Magnetoresistance fluctuations are also observed, which are reminiscent of universal conductance fluctuations but not entirely consistent with their conventional properties. Candidate explanations are considered, and a mechanism is suggested based on mesoscopic temporal fluctuations of the Seebeck coefficient. An improved understanding of charge transport in these model systems, especially their quantum coherent properties, may lead to insights into the nature of transport in strongly correlated materials that deviate from Fermi liquid theory.

  19. Geological and thermal exploration for an evaluation of the geothermal potential of Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schintgen, Tom; Förster, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    In 2010, work has commenced on the evaluation of the geothermal potential of Luxembourg. The concept of this evaluation comprises several steps. Given the limited amount of geological data and the lack of petrothermal data as well as on crustal heat flow, in-depth studies are needed that allow a comprehensive insight into the shallow as well as deep thermal subsurface structure and thus to make temperature prognoses for the use of geothermal energy. Here we report the geological structure of the Mesozoic Trier-Luxembourg Basin (TLB) with its various lithological units as well as the geology of the underlying basement units. The thickness of the Mesozoic section increases from 400-500 m in the northeastern part of the basin to a maximum of 1100 m in the southern part of Luxembourg. New data on thermal parameters, such as the thermal conductivity (TC), radiogenic heat production (RHP) and porosity are presented for the major lithotypes of the TLB as well as of the underlying Paleozoic basement. These data originated from core samples (Mesozoic formations) and from sampling of outcrops of Luxembourg's surroundings (Paleozoic formations). Thus data are now available for an up to 13-km-thick succession of the upper crust, comprising the Lower Cambrian to the Middle Ordovician, the relatively thick Lower Devonian and the Triassic to Liassic of the TLB. For the remainder of the crust down to the Moho thermal properties are determined by translating seismic velocities into rock types and using average values for TC and RHP for these metamorphic and igneous rocks. Based on the new values of TC and a temperature log measured under thermal equilibrium in a 300-m deep borehole, surface heat flow was determined. These data form the basis for modeling the subsurface temperatures along two regional crustal cross sections, which cover most of the Rhenohercynian Zone of the Variscan orogenic belt. They extend from the Lower Paleozoic Stavelot Massif in the Belgian Ardennes in the

  20. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  1. Geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, A.

    2017-07-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity) worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  2. Assessment and evaluation of geothermal potential in Switzerland; Atlas des ressources geothermiques suisses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andenmatten-Berthoud, N. [Geowatt AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Kohl, T. [Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Institut de Geophysique, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the first part of a project that aims at assessing the geothermal energy potential of Switzerland's underground. Due to the presence of the Alps the Swiss underground is highly heterogeneous with numerous geologic faults. Geothermal energy assessment has to be carried out region after region. The first steps consisted in collecting existing geological and hydrogeological data and finding out the best appropriate methodology. Analysis was restricted to the Northwest of Switzerland (Basle-Zurich area), which has a dense population - an important factor for future applications - and is better known than others, thanks to previous studies performed in conjunction with site pre-selection for future radioactive waste disposal facilities. In this area, sandstones and limestones are found on the crystalline bottom rock. Mathematical models and computer codes were developed for interpolation and extrapolation of local and regional data. Three dimensional finite-element techniques were used. The results are presented in diagrams and maps.

  3. Low-temperature thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter discusses the thermal expansion of insulators and metals. Harmonicity and anharmonicity in thermal expansion are examined. The electronic, magnetic, an other contributions to low temperature thermal expansion are analyzed. The thermodynamics of the Debye isotropic continuum, the lattice-dynamical approach, and the thermal expansion of metals are discussed. Relative linear expansion at low temperatures is reviewed and further calculations of the electronic thermal expansion coefficient are given. Thermal expansions are given for Cu, Al and Ti. Phenomenologic thermodynamic relationships are also discussed

  4. Development of Genetic Occurrence Models for Geothermal Prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J. D.; Sabin, A.; Unruh, J.; Monastero, F. C.; Combs, J.

    2007-12-01

    , including high heat flow, anomalous temperature water wells, high-temperature indications from aqueous geothermometry and geochemistry, Pliocene or younger ages from low-temperature thermochronometers, as well as more obvious factors such as geysers and fumaroles (which by definition will be missing for blind resources). Our occurrence-model strategy inverts the current approach that relies first on obvious evidence of geothermal activity. We evaluated our approach by retrospectively applying the protocol to the characteristics of producing geothermal fields, and in all cases, known resource areas fit the parameters identified from a genetic perspective.

  5. Potential geothermal energy use at the Naval Air Rework Facilities, Norfolk, Virginia and Jacksonville, Florida, and at the naval shipyard, Charleston, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costain, J.K.; Glover, L. III; Newman, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    The feasibility of geothermal energy use at naval installations in Norfolk, VA, Jacksonville, FL, and Charleston, SC was assessed. Geophysical and geological studies of the above areas were performed. Engineering and economic factors, affecting potential energy use, were evaluated. The Norfolk and Jacksonville facilities are identified as candidates for geothermal systems. System costs are predicted. Economic benefits of the proposed geothermal systems are forecast, using the net present value method of predicting future income.

  6. Geothermal Today: 2003 Geothermal Technologies Program Highlights (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-05-01

    This outreach publication highlights milestones and accomplishments of the DOE Geothermal Technologies Program for 2003. Included in this publication are discussions of geothermal fundamentals, enhanced geothermal systems, direct-use applications, geothermal potential in Idaho, coating technology, energy conversion R&D, and the GeoPowering the West initiative.

  7. High-potential Working Fluids for Next Generation Binary Cycle Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zia, Jalal [GE Global Research; Sevincer, Edip; Chen, Huijuan; Hardy, Ajilli; Wickersham, Paul; Kalra, Chiranjeev; Laursen, Anna Lis; Vandeputte, Thomas

    2013-06-29

    new optimal configuration for low temperature geothermal power production in the form of a supercritical ORC cycle based on a new vendor fluid.

  8. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlan U. Anderson

    2000-03-31

    . However, they have the potential of being useful as an interface on the anode side of the electrolyte. NexTech has focused much of its effort during the past few months on establishing tape casting methods for porous LSM substrates. This work, performed under a separate DOE-funded program, involved tape casting formulations comprising LSM powders with bi-modal particle size distributions and fugitive pore forming additives. Sintered LSM substrates with porosities in the 30 to 40 vol% range, and pore sizes of 10 {approx} 20 microns have been prepared. In addition, tape casting formulations involving composite mixtures of LSM and Sm-doped ceria (SDC) have been evaluated. The LSM/SDC cathode substrates are expected to provide better performance at low temperatures. Characterization of these materials is currently underway.

  9. A multi-disciplinary investigation of Irish warm springs and their potential for geothermal energy provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Sarah; Jones, Alan G.; Henry, Tiernan

    2015-04-01

    Irish warm springs are one of a set of several target types that are being evaluated for their geothermal energy potential during the course of the island-wide assessment of the geothermal energy potential of Ireland under the IRETHERM project (www.iretherm.ie). Forty-two warm springs and warm shallow groundwater occurrences have been recorded in Ireland; water temperatures in the springs (approx. 12-25 °C) are elevated with respect to average Irish groundwater temperatures (10-11 °C). This study focuses on warm springs in east-central Ireland found in the Carboniferous limestone of the Dublin Basin. A combination of geophysical methods (controlled source electromagnetics (CSEM) and audio-magnetotellurics (AMT)) and hydrochemical analyses (including time-lapse temperature and electrical conductivity measurements) have been utilised at several of the springs to determine the source of the heated waters at depth and the nature of the geological structures that deliver the warm waters to the surface. Using the example of St. Gorman's Well, Co. Meath, we show how the combination of these different methods of investigation and the interpretation of these various data sets enables us to better understand the physical and chemical variability of the spring through time. This will provide the basis for an assessment of the source of these thermal waters as a potential geothermal energy reservoir and will allow for more precise characterisation of the groundwater resource. We present subsurface models derived from new geophysical data collected at St. Gorman's Well in 2013. This high-resolution AMT survey consisted of a grid of 40 soundings recorded at approximately 200 m intervals centred on the spring. The aim of the survey was to image directly any (electrically conductive) fluid conduit systems that may be associated with the springs and to provide an understanding of the observed association of the Irish warm springs with major structural lineaments, such as the NE

  10. On geothermal resources of India. Geotectonic aspects and recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, M L [National Geophysical Research Inst., Hyderabad (India)

    1988-11-10

    Research programs launched for exploration and development of the geothermal energy in India, since the 1973-1974 oil embargo, have led to the identification of many potential areas for geothermal resources. Resources comprise high/intermediate/low temperature hydrothermal convection and hot water aquifer systems, geopressured geothermal system and conduction-dominated regimes. Location and properties of these geothermal systems are controlled by the geodynamic and tectonic characteristics of the Indian continental lithosphere Main sectors for the utilization of India's proved and identified geothermal resources are the power generation, space heating, green house cultivation, aquaculture, poultry, sheep breeding, mineral processing, mushroom raising, processing of farm and forest produce, refrigeration, tourism, health-resorts and mineral water bottling. The R and D efforts have given some encouraging results. Geothermal resources of India, although primarily are of medium to low grade, could supplement, to a great extent, direct heat energy needs and may also provide electricity to some of the remote hilly areas. Development of geothermal energy sources in India is likely to get some more attention, with the setting up of separate departments and agencies, by various Provincial Governments, for R and D backing toward the alternate sources of energy.

  11. Vol. 5: Low Temperature Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitenko, A.

    1993-01-01

    Problems of modern physics and the situation with physical research in Ukraine are considered. Programme of the conference includes scientific and general problems. Its proceeding are published in 6 volumes. The papers presented in this volume refer to low-temperature physics

  12. Certification testing at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noss, P.W.; Ammerman, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Regulations governing the transport of radioactive materials require that most hypothetical accident condition tests or analyses consider the effects of the environmental temperature that most challenges package performance. For many packages, the most challenging temperature environment is the cold condition (-29 C according to U.S. regulations), primarily because the low temperature causes the highest free drop impact forces due to the higher strength of many energy-absorbing materials at this temperature. If it is decided to perform low temperature testing, it is only necessary that the relevant parts of the package have the required temperature prior to the drop. However, the details of performing a drop at low temperature can have a large influence on testing cost and technical effectiveness. The selection of the test site, the chamber and type of chilling equipment, instrumentation, and even the time of year are all important. Control of seemingly minor details such as the effect on internal pressure, placement of monitoring thermocouples, the thermal time constant of the test article, and icing of equipment are necessary to ensure a successful low temperature test. This paper will discuss these issues and offer suggestions based on recent experience

  13. Science with low temperature detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadoulet, B.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA; California Univ., Berkeley

    1996-01-01

    The novel technique of particle detection with low temperature detectors opens a number of new scientific opportunities. We review some of these, focusing on three generic applications: far infrared bolometry taking as an example the cosmic microwave background, X-ray spectroscopy for astrophysics and biological applications, and massive calorimeters for dark matter searches and neutrino physics. (orig.)

  14. Final Report and Strategic Plan on the Feasibility Study to Assess Geothermal Potential on Warm Springs Reservation Lands. Report No. DOE/GO/15177

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Manion, Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises; David McClain, McClain & Associates

    2007-05-17

    In 2005 the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Tribal Council authorized an evaluation of the geothermal development potential on the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises obtained a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to conduct a geological assessment and development estimate. Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises utilized a team of expert consultants to conduct the study and develop a strategic plan. The resource assessment work was completed in 2006 by GeothermEx Inc., a consulting company specializing in geothermal resource assessments worldwide. The GeothermEx report indicates there is a 90% probability that a commercial geothermal resource exists on tribal lands in the Mt. Jefferson area. The geothermal resource assessment and other cost, risk and constraints information has been incorporated into the strategic plan.

  15. State of knowledge on potential risks, impacts and disturbances related to deep geothermal energy - Study report 10/07/2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, Philippe; Lahaie, Franz; Cherkaoui, Auxane; Farret, Regis; Franck, Christian; Bigarre, Pascal; Pokryszka, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Deep geothermal is a renewable and non-intermittent source of energy that can contribute to the world transition for a less carbon-intensive and greenhouse gas-emitting energy mix. Only a small part of the worldwide geothermal potential has been exploited so far and many countries, including France, are aiming for a fast growing of this industry in the next decades. Like most industrial activities, deep geothermal energy shows potential local inconveniences and possible risks for the safety of persons and of the environment. Preventing and managing those risks is of utmost importance to ensure that deep geothermal development is fully compatible with the needs and expectations of citizens, especially those of neighboring inhabitants. Indeed, in the past years, concerns have been raised by local populations regarding the development of some deep geothermal projects, especially in the field of high temperature geothermal, based on the risks related to this industry. This report is intended as a scientific and objective contribution to this matter. It aims to present, in a factual and documented way, the state of knowledge on the risks, impacts and potential inconveniences associated with deep geothermal energy. In addition to the scientific literature, it is based on lessons from incidents or accidents in this field of activity. It also makes use of INERIS expertise in the field of risks related to other sectors of activity dealing with underground operations and geo-resources, especially oil wells drilling, to provide a distanced view of deep geothermal technologies. Main lessons learned from this work are provided in the synthesis chapter ending the document. It includes a global and comparative analysis of the risks, impacts or potential inconveniences identified in this sector. Considering the large amount of published works related to this field of this industry both in the research and engineering areas, the authors do not claim to be exhaustive. They tried to

  16. Geothermal energy of Slovakia - CO2 emissions reduction contribution potential (background study for conservative and non-conservative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Fričovský

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Total geothermal energy potential is estimated for 209 714 TJ per year or 6 650 MWth. Natural conditions define a use of thermalwaters for heat generation only. Accepting proportion of real achievable output of geothermal projects in the non-conservative scenarioat a rate of 1 861 MWth or 13 440 TJ per year, yearly carbon dioxide savings are up to reach 0,357 MtCO2.yr-1 or 12,5 of cumulativeMtCO2 in 35 years. By a contrast, introduction of conservative approach points to increase in a geothermal heat production from 145 to243 TJ per period or 6 944 TJ of cumulative 35 years production, with a real outcome of 0,45 MtCO2 cumulative carbon dioxidesavings, corresponding to yearly real savings from 9,4 .10-3 to 15,8 .10-3 MtCO2.

  17. Using GeoRePORT to report socio-economic potential for geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Katherine R.; Levine, Aaron

    2018-07-01

    The Geothermal Resource Portfolio Optimization and Reporting Tool (GeoRePORT, http://en.openei.org/wiki/GeoRePORT) was developed for reporting resource grades and project readiness levels, providing the U.S. Department of Energy a consistent and comprehensible means of evaluating projects. The tool helps funding organizations (1) quantitatively identify barriers, (2) develop measureable goals, (3) objectively evaluate proposals, including contribution to goals, (4) monitor progress, and (5) report portfolio performance. GeoRePORT assesses three categories: geological, technical, and socio-economic. Here, we describe GeoRePORT, then focus on the socio-economic assessment and its applications for assessing deployment potential in the U.S. Socio-economic attributes include land access, permitting, transmission, and market.

  18. Marine and land active-source seismic investigation of geothermal potential, tectonic structure, and earthquake hazards in Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisses, A.; Kell, A.; Kent, G. [UNR; Driscoll, N. [UCSD; Karlin, R.; Baskin, R. [USGS; Louie, J. [UNR; Pullammanappallil, S. [Optim

    2016-08-01

    Amy Eisses, Annie M. Kell, Graham Kent, Neal W. Driscoll, Robert E. Karlin, Robert L. Baskin, John N. Louie, Kenneth D. Smith, Sathish Pullammanappallil, 2011, Marine and land active-source seismic investigation of geothermal potential, tectonic structure, and earthquake hazards in Pyramid Lake, Nevada: presented at American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, Dec. 5-9, abstract NS14A-08.

  19. Hydrogen Peroxide Cycling in Acidic Geothermal Environments and Potential Implications for Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesle, M.; Beam, J.; Jay, Z.; Bodle, B.; Bogenschutz, E.; Inskeep, W.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) may be produced in natural waters via photochemical reactions between dissolved oxygen, organic carbon and light. Other reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide and hydroxyl radicals are potentially formed in environments with high concentrations of ferrous iron (Fe(II), ~10-100 μM) by reaction between H2O2 and Fe(II) (i.e., Fenton chemistry). Thermophilic archaea and bacteria inhabiting acidic iron-oxide mats have defense mechanisms against both extracellular and intracellular peroxide, such as peroxiredoxins (which can degrade H2O2) and against other ROS, such as superoxide dismutases. Biological cycling of H2O2 is not well understood in geothermal ecosystems, and geochemical measurements combined with molecular investigations will contribute to our understanding of microbial response to oxidative stress. We measured H2O2 and other dissolved compounds (Fe(II), Fe(III), H2S, O2), as well as photon flux, pH and temperature, over time in surface geothermal waters of several acidic springs in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, WY (Beowulf Spring and One Hundred Spring Plain). Iron-oxide mats were sampled in Beowulf Spring for on-going analysis of metatranscriptomes and RT-qPCR assays of specific stress-response gene transcription (e.g., superoxide dismutases, peroxiredoxins, thioredoxins, and peroxidases). In situ analyses show that H2O2 concentrations are lowest in the source waters of sulfidic systems (ca. 1 μM), and increase by two-fold in oxygenated waters corresponding to Fe(III)-oxide mat formation (ca. 2 - 3 μM). Channel transects confirm increases in H2O2 as a function of oxygenation (distance). The temporal dynamics of H2O2, O2, Fe(II), and H2S in Beowulf geothermal waters were also measured during a diel cycle, and increases in H2O2 were observed during peak photon flux. These results suggest that photochemical reactions may contribute to changes in H2O2. We hypothesize that increases in H2O2 and O2

  20. Chemical composition of the thermomineral waters of Josanicka Banja spa as an origin indicator, balneological valorization and geothermal potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenić Dejan R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the groundwater is directly dependent on the geological structure, hydrogeological and hydrochemical characteristics and as such it represents an output result of all the factors and processes which take place in the environment within which they were formed. The chemical composition of thermomineral waters often represents a crucial factor in determining the origin, balneological valorization and geothermal potential of the resources. This work presents the analysis of origin, belneological valorization and geothermal potential of Josanicka Banja spa, on the basis of the results gained through making the analyisis of chemical contents of the thermomineral waters which occur in the area. The ratio of concentrations of specific chemical components in the thermomineral waters of Josanicka Banja has served as the basic tool for ascertaining the origin of these waters. On the basis of the analysis of the main anion-cation and gas compositions as well as the contents of specific micro-components, a balneological valorization of these resources has been carried out. Apart from that this work also presents the calculation of the expected temperatures in the primary geothermal reservoir, which was carried out on the basis of the results of chemical analysis of thermomineral waters that occur in the area. Geothermal potential of about 4 MWt and significant contents of balneologically active components of the chemical composition of these waters, open up a possibility for their multi-purpose use, which is also presented in the work. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33053

  1. Automatic low-temperature calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyshev, V.M.; Mil'ner, G.A.; Shibakin, V.F.; Sorkin, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a low-temperature adiabatic calorimeter with a range of 1.5-500K. The system for maintaining adiabatic conditions is implemented by two resitance thermometers, whose sensitivity at low temperatures is several orders higher than that of thermocouples. The calorimeter cryostat is installed in an STG-40 portable Dewar flask. The calorimeter is controlled by an Elektronika-60 microcomputer. Standard platinum and germanium thermometers were placed inside of the calorimeter to calibrate the thermometers of the calorimeter and the shield, and the specific heats of specimens of OSCh 11-4 copper and KTP-8 paste were measured to demonstrate the possibilities of the described calorimeter. Experience with the calorimeter has shown that a thorough study of the dependence of heat capacity on temperature (over 100 points for one specimen) can be performed in one or two dats

  2. Low temperature humidification dehumidification desalination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Enezi, Ghazi; Ettouney, Hisham; Fawzy, Nagla

    2006-01-01

    The humidification dehumidification desalination process is viewed as a promising technique for small capacity production plants. The process has several attractive features, which include operation at low temperature, ability to utilize sustainable energy sources, i.e. solar and geothermal, and requirements of low technology level. This paper evaluates the characteristics of the humidification dehumidification desalination process as a function of operating conditions. A small capacity experimental system is used to evaluate the process characteristics as a function of the flow rate of the water and air streams, the temperature of the water stream and the temperature of the cooling water stream. The experimental system includes a packed humidification column, a double pipe glass condenser, a constant temperature water circulation tank and a chiller for cooling water. The water production is found to depend strongly on the hot water temperature. Also, the water production is found to increase upon the increase of the air flow rate and the decrease of the cooling water temperature. The measured air and water temperatures, air relative humidity and the flow rates are used to calculate the air side mass transfer coefficient and the overall heat transfer coefficient. Measured data are found to be consistent with previous literature results

  3. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Geothermal technology, which has focused so far on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  4. Mapping the geothermal potential of fault zones in the Belgium-Netherlands border region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveless, S.; Pluymaekers, M.P.D.; Lagrou, D.; Boever, E. de; Doornenbal, H.; Laenen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Faults can determine the success or failure of low enthalpy geothermal projects. This is due to their capacity to behave as pathways or baffles to geothermal water (or both simultaneously) and their prevalence throughout the subsurface. Here we present an initial assessment of the possibility for

  5. Exploration of the enhanced geothermal system (EGS) potential of crystalline rocks for district heating (Elbe Zone, Saxony, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Andrea; Förster, Hans-Jürgen; Krentz, Ottomar

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses aspects of a baseline geothermal exploration of the thermally quiescent Elbe Zone (hosting the cities of Meissen and Dresden) for a potential deployment of geothermal heat in municipal heating systems. Low-permeable to impermeable igneous and metamorphic rocks constitute the major rock types at depth, implying that an enhanced geothermal system needs to be developed by creating artificial flow paths for fluids to enhance the heat extraction from the subsurface. The study includes the development of geological models for two areas on the basis of which temperature models are generated at upper crustal scale. The models are parameterized with laboratory-measured rock thermal properties (thermal conductivity k, radiogenic heat production H). The uncertainties of modelled temperature caused by observed variations of k and H and inferred mantle heat flow are assessed. The study delineates highest temperatures within the intermediate (monzonite/syenite unit) and mafic rocks (diorite/monzodiorite unit) forming the deeper portions of the Meissen Massif and, specifically for the Dresden area, also within the low-metamorphic rocks (slates/phyllites/quartzites) of the Elbtalschiefergebirge. Boreholes 3-4 km deep need to be drilled to reach the envisioned economically favourable temperatures of 120 °C. The metamorphic and mafic rocks exhibit low concentrations of U and Th, thus being advantageous for a geothermal use. For the monzonite/syenite unit of high heat production ( 6 µW m-3) in the Meissen Massif, the mobilization of Th and U into the geothermal working fluid is assumed to be minor, although their various radioactive decay products will be omnipresent during geothermal use.

  6. Evaluation of soil thermal potential under Tunisian climate using a new conic basket geothermal heat exchanger: Energy and exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boughanmi, Hassen; Lazaar, Mariem; Farhat, Abdelhamid; Guizani, Amenallah

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Conic geothermal basket heat exchanger (CBGHE) is experimentally investigated. • Charging and discharging processes of CBGHE are evaluated. • Energy and exergy efficiencies of CBGHE are performed. • High and stable performance of surface geothermal energy in Tunisia is established. - Abstract: Geothermal heat exchangers system composed of two conic baskets serially connected is designed and realized. Both heat exchangers are made in polyethylene high-density material and have a length of 3 m each one. They will be used for greenhouse cooling and heating through a geothermal heat pump. Its conical geometry is selected to reduce the operation cost and the exploited area, compared to vertical and horizontal geothermal heat exchangers often used. It also assures the maximum of heat exchange with the soil. The aim of this study is to determine the thermal performance of one Conic Basket Geothermal Heat Exchanger (CBGHE), buried at 3 m deep, in the exploitation of the soil thermal potential, in summer. A rate of heat exchange with the soil is determined and the global heat exchange of the CBGHE is assessed. Its energy and exergy efficiencies are also evaluated using both first and second law of thermodynamic. Results show that the specific heat exchange ranges between 20 W m"−"1 and 50 W m"−"1. Maximal energetic and exergetic efficiencies of the CBGHE, equal to 62% and 37% respectively, are reached for a mass flow rate of 0.1 kg s"−"1. For this value of mass flow rate, the overall heat exchange coefficient is of 52 W m"−"2 K"−"1.

  7. Geothermal handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management offered over 400,000 hectares (one million acres) for geothermal exploration and development in 1975, and figure is expected to double this year. The Energy Research and Development Administration hopes for 10-15,000 megawatts of geothermal energy by 1985, which would require, leasing over 16.3 million hectares (37 million acres) of land, at least half of which is federal land. Since there is an 8 to 8-1/2 year time laf between initial exploration and full field development, there would have to be a ten-fold increase in the amount of federal land leased within the next three years. Seventy percent of geothermal potential, 22.3 million hectares (55 million acres), is on federal lands in the west. The implication for the Service are enormous and the problems immediate. Geothermal resource are so widespread they are found to some extent in most biomes and ecosystems in the western United States. In most cases exploitation and production of geothermal resources can be made compatible with fish and wildlife management without damage, if probable impacts are clearly understood and provided for before damage has unwittingly been allowed to occur. Planning for site suitability and concern with specific operating techniques are crucial factors. There will be opportunities for enhancement: during exploration and testing many shallow groundwater bodies may be penetrated which might be developed for wildlife use. Construction equipment and materials needed for enhancement projects will be available in areas heretofore considered remote projects will be available in areas heretofore considered remote by land managers. A comprehensive knowledge of geothermal development is necessary to avoid dangers and seize opportunities. This handbook is intended to serve as a working tool in the field. It anticipated where geothermal resource development will occur in the western United States in the near future. A set of environmental assessment procedures are

  8. Technological uses of low temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, J.

    1975-01-01

    Types of low temperature plasma sources considered include; arc discharge, high pressure discharge, low pressure discharge and flame. The problems of uniform heating of a gas are discussed and it is considered that the most reliable technique is the magnetically rotated arc, but expanded discharges of one kind or another are likely to be serious competitors in the future. The uses of low temperature plasma in chemistry and combustion are considered. The potential for plasma chemistry lies with processes in which the reactions occur in the plasma itself or its neighbouring gas phase, including those which require the vaporization of liquefaction of a refractory material and also highly endothermic reactions. The production of thixotropic silica and acetylene are discussed as examples of such reactions. The field of plasma and combustion including; ignition, flame ionization and soot formation, and the MHD generator, is considered. (U.K.)

  9. Final Report Low-temperature Resource Assessment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J. [Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (US); Ross, H. [Earth Sciences and Resources Institute, University of Utah

    1996-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy - Geothermal Division (DOE/GD) recently sponsored the Low-Temperature Resource Assessment project to update the inventory of the nation's low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resources and to encourage development of these resources. A database of 8,977 thermal wells and springs that are in the temperature range of 20 degrees Celsius to 150 degrees Celsius has been compiled for ten western states, an impressive increase of 82% compared to the previous assessments. The database includes location, descriptive data, physical parameters, water chemistry and references for sources of data. Computer-generated maps are also available for each state. State Teams have identified 48 high-priority areas for near-term comprehensive resource studies and development. Resources with temperatures greater than 50 degrees Celsius located within 8 km of a population center were identified for 271 collocated cities. Geothermal energy costevaluation software has been developed to quickly identify the cost of geothermally supplied heat to these areas in a fashion similar to that used for conventionally fueled heat sources.

  10. Geothermal energy in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dabbas, Moh'd A. F.

    1993-11-01

    The potential of geothermal energy utilization in Jordan was discussed. The report gave a summary of the location of geothermal anomalies in Jordan, and of ongoing projects that utilize geothermal energy for greenhouse heating, fish farming, refrigeration by absorption, and water desalination of deep aquifers. The problems facing the utilization of geothermal energy in Jordan were identified to be financial (i.e. insufficient allocation of local funding, and difficulty in getting foreign financing), and inadequate expertise in the field of geothermal energy applications. The report gave a historical account of geothermal energy utilization activities in Jordan, including cooperation activities with international organizations and foreign countries. A total of 19 reports already prepared in the areas of geochemical and hydrological studies were identified. The report concluded that the utilization of geothermal energy offers some interesting economic possibilities. (A.M.H.). 4 refs. 1 map

  11. Fast and low-temperature sintering of silver complex using oximes as a potential reducing agent for solution-processible, highly conductive electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Ji Hoon; Park, Su Bin; Kim, Ji Man; Han, Dae Sang; Chae, Jangwoo; Kwak, Jeonghun

    2014-01-01

    Highly conductive, solution-processed silver thin-films were obtained at a low sintering temperature of 100 °C in a short sintering time of 10 min by introducing oximes as a potential reductant for silver complex. The thermal properties and reducibility of three kinds of oximes, acetone oxime, 2-butanone oxime, and one dimethylglyoxime, were investigated as a reducing agent, and we found that the thermal decomposition product of oximes (ketones) accelerated the conversion of silver complex into highly conductive silver at low sintering temperature in a short time. Using the acetone oxime, the silver thin-film exhibited the lowest surface resistance (0.91 Ω sq −1 ) compared to those sing other oximes. The silver thin-film also showed a high reflectance of 97.8%, which is comparable to evaporated silver films. We also demonstrated inkjet printed silver patterns with the oxime-added silver complex inks. (paper)

  12. Thermoluminescent system for low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.A.R. da; Caldas, L.V.E.; Leite, N.G.

    1988-09-01

    A system for measurements of the thermoluminescent glow curve, the thermoluminescent emission spectrum and the optical absorption spectrum of solid samples, from liquid nitrogen temperature up to 473 K, is reported. A specially designed temperature programmer provides a linear heating of the sample at a wide range of selectable heating rates, as also long term steady-state temperatures for annealing and isothermal decay studies. The system operates at a pressure of 1.33 x 10 -3 Pa. Presently it is being used for lithium fluoride low temperature thermoluminescent studies. (author) [pt

  13. Mechanical pumping at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perin, J.P.; Claudet, G.; Disdier, F.

    1995-01-01

    This novel concept consist of a mechanical pump able to run at low temperature (25K). Since gas density varies inversely with temperature, this pump would deliver much higher mass flow rate than at room temperature for a given size. Advantages of this concept are order of magnitude reduction in size, weight, when compared to a conventional pump scaled to perform the same mass flow rate at room temperature. This pump would be a solution to allow continuously tritium extraction and minimize the mass inventory. (orig.)

  14. Ammonia synthesis at low temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Thomas Holm; Logadottir, Ashildur; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2000-01-01

    have been carried out to evaluate its feasibility. The calculations suggest that it might be possible to catalytically produce ammonia from molecular nitrogen at low temperatures and pressures, in particular if energy is fed into the process electrochemically. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics.......Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of reaction paths and energies for the industrial and the biological catalytic ammonia synthesis processes are compared. The industrial catalyst is modeled by a ruthenium surface, while the active part of the enzyme is modeled by a MoFe6S9 complex...

  15. Performance optimization of low-temperature power generation by supercritical ORCs (organic Rankine cycles) using low GWP (global warming potential) working fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Van Long; Feidt, Michel; Kheiri, Abdelhamid; Pelloux-Prayer, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the system efficiency optimization scenarios of basic and regenerative supercritical ORCs (organic Rankine cycles) using low-GWP (global warming potential) organic compounds as working fluid. A more common refrigerant, i.e. R134a, was also employed to make the comparison. A 150-°C, 5-bar-pressurized hot water is used to simulate the heat source medium. Power optimization was equally performed for the basic configuration of supercritical ORC. Thermodynamic performance comparison of supercritical ORCs using different working fluids was achieved by ranking method and exergy analysis method. The highest optimal efficiency of the system (η sys ) is always obtained with R152a in both basic (11.6%) and regenerative (13.1%) configurations. The highest value of optimum electrical power output (4.1 kW) is found with R1234ze. By using ranking method and considering low-GWP criterion, the best working fluids for system efficiency optimization of basic and regenerative cycles are R32 and R152a, respectively. The best working fluid for net electrical power optimization of basic cycle is R1234ze. Although CO 2 has many desirable environmental and safety properties (e.g. zero ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential), ultra low-GWP, non toxicity, non flammability, etc.), the worst thermodynamic performance is always found with the cycle using this compound as working fluid. - Highlights: • Performance optimizations were carried out for the supercritical ORCs using low-GWP working fluids. • Heat regeneration was used to improve the system efficiency of the supercritical ORC. • Thermodynamic performances of supercritical ORCs at the optima were evaluated by ranking method and exergy analysis

  16. Use of geothermal heat for crop drying and related agricultural applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, T.J.; Wright, T.C.; Fein, E.; Munson, T.R.; Richmond, R.C.

    1978-03-01

    Observations led to the selection of the alfalfa dehydration industry for in-depth analysis of the application of moderate-temperature geothermal heat. Six geothermal heat exchanger/dryer configurations were examined. A low-temperature conveyor dryer using geothermal water to supply all required heat was chosen for site-specific analysis, the retrofitting of a large alfalfa dehydration plant within the Heber KGRA in the Imperial Valley, California. Even in the most favorable scenario--sharing a geothermal pipeline with the neighboring fertilizer plant--geothermal retrofitting would increase the price of the alfalfa ''dehy'' about 40 percent. The geothermal brine is estimated to cost $2.58/million Btu's compared with a 1977 natural gas cost of $1.15. Capital cost for heat exchangers and the new dryers is estimated at $3.3 million. The Heber plant appeared to offer the only good opportunity for geothermal retrofitting of an existing alfalfa dehydration plant. Construction of new plants at geothermal resource sites cannot be justified due to the uncertain state of the ''dehy'' industry. Use of geothermal heat for drying other crops may be much more promising. The potato dehydration industry, which is concentrated in the geothermal-rich Snake River Valley of Idaho, appears to offer good potential for geothermal retrofitting; about 4.7 x 10{sup 12}Btu's are used annually by plants within 50 miles of resources. Drying together at the geothermal wellhead several crops that have interlocking processing seasons and drying-temperature requirements may be quite attractive. The best ''multicrop drying center'' site identified was at Power Ranch Wells, Arizona; 34 other sites were defined. Agricultural processing applications other than drying were investigated briefly.

  17. Research status of geothermal resources in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lincheng; Li, Guang

    2017-08-01

    As the representative of the new green energy, geothermal resources are characterized by large reserve, wide distribution, cleanness and environmental protection, good stability, high utilization factor and other advantages. According to the characteristics of exploitation and utilization, they can be divided into high-temperature, medium-temperature and low-temperature geothermal resources. The abundant and widely distributed geothermal resources in China have a broad prospect for development. The medium and low temperature geothermal resources are broadly distributed in the continental crustal uplift and subsidence areas inside the plate, represented by the geothermal belt on the southeast coast, while the high temperature geothermal resources concentrate on Southern Tibet-Western Sichuan-Western Yunnan Geothermal Belt and Taiwan Geothermal Belt. Currently, the geothermal resources in China are mainly used for bathing, recuperation, heating and power generation. It is a country that directly makes maximum use of geothermal energy in the world. However, China’s geothermal power generation, including installed generating capacity and power generation capacity, are far behind those of Western European countries and the USA. Studies on exploitation and development of geothermal resources are still weak.

  18. Wolte 5. low temperature electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestra, F.; Dieudonne, F.; Jomaah, J.

    2002-01-01

    This book present the latest research and development results in advanced materials, technologies, devices, circuits and systems for low temperature electronics. The main themes of the papers are ranging from physics and fundamental aspects, modeling and simulation, to device and circuit design. The topics include advanced process and characterization, novel devices and cryogenic instrumentation. The papers are divided into nine sections, reflecting the main research efforts in different areas: i) deep submicron silicon MOSFETs, ii) alternative MOSFETs (SOI, innovating device architectures), iii) III-V devices, iv) other semiconductor devices (Ge devices, p-n junctions, IR sensors, semiconductor microcrystals), v) emerging devices and phenomena (nano Si-based devices, conduction and fluctuations mechanisms), vi) superconducting materials, vii) superconducting detectors, viii) superconducting devices and circuits (RSFQ, SIS mixers, metal-superconducting-semiconductor structures), ix) low temperature electronics for space applications. Six invited papers presented by internationally recognized authors, and 39 contributed papers are presented. The invited papers provide an excellent overview of today's status and progress, as well as tomorrow's challenges and trends in this important discipline for many cryogenic applications. (authors)

  19. Low Temperature District Heating for Future Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Dietrich; Kallert, Anna; Blesl, Markus

    2017-01-01

    of the building stock. Low temperature district heating (LTDH) can contribute significantly to a more efficient use of energy resources as well as better integration of renewable energy (e.g. geothermal or solar heat), and surplus heat (e.g. industrial waste heat) into the heating sector. LTDH offers prospects......The building sector is responsible for more than one third of the final energy consumption of societies and produces the largest amount of greenhouse gas emissions of all sectors. This is due to the utilisation of combustion processes of mainly fossil fuels to satisfy the heating demand...... for both the demand side (community building structure) and the supply side (network properties or energy sources). Especially in connection with buildings that demand only low temperatures for space heating. The utilisation of lower temperatures reduces losses in pipelines and can increase the overall...

  20. Improvement potential of a real geothermal power plant using advanced exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gökgedik, Harun; Yürüsoy, Muhammet; Keçebaş, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to quantitatively evaluate thermodynamic performance of a geothermal power plant (GPP) from potential for improvement point of view. Thus, sources of inefficiency and irreversibilities can be determined through exergy analysis. The advanced exergy analysis is more appropriate to determine real potential for thermodynamic improvements of the system by splitting exergy destruction into unavoidable and avoidable portions. The performance critical components and the potential for exergy efficiency improvement of a GPP were determined by means of the advanced exergy analysis. This plant is the Bereket GPP in Denizli/Turkey as a current operating system. The results show that the avoidable portion of exergy destruction in all components except for the turbines is higher than the unavoidable value. Therefore, much can be made to lessen the irreversibilities for components of the Bereket GPP. The total exergy efficiency of the system is found to be 9.60%. Its efficiency can be increased up to 15.40% by making improvements in the overall components. Although the heat exchangers had lower exergy and modified exergy efficiencies, their exergy improvement potentials were high. Finally, in the plant, the old technology is believed to be one of the main reasons for low efficiencies. - Highlights: • Evaluation of potential for improvement of a GPP using advanced exergy analysis. • Efficiency can be increased up to 15.40% by making improvements in the components. • Heat exchangers are the highest avoidable values, making them the least efficient components in plant. • The main reasons for low efficiencies are believed to be the old technology.

  1. Hydrogeochemical evaluation of conventional and hot dry rock geothermal resource potential in the Clear Lake region, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.; Adams, A.I.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.

    1993-05-01

    Chemistry, stable isotope, and tritium contents of thermal/mineral waters in the Clear Lake region were used to evaluate conventional and hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal potential for electrical generation. Thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region are broadly classified as thermal meteoric and connate types based on chemical and isotopic criteria. Ratios of conservative components such as B/Cl are extremely different among all thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region except for clusters of waters emerging from specific areas such as the Wilbur Springs district and the Agricultural Park area south of Mt. Konocti. In contrast ratios of conservative components in large, homogeneous geothermal reservoirs are constant. Stable isotope values of Clear Lake region waters show a mixing trend between thermal meteoric and connate (generic) end-members. The latter end-member has enriched {delta}D as well as enriched {delta}{sup 18}O, from typical high-temperature geothermal reservoir waters. Tritium data indicate most Clear Lake region waters are mixtures of old and young fluid components. Subsurface equilibration temperature of most thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region is {le}150{degree}C based on chemical geothermometers but it is recognized that Clear Lake region waters are not typical geothermal fluids and that they violate rules of application of many geothermometers. The combined data indicate that no large geothermal reservoir underlies the Clear Lake region and that small localized reservoirs have equilibration temperatures {le}150{degree}C (except for Sulphur Bank mine). HDR technologies are probably the best way to commercially exploit the known high-temperatures existing beneath the Clear Lake region particularly within and near the main Clear Lake volcanic field.

  2. Coupling geophysical investigation with hydrothermal modeling to constrain the enthalpy classification of a potential geothermal resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jeremy T.; Karakhanian, Arkadi; Connor, Chuck; Connor, Laura; Hughes, Joseph D.; Malservisi, Rocco; Wetmore, Paul

    2015-01-01

    An appreciable challenge in volcanology and geothermal resource development is to understand the relationships between volcanic systems and low-enthalpy geothermal resources. The enthalpy of an undeveloped geothermal resource in the Karckar region of Armenia is investigated by coupling geophysical and hydrothermal modeling. The results of 3-dimensional inversion of gravity data provide key inputs into a hydrothermal circulation model of the system and associated hot springs, which is used to evaluate possible geothermal system configurations. Hydraulic and thermal properties are specified using maximum a priori estimates. Limited constraints provided by temperature data collected from an existing down-gradient borehole indicate that the geothermal system can most likely be classified as low-enthalpy and liquid dominated. We find the heat source for the system is likely cooling quartz monzonite intrusions in the shallow subsurface and that meteoric recharge in the pull-apart basin circulates to depth, rises along basin-bounding faults and discharges at the hot springs. While other combinations of subsurface properties and geothermal system configurations may fit the temperature distribution equally well, we demonstrate that the low-enthalpy system is reasonably explained based largely on interpretation of surface geophysical data and relatively simple models.

  3. The Low temperature CFB gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoholm, P.; Nielsen, Rasmus Glar; Fock, Martin W.

    2003-01-01

    %) particle separation by the hot secondary cyclone. The next LT-CFB experiment, currently under preparation, is expected to be on either municipal/industrial waste or animal manure. Eventually a 500 kW LT-CFB test plant scheduled for commission during summer 2003, and the anticipated primary LT......The Low Temperature Circulating Fluidised Bed (LT-CFB) gasification process aims at avoiding problems due to ash deposition and agglomeration when using difficult fuels such as agricultural biomass and many waste materials. This, as well as very simple gas cleaning, is achieved by pyrolysing...... the fuel at around 650?C in a CFB reaction chamber and subsequently gasifying the char at around 730oC in a slowly fluidised bubbling bed chamber located in the CFB particle recirculation path. In this paper the novel LT-CFB concept is further described together with the latest test results from the 50 k...

  4. Low Temperature Hydrogen Antihydrogen Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, E. A. G.; Chamberlain, C. W.

    2001-01-01

    In view of current interest in the trapping of antihydrogen (H-bar) atoms at low temperatures, we have carried out a full four-body variational calculation to determine s-wave elastic phase shifts for hydrogen antihydrogen scattering, using the Kohn Variational Principle. Terms outside the Born-Oppenheimer approximation have been taken into account using the formalism of Kolos and Wolniewicz. As far as we are aware, this is the first time that these terms have been included in an H H-bar scattering calculation. This is a continuation of earlier work on H-H-bar interactions. Preliminary results differ substantially from those calculated using the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. A method is outlined for reducing this discrepancy and taking the rearrangement channel into account.

  5. Mechanical pumping at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perin, J.P.; Claudet, G.; Disdier, F.

    1994-12-31

    This new concept consists of a mechanical pump able to run at low temperature (25 K). Since gas density varies inversely with temperature, the pump could deliver much higher mass flow rate than at room temperature for a given size. Advantages of this concept are reduction of an order of magnitude in size and weight when compared to a conventional pump scaled to perform the same mass flow rate at room temperature. Results obtained at 80 K and 25 K with a Holweck type molecular drag pump of 100 mm diameter and with few stages of a turbomolecular pump running at the same temperatures, are given. This pump would be a solution to allow continuous tritium extraction and minimize the mass inventory for the ITER (International Tokamak Experiment Reactor). 5 figs., 2 tabs., 4 refs.

  6. Evaluation of state taxes and tax incentives and their impact on the development of geothermal energy in western states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronder, L.D.; Meyer, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    The economic impact of existing and prospective state taxes and tax incentives on direct thermal applications of geothermal energy are evaluated. Study area is twelve western states which have existing and potential geothermal activities. Economic models representing the geothermal producer and business enterprise phases of four industrial/commercial uses of geothermal energy are synthesized and then placed in the existing tax structures of each state for evaluation. The four enterprises are a commercial greenhouse (low temperature process heat), apartment complex (low temperature space heat), food processor (moderate temperature process heat), and small scale energy system (electrical and direct thermal energy for a small industrial park). The effects of the state taxations on net profits and tax revenues are determined. Tax incentives to accelerate geothermal development are also examined. The magnitudes of total state and local tax collections vary considerably from state to state, which implies that geothermal producers and energy-using businesses may be selective in expanding or locating their geothermal operations.

  7. Ionometric determination of fluorides at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyukova, I.S.; Ennan, A.A.; Dzerzhko, E.K.; Leivikova, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    A method for determining fluoride ions in solution at low temperatures using a solid-contact fluorine-selective electrode (FSE) has been developed. The effect of temperature (60 to -15 degrees C) on the calibration slope, potential equilibrium time, and operational stability is studied; the effect of an organic additive (cryoprotector) on the calibration slope is also studied. The temperature relationships obtained for the solid-contact FSEs allow appropriate corrections to be applied to the operational algorithm of the open-quotes Ftoringclose quotes hand-held semiautomatic HF gas analyzer for the operational temperature range of -16 to 60 degrees C

  8. The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, T.; Holmes, W.; Lai, A.; Croonquist, A.; Eraker, J.; Abbott, R.; Mills, G.; Mohl, J.; Craig, J.; Balachandra, B.; hide

    2000-01-01

    We describe the design and development of the Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility, which is intended to provide a unique environment of low temperature and microgravity for the scientists to perform breakthrough investigations on board the International Space Station.

  9. Accelerating Geothermal Research (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    Geothermal research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is advancing geothermal technologies to increase renewable power production. Continuous and not dependent on weather, the geothermal resource has the potential to jump to more than 500 gigawatts in electricity production, which is equivalent to roughly half of the current U.S. capacity. Enhanced geothermal systems have a broad regional distribution in the United States, allowing the potential for development in many locations across the country.

  10. Agribusiness geothermal energy utilization potential of Klamath and Western Snake River Basins, Oregon. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.

    1978-03-01

    Resource assessment and methods of direct utilization for existing and prospective food processing plants have been determined in two geothermal resource areas in Oregon. Ore-Ida Foods, Inc. and Amalgamated Sugar Company in the Snake River Basin; Western Polymer Corporation (potato starch extraction) and three prospective industries--vegetable dehydration, alfalfa drying and greenhouses--in the Klamath Basin have been analyzed for direct utilization of geothermal fluids. Existing geologic knowledge has been integrated to indicate locations, depth, quality, and estimated productivity of the geothermal reservoirs. Energy-economic needs and balances, along with cost and energy savings associated with field development, delivery systems, in-plant applications and fluid disposal have been calculated for interested industrial representatives.

  11. The Low Temperature CFB Gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoholm, P.; Nielsen, Rasmus Glar; Richardt, K.

    2004-01-01

    straw, animal manure and waste and for co-firing the product gas in existing, e.g. coal fired power plant boilers. The aim is to prevent fouling, agglomeration and high temperature corrosion caused by potassium and chlorine and other fuel components when producing electricity. So far 92 hours......The Low Temperature Circulating Fluidised Bed (LT-CFB) gasification process is described together with the 50 kW and the 500 kW test plants and latest test results. The LT-CFB process is especially developed for medium and large scale (few to >100 MW) gasification of problematic bio-fuels like...... of experiments with the 50 kW test plant with two extremely difficult types of straw has shown low char losses and high retentions of ash including e.g. potassium. Latest 27 hours of experiments with dried, high ash pig- and hen manure has further indicated the concepts high fuel flexibility. The new 500 kW test...

  12. Low-temperature nuclear orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, N.J.; Postma, H.

    1986-01-01

    This book comprehensively surveys the many aspects of the low temperature nuclear orientation method. The angular distribution of radioactive emissions from nuclei oriented by hyperfine interactions in solids, is treated experimentally and theoretically. A general introductory chapter is followed by formal development of the theory of the orientation process and the anisotropic emission of decay products from oriented nuclei, applied to radioactive decay and to reactions. Five chapters on applications to nuclear physics cover experimental studies of alpha, beta and gamma emission, nuclear moment measurement and level structure information. Nuclear orientation studies of parity non-conservation and time reversal asymmetry are fully described. Seven chapters cover aspects of hyperfine interactions, magnetic and electric, in metals, alloys and insulating crystals, including ordered systems. Relaxation phenomena and the combined technique of NMR detection using oriented nuclei are treated at length. Chapters on the major recent development of on-line facilities, giving access to short lived nuclei far from stability, on the use of nuclear orientation for thermometry below 1 Kelvin and on technical aspects of the method complete the main text. Extensive appendices, table of relevant parameters and over 1000 references are included to assist the design of future experiments. (Auth.)

  13. GEOTHERMAL GREENHOUSING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Karaman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Use of renewable energy resources should be brought forward to reduce heating costs of greenhouses and to minimize the use of ever-depleting fossil fuels. Geothermal energy not only provides the heat required throughout plant growth, but also allow a year-long production. Geothermal resources with several other benefits therefore play significant role in agricultural activities. With regard to geothermal potential and implementation, Turkey has the 7th place in the world and the 1st place in Europe. Majority of country geothermal resources is used in greenhouse heating. The size of geothermal greenhouses increased 5 folds during the last decade and reached to 2500 decare. In this study, current status of geothermal greenhousing of Turkey was presented; problems and possible solutions were discussed.

  14. The geothermal power organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholl, K.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Geothermal Power Organization is an industry-led advisory group organized to advance the state-of-the-art in geothermal energy conversion technologies. Its goal is to generate electricity from geothermal fluids in the most cost-effective, safe, and environmentally benign manner possible. The group achieves this goal by determining the Member`s interest in potential solutions to technological problems, advising the research and development community of the needs of the geothermal energy conversion industry, and communicating research and development results among its Members. With the creation and adoption of a new charter, the Geothermal Power Organization will now assist the industry in pursuing cost-shared research and development projects with the DOE`s Office of Geothermal Technologies.

  15. From the Herľany geyser to prove sources of geothermal potential in the Košice basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Ďurove

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Slovakia is a watering place known in the past. A little but very benefit spa lies near the village Herľany below the foothil of the western slopes of the Slanské vrchy Mts. When mineral springs were not able to cover the consumption of the mineral waters in 1870 a well resulting in nowadays unique „ Herľany geyser“ was drilled by Viliam Zsigmondy. In the second half of the 20th century a geological prospecting on oil and natural gas realised in the Košice basin and East Slovakian Neogene basin was. Based on the results, of prospecting structural boreholes, aimed at hydrocarbon prospection, geophysical inestigation and hydrogeological investigation a geothermal potential of this part of the area was confirmed. The geothermal boreholes (GTD-1, GTD-2 and GTD-3 were drilled after 30 years after it. The results from these wells were very positive because the discharge reached 150 litres per second and the temperature of water was 126 °C on the borehole mouth.The time flies and the heasty attested geothermal source in the meantime isn´t utilized enough. The history as well as the today story is known but the perspective of this spring in the future is not clear. Possibilities of its exploitation as an alternative energy source are great but a grand investor is needed. Maybe, the EU-founds will be the only objective future for a prosperity of our followers.

  16. Assessment of the origin and geothermal potential of the thermal waters by hydro-isotope geochemistry: Eskisehir province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, Galip; Italiano, Francesco; Yasin, Didem; Taskiran, Lutfi; Gulbay, Ahmet Hilmi

    2017-05-01

    The thermal fluids vented over Eskisehir province have been investigated for their origin and to estimate the geothermal potential of the area. Thermal waters as well as bubbling and dissolved gases were collected and analysed for their chemical and isotopic features. Their isotopic composition varies in the range from -11.5 to -7.7 ‰ for δ 18 O, -84 and -57 ‰ for δ 2 H, and 0-7.2 TU for tritium. The gases (bubbling and dissolved) are mostly N 2 -dominated with a significant amount of CO 2 . The helium isotopic ratios are in the range of 0.2-0.66 R/Rac, indicate remarkable mantle-He contribution ranging between 2 and 10 % in the whole study area. Considering the estimated geothermal gradient about three times higher than the normal gradient, and the reservoir temperatures estimated to be between 50 and 100 °C using quartz and chalcedony geothermometers, a circulation model was built where possible mixing with shallow waters cool down the uprising geothermal fluids.

  17. Deep Geothermal energy potential in Madrid basin; Potencial de la Geotermia profunda en la Cuenca de Madrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, R.; Sanchez, J.; Ungemach, P.

    2009-07-01

    The Madrid Basin geothermal potential was evidenced in 1980 thanks to an oil exploration well drilled by Shell-Campsa which showed temperatures of 88 degree centigrade and 150 degree centigrade at 1,700 mts and 3,400 mts depth respectively. The low enthalpy geothermal reservoir could be further assessed by four exploratory wells the first one, Pradillo (originals Shell-Campsa oil well), two drilled by ADARO and IGME (Geological survey of Spain) in San Sebastian de los Reyes and Tres Cantos respectively. The latest well, Geomadrid 1, was drilled in 1990 by the Madrid Regional government. The afore mentioned wells have identified a dependable geothermal resource, hosted in a tertiary, clastic, consolidated sandstone reservoir consisting of a thick multilayered sequence (200-800m), with temperatures ranging from 70 degree centigrade to 90 degree centigrade and depths of 1,500 to 2,150 m., overlying a Mesozoic sequence, suitable to be exploited for thermal uses in several district heating grids around Madrid in areas displaying adequate heat loads. A medium temperature reservoir was also identified at the contact between Mesozoic Cretaceous limestones and fractured basement granites at 3,400mts depth, with measured temperatures of 156 degree centigrade, that could be developed and exploited in view of a combined power and heat production (CPH) within the Madrid suburban areas. (Author) 7 refs.

  18. Geothermal Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluska, Oscar P.; Tangir, Daniel; Perri, Matias S.

    2002-01-01

    A general overview of geothermal energy is given that includes a short description of the active and stable areas in the world. The possibilities of geothermal development in Argentina are analyzed taking into account the geothermal fields of the country. The environmental benefits of geothermal energy are outlined

  19. Microstructural Characterization of Low Temperature Gas Nitrided Martensitic Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2015-01-01

    The present work presents microstructural investigations of the surface zone of low temperature gas nitrided precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel AISI 630. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction was applied to investigate the present phases after successive removal of very thin sections...... of the sample surface. The development of epsilon nitride, expanded austenite and expanded martensite resulted from the low temperature nitriding treatments. The microstructural features, hardness and phase composition are discussed with emphasis on the influence of nitriding duration and nitriding potential....

  20. Prospects of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzella, A.; Bianchi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Geothermal energy has great potential as a renewable energy with low environmental impact, the use of heat pumps is becoming established in Italy but the national contributions are still modest when compared to other nations. Mature technologies could double the installed geothermal power in Italy at 2020. [it

  1. Geothermal potential of northern Bavaria: Analysis of geothermal resources by evaluation of geophysical temperature logs in drinking water wells and deep wells; Geothermisches Potential Nordbayerns - Untersuchungen der geothermischen Verhaeltnisse durch Auswertung geophysikalischer Temperaturmessungen in Trinkwasser- und Tiefbohrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, W; Udluft, P [Lehr- und Forschungsbereich Hydrogeologie und Umwelt, Inst. fuer Geologie, Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    The geothermal potential of northern Bavaria was investigated. Thermal water in the lower heat range may be used, e.g., for space heating, bath heating and agricultural purposes. Geophysical data were obtained from a number of drinking water wells with a depth of less than 150 m and a few deep wells of more than 150 m. The data are to serve as a decision aid for potential users of geothermal energy and reduce the exploration risk. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zielsetzung des Forschungsvorhabens ist die Bewertung des geothermischen Potentials Nordbayerns im Hinblick auf die Nutzung von Tiefenwasser zur Gewinnung von hydrothermaler Energie. Niedrigthermale Tiefenwaesser bieten sich z.B. als Energietraeger fuer Raumwaerme, Baederheizung and landwirtschaftliche Nutzung an. Die geothermischen Daten liegen in Form von geophysikalischen Temperaturmessungen aus zahlreichen Trinkwasserbohrungen mit weniger als 150 m Bohrtiefe und einigen Tiefbohrungen mit mehr als 150 m Bohrtiefe vor. Die Bewertung des geothermischen Potentials Nordbayerns soll als Planungsgrundlage fuer potentialle Erdwaermenutzer dienen und zu einer Minimierung des Explorationsrisikos beitragen. (orig.)

  2. Geothermal potential along the Balcones/Ouachita trend, central Texas: ongoing assessment and selected case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, C.M. Jr.; Macpherson, G.L.; Gever, C.; Caran, S.C.; El Shazly, A.G.

    1984-04-01

    A synopsis of the geologic conditions along the Balcones/Ouachita trend is presented. The problems in defining low-temperature resources and in recognizing anomalies are addressed. Local geologic and hydrologic conditions are assayed in terms of ambient thermal regimes, and hypotheses are presented for the origin of thermal waters.

  3. The potential of district heating using geothermal energy. A case study, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agioutantis, Zacharias; Bekas, Athanassios

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of using low-enthalpy geothermal energy from the geothermal field of Sousaki in the province of Korinthos, Greece, to cover the thermal needs of the nearby town of Ag. Theodori. The possibility of developing a system of district heating was examined based on a proposed town model. Total thermal demands were calculated on the basis of a model dwelling and prevailing weather conditions in the area. Subsequently, a heat transfer circuit is proposed, including the distribution network, the heat exchanger, the production and reinjection pumps, and the pumping station. Finally, energy indices are presented, such as demand in tons of equivalent oil and CO 2 emissions. (Author)

  4. Preparation of silver nanoparticles at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Mini, E-mail: mishramini5@gmail.com [Centre of Environmental Science, Department of Botany, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, U.P. (India); Chauhan, Pratima, E-mail: mangu167@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad U.P. (India)

    2016-04-13

    Silver from ancient time is used as antimicrobial agent in the bulk form but now with the advancement in nanotechnology silver in the form of nanoparticles shown potential effect against microbes which make us easy to fight with many diseases plants and animals. In this work silver nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical routes using sodium borohydride as reducing agent at low temperature. The particles were characterized through UV-Visible spectroscopy as well as X-Ray Diffraction. The UV-visible spectra of silver nanoparticles exhibited absorption at 425 cm; the crystallite size of the particles is between 19nm to 39nm. EDAX graph shows two peaks of silver and oxygen. Water absorbed by silver nanoparticles was removed by the calcinations.

  5. Preparation of silver nanoparticles at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Mini; Chauhan, Pratima

    2016-01-01

    Silver from ancient time is used as antimicrobial agent in the bulk form but now with the advancement in nanotechnology silver in the form of nanoparticles shown potential effect against microbes which make us easy to fight with many diseases plants and animals. In this work silver nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical routes using sodium borohydride as reducing agent at low temperature. The particles were characterized through UV-Visible spectroscopy as well as X-Ray Diffraction. The UV-visible spectra of silver nanoparticles exhibited absorption at 425 cm; the crystallite size of the particles is between 19nm to 39nm. EDAX graph shows two peaks of silver and oxygen. Water absorbed by silver nanoparticles was removed by the calcinations.

  6. Outdoor recreational use of the Salton Sea with reference to potential impacts of geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twiss, R.; Sidener, J.; Bingham, G.; Burke, J.E.

    1978-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the types, levels, and locations of outdoor recreation uses in the Salton Sea area, the number and principal activities of visitors, and to estimate the consequences upon outdoor recreation of geothermal development and other activities that might affect the Salton Sea. It is concluded that since the Salton Sea is considered legally to be a sump for agricultural, municipal, and presumably geothermal waste waters, recreational use of the Sea for fishing and boating (from present marinas) will undoubtedly continue to decline, unless there is a major policy change. Use of the shoreline for camping, the surrounding roads and lands for scenic viewing, ORV events, and retirement or recreation communities will not decline, and will probably increase, assuming control of hydrogen sulfide odors. Two ways in which the fishing and present boating facilities could be returned to a wholly usable steady state are discussed. One is by construction of a diked evaporation pond system at the south end of the Sea. This would allow a means of control over both water level and salinity. Another means, less costly but more difficult to effectively control, would be to budget geothermal plant use of, and disposal of wastes in, Salton Sea water. (JGB)

  7. Hydrochemical and isotopic (2H, 18O and 37Cl) constraints on evolution of geothermal water in coastal plain of Southwestern Guangdong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liuzhu; Ma, Teng; Du, Yao; Xiao, Cong; Chen, Xinming; Liu, Cunfu; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-05-01

    great potential to trace source of dissolved Cl- in geothermal water. Estimated reservoir temperatures show that geothermal reservoirs in study area are mid-low temperature geothermal reservoirs.

  8. Sustainable geothermal utilization - Case histories; definitions; research issues and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelsson, Gudni

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable development by definition meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The Earth's enormous geothermal resources have the potential to contribute significantly to sustainable energy use worldwide as well as to help mitigate climate change. Experience from the use of numerous geothermal systems worldwide lasting several decades demonstrates that by maintaining production below a certain limit the systems reach a balance between net energy discharge and recharge that may be maintained for a long time (100-300 years). Modelling studies indicate that the effect of heavy utilization is often reversible on a time-scale comparable to the period of utilization. Thus, geothermal resources can be used in a sustainable manner either through (1) constant production below the sustainable limit, (2) step-wise increase in production, (3) intermittent excessive production with breaks, and (4) reduced production after a shorter period of heavy production. The long production histories that are available for low-temperature as well as high-temperature geothermal systems distributed throughout the world, provide the most valuable data available for studying sustainable management of geothermal resources, and reservoir modelling is the most powerful tool available for this purpose. The paper presents sustainability modelling studies for the Hamar and Nesjavellir geothermal systems in Iceland, the Beijing Urban system in China and the Olkaria system in Kenya as examples. Several relevant research issues have also been identified, such as the relevance of system boundary conditions during long-term utilization, how far reaching interference from utilization is, how effectively geothermal systems recover after heavy utilization and the reliability of long-term (more than 100 years) model predictions. (author)

  9. Radically Different Kinetics at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Ian

    2014-06-01

    The use of the CRESU (Cinétique de Réaction en Ecoulement Supersonique Uniforme, or Reaction Kinetics in Uniform Supersonic Flow) technique coupled with pulsed laser photochemical kinetics methods has shown that reactions involving radicals can be very rapid at temperatures down to 10 K or below. The results have had a major impact in astrochemistry and planetology, as well as proving an exacting test for theory. The technique has also been applied to the formation of transient complexes of interest both in atmospheric chemistry and combustion. Until now, all of the chemical reactions studied in this way have taken place on attractive potential energy surfaces with no overall barrier to reaction. The F + H2 {→} HF + H reaction does possess a substantial energetic barrier ({\\cong} 800 K), and might therefore be expected to slow to a negligible rate at very low temperatures. In fact, this H-atom abstraction reaction does take place efficiently at low temperatures due entirely to tunneling. I will report direct experimental measurements of the rate of this reaction down to a temperature of 11 K, in remarkable agreement with state-of-the-art quantum reactive scattering calculations by François Lique (Université du Havre) and Millard Alexander (University of Maryland). It is thought that long chain cyanopolyyne molecules H(C2)nCN may play an important role in the formation of the orange haze layer in Titan's atmosphere. The longest carbon chain molecule observed in interstellar space, HC11N, is also a member of this series. I will present new results, obtained in collaboration with Jean-Claude Guillemin (Ecole de Chimie de Rennes) and Stephen Klippenstein (Argonne National Labs), on reactions of C2H, CN and C3N radicals (using a new LIF scheme by Hoshina and Endo which contribute to the low temperature formation of (cyano)polyynes. H. Sabbah, L. Biennier, I. R. Sims, Y. Georgievskii, S. J. Klippenstein, I. W. M. Smith, Science 317, 102 (2007). S. D. Le Picard, M

  10. Oilfield geothermal exploitation in China-A case study from the Liaohe oilfield in Bohai Bay Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shejiao; Yao, Yanhua; Fan, Xianli; Yan, Jiahong

    2017-04-01

    The clean geothermal energy can play a huge role in solving the problem of severe smog in China as it can replace large coal-fired heating in winter. Chinese government has paid close attention on the development and utilization of geothermal energy. In the "13th Five-Year" plan, the geothermal development is included into the national plan for the first time. China is very rich in the medium and low-temperature geothermal resources, ranking first in the geothermal direct use in the world for a long time. The geothermal resources are mainly concentrated in sedimentary basins, especially in petroliferous basins distributed in North China (in North China, heating is needed in winter). These basins are usually close to the large- and medium-sized cities. Therefore, tapping oilfield geothermal energy have attracted a great attention in the last few years as the watercut achieved above 90% in most oilfields and significant progress has been made. In this paper, taking the Liaohe Oilfield in the Bohai Bay Basin as an example, we discussed the distribution and potential of the geothermal resources, discussed how to use the existed technology to harness geothermal energy more effectively, and forecasted the development prospect of the oilfield geothermal energy. By using the volumetric method, we calculated the geothermal resources of the Guantao Formation, Dongying Formation, Shahejie Formation and basement rock in the Liaohe depression. We tested the geothermal energy utilization efficiency in different conditions by applying different pump technologies and utilizing geothermal energy in different depth, such as shallow geothermal energy (0-200m), middle-deep depth geothermal energy (200-4000m), and oilfield sewage heat produced with oil production. For the heat pump systems, we tested the conventional heat pump system, high-temperature heat pump system, super high-temperature heat pump system, and gas heat pump system. Finally, based on the analysis of national policy

  11. Geothermal potential of Caledonian granites underlying Upper Palaeozoic sedimentary basins astride the Iapetus Suture Zone in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschle, Tobias; Daly, J. Stephen; Whitehouse, Martin J.; McConnell, Brian; Buhre, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    Upper Palaeozoic sedimentary basins in Ireland overlie crystalline rocks within the Caledonian Iapetus Suture Zone. Beneath these basins, Lower Palaeozoic rocks, formed and deformed during the Caledonian orogenic cycle, were intruded by c. 420-390 Ma late-tectonic granites at various tectonic levels. These include the subsurface Kentstown and Glenamaddy granites discovered by mineral exploration drilling. While these granites comprise actual targets for Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) exploration, several others likely exist based on geophysical considerations. In order to test the regional geothermal potential, the buried granites as well as analogue exposed rocks are being investigated geochemically. The geothermal potential of the intrusives depends on their heat production rate (HPR), which is calculated using rock density and concentrations of the heat producing elements (HPE) uranium, thorium and potassium. In spite of their close spacing and similar ages, the whole-rock geochemistry of the granites varies significantly, but with no obvious geographical control (Fritschle et al., 2013; 2014). The granite HPR values range from 1.4 μW/m3 for the Dhoon Granite (Isle of Man) to 4.9 μW/m3 for the Drogheda Granite (Ireland). This compares with the average HPR for a 'typical' granite of 2.7 μW/m3 (Goldstein et al., 2009). It is demonstrated that an elevated HPR of a granite can be related to enrichment in one of the HPE alone (e.g., uranium-enrichment in the Foxdale Granite (Isle of Man), or thorium-enrichment in the Drogheda Granite). Enrichment in HPE in a granite may occur due to different reasons including hydrothermal (re-) distribution of uranium, or the assimilation of thorium-rich wall-rocks. Hence, the distribution of the HPE in particular minerals, veins and source lithologies, along with the petrophysical characteristics of the sedimentary basins and the granites' petrogenesis, are currently being investigated as possible mechanisms controlling their

  12. Low temperature study of nonstoichiometric titanium carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashmetov, M.Yu.

    2005-05-01

    By low temperature neutron diffraction method was studied structure in nonstoichiometric titanium carbide from room temperature up to 12K. It is found of low temperature phase in titanium carbide- TiC 0.71 . It is established region and borders of this phase. It is determined change of unit cell parameter. (author)

  13. Low-temperature plasma modelling and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van J.

    2011-01-01

    Since its inception in the beginning of the twentieth century, low-temperature plasma science has become a major ¿eld of science. Low-temperature plasma sources and gas discharges are found in domestic, industrial, atmospheric and extra-terrestrial settings. Examples of domestic discharges are those

  14. Thermal conductivity at very low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, M [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38 (France). Service des Basses Temperatures

    1976-06-01

    The interest of low and very low temperatures in solid physics and especially that of thermal measurements is briefly mentioned. Some notes on the thermal conductivity of dielectrics, the method and apparatus used to measure this property at very low temperatures (T<1.5K) and some recent results of fundamental and applied research are then presented.

  15. Numerical simulation of electricity generation potential from fractured granite reservoir through vertical wells at Yangbajing geothermal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Yu-chao; Zhan, Jie-min; Wu, Neng-you; Luo, Ying-ying; Cai, Wen-hao

    2016-01-01

    Yangbajing geothermal field is the first high-temperature hydrothermal convective geothermal system in China. Research and development of the deep fractured granite reservoir is of great importance for capacity expanding and sustaining of the ground power plant. The geological exploration found that there is a fractured granite heat reservoir at depth of 950–1350 m in well ZK4001 in the north of the geothermal field, with an average temperature of 248 °C and a pressure of 8.01–11.57 MPa. In this work, electricity generation potential and its dependent factors from this fractured granite reservoir by water circulating through vertical wells are numerically investigated. The results indicate that the vertical well system attains an electric power of 16.8–14.7 MW, a reservoir impedance of 0.29–0.46 MPa/(kg/s) and an energy efficiency of about 29.6–12.8 during an exploiting period of 50 years under reference conditions, showing good heat production performance. The main parameters affecting the electric power are water production rate and injection temperature. The main parameters affecting reservoir impedance are reservoir permeability, injection temperature and water production rate. The main parameters affecting the energy efficiency are reservoir permeability, injection temperature and water production rate. Higher reservoir permeability or more reasonable injection temperature or water production rate within certain ranges will be favorable for improving the electricity generation performance. - Highlights: • We established a numerical model of vertical well heat mining system. • Desirable electricity production performance can be obtained under suitable conditions. • The system attains an electric power of 16.8–14.7 MW with an efficiency of about 29.6–12.8. • Electric power mainly depends on water production rate and injection temperature. • Higher permeability within a certain range is favorable for electricity generation.

  16. Geothermal direct heat use: market potential/penetration analysis for Federal Region IX (Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, W.; Tang, K. (eds.)

    1980-05-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential for geothermal direct heat use in Arizona, California, Hawaii, and Nevada (Federal Region IX). The analysis for each state was performed by a different team, located in that state. For each state, the study team was asked to: (1) define the resource, based on the latest available data; (2) assess the potential market growth for geothermal energy; and (3) estimate the market penetration, projected to 2020. Each of the four states of interest in this study is unique in its own way. Rather than impose the same assumptions as to growth rates, capture rates, etc. on all of the study teams, each team was asked to use the most appropriate set of assumptions for its state. The results, therefore, should reflect the currently accepted views within each state. The four state reports comprise the main portion of this document. A brief regional overview section was prepared by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, following completion of the state reports.

  17. Reservoir Maintenance and Development Task Report for the DOE Geothermal Technologies Office GeoVision Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Finger, John T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carrigan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Foris, Adam [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kennedy, Mack B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Corbet, Thomas F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doughty, Christine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pye, Steven [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sonnenthal, Eric L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report documents the key findings from the Reservoir Maintenance and Development (RM&D) Task of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE), Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) Geothermal Vision Study (GeoVision Study). The GeoVision Study had the objective of conducting analyses of future geothermal growth based on sets of current and future geothermal technology developments. The RM&D Task is one of seven tasks within the GeoVision Study with the others being, Exploration and Confirmation, Potential to Penetration, Institutional Market Barriers, Environmental and Social Impacts, Thermal Applications, and Hybrid Systems. The full set of findings and the details of the GeoVision Study can be found in the final GeoVision Study report on the DOE-GTO website. As applied here, RM&D refers to the activities associated with developing, exploiting, and maintaining a known geothermal resource. It assumes that the site has already been vetted and that the resource has been evaluated to be of sufficient quality to move towards full-scale development. It also assumes that the resource is to be developed for power generation, as opposed to low-temperature or direct use applications. This document presents the key factors influencing RM&D from both a technological and operational standpoint and provides a baseline of its current state. It also looks forward to describe areas of research and development that must be pursued if the development geothermal energy is to reach its full potential.

  18. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role of geothermal energy may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of geothermal energy, the geothermal resource, hydrothermal fluids, electricity production, district heating, process heating, geopressured brines, technology and costs, hot dry rock, magma, and environmental and siting issues

  19. Extremely low temperature properties of epoxy GFRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadotani, Kenzo; Nagai, Matao; Aki, Fumitake.

    1983-01-01

    The examination of fiber-reinforced plastics, that is, plastics such as epoxy, polyester and polyimide reinforced with high strength fibers such as glass, carbon, boron and steel, for extremely low temperature use began from the fuel tanks of rockets. Therafter, the trial manufacture of superconducting generators and extremely low temperature transformers and the manufacture of superconducting magnets for nuclear fusion experimental setups became active, and high performance FRPs have been adopted, of which the extremely low temperature properties have been sufficiently grasped. Recently, the cryostats made of FRPs have been developed, fully utilizing such features of FRPs as high strength, high rigidity, non-magnetic material, insulation, low heat conductivity, light weight and the freedom of molding. In this paper, the mechanical properties at extremely low temperature of the plastic composite materials used as insulators and structural materials for extremely low temperature superconducting equipment is outlined, and in particular, glass fiber-reinforced epoxy laminates are described somewhat in detail. The fracture strain of GFRP at extremely low temperature is about 1.3 times as large as that at room temperature, but at extremely low temperature, clear cracking occurred at 40% of the fracture strain. The linear thermal contraction of GFRP showed remarkable anisotropy. (Kako, I.)

  20. Development of geothermal field following the 2000 eruption of Usu volcano as revealed by ground temperature, resistivity and self-potential variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mogi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2000 eruption of Usu volcano, NE Japan, took place on the foot of the somma, and formed a cryptodome of 65 m high accompanying numerous faults. We made repeated measurements of ground temperature, Self-Potential (SP and electrical resistivity, in order to clarify the mechanism of development of the newly formed geothermal field on the fault zone. Prior to the expansion of the geothermal field, we detected a resistive zone at the center of the geothermal zone and it supposed to evidence that the zone involving dry steam phase had been formed beneath the fault zone. A rapid expansion of the geothermal field followed along the fault zone away from the craters. The place of maximum amplitude of the SP field also migrated following the expansion of the high ground temperature zone. The high resistive part has shrunk as a consequence of the progress of condensation to warm the surroundings. Based on the observations, we delineated the process of the hydrothermal circulation. Considering the topographic effect of the SP field observed on the highly permeable zone in the Usu somma, the potential flow along the slope of the soma was expected to play an important role to promote the rapid expansion of the geothermal field and the migration of the most active part.

  1. The potential for convection and implications for geothermal energy in the Perth Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Heather A.; Florio, Brendan; Trefry, Michael G.; Reid, Lynn B.; Ricard, Ludovic P.; Ghori, K. Ameed R.

    2012-11-01

    Convection of groundwater in aquifers can create areas of anomalously high temperature at shallow depths which could be exploited for geothermal energy. Temperature measurements in the Perth Basin (Western Australia) reveal thermal patterns that are consistent with convection in the Yarragadee Aquifer. This observation is supported by Rayleigh number calculations, which show that convection is possible within the range of aquifer thickness, geothermal gradient, salinity gradient and permeability encountered in the Yarragadee Aquifer, assuming that the aquifer can be treated as a homogeneous anisotropic layer. Numerical simulations of convection in a simplified model of the Yarragadee Aquifer show that: (1) the spacing of convective upwellings can be predicted from aquifer thickness and permeability anisotropy; (2) convective upwellings may be circular or elongate in plan view; (3) convective upwellings create significant temperature enhancements relative to the conductive profile; (4) convective flow rates are similar to regional groundwater flow rates; and (5) convection homogenises salinity within the aquifer. Further work is required to constrain the average horizontal and vertical permeability of the Yarragadee Aquifer, to assess the validity of treating the aquifer as a homogeneous anisotropic layer, and to determine the impact of realistic aquifer geometry and advection on convection.

  2. A Geological and Geophysical Study of the Geothermal Energy Potential of Pilgrim Springs, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Donald L.; Forbes, Robert B. [eds.

    1980-01-01

    The Pilgrim Springs geothermal area, located about 75 km north of Nome, was the subject of an intensive, reconnaissance-level geophysical and geological study during a 90-day period in the summer of 1979. The thermal springs are located in a northeast-oriented, oval area of thawed ground approximately 1.5 km{sup 2} in size, bordered on the north by the Pilgrim River. A second, much smaller, thermal anomaly was discovered about 3 km northeast of the main thawed area. Continuous permafrost in the surrounding region is on the order of 100 m thick. Present surface thermal spring discharge is {approx} 4.2 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 3} s{sup -1} (67 gallons/minute) of alkali-chloride-type water at a temperature of 81 C. The reason for its high salinity is not yet understood because of conflicting evidence for seawater vs. other possible water sources. Preliminary Na-K-Ca geothermometry suggests deep reservoir temperatures approaching 150 C, but interpretation of these results is difficult because of their dependence on an unknown water mixing history. Based on these estimates, and present surface and drill hole water temperatures, Pilgrim Springs would be classified as an intermediate-temperature, liquid-dominated geothermal system.

  3. Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. C. Maurer

    2000-05-01

    Approximately 50% of the cost of a new geothermal power plant is in the wells that must be drilled. Compared to the majority of oil and gas wells, geothermal wells are more difficult and costly to drill for several reasons. First, most U.S. geothermal resources consist of hot, hard crystalline rock formations which drill much slower than the relatively soft sedimentary formations associated with most oil and gas production. Second, high downhole temperatures can greatly shorten equipment life or preclude the use of some technologies altogether. Third, producing viable levels of electricity from geothermal fields requires the use of large diameter bores and a high degree of fluid communication, both of which increase drilling and completion costs. Optimizing fluid communication often requires creation of a directional well to intersect the best and largest number of fracture capable of producing hot geothermal fluids. Moineau motor stators made with elastomers cannot operate at geothermal temperatures, so they are limited to the upper portion of the hole. To overcome these limitations, Maurer Engineering Inc. (MEI) has developed a turbodrill that does not use elastomers and therefore can operate at geothermal temperatures. This new turbodrill uses a special gear assembly to reduce the output speed, thus allowing a larger range of bit types, especially tri-cone roller bits, which are the bits of choice for drilling hard crystalline formations. The Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) represents a significant improvement for drilling geothermal wells and has the potential to significantly reduce drilling costs while increasing production, thereby making geothermal energy less expensive and better able to compete with fossil fuels. The final field test of the AGT will prepare the tool for successful commercialization.

  4. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, J.; Freeman, J.

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the U.S. DOE's Geothermal Technology Program's (GTP's) involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  5. Human Resources in Geothermal Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridleifsson, I.B.

    1995-01-01

    Some 80 countries are potentially interested in geothermal energy development, and about 50 have quantifiable geothermal utilization at present. Electricity is produced from geothermal in 21 countries (total 38 TWh/a) and direct application is recorded in 35 countries (34 TWh/a). Geothermal electricity production is equally common in industrialized and developing countries, but plays a more important role in the developing countries. Apart from China, direct use is mainly in the industrialized countries and Central and East Europe. There is a surplus of trained geothermal manpower in many industrialized countries. Most of the developing countries as well as Central and East Europe countries still lack trained manpower. The Philippines (PNOC) have demonstrated how a nation can build up a strong geothermal workforce in an exemplary way. Data from Iceland shows how the geothermal manpower needs of a country gradually change from the exploration and field development to monitoring and operations.

  6. Improved Low Temperature Performance of Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Erik J.; West, William C.; Smart, Marshall C.; Gnanaraj, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Low temperature double-layer capacitor operation enabled by: - Base acetonitrile / TEATFB salt formulation - Addition of low melting point formates, esters and cyclic ethers center dot Key electrolyte design factors: - Volume of co-solvent - Concentration of salt center dot Capacity increased through higher capacity electrodes: - Zeolite templated carbons - Asymmetric cell designs center dot Continuing efforts - Improve asymmetric cell performance at low temperature - Cycle life testing Motivation center dot Benchmark performance of commercial cells center dot Approaches for designing low temperature systems - Symmetric cells (activated carbon electrodes) - Symmetric cells (zeolite templated carbon electrodes) - Asymmetric cells (lithium titanate/activated carbon electrodes) center dot Experimental results center dot Summary

  7. Low temperature nitrogen chemistry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glarborg, P.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Kristensen, P.G.; Alzueta, M.; Roejel, H.

    1997-04-01

    The results of a two tasks program on Natural Gas Reburning are reported. The work involved an experimental and theoretical study of the reburning and hybrid reburning/SNCR chemistry in the 1000-1500 K range. The interactions between hydrocarbon and nitrogen chemistry under fuel-rich conditions were investigated in order to assess the NO{sub x} reduction potential of low temperature reburning. The effect of reburn fuel(carbon monoxide, methane, acetylene, ethylene, ethane, and methane/ethane mixture), temperature, stoichiometry, reactant dilution, reaction time, and inlet NO level were studied. The results indicate a significant NO reduction potential even below 1400 K, but extrapolation to practical conditions are complicated by inadequate knowledge of the detailed chemistry as well as of the effect of mixing. The possibilities of enhancing the conversion to N{sub 2} instead of NO by adding selective reducing agents (hybrid reburning/SNCR) were evaluated. Our results indicate little synergistic effect between reburn and SNCR. The most simple configuration, where the selective reducing agent is injected together with the burnout air, is not expected to be effective, unless the N-agent is injected in form of an aqueous solution. A chemical kinetic model for reburning and reburn/SNCR is listed and can be obtained by e-mail from pgl(commerical at)kt.dtu.dk.(au) 145 refs.

  8. Geothermal investigations in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Ravnik

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the methodology and the results of geothermal investigations, based on seventy-two boreholes in the territory of the Republic of Slovenia.The data of fundamental geothermal quantities: formation temperature, thermal conductivity, and radiogenic heat production of rocks as well as surface heat flow density are stored in a computerized data base. Their synthesis is given in the map of formation temperatures at 1000 m depth and in the map of surface heat flow density. In both maps the thermal difference between the Pannonian basin in theeastern and the Dinarides in the western part of Slovenia is clearly expressed.However, in the boundary area between these two tectonic units, for a distance of about 100 km in SW-NE direction, elevated horizontal gradients of formation temperature as well as heat flow density are evident. A small positive thermal anomaly in the Ljubljana depression is conspicuous.The low-temperature geothermal resources in Slovenia such as thermalsprings and thermal water from boreholes, are estimated to have a flow rate of 1120 kg/s, corresponding to the ideal total heat production of 144 MWt. In the geothermally promising areas amounting to 3200 km2 the rate of accessible resource base (ARB down to the depth of 3 km has been assessed to about 8.5 x lO 20» J.

  9. Analysis of low-temperature tar fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikkawa, S; Yamada, F

    1952-01-01

    A preliminary comparative study was made on the applicability of the methods commonly used for the type analysis of petroleum products to the low-temperature tar fractions. The usability of chromatography was also studied.

  10. Geothermal spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, J.L.; Takahashi, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    The spa business, part of the health and fitness industry that has sprung up in recent years, is highly successful world-wide. The most traditional type of spa is the geothermal spa, found in geothermal areas around the world. In Japan, for example, some 2,000 geothermal spas and resorts generate $6 billion annually. Hawaii has an ideal environment for geothermal spas, and several locations in the islands could supply warm mineral water for spa development. Hawaii receives about 6 million visitors annually, a high percentage of whom are familiar with the relaxing and therapeutic value of geothermal spas, virtually guaranteeing the success of this industry in Hawaii. Presently, Hawaii does not have a single geothermal spa. This paper reports that the geothermal spa business is an industry whose time has come, an industry that offers very promising investment opportunities, and one that would improve the economy while expanding the diversity of pleasurable vacation options in Hawaii

  11. Geothermal electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliasson, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    Geothermal conversion, as discussed here, is the conversion of the heat bound within the topmost three kilometres of the upper crust of the earth into useful energy, principally electricity. The characteristics of a geothermal reservoir and its individual technical features are highly site-specific. Applications therefore must be designed to match the specific geothermal reservoir. An estimate of the electric energy potential world-wide made by the Electric Power Research Institute (United States) in 1978 and based on sustaining a continuous 30-year operation is given in the box at the right for comparison purposes only. 8 refs, 5 figs

  12. Navy Geothermal Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-01

    Domestic geothermal resources with the potential for decreasing fossil fuel use and energy cost exist at a significant number of Navy facilities. The Geothermal Plan is part of the Navy Energy R and D Program that will evaluate Navy sites and provide a technical, economic, and environmental base for subsequent resource use. One purpose of the program will be to provide for the transition of R and D funded exploratory efforts into the resource development phase. Individual Navy geothermal site projects are described as well as the organizational structure and Navy decision network. 2 figs.

  13. Low temperature plasma technology methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Paul K

    2013-01-01

    Written by a team of pioneering scientists from around the world, Low Temperature Plasma Technology: Methods and Applications brings together recent technological advances and research in the rapidly growing field of low temperature plasmas. The book provides a comprehensive overview of related phenomena such as plasma bullets, plasma penetration into biofilms, discharge-mode transition of atmospheric pressure plasmas, and self-organization of microdischarges. It describes relevant technology and diagnostics, including nanosecond pulsed discharge, cavity ringdown spectroscopy, and laser-induce

  14. New Mexico Geothermal Data Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witcher, J.C.; Whittier, J.; Morgan, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the New Mexico Geothermal Data Base (NMGDB) which is a comprehensive public-domain data base of low-temperature geothermal resource information for New Mexico that is designed to assist researchers and developers. A broad range of geoscience, engineering, climatic, economic, and land status information are complied in the dBASE III PLUS data base management system for use on an IBM or IBM-compatible personal computer. A user friendly menu format with on-screen prompts allows easy and convenient use

  15. Evaluation of the Theoretical Geothermal Potential of Inferred Geothermal Reservoirs within the Vicano–Cimino and the Sabatini Volcanic Districts (Central Italy by the Application of the Volume Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cinti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the theoretical geothermal potential of identified unexploited hydrothermal reservoirs within the Vicano–Cimino and Sabatini volcanic districts (Latium region, Italy has been made on the basis of a revised version of the classical volume method. This method is based on the distribution of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 in shallow and deep aquifers to delimit areas of geothermal interest, according to the hypothesis that zones of high CO2 flux, either from soil degassing and dissolved into aquifers, are spatially related to deep hydrothermal reservoirs. On the whole, 664 fluid discharges (cold waters, thermal waters, and bubbling pools have been collected from shallow and deep aquifers in the Vicano–Cimino Volcanic District and the Sabatini Volcanic District for chemical and isotopic composition, in an area of approximately 2800 km2. From this large hydro-geochemical dataset the pCO2 values have been computed and then processed to obtain a contour map of its spatial distribution by using geostatistical techniques (kriging. The map of pCO2 has been used to draw up the boundaries of potentially exploitable geothermal systems within the two volcanic districts, corresponding to the areas where endogenous CO2 raise up to the surface from the deep hydrothermal reservoirs. The overall estimated potential productivities and theoretical minimum and maximum thermal power of the two volcanic districts are of about 45 × 103 t/h and 3681–5594 MWt, respectively. This makes the Vicano–Cimino Volcanic District and the Sabatini Volcanic District very suitable for both direct and indirect exploitation of the geothermal resources, in view of the target to reduce electricity generation from conventional and poorly sustainable energy sources.

  16. An evaluation of the geothermal potential of the Tecuamburro Volcano area of Guatemala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Duffield, W. (eds.)

    1990-09-01

    Radiometric ages indicate that the Tecuamburro Volcano and three adjacent lava domes grew during the last 38,300 years, and that a 360-m-wide phreatic crater, Laguna Ixpaco, was formed near the base of these domes about 2900 years ago. Laguna Ixpaco is located within the Chupadero crater, from which pyroxene pumice deposits were erupted 38,300 years ago. Thus, the likelihood is great for a partly molten or solid-but-still-hot near-surface intrusion beneath the area. Fumaroles and hot springs issue locally from the Tecuamburro volcanic complex and near Laguna Ixpaco. Analyses of gas and fluid samples from these and other nearby thermal manifestations yield chemical-geothermometer temperatures of about 150{degree} to 300{degree}C, with the highest temperatures at Ixpaco. The existence of a commercial-grade geothermal reservoir beneath the Ixpaco area seems likely. 84 refs., 70 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. Geothermal source potential and utilization for methane generation and alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of integrating a geothermally heated anaerobic digester with a fuel alcohol plant and cattle feedlot. Thin stillage produced from the alcohol production process and manure collected from the cattle feedlot would be digested in anaerobic digesters to produce biogas, a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, and residue. The energy requirements to maintain proper digester temperatures would be provided by geothermal water. The biogas produced in the digesters would be burned in a boiler to produce low-pressure steam which would be used in the alcohol production process. The alcohol plant would be sized so that the distiller's grains byproduct resulting from the alcohol production would be adequate to supply the daily cattle feed requirements. A portion of the digester residue would substitute for alfalfa hay in the cattle feedlot ration. The major design criterion for the integrated facilty was the production of adequate distiller's grain to supply the daily requirements of 1700 head of cattle. It was determined that, for a ration of 7 pounds of distiller's grain per head per day, a 1 million gpy alcohol facility would be required. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared for the proposed project, operating costs were calculated for a facility based on a corn feedstock, the economic feasibility of the proposed project was examined by calculating its simple payback, and an analysis was performed to examine the sensitivity of the project's economic viability to variations in feedstock costs and alcohol and distiller's grain prices.

  18. Study of geothermal potential. Nordrhein-Westfalen intends to provide geothermal heat to all citizens; Geothermische Potenzialstudie. In Nordrhein-Westfalen soll Erdwaerme fuer alle Buerger nutzbar werden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burghardt, U. [Landesinitiative Zukunftsenergien, Duesseldorf (Germany); Holl-Hagemeier, C. [Geologischen Dienst Nordrhein-Westfalen, Krefeld (Germany)

    2001-01-01

    Nordrhein-Westfalen is leading in the field of renewable energy sources. In addition to solar energy, wind power and bioenergy, geothermal energy is now being developed. [German] Nordrhein-Westfalen ist nicht mehr der klassische Stein- und Braunkohlenproduzent, sondern in Deutschland mittlerweile auch fuehrend auf dem Sektor der Zukunftsenergien. Zusammen mit der Wind-, Solar- und Bioenergie gehoert die Geothermie zu den vier Saeulen der von der Landesregierung Nordrhein-Westfalen und der Landesinitiative Zukunftsenergien gefoerderten erneuerbaren Energietechnologien. (orig.)

  19. Minimizing material damage using low temperature irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craven, E.; Hasanain, F.; Winters, M.

    2012-01-01

    Scientific advancements in healthcare driven both by technological breakthroughs and an aging and increasingly obese population have lead to a changing medical device market. Complex products and devices are being developed to meet the demands of leading edge medical procedures. Specialized materials in these medical devices, including pharmaceuticals and biologics as well as exotic polymers present a challenge for radiation sterilization as many of these components cannot withstand conventional irradiation methods. The irradiation of materials at dry ice temperatures has emerged as a technique that can be used to decrease the radiation sensitivity of materials. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of low temperature irradiation on a variety of polymer materials, and over a range of temperatures from 0 °C down to −80 °C. The effectiveness of microbial kill is also investigated under each of these conditions. The results of the study show that the effect of low temperature irradiation is material dependent and can alter the balance between crosslinking and chain scission of the polymer. Low temperatures also increase the dose required to achieve an equivalent microbiological kill, therefore dose setting exercises must be performed under the environmental conditions of use. - Highlights: ► A study is performed to quantify low temperature irradiation effects on polymer materials and BIs. ► Low temperature irradiation alters the balance of cross-linking and chain scissoning in polymers. ► Low temperatures provide radioprotection for BIs. ► Benefits of low temperatures are application specific and must be considered when dose setting.

  20. Thermodynamics of partially confined Fermi gases at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toms, David J

    2004-01-01

    We examine the behaviour of non-interacting Fermi gases at low temperature. If there is a confining potential present the thermodynamic behaviour is altered from the familiar results for the unconfined gas. The role of de Haas-van Alphen type oscillations that are a consequence of the confining potential is considered. Attention is concentrated on the behaviour of the chemical potential and the specific heat. Results are compared and contrasted with those for an unconfined and a totally confined gas

  1. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa county

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Maricopa county is the area of Arizona receiving top priority since it contains over half of the state's population. The county is located entirely within the Basin and Range physiographic region in which geothermal resources are known to occur. Several approaches were taken to match potential users to geothermal resources. One approach involved matching some of the largest facilities in the county to nearby geothermal resources. Other approaches involved identifying industrial processes whose heat requirements are less than the average assessed geothermal reservoir temperature of 110/sup 0/C (230/sup 0/F). Since many of the industries are located on or near geothermal resources, geothermal energy potentially could be adapted to many industrial processes.

  2. Infrastructure and mechanical properties of a fault zone in sandstone as an outcrop analogue of a potential geothermal reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, J. F.; Meier, S.; Philipp, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Due to high drilling costs of geothermal projects, it is economically sensible to assess the potential suitability of a reservoir prior to drilling. Fault zones are of particular importance, because they may enhance fluid flow, or be flow barriers, respectively, depending on their particular infrastructure. Outcrop analogue studies are useful to analyze the fault zone infrastructure and thereby increase the predictability of fluid flow behavior across fault zones in the corresponding deep reservoir. The main aims of the present study are to 1) analyze the infrastructure and the differences of fracture system parameters in fault zones and 2) determine the mechanical properties of the faulted rocks. We measure fracture frequencies as well as orientations, lengths and apertures and take representative rock samples for each facies to obtain Young's modulus, compressive and tensile strengths in the laboratory. Since fractures reduce the stiffnesses of in situ rock masses we use an inverse correlation of the number of discontinuities to calculate effective (in situ) Young's moduli to investigate the variation of mechanical properties in fault zones. In addition we determine the rebound hardness, which correlates with the compressive strength measured in the laboratory, with a 'Schmidt-Hammer' in the field because this allows detailed maps of mechanical property variations within fault zones. Here we present the first results for a fault zone in the Triassic Lower Bunter of the Upper Rhine Graben in France. The outcrop at Cleebourg exposes the damage zone of the footwall and a clear developed fault core of a NNW-SSE-striking normal fault. The approximately 15 m wide fault core consists of fault gouge, slip zones, deformation bands and host rock lenses. Intensive deformation close to the core led to the formation of a distal fault core, a 5 m wide zone with disturbed layering and high fracture frequency. The damage zone also contains more fractures than the host rock

  3. Nevada low-temperaure geothermal resource assessment: 1994. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garside, L.J.

    1994-12-31

    Data compilation for the low-temperature program is being done by State Teams in two western states. Final products of the study include: a geothermal database, in hardcopy and as digital data (diskette) listing information on all known low- and moderate- temperature springs and wells in Nevada; a 1:1,000,000-scale map displaying these geothermal localities, and a bibliography of references on Nevada geothermal resources.

  4. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplaige, Ph.; Lemale, J.

    2008-01-01

    Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source which consists in exploiting the heat coming from the Earth. It covers a wide range of techniques and applications which are presented in this article: 1 - the Earth, source of heat: structure of the Earth, geodynamic model and plate tectonics, origin of heat, geothermal gradient and terrestrial heat flux; 2 - geothermal fields and resources; 3 - implementation of geothermal resources: exploration, main characteristic parameters, resource exploitation; 4 - uses of geothermal resources: power generation, thermal uses, space heating and air conditioning heat pumps, district heating, addition of heat pumps; 5 - economical aspects: power generation, heat generation for district heating; 6 - environmental aspects: conditions of implementation, impacts as substitute to fossil fuels; 7 - geothermal energy in France: resources, organisation; 8 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  5. Geothermal energy

    OpenAIRE

    Manzella A.

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity) worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. Fo...

  6. Analyzing the Potential for Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) Photogrammetry in Estimating Surface Deformations at a Geothermal Fiel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, H.; Burnett, J.; Sladek, C.; Wing, M.; Feigl, K. L.; Selker, J. S.; Tyler, S.; Team, P.

    2016-12-01

    UAS systems equipped with a variety of spectral imaging devices are increasingly incorporated in spatial environmental assessments of continental surfaces (e.g., digital elevation maps, vegetative coverage classifications, surface temperatures). This presented work performed by the UAS team at the Center for Transformative Environmental Monitoring Programs (AirCTEMPS) examines the potential to measure small (sub-cm) deformation from a geothermal injection experiment at Brady's geothermal field in western Nevada (USA). Areal mapping of the 700 x 270 m area of interest was conducted with a nadir pointing Sony A5100 digital camera onboard an autopiloted quadcopter. A total of 16 ground control points were installed using a TopCon GR3 GPS receiver. Two such mapping campaigns were conducted with one before and one after an anticipated surface deformation event. A digital elevation map (DEM) for each time period was created from over 1500 images having 80% overlap/sidelap by using structure from motion (SfM) via Agisoft Photoscan software. The resulting DEM resolution was 8 mm/pixel with residual aerial triangulation errors was < 5 mm. We present preliminary results from an optimized workflow which achieved errors and average differential DEM heights between campaigns at the cm-scale which is broader than the maximum expected deformation. Despite the disconnect between error and deformation severity, this study presents a unique application of sub-cm UAS-based DEMs and further distinguishes itself by comparing results to concurrent Interferometric Synthetic Radar (InSAR). The intent of our study and presentation of results is to streamline, cross-validate, and share methods to encourage further adoption of UAS imagery into the standard toolkit for environmental surface sensing across spatial scales.

  7. Application of low enthalpy geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancher, B.; Giannone, G.

    2007-01-01

    Geothermal energy comes from the superficial layers of the Earth's crust; it can be exploited in several ways, depending on its temperature. Many systems have been developed to use this clean and renewable energy resource. This paper deals with a particular application of low enthalpy geothermal energy in Latisana (district of Udine NE, Italy). The Latisana's indoor stadium is equipped with geothermal plant that uses low temperature water (29-30 0 ) to provide heating. Economic analysis shows that the cost of its plant is comparable to the cost powered by other kinds of renewable energy resources

  8. Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program: technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    A literature search on reservoir and/or well stimulation techniques suitable for application in geothermal fields is presented. The literature on stimulation techniques in oil and gas field applications was also searched and evaluated as to its relevancy to geothermal operations. The equivalent low-temperature work documented in the open literature is cited, and an attempt is made to evaluate the relevance of this information as far as high-temperature stimulation work is concerned. Clays play an important role in any stimulation work. Therefore, special emphasis has been placed on clay behavior anticipated in geothermal operations. (MHR)

  9. Basics of Low-temperature Refrigeration

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, A.

    2014-07-17

    This chapter gives an overview of the principles of low temperature refrigeration and the thermodynamics behind it. Basic cryogenic processes - Joule-Thomoson process, Brayton process as well as Claude process - are described and compared. A typical helium laboratory refrigerator based on Claude process is used as a typical example of a low-temperature refrigeration system. A description of the hardware components for helium liquefaction is an important part of this paper, because the design of the main hardware components (compressors, turbines, heat exchangers, pumps, adsorbers, etc.) provides the input for cost calculation, as well as enables to estimate the reliability of the plant and the maintenance expenses. All these numbers are necessary to calculate the economics of a low temperature application.

  10. Kinetics and spectroscopy of low temperature plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Loureiro, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This is a comprehensive textbook designed for graduate and advanced undergraduate students. Both authors rely on more than 20 years of teaching experience in renowned Physics Engineering courses to write this book addressing the students’ needs. Kinetics and Spectroscopy of Low Temperature Plasmas derives in a full self-consistent way the electron kinetic theory used to describe low temperature plasmas created in the laboratory with an electrical discharge, and presents the main optical spectroscopic diagnostics used to characterize such plasmas. The chapters with the theoretical contents make use of a deductive approach in which the electron kinetic theory applied to plasmas with basis on the electron Boltzmann equation is derived from the basic concepts of Statistical and Plasma Physics. On the other hand, the main optical spectroscopy diagnostics used to characterize experimentally such plasmas are presented and justified from the point of view of the Atomic and Molecular Physics. Low temperature plasmas...

  11. Basics of Low-temperature Refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, A [Linde AG, Munich (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the principles of low temperature refrigeration and the thermodynamics behind it. Basic cryogenic processes - Joule-Thomoson process, Brayton process as well as Claude process - are described and compared. A typical helium laboratory refrigerator based on Claude process is used as a typical example of a low-temperature refrigeration system. A description of the hardware components for helium liquefaction is an important part of this paper, because the design of the main hardware components (compressors, turbines, heat exchangers, pumps, adsorbers, etc.) provides the input for cost calculation, as well as enables to estimate the reliability of the plant and the maintenance expenses. All these numbers are necessary to calculate the economics of a low temperature application.

  12. Radioluminescence and thermoluminescence of albite at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Can, N.; Garcia-Guinea, J.; Kibar, R.; Cetin, A.; Ayvacikli, M.; Townsend, P.D.

    2011-01-01

    Feldspar as an archaeological and geological natural material for dating and retrospective dosimetry is receiving more and more attention because of its useful luminescence properties. In this study, the 25-280 K thermoluminescence (TL) and radioluminescence (RL) spectra in albite, which is a component of the two main feldspar series, the alkali feldspar (Na, K)AlSi 3 O 8 and the plagioclases (NaAlSi 3 O 8 -CaAl 2 Si 2 O 8 ) have been presented for aliquots along (001) and (010) crystallographic orientations. There are four main emission bands that are considered to arise from complexes of intrinsic defects linked in larger complexes with impurities such as Na + , Mn 2+ or Fe 3+ ions. The consequence of their association is to produce different luminescence efficiencies that produce wavelength sensitive TL curves. Radioluminescence data at low temperature for albites is distorted by contributions from the TL sites, even when the RL is run in a cooling cycle. This indicates the potential for a far more general problem for analysis of low temperature RL in insulating materials. - Highlights: → TL and RL spectra in albite were presented for different orientations. → There are 4 emission bands that are considered to arise from complexes of intrinsic. → RL data at low temperature for albite is distorted by contributions from TL sites. → This indicates the potential problem for analysis of low temperature RL.

  13. Low temperature monitoring system for subsurface barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; McKinzie, II Billy John [Houston, TX

    2009-08-18

    A system for monitoring temperature of a subsurface low temperature zone is described. The system includes a plurality of freeze wells configured to form the low temperature zone, one or more lasers, and a fiber optic cable coupled to at least one laser. A portion of the fiber optic cable is positioned in at least one freeze well. At least one laser is configured to transmit light pulses into a first end of the fiber optic cable. An analyzer is coupled to the fiber optic cable. The analyzer is configured to receive return signals from the light pulses.

  14. Materials for low-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ladewig, Bradley; Yan, Yushan; Lu, Max

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in Low-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in low-temperature fuel cells. A related book will cover key materials in high-temperature fuel cells. The two books form part

  15. Low-temperature carbonization plant for lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiotsuki, Y

    1949-01-01

    The design and operational data of a low-temperature carbonization plant for Japanese lignite are described. The retort had a vertical cylinder with a capacity of about 10 tons per day. By continuous operation, in which a part of the gas produced was circulated and burned in the lignite zone, about 40 percent semicoke and 3 to 4 percent tar were obtained. From the tar the following products were separated: Low-temperature carbonization cresol, 18.3; motor fuel, 1.00; solvent, 9.97; cresol for medical uses, 11.85; and creosote oil, 32 percent.

  16. Technologies for the Comprehensive Exploitation of the Geothermal Resources of the North Caucasus Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhasov, A. B.

    2018-03-01

    Technology for the integrated development of low-temperature geothermal resources using the thermal and water potentials for various purposes is proposed. The heat of the thermal waters is utilized in a low-temperature district heating system and for heating the water in a hot water supply system. The water cooled in heat exchangers enters a chemical treatment system where it is conditioned into potable water quality and then forwarded to the household and potable water supply system. Efficient technologies for removal of arsenic and organic contaminants from the water have been developed. For the uninterrupted supply of the consumers with power, the technologies that use two and more types of renewable energy sources (RESs) have the best prospects. Technology for processing organic waste using the geothermal energy has been proposed. According to this technology, the geothermal water is divided into two flows, one of which is delivered to a biomass conversion system and the other is directed to a geothermal steam-gas power plant (GSGP). The wastewater arrives at the pump station from which it is pumped back into the bed. Upon drying, the biogas from the conversion system is delivered into the combustion chamber of a gas-turbine plant (GTP). The heat of the turbine exhaust gases is used in the GSGP to evaporate and reheat the low-boiling working medium. The working medium is heated in the GSGP to the evaporation temperature using the heat of the thermal water. High-temperature geothermal brines are the most promising for the comprehensive processing. According to the proposed technology, the heat energy of the brines is utilized to generate the electric power at a binary geothermal power station; the electric power is then used to extract the dissolved chemical components from the rest of the brine. The comprehensive utilization of high-temperature brines of the East-Precaucasian Artesian Basin will allow to completely satisfy the demand of Russia for lithium

  17. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappelmeyer, O.

    1991-01-01

    Geothermal energy is the natural heat of the earth. It represents an inexhaustible source of energy. In many countries, which are mostly located within the geothermal belts of the world, geothermal energy is being used since many decades for electricity generation and direct heating applications comprising municipal, industrial and agricultural heating. Outside the geothermal anomalous volcanic regions, hot ground water from deep rock formations at temperatures above 70 o C is used for process heat and space heating. Low prices for gas and oil hinder the development of geothermal plants in areas outside positive geothermal anomalies; the cost of drilling to reach depths, where temperatures are above 50 o C to 70 o C, is high. The necessary total investment per MW th installed capacity is in the order of 5 Mio- DM/MW th (3 Mio $/MW th ). Experience shows, that an economic break even with oil is reached at an oil price of 30$ per barrel or if an adequate bonus for the clean, environmentally compatible production of geothermal heat is granted. Worldwide the installed electric capacity of geothermal power plants is approximately 6 000 MW e . About 15 000 MW th of thermal capacity is being extracted for process heat and space heat. The importance of the terrestrial heat as an energy resource would be substantially increased, if the heat, stored in the hot crystalline basement could be extracted at economical production costs. Geothermal energy is a competitive energy source in areas with high geothermal gradients (relative low cost for drilling) and would be competitive in areas with normal geothermal gradients, if a fair compensation for environmental implications from fossil and nuclear power production would be granted. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs

  18. Direct application of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    An overall treatment of direct geothermal applications is presented with an emphasis on the above-ground engineering. The types of geothermal resources and their general extent in the US are described. The potential market that may be served with geothermal energy is considered briefly. The evaluation considerations, special design aspects, and application approaches for geothermal energy use in each of the applications are considered. The present applications in the US are summarized and a bibliography of recent studies and applications is provided. (MHR)

  19. Water Desalination using geothermal energy

    KAUST Repository

    Goosen, M.

    2010-08-03

    The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability and suitability of low and high temperature geothermal energy in comparison to other renewable energy resources for desalination is also discussed. Analysis will show, for example, that the use of geothermal energy for thermal desalination can be justified only in the presence of cheap geothermal reservoirs or in decentralized applications focusing on small-scale water supplies in coastal regions, provided that society is able and willing to pay for desalting. 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  20. Low temperature thermophysical properties of lunar soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    The thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of lunar fines samples from the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 missions, determined at low temperatures as a function of temperature and various densities, are reviewed. It is shown that the thermal conductivity of lunar soil is nearly the same as that of terrestrial basaltic rock under the same temperature and pressure conditions.

  1. Neutrinos, dark matter and low temperature detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, L.; Perret-Gallix, D.

    1988-01-01

    The present status of cryogenic detector developments for particle physics is discussed, with emphasis on applications at the cross-disciplinary frontier between particle physics and astrophysics, where low temperature devices appear to be particularly well suited. The overwiew of results is completed by a sketch of new ideas and possible ways for further improvements. Neutrino role importance is particularly shown

  2. Low Temperature Cure Powder Coatings (LTCPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Dr. Glen Merfeld, General Electric Global Research evaluated and optimized the formulation, and cure and performance parameters of candidate LTCPC...Unacceptable test result = Marginal test result = Acceptable test result 80 therefore suffer from brittleness at extremely low temperatures. NASA’s

  3. Industrial Applications of Low Temperature Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardsley, J N

    2001-01-01

    The use of low temperature plasmas in industry is illustrated by the discussion of four applications, to lighting, displays, semiconductor manufacturing and pollution control. The type of plasma required for each application is described and typical materials are identified. The need to understand radical formation, ionization and metastable excitation within the discharge and the importance of surface reactions are stressed

  4. Low temperature anodic bonding to silicon nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weichel, Steen; Reus, Roger De; Bouaidat, Salim

    2000-01-01

    Low-temperature anodic bonding to stoichiometric silicon nitride surfaces has been performed in the temperature range from 3508C to 4008C. It is shown that the bonding is improved considerably if the nitride surfaces are either oxidized or exposed to an oxygen plasma prior to the bonding. Both bu...

  5. Arc generators of low-temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolikowski, Cz.; Niewiedzial, R.; Siwiec, J.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is a review of works concerning investigation and use of low-temperature plasma in arc plasma generators made in Electric Power Institute of PP. There are discussed: analytical approach to a problem of volt-current and operational characteristics of DC arc plasma generators, determination of limits of their stable work and possibilities of their use to technological aims. (author)

  6. Stratigraphy, sedimentology, and geothermal reservoir potential of the volcaniclastic Cura-Mallín succession at Lonquimay, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza, Viviana; Le Roux, Jacobus P.; Gutiérrez, Néstor M.; Vicencio, Vladimir E.

    2017-08-01

    The Tolhuaca Volcano near Lonquimay in south-central Chile has been the subject of several studies due to its geothermal manifestations, but little is known about the stratigraphy and reservoir potential of the Cura-Mallín Formation forming its basement. Field work and U-Pb dating of detrital zircons allow us to redefine this succession as the Cura-Mallín Group, consisting of the volcano-sedimentary Guapitrío Formation, sedimentary Río Pedregoso Formation, and volcano-sedimentary Mitrauquén Formation. The Río Pedregoso Formation can be subdivided into three formal units, namely the Quilmahue Member, Rucañanco Member, and Bío-Bío Member. The base of the Quilmahue Member interfingers laterally with the base of the Guapitrío Formation, for which a previous K/Ar date of 22.0 ± 0.9 Ma was apparently discarded by the original authors. However, this date is consistent with the stratigraphic position of the Quilmahue Member and new zircon dates from the overlying units, also coinciding with the initiation of an extensional phase in the Bíobío-Aluminé Basin. Deposition of the Quilmahue Member continued throughout the early Miocene, as confirmed by dates of 17.5 Ma reported by previous authors and 16.5 Ma obtained in this study. The Rucañanco Member was deposited during the Serravalian around 12.6 Ma, whereas the Bío-Bío Member was dated at the Serravalian-Tortonian limit (11.6 Ma). Although all three members were deposited in a fluvio-lacustrine environment, they were dominated respectively by flood plains with crevasse splays, lake margins with distributary mouth bars and Gilbert-type deltas, and distal braided and meandering rivers. Whereas the Quilmahue Member was deposited during basin extension, the Rucañanco Member was formed during a period of basin inversion and compression. Temporary tectonic quiescence during deposition of the Bío-Bío Member allowed denudation of the landscape, but around 9.5 Ma tectonism was renewed again during deposition of

  7. NATIONAL GEOTHERMAL DATA SYSTEM (NGDS) GEOTHERMAL DATA DOMAIN: ASSESSMENT OF GEOTHERMAL COMMUNITY DATA NEEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Arlene [United States Department of Energy; Blackwell, David [Southern Methodist University; Chickering, Cathy [Southern Methodist University; Boyd, Toni [Oregon Institute of Technology; Horne, Roland [Stanford University; MacKenzie, Matthew [Uberity Technology Corporation; Moore, Joseph [University of Utah; Nickull, Duane [Uberity Technology Corporation; Richard, Stephen [Arizona Geological survey; Shevenell, Lisa A. [University of Nevada, Reno

    2013-01-01

    To satisfy the critical need for geothermal data to ad- vance geothermal energy as a viable renewable ener- gy contender, the U.S. Department of Energy is in- vesting in the development of the National Geother- mal Data System (NGDS). This paper outlines efforts among geothermal data providers nationwide to sup- ply cutting edge geo-informatics. NGDS geothermal data acquisition, delivery, and methodology are dis- cussed. In particular, this paper addresses the various types of data required to effectively assess geother- mal energy potential and why simple links to existing data are insufficient. To create a platform for ready access by all geothermal stakeholders, the NGDS in- cludes a work plan that addresses data assets and re- sources of interest to users, a survey of data provid- ers, data content models, and how data will be ex- changed and promoted, as well as lessons learned within the geothermal community.

  8. Research on isotope geology. Assessment of heat production potential of granitic rocks and development of geothermal exploration techniques using radioactive/stable isotopes and fission track 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seong Cheon; Chi, Se Jung [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Radioelements and heat production rates of granitic rocks and stable isotopes of groundwaters were analyzed to investigate the geothermal potential of Wolchulsan granite complex in the southern Yeongam area. Wolchulsan granite complex is composed mainly by Cretaceous pink alkali-feldspar granite and partly Jurassic biotite granite. The main target for the geothermal exploration is the alkali-feldspar granite that is known in general to be favorable geothermal reservoir(e.g., Shap granite in UK). To develop exploration techniques for geothermal anomalies, all geochemical data were compared to those from the Jeonju granite complex. Heat production rates(HPR) of the alkali-feldspar granite is 1.8 - 10.6 {mu}Wm{sup -3}. High radio-thermal anomalies were revealed from the central western and northern parts of the granite body. These are relatively higher than the Caledonian hot dry granites in the UK. The integrated assessment of Wolchulsan granite complex suggests potential of the Cretaceous alkali-feldspar granite as a geothermal targets. Groundwater geochemistry of the Yeongam area reflects simple evaporation process and higher oxidation environment. Stable isotope data of groundwaters are plotted on or close to the Meteoric Water Line(MWL). These isotopic data indicate a significant meteoric water dominance and do not show oxygen isotope fractionation between groundwater and wall rocks. In despite of high HPR values of the Yeongam alkali-feldspar granite, groundwater samples do not show the same geochemical properties as a thermal water in the Jeonju area. This reason can be well explained by the comparison with geological settings of the Jeonju area. The Yeongam alkali-feldspar granite does not possess any adjacent heat source rocks despite its high radio-thermal HPR. While the Jeonju granite batholith has later heat source intrusive and suitable deep fracture system for water circulation with sedimentary cap rocks. (Abstract Truncated)

  9. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, April--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.

    1993-06-01

    Technical assistance was provided to 60 requests from 19 states. R&D progress is reported on: evaluation of lineshaft turbine pump problems, geothermal district heating marketing strategy, and greenhouse peaking analysis. Two presentations and one tour were conducted, and three technical papers were prepared. The Geothermal Progress Monitor reported: USGS Forum on Mineral Resources, Renewable Energy Tax Credits Not Working as Congress Intended, Geothermal Industry Tells House Panel, Newberry Pilot Project, and Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources in Nevada.

  10. The Future of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubik, Michelle [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of enhanced, or engineered, geothermal systems was carried out by an 18-member panel assembled by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to evaluate the potential of geothermal energy becoming a major energy source for the United States.

  11. 2016 Geothermal Technologies Office Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-03-01

    This report highlights project successes and continued efforts in all of our program areas – EGS, Hydrothermal, Low-Temperature, and Systems Analysis – which are flanked by useful tools and resources and links to more information. Such highlights include FORGE and EGS successes, projects reducing geothermal costs and risks, and advancements in technology research and development.

  12. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Low Temperature Materials Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, David E.; Moon, Ji-Won; Armstrong, Beth L.; Datskos, Panos G.; Duty, Chad E.; Gresback, Ryan; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Jellison, Gerald Earle; Jang, Gyoung Gug; Joshi, Pooran C.; Jung, Hyunsung; Meyer, Harry M.; Phelps, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    The Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) low temperature materials synthesis project was established to demonstrate a scalable and sustainable process to produce nanoparticles (NPs) for advanced manufacturing. Previous methods to chemically synthesize NPs typically required expensive, high-purity inorganic chemical reagents, organic solvents and high temperatures. These processes were typically applied at small laboratory scales at yields sufficient for NP characterization, but insufficient to support roll-to-roll processing efforts or device fabrication. The new NanoFermentation processes described here operated at a low temperature (~60 C) in low-cost, aqueous media using bacteria that produce extracellular NPs with controlled size and elemental stoichiometry. Up-scaling activities successfully demonstrated high NP yields and quality in a 900-L pilot-scale reactor, establishing this NanoFermentation process as a competitive biomanufacturing strategy to produce NPs for advanced manufacturing of power electronics, solid-state lighting and sensors.

  13. Low temperature experiments in radiation biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moan, J.

    1977-01-01

    The reasons for performing experiments in radiation biophysics at low temperatures, whereby electron spectra may be studied, are explained. The phenomenon of phosphorescence spectra observed in frozen aqueous solutions of tryptophan and adenosine is also described. Free radicals play an important part in biological radiation effects and may be studied by ESR spectroscopy. An ESR spectrum of T 1 bacteriophages irradiated dry at 130K is illustrated and discussed. Hydrogen atoms, which give lines on the spectrum, are believed to be those radiation products causing most biological damage in a dry system. Low temperature experiments are of great help in explaining the significance of direct and indirect effects. This is illustrated for the case of trypsin. (JIW)

  14. Dehydration of hydrated low-temperature tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, T

    1949-01-01

    Yoshida examined the mechanism of the dehydration of hydrated low-temperature tar with a microscope. The tar containing free carbon and coal dust is so stable that the removal of the above substances and water by a physical method is very difficult. Addition of light oil produced by fractionation of low-temperature tar facilitates the operations. Yoshida tried using the separate acid, neutral, and basic components of the light oil; the acid oil proved to be most effective. For many reasons it is convenient to use light oil as it is. In this method the quantity of light oil required is 2 to 3 times that of tar. But in supplementing the centrifugal method, the quantity of light oil needed might be only half the amount of tar.

  15. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Low Temperature Materials Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moon, Ji-Won [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Armstrong, Beth L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Datskos, Panos G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gresback, Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ivanov, Ilia N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jacobs, Christopher B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jellison, Gerald Earle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jang, Gyoung Gug [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Joshi, Pooran C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jung, Hyunsung [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Meyer, III, Harry M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Phelps, Tommy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) low temperature materials synthesis project was established to demonstrate a scalable and sustainable process to produce nanoparticles (NPs) for advanced manufacturing. Previous methods to chemically synthesize NPs typically required expensive, high-purity inorganic chemical reagents, organic solvents and high temperatures. These processes were typically applied at small laboratory scales at yields sufficient for NP characterization, but insufficient to support roll-to-roll processing efforts or device fabrication. The new NanoFermentation processes described here operated at a low temperature (~60 C) in low-cost, aqueous media using bacteria that produce extracellular NPs with controlled size and elemental stoichiometry. Up-scaling activities successfully demonstrated high NP yields and quality in a 900-L pilot-scale reactor, establishing this NanoFermentation process as a competitive biomanufacturing strategy to produce NPs for advanced manufacturing of power electronics, solid-state lighting and sensors.

  16. Behaviour of polar crystals at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozhdin, S.N.; Novik, V.K.; Gavrilova, N.D.; Koptsik, V.A.; Popova, T.V.

    1975-01-01

    Temperature dependencies of pyrocoefficient for a wide class of various pyroactive crystals in the temperature range from 4,2 to 300 deg K were investigated. The problems to be solved were: to confirm a conclusion on the pyrocoefficient γsup(sigma) tending to zero at T → 0; to compare experimental data with conclusions of existing theories; to reveal specific features in the behaviour of both linear pyroelectrics and segnetoelectrics at low temperatures. The behaviour of the total pyrocoefficient for all crystals obeys the regularity γsup(sigma) → 0 at T → O. In the range of low temperatures the pyrocoefficient varies by the power law: γsup(sigma) approximately Tsup(α). For the majority of crystals studied α is close to 3. CdS, BeO, ZiNbO 3 and other crystals were studied

  17. Self-potential monitoring around wells in Mutnovsky geothermal field, Kamchatka; Kamchatka hanto mutnovsky deno chinetsui shuhen no shizen den`i monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, N.; Tosha, T.; Ishito, K. [Geological Survey of Japan Ibaragi (Japan); Delemen, I.; Kiryukhin, A. [Institute of Volcanology Far East Branch Russia Academy of Sciences (Russia)

    1997-07-01

    Mutnovsky is a geothermal field which lies to the south of and about 80km away from Petropavlovsk, Kamchatsky, the state capital of Kamchatka. The geothermal survey has been conducted since 1978 in this field. In this study, the self-potential variation was observed by monitoring the potential difference between places near and far from a well in the same region. Then, the self-potential associated with spurting vapor from a well was analyzed using a model of the self-potential generated from the steaming current coupled with the flow of hot water in the porous medium. As results of an experiment on the spurt of stream, vapor containing 80% stream in weight was exhausted at a mass flow rate of 30kg/sec at 100degC from wells. Since the specific enthalpy of this vapor is 2225kJ/kg, the underground geothermal storage layer was estimated to be a state of liquid and vapor two-phase. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuataz, F.-D.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives a general overview of the past and present development of geothermal energy worldwide and a more detailed one in Switzerland. Worldwide installed electrical power using geothermal energy sources amounts to 8900 MW el . Worldwide utilization of geothermal energy for thermal applications amounts to 28,000 MW th . The main application (56.5%) is ground-coupled heat pumps, others are thermal spas and swimming pools (17.7%), space heating (14.9%), heating of greenhouses (4.8%), fish farming (2.2%), industrial uses (1,8%), cooling and melting of snow (1.2%), drying of agricultural products (0.6 %). Switzerland has become an important user of geothermal energy only in the past 25 years. Earlier, only the exploitation of geothermal springs (deep aquifers) in Swiss thermal baths had a long tradition, since the time of the Romans. Today, the main use of geothermal energy is as a heat source for heat pumps utilizing vertical borehole heat exchangers of 50 to 350 meters length. 35,000 installations of this type with heating powers ranging from a few kW to 1000 kW already exist, representing the highest density of such installations worldwide. Other developments are geostructures and energy piles, the use of groundwater for heating and cooling, geothermal district heating, the utilization of draining water from tunnels and the project 'Deep Heat Mining' allowing the combined production of heat and electric power

  19. Low-temperature conductivity of gadolinium sulfides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafaeva, S. N., E-mail: solmust@gmail.com [Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan); Asadov, S. M., E-mail: mirasadov@gmail.com [Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Catalysis and Inorganic Chemistry (Azerbaijan)

    2016-09-15

    In samples of GdS{sub x} (x = 1.475–2) of various compositions, the conductivity temperature dependences are investigated for the case of direct current in the low-temperature region (4.2–225 K). The presence of the activation and activationless hopping mechanisms of charge transport over the band gap of the samples of GdS{sub x} phases is established. The parameters of localized states in GdS{sub x} are determined.

  20. Thermodynamic power stations at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malherbe, J.; Ployart, R.; Alleau, T.; Bandelier, P.; Lauro, F.

    The development of low-temperature thermodynamic power stations using solar energy is considered, with special attention given to the choice of the thermodynamic cycle (Rankine), working fluids (frigorific halogen compounds), and heat exchangers. Thermomechanical conversion machines, such as ac motors and rotating volumetric motors are discussed. A system is recommended for the use of solar energy for irrigation and pumping in remote areas. Other applications include the production of cold of fresh water from brackish waters, and energy recovery from hot springs.

  1. Crystal growth from low-temperature solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangwal, K.

    1994-01-01

    The state of the art in crystal growth from solutions at low-temperatures has been done. The thermodynamic and kinetic parameters have been discussed in respect to different systems. The methods of crystal growth from water and organic solutions and different variants of their technical realizations have been reviewed. Also the growth by chemical reactions and gel growth have been described. The large number of examples have been shown. 21 refs, 30 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Imperial County geothermal development annual meeting: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    All phases of current geothermal development in Imperial County are discussed and future plans for development are reviewed. Topics covered include: Heber status update, Heber binary project, direct geothermal use for high-fructose corn sweetener production, update on county planning activities, Brawley and Salton Sea facility status, status of Imperial County projects, status of South Brawley Prospect 1983, Niland geothermal energy program, recent and pending changes in federal procedures/organizations, plant indicators of geothermal fluid on East Mesa, state lands activities in Imperial County, environmental interests in Imperial County, offshore exploration, strategic metals in geothermal fluids rebuilding of East Mesa Power Plant, direct use geothermal potential for Calipatria industrial Park, the Audubon Society case, status report of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, East Brawley Prospect, and precision gravity survey at Heber and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields. (MHR)

  3. Minimizing material damage using low temperature irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, E.; Hasanain, F.; Winters, M.

    2012-08-01

    Scientific advancements in healthcare driven both by technological breakthroughs and an aging and increasingly obese population have lead to a changing medical device market. Complex products and devices are being developed to meet the demands of leading edge medical procedures. Specialized materials in these medical devices, including pharmaceuticals and biologics as well as exotic polymers present a challenge for radiation sterilization as many of these components cannot withstand conventional irradiation methods. The irradiation of materials at dry ice temperatures has emerged as a technique that can be used to decrease the radiation sensitivity of materials. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of low temperature irradiation on a variety of polymer materials, and over a range of temperatures from 0 °C down to -80 °C. The effectiveness of microbial kill is also investigated under each of these conditions. The results of the study show that the effect of low temperature irradiation is material dependent and can alter the balance between crosslinking and chain scission of the polymer. Low temperatures also increase the dose required to achieve an equivalent microbiological kill, therefore dose setting exercises must be performed under the environmental conditions of use.

  4. Computational Chemistry of Cyclopentane Low Temperature Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    El Rachidi, Mariam

    2015-03-30

    Cycloalkanes are significant constituents of conventional fossil fuels, but little is known concerning their combustion chemistry and kinetics, particularly at low temperatures. This study investigates the pressure dependent kinetics of several reactions occurring during low-temperature cyclopentane combustion using theoretical chemical kinetics. The reaction pathways of the cyclopentyl + O2 adduct is traced to alkylhydroperoxide, cyclic ether, β-scission and HO2 elimination products. The calculations are carried out at the UCCSD(T)-F12b/cc-pVTZ-F12//M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. The barrierless entrance channel is treated using variable-reaction-coordinate transition state theory (VRC-TST) at the CASPT2(7e,6o) level of theory, including basis set, geometry relaxation and ZPE corrections. 1-D time-dependent multiwell master equation analysis is used to determine pressure-and temperature-dependent rate parameters of all investigated reactions. Tunneling corrections are included using Eckart barriers. Comparison with cyclohexane is used to elucidate the effect of ring size on the low temperature reactivity of naphthenes. The rate coefficients reported herein are suitable for use in cyclopentane and methylcyclopentane combustion models, even below ~900 K, where ignition is particularly sensitive to these pressure-dependent values.

  5. Neutron moderation at very low temperatures (1691)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacaze, A.

    1961-04-01

    Starting from Harwell experiment carried out inside a low-power reactor, we intended to maintain a liquid hydrogen cell in a channel of the EL3 reactor (at Saclay) whose thermal neutrons flux is 10 14 neutrons/cm 2 /s. We tried to work out a device giving off an important beam of cold neutrons and able to operate in a way as automatic as possible during many consecutive day without a stop. Several circuits have already been achieved at very low temperatures but they brought out volumes and fluxes much lower than those we used this time. The difficulties we have met in carrying out such a device arose on the one hand from the very high energy release to which any kind of experiment is inevitably submitted when placed near the core of the reactor, on the other, hand from the very little room which is available in experimental channels of reactors. In such condition, it is necessary to use a moderator as effective as possible. This study is divided into three parts ; in the first part, we try to determine: a) conditions in which moderation takes place, hence the volume of the cell; b) materials likely to be used at low temperature and in pile; c) cooling system; hence we had to study fluid flow conditions at very low temperatures in very long ducts. The second part is devoted to the description of the device. The third part ventilates the results we have obtained. (author) [fr

  6. Low temperature surface chemistry and nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, G. B.; Shabatina, T. I.

    2002-03-01

    The new scientific field of low temperature surface chemistry, which combines the low temperature chemistry (cryochemistry) and surface chemistry approaches, is reviewed in this paper. One of the most exciting achievements in this field of science is the development of methods to create highly ordered hybrid nanosized structures on different organic and inorganic surfaces and to encapsulate nanosized metal particles in organic and polymer matrices. We consider physical and chemical behaviour for the systems obtained by co-condensation of the components vapours on the surfaces cooled down to 4-10 and 70-100 K. In particular the size effect of both types, the number of atoms in the reactive species structure and the thickness of growing co-condensate film, on the chemical activity of the system is analysed in detail. The effect of the internal mechanical stresses on the growing interfacial co-condensate film formation and on the generation of fast (explosive) spontaneous reactions at low temperatures is discussed. The examples of unusual chemical interactions of metal atoms, clusters and nanosized particles, obtained in co-condensate films on the cooled surfaces under different conditions, are presented. The examples of highly ordered surface and volume hybrid nanostructures formation are analysed.

  7. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemale, J.

    2009-01-01

    The geothermal energy, listed among the new and renewable energy sources, is characterized by a huge variety of techniques and applications. This book deals with the access to underground geothermal resources and with their energy valorization as well. After a presentation of the main geological, hydrogeological and thermal exploitation aspects of this resource, the book presents the different geothermal-related industries in detail, in particular the district heating systems, the aquifer-based heat pumps, the utilizations in the agriculture, fishery and balneology sectors, and the power generation. (J.S.)

  8. Geothermal progress monitor report No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    Geothermal Progress Monitor Report No. 6 presents a state-by-state summary of the status of geothermal leasing, exploration, and development in major physiographic regions where geothermal resource potential has been identified. Recent state-specific activities are reported at the end of each state status report, while recent activities of a more general nature are summarized briefly in Part II of the report. A list of recent publications of potential interest to the geothermal community and a directory of contributors to the geothermal progress monitoring system are also included.

  9. ThermoMap. Interactive analysis and information system for the area-selected evaluation of the near-surface geothermal potential; ThermoMap. Interaktives Analyse- und Auskunftssystem zur flaechenhaften Abschaetzung des oberflaechennahen geothermischen Potenzials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertemann, David [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (DE). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie (Exogene Dynamik); Psyk, Mario [REHAU AG and CO, Erlangen-Eltersdorf (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The project ThermoMap funded by the European Commission enables a comprehensive assessment of the near-surface geothermal energy potential from already existing geoscientific data sets. Currently, twelve partners from nine EU Member States are involved.

  10. Geothermal energy - effective solutions for heating and cooling of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleska, Viktorija

    2014-01-01

    Energy and natural resources are essential prerequisites for the maintenance of the life and the development of human civilization. With the advancement of technology is more emphasis on energy efficiency and reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Energy efficiency is using less power without reducing the quality of life. Almost half of the energy used is devoted to buildings, including heating and cooling. Buildings are a major source of CO_2 emissions in the atmosphere. Reducing the impact of buildings on the environment and the development of renewable energy, energy solutions are key factor in terms of sustainable development. Energy and geothermal pumps posts represent effective solutions for large facilities for heating and cooling. Geothermal energy piles represent a system of pipes that circulate thermal fluid and embedded in earth, thus extracting heat from the bearing to satisfy the needs for heating and cooling. Experience has shown that this type of energy piles can save up to two thirds of the cost of conventional heating, while geothermal pump has the ability to low temperature resources (such as groundwater and earth) to extract energy and raise the higher level needed for heating buildings. Their implementation is supported by an active group of researchers working with industry to demonstrate the benefits of dual benefit performance at the foundations. Initiative for renewable heat and potential for further adoption of solutions with these technologies is rapidly expanding. The use of this source of energy has great potential due to environmental, economic and social benefits. (author)

  11. FY 1992 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Geochemical survey (No. A-1 - Haneyama area); 1992 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo. Chikagaku chosa hokokusho (No. A-1 Haneyama chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-05-01

    For the purpose of studying an expanse and characteristics of the geothermal system and a possibility of geothermal development in the Haneyama area, Oita Prefecture, geochemical survey was conducted. In the survey, various kinds of analyses were made for 13 specimens of hot spring water and 5 specimens of surface water in the area of about 280km{sup 2} at 402 measuring points of the concentration of Hg in soil gas. The results of the survey were as follows: In this survey area, it was thought that the HCO{sub 3} type geothermal water of a comparatively low temperature which was heated by the wide-spread conduction heat from the depths was widely distributed deeper than the depth of 500-700m, and it was presumed that a possibility was low of existence of a high geothermal potential which can be used for the geothermal power generation in the part deeper than the drilling depth of 700m. In the Noya area in the southwest part of the survey area, the high temperature deep geothermal reservoir was confirmed. In this area, the high temperature neutral-alkalescent Cl-SO{sub 4} type geothermal water was distributed in the depth of several 100 meters or deeper. The geothermal water seemed to flow from NE to SW along the structure in the NE-SW direction, and it was concluded that the area was the most promising one. (NEDO)

  12. Evaluation of geothermal potential of Rio Grande rift and Basin and Range province, New Mexico. Final technical report, January 1, 1977-May 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callender, J.F.

    1985-04-01

    A study was made of the geological, geochemical and geophysical characteristics of potential geothermal areas in the Rio Grande rift and Basin and Range province of New Mexico. Both regional and site-specific information is presented. Data was collected by: (1) reconnaissance and detailed geologic mapping, emphasizing Neogene stratigraphy and structure; (2) petrologic studies of Neogene igneous rocks; (3) radiometric age-dating; (4) geochemical surveying, including regional and site-specific water chemistry, stable isotopic analyses of thermal waters, whole-rock and mineral isotopic studies, and whole-rock chemical analyses; and (5) detailed geophysical surveys, using electrical, gravity and magnetic techniques, with electrical resistivity playing a major role. Regional geochemical water studies were conducted for the whole state. Integrated site-specific studies included the Animas Valley, Las Cruces area (Radium Springs and Las Alturas Estates), Truth or Consequences region, the Albuquerque basin, the San Ysidro area, and the Abiquiu-Ojo Caliente region. The Animas Valley and Las Cruces areas have the most significant geothermal potential of the areas studied. The Truth or Consequences and Albuquerque areas need further study. The San Ysidro and Abiquiu-Ojo Caliente regions have less significant geothermal potential. 78 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Low Temperature Surface Carburization of Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Sunniva R; Heuer, Arthur H; Sikka, Vinod K

    2007-12-07

    Low-temperature colossal supersaturation (LTCSS) is a novel surface hardening method for carburization of austenitic stainless steels (SS) without the precipitation of carbides. The formation of carbides is kinetically suppressed, enabling extremely high or colossal carbon supersaturation. As a result, surface carbon concentrations in excess of 12 at. % are routinely achieved. This treatment increases the surface hardness by a factor of four to five, improving resistance to wear, corrosion, and fatigue, with significant retained ductility. LTCSS is a diffusional surface hardening process that provides a uniform and conformal hardened gradient surface with no risk of delamination or peeling. The treatment retains the austenitic phase and is completely non-magnetic. In addition, because parts are treated at low temperature, they do not distort or change dimensions. During this treatment, carbon diffusion proceeds into the metal at temperatures that constrain substitutional diffusion or mobility between the metal alloy elements. Though immobilized and unable to assemble to form carbides, chromium and similar alloying elements nonetheless draw enormous amounts of carbon into their interstitial spaces. The carbon in the interstitial spaces of the alloy crystals makes the surface harder than ever achieved before by more conventional heat treating or diffusion process. The carbon solid solution manifests a Vickers hardness often exceeding 1000 HV (equivalent to 70 HRC). This project objective was to extend the LTCSS treatment to other austenitic alloys, and to quantify improvements in fatigue, corrosion, and wear resistance. Highlights from the research include the following: • Extension of the applicability of the LTCSS process to a broad range of austenitic and duplex grades of steels • Demonstration of LTCSS ability for a variety of different component shapes and sizes • Detailed microstructural characterization of LTCSS-treated samples of 316L and other alloys

  14. Geothermal potential assessment of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano based on rock thermal conductivity measurements and numerical modeling of heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Maria Isabel; Blessent, Daniela; Córdoba, Sebastián; López-Sánchez, Jacqueline; Raymond, Jasmin; Parra-Palacio, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    This work presents an estimation of the geothermal potential of the Nevado del Ruiz (NDR) volcano, bridging the knowledge gap to develop geothermal energy in Colombia and improve resource estimates in South America. Field work, laboratory measurements, geological interpretations, 2D numerical modeling, and uncertainty analysis were conducted to the northwest of the NDR to assess temperature at depth and define thermal energy content. About 60 rock samples were collected at outcrops to measure thermal conductivity with a needle probe. A 2D numerical model, built from an inferred geological cross-section, was developed with the software OpenGeoSys to simulate the underground temperature distribution and then estimate the geothermal potential of a 1 km2 area with sufficient temperature, assuming a recovery factor equal to 2.4% and a 30 years exploitation time. Coupled groundwater flow and heat transfer were simulated in steady-state considering two different thermal conductivity scenarios. Results show that the average estimated potential is 1.5 × 10-2 MWt m-1 of the reservoir thickness, considering temperatures greater than 150 °C located at a depth of approximately 2 km, in a selected area situated outside of the Los Nevados National Natural Park (NNP), to avoid any direct intervention on this protected area. According to a Monte Carlo analysis considering pessimist and optimist scenarios of thermal conductivity, the estimated geothermal power was 1.54 × 10-2 MW m-1 (σ = 2.91 × 10-3 MW m-1) and 1.88 × 10-2 MW/m (σ = 2.91 × 10-3 MW m-1) for the two modeling scenario considered.

  15. An analysis of natural gas exploration potential in the Qiongdongnan Basin by use of the theory of “joint control of source rocks and geothermal heat”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Gongcheng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Oligocene Yacheng Fm contains the most important source rocks that have been confirmed by exploratory wells in the Qiongdongnan Basin. The efficiency of these source rocks is the key to the breakthrough in natural gas exploration in the study area. This paper analyzes the hydrocarbon potential of each sag in this basin from the perspective of control of both source rocks and geothermal heat. Two types of source rocks occur in the Yacheng Fm, namely mudstone of transitional facies and mudstone of neritic facies. Both of them are dominated by a kerogen of type-III, followed by type-II. Their organic matter abundances are controlled by the amount of continental clastic input. The mudstone of transitional facies is commonly higher in organic matter abundance, while that of neritic facies is lower. The coal-measure source rocks of transitional facies were mainly formed in such environments as delta plains, coastal plains and barrier tidal flat-marshes. Due to the control of Cenozoic lithosphere extension and influence of neotectonism, the geothermal gradient, terrestrial heat flow value (HFV and level of thermal evolution are generally high in deep water. The hot setting not only determines the predominance of gas generation in the deep-water sags, but can promote the shallow-buried source rocks in shallow water into oil window to generate oil. In addition to promoting the hydrocarbon generation of source rocks, the high geothermal and high heat flow value can also speed up the cracking of residual hydrocarbons, thus enhancing hydrocarbon generation efficiency and capacity. According to the theory of joint control of source quality and geothermal heat on hydrocarbon generation, we comprehensively evaluate and rank the exploration potentials of major sags in the Qiongdongnan Basin. These sags are divided into 3 types, of which type-I sags including Yanan, Lingshui, Baodao, Ledong and Huaguang are the highest in hydrocarbon exploration potential.

  16. Mechanical behavior and fatigue in polymeric composites at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, Y.; Bussiba, A.; Mathias, H.

    1986-01-01

    Advanced fiber reinforced polymeric composite materials are often suggested as structural materials at low temperature. In this study, graphite epoxy and Kevlar-49/epoxy systems were investigated. Fatigue behavior was emphasized after establishing the standard monotonic mechanical properties, including fracture resistance parameters at 77, 190, and 296 K. Tension-tension fatigue crack propagation testing was carried out at nominal constant stress intensity amplitudes using precracked compact tensile specimens. The crack tip damage zone was measured and tracked by an electro-potential device, opening displacement gage, microscopic observation, and acoustic emission activity recording. Fractograhic and metallographic studies were performed with emphasis on fracture morphology and modes, failure processes, and description of sequential events. On the basis of these experimental results, the problem of fatigue resistance, including low temperature effects, is analyzed and discussed. The fundamental concepts of fatigue in composites are assessed, particularly in terms of fracture mechanics methods

  17. Choice of optimal working fluid for binary power plants at extremely low temperature brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Sorokina, E. V.

    2016-12-01

    The geothermal energy development problems based on using binary power plants utilizing lowpotential geothermal resources are considered. It is shown that one of the possible ways of increasing the efficiency of heat utilization of geothermal brine in a wide temperature range is the use of multistage power systems with series-connected binary power plants based on incremental primary energy conversion. Some practically significant results of design-analytical investigations of physicochemical properties of various organic substances and their influence on the main parameters of the flowsheet and the technical and operational characteristics of heat-mechanical and heat-exchange equipment for binary power plant operating on extremely-low temperature geothermal brine (70°C) are presented. The calculation results of geothermal brine specific flow rate, capacity (net), and other operation characteristics of binary power plants with the capacity of 2.5 MW at using various organic substances are a practical interest. It is shown that the working fluid selection significantly influences on the parameters of the flowsheet and the operational characteristics of the binary power plant, and the problem of selection of working fluid is in the search for compromise based on the priorities in the field of efficiency, safety, and ecology criteria of a binary power plant. It is proposed in the investigations on the working fluid selection of the binary plant to use the plotting method of multiaxis complex diagrams of relative parameters and characteristic of binary power plants. Some examples of plotting and analyzing these diagrams intended to choose the working fluid provided that the efficiency of geothermal brine is taken as main priority.

  18. Geothermal studies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ji-Yang; Chen Mo-Xiang; Wang Ji-An; Deng Xiao; Wang Jun; Shen Hsien-Chieh; Hsiung Liang-Ping; Yan Shu-Zhen; Fan Zhi-Cheng; Liu Xiu-Wen

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal studies have been conducted in China continuosly since the end of the 1950's with renewed activity since 1970. Three areas of research are defined: (1) fundamental theoretical research of geothermics, including subsurface temperatures, terrestrial heat flow and geothermal modeling; (2) exploration for geothermal resources and exploitation of geothermal energy; (3) geothermal studies in mines. (orig./ME)

  19. Exploitation of the geothermal potentials for the heat supply of the capital city; Erschliessung des geothermischen Potenzials fuer die Waermeversorgung der Hauptstadt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredel-Schuermann, Stefan [Berliner Gaswerke (GASAG)-AG, Berlin (Germany); Stiller, Manfred; Bauer, Klaus; Ryberg, Trond; Spalek, Angela; Huenges, Ernst [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Renewable energy sources currently are applied for the heat supply of Berlin only to 2%. The supply concept for the CO{sub 2} neutral city quarter at the Gasometer Schoeneberg provides for use of deep geothermal energy. An annual gross heat demand of nearly 7,000 MWh as well as a cooling requirement of nearly 5,000 MWh are expected for the site with scientific institutions, offices and restaurants.With the support of the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences (Potsdam, Federal Republic of Germany), the project partners GASAG Berliner Gaswerke Aktiengesellschaft (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) and EUREF AG (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) have performed first measurements in order to explore the geothermal potential of the capital city.

  20. Experiments on Quantum Hall Topological Phases in Ultra Low Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Rui-Rui

    2015-01-01

    This project is to cool electrons in semiconductors to extremely low temperatures and to study new states of matter formed by low-dimensional electrons (or holes). At such low temperatures (and with an intense magnetic field), electronic behavior differs completely from ordinary ones observed at room temperatures or regular low temperature. Studies of electrons at such low temperatures would open the door for fundamental discoveries in condensed matter physics. Present studies have been focused on topological phases in the fractional quantum Hall effect in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor heterostructures, and the newly discovered (by this group) quantum spin Hall effect in InAs/GaSb materials. This project consists of the following components: 1) Development of efficient sample cooling techniques and electron thermometry: Our goal is to reach 1 mK electron temperature and reasonable determination of electron temperature; 2) Experiments at ultra-low temperatures: Our goal is to understand the energy scale of competing quantum phases, by measuring the temperature-dependence of transport features. Focus will be placed on such issues as the energy gap of the 5/2 state, and those of 12/5 (and possible 13/5); resistive signature of instability near 1/2 at ultra-low temperatures; 3) Measurement of the 5/2 gaps in the limit of small or large Zeeman energies: Our goal is to gain physics insight of 5/2 state at limiting experimental parameters, especially those properties concerning the spin polarization; 4) Experiments on tuning the electron-electron interaction in a screened quantum Hall system: Our goal is to gain understanding of the formation of paired fractional quantum Hall state as the interaction pseudo-potential is being modified by a nearby screening electron layer; 5) Experiments on the quantized helical edge states under a strong magnetic field and ultralow temperatures: our goal is to investigate both the bulk and edge states in a quantum spin Hall insulator under

  1. Low-Temperature Synthesis Routes to Intermetallic Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaak, Raymond E

    2008-01-08

    of many of the products, the superconductors and their nanocrystalline precursors are potentially amenable to inexpensive and large-scale solution-based processing into wires, coatings, films, and templated or patterned structures with nanoscale and microscale features. Also, because of the new synthetic variables that play a key role in the low-temperature formation of intermetallics, the possibility exists to discover new superconductors.

  2. Low Temperature Synthesis of Magnesium Aluminate Spinel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedovskaya, E.G.; Gabelkov, S.V.; Litvinenko, L.M.; Logvinkov, D.S.; Mironova, A.G.; Odejchuk, M.A.; Poltavtsev, N.S.; Tarasov, R.V.

    2006-01-01

    The low-temperature synthesis of magnesium-aluminum spinel is carried out by a method of thermal decomposition in combined precipitated hydrates. The fine material of magnesium-aluminium spinel with average size of coherent dispersion's area 4...5 nanometers is obtained. Magnesium-aluminum spinel and initial hydrates were investigated by methods of the differential thermal analysis, the x-ray phase analysis and measurements of weight loss during the dehydration and thermal decomposition. It is established that synthesis of magnesium-aluminum spinel occurs at temperature 300 degree C by method of the x-ray phase analysis

  3. Low temperature photoresponse of monolayer tungsten disulphide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingchen Cao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available High photoresponse can be achieved in monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides. However, the response times are inconveniently limited by defects. Here, we report low temperature photoresponse of monolayer tungsten disulphide prepared by exfoliation and chemical vapour deposition (CVD method. The exfoliated device exhibits n-type behaviour; while the CVD device exhibits intrinsic behaviour. In off state, the CVD device has four times larger ratio of photoresponse for laser on/off and photoresponse decay–rise times are 0.1 s (limited by our setup, while the exfoliated device has few seconds. These findings are discussed in terms of charge trapping and localization.

  4. Low-temperature preparation of pyrolytic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, R.W.; Seifert, D.A.; Browning, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that nuclear waste forms coated with chemical vapor deposited pyrolytic carbon (PyC) at about 1273 K can provide ground water leach protection. To minimize the release during coating of volatile material from the waste forms and permit the coating of waste forms with a low softening point, a study was initiated to develop parameters for the catalytic deposition of PyC at low temperatures. The parameters surveyed in a fluidized-bed coater were deposition temperatures, carbon precursors, catalyst, diluent gas, concentration, and pressure

  5. Investigations of Low Temperature Time Dependent Cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Sluys, W A; Robitz, E S; Young, B A; Bloom, J

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to investigate metallurgical and mechanical phenomena associated with time dependent cracking of cold bent carbon steel piping at temperatures between 327 C and 360 C. Boiler piping failures have demonstrated that understanding the fundamental metallurgical and mechanical parameters controlling these failures is insufficient to eliminate it from the field. The results of the project consisted of the development of a testing methodology to reproduce low temperature time dependent cracking in laboratory specimens. This methodology was used to evaluate the cracking resistance of candidate heats in order to identify the factors that enhance cracking sensitivity. The resultant data was integrated into current available life prediction tools.

  6. Low-temperature centrifugal helium compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawada, M.; Togo, S.; Akiyama, Y.; Wada, R.

    1974-01-01

    A centrifugal helium compressor with gas bearings, which can be operated at the temperature of liquid nitrogen, has been investigated. This compressor has the advantages that the compression ratio should be higher than the room temperature operation and that the contamination of helium could be eliminated. The outer diameter of the rotor is 112 mm. The experimental result for helium gas at low temperature shows a flow rate of 47 g/s and a compression ratio of 1.2 when the inlet pressure was 1 ata and the rotational speed 550 rev/s. The investigation is now focused on obtaining a compression ratio of 1.5. (author)

  7. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan Cross

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the GTP’s involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including GHPs.† The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  8. The 2017 Plasma Roadmap: Low temperature plasma science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovich, I.; Baalrud, S. D.; Bogaerts, A.; Bruggeman, P. J.; Cappelli, M.; Colombo, V.; Czarnetzki, U.; Ebert, U.; Eden, J. G.; Favia, P.; Graves, D. B.; Hamaguchi, S.; Hieftje, G.; Hori, M.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Kortshagen, U.; Kushner, M. J.; Mason, N. J.; Mazouffre, S.; Mededovic Thagard, S.; Metelmann, H.-R.; Mizuno, A.; Moreau, E.; Murphy, A. B.; Niemira, B. A.; Oehrlein, G. S.; Petrovic, Z. Lj; Pitchford, L. C.; Pu, Y.-K.; Rauf, S.; Sakai, O.; Samukawa, S.; Starikovskaia, S.; Tennyson, J.; Terashima, K.; Turner, M. M.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Vardelle, A.

    2017-08-01

    Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics published the first Plasma Roadmap in 2012 consisting of the individual perspectives of 16 leading experts in the various sub-fields of low temperature plasma science and technology. The 2017 Plasma Roadmap is the first update of a planned series of periodic updates of the Plasma Roadmap. The continuously growing interdisciplinary nature of the low temperature plasma field and its equally broad range of applications are making it increasingly difficult to identify major challenges that encompass all of the many sub-fields and applications. This intellectual diversity is ultimately a strength of the field. The current state of the art for the 19 sub-fields addressed in this roadmap demonstrates the enviable track record of the low temperature plasma field in the development of plasmas as an enabling technology for a vast range of technologies that underpin our modern society. At the same time, the many important scientific and technological challenges shared in this roadmap show that the path forward is not only scientifically rich but has the potential to make wide and far reaching contributions to many societal challenges.

  9. The 2017 Plasma Roadmap: Low temperature plasma science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, I; Baalrud, S D; Bogaerts, A; Bruggeman, P J; Cappelli, M; Colombo, V; Czarnetzki, U; Ebert, U; Eden, J G; Favia, P; Graves, D B; Hamaguchi, S; Hieftje, G; Hori, M

    2017-01-01

    Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics published the first Plasma Roadmap in 2012 consisting of the individual perspectives of 16 leading experts in the various sub-fields of low temperature plasma science and technology. The 2017 Plasma Roadmap is the first update of a planned series of periodic updates of the Plasma Roadmap. The continuously growing interdisciplinary nature of the low temperature plasma field and its equally broad range of applications are making it increasingly difficult to identify major challenges that encompass all of the many sub-fields and applications. This intellectual diversity is ultimately a strength of the field. The current state of the art for the 19 sub-fields addressed in this roadmap demonstrates the enviable track record of the low temperature plasma field in the development of plasmas as an enabling technology for a vast range of technologies that underpin our modern society. At the same time, the many important scientific and technological challenges shared in this roadmap show that the path forward is not only scientifically rich but has the potential to make wide and far reaching contributions to many societal challenges. (topical review)

  10. Nitrous oxide emissions at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martikainen, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Microbial processes in soil are generally stimulated by temperature, but at low temperatures there are anomalies in the response of microbial activities. Soil physical-chemical characteristics allow existence of unfrozen water in soil also at temperatures below zero. Therefore, some microbial activities, including those responsible for nitrous oxide (N 2 0) production, can take place even in 'frozen' soil. Nitrous oxide emissions during winter are important even in boreal regions where they can account for more than 50% of the annual emissions. Snow pack therefore has great importance for N 2 0 emissions, as it insulates soil from the air allowing higher temperatures in soil than in air, and possible changes in snoav cover as a result of global warming would thus affect the N 2 0 emission from northern soils. Freezing-thawing cycles highly enhance N 2 0 emissions from soil, probably because microbial nutrients, released from disturbed soil aggregates and lysed microbial cells, support microbial N 2 0 production. However, the overall interactions between soil physics, chemistry, microbiology and N 2 0 production at low temperatures, including effects of freezing-thawing cycles, are still poorly known. (au)

  11. Efficient prepreg recycling at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannkoke, Kord; Oethe, Marcus; Busse, Jürgen

    When manufacturing fibre reinforced plastics engineers are still confronted with a lack of experience concerning efficient recycling methods for prepreg cutting waste. Normally, the prepregs are cured and subsequently milled to use them as a filler material for polymers. However, this method is expensive and it is difficult to find applications for the milled FRP. An alternative method to recycle CFRP prepregs will be presented in this paper. Cutting the uncured prepreg waste was done by means of a saw mill which was cooled down to low temperatures. Working temperatures of -30°C are sufficient to harden the uncured resin and to achieve cuttable prepregs. Furthermore, post-curing during the cutting process is avoided with this technique. The result is a `cotton'-like matted structure with random fibre orientation and fibre length distribution. Subsequent curing was done by means of a press and an autoclave, respectively. It will be shown by means of tension and bending tests that low-temperature cutting of uncured prepregs is a way to partly conserve the high valuation of FRP during recycling. Furthermore, it offers possibilities for various applications.

  12. Measurement of low-temperature specific heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    The measurement of low-temperature specific heat (LTSH) (0.1 K< T<60 K) has seen a number of breakthroughs both in design concepts and instrumentation in the last 15 years: particularly in small sample calorimetry. This review attempts to provide an overview of both large and small sample calorimetry techniques at temperatures below 60 K, with sufficient references to enable more detailed study. A comprehensive review is made of the most reliable measurements of the LTSH of 84 of the elements to illustrate briefly some of the problems of measurements and analysis, as well as to provide additional references. More detail is devoted to three special areas of low-temperature calorimetry that have seen rapid development recently: (1) measurement of the specific heat of highly radioactive samples, (2) measurement of the specific heat of materials in high magnetic fields (18 T), and (3) measurement of the specific heat of very small (100 μg) samples. The review ends with a brief discussion of the frontier research currently underway on microcalorimetry for nanogram sample weights

  13. Extreme low temperature tolerance in woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Richard Strimbeck

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Woody plants in boreal to arctic environments and high mountains survive prolonged exposure to temperatures below -40˚C and minimum temperatures below -60˚C, and laboratory tests show that many of these species can also survive immersion in liquid nitrogen at -196˚C. Studies of biochemical changes that occur during acclimation, including recent proteomic and metabolomic studies, have identified changes in carbohydrate and compatible solute concentrations, membrane lipid composition, and proteins, notably dehydrins, that may have important roles in survival at extreme low temperature. Consideration of the biophysical mechanisms of membrane stress and strain lead to the following hypotheses for cellular and molecular mechanisms of survival at extreme low temperature: 1. Changes in lipid composition stabilize membranes at temperatures above the lipid phase transition temperature (-20 to 30˚C, preventing phase changes that result in irreversible injury. 2. High concentrations of oligosaccharides promote vitrification or high viscosity in the cytoplasm in freeze-dehydrated cells, which would prevent deleterious interactions between membranes. 3. Dehydrins bind membranes and further promote vitrification or act stearically to prevent membrane-membrane interactions.

  14. Computational Chemistry of Cyclopentane Low Temperature Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    El Rachidi, Mariam; Zá dor, Judit; Sarathy, Mani

    2015-01-01

    reactions occurring during low-temperature cyclopentane combustion using theoretical chemical kinetics. The reaction pathways of the cyclopentyl + O2 adduct is traced to alkylhydroperoxide, cyclic ether, β-scission and HO2 elimination products. The calculations are carried out at the UCCSD(T)-F12b/cc-pVTZ-F12//M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. The barrierless entrance channel is treated using variable-reaction-coordinate transition state theory (VRC-TST) at the CASPT2(7e,6o) level of theory, including basis set, geometry relaxation and ZPE corrections. 1-D time-dependent multiwell master equation analysis is used to determine pressure-and temperature-dependent rate parameters of all investigated reactions. Tunneling corrections are included using Eckart barriers. Comparison with cyclohexane is used to elucidate the effect of ring size on the low temperature reactivity of naphthenes. The rate coefficients reported herein are suitable for use in cyclopentane and methylcyclopentane combustion models, even below ~900 K, where ignition is particularly sensitive to these pressure-dependent values.

  15. Geothermal energy in Denmark. The Committee for Geothermal Energy of the Danish Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The Danish Energy Agency has prepared a report on the Danish geothermal resources and their contribution to the national energy potential.Environmental and socio-economic consequences of geothermal power systems implementation are reviewed. Organizational models and financing of geothermal-seismic research are discussed, and the Committee of the Energy Agency for Geothermal Energy recommends financing of a pilot plant as well as a prompt elucidation of concession/licensing problems. (EG)

  16. Numerical investigation of electricity generation potential from fractured granite reservoir through a single vertical well at Yangbajing geothermal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Yu-Chao; Zhan, Jie-Min; Wu, Neng-You; Luo, Ying-Ying; Cai, Wen-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Deep geological exploration indicates that there is a high-temperature fractured granite reservoir at depth of 950 ~ 1350 m in well ZK4001 in the north of Yangbajing geothermal field, with an average temperature of 248 °C and a pressure within 8.01 ~ 11.57 MPa; in this well there mainly produces liquid and steam two-phase flow. In this work we numerically investigated the electricity generation potential from the fractured granite reservoir through a single vertical well, analyzed the process and mechanism of the two-phase flow, and evaluated main factors affecting the heat production and electricity generation. The results show that under the reference conditions the system attains a pump power of 0.02 ~ 0.16 MW, an electrical power of 2.71 ~ 2.69 MW, and an energy efficiency of 68.06 ~ 16.34, showing favorable electricity generation performance. During the production period, the bottomhole production pressure gradually decreases, and this makes the pump power increasing and the energy efficiency decreasing. When the bottomhole pressure is lower than the saturated vapor pressure, the liquid water begins to evaporate and the bottomhole wellbore begins to produce the mixture of liquid and steam. Main factors affecting the performance are reservoir porosity, permeability and fluid production rate. Higher reservoir porosity or higher permeability or lower fluid production rate will increase the bottomehole pressure, decrease the pump power and improve the energy efficiency. - Highlights: • We established a numerical model of a single vertical well heat mining system. • Desirable electricity production performance can be obtained under suitable conditions. • The system attains an electric power of 2.71 ~ 2.69 MW with an efficiency of about 68.06 ~ 16.34. • Electric power mainly depends on the reservoir porosity and water production rate. • Higher permeability within a certain range is favorable for electricity generation.

  17. Potential sources of hydrocarbons and their microbial degradation in sediments from the deep geothermal Lusi site, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Martin; Mazzini, Adriano; Scheeder, Georg; Blumenberg, Martin

    2017-04-01

    The Lusi eruption represents one of the largest ongoing sedimentary hosted geothermal systems, which started in 2006 following an earthquake on Java Island. Since then it has been continuously producing hot and hydrocarbon rich mud from a central crater with peaks reaching 180.000 m3 per day. Numerous investigations focused on the study of microbial communities which thrive at offshore methane and oil seeps and mud volcanoes, however very little has been done on onshore seeping structures. Lusi represents a unique opportunity to complete a comprehensive study of onshore microbial communities fed by the seepage of CH4 as well as of liquid hydrocarbons originating from one or more km below the surface. While the source of the methane at Lusi is unambiuous, the origin of the seeping oil is still discussed. Both, source and maturity estimates from biomarkers, are in favor of a type II/III organic matter source. Likely the oils were formed from the studied black shales (deeper Ngimbang Fm.) which contained a Type III component in the Type II predominated organic matter. In all samples large numbers of active microorganisms were present. Rates for aerobic methane oxidation were high, as was the potential of the microbial communities to degrade different hydrocarbons. The data suggests a transition of microbial populations from an anaerobic, hydrocarbon-driven metabolism in fresher samples from center or from small seeps to more generalistic, aerobic microbial communities in older, more consolidated sediments. Ongoing microbial activity in crater sediment samples under high temperatures (80-95C) indicate a deep origin of the involved microorganisms. First results of molecular analyses of the microbial community compositions confirm the above findings. This study represents an initial step to better understand onshore seepage systems and provides an ideal analogue for comparison with the better investigated offshore structures.

  18. Assessment of geothermal resources of the United States, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muffler, L.J.P. (ed.)

    1979-01-01

    The geothermal resource assessment presented is a refinement and updating of USGS Circular 726. Nonproprietary information available in June 1978 is used to assess geothermal energy in the ground and, when possible, to evaluate the fraction that might be recovered at the surface. Five categories of geothermal energy are discussed: conduction-dominated regimes, igneous-related geothermal systems, high-temperature (> 150/sup 0/C) and intermediate-temperature (90 to 150/sup 0/C) hydrothermal convection systems, low-temperature (< 90/sup 0/C) geothermal waters, and geopressured-geothermal energy (both thermal energy and energy from dissolved methane). Assessment data are presented on three colored maps prepared in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Separate abstracts were prepared for papers on these five categories.

  19. Water Desalination using geothermal energy

    KAUST Repository

    Goosen, M.; Mahmoudi, H.; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability

  20. Issues related to geothermal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesperance, G.O.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a number of potential barriers to geothermal development in Hawaii which have been overcome but some remain. Efforts continue to address issues relating to transmission, project economics, the regulatory process, resource verification, and public acceptance

  1. Beating the Heat: Magmatism in the Low-Temperature Thermochronologic Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, K. E.; Reiners, P. W.; Braun, J.; Karlstrom, L.; Morriss, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    The low-temperature thermochronology community was quick to recognize upper-crustal complexities in the geotherm that reflect landscape evolution, but the complex effects of crustal magmatism on thermochronometers can be difficult to independently document and remain underexplored. Because magmatism is common in many regions central to our understanding of tectonics, this is a significant gap in our ability to robustly interpret rock cooling. Here, we use several different numerical approaches to examine how local and regional crustal magmatism affects cooling age patterns and present examples from the western US that demonstrate the importance—and utility—of considering these effects. We modified the finite-element code Pecube to calculate how thermochronometers document the emplacement of simple hot bodies at different crustal levels. Results demonstrate the potential for mid-crustal plutons, emplaced at 10-15 km depth, to reset cooling ages in the overlying rocks at partial-retention depths at the time of magmatism. Permo-Triassic sandstones from the Colorado Plateau's Canyonlands region have apatite cooling ages that exemplify the resulting ambiguity: Oligocene rock cooling can be attributed to either 1 km of erosion or relaxation of a geothermal gradient transiently doubled by mid-crustal magmatism. Despite these complexities, there are compelling reasons to target rocks with magmatic histories. Shallowly emplaced plutons can usefully reset cooling ages in country rocks with protracted near-surface histories, as we have demonstrated in the Colorado Plateau's Henry Mountains. Cooling age patterns are also useful for quantifying magmatic processes themselves. In an ongoing project, we use the pattern of thermochronometer resetting around individual dikes that fed the Columbia River flood basalts, which are exposed in the Wallowa Mountains, to identify long-lived feeder dikes and model their thermal aureoles to further constrain eruptive dynamics. The pattern

  2. Combination of Well-Logging Temperature and Thermal Remote Sensing for Characterization of Geothermal Resources in Hokkaido, Northern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingwei Tian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal resources have become an increasingly important source of renewable energy for electrical power generation worldwide. Combined Three Dimension (3D Subsurface Temperature (SST and Land Surface Temperature (LST measurements are essential for accurate assessment of geothermal resources. In this study, subsurface and surface temperature distributions were combined using a dataset comprised of well logs and Thermal Infrared Remote sensing (TIR images from Hokkaido island, northern Japan. Using 28,476 temperature data points from 433 boreholes sites and a method of Kriging with External Drift or trend (KED, SST distribution model from depths of 100 to 1500 m was produced. Regional LST was estimated from 13 scenes of Landsat 8 images. Resultant SST ranged from around 50 °C to 300 °C at a depth of 1500 m. Most of western and part of the eastern Hokkaido are characterized by high temperature gradients, while low temperatures were found in the central region. Higher temperatures in shallower crust imply the western region and part of the eastern region have high geothermal potential. Moreover, several LST zones considered to have high geothermal potential were identified upon clarification of the underground heat distribution according to 3D SST. LST in these zones showed the anomalies, 3 to 9 °C higher than the surrounding areas. These results demonstrate that our combination of TIR and 3D temperature modeling using well logging and geostatistics is an efficient and promising approach to geothermal resource exploration.

  3. New Mexico geothermal commercialization planning. Semi-annual progress report, January 1, 1979-June 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, P.; Scudella, G.; Fedor, D.

    1979-06-01

    The market potential for geothermal energy development in New Mexico is estimated. Barriers to market penetration and geothermal development initiatives were identified. Statutes and regulations affecting geothermal development are appended.

  4. Geothermal development on federal lands: the impediments and potential solutions. Final report, September 6, 1977--January 13, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeland, G.V.; Sebian, D.J.; Whitenight, D.K.

    1978-01-01

    It is concluded that the regulatory program devised by the Bureau of Land Management and the US Geological Survey to implement the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 has been ineffective thus far in encouraging private enterprise to invest in and develop this resource. After seven years, there is still no commercial production or utilization of the geothermal resource underlying federal lands. There are a number of factors--such as the unknown character of the resource and the less-than-perfect technologies for utilizing it and disposing of the resulting wastes--which are retarding the growth of a geothermal industry. However, would-be developers point to the complexity of the federal geothermal leasing and post-leasing requirements as the major impediment, and, specifically, the repetitive environmental review procedures involved. A fundamental fault in the regulatory process is that there is no provision for identification of the resource before a lease is issued. Identification of its characteristics is mandatory before the use to be made of it can be determined, if indeed it is found to be adequate and economic for any use. A very large percentage of the exploratory holes drilled will be abandoned as non-productive of a usable resource, in which case there is no need for the long term commitment of a lease. A streamlined regulatory process was designed to overcome these and other problems. If adopted, it would provide for orderly development of the resource and adequately protect the public interest and the environment.

  5. Power generation from low-temperature heat source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakew, Amlaku Abie

    2012-07-01

    The potential of low-temperature heat sources for power production has been discussed for decades. The diversity and availability of low-temperature heat sources makes it interesting for power production. The thermodynamic power cycle is one of the promising technologies to produce electricity from low-temperature heat sources. There are different working fluids to be used in a thermodynamic power cycle. Working fluid selection is essential for the performance of the power cycle. Over the last years, different working fluid screening criteria have been used. In broad speaking the screening criteria can be grouped as thermodynamic performance, component size requirement, economic performance, safety and environmental impact. Screening of working fluids at different heat source temperatures (80-200 Celsius degrees) using thermodynamic performance (power output and exergy efficiency) and component size (heat exchanger and turbine) is investigated. It is found that the 'best' working fluid depends on the criteria used and heat source temperature level. Transcritical power cycles using carbon dioxide as a working fluid is studied to produce power at 100 Celsius degrees. Carbon dioxide is an environmentally friendly refrigerant. The global warming potential of carbon dioxide is 1. Furthermore, because of its low critical temperature (31 Celsius degrees), carbon dioxide can operate in a transcritical power cycle for lower heat source temperatures. A transcritical configuration avoids the problem of pinching which otherwise would happened in subcritical power cycle. In the process, better temperature matching is achieved and more heat is extracted. Thermodynamic analysis of transcritical cycle is performed; it is found that there is an optimal operating pressure for highest net power output. The pump work is a sizable fraction of the work produced by the turbine. The effect of efficiency deterioration of the pump and the turbine is compared. When the

  6. Quaternary tectonics from seismic interpretation and its potential relation with deep geothermal fluids in the Marche (Central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicco, Jessica; Invernizzi, Chiara; Pierantoni, Pietro Paolo; Costa, Mario

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of the structural features is fundamental in evaluating geothermal exchange potential and in modelling geothermal systems. In particular, faults and fractures play an important role for the circulation of fluids in the crust, and structural setting can influence groundwater flow, its regime, chemistry and electrical conductivity. In this context, data coming from accurate studies of groundwater physical properties in the Marche region (Central Italy), concerning electrical conductivity above all, revealed some anomalies in several localities that could be ascribed to a strong structural control. Data acquisition and interpretation of some SW-NE seismic reflection profiles crossing the Apennine chain to the Adriatic sea and kindly provided by ENI S.p.A, highlight important deep Plio-Quaternary structures connected with minor surface ones and to hydrogeological conditions. Seismic profiles interpretation allowed to reconstruct the structural setting and to identify the recent evolution of the Apennine Marche sector in more detail with respect to what is already known. In fact, some high angle structures affecting the whole sedimentary sequence and routing at high depth were labelled. These are NW-SE sub-parallel transpressive structures bounded by SW and NE-dipping high-angle reverse faults reaching > 10 km depth (positive flower structures), and probably involving the upper crust basement. Three main alignments were identified from W to the coast line. In some cases, flower nucleation gives rise to the lifting and counter-clockwise rotation of the Pre-Pliocene substratum blocks, with the upwelling and outcropping of Upper Miocene (Messinian) evaporite deposits along the axial zone of the transpressive structural highs. Noting the analyses of groundwater properties coming from wells placed in proximity of these structures or located along the analysed seismic profiles, anomalies in electrical conductivity are relevant. The activity of the deep rooting

  7. The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Experiments Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Warren; Lai, Anthony; Croonquist, Arvid; Chui, Talso; Eraker, J. H.; Abbott, Randy; Mills, Gary; Mohl, James; Craig, James; Balachandra, Balu; hide

    2000-01-01

    The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility (LTMPF) is being developed by NASA to provide long duration low temperature and microgravity environment on the International Space Station (ISS) for performing fundamental physics investigations. Currently, six experiments have been selected for flight definition studies. More will be selected in a two-year cycle, through NASA Research Announcement. This program is managed under the Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Experiments Project Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The facility is being designed to launch and returned to earth on a variety of vehicles including the HII-A and the space shuttle. On orbit, the facility will be connected to the Exposed Facility on the Japanese Experiment Module, Kibo. Features of the facility include a cryostat capable of maintaining super-fluid helium at a temperature of 1.4 K for 5 months, resistance thermometer bridges, multi-stage thermal isolation system, thermometers capable of pico-Kelvin resolution, DC SQUID magnetometers, passive vibration isolation, and magnetic shields with a shielding factor of 80dB. The electronics and software architecture incorporates two VME buses run using the VxWorks operating system. Technically challenging areas in the design effort include the following: 1) A long cryogen life that survives several launch and test cycles without the need to replace support straps for the helium tank. 2) The minimization of heat generation in the sample stage caused by launch vibration 3) The design of compact and lightweight DC SQUID electronics. 4) The minimization of RF interference for the measurement of heat at pico-Watt level. 5) Light weighting of the magnetic shields. 6) Implementation of a modular and flexible electronics and software architecture. The first launch is scheduled for mid-2003, on an H-IIA Rocket Transfer Vehicle, out of the Tanegashima Space Center of Japan. Two identical facilities will be built. While one facility is onboard

  8. National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) Geothermal Data: Community Requirements and Information Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Arlene [United States Department of Energy; Blackwell, David [Southern Methodist University; Chickering, Cathy [Southern Methodist University; Boyd, Toni [Oregon Institute of Technology; Horne, Roland [Stanford University; MacKenzie, Matthew [Uberity Technology Corporation; Moore, Joseph [University of Utah; Nickull, Duane [Uberity Technology Corporation; Richard, Stephen [Arizona Geological survey; Shevenell, Lisa A. [University of Nevada, Reno

    2013-10-01

    To satisfy the critical need for geothermal data to advance geothermal energy as a viable renewable energy contender, the U.S. Department of Energy is investing in the development of the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). This paper outlines efforts among geothermal data providers nationwide to supply cutting edge geo-informatics. NGDS geothermal data acquisition, delivery, and methodology are discussed. In particular, this paper addresses the various types of data required to effectively assess geothermal energy potential and why simple links to existing data are insufficient. To create a platform for ready access by all geothermal stakeholders, the NGDS includes a work plan that addresses data assets and resources of interest to users, a survey of data providers, data content models, and how data will be exchanged and promoted, as well as lessons learned within the geothermal community.

  9. Washington: a guide to geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Basescu, N.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    Washington's geothermal potential is discussed. The following topics are covered: exploration, drilling, utilization, legal and institutional setting, and economic factors of direct use projects. (MHR)

  10. Low temperature distillation of coal, shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-08-12

    A process is disclosed for the low temperature distillation of solid carbonaceous fuels, such as coal, lignite, shale or the like, which comprises feeding or supplying the comminuted fuel in the form of a layer of shallow depth to drying and distilling zones in succession moving the fuel forward through the zones, submitting it to progressively increasing nonuniform heating therein by combustion gases supplied to the distillation zone and traveling thence to the drying zone, the gases heating the distillation zone indirectly and the drying zone both indirectly and then directly such that the fuel retains its solid discrete form during substantially the whole of its travel through the drying and distillation zones, subjecting the fuel for a portion of its travel to a zigzag ploughing and propelling movement on a heated sole, and increasing the heating so as to cause fusion of the fuel immediately prior to its discharge from the distillation zone.

  11. On Low-temperature Polyamorphous transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakay, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    A theory of polyamorphous transformations in glasses is constructed in the framework of a model of heterophase fluctuations with allowance for the fact that a glass inherits the short- and intermediate-range order from the liquid. A multicomponent order parameter describing the concentration of fluctuons with different types of short-range order is introduced, along with the concepts of isoconfigurational and non-isoconfigurational transitions in the glass. Taking the nonergodicity, nonequilibrium, and multiplicity of structural states of a glass into account leads to a kinetic criterion of observability of polyamorphism of a glass. As an example, a theory is constructed for the low-temperature first-order phase transition in an orientational glass based on doped fullerite. The relaxation processes of this system are described, including the subsystem of tunneling states. The possibility of a hierarchy of polyamorphous transformations in a glass is discussed

  12. Shock waves in helium at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liepmann, H.W.; Torczynski, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Results are reported from studies of the properties of low temperature He-4 using shock waves as a probe. Ideal shock tube theory is used to show that sonic speeds of Mach 40 are attainable in He at 300 K. Viscosity reductions at lower temperatures minimize boundary layer effects at the side walls. A two-fluid model is described to account for the phase transition which He undergoes at temperatures below 2.2 K, after which the quantum fluid (He II) and the normal compressed superfluid (He I) coexist. Analytic models are provided for pressure-induced shocks in He I and temperature-induced shock waves (called second sound) which appear in He II. The vapor-fluid interface of He I is capable of reflecting second and gasdynamic sound shocks, which can therefore be used as probes for studying phase transitions between He I and He II. 17 references

  13. Desalination by very low temperature nuclear heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, Risto

    1977-01-01

    A new sea water desalination method has been developed: Nord-Aqua Vacuum Evaporation, which utilizes waste heat at a very low temperature. The requisite vacuum is obtained by the aid of a barometric column and siphon, and the dissolved air is removed from the vacuum by means of water flows. According to test results from a pilot plant, the process is operable if the waste heat exists at a temperature 7degC higher than ambient. The pumping energy which is then required is 9 kcal/kg, or 1.5% of the heat of vaporization of water. Calculations reveal that the method is economically considerably superior to conventional distilling methods. (author)

  14. Recrystallization of magnesium deformed at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromageau, R.; Pastol, J.L.; Revel, G.

    1978-01-01

    The recrystallization of magnesium was studied after rolling at temperatures ranging between 248 and 373 K. For zone refined magnesium the annealing behaviour as observed by electrical resistivity measurements showed two stages at about 250 K and 400 K due respectively to recrystallization and grain growth. The activation energy associated with the recrystallization stage was 0.75 +- 0.01 eV. In less pure magnesium, with nominal purity 99.99 and 99.9%, the recrystallization stage was decomposed into two substages. Activation energies were determined in relation with deformation temperature and purity. The magnesium of intermediate purity (99.99%) behaved similarly to the lowest purity metal when it was deformed at high temperature and to the purest magnesium when the deformation was made at low temperature. This behaviour was discussed in connection with the theories of Luecke and Cahn. (Auth.)

  15. Low temperature distillation of powdered materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-04-11

    In the low temperature distillation of powdered material such as coal, brown coal, or oil shale, dust carried by the gases and vapors is precipitated by supplying liquid hydrocarbons to the effluent gases, for example, to a dust remover through which the distillates pass. The material is supplied through a hopper and moved through a retort by a worm feed, and is discharged into a sump. Scavenging gases such as steam may be introduced through a pipe. Two conveyor worms moving in opposite directions are provided in an outlet conduit which may be surrounded by a cooling jacket. Heavy hydrocarbons condense on the walls of the conduit and on the conveyor worms and serve as dust catchers for the distillates, the lighted volatiles escaping through an outlet. The high boiling point oils flow back to and are cracked in the retort. Oils such as tar oils may be sprayed into the conduit or directly adjacent the entry of the material from feeding hopper.

  16. Installation for low temperature vapor explosion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsuwankosit, Sunchai; Archakositt, Urith

    2000-01-01

    A preparation for the experiment on the low temperature vapor explosion was planned at the department of Nuclear Technology, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand. The objective of the experiment was to simulate the interaction between the molten fuel and the volatile cooling liquid without resorting to the high temperature. The experiment was expected to involve the injection of the liquid material at a moderate temperature into the liquid material with the very low boiling temperature in order to observe the level of the pressurization as a function of the temperatures and masses of the applied materials. For this purpose, the liquid nitrogen and the water were chosen as the coolant and the injected material for this experiment. Due to the size of the installation and the scale of the interaction, only lumped effect of various parameters on the explosion was expected from the experiment at this initial stage. (author)

  17. Biomedical applications using low temperature plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xiujuan; Jiang Nan

    2006-01-01

    Low temperature plasma technology and biomedicine are two different subjects, but the combination of the two may play a critical role in modern science and technology. The 21 st century is believed to be a biotechnology century. Plasma technology is becoming a widely used platform for the fabrication of biomaterials and biomedical devices. In this paper some of the technologies used for material surface modification are briefly introduced. Some biomedical applications using plasma technology are described, followed by suggestions as to how a bridge between plasma technology and biomedicine can be built. A pulsed plasma technique that is used for surface functionalization is discussed in detail as an example of this kind of bridge or combination. Finally, it is pointed out that the combination of biomedical and plasma technology will be an important development for revolutionary 21st century technologies that requires different experts from different fields to work together. (authors)

  18. Low-temperature glycerolysis of avocado oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satriana, Arpi, Normalina; Supardan, Muhammad Dani; Gustina, Rizka Try; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan

    2018-04-01

    Glycerolysis can be a useful technique for production of mono- and diacylglycerols from triacylglycerols present in avocado oil. In the present work, the effect of catalyst and co-solvent concentration on low-temperature glycerolysis of avocado oil was investigated at 40oC of reaction temperature. A hydrodynamic cavitation system was used to enhance the miscibility of the oil and glycerol phases. NaOH and acetone were used as catalyst and co-solvent, respectively. The experimental results showed that the catalyst and co-solvent concentration affected the glycerolysis reaction rate. The catalyst concentration of 1.5% and co-solvent concentration of 300% were the optimised conditions. A suitable amount of NaOH and acetone must be added to achieve an optimum of triacylglycerol conversion.

  19. Low Temperature Waste Immobilization Testing Vol. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Smith, D. E.; Gallegos, Autumn B.; Telander, Monty R.; Pitman, Stan G.

    2006-09-14

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is evaluating low-temperature technologies to immobilize mixed radioactive and hazardous waste. Three waste forms—alkali-aluminosilicate hydroceramic cement, “Ceramicrete” phosphate-bonded ceramic, and “DuraLith” alkali-aluminosilicate geopolymer—were selected through a competitive solicitation for fabrication and characterization of waste-form properties. The three contractors prepared their respective waste forms using simulants of a Hanford secondary waste and Idaho sodium bearing waste provided by PNNL and characterized their waste forms with respect to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and compressive strength. The contractors sent specimens to PNNL, and PNNL then conducted durability (American National Standards Institute/American Nuclear Society [ANSI/ANS] 16.1 Leachability Index [LI] and modified Product Consistency Test [PCT]) and compressive strength testing (both irradiated and as-received samples). This report presents the results of these characterization tests.

  20. Japanese geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplaige, P.

    1995-01-01

    At the end of the seventies, the NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organisation) and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry have started two independent projects of deep geothermics research in Honshu island (Japan). The two sites are 50 km apart of each other and the boreholes have been drilled up to 2300 and 1100 m of depth, respectively, in hot-dry moderately fractured volcanic rocks. These sites are characterized by high geothermal gradients with a rock temperature reaching 250 C at the bottom of the wells. Hydraulic circulation tests are still in progress to evaluate the profitability of these sites. (J.S.). 1 fig., 1 photo

  1. Aspects of Low Temperature Irradiation in Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.

    1968-08-01

    Neutron irradiation of the sample while frozen in a cooling device inserted in a reactor channel has been carried out in the analysis of iodine in aqueous samples as well as of mercury in biological tissue and water. For the simultaneous irradiation of a large number of aqueous solutions the samples were arranged in a suitable geometry in order to avoid mutual flux perturbation effects. The influence of the neutron temperature on the activation process has been discussed. Potential applications of the low temperature irradiation technique are outlined

  2. Aspects of Low Temperature Irradiation in Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D

    1968-08-15

    Neutron irradiation of the sample while frozen in a cooling device inserted in a reactor channel has been carried out in the analysis of iodine in aqueous samples as well as of mercury in biological tissue and water. For the simultaneous irradiation of a large number of aqueous solutions the samples were arranged in a suitable geometry in order to avoid mutual flux perturbation effects. The influence of the neutron temperature on the activation process has been discussed. Potential applications of the low temperature irradiation technique are outlined.

  3. The effect of low temperature cryocoolers on the development of low temperature superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    The commercial development of reliable 4 K cryocoolers improves the future prospects for magnets made from low temperature superconductors (LTS). The hope of the developers of high temperature superconductors (HTS) has been to replace liquid helium cooled LTS magnets with HTS magnets that operate at or near liquid nitrogen temperature. There has been limited success in this endeavor, but continued problems with HTS conductors have greatly slowed progress toward this goal. The development of cryocoolers that reliably operate below 4 K will allow magnets made from LTS conductor to remain very competitive for many years to come. A key enabling technology for the use of low temperature cryocoolers on LTS magnets has been the development of HTS leads. This report describes the characteristics of LTS magnets that can be successfully melded to low-temperature cryocoolers. This report will also show when it is not appropriate to consider the use of low-temperature cryocoolers to cool magnets made with LTS conductor. A couple of specific examples of LTS magnets where cryocoolers can be used are given

  4. Geothermal Small Business Workbook [Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2003-05-01

    --the geothermal entrepreneur, small company, or project developer--step-by-step through the process needed to structure a business and financing plan for a small geothermal project; and Help you develop a financing plan that can be adapted and taken to potential financing sources. The Workbook will not: Substitute for financial advice; Overcome the high exploration, development, and financing costs associated with smaller geothermal projects; Remedy the lack of financing for the exploration stage of a geothermal project; or Solve financing problems that are not related to the economic soundness of your project or are caused by things outside of your control.

  5. Overview of geothermal activities in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Dhia, H.

    1990-01-01

    For Tunisia, the oil crisis and the decrease in local energy resources gave impetus to geothermal energy for potential assessment, exploration and utilization. Research undertaken showed a country with real potentialities either by its important deep aquifers or by the relatively high values of geothermal gradient and heat flow. This paper reports that it is expected that these efforts of geothermal investigation will continue in the future

  6. Study deep geothermal energy; Studie dypgeotermisk energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havellen, Vidar; Eri, Lars Sigurd; Andersen, Andreas; Tuttle, Kevin J.; Ruden, Dorottya Bartucz; Ruden, Fridtjof; Rigler, Balazs; Pascal, Christophe; Larsen, Bjoern Tore

    2012-07-01

    The study aims to analyze the potential energy with current technology, challenges, issues and opportunities for deep geothermal energy using quantitative analysis. It should especially be made to identify and investigate critical connections between geothermal potential, the size of the heating requirements and technical solutions. Examples of critical relationships may be acceptable cost of technology in relation to heating, local geothermal gradient / drilling depth / temperature levels and profitability. (eb)

  7. Environmental impact in geothermal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkle, P.; Torres R, V.; Gonzalez P, E.; Guevara G, M.

    1996-01-01

    Generally, water exploitation and deep steam of geothermal fields may be cause of a pollution potential on the surface, specially by the chemical composition of geothermal water which has a high concentration of minerals, salts and heavy metals. The utilization of stable isotopes as deuterium and oxygen 18 as radioactive tracers and water origin indicators allow to know the trajectories and sources of background waters as well as possible moistures between geothermal waters and meteoric waters. Some ions such as chlorides and fluorides present solubilities that allow their register as yet long distances of their source. (Author)

  8. Treatment of the early-stage glottic cancer using low-temperature radiofrequency coblation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Liu

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the current probe design has limitations for the resection of certain tumors, low-temperature RF coblation appears to be a potentially effective method for the endoscopic resection of selected glottic cancers.

  9. Feasibility of geothermal heat use in the San Bernardino Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant. Final report, September 1980-June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racine, W.C.; Larson, T.C.; Stewart, C.A.; Wessel, H.B.

    1981-06-01

    A system was developed for utilizing nearby low temperature geothermal energy to heat two high-rate primary anaerobic digesters at the San Bernardino Wastewater Treatment Plant. The geothermal fluid would replace the methane currently burned to fuel the digesters. A summary of the work accomplished on the feasibility study is presented. The design and operation of the facility are examined and potentially viable applications selected for additional study. Results of these investigations and system descriptions and equipment specifications for utilizing geothermal energy in the selected processes are presented. The economic analyses conducted on the six engineering design cases are discussed. The environmental setting of the project and an analysis of the environmental impacts that will result from construction and operation of the geothermal heating system are discussed. A Resource Development Plan describes the steps that the San Bernardino Municipal Water Department could follow in order to utilize the resource. A preliminary well program and rough cost estimates for the production and injection wells also are included. The Water Department is provided with a program and schedule for implementing a geothermal system to serve the wastewater treatment plant. Regulatory, financial, and legal issues that will impact the project are presented in the Appendix. An outline of a Public Awareness Program is included.

  10. Vertical distribution of potentially toxic elements in sediments impacted by intertidal geothermal hot springs (Bahia Concepcion, Gulf of California)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Acosta, M. L.; Shumilin, E.

    2016-12-01

    The intertidal geothermal hot springs (GHS) in Bahia Concepcion, Gulf of California are the source of potentially toxic elements to the adjacent marine environment surrounded by mangroves trees. The anoxic sediments enriched in organic carbon accumulate As, Hg and other heavy metals that can be bioavailable for the biota. To know the vertical distribution of these elements the geochemistry of a short sediment core was carried out. It was collected in June, 2010 in the mangrove area near to GHS (1 m) during a low tide, pushing manually a polypropylene tube into the sediments. The extracted sediment core was cut with plastic knife on 1 cm thick sub-samples, stored in plastic bags and transported on ice to the laboratory. The major and trace elements contents were determinate by ICP-MS after total digestion with stronger acids (HClO4-HNO3-HCl-HF). Certificate reference materials were used for the quality control of the method obtaining good recoveries for most of the elements (80-105%). The sediment core had high maximum contents of CaCO3 (70%) and total organic carbon (12%). The concentration of Hg along the core ranges from 650 to 74300 mg kg-1 and had more than three orders of magnitude above the reference values of 40 mg kg-1 for the Upper Continental Crust (UCC)1. In contrast, As ranges from 12 to 258 mg kg-1 resulting in more than one order of magnitude respect to UCC1 (1.7 mg kg-1). Similar pattern result for Mn, Cu, Pb, and Zn with the maximum values of 3200 mg kg-1, 42 mg kg-1, 12.4 mg kg-1, 71 mg kg-1 respectively that coincide with the maximum for As at the same core depth (4 cm). The Ca, Li, Co, Sb, U, and Mg also show high contents in comparison with the UCC1reference values. The maximum contents of Mo and Cd coincide with maximum concentration of sulfur (2%) at 6 to 8 cm. The enrichment factor calculated using Al as normalizing element showed Cd (7-280), As (26-329) and Hg (23-1196) as highly enriched mainly in the first centimeters of the sediment core

  11. Deep geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The hot-dry-rocks located at 3-4 km of depth correspond to low permeable rocks carrying a large amount of heat. The extraction of this heat usually requires artificial hydraulic fracturing of the rock to increase its permeability before water injection. Hot-dry-rocks geothermics or deep geothermics is not today a commercial channel but only a scientific and technological research field. The Soultz-sous-Forets site (Northern Alsace, France) is characterized by a 6 degrees per meter geothermal gradient and is used as a natural laboratory for deep geothermal and geological studies in the framework of a European research program. Two boreholes have been drilled up to 3600 m of depth in the highly-fractured granite massif beneath the site. The aim is to create a deep heat exchanger using only the natural fracturing for water transfer. A consortium of german, french and italian industrial companies (Pfalzwerke, Badenwerk, EdF and Enel) has been created for a more active participation to the pilot phase. (J.S.). 1 fig., 2 photos

  12. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  13. Potential use of geothermal resources in the Snake River Basin: an environmental overview. Volume II. Annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F.; Sullivan, J.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    This volume is a partially annotated bibliography of reference materials pertaining to the seven KGRA's. The bibliography is divided into sections by program element as follows: terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, heritage resources, socioeconomics and demography, geology, geothermal, soils, hydrology and water quality, seismicity, and subsidence. Cross-referencing is available for those references which are applicable to specific KGRA's. (MHR)

  14. Active carbons from low temperature conversion chars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adebowale, K.O.; Bayer, E.

    2002-05-01

    Hulls obtained from the fruits of five tropical biomass have been subjected to low temperature conversion process and their chars activated by partial physical gasification to produce active carbons. The biomass are T. catappa, B. nitida, L leucophylla, D. regia and O. martiana. The bulk densities of the samples ranged from 0.32 g.cm 3 to 0.52 g.cm 3 . Out of the samples T. catappa recorded the highest cellulose content (41.9 g.100g -1 ), while O. martiana contained the highest lignin content (40.7 g.100g -1 ). The ash of the samples were low (0.5 - 4.4%). The percentage of char obtained after conversion were high (33.7% - 38.6%). Active carbons obtained from T. catappa, D. regia and O. martiana, recorded high methylene blue numbers and iodine values. They also displayed good micro- and mesostructural characteristics. Micropore volume (V micro ) was between 0.33cm 3 .g -1 - 0.40cm 3 .g -1 , while the mesopore volume(V meso ) was between 0.05 cm 3 .g -1 - 0.07 cm 3 .g -1 . The BET specific surface exceeds 1000 m 2 .g -1 . All these values compared favourably with high grade commercial active carbons. (author)

  15. Low Temperature Catalyst for NH3 Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Oscar; Melendez, Orlando

    2013-01-01

    Air revitalization technologies maintain a safe atmosphere inside spacecraft by the removal of C02, ammonia (NH3), and trace contaminants. NH3 onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is produced by crew metabolism, payloads, or during an accidental release of thermal control refrigerant. Currently, the ISS relies on removing NH3 via humidity condensate and the crew wears hooded respirators during emergencies. A different approach to cabin NH3 removal is to use selective catalytic oxidation (SCO), which builds on thermal catalytic oxidation concepts that could be incorporated into the existing TCCS process equipment architecture on ISS. A low temperature platinum-based catalyst (LTP-Catalyst) developed at KSC was used for converting NH3 to H20 and N2 gas by SCO. The challenge of implementing SCO is to reduce formation of undesirable byproducts like NOx (N20 and NO). Gas mixture analysis was conducted using FTIR spectrometry in the Regenerable VOC Control System (RVCS) Testbed. The RVCS was modified by adding a 66 L semi-sealed chamber, and a custom NH3 generator. The effect of temperature on NH3 removal using the LTP-Catalyst was examined. A suitable temperature was found where NH3 removal did not produce toxic NO, (NO, N02) and N20 formation was reduced.

  16. Pyrocatechol from low-temperature tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowenstein-Lom, W

    1950-01-01

    A method for production and purification of pyrocatechol (I) from low-temperature carbonization effluents was described. Phenosolvan, a mixture of isobutyl, butyl, and amyl acetates, was used for extraction of I from the effluent. After removing most of the solvent by distillation, the separation was completed by batch vacuum distillation at 25 to 50 millimeter Hg. The 4th fraction, containing I 49.2, I homologues 31.1, o-cresol 6.8, xylenols 7.3, and higher boiling material and residue 5.6 percent, was treated in a purification pilot plant, which was described. This fraction was dissolved in an equal weight of C/sub 6/H/sub 6/, then cooled. I was crystallized out in a vacuum crystallizer, centrifuged, and washed with C/sub 6/H/sub 6/, dried in a rotating-plate drier and taken to storage. The purified I melted 100/sup 0/ to 102/sup 0/ and contained 4 to 8 percent homologues or other impurities. A further recrystallization raised its purity to 99.2 percent. Plant capacities and production costs are given.

  17. Enhanced Design Alternative I: Low Temperature Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacNeil, K.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) 1, the low temperature repository design concept (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This technical document will provide supporting information for Site Recommendation (SR) and License Application (LA). Preparation of this evaluation will be in accordance with the technical document preparation plan (TDPP), (CRWMS M and O 1999b). EDA 1, one of five EDAs, was evolved from evaluation of a series of design features and alternatives developed during the first phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) process. Low, medium, and high temperature concepts were developed from the design features and alternatives prepared during Phase 1 of the LADS effort (CRWMS M and O 1999a). EDA 1 will first be evaluated against a single Screening Criterion, outlined in CRWMS M and O 1999a, which addresses post-closure performance of the repository. The performance of the repository is defined quantitatively as the peak radiological dose rate to an average individual of a critical group at a distance of 20 km from the repository site within 10,000 years. To satisfy this criterion the peak dose rate must not exceed the anticipated regulatory level of 25 mrem/yr within 10,000 years. If the EDA meets the screening criterion, the EDA will be further evaluated against the LADS Phase 2 Evaluation Criteria contained in CRWMS M and O 1999a

  18. Active carbons from low temperature conversion chars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adebowale, K O [Department of Chemistry, University of lbadan, lbadan (Nigeria); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Bayer, E [Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Organische Chemie, Forschungstelle Nukleinsaeure- und Peptidchemie, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2002-05-01

    Hulls obtained from the fruits of five tropical biomass have been subjected to low temperature conversion process and their chars activated by partial physical gasification to produce active carbons. The biomass are T. catappa, B. nitida, L leucophylla, D. regia and O. martiana. The bulk densities of the samples ranged from 0.32 g.cm{sup 3} to 0.52 g.cm{sup 3}. Out of the samples T. catappa recorded the highest cellulose content (41.9 g.100g{sup -1}), while O. martiana contained the highest lignin content (40.7 g.100g{sup -1}). The ash of the samples were low (0.5 - 4.4%). The percentage of char obtained after conversion were high (33.7% - 38.6%). Active carbons obtained from T. catappa, D. regia and O. martiana, recorded high methylene blue numbers and iodine values. They also displayed good micro- and mesostructural characteristics. Micropore volume (V{sub micro}) was between 0.33cm{sup 3}.g{sup -1} - 0.40cm{sup 3}.g{sup -1}, while the mesopore volume(V{sub meso}) was between 0.05 cm{sup 3}.g{sup -1} - 0.07 cm{sup 3}.g{sup -1}. The BET specific surface exceeds 1000 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}. All these values compared favourably with high grade commercial active carbons. (author)

  19. Geothermal Program Review XI: proceedings. Geothermal Energy - The Environmental Responsible Energy Technology for the Nineties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    These proceedings contain papers pertaining to current research and development of geothermal energy in the USA. The seven sections of the document are: Overview, The Geysers, Exploration and Reservoir Characterization, Drilling, Energy Conversion, Advanced Systems, and Potpourri. The Overview presents current DOE energy policy and industry perspectives. Reservoir studies, injection, and seismic monitoring are reported for the geysers geothermal field. Aspects of geology, geochemistry and models of geothermal exploration are described. The Drilling section contains information on lost circulation, memory logging tools, and slim-hole drilling. Topics considered in energy conversion are efforts at NREL, condensation on turbines and geothermal materials. Advanced Systems include hot dry rock studies and Fenton Hill flow testing. The Potpourri section concludes the proceedings with reports on low-temperature resources, market analysis, brines, waste treatment biotechnology, and Bonneville Power Administration activities. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Sustainable renewable energy seawater desalination using combined-cycle solar and geothermal heat sources

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Key goals in the improvement of desalination technology are to reduce overall energy consumption, make the process "greener," and reduce the cost of the delivered water. Adsorption desalination (AD) is a promising new technology that has great potential to reduce the need for conventional power, to use solely renewable energy sources, and to reduce the overall cost of water treatment. This technology can desalt seawater or water of even higher salinity using waste heat, solar heat, or geothermal heat. An AD system can operate effectively at temperatures ranging from 55 to 80 °C with perhaps an optimal temperature of 80 °C. The generally low temperature requirement for the feedwater allows the system to operate quite efficiently using an alternative energy source, such as solar power. Solar power, particularly in warm dry regions, can generate a consistent water temperature of about 90 °C. Although this temperature is more than adequate to run the system, solar energy collection only can occur during daylight hours, thereby necessitating the use of heat storage during nighttime or very cloudy days. With increasing capacity, the need for extensive thermal storage may be problematic and could add substantial cost to the development of an AD system. However, in many parts of the world, there are subsurface geothermal energy sources that have not been extensively used. Combining a low to moderate geothermal energy recovery system to an AD system would provide a solution to the thermal storage issue. However, geothermal energy development from particularly Hot Dry Rock is limited by the magnitude of the heat flow required for the process and the thermal conductivity of the rock material forming the heat reservoir. Combining solar and geothermal energy using an alternating 12-h cycle would reduce the probability of depleting the heat source within the geothermal reservoir and provide the most effective use of renewable energy. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  1. Prospects of development of highly mineralized high-temperature resources of the Tarumovskoye geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    The promising nature of integrated processing of high-temperature geothermal brines of the Tarumovskoye geothermal field is shown. Thermal energy of a geothermal brine can be converted to the electric power at a binary geothermal power plant (GPP) based on low-boiling working substance. The thermodynamic Rankine cycles are considered which are implemented in the GPP secondary loop at different evaporation temperatures of the working substance―isobutane. Among them, the most efficient cycle from the standpoint of attaining a maximum power is the supercritical one which is close to the so-called triangular cycle with an evaporation pressure of p e = 5.0 MPa. The used low-temperature brine is supplied from the GPP to a chemical plant, where main chemical components (lithium carbonate, burnt magnesia, calcium carbonate, and sodium chloride) are extracted from it according to the developed technology of comprehensive utilization of geothermal brines of chloride-sodium type. The waste water is delivered to the geotechnological complex and other consumers. For producing valuable inorganic materials, the electric power generated at the GPP is used. Owing to this, the total self-sufficiency of production and independence from external conditions is achieved. The advantages of the proposed geotechnological complex are the full utilization of the heat potential and the extraction of main chemical components of multiparameter geothermal resources. In this case, there is no need for reverse pumping, which eliminates the significant capital costs for building injection wells and a pumping station and the operating costs for their service. A characteristic of the modern state of the field and estimated figures of the integrated processing of high-temperature brines of well no. 6 are given, from which it follows that the proposed technology has a high efficiency. The comprehensive development of the field resources will make it possible to improve the economic structure of the

  2. INTEGRATED EXPLORATION OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    A. B. Alkhasov; D. A. Аlkhasova; R. M. Aliyev; A. Sh. Ramazanov

    2016-01-01

    The aim. The aim is to develop the energy efficient technologies to explore hydro geothermal resources of different energy potential.Methods. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed technologies has been carried out with the use of physical and mathematical, thermodynamic and optimization methods of calculation and the physical and chemical experimental research.Results. We propose the technology of integrated exploration of low-grade geothermal resources with the application of heat ...

  3. Recent trends in the development of heat exchangers for geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A.; Vaccaro, M.

    2017-11-01

    The potential use of geothermal resources has been a remarkable driver for market players and companies operating in the field of geothermal energy conversion. For this reason, medium to low temperature geothermal resources have been the object of recent rise in consideration, with strong reference to the perspectives of development of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technology. The main components of geothermal plants based on ORC cycle are surely the heat exchangers. A lot of different heat exchangers are required for the operation of ORC plants. Among those it is surely of major importance the Recovery Heat Exchanger (RHE, typically an evaporator), in which the operating fluid is evaporated. Also the Recuperator, in regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle, is of major interest in technology. Another important application of the heat exchangers is connected to the condensation, according to the possibility of liquid or air cooling media availability. The paper analyzes the importance of heat exchangers sizing and the connection with the operation of ORC power plants putting in evidence the real element of innovation: the consideration of the heat exchangers as central element for the optimum design of ORC systems.

  4. A survey of endangered waterbirds on Maui and Oahu and assessment of potential impacts to waterbirds from the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project transmission corridor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, K.; Woodside, D.; Bruegmann, M. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, HI (United States). Pacific Islands Office

    1994-08-01

    A survey of endangered waterbirds on Maui and Oahu was conducted during August and September 1993 to identify potential waterbird habitats within the general area of the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project transmission corridor and to assess the potential impacts to endangered waterbird of installing and operating a high voltage transmission line from the Island of Hawaii to the islands of Oahu and Maui. Annual waterbird survey information and other literature containing information on specific wetland sites were summarized. Literature describing impacts of overhead transmission lines on birds was used to evaluate potential impacts of the proposed project on endangered waterbirds, resident wading birds, and migratory shorebirds and waterfowl. On Oahu, five wetland habitats supporting endangered Hawaiian waterbirds were identified within 2.5 miles of the proposed transmission line corridor. On Maui, three wetland habitats supporting endangered Hawaiian waterbirds were identified within the general area of the proposed transmission line corridor. Several of the wetlands identified on Oahu and Maui also supported resident wading birds and migratory shorebirds and waterfowl. Endangered waterbirds, resident wading birds, and migratory birds may collide with the proposed transmission lines wires. The frequency and numbers of bird collisions is expected to be greater on Oahu than on Maui because more wetland habitat exists and greater numbers of birds occur in the project area on Oahu. In addition, the endangered Hawaiian goose and the endangered Hawaiian petrel may be impacted by the proposed segment of the Hawaii Geothermal Project transmission line on Maui.

  5. Geothermal tomorrow 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Contributors from the Geothermal Technologies Program and the geothermal community highlight the current status and activities of the Program and the development of the global resource of geothermal energy.

  6. Doubling Geothermal Generation Capacity by 2020. A Strategic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Anna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report identifies the potential of U.S. geothermal resource and the current market to add an additional 3 GW of geothermal by 2020, in order to meet the goal set forth in the Climate Action Plan.

  7. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Maricopa County Geothermal Development Plan evaluated the market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. The study identified six potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 100{sup 0}C (212{sup 0}F) and in addition, four suspected intermediate temperature areas (90{sup 0} to 150{sup 0}C, 194{sup 0} to 300{sup 0}F). Geothermal resources are found to occur in and near the Phoenix metropolitan area where average population growth rates of two to three percent per year are expected over the next 40 years. Rapid growth in the manufacturing, trade and service sectors of the regional economy provides opportunities for the direct utilization of geothermal energy. A regional energy use analysis is included containing energy use and price projections. Water supplies are found to be adequate to support this growth, though agricultural water use is expected to diminish. The study also contains a detailed section matching geothermal resources to potential users. Two comparative analyses providing economic details for space heating projects are incorporated.

  8. Some experiments in low-temperature thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogle, W.E.

    1982-11-01

    A powdered cerous magnesium nitrate (CMN) temperature scale has been developed in the 0.016 to 3.8 K region which represents an interpolation between the 3 He/ 4 He (T 62 /T 58 ) vapor pressure scale and absolute temperatures in the millikelvin region as determined with a 60 Co in hcp Co nuclear orientation thermometer (NOT). Both ac and dc susceptibility thermometers were used in these experiments. The ac susceptibility of a 13 mg CMN-oil slurry was measured with a mutual inductance bridge employing a SQUID null detector while the dc susceptibility of a 3 mg slurry was measured with a SQUID/flux transformer combination. To check the internal consistency of the NOT, γ-ray intensities were measured both parallel and perpendicular to the Co crystal c-axis. The independent temperatures determined in this fashion were found to agree to within experimental error. For the CMN thermometers employed in these experiments, the susceptibility was found to obey a Curie-Weiss law with a Weiss constant of Δ = 1.05 +- 0.1 mK. The powdered CMN scale in the 0.05 to 1.0 K region was transferred to two germanium resistance thermometers for use in low-temperature specific heat measurements. The integrity of the scale was checked by examining the temperature dependence of the specific heat of high purity copper in the 0.1 to 1 K region. In more recent experiments in this laboratory, the scale was also checked by a comparison with the National Bureau of Standards cryogenic temperature scale (NBS-CTS-1). The agreement between the two scales in the 99 to 206 mK region was found to be on the order of the stated accuracy of the NBS scale

  9. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

  10. The Oregon Geothermal Planning Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-02

    Oregon's geothermal resources represent a large portion of the nation's total geothermal potential. The State's resources are substantial in size, widespread in location, and presently in various stages of discovery and utilization. The exploration for, and development of, geothermal is presently dependent upon a mixture of engineering, economic, environmental, and legal factors. In response to the State's significant geothermal energy potential, and the emerging impediments and incentives for its development, the State of Oregon has begun a planning program intended to accelerate the environmentally prudent utilization of geothermal, while conserving the resource's long-term productivity. The program, which is based upon preliminary work performed by the Oregon Institute of Technology's Geo-Heat Center, will be managed by the Oregon Department of Energy, with the assistance of the Departments of Economic Development, Geology and Mineral Industries, and Water Resources. Funding support for the program is being provided by the US Department of Energy. The first six-month phase of the program, beginning in July 1980, will include the following five primary tasks: (1) coordination of state and local agency projects and information, in order to keep geothermal personnel abreast of the rapidly expanding resource literature, resource discoveries, technological advances, and each agency's projects. (2) Analysis of resource commercialization impediments and recommendations of incentives for accelerating resource utilization. (3) Compilation and dissemination of Oregon geothermal information, in order to create public and potential user awareness, and to publicize technical assistance programs and financial incentives. (4) Resource planning assistance for local governments in order to create local expertise and action; including a statewide workshop for local officials, and the formulation of two specific community resource development

  11. 2012 geothermal energy congress. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    ); (15) GEOGRUND*: Transfer of the TCS process into the borehole (David Sauer); (16) 'Heat-in-place-density' - An example for the evaluation of the geothermal potential in Saarland (Hagen Deckert); (17) Experiences of the acidity stimulation of geothermal aquifers and plants (Markus Wolfgramm); (18) Geothermal Atlas for the depiction of possible utilization competitions between CCS and deep geothermy - Methodology and results (E. Suchi); (19) Development of a cooling system for geothermal bore hole probes (Benedict Holbein); (20) Geothermal energy in the context of international radiation protection recommendations (Sebastian Feige); (21) Innovative treatment of groundwater as a condition of an efficient air conditioning in buildings by utilization of near-surface geothermal energy (C. Meyer); (22) Preparation of planning maps for the utilization of near-surface geothermal energy with geo-physical methods (Reinhard Kirsch); (23) Deep geothermal probe Heubach - Progress of the project and facility planning by using an application example (David Kuntz); (24) Realistic numeric models for the simulation of potential geothermal reservoirs in the north-west German basin (Dorothea Reyer); (25) Monobore tracer test sensitivity compared with crack parameters and rock parameter: Lection Horstberg (Iulia Ghergut); (26) Infrastructure of fault zones in red sandstone of the Upper Rhine basin - Digestion analogue studies (Johanna F. Bauer); (27) Characterization of fault zones in shell limestone of the Upper Rhine basin - Digestion analogue studies (Silke Meier).

  12. [On Atomic Nuclear Fusion Processes at Low-Temperatures. An Enhancement of the Probability of Transition through a Potential Barrier Due to the So-Called Barrier Anti-Zeno Effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiot, V A

    2016-01-01

    It is known that in quantum mechanics the act of observing the experiment can affect the experimental findings in some cases. In particular, it happens under the so-called Zeno effect. In this work it is shown that in contrast to the "standard" Zeno-effect where the act of observing a process reduces the probability of its reality, an inverse situation when a particle transmits through a potential barrier (a so-called barrier anti-Zeno effect) can be observed, the observation of the particle essentially increases the probability of its transmission through the barrier. The possibility of using the barrier anti-Zeno effect is discussed to explain paradoxical results of experiments on "cold nuclear fusion" observed in various systems including biological ones. (According to the observers who performed the observations, the energy generation, which could not be explained by any chemical processes, as well as the change in the isotope and even element composition of the studied object may occur in these systems.

  13. Geothermal areas as analogues to chemical processes in the near-field and altered zone of the potential Yucca Mountain, Nevada repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruton, C.J.; Glassley, W.E.; Meike, A.

    1995-02-01

    The need to bound system performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository for thousands of years after emplacement of high-level nuclear waste requires the use of computer codes. The use of such codes to produce reliable bounds over such long time periods must be tested using long-lived natural and historical systems as analogues. The geothermal systems of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in New Zealand were selected as the site most amenable to study. The rocks of the TVZ are silicic volcanics that are similar in composition to Yucca Mountain. The area has been subjected to temperatures of 25 to 300 C which have produced a variety of secondary minerals similar to those anticipated at Yucca Mountain. The availability of rocks, fluids and fabricated materials for sampling is excellent because of widespread exploitation of the systems for geothermal power. Current work has focused on testing the ability of the EQ3/6 code and thermodynamic data base to describe mineral-fluid relations at elevated temperatures. Welfare starting long-term dissolution/corrosion tests of rocks, minerals and manufactured materials in natural thermal features in order to compare laboratory rates with field-derived rates. Available field data on rates of silica precipitation from heated fluids have been analyzed and compared to laboratory rates. New sets of precipitation experiments are being planned. The microbially influenced degradation of concrete in the Broadlands-Ohaaki geothermal field is being characterized. The authors will continue to work on these projects in FY 1996 and expand to include the study of naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclides, as a prelude to studying radionuclide migration in heated silicic volcanic rocks. 32 refs

  14. Monitoring the hydrologic system for potential effects of geothermal and ground-water development in the Long Valley Caldera, Mono County, California, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, C.D.; Lyster, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    In the early 1980's, renewed interest in the geothermal potential of the Long valley caldera, California, highlighted the need to balance the benefits of energy development with the established recreational activities of the area. The Long Valley Hydrologic Advisory Committee, formed in 1987, instituted a monitoring program to collect data during the early stages of resource utilization to evaluate potential effects on the hydrologic system. This paper reports that early data show declines in streamflow, spring flow, and ground-water levels caused by 6 years of below-average precipitation. Springs in the Hot Creek State Fish Hatchery area discharge water that is a mixture of nonthermal and hydrothermal components. Possible sources of nonthermal water have been identified by comparing deuterium concentrations in streams and springs. The equivalent amount of undiluted thermal water discharged from the springs was calculated on the basis of boron and chloride concentrations. Quantifying the thermal and nonthermal fractions of the total flow may allow researchers to assess changes in flow volume or temperature of the springs caused by ground-water or geothermal development

  15. Geothermal Permeability Enhancement - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Beall; Mark Walters

    2009-06-30

    The overall objective is to apply known permeability enhancement techniques to reduce the number of wells needed and demonstrate the applicability of the techniques to other undeveloped or under-developed fields. The Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) concept presented in this project enhances energy extraction from reduced permeability zones in the super-heated, vapor-dominated Aidlin Field of the The Geysers geothermal reservoir. Numerous geothermal reservoirs worldwide, over a wide temperature range, contain zones of low permeability which limit the development potential and the efficient recovery of heat from these reservoirs. Low permeability results from poorly connected fractures or the lack of fractures. The Enhanced Geothermal System concept presented here expands these technologies by applying and evaluating them in a systematic, integrated program.

  16. Geothermal power development in Hawaii. Volume I. Review and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    The history of geothermal exploration in Hawaii is reviewed briefly. The nature and occurrences of geothermal resources are presented island by island. An overview of geothermal markets is presented. Other topies covered are: potential markets of the identified geothermal areas, well drilling technology, hydrothermal fluid transport, overland and submarine electrical transmission, community aspects of geothermal development, legal and policy issues associated with mineral and land ownership, logistics and infrastructure, legislation and permitting, land use controls, Regulation 8, Public Utilities Commission, political climate and environment, state plans, county plans, geothermal development risks, and business planning guidelines.

  17. Geothermal ORC Systems Using Large Screw Expanders

    OpenAIRE

    Biederman, Tim R.; Brasz, Joost J.

    2014-01-01

    Geothermal ORC Systems using Large Screw Expanders Tim Biederman Cyrq Energy Abstract This paper describes a low-temperature Organic Rankine Cycle Power Recovery system with a screw expander a derivative of developed of Kaishan's line of screw compressors, as its power unit. The screw expander design is a modified version of its existing refrigeration compressor used on water-cooled chillers. Starting the ORC development program with existing refrigeration screw compre...

  18. 2014 Annual Report, Geothermal Technologies Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-03-01

    In 2014, the Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) made significant gains—increased budgets, new projects, key technology successes, and new staff. The Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 budget is at $55 million—roughly a 20% increase over FY 2014, and a strong vote of confidence in what the sector is doing to advance economically competitive renewable energy. GTO also remains committed to a balanced portfolio, which includes new hydrothermal development, EGS, and targeted opportunities in the low-temperature sector.

  19. Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating at Low Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Jabbar, Mohammed Hussain

    An important issue that has limited the potential of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) for portable applications is its high operating temperatures (800-1000 ºC). Lowering the operating temperature of SOFCs to 400-600 ºC enable a wider material selection, reduced degradation and increased lifetime....... On the other hand, low-temperature operation poses serious challenges to the electrode performance. Effective catalysts, redox stable electrodes with improved microstructures are the prime requisite for the development of efficient SOFC anodes. The performance of Nb-doped SrT iO3 (STN) ceramic anodes...... at 400ºC. The potential of using WO3 ceramic as an alternative anode materials has been explored. The relatively high electrode polarization resistance obtained, 11 Ohm cm2 at 600 ºC, proved the inadequate catalytic activity of this system for hydrogen oxidation. At the end of this thesis...

  20. Geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparovic, N

    1962-07-01

    Live steam, transformed steam, and steam produced by expansion flashing are outlined with respect to their use in the production of electricity. The capacity, pressure, and temperature of a steam must be determined empirically by exploratory drilling. These factors are dependent on time and on the extent of nearby drilling-activity. Particulars of geothermal-steam power-plants such as steam dryness, hot-water flashing, condensation, gas extraction, and corrosion are discussed in detail. All available data (as per 1962) concerning the costs of operation and construction of geothermal power plants are tabulated. For space-heating purposes, two basic systems are utilized. When little corrosion or precipitation is expected, an open system is used, otherwise, closed systems are necessary. The space-heating system of Reykjavik, Iceland is cited as an example. A brief description of industrial applications of geothermal energy, such as the extraction of NaCl, D/sub 2/O, or boric acid, is provided. Thirty-two references are given.

  1. Composite Materials for Low-Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Composite materials with improved thermal conductivity and good mechanical strength properties should allow for the design and construction of more thermally efficient components (such as pipes and valves) for use in fluid-processing systems. These materials should have wide application in any number of systems, including ground support equipment (GSE), lunar systems, and flight hardware that need reduced heat transfer. Researchers from the Polymer Science and Technology Laboratory and the Cryogenics Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center were able to develop a new series of composite materials that can meet NASA's needs for lightweight materials/composites for use in fluid systems and also expand the plastic-additive markets. With respect to thermal conductivity and physical properties, these materials are excellent alternatives to prior composite materials and can be used in the aerospace, automotive, military, electronics, food-packaging, and textile markets. One specific application of the polymeric composition is for use in tanks, pipes, valves, structural supports, and components for hot or cold fluid-processing systems where heat flow through materials is a problem to be avoided. These materials can also substitute for metals in cryogenic and other low-temperature applications. These organic/inorganic polymeric composite materials were invented with significant reduction in heat transfer properties. Decreases of 20 to 50 percent in thermal conductivity versus that of the unmodified polymer matrix were measured. These novel composite materials also maintain mechanical properties of the unmodified polymer matrix. These composite materials consist of an inorganic additive combined with a thermoplastic polymer material. The intrinsic, low thermal conductivity of the additive is imparted into the thermoplastic, resulting in a significant reduction in heat transfer over that of the base polymer itself, yet maintaining most of the polymer's original properties. Normal

  2. Assessment of Geothermal Resource Potential at a High-Priority Area on the Utah Testing and Training Range–South (UTTR–S)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard P. Smith, PhD., PG; Robert P. Breckenridge, PhD.; Thomas R. Wood, PhD.

    2012-04-01

    beneath the graben in areas with temperatures as high as 140 C (284 F). In conclusion, all of the field data collected during 2011 and documented in the Appendices of this report indicate that there is reasonable potential for a viable geothermal resource along faults that bound the Wendover graben. Prospects for a system capable of binary electrical generation are especially good, and the possibility of a flash steam system is also within reason. The next steps should focus on securing the necessary funding for detailed geophysical surveys and for drilling a set of temperature gradient wells to further evaluate the resource, and to focus deep exploration efforts in the most promising areas.

  3. The Springhill Formation (Jurassic-Cretaceous) as a potential low enthalpy geothermal reservoir in the Cerro Sombrero area, Magallanes Basin, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarrigue, S. C.; Elgueta, S.; Arancibia, G.; Morata, D.; Sanchez, J.; Rojas, L.

    2017-12-01

    Low enthalpy geothermal energy technologies are being developed around the world as part of policies to replace the use of conventional sources of energy by renewable ones. The reuse of abandoned oil and gas wells in sedimentary basins, whose reservoirs are saturated with water at temperatures above 120°C, is of increasing interest due to the low initial cost.In Chile, interest in applying this technology is focused on the Magallanes Basin (Austral Basin in Argentina) in the extreme south of the country, where important hydrocarbon deposits have been exploited for more than six decades with more than 3,500 wells drilled to depths of over 4,000m. Hydrocarbons have been extracted mainly from the Upper Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous Springhill Formation, which includes sandstone lithofacies with porosities of 12% to 19% and permeability of 10mD and 1100mD. This formation has been drilled mainly at depths of 1500m to 3000m, the estimated geothermal gradient in the zone is 4.9 °C/100m with well bottom temperature measurements oscillating between 60° and 170°C, sufficient for district heating, and even, electricity generation by means of ORC technologies.To understand in detail the behavior and distribution of the different lithofacies of the Springhill Formation in the Sombrero Oil and Gas Field, sedimentological and geological 3D models have been generated from existing well logs and seismic data. To comprehend the quality of the reservoirs on the other hand, many petrophysical studies of drill core samples representative of the different lithofacies, complemented by electric well log interpretations, were carried out. Results confirm the existence of at least two quartz-rich sandstone lithofacies as potential geothermal reservoirs. In the principal settlement in this area, Cerro Sombrero township (1,800 population), the annual average temperature is 6.4°C, requiring constant domestic heating which, at present comes exclusively from natural gas. The study shows

  4. Geothermal Program Review XII: proceedings. Geothermal Energy and the President's Climate Change Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-31

    Geothermal Program Review XII, sponsored by the Geothermal Division of US Department of Energy, was held April 25--28, 1994, in San Francisco, California. This annual conference is designed to promote effective technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal energy developers; suppliers of geothermal goods and services; representatives from federal, state, and local agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. In-depth reviews of the latest technological advancements and research results are presented during the conference with emphasis on those topics considered to have the greatest potential to impact the near-term commercial development of geothermal energy.

  5. The National Geothermal Energy Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The continuous demand for energy and the concern for shortages of conventional energy resources have spurred the nation to consider alternate energy resources, such as geothermal. Although significant growth in the one natural steam field located in the United States has occurred, a major effort is now needed if geothermal energy, in its several forms, is to contribute to the nation's energy supplies. From the early informal efforts of an Interagency Panel for Geothermal Energy Research, a 5-year Federal program has evolved whose objective is the rapid development of a commercial industry for the utilization of geothermal resources for electric power production and other products. The Federal program seeks to evaluate the realistic potential of geothermal energy, to support the necessary research and technology needed to demonstrate the economic and environmental feasibility of the several types of geothermal resources, and to address the legal and institutional problems concerned in the stimulation and regulation of this new industry.

  6. Geothermal development and policy in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datuin, R.; Roxas, F.

    1990-01-01

    The Philippines is the second largest geothermal energy producer in the world although its geothermal energy potential has barely been utilized. Out of an estimated total reserves of 8,000 MW, only about 11 percent or 894 MW are currently on stream for power generation. The electricity production from geothermal steam registered a growth of 8.9 percent from 1988 to 1989, one of the highest among local energy sources. During that same period, geothermal energy rated the highest capacity utilization of 67 percent compared to the average system capacity utilization of 43 percent. This paper describes both the use of geothermal energy and government policies concerning geothermal energy in the Philippines

  7. Calorimetric low temperature detectors for heavy ion physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egelhof, P.; Kraft-Bermuth, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2005-05-01

    Calorimetric low temperature detectors have the potential to become powerful tools for applications in many fields of heavy ion physics. A brief overview of heavy ion physics at present and at the next generation heavy ion facilities is given with a special emphasis on the conditions for heavy ion detection and the potential advantage of cryogenic detectors for applications in heavy ion physics. Two types of calorimetric low temperature detectors for the detection of energetic heavy ions have been developed and their response to the impact of heavy ions was investigated systematically for a wide range of energies (E=0.1-360 MeV/amu) and ion species ({sup 4}He.. {sup 238}U). Excellent results with respect to energy resolution, {delta}E/E ranging from 1 to 5 x 10{sup -3} even for the heaviest ions, and other basic detector properties such as energy linearity with no indication of a pulse height defect, energy threshold, detection efficiency and radiation hardness have been obtained, representing a considerable improvement as compared to conventional heavy ion detectors based on ionization. With the achieved performance, calorimetric low temperature detectors bear a large potential for applications in various fields of basic and applied heavy ion research. A brief overview of a few prominent examples, such as high resolution nuclear spectroscopy, high resolution nuclear mass determination, which may be favourably used for identification of superheavy elements or in direct reaction experiments with radioactive beams, as well as background discrimination in accelerator mass spectrometry, is given, and first results are presented. For instance, the use of cryogenic detectors allowed to improve the sensitivity in trace analysis of {sup 236}U by one order of magnitude and to determine the up to date smallest isotope ratio of {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U = 6.1 x 10{sup -12} in a sample of natural uranium. Besides the detection of heavy ions, the concept of cryogenic detectors also

  8. Calorimetric low temperature detectors for heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egelhof, P.; Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Mainz Univ.

    2005-07-01

    Calorimetric low temperature detectors have the potential to become powerful tools for applications in many fields of heavy ion physics. A brief overview of heavy ion physics at present and at the next generation heavy ion facilities is given with a special emphasis on the conditions for heavy ion detection and the potential advantage of cryogenic detectors for applications in heavy ion physics. Two types of calorimetric low temperature detectors for the detection of energetic heavy ions have been developed and their response to the impact of heavy ions was investigated systematically for a wide range of energies (E=0.1-360 MeV/amu) and ion species ( 4 He.. 238 U). Excellent results with respect to energy resolution, ΔE/E ranging from 1 to 5 x 10 -3 even for the heaviest ions, and other basic detector properties such as energy linearity with no indication of a pulse height defect, energy threshold, detection efficiency and radiation hardness have been obtained, representing a considerable improvement as compared to conventional heavy ion detectors based on ionization. With the achieved performance, calorimetric low temperature detectors bear a large potential for applications in various fields of basic and applied heavy ion research. A brief overview of a few prominent examples, such as high resolution nuclear spectroscopy, high resolution nuclear mass determination, which may be favourably used for identification of superheavy elements or in direct reaction experiments with radioactive beams, as well as background discrimination in accelerator mass spectrometry, is given, and first results are presented. For instance, the use of cryogenic detectors allowed to improve the sensitivity in trace analysis of 236 U by one order of magnitude and to determine the up to date smallest isotope ratio of 236 U/ 238 U = 6.1 x 10 -12 in a sample of natural uranium. Besides the detection of heavy ions, the concept of cryogenic detectors also provides considerable advantage for X

  9. Geothermal progress monitor: Report No. 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    DOE is particularly concerned with reducing the costs of geothermal power generation, especially with the abundant moderate to low-temperature resources in the US. This concern is reflected in DOE`s support of a number of energy conversion projects. Projects which focus on the costs and performance of binary cycle technology include a commercial demonstration of supersaturated turbine expansions, which earlier studies have indicated could increase the power produced per pound of fluid. Other binary cycle projects include evaluations of the performance of various working fluid mixtures and the development and testing of advanced heat rejection systems which are desperately needed in water-short geothermal areas. DOE is also investigating the applicability of flash steam technology to low-temperature resources, as an economic alternative to binary cycle systems. A low-cost, low-pressure steam turbine, selected for a grant, will be constructed to utilize fluid discharged from a flash steam plant in Nevada. Another project addresses the efficiency of high-temperature flash plants with a demonstration of the performance of the Biphase turbine which may increase the power output of such installations with no increase in fluid flow. Perhaps the most noteworthy feature of this issue of the GPM, the 17th since its inception in 1980, is the high degree of industry participation in federally-sponsored geothermal research and development. This report describes geothermal development activities.

  10. Technology assessment of geothermal energy resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-04-15

    Geothermal state-of-the-art is described including geothermal resources, technology, and institutional, legal, and environmental considerations. The way geothermal energy may evolve in the United States is described; a series of plausible scenarios and the factors and policies which control the rate of growth of the resource are presented. The potential primary and higher order impacts of geothermal energy are explored, including effects on the economy and society, cities and dwellings, environmental, and on institutions affected by it. Numerical and methodological detail is included in appendices. (MHR)

  11. Geothermal heat; Energie aus der Tiefe. Geothermie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Karl

    2012-09-15

    The temperature in the interior of the earth increases with the depth. But for a long time, the geothermal energy only could be used at selected locations. Therefore, almost all major geothermal power plants are located at volcanic regions. The potential of the geothermal energy is not exhausted. Currently, many new power plants are developed. Although there is no volcanic activity in Germany, also some pilot plants develop the hot surface. The deep geothermal energy sometimes is difficult to be controlled. Before drilling experts rarely know how productive the subsoil is. Also, the drillings may trigger small earthquakes.

  12. Characterization of the LiSi/CsBr-LiBr-KBr/FeS(2) System for Potential Use as a Geothermal Borehole Power Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GUIDOTTI, RONALD A.; REINHARDT, FREDERICK W.

    1999-01-01

    We are continuing to study the suitability of modified thermal-battery technology as a potential power source for geothermal borehole applications. Previous work focused on the LiSi/FeS(sub 2) couple over a temperature range of 350 C to 400 C with the LiBr-KBr-LiF eutectic, which melts at 324.5 C. In this work, the discharge processes that take place in LiSi/CsBr-LiBr-KBr eutectic/FeS(sub 2) thermal cells were studied at temperatures between 250 C and 400 C using pelletized cells with immobilized electrolyte. The CsBr-LiBr-KBr eutectic was selected because of its lower melting point (228.5 C). Incorporation of a quasi-reference electrode allowed the determination of the relative contribution of each electrode to the overall cell polarization. The results of single-cell tests and limited battery tests are presented, along with preliminary data for battery stacks tested in a simulated geothermal borehole environment

  13. Calculation of total free energy yield as an alternative approach for predicting the importance of potential chemolithotrophic reactions in geothermal springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodsworth, Jeremy A; McDonald, Austin I; Hedlund, Brian P

    2012-08-01

    To inform hypotheses regarding the relative importance of chemolithotrophic metabolisms in geothermal environments, we calculated free energy yields of 26 chemical reactions potentially supporting chemolithotrophy in two US Great Basin hot springs, taking into account the effects of changing reactant and product activities on the Gibbs free energy as each reaction progressed. Results ranged from 1.2 × 10(-5) to 3.6 J kg(-1) spring water, or 3.7 × 10(-5) to 11.5 J s(-1) based on measured flow rates, with aerobic oxidation of CH(4) or NH4 + giving the highest average yields. Energy yields calculated without constraining pH were similar to those at constant pH except for reactions where H(+) was consumed, which often had significantly lower yields when pH was unconstrained. In contrast to the commonly used normalization of reaction chemical affinities per mole of electrons transferred, reaction energy yields for a given oxidant varied by several orders of magnitude and were more sensitive to differences in the activities of products and reactants. The high energy yield of aerobic ammonia oxidation is consistent with previous observations of significant ammonia oxidation rates and abundant ammonia-oxidizing archaea in sediments of these springs. This approach offers an additional lens through which to view the thermodynamic landscape of geothermal springs. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Magnetotelluric Studies for Hydrocarbon and Geothermal Resources: Examples from the Asian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Prasanta K.

    2017-09-01

    Magnetotellurics (MT) and the other related electrical and electromagnetic methods play a very useful role in resource exploration. This review paper presents the current scenario of application of MT in the exploration for hydrocarbons and geothermal resources in Asia. While seismics is the most preferred method in oil exploration, it is, however, beset with several limitations in the case of sedimentary targets overlain by basalts or evaporate/carbonate rocks where the high-velocity layers overlying the lower velocity layers pose a problem. In such cases, MT plays an important and, in some cases, a crucial role in mapping these potential reservoirs because of significant resistivity contrast generally observed between the basalts and the underlying sedimentary layers. A few case histories are presented that typically illustrate the role of MT in this context. In the case of geothermal exploration, MT is known to be highly effective in deciphering the target areas because of the conductivity structures arising from the presence and circulation of highly conductive fluids in the geothermal target areas. A few examples of MT studies carried out in some of the potential areas of geothermal significance in the Asian region are also discussed. While it is a relatively favorable situation for application of EM and MT methods in the case of exploration of the high-enthalpy region due to the development of well-defined conceptual models, still the low-enthalpy regions need to be understood well, particularly because of more complex structural patterns and the fluid circulation under relatively low-temperature conditions. Currently, a lot of modeling in both geothermal and hydrocarbon exploration is being done using three-dimensional techniques, and it is the right time to go for integration and three-dimensional joint inversion of the geophysical parameters such as resistivity, velocity, density, from MT, electromagnetics (EM), seismics and gravity.

  15. Low temperature conversion of plastic waste into light hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Sajid Hussain; Khan, Zahid Mahmood; Raja, Iftikhar Ahmad; Mahmood, Qaisar; Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Khan, Jamil; Farooq, Ather; Rashid, Naim; Wu, Donglei

    2010-01-01

    Advance recycling through pyrolytic technology has the potential of being applied to the management of plastic waste (PW). For this purpose 1 l volume, energy efficient batch reactor was manufactured locally and tested for pyrolysis of waste plastic. The feedstock for reactor was 50 g waste polyethylene. The average yield of the pyrolytic oil, wax, pyrogas and char from pyrolysis of PW were 48.6, 40.7, 10.1 and 0.6%, respectively, at 275 deg. C with non-catalytic process. Using catalyst the average yields of pyrolytic oil, pyrogas, wax and residue (char) of 50 g of PW was 47.98, 35.43, 16.09 and 0.50%, respectively, at operating temperature of 250 deg. C. The designed reactor could work at low temperature in the absence of a catalyst to obtain similar products as for a catalytic process.

  16. Low-Temperature Solution Processable Electrodes for Piezoelectric Sensors Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuukkanen, Sampo; Julin, Tuomas; Rantanen, Ville; Zakrzewski, Mari; Moilanen, Pasi; Lupo, Donald

    2013-05-01

    Piezoelectric thin-film sensors are suitable for a wide range of applications from physiological measurements to industrial monitoring systems. The use of flexible materials in combination with high-throughput printing technologies enables cost-effective manufacturing of custom-designed, highly integratable piezoelectric sensors. This type of sensor can, for instance, improve industrial process control or enable the embedding of ubiquitous sensors in our living environment to improve quality of life. Here, we discuss the benefits, challenges and potential applications of piezoelectric thin-film sensors. The piezoelectric sensor elements are fabricated by printing electrodes on both sides of unmetallized poly(vinylidene fluoride) film. We show that materials which are solution processable in low temperatures, biocompatible and environmental friendly are suitable for use as electrode materials in piezoelectric sensors.

  17. The Future of Low Temperature Germanium as Dark Matter Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    The Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMPs) represent one of the most attractive candidates for the dark matter in the universe. With the combination of experiments attempting to detect WIMP scattering in the laboratory, of searches for their annihilation in the cosmos and of their potential production at the LHC, the next five years promise to be transformative. I will review the role played so far by low temperature germanium detectors in the direct detection of WIMPs. Because of its high signal to noise ratio, the simultaneous measurement of athermal phonons and ionization is so far the only demonstrated approach with zero-background. I will argue that this technology can be extrapolated to a target mass of the order of a tonne at reasonable cost and can keep playing a leading role, complementary to noble liquid technologies. I will describe in particular GEODM, the proposed Germanium Observatory for Dark Matter at the US Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL).

  18. Magnetic resonance studies of atomic hydrogen gas at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, W.N.; Morrow, M.; Jochemsen, R.; Statt, B.W.; Kubik, P.R.; Marsolais, R.M.; Berlinsky, A.J.; Landesman, A.

    1980-01-01

    Using a pulsed low temperature discharge in a closed cell containing H 2 and 4 He, we have been able to store a low density (approximately 10 12 atoms/cc) gas of atomic hydrogen for periods of order one hour in zero magnetic field and T=1 K. Pulsed magnetic resonance at the 1420 MHz hyperfine transition has been used to study a number of the properties of the gas, including the recombination rate H + H + 4 He→H 2 + 4 He, the hydrogen spin-exchange relaxation rates, the diffusion coefficient of H in 4 He gas and the pressure shift of the hyperfine frequency due to the 4 He buffer gas. Here we discuss the application of hyperfine frequency shifts as a probe of the H-He potential, and as a means for determining the binding energy of H on liquid helium

  19. Geothermal in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the current market for geothermal projects in the US and overseas. The topics of the article include future capacity needs, upgrading the Coso Geothermal project, the productivity of the Geysers area of Northern California, the future of geothermal, and new projects at Soda Lake, Carson Basin, Unalaska Island, and the Puna Geothermal Venture in Hilo, Hawaii

  20. Quantum Simulations of Low Temperature High Energy Density Matter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Voth, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    .... Using classical molecular dynamics simulations to evaluate these equilibrium properties would predict qualitatively incorrect results for low temperature solid hydrogen, because of the highly quantum...

  1. Containment test in area of high latitude and low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jiantao; Ni Yongsheng; Jia Wutong

    2014-01-01

    The effects of high latitude and low temperature on containment test are detailed analyzed from the view of design, equipment, construct and start-up, and the solution is put forward. The major problems resolved is as below: the effects of low temperature and high wind on defect inspection of the containment surface, the effects of test load on the affiliated equipment of containment in the condition of low temperature, and the effects of low temperature on the containment leak rate measurement. Application in Hongyanhe Unit 1 showed that the proposed scheme can effectively overcome the influence of adverse weather on the containment test. (authors)

  2. Geothermal Modesty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This publication of the Areva Group, a world nuclear industry leader, provides information on the energy in many domains. This issue deals with the uses for radioactivity, the future of the green electricity, the energy policy of Rhone-alps region, the end of the nuclear in Belgium, the nuclear propulsion to explore the solar system, the involvement of the Unites States in the hydrogen development, the gas exportation of China. A special part is devoted to the possibility of the geothermal energy. (A.L.B.)

  3. Environmental overview of geothermal development: northern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slemmons, D.B.; Stroh, J.M.; Whitney, R.A. (eds.)

    1980-08-01

    Regional environmental problems and issues associated with geothermal development in northern Nevada are studied to facilitate environmental assessment of potential geothermal resources. The various issues discussed are: environmental geology, seismicity of northern Nevada, hydrology and water quality, air quality, Nevada ecosystems, noise effects, socio-economic impacts, and cultural resources and archeological values. (MHR)

  4. Preservation of Microbial Lipids in Geothermal Sinters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaur, G.; Mountain, B.W.; Hopmans, E.C.; Pancost, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Lipid biomarkers are widely used to study the earliest life on Earth and have been invoked as potential astrobiological markers, but few studies have assessed their survival and persistence in geothermal settings. Here, we investigate lipid preservation in active and inactive geothermal silica

  5. Uncertainty analysis of geothermal energy economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Adil Caner

    This dissertation research endeavors to explore geothermal energy economics by assessing and quantifying the uncertainties associated with the nature of geothermal energy and energy investments overall. The study introduces a stochastic geothermal cost model and a valuation approach for different geothermal power plant development scenarios. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is employed to obtain probability distributions of geothermal energy development costs and project net present values. In the study a stochastic cost model with incorporated dependence structure is defined and compared with the model where random variables are modeled as independent inputs. One of the goals of the study is to attempt to shed light on the long-standing modeling problem of dependence modeling between random input variables. The dependence between random input variables will be modeled by employing the method of copulas. The study focuses on four main types of geothermal power generation technologies and introduces a stochastic levelized cost model for each technology. Moreover, we also compare the levelized costs of natural gas combined cycle and coal-fired power plants with geothermal power plants. The input data used in the model relies on the cost data recently reported by government agencies and non-profit organizations, such as the Department of Energy, National Laboratories, California Energy Commission and Geothermal Energy Association. The second part of the study introduces the stochastic discounted cash flow valuation model for the geothermal technologies analyzed in the first phase. In this phase of the study, the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) software was used to forecast the revenue streams of geothermal assets under different price and regulation scenarios. These results are then combined to create a stochastic revenue forecast of the power plants. The uncertainties in gas prices and environmental regulations will be modeled and their potential impacts will be

  6. Reappraisal of Los Humeros Volcanic Complex by New U/Th Zircon and 40Ar/39Ar Dating: Implications for Greater Geothermal Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Núñez, G.; Bernal, J. P.; Dávila, P.; Jicha, B.; Giordano, G.; Hernández, J.

    2018-01-01

    Longevity and size of magmatic systems are fundamental factors for assessing the potential of a geothermal field. At Los Humeros volcanic complex (LHVC), the first caldera-forming event was reported at 460 ± 40 ka. New zircon U/Th and plagioclase 40Ar/39Ar dates of pre-, syn- and postcaldera volcanics allow a reappraisal of the evolution of the geothermally active LHVC. The age of the voluminous Xaltipan ignimbrite (115 km3 dense rock equivalent [DRE]) associated with the formation of the Los Humeros caldera is now constrained by two geochronometers (zircon U/Th and plagioclase 40Ar/39Ar dating) to 164 ± 4.2 ka, which postdates a long episode of precaldera volcanism (rhyolitic domes), the oldest age of which is 693.0 ± 1.9 ka (40Ar/39Ar). The inferred short residence time (around 5 ka) for the paroxysmal Xaltipan ignimbrite is indicative of rapid assembly of a large magma body and rejuvenation of the system due to recurrent recharge magmas, as it has been occurred in some other large magmatic systems. Younger ages than previously believed have been obtained also for the other voluminous explosive phases of the Faby fall tuff at ˜70 ka and the second caldera-forming Zaragoza ignimbrite with 15 km3 DRE, which erupted immediately after. Thus, the time interval that separates the two caldera-forming episodes at Los Humeros is only 94 kyr, which is a much shorter interval than suggested by previous K-Ar dates (410 kyr). This temporal proximity allows us to propose a caldera stage encompassing the Xaltipan and the Zaragoza ignimbrites, followed by emplacement at 44.8 ± 1.7 ka of rhyolitic magmas interpreted to represent a postcaldera, resurgent stage. Rhyolitic eruptions have also occurred during the Holocene (˜1,200 km3) and these new ages indicating much younger caldera-forming volcanism than previously believed are fundamental factors in the application of classical conductive models of heat resource, enhancing the heat production capacity and favor a higher

  7. Geothermal Money Book [Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2004-02-01

    Small business lending is big business and growing. Loans under $1 million totaled $460 billion in June 2001, up $23 billion from 2000. The number of loans under $100,000 continued to grow at a rapid rate, growing by 10.1%. The dollar value of loans under $100,000 increased 4.4%; those of $100,000-$250,000 by 4.1%; and those between $250,000 and $1 million by 6.4%. But getting a loan can be difficult if a business owner does not know how to find small business-friendly lenders, how to best approach them, and the specific criteria they use to evaluate a loan application. This is where the Geothermal Money Book comes in. Once a business and financing plan and financial proposal are written, the Geothermal Money Book takes the next step, helping small geothermal businesses locate and obtain financing. The Geothermal Money Book will: Explain the specific criteria potential financing sources use to evaluate a proposal for debt financing; Describe the Small Business Administration's (SBA) programs to promote lending to small businesses; List specific small-business friendly lenders for small geothermal businesses, including those which participate in SBA programs; Identify federal and state incentives which are relevant to direct use and small-scale (< 1 megawatt) power generation geothermal projects; and Provide an extensive state directory of financing sources and state financial incentives for the 19 states involved in the GeoPowering the West (GPW). GPW is a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored activity to dramatically increase the use of geothermal energy in the western United States by promoting environmentally compatible heat and power, along with industrial growth and economic development. The Geothermal Money Book will not: Substitute for financial advice; Overcome the high exploration, development, and financing costs associated with smaller geothermal projects; Remedy the lack of financing for the exploration stage of a geothermal project; or Solve

  8. Nanostructural studies on monoelaidin-water systems at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Chandrashekhar V

    2011-10-04

    In recent years, lipid based nanostructures have increasingly been used as model membranes to study various complex biological processes. For better understanding of such phenomena, it is essential to gain as much information as possible for model lipid structures under physiological conditions. In this paper, we focus on one of such lipids--monoelaidin (ME)--for its polymorphic nanostructures under varying conditions of temperature and water content. In the recent contribution (Soft Matter, 2010, 6, 3191), we have reported the phase diagram of ME above 30 °C and compared with the phase behavior of other lipids including monoolein (MO), monovaccenin (MV), and monolinolein (ML). Remarkable phase behavior of ME, stabilizing three bicontinuous cubic phases, motivates its study at low temperatures. Current studies concentrate on the low-temperature (ME and subsequent reconstruction of its phase diagram over the entire temperature-water composition space (temperature, 0-76 °C; and water content, 0-70%). The polymorphs found for the monoelaidin-water system include three bicontinuous cubic phases, i.e., Ia3d, Pn3m, and Im3m, and lamellar phases which exhibit two crystalline (L(c1) and L(c0)), two gel (L(β) and L(β*)), and a fluid lamellar (L(α)) states. The fluid isotropic phase (L(2)) was observed only for lower hydrations (<20%), whereas hexagonal phase (H(2)) was not found under studied conditions. Nanostructural parameters of these phases as a function of temperature and water content are presented together with some molecular level calculations. This study might be crucial for perception of the lyotropic phase behavior as well as for designing nanostructural assemblies for potential applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. Analysis of Low Temperature Organic Rankine Cycles for Solar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunfei

    The present work focuses on Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) systems and their application to low temperature waste heat recovery, combined heat and power as well as off-grid solar power generation applications. As CO_2 issues come to the fore front and fossil fuels become more expensive, interest in low grade heat recovery has grown dramatically in the past few years. Solar energy, as a clean, renewable, pollution-free and sustainable energy has great potential for the use of ORC systems. Several ORC solutions have been proposed to generate electricity from low temperature sources. The ORC systems discussed here can be applied to fields such as solar thermal, biological waste heat, engine exhaust gases, small-scale cogeneration, domestic boilers, etc. The current work presents a thermodynamic and economic analysis for the use of ORC systems to convert solar energy or low exergy energy to generate electrical power. The organic working fluids investigated here were selected to investigate the effect of the fluid saturation temperature on the performance of ORCs. The working fluids under investigation are R113, R245fa, R123, with boiling points between 40°C and 200°C at pressures from 10 kPa to 10 MPa. Ambient temperature air at 20oC to 30oC is utilized as cooling resource, and allowing for a temperature difference 10°C for effective heat transfer. Consequently, the working fluids are condensed at 40°C. A combined first- and second-law analysis is performed by varying some system independent parameters at various reference temperatures. The present work shows that ORC systems can be viable and economical for the applications such as waste heat use and off-grid power generation even though they are likely to be more expensive than grid power.

  10. Low temperature barrier wellbores formed using water flushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinzie, II; John, Billy [Houston, TX; Keltner, Thomas Joseph [Spring, TX

    2009-03-10

    A method of forming an opening for a low temperature well is described. The method includes drilling an opening in a formation. Water is introduced into the opening to displace drilling fluid or indigenous gas in the formation adjacent to a portion of the opening. Water is produced from the opening. A low temperature fluid is applied to the opening.

  11. Effects of low temperature and drought on the physiological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To find out how oil palm adapts to the environmental conditions, the dynamics of a series of important physiological components derived from the leaves of potted oil palm seedlings under drought stress (DS) (water with holding) and low temperature stress (LTS) (10°C) were studied. The results showed that low temperature ...

  12. Low temperature magnetic structure of MnSe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we report low temperature neutron diffraction studies on MnSe in order to understand the anomalous behaviour of their magnetic and transport prop- erties. Our study indicates that at low temperatures MnSe has two coexisting crystal structures, high temperature NaCl and hexagonal NiAs. NiAs phase ...

  13. Low temperature gaseous surface hardening of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present contribution gives an overview of some of the technological aspects of low temperature thermochemical treatment of stainless steel. Examples of low temperature gaseous nitriding, carburising and nitrocarburising of stainless steel are presented and discussed. In particular......, the morphology, microstructure and characteristics of so-called expanite “layers” on stainless steel are addressed....

  14. Physiological and biochemical responses to low temperature stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cuttings of three hybrid clones of P. ussuriensis × P. deltoides were exposed to different low temperatures (cold and freezing) for 24 h, or consecutive low temperatures (5°C, 0 to 120 h), to determine physiological and biochemical responses to cold stress in these woody plants. Soluble sugar and protein contents increased ...

  15. Culture of Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium Rosenbergii) Using Geothermal Waste Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, William C

    1978-01-01

    The farming of freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in geothermal-heated water has been demonstrated to be feasible in a non-tropical climate. The husbandry of prawns is being done in two outdoor raceway ponds, 9.1 m by 2.5 m and 29 m by 3.5 m that are 1.2 m deep. The ponds are not shielded from the ambient climate which during the winter months has recorded air temperatures as low as -20oC. A selected brood stock is held in a small spawning building where larvae are hatched in artificial saltwater and reared to the post-larvae stage which makes the facility self-supporting. This project is providing a model for potential investors to utilize the low-temperature geothermal resources in the western United States for warm water aquaculture. Zooplankton, macroscopic crusteans, from a local euthrophic lake are being fed to the post-larvae and adult prawns in addition to prepared commercial dry pelleted foods to keep operational costs at a minimum. Initial measurements of growth and weight gains indicate the production of two crops of prawns per year at seven to the pond is possible. No work on intensive culture has been done. Plans to enlarge the facility and do work on developing intensive culture are being considered.

  16. Geothermal alteration of basaltic core from the Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, Christopher J.

    The Snake River Plain is located in the southern part of the state of Idaho. The eastern plain, on which this study focuses, is a trail of volcanics from the Yellowstone hotspot. Three exploratory geothermal wells were drilled on the Snake River Plain. This project analyzes basaltic core from the first well at Kimama, north of Burley, Idaho. The objectives of this project are to establish zones of geothermal alteration and analyze the potential for geothermal power production using sub-aquifer resources on the axial volcanic zone of the Snake River Plain. Thirty samples from 1,912 m of core were sampled and analyzed for clay content and composition using X-ray diffraction. Observations from core samples and geophysical logs are also used to establish alteration zones. Mineralogical data, geophysical log data and physical characteristics of the core suggest that the base of the Snake River Plain aquifer at the axial zone is located 960 m below the surface, much deeper than previously suspected. Swelling smectite clay clogs pore spaces and reduces porosity and permeability to create a natural base to the aquifer. Increased temperatures favor the formation of smectite clay and other secondary minerals to the bottom of the hole. Below 960 m the core shows signs of alteration including color change, formation of clay, and filling of other secondary minerals in vesicles and fractured zones of the core. The smectite clay observed is Fe-rich clay that is authigenic in some places. Geothermal power generation may be feasible using a low temperature hot water geothermal system if thermal fluids can be attained near the bottom of the Kimama well.

  17. Egypt`s potential for geothermal energy use and underground storage of thermal energy; Moeglichkeiten zur Nutzung geothermischer Energie und zur unterirdischen thermischen Energiespeicherung in Aegypten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, A M; Sanner, B; Knoblich, K [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften

    1997-12-01

    Egypt belongs to the arid to extremely arid zone. Hot springs or wells are chiefly distributed over the areas of the Golf of Suez shoreline, along the Red Sea coast and in the Bahariya, Dakhla and Kharga oasis in the Western Desert. The Red Sea with it`s branches into the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba/Jordan valley is the northern end of the East African Rift, which is tectonically active and yields further south known geothermal resources (e.g. in Kenya). Thus, a relatively high het flow zone exists on the eastern border of the Gulf of Suez, on Sinai peninsula. The hot springs of Ayun Musa, Hammam Faraon and El Sokhna are located there. Hammam Faroun is the hottest spring in Egypt with water temperature of approx. 70 C. This paper compiles previous studies from Egypt to elucidate the geothermal potential of Egypt and opportunities to make use of it. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aegypten gehoert zur ariden bis extrem ariden Zone. Heisse Quellen oder erbohrte heisse Waesser finden sich hauptsaechlich entlang der Kueste des Golfs von Suez und des Roten Meeres, sowie in den Oasen Bahariya, Dakhla und Kharga in der westlichen Wueste. Das Rote Meer mit seinen Verzweigungen in den Golf von Suez und in den Golf von Akaba/Jordangraben bildet den noerdlichen Abschluss des Ostafrikanischen Grabensystems, das tektonisch sehr aktiv ist und weiter suedlich (z.B. in Kenia) bekannte geothermische Ressourcen bietet. Eine Zone mit hohem geothermischen Waermefluss befindet sich dementsprechend auch am oestlichen Rand des Golfs von Suez, der zur Halbinsel Sinai gehoehrt. Hier werden die heissen Quellen von Ayun Musa, Hammam Faraon und El Sokhna angetroffen. Hammam Faraon ist die heisseste Quelle Aegyptens mit Wassertemperaturen von etwa 70 C. Die vorliegende Arbeit versucht, einige fruehere Studien aus Aegypten zusammenzufassen und das geothermische Potential Aegyptens mit den Moeglichkeiten seiner Nutzung aufzuzeigen. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation and targeting of geothermal energy resources in the southeastern United States. Final report, May 1, 1976-June 30, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costain, J.K.; Glover, L. III

    1982-01-01

    The objectives of the geothermal program have been to develop and apply geological and geophysical targeting procedures for the discovery of low-temperature geothermal resources related to heat-producing granite. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers comprising the report. (ACR)

  19. Geochemical studies of the geothermal area East of the Jombo Hill intrusion Coast Province. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tole, M.P.

    1985-09-01

    Geothermal resources in Kenya can be classified into two types; (i) High temperature geothermal resources, found within the Kenyan section of Rift Valley System, and (ii) Low temperature geothermal resources found outside the main Rift Valley System (figure 1). The high temperature geothermal resources have received first priority in research and development, and this has culminated in their exploitation at the Olkaria Geothermal Field which currently generates 45 MW of electricity, representing approximately 18% of Kenya's electricity requirements. Further research is directed at opening up electricity generating plants within the Rift Valley Geothermal Systems occuring between Lake Bogoria and Lake Magadi. The low temperature geothermal resources have received less attention in Kenya. In some countries, low temperature geothermal resources have been utilised for a number of domestic and commercial undertakings (table 1), among them (a) space heating (b) recreational baths (c) sugar refining. In china, low temperature (less than 90 o C) geothermal reservoirs have been used to provide energy for electrical generating plants (Reed and Bliss, 1983). An examination of the distribution of the low temperature geothermal sites in Kenya (figure 1) indicates that most of them could be easily utilised for one or more of the domestic and commercial activities mentioned above, by virtue of their location. In order that recommendations regarding the type of use that each of these hotsprings can be put to can be made, proper evaluation of each site must be made: in particular the underground hotwater temperatures as well as the extent of the geothermal field at each site must be evaluated. Geochemical studies provide the cheapest (most cost-effective) method of geothermal energy exploration. The purpose of this project was to determine the extent of the hot zone, as well as the underground reservoir temperatures in the geothermal field North East of the Jomo Hill intrusion

  20. Hydrogen Peroxide Cycling in High-Temperature Acidic Geothermal Springs and Potential Implications for Oxidative Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaux M. Meslé

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, superoxide (O2•-, and hydroxyl radicals (OH• are produced in natural waters via ultraviolet (UV light-induced reactions between dissolved oxygen (O2 and organic carbon, and further reaction of H2O2 and Fe(II (i.e., Fenton chemistry. The temporal and spatial dynamics of H2O2 and other dissolved compounds [Fe(II, Fe(III, H2S, O2] were measured during a diel cycle (dark/light in surface waters of three acidic geothermal springs (Beowulf Spring, One Hundred Springs Plain, and Echinus Geyser Spring; pH = 3–3.5, T = 68–80°C in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park. In situ analyses showed that H2O2 concentrations were lowest (ca. 1 μM in geothermal source waters containing high dissolved sulfide (and where oxygen was below detection and increased by 2-fold (ca. 2–3 μM in oxygenated waters corresponding to Fe(III-oxide mat formation down the water channel. Small increases in dissolved oxygen and H2O2 were observed during peak photon flux, but not consistently across all springs sampled. Iron-oxide microbial mats were sampled for molecular analysis of ROS gene expression in two primary autotrophs of acidic Fe(III-oxide mat ecosystems: Metallosphaera yellowstonensis (Archaea and Hydrogenobaculum sp. (Bacteria. Expression (RT-qPCR assays of specific stress-response genes (e.g., superoxide dismutase, peroxidases of the primary autotrophs were used to evaluate possible changes in transcription across temporal, spatial, and/or seasonal samples. Data presented here documented the presence of H2O2 and general correlation with dissolved oxygen. Moreover, two dominant microbial populations expressed ROS response genes throughout the day, but showed less expression of key genes during peak sunlight. Oxidative stress response genes (especially external peroxidases were highly-expressed in microorganisms within Fe(III-oxide mat communities, suggesting a significant role for these proteins during survival and growth in

  1. Application of 2-D Inversion, to Magnetotelluric data on the Newberry Caldera, Oregon, for Potential Geothermal Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T. P.; Schultz, A.

    2012-12-01

    Newberry Volcano lies immediately to the east of the Cascades volcanic arc in Oregon. However, Newberry differs from the main Cascadia arc, both chemically and in its physical setting. Newberry was formed by a combination of a shallow mantle source hot spot and subduction melts. This conclusion is suggested by depleted 3He/4He ratios and enriched Ba, Sr and Pb, which together indicate an oceanic crust subduction melt. As a result Newberry cannot be only formed from a stationary deep mantle source, or any other fixed source. Newberry also lies at the westernmost extent of an E-W oriented volcanic belt that appears to terminate in the east with the hot spot trace of the Snake River Plain/Yellowstone. Newberry's complex structure is also attributed to its proximity to the northernmost end of the Brothers Fault Zone (BFZ), related to regional tectonic fabric attributable to the transition to the Basin and Range province. The most recent volcanism at the caldera is a large obsidian flow, which erupted approximately 1,300 years ago. The United States Geological Survey considers Newberry to be a very high threat and to be "Central Oregon's Sleeping Giant." The western outer flank of the caldera is the site of an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) demonstration project being carried out by AltaRock Energy, Inc. and Davenport Newberry Holdings, LLC. EGS injection well stimulation is planned to open up a fracture network in a hot but dry series of altered basaltic/andesitic formations 2000-3000 m below ground level. Under Department of Energy funding, a collaboration between Oregon State University, the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, and Zonge International, Inc., seeks to image changes in fluid infiltration and migration, changes in porosity and permeability, and ultimately changes in the geothermal reservoir's capacity to produce thermal energy for sustained periods in response to changes in reservoir pressurization and injection rates. To

  2. Smart geo-energy village development by using cascade direct use of geothermal energy in Bonjol, West Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, Novrisal; Erwinsyah Umra Lubis, Defry; Raharjo, Dharmawan; Miryani Saptadji, Nenny; Pratama, Heru Berian

    2017-12-01

    West Sumatera is a province which has a huge geothermal potential - approximately 6% of Indonesia’s total geothermal potential which equals to 1,656 MWe. One of the significant reserves located in Bonjol subdistrict which accounts for more than 50 MWe. The energy from geothermal manifestation in Bonjol can be utilized prior to indirect development. Manifestation at the rate 3 kg/s and 87 °C will flow to cascading system consisting several applications, arranged in order from high to low temperature to efficiently use the excessive energy. The direct use application selected is based on the best potential commodities as well as temperature constraint of heat source. The objective of this paper is to perform a conceptual design for the first cascade direct use of geothermal energy in Indonesia to establish Bonjol Smart Geo-Energy Village which will be transformed as the center of agricultural, stockbreeding, tourism as well as cultural site. A comprehenssive research was performed through remote survey area, evaluation featured product, analysis of heat loss and heat exchange in cascade system. From potential commodities, the three applications selected are cocoa drying and egg hatching incubation machine as well as new tourism site called Terapi Panas Bumi. The optimum temperature for cocoa drying is 62°C with the moisture content 7% which consumes 78 kW for one tones cocoa dried. Whereas, egg incubation system consists of two chamber with the same temperature 40°C for each room and relative humidity 55% and 70%. For the last stage, Terapi Panas Bumi works in temperature 40°C. Based on the result technical and economical aspect, it exhibits cascade direct use of geothermal energy is very recommended to develop.

  3. Evolution of low-temperature phases in a low-temperature structural transition of a La cuprate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Horibe, Y.; Koyama, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The microstructure produced by a low-temperature structural phase transition in La 1.5 Nd 0.4 Sr 0.1 CuO 4 has been examined by transmission electron microscopy with the help of imaging plates. The low-temperature transition was found to be proceeded not only by the growth of the Pccn/low-temperature-tetragonal phases nucleated along the twin boundary but also by the nucleation and growth of the phases in the interior of the low-temperature-orthorhombic domain. In addition, because the map of the octahedron tilt as an order parameter is not identical to that of the spontaneous strain accompanied by the transition, the microstructure below the transition is understood to be a very complex mixture of the low-temperature phases. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  4. Preliminary investigation of two areas in New York State in terms of possible potential for hot dry rock geothermal energy. [Adirondack Mountains and Catskill Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isachsen, Y.W.

    1978-09-27

    Two areas in New York State were studied in terms of possible long range potential for geothermal energy: the Adirondack Mountains which are undergoing contemporary doming, and an anomalous circular feature centered on Panther Mountain in the Catskill Mountains. The Adirondack Mountains constitute an anomalously large, domical uplift on the Appalachian foreland. The domical configuration of the area undergoing uplift, combined with subsidence at the northeastern perimeter of the dome, argues for a geothermal rather than glacioisostatic origin. A contemporary hot spot near the crust-mantle boundary is proposed as the mechanism of doming, based on analogy with uplifts of similar dimensions elsewhere in the world, some of which have associated Tertiary volcanics. The lack of thermal springs in the area, or high heat flow in drill holes up to 370 m deep, indicates that the front of the inferred thermal pulse must be at some depth greater than 1 km. From isopach maps by Rickard (1969, 1973), it is clear that the present Adirondack dome did not come into existence until sometime after Late Devonian time. Strata younger than this are not present to provide further time stratigraphic refinement of this lower limit. However, the consequent radial drainage pattern in the Adirondacks suggests that the dome is a relatively young tectonic feature. Using arguments based on fixed hot spots in central Africa, and the movement of North American plate, Kevin Burke (Appendix I) suggests that the uplift may be less than 4 m.y. old.The other area of interest, the Panther Mountain circular feature in the Catskill Mountains, was studied using photogeology, gravity and magnetic profiling, gravity modeling, conventional field methods, and local shallow seismic refraction profiling.

  5. Low temperature plasma biomedicine: A tutorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Gas discharge plasmas formed at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature have recently been shown to be potentially useful for surface and wound sterilization, antisepsis, bleeding cessation, wound healing, and cancer treatment, among other biomedical applications. This tutorial review summarizes the field, stressing the likely role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species created in these plasmas as the biologically and therapeutically active agents. Reactive species, including radicals and non-radical compounds, are generated naturally within the body and are now understood to be essential for normal biological functions. These species are known to be active agents in existing therapies for wound healing, infection control, and cancer treatment. But they are also observed at elevated levels in persons with many diseases and are associated with aging. The physical and chemical complexity of plasma medical devices and their associated biochemical effects makes the development of safe, effective plasma medical devices and procedures a challenge, but encouragingly rapid progress has been reported around the world in the last several years

  6. Low temperature plasma biomedicine: A tutorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, David B., E-mail: graves@berkeley.edu [University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Gas discharge plasmas formed at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature have recently been shown to be potentially useful for surface and wound sterilization, antisepsis, bleeding cessation, wound healing, and cancer treatment, among other biomedical applications. This tutorial review summarizes the field, stressing the likely role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species created in these plasmas as the biologically and therapeutically active agents. Reactive species, including radicals and non-radical compounds, are generated naturally within the body and are now understood to be essential for normal biological functions. These species are known to be active agents in existing therapies for wound healing, infection control, and cancer treatment. But they are also observed at elevated levels in persons with many diseases and are associated with aging. The physical and chemical complexity of plasma medical devices and their associated biochemical effects makes the development of safe, effective plasma medical devices and procedures a challenge, but encouragingly rapid progress has been reported around the world in the last several years.

  7. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, L. G.; Greer, C W.

    1999-01-01

    Bioremediation of contaminated Arctic sites has been proposed as the logistically and economically most favorable solution despite the known technical difficulties. The difficulties involve the inhibition of pollutants removal by biodegradation below freezing temperatures and the relative slowness of the process to remove enough hydrocarbon pollutants during the above-freezing summer months. Despite these formidable drawbacks, biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants is possible even in below-zero temperatures, especially if indigenous psychrophilic and psychrotropic micro-organism are used. This paper reports results of a study involving several hydrocarbon-degrading psychrotropic bacteria and suggests bioaugmentation with specific cold-adapted organisms and/or biostimulation with commercial fertilizers for enhancing degradation of specific contaminants in soils from northern Canada. An evaluation of the biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in the high Arctic suggested that the contaminated soils contained sufficient numbers of cold-adapted hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and that the addition of fertilizer was sufficient to enhance the level of hydrocarbon degradation at low ambient summer temperatures. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  8. Low temperature plasma biomedicine: A tutorial reviewa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, David B.

    2014-08-01

    Gas discharge plasmas formed at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature have recently been shown to be potentially useful for surface and wound sterilization, antisepsis, bleeding cessation, wound healing, and cancer treatment, among other biomedical applications. This tutorial review summarizes the field, stressing the likely role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species created in these plasmas as the biologically and therapeutically active agents. Reactive species, including radicals and non-radical compounds, are generated naturally within the body and are now understood to be essential for normal biological functions. These species are known to be active agents in existing therapies for wound healing, infection control, and cancer treatment. But they are also observed at elevated levels in persons with many diseases and are associated with aging. The physical and chemical complexity of plasma medical devices and their associated biochemical effects makes the development of safe, effective plasma medical devices and procedures a challenge, but encouragingly rapid progress has been reported around the world in the last several years.

  9. Geothermal Energy Potential in Low Enthalpy Areas as a Future Energy Resource: Identifying Feasible Targets, Quebec, Canada, Study Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Majorowicz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat flow of the sedimentary succession of the Eastern Canada Sedimentary Basins varies from 40 mW/m2 close to the exposed shield in the north to high 60–70 mW/m2 in the southwest–northeast St. Lawrence corridor. As high fluid flow rates are required for a successful geothermal application, the most important targets are deep existing permeable aquifers rather than hard rock, which would need to be fracked. Unfortunately, the ten most populated Québec urban centers are in the areas where the Grenville (Canadian Shield is exposed or at shallow depths with sedimentary cover where temperatures are 30 °C or less. The city of Drummondville will be the exception, as the basement deepens sharply southwest, and higher temperatures reaching >120 °C are expected in the deep Cambrian sedimentary aquifers near a 4–5-km depth. Deep under the area where such sediments could be occurring under Appalachian nappes, temperatures significantly higher than 140 °C are predicted. In parts of the deep basin, temperatures as high as 80 °C–120 °C exist at depths of 3–4 km, mainly southeast of the major geological boundary: the Logan line. There is a large amount of heat resource at such depths to be considered in this area for district heating.

  10. Guidebook to Geothermal Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, J. P.; Meurice, J.; Wobus, N.; Stern, F.; Duaime, M.

    2011-03-01

    This guidebook is intended to facilitate further investment in conventional geothermal projects in the United States. It includes a brief primer on geothermal technology and the most relevant policies related to geothermal project development. The trends in geothermal project finance are the focus of this tool, relying heavily on interviews with leaders in the field of geothermal project finance. Using the information provided, developers and investors may innovate in new ways, developing partnerships that match investors' risk tolerance with the capital requirements of geothermal projects in this dynamic and evolving marketplace.

  11. Geomicrobiology; inseparable from low temperature geochemistry & mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southam, G.

    2009-05-01

    geochemical gradients where they take advantage of disequilibrium conditions to generate the energy needed to fight entropy. The selection of analogue sites needs to focus on the habitable conditions and preservation potential of these sites in order to increase our chances of finding evidence of life, to better understand how it is preserved on Earth, and by extension, to determine where it might be preserved on Mars.

  12. Low-temperature phase transformation in rubidium and cesium superoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikhanov, R.A.; Toshich, B.S.; Smirnov, L.S.

    1980-01-01

    Crystal structures of rubidium and cesium superoxides which are two interpenetrating lattices of metal ions and oxygen molecule ions reveal a number of phase transformations with temperature decrease. Crystal-phase transformations in CsO 2 are 1-2, 2-3 and low temperature one 3-4 at 378, 190 and 10 K. Low temperature transition is considered as the instability of lattice quadrupoles of oxygen molecule ions to phase transformation of the order-disorder type. Calculated temperatures of low temperature phase transformations in PbO 2 and CsO 2 agree with experimental calculations satisfactory [ru

  13. Low temperature safety of lithium-thionyl chloride cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, S.; Deligiannis, F.; Shen, D. H.; Dawson, S.; Halpert, G.

    The use of lithium thionyl chloride cells for low-temperature applications is presently restricted because of their unsafe behavior. An attempt is made in the present investigation to identify the safe/unsafe low temperature operating conditions and to understand the low temperature cell chemistry responsible for the unsafe behavior. Cells subjected to extended reversal at low rate and -40 C were found to explode upon warm-up. Lithium was found to deposit on the carbon cathodes during reversal. Warming up to room temperature may be accelerating the lithium corrosion in the electrolyte. This may be one of the reasons for the cell thermal runaway.

  14. Electric utility companies and geothermal power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements of the electric utility industry as the primary potential market for geothermal energy are analyzed, based on a series of structured interviews with utility companies and financial institution executives. The interviews were designed to determine what information and technologies would be required before utilities would make investment decisions in favor of geothermal energy, the time frame in which the information and technologies would have to be available, and the influence of the governmental politics. The paper describes the geothermal resources, electric utility industry, its structure, the forces influencing utility companies, and their relationship to geothermal energy. A strategy for federal stimulation of utility investment in geothermal energy is suggested. Possibilities are discussed for stimulating utility investment through financial incentives, amelioration of institutional barriers, and technological improvements.

  15. Room and low temperature synthesis of carbon nanofibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boskovic, Bojan O.

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes and nanofibres have attracted attention in recent years as new materials with a number of very promising potential applications. Carbon nanotubes are potential candidates for field emitters in flat panel displays. Carbon nanofibres could also be used as a hydrogen storage material and as a filling material in polymer composites. Carbon nanotubes are already used as tips in scanning probe microscopy due to their remarkable mechanical and electrical properties, and could be soon used as nanotweezers. Use of carbon nanotubes in nanoelectronics will open further miniaturisation prospects. Temperatures ranging from 450 to 1000 deg C have been a required for catalytic growth of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres. Researchers have been trying to reduce the growth temperatures for decades. Low temperature growth conditions will allow the growth of carbon nanotubes on different substrates, such glass (below 650 deg C) and as plastics (below 150 deg C) over relatively large areas, which is especially suitable for fiat panel display applications. Room temperature growth conditions could open up the possibility of using different organic substrates and bio-substrates for carbon nanotubes synthesis. Carbon nanofibres have been synthesised at room temperature and low temperatures below 250 deg C using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (r.f. PECVD). Previously, the growth of carbon nanofibres has been via catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbons or carbon monoxide at temperatures above 300 deg C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evidence of the growth of carbon nanofibres at temperatures lower than 300 deg C by any method. The use of a transition metal catalyst and r.f.-PECVD system is required for the growth of the carbon nanofibre when a hydrocarbon flows above the catalyst. Within the semiconductor industry r.f.-PECVD is a well established technique which lends itself for the growth of carbon nanofibres for various

  16. Sign of Radon for locate geothermic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Teran, D.

    1991-01-01

    Evaluation of a geothermic field is based upon geological, geophysical and geochemical studies that enable the evaluation of the deposit potential, that is to say, the amount of energy per unit mass, the volume of the trapped fluid, vapor fraction and fluid chemistry. This thesis has as its objective the evaluation of radon gas emanation in high potential geothermic zones in order to utilize the results as a low cost and easy to manage complimentary tool in geothermic source prospection. In chapter I the importance and evaluation of a geothermic deposit is discussed. In chapter II the general characteristics of radon are discussed: its radioactivity and behavior upon diffusion over the earth's surface> Chapter III establishes the approach used in the geothermic field of Los Azufres, Michoacan, to carry out samplings of radon and the laboratory techniques that were used to evaluate the concentration of radon in the subsoil. Finally in chapter IV measurements of radon in the field are compared to geological faults in the area under study. The sampling zones were: low geothermic potential zone of the northern and the southern zone having a greater geothermic potential than that in the north. The study was carried out at different sampling times using plastics detectors of from 30 to 46 days from February to July. From the results obtained we concluded that the emission of radon was greater in the zones of greatest geothermic potential than in the low geothermic potential zones it was also affected by the fault structure and the time of year in which sampling was done. (Author)

  17. Outline of multipurpose utilization of geothermal resources in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, S.Y.; Wang, J.Y.; Wang, J.; Huang, G.S.

    1980-09-01

    China is rich in geothermal resources. The lower temperature limit of geothermal waters in China is defined as 25/sup 0/C. The thermal waters are categorized into three groups: low (25/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/C), medium (60/sup 0/ to 100/sup 0/C) and high (> 100/sup 0/C) temperature thermal water. Xizang (Tibet), Taiwan and Yunnan are the most promising regions for the development of high temperature geothermal energy. Medium-low temperature water is more efficient for direct use. Since 1977, six experimental geothermal power stations have been set up throughout the country. In Beijing (Peking), Tianjin and other places thermal water has been used for space heating, industrial processing, agriculture, horticulture, and therapeutic sanatoriums, etc.

  18. Structural controls on fluid circulation at the Caviahue-Copahue Volcanic Complex (CCVC) geothermal area (Chile-Argentina), revealed by soil CO2 and temperature, self-potential, and helium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulleau, Emilie; Bravo, Francisco; Pinti, Daniele L.; Barde-Cabusson, Stéphanie; Pizarro, Marcela; Tardani, Daniele; Muñoz, Carlos; Sanchez, Juan; Sano, Yuji; Takahata, Naoto; de la Cal, Federico; Esteban, Carlos; Morata, Diego

    2017-07-01

    Natural geothermal systems are limited areas characterized by anomalously high heat flow caused by recent tectonic or magmatic activity. The heat source at depth is the result of the emplacement of magma bodies, controlled by the regional volcano-tectonic setting. In contrast, at a local scale a well-developed fault-fracture network favors the development of hydrothermal cells, and promotes the vertical advection of fluids and heat. The Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ), straddling Chile and Argentina, has an important, yet unexplored and undeveloped geothermal potential. Studies on the lithological and tectonic controls of the hydrothermal circulation are therefore important for a correct assessment of the geothermal potential of the region. Here, new and dense self-potential (SP), soil CO2 and temperature (T) measurements, and helium isotope data measured in fumaroles and thermal springs from the geothermal area located in the north-eastern flank of the Copahue volcanic edifice, within the Caviahue Caldera (the Caviahue-Copahue Volcanic Complex - CCVC) are presented. Our results allowed to the constraint of the structural origin of the active thermal areas and the understanding of the evolution of the geothermal system. NE-striking faults in the area, characterized by a combination of SP, CO2, and T maxima and high 3He/4He ratios (up to 8.16 ± 0.21Ra, whereas atmospheric Ra is 1.382 × 10- 6), promote the formation of vertical permeability preferential pathways for fluid circulation. WNW-striking faults represent low-permeability pathways for hydrothermal fluid ascent, but promote infiltration of meteoric water at shallow depths, which dilute the hydrothermal input. The region is scattered with SP, CO2, and T minima, representing self-sealed zones characterized by impermeable altered rocks at depth, which create local barriers for fluid ascent. The NE-striking faults seem to be associated with the upflowing zones of the geothermal system, where the boiling process

  19. Geothermal heating saves energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romsaas, Tor

    2003-01-01

    The article reviews briefly a pioneer project for a construction area of 200000 m''2 with residences, business complexes, a hotel and conference centre and a commercial college in Oslo. The energy conservation potential is estimated to be about 60-70 % compared to direct heating with oil, gas or electricity as sources. There will also be substantial reduction in environmentally damaging emissions. The proposed energy central combines geothermal energy sources with heat pump technology, utilises water as energy carrier and uses terrestrial wells for energy storage. A cost approximation is presented

  20. Low-temperature localization in the transport properties of self ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transport properties; scattering mechanisms; low temperature localization. 1. Introduction ... Mn4+ appears in these compounds due to the La defi- ciency, leading ... microscopy (SEM) image in figure 1 shows the size and mor- phology of the ...