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Sample records for low-strength synthetic wastewater

  1. A simplified analysis of granule behavior in ASBR and UASB reactors treating low-strength synthetic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Veronez

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an analysis of the changes observed in granule characteristics of sludge in the treatment of synthetic wastewater at a concentration of about 500 mgCOD/L in batch, fed-batch (ASBR and continuous (UASB bench-scale reactors under similar experimental conditions. Physical and microbiological properties of the granules were characterized as average particle size and sedimentation time and by optical and epifluorescence microscopy. Several samples were analyzed in order to identify the morphologies. Granules from sequencing batch and fed-batch reactors, either with or without mechanical mixing, did not undergo any physical or microbiological changes. However, during the experiment granules from the UASB reactor agglomerated due to the formation and accumulation of a viscous material, probably of microbial origin, when operated at low superficial velocities (0.072, 0.10 and 0.19 m/h. When the superficial velocity was increased to 8.0-10.0 m/h by means of liquid-phase recirculation, the granules from the UASB reactor underwent flocculation and the microbiological characteristics changed in such a way that the equilibrium of microbial diversity in the inoculum was not maintained. As a result, the only reactor that maintained efficiency and good solids retention during the assays was the ASBR, showing that there is a correlation between maintenance of microbial diversity and operating mode in the case of anaerobic treatment of low-strength wastewaters.

  2. Characterization of membrane foulants at ambient temperature anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating low-strength industrial wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarebska, Agata; Kjerstadius, Hamse; Petrinic, Irena

    2016-01-01

    The large volume of industrial low-strength wastewaters has a potential for biogas production through conventional anaerobic digestion (AD), limited though by the need of heating and concentrating of the wastewaters. The use of anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) combining membrane filtration...... with anaerobic biological treatment at low temperature could not only reduce the operational cost of AD, but also alleviate environmental problems. However, at low temperature the AnMBR may suffer more fouling due to the increased extracellular polymeric substances production excreted by bacteria hampering...... the application of the process for the industrial wastewater treatment. In order to solve or reduce the fouling problem it is necessary to have a good insight into the processes that take place both on and in the membrane pores during filtration. Therefore, the objective of this study is to contribute to a better...

  3. A pilot-scale forward osmosis membrane system for concentrating low-strength municipal wastewater: performance and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Zheng, Junjian; Tang, Jixu; Wang, Xinhua; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-02-01

    Recovery of nutrients and energy from municipal wastewater has attracted much attention in recent years; however, its efficiency is significantly limited by the low-strength properties of municipal wastewater. Herein, we report a pilot-scale forward osmosis (FO) system using a spiral-wound membrane module to concentrate real municipal wastewater. Under active layer facing feed solution mode, the critical concentration factor (CCF) of this FO system was determined to be 8 with 0.5 M NaCl as draw solution. During long-term operation at a concentration factor of 5, (99.8 ± 0.6)% of chemical oxygen demand and (99.7 ± 0.5)% of total phosphorus rejection rates could be achieved at a flux of 6 L/(m2 h) on average. In comparison, only (48.1 ± 10.5)% and (67.8 ± 7.3)% rejection of ammonium and total nitrogen were observed. Cake enhanced concentration polarization is a major contributor to the decrease of water fluxes. The fouling also led to the occurrence of a cake reduced concentration polarization effect, improving ammonium rejection rate with the increase of operation time in each cycle. This work demonstrates the applicability of using FO process for wastewater concentrating and also limitations in ammonium recovery that need further improvement in future.

  4. In-situ biogas sparging enhances the performance of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) with mesh filter in low-strength wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Hu, Yi; Lu, Yong-Ze; Zeng, Raymond J; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    2016-07-01

    In the recent years, anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology is being considered as a very attractive alternative for wastewater treatment due to the striking advantages such as upgraded effluent quality. However, fouling control is still a problem for the application of AnMBR. This study investigated the performance of an AnMBR using mesh filter as support material to treat low-strength wastewater via in-situ biogas sparging. It was found that mesh AnMBR exhibited high and stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies with values of 95 ± 5 % and an average methane yield of 0.24 L CH4/g CODremoved. Variation of transmembrane pressure (TMP) during operation indicated that mesh fouling was mitigated by in-situ biogas sparging and the fouling rate was comparable to that of aerobic membrane bioreactor with mesh filter reported in previous researches. The fouling layer formed on the mesh exhibited non-uniform structure; the porosity became larger from bottom layer to top layer. Biogas sparging could not change the composition but make thinner thickness of cake layer, which might be benefit for reducing membrane fouling rate. It was also found that ultrasonic cleaning of fouled mesh was able to remove most foulants on the surface or pores. This study demonstrated that in-situ biogas sparging enhanced the performance of AnMBRs with mesh filter in low-strength wastewater treatment. Apparently, AnMBRs with mesh filter can be used as a promising and sustainable technology for wastewater treatment.

  5. Integrating microbial fuel cells with anaerobic acidification and forward osmosis membrane for enhancing bio-electricity and water recovery from low-strength wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinmeng; Wang, Xinhua; Wang, Zhiwei; Lu, Yuqin; Li, Xiufen; Ren, Yueping

    2017-03-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and forward osmosis (FO) are two emerging technologies with great potential for energy-efficient wastewater treatment. In this study, anaerobic acidification and FO membrane were simultaneously integrated into an air-cathode MFC (AAFO-MFC) for enhancing bio-electricity and water recovery from low-strength wastewater. During a long-term operation of approximately 40 days, the AAFO-MFC system achieved a continuous and relatively stable power generation, and the maximum power density reached 4.38 W/m 3 . The higher bio-electricity production in the AAFO-MFC system was mainly due to the accumulation of ethanol resulted from anaerobic acidification process and the rejection of FO membrane. In addition, a proper salinity environment in the system controlled by the addition of MF membrane enhanced the electricity production. Furthermore, the AAFO-MFC system produced a high quality effluent, with the removal rates of organic matters and total phosphorus of more than 97%. However, the nitrogen removal was limited for the lower rejection of FO membrane. The combined biofouling and inorganic fouling were responsible for the lower water flux of FO membrane, and the Desulfuromonas sp. utilized the ethanol for bio-electricity production was observed in the anode. These results substantially improve the prospects for simultaneous wastewater treatment and energy recovery, and further studies are needed to optimize the system integration and operating parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrated Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC) with an anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) for low strength wastewater treatment, energy harvesting and water reclamation

    KAUST Repository

    Jimenez Sandoval, Rodrigo J.

    2013-11-01

    Shortage of potable water is a problem that affects many nations in the world and it will aggravate in a near future if pertinent actions are not carried out. Decrease in consumption, improvements in water distribution systems to avoid losses and more efficient water treatment processes are some actions that can be implemented to attack this problem. Membrane technology and biological processes are used in wastewater treatment to achieve high water quality standards. Some other technologies, besides water treatment, attempt to obtain energy from organic wastes present in water. In this study, a proof-of-concept was accomplished demonstrating that a Microbial Electrolysis Cell can be fully integrated with a Membrane Bioreactor to achieve wastewater treatment and harvest energy. Conductive hollow fiber membranes made of nickel functioned as both filter material for treated water reclamation and as a cathode to catalyze hydrogen production reaction. The produced hydrogen was subsequently converted into methane by hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Organic removal was 98.9% irrespective of operation mode. Maximum volumetric hydrogen production rate was 0.2 m3/m3d, while maximum current density achieved was 6.1 A/m2 (based on cathode surface area). Biofouling, an unavoidable phenomenon in traditional MBRs, can be minimized in this system through self-cleaning approach of hybrid membranes by hydrogen production. The increased rate of hydrogen evolution at high applied voltage (0.9 V) reduces the membrane fouling. Improvements can be done in the system to make it as a promising net energy positive technology for the low strength wastewater treatment.

  7. Technical note The formulation of synthetic domestic wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical note The formulation of synthetic domestic wastewater sludge medium to study anaerobic biological treatment of acid mine drainage in the laboratory. ... Journal Home > Vol 42, No 2 (2016) > ... Domestic wastewater sludge is however highly variable in its composition, making laboratory experimentation difficult.

  8. Bio-treatment of phosphate from synthetic wastewater using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the efficient phosphate utilizing isolates were used to remove phosphate from synthetic phosphate wastewater was tested using batch scale process. Hence the objective of the present study was to examine the efficiency of bacterial species individually for the removal of phosphate from synthetic phosphate ...

  9. Bio-treatment of phosphate from synthetic wastewater using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    effect of carbon sources (glucose, starch, sucrose and lactose) at 0.5% on the ... to be maximum of 68 % in synthetic phosphate wastewater with glucose carbon ... possible entry of this ion into aquatic environment is ... Therefore it is essential to control the emission of ... Mumbai, India) was prepared and selected bacterial.

  10. Treatment of low-strength wastewater using immobilized biomass in a sequencing batch external loop reactor: influence of the medium superficial velocity on the stability and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camargo E.F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An anaerobic sequencing batch bioreactor with external circulation of the liquid phase wherein the biomass was immobilized on a polyurethane foam matrix was analyzed, focussing on the influence of the liquid superficial velocity on the reactor's stability and efficiency. Eight-hour cycles were carried out at 30ºC treating glucose-based synthetic wastewater around 500 mgDQO/L. The performance of the reactor was assessed without circulation and with circulating liquid superficial velocity between 0.034 and 0.188 cm/s. The reactor attained operating stability and a high organic matter removal was achieved when liquid was circulated. A first order model was used to evaluate the influence of the liquid superficial velocity (vS, resulting in an increase in the apparent first order parameter when vS increased from 0.034 to 0.094 cm/s. The parameter value remained unchangeable when 0.188 cm/s was applied, indicating that beyond this value no improvement on liquid mass transfer was observed. Moreover, the necessary time to reach the final removal efficiency decreased when liquid circulation was applied, indicating that a 3-hour cycle could be enough.

  11. Effect of impeller type and stirring frequency on the behavior of an AnSBBR in the treatment of low-strength wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, Selma A; Foresti, Eugenio; Rodrigues, José Alberto D; Ratusznei, Suzana M; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    The influence of impeller type and stirring frequency on the performance of a mechanically stirred anaerobic sequencing batch reactor containing immobilized biomass on an inert support (AnSBBR--Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor) was evaluated. The biomass was immobilized on polyurethane foam cubes placed in a stainless-steel basket inside a glass cylinder. Each 8-h batch run consisted of three stages: feed (10 min), reaction (460 min) and discharge (10 min) at 30 °C. Experiments were performed with four impeller types, i.e., helical, flat-blade, inclined-blade and curved-blade turbines, at stirring frequencies ranging from 100 to 1100 rpm. Synthetic wastewater was used in all experiments with an organic-matter concentration of 530±37 mg/L measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD). The reactor achieved an organic-matter removal efficiency of around 87% under all investigated conditions. Analysis of the four impeller types and the investigated stirring frequencies showed that mass transfer in the liquid phase was affected not only by the applied stirring frequency but also by the agitation mode imposed by each impeller type. The best reactor performance at all stirring frequencies was obtained when agitation was provided by the flat-blade turbine impeller. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthetic socioeconomic based domestic wastewater hydrographs for small arid communities

    KAUST Repository

    Elnakar, H.

    2012-06-04

    A model was developed to predict synthetic socioeconomic based domestic wastewater hydrographs for the small arid communities. The model predicts the flow hydrograph for random weekdays and weekends based on the specific socioeconomic characteristics of the community. The main socioeconomic characteristics are the composition of the community, the different user behaviours in using water appliances, and the unit discharges of such appliances. Use patterns of water appliances are assumed to vary for the various members of the community and the type of day. Each community is composed of several social categories such as the employee, working woman, stay home woman, stay home child, students etc. The use patterns account for the stochastic nature of use in terms of number of uses, duration of the use and times of use in the day. Randomly generated hydrographs are generated for weekdays and weekends along with synthetic hydrographs of non-exceedance. The model was verified for a small residential compound in Sharm El Shiekh - Egypt using 11 days of flow measurements performed in summer. The synthetic hydrographs based on assumed water use patterns of the various members of the community compared reasonably with the measured hydrographs. Synthetic hydrographs can be derived for a community under consideration to reflect its socioeconomic conditions and thus can be used to generate probability based peaking factors to be used in the design of sewerage systems pumping facilities, and treatment plants. © 201 WIT Press.

  13. Synthetic socioeconomic based domestic wastewater hydrographs for small arid communities

    KAUST Repository

    Elnakar, H.; Imam, E.; Nassar, K.

    2012-01-01

    A model was developed to predict synthetic socioeconomic based domestic wastewater hydrographs for the small arid communities. The model predicts the flow hydrograph for random weekdays and weekends based on the specific socioeconomic characteristics of the community. The main socioeconomic characteristics are the composition of the community, the different user behaviours in using water appliances, and the unit discharges of such appliances. Use patterns of water appliances are assumed to vary for the various members of the community and the type of day. Each community is composed of several social categories such as the employee, working woman, stay home woman, stay home child, students etc. The use patterns account for the stochastic nature of use in terms of number of uses, duration of the use and times of use in the day. Randomly generated hydrographs are generated for weekdays and weekends along with synthetic hydrographs of non-exceedance. The model was verified for a small residential compound in Sharm El Shiekh - Egypt using 11 days of flow measurements performed in summer. The synthetic hydrographs based on assumed water use patterns of the various members of the community compared reasonably with the measured hydrographs. Synthetic hydrographs can be derived for a community under consideration to reflect its socioeconomic conditions and thus can be used to generate probability based peaking factors to be used in the design of sewerage systems pumping facilities, and treatment plants. © 201 WIT Press.

  14. Nitrogen and COD removal from domestic and synthetic wastewater in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, R S; Grismer, M E

    2013-09-01

    Comparisons of the performance of constructed-wetland systems (CWs) for treating domestic wastewater in the laboratory and field may use pathogen-free synthetic wastewater to avoid regulatory health concerns. However, little to no data are available describing the relative treatment efficiencies of CWs to both actual and synthetic domestic wastewaters so as to enable such comparison. To fill this gap, treatment performances with respect to organics (chemical organic demand; COD) and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) removal from domestic (septic tank) and a similar-strength synthetic wastewater under planted and non-planted subsurface-flow CWs are determined. One pair of CWs was planted with cattails in May 2008, whereas the adjacent system was non-planted. Collected septic tank or synthesized wastewater was allowed to gravity feed each CWs, and effluent samples were collected and tested for COD and nitrogen species regularly during four different periods over six months. Overall, statistically significant greater removal of COD (-12%) and nitrogen (-5%) occurred from the synthetic as compared with the domestic wastewater from the planted and non-planted CWs. Effluent BOD5/COD ratios from the synthetic wastewater CWs averaged nearly twice that from the domestic wastewater CWs (0.17 vs 0.10), reflecting greater concentrations of readily degraded compounds. That removal fractions were consistent across the mid-range loading rates to the CWs suggests that the synthetic wastewater can be used in testing laboratory CWs with reasonable success in application of their results to the field.

  15. Treatment of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Reactive Red 198 by Electrocoagulation Process

    OpenAIRE

    N.M Mahmoodi; A Ameri; M Gholami; A Jonidi jafari; A Dalvand

    2011-01-01

    "nBackground and Objectives: Discharge of textile colored wastewater industries without providing enough treatment in water bodies, is harmful for human and aquatic organisms and poses serious damages to the environment. Most of conventional wastewater treatment methods don't have enough efficiency to remove textile dyes from colored wastewater; thus in this research the efficiency of electrocoagulation treatment process with aluminum electrodes for treatment of a synthetic wastewater co...

  16. Permeability recovery of fouled forward osmosis membranes by chemical cleaning during a long-term operation of anaerobic osmotic membrane bioreactors treating low-strength wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhua; Hu, Taozhan; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Xiufen; Ren, Yueping

    2017-10-15

    Anaerobic osmotic membrane bioreactor (AnOMBR) has gained increasing interests in wastewater treatment owing to its simultaneous recovery of biogas and water. However, the forward osmosis (FO) membrane fouling was severe during a long-term operation of AnOMBRs. Here, we aim to recover the permeability of fouled FO membranes by chemical cleaning. Specifically speaking, an optimal chemical cleaning procedure was searched for fouled thin film composite polyamide FO (TFC-FO) membranes in a novel microfiltration (MF) assisted AnOMBR (AnMF-OMBR). The results indicated that citric acid, disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA-2Na), hydrochloric acid (HCl), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) had a low cleaning efficiency of less than 15%, while hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) could effectively remove foulants from the TFC-FO membrane surface (almost 100%) through oxidizing the functional group of the organic foulants and disintegrating the colloids and microbe flocs into fine particles. Nevertheless, the damage of H 2 O 2 to the TFC-FO membrane was observed when a high cleaning concentration and a long duration were applied. In this case, the optimal cleaning conditions including cleaning concentration and time for fouled TFC-FO membranes were selected through confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and the flux recovery rate. The results suggested that the optimal cleaning procedure for fouled TFC-FO membranes was use of 0.5% H 2 O 2 at 25 °C for 6 h, and after that, the cleaned TFC-FO membrane had the same performance as a virgin one including water flux and rejection for organic matters and phosphorus during the operation of AnMF-OMBR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biological nitrate removal from synthetic wastewater using a fungal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of lignocellulosic fungi, capable of cellulase and/or xylanase production, were isolated from soil to be used for cellulose degradation and nitrate removal from nitrate-rich wastewater in simple one-stage anaerobic bioreactors containing grass cuttings as source of cellulose. The fungal consortium, consisting of six ...

  18. Optimized Production of Coal Fly Ash Derived Synthetic Zeolites for Mercury Removal from Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauanov, Z.; Shah, D.; Itskos, G.; Inglezakis, V.

    2017-09-01

    Coal fly ash (CFA) derived synthetic zeolites have become popular with recent advances and its ever-expanding range of applications, particularly as an adsorbent for water and gas purification and as a binder or additive in the construction industry and agriculture. Among these applications, perpetual interest has been in utilization of CFA derived synthetic zeolites for removal of heavy metals from wastewater. We herein focus on utilization of locally available CFA for efficient adsorption of mercury from wastewater. To this end, experimental conditions were investigated so that to produce synthetic zeolites from Kazakhstani CFAs with conversion into zeolite up to 78%, which has remarkably high magnetite content. In particular, the effect of synthesis reaction temperature, reaction time, and loading of adsorbent were systematically investigated and optimized. All produced synthetic zeolites and the respective CFAs were characterized using XRD, XRF, PSA and porosimetric instruments to obtain microstructural and mineralogical data. Furthermore, the synthesized zeolites were studied for the removal of mercury from aqueous solutions. A comparison of removal eficiency and its relationship to the physical and chemical properties of the synthetic zeolites were analyzed and interpreted.

  19. Diversity of total and functional microbiome of anammox reactors fed with complex and synthetic nitrogen-rich wastewaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gülay, Arda; Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Mutlu, Ayten Gizem

    diversity than the bioreactors treating synthetic wastewaters inferred from observed OTUs0.03, Chao1, Shannon index and Phylogenetic distance calculations. Differences in total microbial diversity agreed with the ecological theory concerning the positive correlation between substrate complexity...

  20. Natural and Synthetic Estrogens in Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent and the Coastal Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    isotopes (12C, 13C) is used routinely to identify synthetic steroid doping in athletics and livestock applications. 36 Chapter 4 will present...Suri (2009). "Presence of steroid hormones and antibiotics in surface water of agricultural, suburban and mixed- use areas." Environmental Monitoring...halogenated estrogens at picomolar levels in wastewater effluent and coastal seawater. The method was validated using treated effluent from the

  1. Removal of Lead from Wastewater Contaminated with Chemical Synthetic Dye by Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamyai Neeratanaphan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Novel isolated microorganisms have been demonstrated to efficiently remove lead from wastewater contaminated with chemical synthetic dye. In this study, the physical and chemical parameters of wastewater samples (including Pb concentrations were analyzed before and after treatment with microorganisms. The highest Pb concentration detected in wastewater was 0.788 mg/l. Investigations of the Pb tolerance and removal capacities of microorganism strains isolated from the wastewater sediment resulted in the selection of three fungal isolates (F102, F203 and F302. Interestingly, isolate F203 had a Pb tolerance of up to 100 mg/l. Using DNA barcoding and morphological characteristics, fungal isolate F203 was identified as Aspergillus terreus. Wastewater characteristics before treatment included a grayish black color with pH, TDS, BOD, COD and Pb concentrations higher than the Thailand standard values. Wastewater qualities after treatment with A. terreus showed definite improvement; however, the values of certain parameters were still higher than the allowed values based on the Thailand standard. The only improvement that fell within the allowed standard was the Pb concentration. Next, A. terreus was used for Pb adsorption in wastewater with an initial Pb concentration of 0.788 mg/l at time points corresponding to 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 h of incubation. The results showed that A. terreus could adsorb and remove higher amounts of Pb from wastewater than the other fungal isolates. Time course adsorption analysis showed the remaining Pb concentrations as 0.788, 0.213, 0.162, 0.117, 0.100, 0.066, 0.042 and 0.032 mg/l, respectively; the percentage of Pb removal could be estimated as 0, 72.97, 79.44, 85.15, 87.31, 91.62, 94.67 and 95.94%, respectively. In conclusion, A. terreus possessed the ability to adsorb up to 96% of Pb from chemical synthetic dye within 168 h. Thus, A. terreus might be suitable for adaptation and use in Pb treatment.

  2. BIOSORPTION OF Cr(VI FROM SYNTHETIC WASTEWATER USING THE FRUIT SHELL OF GULMOHAR (Delonix regia: APPLICATION TO ELECTROPLATING WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attimodde Girirajanna Devi Prasad

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The biosorption of Cr(VI from synthetic solutions and electroplating wastewater using the fruit shell of gulmohar has been investigated in a batch system. The effects of various parameters such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial concentration of Cr(VI on the biosorption process were studied. The complete removal of Cr(VI was observed at pH < 3.0. Studies indicated that both biosorption and bioreduction were involved in the removal of Cr(VI. The sorption equilibrium exhibited a better fit to the Langmuir isotherm than the Freundlich isotherm. The maximum biosorption capacity of fruit shell of gulmohar to remove Cr(VI was 12.28 mg/g. A kinetic model of pseudo-second order provided a good description of the experimental data as compared to a pseudo-first order kinetic model. The sorption rate was found to be dependent on the initial concentration of Cr(VI and biomaterials dosage. The study showed that the abundant and inexpensive fruit shell of gulmohar biosorbent has a potential application in the removal of Cr(VI from electroplating wastewater and its conversion into less or non-toxic Cr (III.

  3. Generation of synthetic influent data for performing (micro) pollutant wastewater treatment modelling studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snip, L. J. P.; Aymerich, I.; Flores-Alsina, X.

    2015-01-01

    The use of Activated Sludge Models (ASM) (Henze et al., 2000) is constantly growing and both industry and academia are increasingly applying these tools when performing wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) engineering studies. Besides describing the behaviour of traditional pollutants such as organic...... carbon (C), nitrogen(N) and phosphorus(P), ASM models have been successfully upgraded to predict the fate of different types of micro-pollutants (Benedetti et al., 2013). Indeed, the potential adverse effects of micro-pollutants in aquatic environments have been an object of intensive research during...... (Gernaey et al., 2011). This is an important point since realistic data representing the influent wastewater dynamics are crucial to accomplish any WWTP modelling project (Rieger et al., 2012). For this reason, model-based influent generators/synthetic data are an alternative that has recently gained...

  4. Application of membrane technologies for the treatment of textile wastewater and synthetic textile dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aouni, A.; Bes-Pia, A.; Fersi, C.; Dhahbi, M.; Cuartas-Uribe, B.; Alcaina-Miranda, M. I.

    2009-01-01

    Textile industry is characterized by using a great variety of chemicals and by large water consumption. In this way, textile effluents contains many types of dyes, detergents, solvents and salts depending on the particular textile mill processes (dyeing, printing, finishing...) and on the raw matter. For those reasons, textile industry is one of the main sources of industrial pollution, producing effluents discharges characterized by high conductivities and chemical oxygen demand (COD) values and strong colour. Process selection and operating conditions are important issues to optimize technically and economically the textile effluent treatment. This work presents the results of the laboratory-scale membrane experiments of textile industry effluents and synthetic textile dyes. Different types of Ultrafiltration (UF) and Nano filtration (NF) membranes were evaluated for permeate flux and their suitability in separating COD, colour, conductivity. Experiments demonstrated that membrane treatment is a very promising advanced treatment option for pollution control for textile industry effluents. The results of this work show that the direct ultrafiltration seems to be a realistic method in the pretreatment of the textile wastewater. In fact, NF process was successfully used to improve permeate quality of synthetic dyeing textile wastewater, but this process presented some limitations in the treatment of textile industry effluents because of membrane fouling problems. So, this process requires an efficient and appropriate technique such as ultrafiltration as a pre-treatment step for textile wastewater reuse. For direct nano filtration of synthetic textile dyes aqueous solutions, with a weak salt concentration (500 ppm), good results were obtained. More than 95 pour cent of color was removed from the treated water accompanied with a reduction of 92 pour cent of conductivity and COD. Based on the experiments; NF membranes are suitable for producing permeate of reusable

  5. Electrochemical treatment of trypan blue synthetic wastewater and its degradation pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANANTHA N. SUBBA RAO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The trypan blue (TB dye synthetic wastewater was treated in presence of chloride ions by electrochemical method. The effect of current density, pH, initial concentration of dye and supporting electrolyte on color and COD removal were investigated. The UV-Vis ab­sorption intensity, chemical oxygen demand (COD, cyclic voltammetry (CV, Fourier transform- infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis were conducted to investigate the kinetics and degradation pathway of TB dye.

  6. Abiotic transformation of estrogens in synthetic municipal wastewater: An alternative for treatment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marfil-Vega, Ruth; Suidan, Makram T.; Mills, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    The abiotic transformation of estrogens, including estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3) and ethinylestradiol (EE2), in the presence of model vegetable matter was confirmed in this study. Batch experiments were performed to model the catalytic conversion of E1, E2, E3 and EE2 in synthetic wastewater. Greater than 80% reduction in the parent compounds was achieved for each target chemical after 72 h with the remaining concentration distributed between aqueous and solid phases as follows: 13% and 7% for E1, 10% and 2% for E2, 6% and 2% for E3, and 8% and 3% for EE2, respectively. Testosterone, androstenedione and progesterone were also monitored in this study, and their concentrations were found to be in agreement with initially spiked amount. Data collected under laboratory conditions provided the basis for implementing new abiotic wastewater treatment technologies that use inexpensive materials. - Abiotic transformation of estrogens in wastewater matrices can be harnessed for improving their removal from the environment.

  7. Performance evaluation of an side-stream anaerobic membrane bioreactor: Synthetic and alcoholic beverage industry wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan BÜYÜKKAMACI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The treatment performance of a laboratory-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR using high strength wastewater was evaluated. The AnMBR model system consisted of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB and an ultrafiltration (UF membrane. Its performance was first examined using molasses based synthetic wastewater at different hydraulic retention times (1-3 days and organic loading rates (5-15 kg COD/m3.day. As a result of the experimental studies, maximum treatment efficiency with respect to COD reduction (95% was achieved at 7.5 kg COD/m3.day OLR (CODinfluent=15.000 mg/L, HRT=2 days applications. When OLR was increased to 15 kg COD/m3.day, system performance decreased sharply. Similarly, methane gas production decreased by increasing OLR. After then, feed was changed to real wastewater, which was alcoholic beverage industry effluent. At this study, maximum COD removal efficiency of the system and maximum methane gas production was 88% and 74%, respectively.

  8. Experimental Design of Electrocoagulation and Magnetic Technology for Enhancing Suspended Solids Removal from Synthetic Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Faiqun Ni'am

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Design of experiments (DOE is one of the statistical method that is used as a tool to enhance and improve experimental quality. The changes to the variables of a process or system is supposed to give the optimal result (response and quite satisfactory. Experimental design can defined as a test or series of test series by varying the input variables (factors of a process that can known to cause changes in output (response. This paper presents the results of experimental design of wastewater treatment by electrocoagulation (EC technique. A combined magnet and electrocoagulation (EC technology were designed to increase settling velocity and to enhance suspended solid removal efficiencies from wastewater samples. In this experiment, a synthetic wastewater samples were prepared by mixing 700 mg of the milk powder in one litre of water and treated by using an acidic buffer solution. The monopolar iron (Fe plate anodes and cathodes were employed as electrodes. Direct current was varied in a range of between 0.5 and 1.1 A, and flowrate in a range of between 1.00 to 3.50 mL/s. One permanent magnets namely AlNiCo with a magnetic strength of 0.16T was used in this experiment. The results show that the magnetic field and the flowrate have major influences on suspended solids removal. The efficiency removals of suspended solids, turbidity and COD removal efficiencies at optimum conditions were found to be more than 85%, 95%, and 75%, respectively.

  9. Abiotic transformation of estrogens in synthetic municipal wastewater: An alternative for treatment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marfil-Vega, Ruth [School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, 701 Engineering Research Center, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0071 (United States); Suidan, Makram T., E-mail: Makram.Suidan@uc.ed [School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, 701 Engineering Research Center, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0071 (United States); Mills, Marc A. [USEPA, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    The abiotic transformation of estrogens, including estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3) and ethinylestradiol (EE2), in the presence of model vegetable matter was confirmed in this study. Batch experiments were performed to model the catalytic conversion of E1, E2, E3 and EE2 in synthetic wastewater. Greater than 80% reduction in the parent compounds was achieved for each target chemical after 72 h with the remaining concentration distributed between aqueous and solid phases as follows: 13% and 7% for E1, 10% and 2% for E2, 6% and 2% for E3, and 8% and 3% for EE2, respectively. Testosterone, androstenedione and progesterone were also monitored in this study, and their concentrations were found to be in agreement with initially spiked amount. Data collected under laboratory conditions provided the basis for implementing new abiotic wastewater treatment technologies that use inexpensive materials. - Abiotic transformation of estrogens in wastewater matrices can be harnessed for improving their removal from the environment.

  10. Maintenance of Geobacter-dominated biofilms in microbial fuel cells treating synthetic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commault, Audrey S; Lear, Gavin; Weld, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    Geobacter-dominated biofilms can be selected under stringent conditions that limit the growth of competing bacteria. However, in many practical applications, such stringent conditions cannot be maintained and the efficacy and stability of these artificial biofilms may be challenged. In this work, biofilms were selected on low-potential anodes (-0.36 V vs Ag/AgCl, i.e. -0.08 V vs SHE) in minimal acetate or ethanol media. Selection conditions were then relaxed by transferring the biofilms to synthetic wastewater supplemented with soil as a source of competing bacteria. We tracked community succession and functional changes in these biofilms. The Geobacter-dominated biofilms showed stability in their community composition and electrochemical properties, with Geobacter sp. being still electrically active after six weeks in synthetic wastewater with power densities of 100±19 mW·m(-2) (against 74±14 mW·m(-2) at week 0) for all treatments. After six weeks, the ethanol-selected biofilms, despite their high taxon richness and their efficiency at removing the chemical oxygen demand (0.8 g·L(-1) removed against the initial 1.3 g·L(-1) injected), were the least stable in terms of community structure. These findings have important implications for environmental microbial fuel cells based on Geobacter-dominated biofilms and suggest that they could be stable in challenging environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrochemical oxidation of synthetic tannery wastewater in chloride-free aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Carla Regina; Montilla, Francisco; Morallon, Emilia; Olivi, Paulo

    2010-01-01

    The electrochemical treatment of a synthetic tannery wastewater, prepared with several compounds used by finishing tanneries, was studied in chloride-free media. Boron-doped diamond (Si/BDD), antimony-doped tin dioxide (Ti/SnO 2 -Sb), and iridium-antimony-doped tin dioxide (Ti/SnO 2 -Sb-Ir) were evaluated as anode. The influence of pH and current density on the treatment was assessed by means of the parameters used to measure the level of organic contaminants in the wastewater; i.e., total phenols, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), and absorbance. Results showed that faster decrease in these parameters occurred when the Si/BDD anode was used. Good results were obtained with the Ti/SnO 2 -Sb anode, but its complete deactivation was reached after 4 h of electrolysis at 25 mA cm -2 , indicating that the service life of this electrode is short. The Ti/SnO 2 -Sb-Ir anode is chemically and electrochemically more stable than the Ti/SnO 2 -Sb anode, but it is not suitable for the electrochemical treatment under the studied conditions. No significant changes were observed for electrolyses performed at different pH conditions with Si/BDD, and this electrode led to almost complete mineralization after 4 h of electrolysis at 100 mA cm -2 . The increase in current density resulted in faster wastewater oxidation, with lower current efficiency and higher energy consumption. Si/BBD proved to be the best electrodic material for the direct electrooxidation of tannery wastewaters.

  12. The Survey of Melia Azaderach L. ash in Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Synthetic Electroplating Industry Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MT Ghaneian

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: Melia azedarach ash is an effective adsorbent in removal of hexavalent chromium from synthetic electroplating industries wastewater. In addition, the use of this biosorbent in preparation and application aspects is simple and cheap compared to many other natural and man-made adsorbent.

  13. Removal of Sulphate and Manganese on Synthetic Wastewater in Sulphate Reducing Bioreactor Using Indonesian Natural Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Retnaningrum

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted to investigate sulphate and manganese removal from synthetic wastewater. The continuous laboratory scale of down-flow fluidized-bed reactor (DFBR using sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB consortium and Indonesian natural zeolite as a bacterial support material was designed. At 9 days operation, maximum sulphate and manganese removal was observed to be 23% and 15.4%, respectively. The pH values were also changed to neutral. The population of SRB increased which effect on the raising of their activity for removing sulphate and manganese. Using the scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, it was observed that natural zeolite possesses excellent physical characteristics as a bacterial support material in DFBR. The imaging SEM result of SRB consortium on zeolite surface clearly showed the developed SRB biofilm on that particle. Analysis result of EDX confirmed that manganese was precipitated as manganese–sulfides.

  14. Performance of suspended and attached growth MBR systems in treating high strength synthetic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal Khan, S; Ilyas, Shazia; Javid, Sadaf; Visvanathan, C; Jegatheesan, V

    2011-05-01

    The performance of laboratory-scale attached growth (AG) and suspended growth (SG) membrane bioreactors (MBRs) was evaluated in treating synthetic wastewater simulating high strength domestic wastewater. This study investigated the influence of sponge suspended carriers in AG-MBR system, occupying 15% reactor volume, on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), and compared it to that of SG-MBR. Results showed that the removal efficiencies of COD, TN and TP in AG-MBR were 98%, 89% and 58%, respectively as compared to 98%, 74% and 38%, respectively in SG-MBR. Improved TN removal in AG-MBR systems was primarily based on simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) process. These results infer that the presence of small bio-particles having higher microbial activity and the growth of complex biomass captured within the suspended sponge carriers resulted in improved TN and TP removal in AG-MBR. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Removal of chromium from synthetic wastewater using MFI zeolite membrane supported on inexpensive tubular ceramic substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vinoth Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A mordenite framework inverted (MFI type zeolite membrane was produced on inexpensive tubular ceramic substrate through hydrothermal synthesis and applied for the removal of chromium from synthetic wastewater. The fabricated ceramic substrate and membrane was characterized by diverse standard techniques such as X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, porosity, water permeability and pore size measurements. The porosity of the ceramic substrate (53% was reduced by the deposition of MFI (51% zeolite layer. The pore size and water permeability of the membrane was evaluated as 0.272 μm and 4.43 × 10–7 m3/m2s.kPa, respectively, which are lower than that of the substrate pore size (0.309 μm and water permeability (5.93 × 10–7 m3/m2s.kPa values. To identify the effectiveness of the prepared membrane, the applied pressure of the filtration process and initial chromium concentration and cross flow rate were varied to study their influence on the permeate flux and percentage of removal. The maximum removal of chromium achieved was 78% under an applied pressure of 345 kPa and an initial feed concentration of 1,000 ppm. Finally, the efficiency of the membrane for chromium removal was assessed with other membranes reported in the literature.

  16. Phytoremediation potential of Arundo donax in arsenic-contaminated synthetic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Nosheen; Mahmood, Qaisar; Pervez, Arshid; Ahmad, Raza; Farooq, Robina; Shah, Mohammad Maroof; Azim, Muhammad Rashid

    2010-08-01

    The present study reports the potential of Arundo donax for phytoextraction of arsenic from synthetic wastewater. A. donax plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in pots containing a nutrient solution amended with increasing doses of As (0, 50, 100, 300, 600 and 1000 microg L(-1)) for 21 days in a completely randomized design. Shoot and roots dry matter production, growth parameters, arsenic and nutrient tissue concentrations were measured at the end of the experiment. Increasing As concentration in nutrient solution caused an increase in shoot and root biomass without toxicity symptoms in A. donax growing under a range of As concentration from 50 to 600 microg L(-1). Elevated oxidative stress was observed at As supplied level of 1000 microg L(-1). The As doses up to 600 microg L(-1) did not affect the growth of A. donax. It is suggested that A. donax plants may be employed to treat contaminated waters containing arsenic concentrations up to 600 microg L(-1). (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Performance evaluation of reverse osmosis technology for selected antibiotics removal from synthetic pharmaceutical wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholami Mitra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study addresses the possibility for low pressure reverse osmosis membrane (RE 2521, CSM process to serve as an alternative to remove selected antibiotics (ampicillin and amoxicillin from synthetic wastewater by changing operating conditions such as pH = 3, 6.5 and 10; Pressure = 9, 11 and13 (bar; antibiotic concentration = 10, 255 and 500(mg/L, and temperature = 20, 30 and 40°C. The experiment was designed based on Box-benken, which is a Response Surface methodology design (RSM, using Design Expert software. The concentration of antibiotics was measured by applying a UV-spectrophotometer (Cecil, at the wavelength of 254 nm. Results showed a range of rejection percentage from 73.52% to 99.36% and 75.1% to 98.8%, for amoxicillin and ampicillin, respectively. Considering the solute rejections and the membrane porosity show that the prevailing rejection mechanism of the examined antibiotics by the membrane was the size exclusion effect. The permeate flux for both of the antibiotics was 12–18.73 L/m2.h. Although the permeate flux and antibiotic rejection are influenced by operating pressure, pH, and temperature individually, the interaction between operating parameters did not have noticeable effects. According to the results obtained in this study, the application of RO membrane is recommended for the selected antibiotics to be removed to a considerable degree (up to 95%.

  18. Development of biochar and chitosan blend for heavy metals uptake from synthetic and industrial wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Athar; Maitra, Jaya; Khan, Kashif Ali

    2017-12-01

    Heavy metals are usually released into water bodies from industrial/domestic effluents such as metal plating industries, mining and tanneries. Adsorption is a fundamental process in the physiochemical treatment of wastewaters because of its low cost. Great efforts have been made to use the economically efficient and unconventional adsorbents to adsorb heavy metals from aqueous solutions, such as plant wastes and agricultural waste. Biochar mixed with chitosan after crosslinking can be casted into membranes, beads and solutions which can be effectively utilized as an adsorbent for metal ion uptake. Keeping these facts into consideration, the present study was undertaken with the objective to determine the effect of various proportions of biochar-modified chitosan membranes on the sorption characteristics of different heavy metals like Cu, Pb, As and Cd along with comparison of sorption characteristics between industrial waste water samples containing multi-metals and standard synthetic stock solution containing a particular metal. It is apparent from the results that the bioadsorbent prepared from biochar and chitosan are low-cost efficacious resource due to its easy availability. It is also eco-friendly material for making adsorbent for abstraction of heavy metals from aqueous solution. This adsorbent can be best utilized for adsorption of heavy metals.

  19. The startup performance and microbial distribution of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) treating medium-strength synthetic industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Nie, Hong; Ding, Jiangtao; Stinner, Walter; Sun, Kaixuan; Zhou, Hongjun

    2018-01-02

    In this study, an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) with seven chambers was applied to treat medium-strength synthetic industrial wastewater (MSIW). The performance of startup and shock test on treating MSIW was investigated. During the acclimation process, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of MSIW gradually increased from 0 to 2,000 mg L -1 , and the COD removal finally reached 90%. At shock test, the feeding COD concentration increased by one-fifth and the reactor adapted very well with a COD removal of 82%. In a stable state, Comamonas, Smithella, Syntrophomonas and Pseudomonas were the main populations of bacteria, while the predominant methanogen was Methanobacterium. The results of chemical and microbiological analysis indicated the significant advantages of ABR, including buffering shocks, separating stages with matching microorganisms and promoting syntrophism. Meanwhile, the strategies for acclimation and operation were of great importance. Further work can test reactor performance in the treatment of actual industrial wastewater.

  20. Removal and Degradation Pathways of Sulfamethoxazole Present in Synthetic Municipal Wastewater via an Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor

    KAUST Repository

    Sanchez Huerta, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    The current global water crisis in addition to continues contamination of natural water bodies with harmful organic micropollutants (OMPs) have driven the development of new water treatment technologies that allow the efficient removal of such compounds. Among a long list of OMPs, antibiotics are considered as top priority pollutants to be treated due to their great resistance to biological treatments and their potential to develop bacterial resistance. Different approaches, such as membrane-based and advance oxidation processes have been proposed to alleviate or minimize antibiotics discharge into aquatic environments. However most of these processes are costly and generate either matrices with high concentration of OMPs or intermediate products with potentially greater toxicity or persistence. Therefore, this thesis proposes the study of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for the treatment of synthetic municipal wastewater containing sulfamethoxazole (SMX), a world widely used antibiotic. Besides the general evaluation of AnMBR performance in the COD removal and biogas production, this research mainly focuses on the SMX removal and its degradation pathway. Thus 5 SMX quantification was performed through solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and the identification of its transformation products (TPs) was assessed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. The results achieved showed that, working under optimal conditions (35°C, pH 7 and ORP around -380 to -420 mV) and after a biomass adaptation period (maintaining 0.85 VSS/TSS ratio), the AnMBR process provided over 95% COD removal and 95-98% SMX removal, while allowing stable biogas composition and methane production (≈130 mL CH4/g CODremoved). Kinetic analysis through a batch test showed that after 24 h of biological reaction, AnMBR process achieved around 94% SMX removal, indicating a first order kinetic reaction with K= 0.119, which highlights the high degradation

  1. Strategic Design of Synthetic Consortium with embedded Wastewater Treatment Potential: Deciphering the Competence of Isolates from Diverse Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha eDahiya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms plays vital role in efficient biological treatment. Supplementation of external microorganisms with high degradation rates can enhance the process efficiency significantly. Potential strains were isolated from long term wastewater treating reactors and identified using phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments with the nearest neighbours extracted during BLAST search. Later the study was designed in two phases which revealed interesting findings. Phase I evaluates the potential of isolated strains viz., Pseudomonas otitidis, Bacillus firmus, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus circulans for their individual ability in terms of COD and nutrients removal. Bacillus circulans showed highest carbon (COD removal (70%; 0.56 kg CODR/m3-day, while maximum nutrients removal (nitrate, 81%; phosphates, 90% was observed with Bacillus subtilis. B. firmus showed maximum volatile fatty acid (VFA production. Based on Phase I results, four synthetic consortia were designed in phase II with diverse combination of isolates and evaluated for its remediation efficiencies. Consortium 4 (P. otitidis, B. subtilis and B. firmus illustrated higher treatment potential [COD, 86%; SDR (cum: 0.64 kg CODR/m3-day; Nitrates, 87%; Phosphates, 97%]. The exploitation of such explicit consortia can overcome the inefficiencies pre-existing with the biological wastewater treatment plants by acting as prospective candidates for bio-augmenting the native microflora. This communication illustrated development of the efficient consortia using lab isolated strains to improve the performance of wastewater treatment.

  2. Research on sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) for synthetic and municipal wastewater treatment in biological aerated filter (BAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaqin; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Renbo; Yue, Min; Han, Shuxin; Gao, Baoyu; Li, Qian; Yu, Hui

    2009-11-01

    Sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) and clay ceramic particles (CCP) were employed in two lab-scale up-flow biological aerated filters (BAF) for wastewater treatment to investigate the availability of SFCP used as biofilm support compared with CCP. For synthetic wastewater, under the selected hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 1.5, 0.75 and 0.37 h, respectively, the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD(Cr)) and ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)(+)-N) in SFCP reactor were all higher than those of CCP reactor all through the media height. Moreover, better capabilities responding to loading shock and faster recovery after short intermittence were observed in the SFCP reactor compared with the CCP reactor. For municipal wastewater treatment, which was carried out under HRT of 0.75 h, air-liquid ratio of 7.5 and backwashing period of 48 h, the SFCP reactor also performed better than the CCP reactor, especially for the removal of NH(4)(+)-N.

  3. Comparison of two anaerobic systems for hydrogen production from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and synthetic wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alzate-Gaviria, Liliana M. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Universidad Politecnica de Chiapas, 29010 Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Perez-Hernandez, Antonino [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31109 (Mexico); Eapen, D. [Universidad Politecnica de Chiapas, 29010 Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    Two laboratory scale anaerobic digestion systems for hydrogen production from organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and synthetic wastewater were compared in this study. One of them was formed by a coupled packed bed reactor (PBR) containing 19.4 L of OFMSW and the other an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) of 3.85 L. The reactors were inoculated with a mixture of non-anaerobic inocula. In the UASB the percentage of hydrogen yield reached 51% v/v and 127NmLH{sub 2}/gvs removed with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h. The concentration of synthetic wastewater in the affluent was 7 g COD/L. For the PBR the percentage yield was 47% v/v and 99NmLH{sub 2}/gvs removed with a mass retention time (MRT) of 50 days and the organic load rate of 16 gvs (Grams Volatile Solids)/(kg-day). The UASB and PBR systems presented maximum hydrogen yields of 30% and 23%, respectively, which correspond to 4molH{sub 2}/mol glucose. These values are similar to those reported in the literature for the hydrogen yield (37%) in mesophilic range. The acetic and butyric acids were present in the effluent as by-products in watery phase. In this work we used non-anaerobic inocula made up of microorganism consortium unlike other works where pure inocula or that from anaerobic sludge was used. (author)

  4. Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) for the removal of Hg2+ and Cd2+ from synthetic petrochemical factory wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Hasani, Amirhesam; Eisakhani, Mahdieh; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We assessed SBR performances to treat synthetic wastewater containing Hg 2+ and Cd 2+ . → SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg 2+ and 96-98% of Cd 2+ . → COD removal efficiency and MLVSS was affected by Hg 2+ and Cd 2+ concentrations. → Removal was not only biological process but also by biosorption process of sludge. - Abstract: Petrochemical factories which manufacture vinyl chloride monomer and poly vinyl chloride (PVC) are among the largest industries which produce wastewater contains mercury and cadmium. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of a lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) to treat a synthetic petrochemical wastewater containing mercury and cadmium. After acclimatization of the system which lasted 60 days, the SBR was introduced to mercury and cadmium in low concentrations which then was increased gradually to 9.03 ± 0.02 mg/L Hg and 15.52 ± 0.02 mg/L Cd until day 110. The SBR performance was assessed by measuring Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total and Volatile Suspended Solids as well as Sludge Volume Index. At maximum concentrations of the heavy metals, the SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg 2+ and 96-98% of Cd 2+ . The COD removal efficiency and MLVSS (microorganism population) in the SBR was affected by mercury and cadmium concentrations in influent. Different species of microorganisms such as Rhodospirilium-like bacteria, Gomphonema-like algae, and sulfate reducing-like bacteria were identified in the system. While COD removal efficiency and MLVSS concentration declined during addition of heavy metals, the appreciable performance of SBR in removal of Hg 2+ and Cd 2+ implies that the removal in SBR was not only a biological process, but also by the biosorption process of the sludge.

  5. Fate of synthetic musks in a domestic wastewater treatment plant and in an agricultural field amended with biosolids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.-J.; Metcalfe, Chris D.

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic musks are widely used as fragrance ingredients in personal care products, and they enter domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through discharges into municipal sewage systems. Samples of aqueous sewage and biosolids collected from the Peterborough Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP), Ontario, Canada were analyzed for 11 synthetic musk compounds using GC/MS. The results showed that 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyrane (HHCB, 173.1 ± 43.4 ng/L) and 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN, 41.6 ± 15.8 ng/L) were the dominant fragrances in sewage, but other polycyclic musks and nitro musks were present at lower concentrations. The concentrations of HHCB and AHTN in the aqueous phase of the sewage were highly correlated with both BOD 5 and TOC. The overall removal efficiency of synthetic musks from the aqueous sewage in the WWTP ranged from 43.3% to 56.9%, but removal occurred mainly by partitioning into the biosolids. Based on a mass balance model, the daily input and output of HHCB and AHTN in the Peterborough WWTP were 47 g and 46 g, respectively. In an agricultural field amended with biosolids from the Peterborough WWTP, HHCB and AHTN were detected in soil immediately after application at mean concentrations of 1.0 and 1.3 μg/kg, respectively, but concentrations declined relatively rapidly over the next 6 weeks, post-application

  6. Anaerobic granular sludge for simultaneous biomethanation of synthetic wastewater and CO with focus on the identification of CO-converting microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jing, Yuhang; Campanaro, Stefano; Kougias, Panagiotis

    2017-01-01

    to suspended sludge (less than 0.25 atm) as previously reported. Continuous experiments in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors showed AGS could efficiently convert synthetic wastewater and CO into methane by applying gas-recirculation. The addition of CO to UASB reactor enhanced...

  7. New insights into comparison between synthetic and practical municipal wastewater in cake layer characteristic analysis of membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lijie; Zhuang, Wei-Qin; Wang, Xin; Yu, Ke; Yang, Shufang; Xia, Siqing

    2017-11-01

    In previous studies, cake layer analysis in membrane bioreactor (MBR) was both carried out with synthetic and practical municipal wastewater (SMW and PMW), leading to different results. This study aimed to identify the comparison between SMW and PMW in cake layer characteristic analysis of MBR. Two laboratory-scale anoxic/oxic MBRs were operated for over 90days with SMW and PMW, respectively. Results showed that PMW led to rough cake layer surface with particles, and the aggravation of cake layer formation with thinner and denser cake layer. Additionally, inorganic components, especially Si and Al, in PMW accumulated into cake layer and strengthened the cake layer structure, inducing severer biofouling. However, SMW promoted bacterial metabolism during cake layer formation, thus aggravated the accumulation of organic components into cake layer. Therefore, SMW highlighted the organic components in cake layer, but weakened the inorganic functions in practical MBR operation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthetic olive mill wastewater treatment by Fenton's process in batch and continuous reactors operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Bruno M; Rodrigues, Carmen S D; Madeira, Luís M

    2017-11-04

    Degradation of total phenol (TPh) and organic matter, (expressed as total organic carbon TOC), of a simulated olive mill wastewater was evaluated by the Fenton oxidation process under batch and continuous mode conditions. A mixture of six phenolic acids usually found in these agro-industrial wastewaters was used for this purpose. The study focused on the optimization of key operational parameters of the Fenton process in a batch reactor, namely Fe 2+ dosage, hydrogen peroxide concentration, pH, and reaction temperature. On the assessment of the process efficiency, > 99% of TPh and > 56% of TOC removal were attained when [Fe 2+ ] = 100 ppm, [H 2 O 2 ] = 2.0 g/L, T = 30 °C, and initial pH = 5.0, after 300 min of reaction. Under those operational conditions, experiments on a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) were performed for different space-time values (τ). TOC and TPh removals of 47.5 and 96.9%, respectively, were reached at steady-state (for τ = 120 min). High removal of COD (> 75%) and BOD 5 (> 70%) was achieved for both batch and CSTR optimum conditions; analysis of the BOD 5 /COD ratio also revealed an increase in the effluent's biodegradability. Despite the high removal of lumped parameters, the treated effluent did not met the Portuguese legal limits for direct discharge of wastewaters into water bodies, which indicates that coupled chemical-biological process may be the best solution for real olive mill wastewater treatment.

  9. Determine the Intensity of UV Radiation and H2O2 on the Removal of Methylene Blue from Synthetic Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hosseini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a tremendous amount of color in textile wastewater that discharge it to the environment can cause a lot of environmental problems. The aim of this study is to evaluate the photocatalytic process UV/H2O2 to remove methylene blue dye from synthetic wastewater. Methods: UVC lamp was used as light source. In this study the effect of UV light intensity, irradiation distance, hydrogen peroxide concentration, and reaction time on the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions were studied. Data was analyzed by SPSS 18 and excel software. Results: The result showed that with increasing concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the color removal increases. Color removal changes were negligible at H2O2 concentration more than 5 mM. After 10 minutes reaction time at H2O2 concentration of 1 mm, efficiency of UVC/H2O2 is equal to 36.6%. Whilst at 5 mM concentration, removal efficiency is 89.2%. By increasing intensity of UV radiation, dye removal measure is also was increased, as the highest percentage of dye removal was obtained at 24 W radiation intensity. Conclusion: in present study, type of radiation and measure of hydrogen peroxide were the main factors in removal of methylene blue. Due to high efficiency of UVC/H2O2 process in removal of dye from aqueous solution, this method can use as an efficient process for removal of dye.

  10. Enhanced energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater by sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and algal lipid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong-Yu; Liu, Bing-Feng; Kong, Fanying; Zhao, Lei; Xing, Defeng; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2014-04-01

    A two-stage process of sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and microalgal cultivation was applied to enhance the energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater. Ethanol fermentation bacterium Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 was used as hydrogen producer, and the energy conversion efficiency and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency reached 18.6% and 28.3% in dark fermentation. Acetate was the main soluble product in dark fermentative effluent, which was further utilized by microalga Scenedesmus sp. R-16. The final algal biomass concentration reached 1.98gL(-1), and the algal biomass was rich in lipid (40.9%) and low in protein (23.3%) and carbohydrate (11.9%). Compared with single dark fermentation stage, the energy conversion efficiency and COD removal efficiency of two-stage system remarkably increased 101% and 131%, respectively. This research provides a new approach for efficient energy production and wastewater treatment using a two-stage process combining dark fermentation and algal cultivation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of adsorption using granular activated carbon (GAC) for the enhancement of removal of chromium from synthetic wastewater by electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek Narayanan, N; Ganesan, Mahesh

    2009-01-15

    The present work deals with removal of hexavalent chromium from synthetic effluents in a batch stirred electrocoagulation cell with iron-aluminium electrode pair coupled with adsorption using granular activated carbon (GAC). Several working parameters such as pH, current density, adsorbent concentration and operating time were studied in an attempt to achieve higher removal capacity. Results obtained with synthetic wastewater revealed that most effective removal capacities of chromium (VI) could be achieved when the initial pH was near 8. The removal of chromium (VI) during electrocoagulation, is due to the combined effect of chemical precipitation, coprecipitation, sweep coagulation and adsorption. In addition, increasing current density in a range of 6.7-26.7mA/cm2 and operating time from 20 to 100min enhanced the treatment rate to reduce metal ion concentration below admissible legal levels. The addition of GAC as adsorbent resulted in remarkable increase in the removal rate of chromium at lower current densities and operating time, than the conventional electrocoagulation process. The method was found to be highly efficient and relatively fast compared to existing conventional techniques.

  12. Investigation of Pb(II Removal from Synthetic Wastewater by Using Azolla Filiculoides Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Balarak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Discharge of industrial wastewater containing Pb into the environment can have harmful effects in the live organisms. Therefore, Pb must be removed from polluted water using an effective method before being discharged into the environment. The purpose of the present study was to examine Pb removal using alga Azolla biomass. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, removal of Pb(II was performed using Azolla biomass considering changes in time, pH, adsorbent dose, initial concentration of Pb and mixing speed. Experiments were performed in batch reactor in flasks on Shaker. , Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used for Pb determination. All experiments were conducted in triplicate and the mean removal percent was reported. Finally, biosorption kinetic and equilibrium isotherms of adsorbent was investigated. Results: It was found that the higher removal efficiency of Pb occurred in pH 6 and aoptimum dsorbent dose 7 g/L. With increase in the initial concentration of Pb, removal efficincy decreased and with increasing of contact time and mixing speed,efficincy increased. Data also showed that the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo second-order kinetic are compliance. Conclusion: Azolla biomass is an efficient and low-cost adsorbent for removing of Pb (II from water and wastewater.

  13. An integrated remediation system using synthetic and natural zeolites for treatment of wastewater and contaminated sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios Reyes, Carlos; Appasamy, Danen; Clive, Roberts

    2011-01-01

    The major sources of water pollution can be classified as municipal, industrial, and agricultural. Different types of polluted aqueous effluents and sediments may be produced, which contain relatively high levels of heavy metals. During the 1990s, the large-scale development of constructed wetlands around the world drew much attention from public and environmental groups. The present study looks at the use of an integrated remediation system using zeolites for the treatment of wastewater and sediments. Zeolites have been widely studied in the past 10 years due to their attractive properties such as molecular-sieving, high cation exchange capacities, and their affinity for heavy metals. Coal industry by-products-based zeolites (faujasite type) have been tested as an effective and low-cost novel alternative for wastewater treatment, particularly their removing of heavy metals. On the other hand, a preliminary laboratory-scale experiment was conducted on the use of natural zeolites (clinoptilolite type) for the retention of heavy metals from canal sediments. Experimental work revealed promising results, which could be replicated on a bigger scale. Although this has been developed for canal sediments, the remediation strategy can be adapted to different waterways such as rivers. The development of the proposed remediation system in a specific experimental site as the major part of an innovation park can provide great benefits to a population living near contaminated effluents. It provides not only opportunities for the mitigation of environmental impact, improving water quality and landscape amenity, but also allows for several recreational opportunities

  14. Performance analysis of a continuous serpentine flow reactor for electrochemical oxidation of synthetic and real textile wastewater: Energy consumption, mass transfer coefficient and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Indu M Sasidharan; Gupta, Ashok K

    2017-05-15

    A continuous flow electrochemical reactor was developed, and its application was tested for the treatment of textile wastewater. A parallel plate configuration with serpentine flow was chosen for the continuous flow reactor. Uniparameter optimization was carried out for electrochemical oxidation of synthetic and real textile wastewater (collected from the inlet of the effluent treatment plant). Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency of 90% was achieved for synthetic textile wastewater (initial COD - 780 mg L -1 ) at a flow rate of 500 mL h -1 (retention time of 6 h) and a current density of 1.15 mA cm -2 and the energy consumption for the degradation was 9.2 kWh (kg COD) -1 . The complete degradation of real textile wastewater (initial COD of 368 mg L -1 ) was obtained at a current density of 1.15 mA cm -2 , NaCl concentration of 1 g L -1 and retention time of 6 h. Energy consumption and mass transfer coefficient of the reactions were calculated. The continuous flow reactor performed better than batch reactor with reference to energy consumption and economy. The overall treatment cost for complete COD removal of real textile wastewater was 5.83 USD m -3 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adsorption studies on fruits of Gular (Ficus glomerata): Removal of Cr(VI) from synthetic wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Rifaqat A.K.; Rehman, Fouzia

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of Cr(VI) was studied in batch system using fruits of Ficus glomerata as adsorbent. The effect of temperature, pH, initial Cr(VI) concentration and time was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to investigate surface morphology and active functional groups present on the adsorbent surface. Thermodynamic parameters like free energy change (ΔG 0 ), enthalpy (ΔH 0 ) and entropy (ΔS 0 ) indicate the spontaneous, endothermic and increased randomness nature of Cr(VI) adsorption. Equilibrium data were fitted well with Langmuir isotherm at 50 deg. C. The magnitude of mean free energy indicates chemical nature of adsorption. The breakthrough and exhaustive capacities were found to be 5 and 23.1 mg g -1 respectively. The applicability of the adsorbent has been demonstrated by removing Cr(VI) from electroplating wastewater.

  16. Synthetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally materials have been associated with a series of physical properties that can be used as inputs to production and manufacturing. Recently we witnessed an interest in materials considered not only as ‘true matter’, but also as new breeds where geometry, texture, tooling and finish are able to provoke new sensations when they are applied to a substance. These artificial materials can be described as synthetic because they are the outcome of various qualities that are not necessarily true to the original matter, but they are the combination of two or more parts, whether by design or by natural processes. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of architectural surfaces to produce effects through the invention of new breeds of artificial matter, using micro-scale details derived from Nature as an inspiration.

  17. DI-(2-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION BY FENTON PROCESS IN SYNTHETIC AND REAL PETROCHEMICAL WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Esmaeli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Di-(2-Ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP belongs to the class of phthalate esters and is used as an additive in many products including plastics, paints and inks or as a solvent in industrial formulations. The degradation of DEHP in aqueous solution using oxidative Fenton reaction (H2O2/Fe2+ was carried out in this study. It was found that H2O2 concentration, Fe2+ concentration, and pH were the three main factors that could significantly influence the degradation rates of DEHP. The highest degradation percentage (85.6 % of DEHP was observed within 60 min at pH 3 in H2O2/Fe2+ system. The results of our study suggested that the concentration with 90 mg/L H2O2, 5 mg/L Fe2+, and 20 mg/L DEHP in the solution at pH 3 were the optimal conditions. The optimized reaction parameters were preceded for treatment of real wastewater obtained from a petrochemical plant.

  18. Biosorption of styrene from synthetic wastewater by sugar cane waste(Bagass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hassanzadeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, styrene removal from wastewater by using sugarcane waste (bagasse as an adsorbent was studied. Equilibrium isotherms and kinetics were determined; the effects of bagasse particle size and concentration, solutions pH, and temperature on the biosorption of styrene were studied in batch experiments. Adsorption equilibrium data was successfully fitted to Langmuir isotherms (R2=0.986 and Freundlich isotherms (R2=0.96. Also, the kinetics of biosorption was fitted to pseudo-second order equations (K2=0.00146 g mg-1 min-1, qe=24.5 mg g-1 for particle size range of 88-105 μm. According to the obtained results, an empirical equation was presented that could be used to calculate the percentage of styrene adsorption. The results showed that an increase in temperature caused a decrease in styrene removal. Moreover, maximum uptake was observed with NaOH-treated bagasse. It was found that an increase in average particle size decreased the biosorption rate. According to the calculated heat of adsorption, this sorption can be classified as a chemical biosorption. The optimum uptake was determined to be 88% at a pH equal to 12.1, a temperature of 35 oC, a particle size of 420-500 μm, and a bagasse concentration of 1 g L-1.

  19. Synthesis of malachite@clay nanocomposite for rapid scavenging of cationic and anionic dyes from synthetic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Varsha; Sillanpää, Mika

    2017-01-01

    Synthesis of malachite@clay nanocomposite was successfully carried out for the removal of cationic (Methylene Blue, MB) and anionic dyes (Congo Red, CR) from synthetic wastewater. Nanocomposite was characterized by TEM, SEM, FT-IR, EDS analysis and zeta potential. TEM analysis indicated that the particle diameter of nanocomposite was in the range of 14 to 23nm. Various important parameters viz. contact time, concentration of dyes, nanocomposite dosage, temperature and solution pH were optimized to achieve maximum adsorption capacity. In the case of MB, removal decreased from 99.82% to 93.67% while for CR, removal decreased from 88.55% to 75.69% on increasing dye concentration from 100 to 450mg/L. pH study confirmed the higher removal of CR in acidic range while MB removal was higher in alkaline range. Kinetic study revealed the applicability of pseudo-second-order model for the adsorption of both dyes. Negative values of ΔG 0 for both systems suggested the feasibility of dye removal and support for spontaneous adsorption of CR and MB on nanocomposite. Nanocomposite showed 277.77 and 238.09mg/g Langmuir adsorption capacity for MB and CR respectively. Desorption of dyes from the dye loaded nanocomposite was easily carried out with acetone. The results indicate that the prepared malachite@clay nanocomposite is an efficient adsorbent with high adsorption capacity for the aforementioned dyes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Kinetic Modeling of Synthetic Wastewater Treatment by the Moving-bed Sequential Continuous-inflow Reactor (MSCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Khani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It was the objective of the present study to conduct a kinetic modeling of a Moving-bed Sequential Continuous-inflow Reactor (MSCR and to develop its best prediction model. For this purpose, a MSCR consisting of an aerobic-anoxic pilot 50 l in volume and an anaerobic pilot of 20 l were prepared. The MSCR was fed a variety of organic loads and operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRT using synthetic wastewater at input COD concentrations of 300 to 1000 mg/L with HRTs of 2 to 5 h. Based on the results and the best system operation conditions, the highest COD removal (98.6% was obtained at COD=500 mg/L. The three well-known first order, second order, and Stover-Kincannon models were utilized for the kinetic modeling of the reactor. Based on the kinetic analysis of organic removal, the Stover-Kincannon model was chosen for the kinetic modeling of the moving bed biofilm. Given its advantageous properties in the statisfactory prediction of organic removal at different organic loads, this model is recommended for the design and operation of MSCR systems.

  1. Different depth intermittent sand filters for laboratory treatment of synthetic wastewater with concentrations close to measured septic tank effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, M; Walsh, G; Healy, M G

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to apply hydraulic and chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rates at the upper limits of the design criteria for buried sand filters to test the sand filter depth design criteria. Over a 274-day study duration, synthetic effluent with a strength of domestic wastewater was intermittently dosed onto two sand filters of 0.2 m diameter, with depths of 0.3 and 0.4 m. Hydraulic and organic carbon loading rates of 105 L m(-2) d(-1) and 40 g COD m(-2) d(-1), respectively, were applied to the filters. The filters did not clog and had good effluent removal capabilities for 274 and 190 days, respectively. However, the 0.3 m-deep filter did experience a reduced performance towards the end of the study period. In the 0.3 and 0.4 m-deep filters, the effluent COD and SS concentrations were less than 86 and 31 mg L(-1), respectively, and nitrification was nearly complete in both these columns. Ortho-phosphorus (PO(4)-P) removal in fine sand and laterite 'upflow' filters, receiving effluent from the 0.3 m-deep filter, was 10% and 44%, respectively.

  2. Impact of synthetic or real urban wastewater on membrane bioreactor (MBR) performances and membrane fouling under stable conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villain, Maud; Bourven, Isabelle; Guibaud, Gilles; Marrot, Benoît

    2014-03-01

    Influence of substrate type (synthetic (SWW) or real wastewater (RWW)) on lab scale MBR performances (e.g. COD and N-NH4(+) removal rates and bioactivities) was assessed. Membrane fouling was related to MBR biological medium characteristics. With RWW, autotrophic biomass was better acclimated with complete ammonium removal. MBR biological medium was characterized by main soluble microbial products (SMP) (proteins, polysaccharides and humic-like substances) quantification and molecular weights (MW) distribution determination. The biological medium of SWW acclimation contained 60mgL(-1) more of SMP, mainly composed of proteins and polysaccharides. A protein fraction having high MW (>600kDa) could be responsible for higher removable fouling fraction in that case. SMP of RWW experiment were mainly composed of small proteic and humic-like fractions, poorly retained by the membrane and resulting in a weak augmentation of irremovable and irreversible fouling fractions compared to SWW acclimation. Therefore RWW utilization is preferable to approach real operating MBR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Removal of 4-chlorophenol from synthetic wastewater by the granulated graphene oxide nano particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Eslami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: 4-chlorophenols one of the most common pollutants in wastewater is generated from the chemical and petrochemical industries. It is due to the presence of chloride and benzene ring is resistant to biodegradation. In this study, the use of granulated graphene oxide nano particles as an adsorbent nanostructure with better properties than other adsorbents for Removal of 4- chlorophenol from aqueous solution were investigated Methods: This research was implemented during the year 2013-2014 where the Granules of Graphene oxide nanoparticles were prepared using sodium silicate and X-ray diffraction techniques and electron microscope were used to identify the morphology and structure of the adsorbent of.  Parameters  affecting the adsorption process such as initial concentration of  4-chlorophenol(5,10,15,20,25,30mg/L, amount of adsorbent(20,40,60,80% by weight, contact time (3,5,10,20,30 min and pH(4,6,7,8,9 were investigated by changing one factor at a time. Finally, the data fitness with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were showed. Results: Adsorption process reached to equilibrium after 20 minutes. 2 g/L of graphene oxide granules at 3 minutes and 7 = pH could remove 5 mg/L 4-chlorophenol up to 58%. Freundlich isotherm have describing adsorption process and R2 =0.92. Conclusion: Absorbed process by the granules of Graphene oxide nanoparticles is low-cost high-efficiency and it could used to reduce and eliminate environmental pollutants particularly aqueous solutions.  

  4. Removal of Reactive Red 141 Dye from Synthetic Wastewater by Electrocoagulation Process: Investigation of Operational Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Rahmanpour Salmani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Release of textile industries waste especially their dying effluent impose a serious pollution on the environment. Reactive dyes are one of the most used dyes which are recalcitrant to conventional treatment processes. In the performed project, the effectiveness of electrocoagulation process was studied on decolorization. RR141 was selected as model dye and treatment process was performed in a simple batch of electrocoagulation (EC cell using iron electrodes. Central Composite Design (CCD was used to plan study runs. Experiments were done under 5 levels of various operational parameters at bench scale. Initial concentration of dye was varied among 50 and 500ppm, pH ranging from 4-12; retention time was ranged between 3-30 minutes, 1-3cm was selected as the distance between electrodes, and current intensity studied under the range of 5-30 mA/cm2. EC treatment process of dyestuff wastewater was satisfactory at high levels of current density, pH, and retention time. While increasing the initial dye concentration and electrodes gap had a negative effect on decolorization performance. Determined optimal conditions to treat 200ml of sample were including pH: 9.68, electrode gap: 1.58cm, dye concentration: 180ppm, retention time: 10.82 minutes, and current intensity: 22.76mA/cm2. Successful removal of the model dye about 99.88% was recorded in the mentioned values of variables. Simple design and operation of the experiments can be an interesting option for implementation and applying of inexpensive electrocoagulation treatment process which was successful to reach nearly a complete decolorization.

  5. Removal of pharmaceutical pollutants from synthetic wastewater using chemically modified biomass of green alga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohamed E M; Abd El-Aty, Azza M; Badawy, Mohamed I; Ali, Rizka K

    2018-04-30

    Pharmaceutical compounds are considered emerging environmental pollutants that have a potential harmful impact on environment and human health. In this study, the biomass of alga (Scenedesmus obliquus) was modified using alkaline solution, and used for the biosorption of tramadol (TRAM) and other pharmaceuticals. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms were investigated. The obtained results reveal high adsorption capacity of tramadol over modified algal biomass (MAB) after 45min with removal percentage of 91%. Pseudo-second order model was well fitted with the experimental data with correlation coefficient (0.999). Biosorption of tramadol on modified algal biomass proceeds with Freundlich isotherm model with correlation coefficient (0.942) that emphasized uptake of TRAM by MAB is driven by chemisorption. FTIR spectra of MAB before and after the adsorption were analyzed; some IR bands were detected with slight shift and low intensity suggesting their involving in adsorption. The tramadol biosorption by MAB is a chemical process as confirmed by Dubinin-Radushkevich. The adsorption of pharmaceutical over MAB is mainly preceded by hydrophilic interactions between amino and carbonyl groups in pharmaceutical molecules and hydroxyl and carbonyl functional groups on surface of biosorbent. It was emphasized by disappearance O-H and C-O from biomass IR spectra after adsorption. In matrix of pharmaceutical, the recorded adsorption capacities for CEFA, PARA, IBU, TRAM and CIP are 68, 58, 42, 42 and 39mg/g over MAB at natural pH and MAB dose of 0.5g/L. Furthermore, oxygen uptake by bacteria was applied for estimate the toxicity of pharmaceutical. The recorded result concluded the efficient reusability of modified algal biomass for biosorption of pharmaceuticals, as well only the adsorption efficiency decreased by 4.5% after three runs. Subsequently, the modified algal biomass is a promising reusable adsorbent for decontamination of wastewater from pharmaceuticals. Copyright

  6. Removal of uranium ions from synthetic wastewater using ZnO/Na-clinoptilolite nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghadavoud, Azadeh; Saraee, Khadijeh Rezaee Ebrahim; Shakur, Hamid Reza; Sayyari, Rasol

    2016-01-01

    Uranium is one of the heavy metals that is found in industrial wastewater and is very toxic for human and environment. In this work, natural clinoptilolite is used as a low-cost adsorbent for uranium removal from aqueous solutions. The sodium form of clinoptilolite and ZnO/Na-clinoptilolite nanocomposite were prepared. The sample sorption capacities for uranium removal from simulated drinking water in the presence of other anions and cations were investigated. Natural zeolite and its modified forms were characterized by XRD, XRF, FTIR, TEM and BET. Batch experiments were used to determine the best adsorption conditions. The effects of various parameters such as contact time, pH, initial uranium concentration, temperature and mass sorbent on the removal efficiency of uranium ions were studied. The equilibration was attained after 2 and 6 h for the Na-clinoptilolite and ZnO/Na-clinoptilolite nanocomposite, respectively. Both adsorbents showed relatively fast adsorption. Effective removal of uranium was demonstrated at pH values of 4-8 for both forms of zeolite. Temperature had no significant effect on adsorption. The maximum removal efficiency of uranium by the ZnO/Na-clinoptilolite nanocomposite in pH=7.2 and room temperature was 98.55%. Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips models were used for describing the equilibrium isotherms for uranium uptake. The Sips model corresponded well with the experimental data. The thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔG , ΔH and ΔS , have been calculated and interpreted. The pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models were applied to describe the kinetic data. The pseudo-second order kinetic model had excellent kinetic data fitting (R2=1).

  7. Removal of uranium ions from synthetic wastewater using ZnO/Na-clinoptilolite nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghadavoud, Azadeh; Saraee, Khadijeh Rezaee Ebrahim; Shakur, Hamid Reza [Isfahan Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Sayyari, Rasol

    2016-07-01

    Uranium is one of the heavy metals that is found in industrial wastewater and is very toxic for human and environment. In this work, natural clinoptilolite is used as a low-cost adsorbent for uranium removal from aqueous solutions. The sodium form of clinoptilolite and ZnO/Na-clinoptilolite nanocomposite were prepared. The sample sorption capacities for uranium removal from simulated drinking water in the presence of other anions and cations were investigated. Natural zeolite and its modified forms were characterized by XRD, XRF, FTIR, TEM and BET. Batch experiments were used to determine the best adsorption conditions. The effects of various parameters such as contact time, pH, initial uranium concentration, temperature and mass sorbent on the removal efficiency of uranium ions were studied. The equilibration was attained after 2 and 6 h for the Na-clinoptilolite and ZnO/Na-clinoptilolite nanocomposite, respectively. Both adsorbents showed relatively fast adsorption. Effective removal of uranium was demonstrated at pH values of 4-8 for both forms of zeolite. Temperature had no significant effect on adsorption. The maximum removal efficiency of uranium by the ZnO/Na-clinoptilolite nanocomposite in pH=7.2 and room temperature was 98.55%. Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips models were used for describing the equilibrium isotherms for uranium uptake. The Sips model corresponded well with the experimental data. The thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔG , ΔH and ΔS , have been calculated and interpreted. The pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models were applied to describe the kinetic data. The pseudo-second order kinetic model had excellent kinetic data fitting (R2=1).

  8. The use of laboratory sand, soil and crushed-glass filter columns for polishing domestic-strength synthetic wastewater that has undergone secondary treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, M G; Burke, P; Rodgers, M

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of intermittently loaded, 150 mm-diameter stratified filter columns of 2 depths (0.65 and 0.375 m) comprising different media--sand, crushed glass and soil--in polishing the effluent from a laboratory horizontal flow biofilm reactor (HFBR) treating synthetic domestic-strength wastewater. The HFBR has been successfully used to remove organic carbon and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) from domestic wastewater. In this treatment method, wastewater is allowed to flow over and back along a stack of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheets. Biofilms on the sheets reduce organic carbon, suspended matter, and nutrients in the wastewater, but to achieve the quality of a septic tank system, additional treatment is required. In all filters, at a hydraulic loading rate of 100 L m(-2) d(-1), 40-65% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and practically 100% of total suspended solids (TSS) were removed, nitrification was complete, and bacterial numbers were reduced by over 80%, with best removals achieved in the soil filters (93%). Soil polishing filters with the depth of 0.65 m performed best in terms of organic carbon, total nitrogen (Tot-N) and bacterial removal. Data from this preliminary study are useful in the design of treatment systems to polish secondary wastewaters with similar water quality characteristics.

  9. Removal of phenol from synthetic wastewater using carbon-mineral composite: Batch mechanisms and composition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Alrozi, Rasyidah; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Han, Tan Yong; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the treatability of composite adsorbent made from waste materials and minerals which is widely available in Malaysia. The composite adsorbent was prepared based on wet attrition method which focuses on the determination of optimum dosage of each of raw materials amount by conventional design of experiment work. Zeolite, activated carbon, rice husk and limestone were ground to obtained particle size of 150 µm. 45.94% zeolite, 15.31% limestone, 4.38% activated carbon, 4.38% rice husk carbon and 30% of ordinary Portland cement (OPC). The mixture was mixed together under pre-determined mixing time. About 60% (by weight) of water was added and the mixture paste was allowed to harden for 24 hours and then submersed in water for three days for curing. Batch experimental study was performed on synthetic dissolving a known amount of solid crystal phenol with distilled water into the volumetric flasks. From the batch experimental study, it was revealed that the optimum shaking speed for removal of phenol was 200 rpm. The removal efficiency was 65%. The optimum shaking time for removing phenol was 60 minutes; the percentage achieved was 55%. The removal efficiency increased with the increased of the amount of composite adsorbent. The removal efficiency for optimum adsorbent dosage achieved 86%. Furthermore, the influence of pH solution was studied. The optimum pH for removing phenol was pH 6, with the removal percentage of 95%. The results implies that carbon-mineral based composite adsorbent is promising replacement for commercial adsorbent that provides alternative source for industrial adsorption application in various types of effluent treatment system.

  10. Synthetic wastewaters treatment by electrocoagulation to remove silver nanoparticles produced by different routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, M S; Melegari, S P; Vicentini, D S; Matias, W G; Ricordel, C; Hauchard, D

    2015-08-15

    Nanoscience is a field that has stood out in recent years. The accurate long-term health and environmental risks associated with these emerging materials are unknown. Therefore, this work investigated how to eliminate silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from synthetic effluents by electrocoagulation (EC) due to the widespread use of this type of nanoparticle (NP) in industry and its potential inhibition power over microorganisms responsible for biological treatment in effluent treatment plants. Synthesized AgNPs were studied via four different routes by chemical reduction in aqueous solutions to simulate the chemical variations of a hypothetical industrial effluent, and efficiency conditions of the EC treatment were determined. All routes used silver nitrate as the source of silver ions, and two synthesis routes were studied with sodium citrate as a stabilizer. In route I, sodium citrate functioned simultaneously as the reducing agent and stabilizing agent, whereas route II used sodium borohydride as a reducing agent. Route III used D-glucose as the reducing agent and sodium pyrophosphate as the stabilizer; route IV used sodium pyrophosphate as the stabilizing agent and sodium borohydride as the reducing agent. The efficiency of the EC process of the different synthesized solutions was studied. For route I, after 85 min of treatment, a significant decrease in the plasmon resonance peak of the sample was observed, which reflects the efficiency in the mass reduction of AgNPs in the solution by 98.6%. In route II, after 12 min of EC, the absorbance results reached the detection limit of the measurement instrument, which indicates a minimum reduction of 99.9% of AgNPs in the solution. During the 4 min of treatment in route III, the absorbance intensities again reached the detection limit, which indicates a minimum reduction of 99.8%. In route IV, after 10 min of treatment, a minimum AgNP reduction of 99.9% was observed. Based on these results, it was possible to verify that

  11. Differences in microbial communities and performance between suspended and attached growth anaerobic membrane bioreactors treating synthetic municipal wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moustapha

    2015-08-14

    Two lab-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs), one up-flow attached-growth (UA) and another continuously stirred (CSTR), were operated under mesophilic conditions (35 °C) while treating synthetic municipal wastewater (800 mg L−1 COD). Each reactor was attached to both polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyethersulfone (PES) microfiltration (MF) membranes in an external cross-flow configuration. Both reactors were started up and run under the same operating conditions for multiple steady-state experiments. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates were similar for both reactors (90–96%), but captured methane was found to be 11–18% higher for the CSTR than the UA reactor. Ion Torrent sequencing targeting 16S rRNA genes showed that several operational taxonomic units (OTUs) most closely related to fermentative bacteria (e.g., Microbacter margulisiae) were dominant in the suspended biomass of the CSTR, accounting for 30% of the microbial community. Conversely, methanogenic archaea (e.g., Methanosaeta) and syntrophic bacteria (e.g., Smithella propionica) were found in significantly higher relative abundances in the UA AnMBR as compared to the CSTR due to their affinity for surface attachment. Of the methanogens that were present in the CSTR sludge, hydrogenotrophic methanogens dominated (e.g., Methanobacterium). Measured EPS (both proteins and carbohydrates), which has been broadly linked to fouling, was determined to be consistently lower in the UA AnMBR membrane samples than in CSTR AnMBR membrane samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on HPLC profiles of soluble microbial products (SMPs) further demonstrated these differences between reactor types in replicate runs. The results of this study showed that reactor configuration can significantly impact the development of the microbial communities of AnMBRs that are responsible for both membrane and reactor performance.

  12. Effect of influent COD/SO4(2-) ratios on UASB treatment of a synthetic sulfate-containing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Jing, Zhaoqian; Sudo, Yuta; Niu, Qigui; Du, Jingru; Wu, Jiang; Li, Yu-You

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the chemical oxygen demand/sulfate (COD/SO4(2-)) ratio on the anaerobic treatment of synthetic chemical wastewater containing acetate, ethanol, and sulfate, was investigated using a UASB reactor. The experimental results show that at a COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 20 and a COD loading rate of 25.2gCODL(-1)d(-1), a COD removal of as high as 87.8% was maintained. At a COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 0.5 (sulfate concentration 6000mgL(-1)), however, the COD removal was 79.2% and the methane yield was 0.20LCH4gCOD(-1). The conversion of influent COD to methane dropped from 80.5% to 54.4% as the COD/SO4(2-) ratio decreased from 20 to 0.5. At all the COD/SO4(2-) ratios applied, over 79.4% of the total electron flow was utilized by methane-producing archaea (MPA), indicating that methane fermentation was the predominant reaction. The majority of the methane was produced by acetoclastic MPA at high COD/SO4(2-) ratios and both acetoclastic and hydrogenthrophic MPA at low COD/SO4(2-) ratios. Only at low COD/SO4(2-) ratios were SRB species such as Desulfovibrio found to play a key role in ethanol degradation, whereas all the SRB species were found to be incomplete oxidizers at both high and low COD/SO4(2-) ratios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydrogen photo-evolution by Rhodopseudomonas palustris 6A using pre-treated olive mill wastewater and a synthetic medium containing sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintucci, Cristina; Padovani, Giulia; Giovannelli, Alessio; Traversi, Maria Laura; Ena, Alba; Pushparaj, Benjamin; Carlozzi, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Adsorbent matrices to convert fresh olive mill wastewater (OMW F ) in feedstock. • Dry-Azolla and granular active carbon for adsorbing polyphenols from OMW F . • Photofermentative processes for biohydrogen production. • Culture mixing by means of an impeller or a magnetic stir bar. • A 30% of dephenolised OMW containing medium suits the photofermentative process. - Abstract: Increasing costs of petroleum, associated with the escalating problems of global climate change, require always greater efforts in order to produce an energy carrier as bioH 2 . In this study, bioH 2 production using photofermentative process was investigated. Two culture broths were used: (a) a synthetic medium rich in sugars (glucose and fructose) and (b) a pre-treated fresh olive-mill wastewater (OMW F ) diluted with water (30%, v:v). The pre-treatment was carried out using two different vegetable matrices (dry-Azolla and granular active carbon) to decrease both the content of polyphenols and the dark colour of wastewater. Rhodopseudomonas palustris 6A isolated from soil spread with OMW was utilized for batch growth experiments, carried out indoors under continuous light (200 μE/m 2 /s). When synthetic medium was used, the culture mixing was performed using either (i) a magnetic stir bar, and (ii) an impeller equipped with five turbines. The latter system made it possible to increase the bioH 2 photo-evolution by 1.4 times. The specific hydrogen photo-evolution rate was 13.5 mL/g(dw)/h in the broth containing diluted OMW F and 11.8 mL/g(dw)/h in the synthetic medium containing sugars (glucose and fructose)

  14. Balancing the organic load and light supply in symbiotic microalgal–bacterial biofilm reactors treating synthetic municipal wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.; Temmink, B.G.; Janssen, M.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic microalgal–bacterial biofilms can be very attractive for municipal wastewater treatment. Microalgae remove nitrogen and phosphorus and simultaneously produce the oxygen that is required for the aerobic, heterotrophic degradation of organic pollutants. For the application of these biofilms

  15. Recovery of synthetic dye from simulated wastewater using emulsion liquid membrane process containing tri-dodecyl amine as a mobile carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, N., E-mail: norasikin@cheme.utm.my [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Zailani, S.N.; Mili, N. [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2011-12-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The emulsion liquid membrane process for synthetic reactive dyes recovery was examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mobile carriers of tri-dodycylamine and salicyclic acid was used in formulation to remove the reactive dyes from simulated wastewater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost 100% of dye was extracted and recovered in receiving phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An electrical field was used to breakdown the emulsion to separate the liquid membrane and receiving/recovery phase. - Abstract: The extraction of Red 3BS reactive dye from aqueous solution was studied using emulsion liquid membrane (ELM). ELM is one of the processes that have very high potential in treating industrial wastewater consisting of dyes. In this research, Red 3BS reactive dye was extracted from simulated wastewater using tridodecylamine (TDA) as the carrier agent, salicyclic acid (SA) to protonate TDA, sodium chloride as the stripping agent, kerosene as the diluent and SPAN 80 as emulsifier. Experimental parameters investigated were salicyclic acid concentration, extraction time, SPAN 80 concentration, sodium chloride concentration, TDA concentration, agitation speed, homogenizer speed, emulsifying time and treat ratio. The results show almost 100% of Red 3BS was removed and stripped in the receiving phase at the optimum condition in this ELM system. High voltage coalesce was applied to break the emulsion hence, enables recovery of Red 3BS in the receiving phase.

  16. Two synthetic progestins and natural progesterone are responsible for most of the progestagenic activities in municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents in the Czech and Slovak republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šauer, Pavel; Stará, Alžběta; Golovko, Oksana; Valentová, Olga; Bořík, Adam; Grabic, Roman; Kroupová, Hana Kocour

    2018-06-15

    Vast numbers of xenobiotics are known still to be present in treated municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. Some of these possess endocrine-disrupting potency and pose risks for exposed aquatic animals. We searched for 17 potential environmental contaminants having affinity to the progesterone receptor. Relative potency values of these progesterone receptor-active chemicals were obtained. On the basis of relative potencies and measured environmental concentrations, the contribution of progestins to measured progestagenic activities was evaluated. Wastewaters (influent and effluent) and surrounding surface waters (upstream and downstream) at six municipal WWTPs were screened using instrumental chemical analysis and in vitro reporter gene bioassay. We showed the presence of target compounds and (anti-)progestagenic activities in municipal wastewater and surface water. Nine and seven progestins were identified in influent and effluent wastewaters, respectively. Only two compounds, progesterone and medroxyprogesterone were found in surface waters. Progestagenic agonistic activities in influents were partially masked by strong anti-progestagenic activities that were detected in all influents and ranged from 2.63 to 83 ng/L of mifepristone equivalents (EQs). Progestagenic activities were detected in all effluents and ranged from 0.06 to 0.47 ng/L of reference compound ORG 2058 EQs (a synthetic progestin equivalents), thus indicating incomplete removal of progestins during wastewater treatment processing. This activity poses a continuing risk for the aquatic environment. By contrast, anti-progestagenic activities showed better removal efficiency in WWTPs compared to progestagenic agonistic activities. Anti-progestagenic activities were found in only three of six effluents and ranged from 0.26 to 2.1 ng/L mifepristone EQs. We explained most of the progestagenic activity in municipal WWTP effluents by the presence of synthetic progestins and

  17. Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) for the removal of Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} from synthetic petrochemical factory wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malakahmad, Amirhossein, E-mail: amirhossein@petronas.com.my [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Studies, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research branch, Hesarak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Hasani, Amirhesam [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Studies, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research branch, Hesarak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eisakhani, Mahdieh [School of Social, Development and the Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed Hasnain [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} We assessed SBR performances to treat synthetic wastewater containing Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+}. {yields} SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg{sup 2+} and 96-98% of Cd{sup 2+}. {yields} COD removal efficiency and MLVSS was affected by Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} concentrations. {yields} Removal was not only biological process but also by biosorption process of sludge. - Abstract: Petrochemical factories which manufacture vinyl chloride monomer and poly vinyl chloride (PVC) are among the largest industries which produce wastewater contains mercury and cadmium. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of a lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) to treat a synthetic petrochemical wastewater containing mercury and cadmium. After acclimatization of the system which lasted 60 days, the SBR was introduced to mercury and cadmium in low concentrations which then was increased gradually to 9.03 {+-} 0.02 mg/L Hg and 15.52 {+-} 0.02 mg/L Cd until day 110. The SBR performance was assessed by measuring Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total and Volatile Suspended Solids as well as Sludge Volume Index. At maximum concentrations of the heavy metals, the SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg{sup 2+} and 96-98% of Cd{sup 2+}. The COD removal efficiency and MLVSS (microorganism population) in the SBR was affected by mercury and cadmium concentrations in influent. Different species of microorganisms such as Rhodospirilium-like bacteria, Gomphonema-like algae, and sulfate reducing-like bacteria were identified in the system. While COD removal efficiency and MLVSS concentration declined during addition of heavy metals, the appreciable performance of SBR in removal of Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} implies that the removal in SBR was not only a biological process, but also by the biosorption process of the sludge.

  18. Electricity production and phosphorous recovery as struvite from synthetic wastewater using magnesium-air fuel cell electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Hwan; An, Byung Min; Lim, Dae Hwan; Park, Joo Yang

    2018-04-01

    This research was based on the investigation of a major principle, regarding the effects of NaCl and KH 2 PO 4 concentrations on struvite recovery, with electricity production using magnesium-air fuel cell electrocoagulation, in accordance with the concentration of phosphorous and chloride. The weight ratio of N:P in the synthetic wastewater was in the range of 1.2-21. The concentration of NH 4 Cl was fixed at 0.277 M (approximately 3888 ppm as NH 3 -N and 5000 ppm as NH 4 ), while PO 4 -P was in the range of 0.006-0.1 M. In addition, the concentrations of NaCl as electrolyte were 0, 0.01, and 0.1 M. Phosphate removal increased linearly with the Mg:P ratio, up to approximately 1.1 mol mol -1 , irrespective of the initial concentrations of phosphate and NaCl. The one-to-one reaction as mole ratio between phosphate and the dissolved Mg ions resulted in phosphate removal, with the production of a one-to-one magnesium/phosphate mineral, such as struvite. The average removal rate of phosphorous in experiments without a dose of NaCl was 4.19 mg P cm -2 h -1 , which was lower than the relative values of 5.35 and 4.77 mg P cm -2 h -1 , in experiments with 0.01 and 0.1 M NaCl. The dissolution rate of Mg with electro-oxidation determined the rate of phosphorous removal with struvite recovery. The average removal rates of phosphorous with dose concentrations of 0.006, 0.01 and 0.02 M KH 2 PO 4 were 4.02, 5.54, 6.9 mg P cm -2 h -1 , respectively, which increased with the increase in KH 2 PO 4 dose. However, in experiments with a dose of 0.05 and 0.1 M KH 2 PO 4, the average removal rates of phosphorous decreased to 4.84 and 2.51, respectively. The maximum power densities in the electrolyte mixture of 0.05 M KH 2 PO 4 /0.277 M NH 4 Cl, 0.01 M NaCl/0.05 M KH 2 PO 4 /0.277 M NH 4 Cl, and 0.1 NaCl/0.05 KH 2 PO 4 /0.277 M NH 4 Cl were 25.1, 26.4, and 33.2 W/m 2 , respectively. The increase in the NaCl dose concentration resulted in an

  19. Purifying Synthetic High-Strength Wastewater by Microalgae Chlorella Vulgaris Under Various Light Emitting Diode Wavelengths and Intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Ge

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The high-strength wastewater is now well known as a threat to the natural water since it is highly possible to arouse water eutrophication or algal blooms. The effects of various light emitting diode wavelengths and intensities on the microalgae biological wastewater treatment system was studied in this research. The various nutrient removals and economic efficiencies represented similar variation trends, and these variations under both high C and N loading treatments were similar too. The order for microalgae C. vulgaris reproduction in terms of dry weight and nutrient removal efficiency both were red > white > yellow > blue, under high carbon and nitrogen loading treatments, indicating that the red light was the optimum light wavelength. Furthermore, considering the optimal light intensity in terms of nutrient removal efficiency was 2500 and 2000 μmol/m2•s, while in terms of economic efficiency was 1000, 1500 and 2000 μmol/m2•s. Therefore, the optimum light intensity was found to be 2000 μmol/m2•s. In addition, the optimal experimental illumination time was determined as 120 h. The Chlorella vulgaris microalgae biological wastewater treatment system utilized in this research was able to purify the high-strength carbon and nitrogen wastewater effectively under optimum light wavelength and intensity.

  20. Performance of different substrates in constructed wetlands planted with E. crassipes treating low-strength sewage under subtropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, M X; Carvalho, K Q; Passig, F H; Borges, A C; Filippe, T C; Azevedo, J C R; Nagalli, A

    2018-07-15

    The present study aimed to assess removal potential of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), total phosphorus (TP) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in synthetic wastewater simulating low-strength sewage by sequencing-batch mode constructed wetlands (CWs). Six CWs with three substrates (gravel, light expanded clay and clay bricks) and one CW of each substrate was planted with E. crassipes to verify the feasibility of using a floating macrophyte in CWs and verify the best optimized substrate. Results showed that the presence of E. crassipes enhanced the removal of COD for systems with gravel, increasing the removal efficiency from 37% in the unplanted system (CW G-U ) to 60% in the planted system (CW G-P ). The vegetated CW with clay bricks (CW B-P ) presented the best performance for both TKN and TAN removal, with maximum removal efficiencies of 68% and 35%, respectively. Phosphorus was observed to be efficiently removed in systems with clay bricks, both planted (CW B-U ) and unplanted (CW B-P ), with mean removal efficiencies of 82% and 87%, respectively, probably via adsorption. It was also observed that after 296days of operation, no desorption or increase on phosphorus in effluent samples were observed, thus indicating that the material was not yet saturated and phosphorus probably presents a strong binding to the media. ASA removal efficiency varied from 34% to 92% in CWs, probably due to plant uptake through roots and microbial biodegradation. Plant direct uptake varied from 4 to 74% of the total nitrogen and from 26 to 71% of the total phosphorus removed in CW G-P , CW C-P and CW B-P . E. crassipes was able to uptake up to 4.19g of phosphorus in CW C-P and 11.84g of nitrogen in CW B-P . The findings on this study suggest that E. crassipes could be used in CWs and clay bricks could significantly enhance phosphorus removal capacity in CWs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of hydraulic retention time on the performance and fouling characteristics of membrane sequencing batch reactors used for the treatment of synthetic petroleum refinery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Seyed Ramin Pajoum; Bonakdarpour, Babak; Zare, Nasim; Ashtiani, Farzin Zokaee

    2011-09-01

    The use of membrane sequencing batch reactors, operated at HRT of 8, 16 and 24h, was considered for the treatment of a synthetic petroleum wastewater. Increase in HRT resulted in statistically significant decrease in MLSS. Removal efficiencies higher than 97% were found for the three model hydrocarbon pollutants at all HRTs, with air stripping making a small contribution to overall removal. Particle size distribution (PSD) and microscopic analysis showed reduction in the protozoan populations in the activated sludge with decreasing HRT. PSD analysis also showed a higher proportion of larger and smaller sized particles at the lowest HRT. The rate of membrane fouling was found to increase with decreasing HRT; SMP, especially carbohydrate SMP, and mixed liquor apparent viscosity also showed a pronounced increase with decreasing HRT, whereas the concentration of EPS and its components decreased. FTIR analysis identified organic compounds as the main component of membrane pore fouling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance Evaluation of Electro-Fenton Process (EFP in Removal of Hexavalent Chromium in the Presence of Cyanide, as an Interfering Agent, from Synthetic Wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Rahmani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chromium (VI is a hazardous pollutant that enters into the environment through different industrial wastewater. Therefore, Choice a suitable method for removal of the pollutant before discharging into the environment is necessary. The aim of this work was performance evaluation of Electro-Fenton process (EFP in removal of hexavalent chromium in the presence of cyanide, as an interfering agent, from synthetic wastewaters. Methods: In this experimental study, a reactor with 1 L useful volume and 4 electrodes made ​​of iron was used. pH, initial concentration of  chromium (VI, voltage, hydrogen peroxide and cyanide concentration, as an interfering agent, were investigated in order to determine the process efficiency. Results: Results reveals that the considered parameters were affected on the efficiency of the process. In optimum condition, pH=3 and voltage=20 V, initial concentration=100 mg/L, concentration of hydrogen peroxide=50 mL/L the maximum efficiency was reached up to 97%. Cyanide Presence, in the same condition, reduced the efficiency under 50 % and also, the efficiency was decreased by changing the parameters level from optimum condition. Conclusion: Results indicate the proper efficiency of chromium (VI by EFP process; however presence of other pollutants such as cyanide can cause efficiency decrease which must be considered in the process application.

  3. Treatment of Synthetic Wastewater by Aerobic¬-anaerobic Bioreactor with Granular Sludge Developed for Removal of Nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Amini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The excessive accumulation of nutrient (C, N, and P discharge to surface water can pose serious ecological problems that affect the health of aquatic life and consequently that of human and animals. It is, therefore, necessary to remove these substances from wastewaters for reducing their harm to environments. A novel upflow aerobic/anoxic flocculated sludge bioreactor (UAASB will be establish and apply as a single treatment unit for carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In this study, nutrients (C, N and P removal efficiency in a time-based control UAASB reactor has studied. Analyze of nutrients removal efficiency were investigated from wastewater using optimization of factors and effects of variables: COD/N/P ratio and flow rate. Results of experiments showed that COD/N/P ratio 1000/250/2 and Q 7 L/h in HRT 6 h, F/M 0.054 kg COD/kg MLVSS.h and OLR 0.15 kg/m3.h were desirable for removal of nutrients from wastewater in aerobic/anaerobic bioreactor. In these conditions SVI 53.12 mL/g, COD removal efficiency 86% and PO43- removal efficiency 97.5% were showed. According all results of responses for best nutrient removal, UAASB bioreactor is desirable for removal efficiency of C and P.

  4. Controlled low strength materials (CLSM), reported by ACI Committee 229

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, N.

    1997-01-01

    Controlled low-strength material (CLSM) is a self-compacted, cementitious material used primarily as a backfill in lieu of compacted fill. Many terms are currently used to describe this material including flowable fill, unshrinkable fill, controlled density fill, flowable mortar, flowable fly ash, fly ash slurry, plastic soil-cement, soil-cement slurry, K-Krete and other various names. This report contains information on applications, material properties, mix proportioning, construction and quality-control procedures. This report's intent is to provide basic information on CLSM technology, with emphasis on CLSM material characteristics and advantages over conventional compacted fill. Applications include backfills, structural fills, insulating and isolation fills, pavement bases, conduit bedding, erosion control, void filling, and radioactive waste management

  5. Toxic influence of silver and uranium salts on activated sludge of wastewater treatment plants and synthetic activated sludge associates modeled on its pure cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyupa, Dmitry V; Kalenov, Sergei V; Skladnev, Dmitry A; Khokhlachev, Nikolay S; Baurina, Marina M; Kuznetsov, Alexander Ye

    2015-01-01

    Toxic impact of silver and uranium salts on activated sludge of wastewater treatment facilities has been studied. Some dominating cultures (an active nitrogen fixer Agrobacterium tumifaciens (A.t) and micromyces such as Fusarium nivale, Fusarium oxysporum, and Penicillium glabrum) have been isolated and identified as a result of selection of the activated sludge microorganisms being steadiest under stressful conditions. For these cultures, the lethal doses of silver amounted 1, 600, 50, and 300 µg/l and the lethal doses of uranium were 120, 1,500, 1,000, and 1,000 mg/l, respectively. A.tumifaciens is shown to be more sensitive to heavy metals than micromyces. Synthetic granular activated sludge was formed on the basis of three cultures of the isolated micromyces steadiest against stress. Its granules were much more resistant to silver than the whole native activated sludge was. The concentration of silver causing 50 % inhibition of synthetic granular activated sludge growth reached 160-170 μg/l as far as for the native activated sludge it came only to 100-110 μg/l.

  6. Bleed water testing program for controlled low strength material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    Bleed water measurements for two Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM) mixes were conducted to provide engineering data for the Tank 20F closure activities. CLSM Mix 1 contained 150 pounds of cement per cubic yard whereas CLSM Mix 2 contained 50 pounds per cub yard. SRS currently used CLSM Mix 2 for various applications. Bleed water percentages and generation rates were measured along with flow and compressive strength. This information will be used to select a mix design for the Tank 20F closure activities and to establish the engineering requirements, such as, lift height, time required between lifts and quantity of bleed water to be removed from the tank during the placement activities. Mix 1 is recommended for placement within Tank 20F because it has better flow characteristics, less segregation, lower percentage of bleed water and slightly higher strength. Optimization of Mix 1 was beyond the scope of this study. However, further testing of thickening additives, such as clays (bentonite), sodium silicate or fine silicas maybe useful for decreasing or eliminating bleed water

  7. Adsorption of copper, nickel and lead ions from synthetic semiconductor industrial wastewater by palm shell activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onundi, Y. B.; Mamun, A. A.; Al Khatib, M. F.; Ahmad, Y. M.

    2010-01-01

    Granular activated carbon produced from palm kernel shell was used as adsorbent to remove copper, nickel and lead ions from a synthesized industrial wastewater. Laboratory experimental investigation was carried out to identify the effect of p H and contact time on adsorption of lead, copper and nickel from the mixed metals solution. Equilibrium adsorption experiments at ambient room temperature were carried out and fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich models. Results showed that p H 5 was the most suitable, while the maximum adsorbent capacity was at a dosage of 1 g/L, recording a sorption capacity of 1.337 mg/g for lead, 1.581 mg/g for copper and 0.130 mg/g for nickel. The percentage metal removal approached equilibrium within 30 minutes for lead, 75 minutes for copper and nickel, with lead recording 100 p ercent , copper 97 p ercent a nd nickel 55 p ercent r emoval, having a trend of Pb 2+ > Cu 2+ > Ni 2+ . Langmuir model had higher R 2 values of 0.977, 0.817 and 0.978 for copper, nickel and lead respectively, which fitted the equilibrium adsorption process more than Freundlich model for the three metals.

  8. Shifts in microbial community structure and diversity in a MBR combined with worm reactors treating synthetic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Zuo, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Li, Hui; Li, Lipin; Tian, Yu

    2017-04-01

    The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH 3 -N removal, membrane fouling, sludge characteristics and microbial community structure in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) coupled with worm reactors (SSBWR) were evaluated for 210days. The obtained results were compared to those from a conventional MBR (C-MBR) operated in parallel. The results indicated that the combined MBR (S-MBR) achieved higher COD and NH 3 -N removal efficiency, slower increase in membrane fouling, better sludge settleability and higher activities of the related enzymes in the activated sludge. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the microbial community structures in the C-MBR and the S-MBR. The microbial community structure in the S-MBR was more diverse than that in the C-MBR. Additionally, the slow-growing microbes such as Saprospiraceae, Actinomyces, Frankia, Clostridium, Comamonas, Pseudomonas, Dechloromonas and Flavobacterium were enriched in the S-MBR, further accounting for the sludge reduction, membrane fouling alleviation and wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The effects of operating factors on the removal of total ammonia nitrogen and florfenicol antibiotic from synthetic trout fish farm wastewater through nanofiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheshmberah, F.; Solaimany Nazar, A.R.; Farhadian, M.

    2016-01-01

    An aquaculture system can be a potentially significant source of antibacterial compounds and ammonia in an aquatic environment. In this study, the removal of total ammonia nitrogen and florfenicol antibiotic from synthetic aqueous wastewater was assessed by applying a commercial thin film composite polyamide nanofilter. The effects of p H (6.5-8.5), pressure (4-10 bar), concentration of total ammonia nitrogen (1-9 mg/L), and florfenicol (0.2-5 mg/L) on the removal efficiency of the nanofilter were studied at a constant 70% recovery rate. It was found that by increasing the p H within the range of 6.5 to 8.5, it enhanced the removal efficiency by up to 98% and 100% for total ammonia nitrogen and florfenicol, respectively. With an increase in pressure from 4 to 7 bar, the removal percentage increased and then, it decreased from 7 to 10 bar. The interactions factors did not have significant effects on the both pollutants removal efficiencies. To obtain optimal removal efficiencies, an experimental design and statistical analysis via the response surface method were adopted.

  10. Optimization of Catalytic Ozonation Process for Formaldehyde Mineralization from Synthetic Wastewater by Fe/MgO Nanoparticles Synthesis by Sol-Gel Method by Response Surface Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorban Asgari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Design experiment stages of formalin mineralization process by center composition design (CCD cause ease of work, reducing the number of samples, increasing the accuracy of optimized conditions and the interaction parameters determined during the process. The aim of this study was optimization of catalytic ozonation process for formaldehyde mineralization from synthetic wastewater by Fe/MgO nanoparticles synthesis by sol-gel method by response surface model. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in a semi-batch reactor, using a RSM by taking 3 factors in the final stage of pH (7-9, reaction time (10-20 min and catalyst dose (1.1-1.3 g/L was investigated. Synthesis of nanoparticles was done by sol-gel method. The results were analyzed by Design Expert 7.0.1 software. Results: The results showed that the process was dependent on the parameters studied and changing each parameter, affected the process efficiency and other parameters. The optimum conditions predicted for the process was 86.51% of mineralization efficiency. Optimum condition included pH=8.82, reaction time of 20 minute and catalyst dose of 1.3 g/L. The correlation coefficient for the process was determined 0.91. Conclusion: Using a statistical model could reduce the number of experiments, the accuracy and the prediction process. The catalytic ozonation process has the ability to remove formaldehyde with high efficiency and the process was environmental friendly.

  11. The effects of operating factors on the removal of total ammonia nitrogen and florfenicol antibiotic from synthetic trout fish farm wastewater through nanofiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Solaimany Nazar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An aquaculture system can be a potentially significant source of antibacterial compounds and ammonia in an aquatic environment. In this study, the removal of total ammonia nitrogen and florfenicol antibiotic from synthetic aqueous wastewater was assessed by applying a commercial TFC (thin film composite polyamide nanofilter. The effects of pH (6.5-8.5, pressure (4-10 bar, concentration of total ammonia nitrogen (1-9 mg/L, and florfenicol (0.2-5 mg/L on the removal efficiency of the nanofilter were studied at a constant 70% recovery rate. It was found that by increasing the pH within the range of 6.5 to 8.5, it enhanced the removal efficiency by up to 98% and 100% for total ammonia nitrogen and florfenicol, respectively. With an increase in pressure from 4 to 7 bar, the removal percentage increased and then, it decreased from 7 to 10 bar. The interactions factors did not have significant effects on the both pollutants removal efficiencies. To obtain optimal removal efficiencies, an experimental design and statistical analysis via the response surface method were adopted.

  12. Characterization of soluble microbial products (SMPs) in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating synthetic wastewater containing pharmaceutical compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongqing; Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Kunacheva, Chinagarn; Stuckey, David C; Liu, Yu; Tan, Soon Keat; Ng, Wun Jern

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the behaviour and characteristics of soluble microbial products (SMP) in two anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs): MBRcontrol and MBRpharma, for treating municipal wastewater. Both protein and polysaccharides measured exhibited higher concentrations in the MBRpharma than the MBRcontrol. Molecular weight (MW) distribution analysis revealed that the presence of pharmaceuticals enhanced the accumulation of SMPs with macro- (13,091 kDa and 1587 kDa) and intermediate-MW (189 kDa) compounds in the anoxic MBRpharma, while a substantial decrease was observed in both MBR effluents. Excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence contours indicated that the exposure to pharmaceuticals seemed to stimulate the production of aromatic proteins containing tyrosine (10.1-32.6%) and tryptophan (14.7-43.1%), compared to MBRcontrol (9.9-29.1% for tyrosine; 11.8-42.5% for tryptophan). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed aromatics, long-chain alkanes and esters were the predominant SMPs in the MBRs. More peaks were present in the aerobic MBRpharma (196) than anoxic MBRpharma (133). The SMPs identified exhibited both biodegradability and recalcitrance in the MBR treatment processes. Only 8 compounds in the MBRpharma were the same as in the MBRcontrol. Alkanes were the most dominant SMPs (51%) in the MBRcontrol, while aromatics were dominant (40%) in the MBRpharma. A significant decrease in aromatics (from 16 to 7) in the MBRpharma permeate was observed, compared to the aerobic MBRpharma. Approximately 21% of compounds in the aerobic MBRcontrol were rejected by membrane filtration, while this increased to 28% in the MBRpharma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fluidized bed anaerobic biodegration of food industry wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toldra, F.; Flors, A.; Lequerica, J.L.; Valles, S.

    1987-01-01

    Anaerobic fluidized bed reactors were used to reduce the COD of low-strength food industry wastewaters. Soluble organic removal efficiencies of 75%, 80% and 50% were obtained for hog slaughterhouse, dairy and brewery wastewaters, respectively, at 35 degrees C and 8 hours hydraulic retention time. Removal efficiencies decreased with decreasing temperature (35 degrees C to 20 degrees C); no detrimental effect of temperature was observed when treating the slaughterhouse wastewater. Methane production rate was only relevant on brewery wastewater treatment. (Refs. 17).

  14. Comparative Study on Performance and Organic Fouling of ZrO2 Ceramic Membranes in Ultrafiltration of Synthetic Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Cen

    2011-07-01

    Adsorption of organic matter on ceramic membrane can lead to hydraulic-irreversible fouling, which decreases the permeate flux and the cost-efficiency of membrane devices. In order to optimize the filtration process, detailed information is necessary about the organic fouling mechanisms on ceramic membranes. In this study, dead-end filtration experiments of both synthetic water and secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were conducted on a ZrO2 ceramic membrane. The experiment results of synthetic water showed that humic acid (HA) was able to be adsorbed by the ZrO2 membrane and cause permeate flux decline; and that HA-tryptophan mixture, at the same DOC level, promoted the filtration flux decline; DOC removal in the case of HA-tryptophan was lower than that of HA alone. It seems that hydrophilic organic matter with low molecular weight have some specific contribution to the organic fouling of the ZrO2 membrane. The results also suggest that tryptophan molecules were preferentially adsorbed on the membrane at the beginning, exposing their hydrophobic sides which might further adsorb HA from the feed water. During the filtration of WWTP effluent, protein-like substances (mainly tryptophan-like) were also preferentially adsorbed on the membrane compared with humic-like ones in the initial few cycles of filtration. More humic-like substances were adsorbed in the following filtration cycles due to the increase of membrane hydrophobicity. A significant rise in hydraulic-irreversible flux decline was obtained by decreasing pH from near pHpzc to below pHpzc of the membrane. It suggests that a positively charged surface is preferred for HA adsorption. Ionic strength increase did not affect the filtration of HA, but it lessened the hydraulic-irreversible flux decline of HA-tryptophan filtration. The adsorption of HA-tryptophan can be attributed to outersphere interaction while HA adsorption is mainly caused by inner-sphere interaction. The results of

  15. Low strength ultrasonication positively affects the methanogenic granules toward higher AD performance. Part I: Physico-chemical characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, S. K.; Hwang, Yuhoon; Kim, D. H.

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate the correlation between enhanced biogas production and changed physico-chemical properties of methanogenic granules after low strength ultrasonication, in this study, the effects of low strength ultrasonication on the settling velocity, permeability, porosity, and fluid collection ef...

  16. The synthetic activities of TiO2-moringa oleifera seed powder in the treatment of the wastewater of the coal mining industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhaini; Legiso; Trilestari

    2018-04-01

    To process the coal wastewater, the combination of chemical based technology of Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) of a strong oxidizer using TiO2 photocatalyst and biological treatment of moringa seed powder (Moringa oleifera) is used in the composite form. AOP can be used as an alternative treatment of coal wastewater which is quite economical and environmentally friendly. The XRD results of TiO2 powder and the synthesis of TiO2 - is moringa seed powder in the form of tetragonal crystals. The degradation results of the quality of the coal wastewater using TiO2 powder reached a decrease of (TSS, Fe, Mn, Zn, Hg, Cu, Co, Cr, Al and Ni) by an average of 70% and the increase of pH value of 7 at 200 minute stirring time. The decrease of the wastewater quality using the synthesis of TiO2- moringa seed powder by using sunlight and without sunlight is detected negative (-) at 200 minute stirring time.

  17. Effect of salt type and concentration on the growth and lipid content of Chlorella vulgaris in synthetic saline wastewater for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Jared; Hwang, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Keug-Tae; McLean, Rebecca; Oh, You-Kwan; Nam, Bora; Joo, Jin Chul; Lee, Woo Hyoung

    2017-11-01

    Microalgae can offer several benefits for wastewater treatment with their ability to produce large amounts of lipids for biofuel production and the high economic value of harvested biomass for biogas and fertilizer. This study found that salt concentration (∼45gL -1 ) had more of an effect than salt type on metabolisms of Chlorella vulgaris for wastewater treatment and biofuel production. Salinity stress decreased the algal growth rate in wastewater by 0.003day -1 permScm -1 and slightly reduced nutrient removal rates. However, salinity stress was shown to increase total lipid content from 11.5% to 16.1% while also increasing the saturated portions of fatty acids in C. vulgaris. In addition, salinity increased the algal settling rate from 0.06 to 0.11mday -1 which could potentially reduce the cost of harvesting for algal biofuel production. Overall, C. vulgaris makes a suitable candidate for high salinity wastewater cultivation and biofuel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Wastewater Outfalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Outfalls which discharge wastewater from wastewater treatment facilities with individual NPDES permits. It does not include NPDES general permits.

  19. Enhanced electrochemical oxidation of synthetic dyeing wastewater using SnO2-Sb-doped TiO2-coated granular activated carbon electrodes with high hydroxyl radical yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xinyang; Wu, Yue; Zhu, Wei; Xue, Fangqing; Qian, Yi; Wang, Chengwen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We study granular activated carbon (GAC) electrodes coated with catalysts. • GAC coated with ATOT demonstrates an impressive ·OH yield. • This electrode can be used in continuous-flow three-dimensional electrode reactors. • We use Rhodamine B as a model organic compound for removal. • The GAC/ATOT performs better than all other electrodes examined. - Abstract: In this study, granular activated carbon (GAC) coated with SnO 2 -Sb doped TiO 2 (GAC/ATOT) with a high hydroxyl radical (·OH) yield is prepared via the sol-gel method. This material is utilized as a granular electrode in a continuous-flow three-dimensional electrode reactor (CTDER) for the enhanced treatment of synthetic dyeing wastewater containing Rhodamine B (RhB). We then characterize the physical properties, electrochemical properties, and electrochemical oxidation performance of the granular electrode. The results show that using the GAC/ATOT electrode in a CTDER significantly enhances the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, decreases the energy consumption, and improves the current efficiency of the wastewater. This is primarily attributed to the higher catalytic activity of GAC/ATOT for ·OH production compared to that of other candidates, such as TiO 2 coated GAC (GAC/T), Sb doped SnO 2 coated GAC (GAC/ATO), and pure GAC. The mechanism of the enhanced electrochemical oxidation afforded by using GAC/ATOT indicates that the high ·OH yield in the reactor packed with GAC/ATOT electrodes contributes to the enhanced electrochemical oxidation performance with respect to organic compounds.

  20. Utilization of recycled glass as aggregate in controlled low-strength material (CLSM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlheiser, T.R. [Western Mobile Denver Aggregate Div., CO (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Incoming glass from curbside recycling programs is successfully being utilized as aggregate replacements. The colored glass that can not be used by local bottle manufacturers is crushed to a {1/2} in. (12.5 mm) material and used in various construction projects. The most successful use of processed glass aggregate (PGA) to date, has been in replacing up to 100% of the aggregate in controlled low-strength material (CLSM). It has proven to be successful and has gained acceptance by contractors in the Boulder, Colorado area.

  1. Effect of synthetic detergent and soap on the waste-water treatment. Gosei senzai oyobi sekken no haisui shori ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamori, Y. (national Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)); Takamatsu, Y. (University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes the effect of surfactants on purification capability and living life phases in the living life membrane method and the activated sludge method as biological waste water treatment methods. As a result of treating artificial waste water in an immersion hearth process of the living life membrane method, it was found that LAS added concentration at 50 mg/l or higher would not affect noticeably the quality of water treated under a steady-state operation, but that at 100 mg/l has aggravated the treated water quality by increasing COD. In the case of soaps, the COD in the treated water has aggravated when the added concentration is 70 mg/l or higher. The result of discussing the activated sludge process using urban sewage water indicated that COD in the treated water shows higher value for synthetic detergents than for soaps at the detergent added concentration of 140 mg/l or higher, having affected adversely the treated water quality. An activated sludge treatment process was operated to identify the effects of synthetic detergents and soaps on living life phases in the activated sludge and living life membranes. The result suggests that either the LAS added system or the soap added system presents no problems in a long-time aeration, while activated sludge aerated for the standard period of time has a possibility of abnormally proliferating filamentous microorganisms that can cause bulking in the soap system. 14 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Testing of High Thermal Cycling Stability of Low Strength Concrete as a Thermal Energy Storage Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Concrete has the potential to become a solution for thermal energy storage (TES integrated in concentrating solar power (CSP systems due to its good thermal and mechanical properties and low cost of material. In this study, a low strength concrete (C20 is tested at high temperatures up to 600 °C. Specimens are thermally cycled at temperatures in the range of 400–300 °C, 500–300 °C, and 600–300 °C, which TES can reach in operation. For comparison, specimens also cycled at temperature in the range of 400–25 °C (room temperature, 500–25 °C, and 600–25 °C. It is found from the test results that cracks are not observed on the surfaces of concrete specimens until the temperature is elevated up to 500 °C. There is mechanical deterioration of concrete after exposure to high temperature, especially to high thermal cycles. The residual compressive strength of concrete after 10 thermal cycles between 600 °C and 300 °C is about 58.3%, but the specimens remain stable without spalling, indicating possible use of low strength concrete as a TES material.

  3. Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day before releasing it back to the environment. Treatment plants reduce pollutants in wastewater to a level nature can handle. Wastewater is used water. It includes substances such as human waste, food ...

  4. A novel abutment construction technique for rapid bridge construction : controlled low strength Materials (CLSM) with full-height concrete panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    One of the major obstacles facing rapid bridge construction for typical span type bridges is the time required to construct bridge abutments and foundations. This can be remedied by using the controlled low strength materials (CLSM) bridge abutment. ...

  5. Low energy single-staged anaerobic fluidized bed ceramic membrane bioreactor (AFCMBR) for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad; McCarty, Perry L; Shin, Chungheon; Bae, Jaeho; Kim, Jeonghwan

    2017-09-01

    An aluminum dioxide (Al 2 O 3 ) ceramic membrane was used in a single-stage anaerobic fluidized bed ceramic membrane bioreactor (AFCMBR) for low-strength wastewater treatment. The AFCMBR was operated continuously for 395days at 25°C using a synthetic wastewater having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) averaging 260mg/L. A membrane net flux as high as 14.5-17L/m 2 h was achieved with only periodic maintenance cleaning, obtained by adding 25mg/L of sodium hypochlorite solution. No adverse effect of the maintenance cleaning on organic removal was observed. An average SCOD in the membrane permeate of 23mg/L was achieved with a 1h hydraulic retention time (HRT). Biosolids production averaged 0.014±0.007gVSS/gCOD removed. The estimated electrical energy required to operate the AFCMBR system was 0.039kWh/m 3 , which is only about 17% of the electrical energy that could be generated with the methane produced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrokinetic transport of aerobic microorganisms under low-strength electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillacheruvu, Krishnanand Y; Chinchoud, Preethi R

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of utilizing low strength electric fields to transport commonly available mixed cultures such as those from an activated sludge process, bench scale batch reactor studies were conducted in sand and sandy loam soils. A readily biodegradable substrate, dextrose, was used to test the activity of the transported microorganisms. Electric field strengths of 7V, 10.5V, and 14V were used. Results from this investigation showed that an electric field strength of 0.46 Volts per cm was sufficient to transport activated sludge microorganisms across a sandy loam soil across a distance of about 8 cm in 72 h. More importantly, the electrokinetically transported microbial culture remained active and viable after the transport process and was biodegrade 44% of the dextrose in the soil medium. Electrokinetic treatment without microorganisms resulted in removal of 37% and the absence of any treatment yielded a removal of about 15%.

  7. Admixture enhanced controlled low-strength material for direct underwater injection with minimal cross-contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepworth, H.K.; Davidson, J.S.; Hooyman, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Commercially available admixtures have been developed for placing traditional concrete products under water. This paper evaluates adapting anti-washout admixture (AWA) and high range water reducing admixture (HRWRA) products to enhance controlled low-strength materials (CLSMs) for underwater placement. A simple experimental scale model (based on dynamic and geometric similitude) of typical grout pump emplacement equipment has been developed to determine the percentage of cementing material washed out. The objective of this study was to identify proportions of admixtures and underwater CLSM emplacement procedures which would minimize the cross-contamination of the displaced water while maintaining the advantages of CLSM. Since the displaced water from radioactively contaminated systems must be subsequently treated prior to release to the environment, the amount of cross-contamination is important for cases in which cementing material could form hard sludges in a water treatment facility and contaminate the in-place CLSM stabilization medium

  8. Production of Controlled Low Strength Material Utilizing Waste Paper Sludge Ash and Recycled Aggregate Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi A. N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the best method to make the concrete industry more sustainable was using the waste materials to replace the natural resources. Currently waste paper sludge is a major economic and environmental problem in this country. In this research, the alternative method is to dwindle the usage of natural resources and the usage of cement in the construction. This method is to replace the usage of cement with the waste paper sludge ash (WPSA and to use the recycle aggregate collected from the construction is used. The WPSA has ingredient likely cement such as self-cementation but for a low strength. The research was conducted at heavy laboratory UITM Pulau Pinang. Meanwhile, the WPSA is collected at MNI Industries at Mentakab, Pahang. The recycle aggregate is a separated half, which were fine aggregate and the coarse aggregate with the specific size. In this research, the ratio is divided into two (2 which is 1:1 and 1:2 for the aggregate and difference percentage levels of WPSA. The percentage levels of WPSA that use in this research are 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60%. A total of 36 cubes were prepared. Aim of this research is to develop a simple design approach for the mixture proportioning of WPSA and recycle concrete aggregate (RCA within the concrete and to assess the effect of concrete mix with different percentage of WPSA and RCA ratio on the properties. It is found that the best design mix that achieves control low strength material (CLSM is on 30% of WPSA with the ratio 1:2 on day 28 of compression test.

  9. Sediment microbial fuel cells for wastewater treatment: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Bojun; Ge, Zheng; He, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) have been intensively investigated for the harvest of energy from natural sediment, but studies of their application for wastewater treatment mainly occurred in the past 2-3 years. SMFCs with simple structures can generate electrical energy while decontaminating wastewater. Most SMFCs used for wastewater treatment contain plants to mimic constructed wetlands. Both synthetic and real wastewaters have been used as substrates in SMFCs that achieved satisfact...

  10. BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF AMMONIA REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER BY STEAM STRIPPING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the study was to generate laboratory data to support the development of wastewater discharge standards for ammonia in nonferrous metal winning processes. The objective was accomplished by studying ammonia removal from synthetically compounded 'wastewater' samples u...

  11. Properties of Controlled Low Strength Material with Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Ash and Recycled Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Tsai-Lung; Cheng, An; Chao, Sao-Jeng; Hsu, Hui-Mi

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of adding circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) ash, desulfurization slag, air-cooled blast-furnace slag and coal bottom ash to the controlled low-strength material (CLSM). Test methods include slump flow test, ball drop test, water soluble chloride ion content measurement, compressive strength and length change measurement. The results show that (1) the use of CFBC hydration ash with desulfurization slag of slump flow is the best, and the use of CFBC hydration ash with coal bottom ash and slump flow is the worst; (2) CFBC hydration ash with desulfurization slag and chloride ion content is the highest; (3) 24 h ball drop test (diameter ≤ 76 mm), and test results are 70 mm to 76 mm; (4) CFBC hydration ash with desulfurization slag and compression strength is the highest, with the coal bottom ash being the lowest; increase of CFBC hydration ash can reduce compressive strength; and (5) the water-quenched blast furnace slag and CFBC hydration ash would expand, which results in length changes of CLSM specimens. PMID:29724055

  12. Development of a down-flow hanging sponge reactor for the treatment of low strength sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoochatchaval, Wilasinee; Onodera, Takashi; Sumino, Haruhiko; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Mizuochi, Motoyuki; Okadera, Tomohiro; Syutsubo, Kazuaki

    2014-01-01

    The process performance of a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor for treating low strength sewage (biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) 20-50 mg/L) was investigated in Bangkok, Thailand. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) was set at 4 h during the start-up period and was reduced to 1.5 h in a stepwise manner. Throughout the 300-day operational period, the DHS reactor shows high performance with respect to the removal of total suspended solid (>90% total suspended solid removal efficiency). No clogging of sponge media was observed in response to the self-digestion phenomena of the biofilm. At a HRT of 1.5 h, the BOD removal efficiency was sufficiently high (about 85%). The pathogen Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria were removed almost completely as well (removal was 99.4% and 98.1%, respectively). Regarding the retained sludge activity measurement, the nitrite oxidation rate was higher than the ammonium oxidation rate (0.031 and 0.022 gram of nitrogen per gram of volatile suspended solids per day, respectively). In the 300 days of operation, the amount of excess sludge production was negligible. Thus, no sludge treatment system is required. Introduction of the DHS system in developing countries is recommended because this system requires a relatively small area, and has low electricity consumption and operation costs.

  13. Biodenitrification of industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Walker, J.F. Jr.; Helfrich, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    The Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), a US Department of Energy facility at Fernald, Ohio, is constructing a fluidized-bed biodenitrification plant based on pilot work conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the late 1970s and early 1980s. This plant is designed to treat approximately 600 to 800 L/min of wastewater having a nitrate concentration as high as 10 g/L. The effluent is to contain less than 0.1 g/L of nitrate. Since this new facility is an extrapolation of the ORNL work to significantly larger scale equipment and to actual rather than synthetic wastewater, design verification studies have been performed to reduce uncertainties in the scaleup. The results of these studies are summarized in this report. 7 refs., 1 fig

  14. Denitrification of fertilizer wastewater at high chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Henze, Mogens

    Wastewater from fertilizer industry is characterized by high contents of chloride concentration, which normally vary between 60 and 76 g/l. Experiments with bilogical denitrification were performed in lab-scale "fill and draw" reactors with synthetic wastewater with chloride concentrations up to 77.......4 g/l. The results of the experiments showed that biological denitrification was feasible at the extreme environmental conditions prevailing in fertilizer wastewater. Stable continuous biological denitrfication of the synthetic high chloride wastewater was performed up to 77.4 g Cl/l at 37 degree C...

  15. Biodegradation of synthetic detergents in wastewater

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... carrier gas at 37 psi. Hydrogen and air flow rates were 9 and 13 psi ... 24 h, by filtering the content of each set of test tubes using sterile filter paper while ..... environment-friendly, since it is biodegradable and it would enhance ...

  16. Comparison of low-strength compression stockings with bandages for the treatment of recalcitrant venous ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizzio, Eugenio; Amsler, Felix; Lun, Bertrand; Blättler, Werner

    2010-02-01

    To compare the proportion and rate of healing, pain, and quality of life of low-strength medical compression stockings (MCS) with traditional bandages applied for the treatment of recalcitrant venous leg ulcers. A single-center, randomized, open-label study was performed with consecutive patients. Sigvaris prototype MCS providing 15 mm Hg-25 mm Hg at the ankle were compared with multi-layer short-stretch bandages. In both groups, pads were placed above incompetent perforating veins in the ulcer area. The initial static pressure between the dressing-covered ulcer and the pad was 29 mm Hg and 49 mm Hg with MCS and bandages, respectively. Dynamic pressure measurements showed no difference. Compression was maintained day and night and changed every week. The primary endpoint was healing within 90 days. Secondary endpoints were healing within 180 days, time to healing, pain (weekly Likert scales), and monthly quality of life (ChronIc Venous Insufficiency Quality of Life [CIVIQ] questionnaire). Of 74 patients screened, 60 fulfilled the selection criteria and 55 completed the study; 28 in the MCS and 27 in the bandage group. Ulcers were recurrent (48%), long lasting (mean, 27 months), and large (mean, 13 cm2). All but one patient had deep venous reflux and/or incompetent perforating veins in addition to trunk varices. Characteristics of patients and ulcers were evenly distributed (exception: more edema in the MCS group; P = .019). Healing within 90 days was observed in 36% with MCS and in 48% with bandages (P = .350). Healing within 180 days was documented in 50% with MCS and in 67% with bandages (P = .210). Time to healing was identical. Pain scored 44 and 46 initially (on a scale in which 100 referred to maximum and 0 to no pain) and decreased within the first week to 20 and 28 in the MCS and bandage groups, respectively (P ulcers only. Our study illustrates the difficulty of bringing large and long-standing venous ulcers to heal. The effect of compression with MCS was

  17. Wastewater Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wastewater districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  18. Wastewater reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Milan R. Radosavljević; Vanja M. Šušteršič

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution are some of the crucial issues that must be addressed within local and global perspectives. One of the ways to reduce the impact of water scarcity  and to minimizine water pollution is to expand water and wastewater reuse. The local conditions including regulations, institutions, financial mechanisms, availability of local technology and stakeholder participation have a great influence on the decisions for wastewater reuse. The increasing awareness of food s...

  19. Evaluation of the simultaneous removal of recalcitrant drugs (bezafibrate, gemfibrozil, indomethacin and sulfamethoxazole) and biodegradable organic matter from synthetic wastewater by electro-oxidation coupled with a biological system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Nava, Odín; Ramírez-Saad, Hugo; Loera, Octavio; González, Ignacio

    2016-12-01

    Pharmaceutical degradation in conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) represents a challenge since municipal wastewater and hospital effluents contain pharmaceuticals in low concentrations (recalcitrant and persistent in WWTP) and biodegradable organic matter (BOM) is the main pollutant. This work shows the feasibility of coupling electro-oxidation with a biological system for the simultaneous removal of recalcitrant drugs (bezafibrate, gemfibrozil, indomethacin and sulfamethoxazole (BGIS)) and BOM from wastewater. High removal efficiencies were attained without affecting the performance of activated sludge. BGIS degradation was performed by advanced electrochemical oxidation and the activated sludge process for BOM degradation in a continuous reactor. The selected electrochemical parameters from microelectrolysis tests (1.2 L s(-1) and 1.56 mA cm(-2)) were maintained to operate a filter press laboratory reactor FM01-LC using boron-doped diamond as the anode. The low current density was chosen in order to remove drugs without decreasing BOM and chlorine concentration control, so as to avoid bulking formation in the biological process. The wastewater previously treated by FM01-LC was fed directly (without chemical modification) to the activated sludge reactor to remove 100% of BGIS and 83% of BOM; conversely, the BGIS contained in wastewater without electrochemical pre-treatment were persistent in the biological process and promoted bulking formation.

  20. Synthetic Cannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic cannabinoids which is a subgroup of cannabinoids are commonly used for recreational drug use throughout the whole world. Although both marijuana and synthetic cannabinoids stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2, studies have shown that synthetic cannabinoids are much more potent than marijuana. The longer use of synthetic cannabinoids can cause severe physical and psychological symptoms that might even result in death, similar to many known illicit drugs. Main treatment options mostly involve symptom management and supportive care. The aim of this article is to discuss clinical and pharmacological properties of the increasingly used synthetic cannabinoids. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 317-328

  1. Wastewater reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan R. Radosavljević

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity and water pollution are some of the crucial issues that must be addressed within local and global perspectives. One of the ways to reduce the impact of water scarcity  and to minimizine water pollution is to expand water and wastewater reuse. The local conditions including regulations, institutions, financial mechanisms, availability of local technology and stakeholder participation have a great influence on the decisions for wastewater reuse. The increasing awareness of food safety and the influence of the countries which import food are influencing policy makers and agriculturists to improve the standards of wastewater reuse in agriculture. The environmental awareness of consumers has been putting pressure on the producers (industries to opt for environmentally sound technologies including those which conserve water and reduce the level of pollution. It may be observed that we have to move forwards to implement strategies and plans for wastewater reuse. However, their success and sustainability will depend on political will, public awareness and active support from national and international agencies to create favorable    environment for the promotion of environmentally sustainable technologies. Wastewater treatment has a long history, especially in agriculture, but also in industry and households. Poor quality of wastewater can pose a significant risk to the health of farmers and users of agricultural products. The World Health Organization (WHO is working on a project for the reuse of wastewater in agriculture. To reduce effects of human activities to the minimum, it is necessary to provide such technical and technological solutions that would on the one hand ensure complying with  the existing regulations and legislation, and on the other hand provide economically viable systems as seen through investments and operating costs. The use of wastewater The practice of using wastewater varies from country to country. Its

  2. Strength Assessment of Controlled Low Strength Materials (CLSM) Utilizing Recycled Concrete Aggregate and Waste Paper Sludge Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Ridzuan, Ahmad Ruslan Mohd; Fauzi, Mohd Azrizal; Ghazali, Ezliana; Arshad, Mohd Fadzil; Fauzi, Mohd Afiq; Mohd Fauzi, Mohd Afiq

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the strength development of low-strength material (CLSM) is controlled by using waste paper sludge ash (WPSA) in CLSM mixtures without adding Portland cement. Series of four (4) compounds which is the CLSM containing 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of waste paper sludge ash (WPSA) as a substitute for Portland cement. CLSM cubes the sizes of 100mm x 100mm x 100mm compressive strength were tested at age 7, 14 and 28days. It was found that this activity contributes to strength developmen...

  3. Simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation of synthetic melanoidin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Being an antioxidant, melanoidin removal through purely biodegradation has been inadequate. Consequently, in the current study, simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation (SAB) was employed in a stirred tank system to remove melanoidin from synthetic wastewater. Mixed microbial consortium was immobilized onto ...

  4. Comparing the effect of bioflocculant with synthetic polymers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at introducing a novel bioflocculant to enhance anaerobic granulation in a UASB reactor for lowstrength synthetic wastewater and comparing the effect with synthetic polymers. A laboratory-scale study was undertaken to achieve this goal. Four identical UASB reactors were operated in parallel in the ...

  5. Synthetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  6. Wastewater treatment by flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Puget

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the performance analysis of a separation set-up characterized by the ejector-hydrocyclone association, applied in the treatment of a synthetic dairy wastewater effluent. The results obtained were compared with the results from a flotation column (cylindrical body of a hydrocyclone operated both batch and continuously. As far as the experimental set-up studied in this work and the operating conditions imposed to the process, it is possible to reach a 25% decrease in the total effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD. This corresponds approximately to 60% of the COD of the material in suspension. The best results are obtained for ratios air flow rate-feed flow rate (Qair/Q L greater then 0.15 and for ratios underflow rate-overflow rate (Qu/Qo lower than 1.0.

  7. Significance of dissolved methane in effluents of anaerobically treated low strength wastewater and potential for recovery as an energy product: A review

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data set includes estimations of energy required for processes related to the operation of Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors. This dataset is associated with the...

  8. Biological hydrogen production from industrial wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Guilherme; Pantoja Filho, Jorge Luis Rodrigues; Zaiat, Marcelo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). School of Engineering. Dept. Hydraulics and Sanitation], Email: peixoto@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This research evaluates the potential for producing hydrogen in anaerobic reactors using industrial wastewaters (glycerol from bio diesel production, wastewater from the parboilization of rice, and vinasse from ethanol production). In a complementary experiment the soluble products formed during hydrogen production were evaluated for methane generation. The assays were performed in batch reactors with 2 liters volume, and sucrose was used as a control substrate. The acidogenic inoculum was taken from a packed-bed reactor used to produce hydrogen from a sucrose-based synthetic substrate. The methanogenic inoculum was taken from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating poultry slaughterhouse wastewater. Hydrogen was produced from rice parboilization wastewater (24.27 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) vinasse (22.75 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) and sucrose (25.60 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD), while glycerol only showed potential for methane generation. (author)

  9. Synthetic Rutile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burastero, J.

    1975-01-01

    This work is about the laboratory scale investigation of the conditions in the rutile synthetic production from one me nita in Aguas Dulces reservoir. The iron mineral is chlorinated and volatilized selectively leaving a residue enriched in titanium dioxide which can be used as a substitute of rutile mineral

  10. Wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđel N. Kitanović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life on Earth in the future will largely depend on the amount of safe water. As the most fundamental source of life, water is relentlessly consumed and polluted. To halt this trend, many countries are taking extensive measures and investing substantial resources in order to stop the contamination of water and return at least tolerably good water quality to nature. The goal of water purification is to obtain clean water with the sewage sludge as a by-product. Clean water is returned to nature, and further treatment of sludge may be subject to other procedures. The conclusion of this paper is simple. The procedure with purified water is easily achievable, purified water is discharged into rivers, lakes and seas, but the problem of further treatment of sludge remains. This paper presents the basic methods of wastewater treatment and procedures for processing the products from contaminated water. The paper can serve as a basis for further elaboration. Water Pollution In order to ensure normal life of living creatures, the water in which they live or the water they use must have a natural chemical composition and natural features. When, as a result of human activities, the chemical composition of water and the ratio of its chemical elements significantly change, we say that water is polluted. When the pollutants come from industrial plants, we are talking about industrial wastewater, and when they come from households and urban areas, we are talking about municipal wastewater. Both contain a huge amount of pollutants that eventually end up in rivers. Then, thousands of defenseless birds, fish and other animals suffer, and environmental consequences become immeasurable. In addition, the waste fed to the water often ends up in the bodies of marine animals, so they can return to us as food. Thermal water pollution also has multiple effects on the changes in the wildlife composition of aquatic ecosystems. Polluted water can be purified by

  11. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  12. Synthetic Cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Brooke; Yepes, Andres; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), also known under the brand names of "Spice," "K2," "herbal incense," "Cloud 9," "Mojo" and many others, are becoming a large public health concern due not only to their increasing use but also to their unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential. There are many types of SCBs, each having a unique binding affinity for cannabinoid receptors. Although both Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and SCBs stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), studies have shown that SCBs are associated with higher rates of toxicity and hospital admissions than is natural cannabis. This is likely due to SCBs being direct agonists of the cannabinoid receptors, whereas THC is a partial agonist. Furthermore, the different chemical structures of SCBs found in Spice or K2 may interact in unpredictable ways to elicit previously unknown, and the commercial products may have unknown contaminants. The largest group of users is men in their 20s who participate in polydrug use. The most common reported toxicities with SCB use based on studies using Texas Poison Control records are tachycardia, agitation and irritability, drowsiness, hallucinations, delusions, hypertension, nausea, confusion, dizziness, vertigo and chest pain. Acute kidney injury has also been strongly associated with SCB use. Treatment mostly involves symptom management and supportive care. More research is needed to identify which contaminants are typically found in synthetic marijuana and to understand the interactions between different SBCs to better predict adverse health outcomes.

  13. Synthetic Brainbows

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Brainbow is a genetic engineering technique that randomly colorizes cells. Biological samples processed with this technique and imaged with confocal microscopy have distinctive colors for individual cells. Complex cellular structures can then be easily visualized. However, the complexity of the Brainbow technique limits its applications. In practice, most confocal microscopy scans use different florescence staining with typically at most three distinct cellular structures. These structures are often packed and obscure each other in rendered images making analysis difficult. In this paper, we leverage a process known as GPU framebuffer feedback loops to synthesize Brainbow-like images. In addition, we incorporate ID shuffing and Monte-Carlo sampling into our technique, so that it can be applied to single-channel confocal microscopy data. The synthesized Brainbow images are presented to domain experts with positive feedback. A user survey demonstrates that our synthetic Brainbow technique improves visualizations of volume data with complex structures for biologists.

  14. Synthetic Botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Christian R; Pollak, Bernardo; Purswani, Nuri; Patron, Nicola; Haseloff, Jim

    2017-07-05

    Plants are attractive platforms for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. Plants' modular and plastic body plans, capacity for photosynthesis, extensive secondary metabolism, and agronomic systems for large-scale production make them ideal targets for genetic reprogramming. However, efforts in this area have been constrained by slow growth, long life cycles, the requirement for specialized facilities, a paucity of efficient tools for genetic manipulation, and the complexity of multicellularity. There is a need for better experimental and theoretical frameworks to understand the way genetic networks, cellular populations, and tissue-wide physical processes interact at different scales. We highlight new approaches to the DNA-based manipulation of plants and the use of advanced quantitative imaging techniques in simple plant models such as Marchantia polymorpha. These offer the prospects of improved understanding of plant dynamics and new approaches to rational engineering of plant traits. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  15. Synthetic organic chemicals in earthworms from agriculture soil amended with municipal biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Biosolids resulting from municipal wastewater treatment are known to contain residues of pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs) and other synthetic organic compounds. Many of these are contaminants of emerging concern for their potential endocrine disruption of fish and wildli...

  16. Performance study of mullite and mullite-alumina ceramic MF membranes for oily wastewaters treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasi, Mohsen; Mirfendereski, Mojtaba; Fini, Mahdi Nikbakht

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, results of an experimental study on separation of oil from actual and synthetic oily wastewaters with mullite and mullite-alumina tubular ceramic membranes are presented. Mullite and mullite-alumina microfiltration (MF) symmetric membranes were synthesized from kaolin clay and α......-alumina membranes for treatment of synthetic wastewaters were investigated. In order to determine the best operating conditions, 250-3000ppm condensate gas in water emulsions was employed as synthetic oily wastewaters using mullite membrane. At the best operating conditions (3bar pressure, 1.5m/s cross flow...... velocity and 35°C temperature), performance of mullite and mullite-alumina membranes for treatment of real and synthetic wastewaters were also compared. The results for treatment of emulsions showed that the mullite ceramic membrane has the highest R (93.8%) and the lowest FR (28.97%). Also, the mullite...

  17. Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauul J. Tikalsky

    2004-10-31

    This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: (1) a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, (2) a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and (3) the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at N{sub ini}, N{sub des}, and N{sub max}. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

  18. Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikalsky, Paul J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Bahia, Hussain U. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Deng, An [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Snyder, Thomas [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2004-10-15

    This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at Nini, Ndes, and Nmax. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

  19. Synthetic Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2017-01-01

    "Are we alone?" is one of the primary questions of astrobiology, and whose answer defines our significance in the universe. Unfortunately, this quest is hindered by the fact that we have only one confirmed example of life, that of earth. While this is enormously helpful in helping to define the minimum envelope for life, it strains credulity to imagine that life, if it arose multiple times, has not taken other routes. To help fill this gap, our lab has begun using synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - as an enabling technology. One theme, the "Hell Cell" project, focuses on creating artificial extremophiles in order to push the limits for Earth life, and to understand how difficult it is for life to evolve into extreme niches. In another project, we are re-evolving biotic functions using only the most thermodynamically stable amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids.

  20. Characterisation of wastewater for modelling of wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bio-process modelling is increasingly used in design, modification and troubleshooting of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Characterisation of the influent wastewater to a WWTP is an important part of developing such a model. The characterisation required for modelling is more detailed than that routinely employed ...

  1. Leaching characteristics of encapsulated controlled low-strength materials containing arsenic-bearing waste precipitates from refractory gold bioleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzalakos, S; Dudeney, A W L; Chan, B K C

    2016-07-01

    We report on the leaching of heavy elements from cemented waste flowable fill, known as controlled low-strength materials (CLSM), for potential mine backfill application. Semi-dynamic tank leaching tests were carried out on laboratory-scale monoliths cured for 28 days and tested over 64 days of leaching with pure de-ionised water as leachant. Mineral processing waste include flotation tailings from a Spanish nickel-copper sulphide concentrate, and two bioleach neutralisation precipitates (from processing at 35°C and 70°C) from a South African arsenopyrite concentrate. Encapsulated CLSM formulations were evaluated to assess the reduction in leaching by encapsulating a 'hazardous' CLSM core within a layer of relatively 'inert' CLSM. The effect of each bioleach waste in CLSM core and tailings in CLSM encapsulating medium, are assessed in combination and in addition to CLSM with ordinary silica sand. Results show that replacing silica sand with tailings, both as core and encapsulating matrix, significantly reduced leachability of heavy elements, particularly As (from 0.008-0.190 mg/l to 0.008-0.060 mg/l), Ba (from 0.435-1.540 mg/l to 0.050-0.565 mg/l), and Cr (from 0.006-0.458 mg/l to 0.004-0.229 mg/l), to below the 'Dutch List' of groundwater contamination intervention values. Arsenic leaching was inherently high from both bioleach precipitates but was significantly reduced to below guideline values with encapsulation and replacing silica sand with tailings. Tailings proved to be a valuable encapsulating matrix largely owing to small particle size and lower hydraulic conductivity reducing diffusion transport of heavy elements. Field-scale trials would be necessary to prove this concept of encapsulation in terms of scale and construction practicalities, and further geochemical investigation to optimise leaching performance. Nevertheless, this work substantiates the need for alternative backfill techniques for sustainable management of hazardous finely-sized bulk

  2. Domestic wastewater treatment as a net energy producer--can this be achieved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Perry L; Bae, Jaeho; Kim, Jeonghwan

    2011-09-01

    In seeking greater sustainability in water resources management, wastewater is now being considered more as a resource than as a waste-a resource for water, for plant nutrients, and for energy. Energy, the primary focus of this article, can be obtained from wastewater's organic as well as from its thermal content. Also, using wastewater's nitrogen and P nutrients for plant fertilization, rather than wasting them, helps offset the high energy cost of producing synthetic fertilizers. Microbial fuel cells offer potential for direct biological conversion of wastewater's organic materials into electricity, although significant improvements are needed for this process to be competitive with anaerobic biological conversion of wastewater organics into biogas, a renewable fuel used in electricity generation. Newer membrane processes coupled with complete anaerobic treatment of wastewater offer the potential for wastewater treatment to become a net generator of energy, rather than the large energy consumer that it is today.

  3. Tratamento anaeróbio de pentaclorofenol em reator de leito fluidificado alimentado com água residuária sintética contendo glicose como fonte única de carbono Anaerobic treatment of pentachlorophenol in a fluidized bed reactor fed with synthetic wastewater containing glucose as a single carbon source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Bentes Freire

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi utilizado um reator anaeróbio de leito fluidificado (RALF, tratando água residuária sintética contendo pentaclorofenol (PCP, submetido a condições operacionais menos idealizadas. Utilizou-se um reator com volume de 16 litros, com partículas de carvão ativado granular como meio suporte. O desempenho do reator foi verificado pelas análises usuais de monitoramento (pH, alcalinidade, DQO, ácidos voláteis e também por análises de microscopia e concentração de PCP. A presença de PCP no sistema, nas concentrações utilizadas, não alterou de maneira significativa a qualidade da biomassa presente, e nem os parâmetros de monitoramento. Em concentrações afluentes de PCP variando de 1 a 6 mg/L, foram observadas eficiências médias de remoção de 92% e 70%, respectivamente.In the present work, an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR was used for the treatment of a synthetic wastewater containing pentachlorophenol (PCP subjected to less idealized operating conditions. The reactor was a 16 litres tank with granular activated carbon particles as support media. Evaluation of AFBR performance was done by the analysis of usual monitoring parameters (pH, alkalinity, COD, volatile acids together with microscopy and PCP concentration analysis. The presence of PCP under the concentrations used did not significantly alter the amount of biomass and the performance monitoring parameters. Removal average efficiencies of the order of 92% and 70% were obtained for PCP inflow concentrations in the range of 1 to 6mg/l.

  4. Nitrification in Saline Industrial Wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moussa, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Biological nitrogen removal is widely and successfully applied for municipal wastewater. However, these experiences are not directly applicable to industrial wastewater, due to its specific composition. High salt levels in many industrial wastewaters affect nitrification negatively and improved

  5. Brackish Water Desalination Coupled With Wastewater Treatment and Electricity Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Ziad Ismail

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new bio-electrochemical system was proposed for simultaneous removal of organic matters and salinity from actual domestic wastewater and synthetically prepared saline water, respectively. The performance of a three-chambered microbial osmotic fuel cell (MOFC provided with forward osmosis (FO membrane and cation exchange membrane (CEM was evaluated with respect to the chemical oxygen demand (COD removal from wastewater, electricity generation, and desalination of saline water. The MOFC wasinoculated with activated sludge and fueled with actual domestic wastewater. Results revealed that maximum removal efficiency of COD from wastewater, TDS removal efficiency from saline water, power density, and current density were 96%, 90%, 30.02 mW/m2, and 107.20 mA/m2, respectively.

  6. Wastewater Industrial Contributors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Industrial contributors to municipal wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program.

  7. Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal is the first volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, presenting an integrated view of water quality and wastewater treatment. The book covers the following topics: wastewater characteristics (flow and major constituents) impact of wastewater discharges to rivers and lakes overview of wastewater treatment systems complementary items in planning studies. This book, with its clear and practical approach, lays the foundations f...

  8. Life cycle environmental impacts of wastewater-based algal biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dongyan; Min, Min; Krohn, Brian; Mullins, Kimberley A; Ruan, Roger; Hill, Jason

    2014-10-07

    Recent research has proposed integrating wastewater treatment with algae cultivation as a way of producing algal biofuels at a commercial scale more sustainably. This study evaluates the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels with a well-to-wheel life cycle assessment (LCA). Production pathways examined include different nutrient sources (municipal wastewater influent to the activated sludge process, centrate from the sludge drying process, swine manure, and freshwater with synthetic fertilizers) combined with emerging biomass conversion technologies (microwave pyrolysis, combustion, wet lipid extraction, and hydrothermal liquefaction). Results show that the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels is generally better than freshwater-based algal biofuels, but depends on the characteristics of the wastewater and the conversion technologies. Of 16 pathways compared, only the centrate cultivation with wet lipid extraction pathway and the centrate cultivation with combustion pathway have lower impacts than petroleum diesel in all environmental categories examined (fossil fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions, eutrophication potential, and consumptive water use). The potential for large-scale implementation of centrate-based algal biofuel, however, is limited by availability of centrate. Thus, it is unlikely that algal biofuels can provide a large-scale and environmentally preferable alternative to petroleum transportation fuels without considerable improvement in current production technologies. Additionally, the cobenefit of wastewater-based algal biofuel production as an alternate means of treating various wastewaters should be further explored.

  9. Application of radiation for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Bumsoo; Kim Jinkyu; Kim Yuri

    2006-01-01

    Electron beam processing of wastewater is non-chemical, and uses fast formation of short-lived reactive radicals that can interact with a wide range of pollutants. Such reactive radicals are strong oxidizing or reducing agents that can transform the pollutants in the liquids wastes. The first studies on the radiation treatment of wastes were carried out in the 1950s principally for disinfection. In the 1960s, these studies were extended to the purification of water and wastewater. After some laboratory research on industrial wastewaters and polluted groundwater in 1970s and 1980s, several pilot plants were built for extended research in the 1990s. The first full-scale application was reported for the purification of wastewater at the Voronezh synthetic rubber plant in Russia. Two accelerators (50 kW each) were used to convert the non-biodegradable emulsifier, 'nekal', present in the wastewater to a biodegradable form . The installation treats up to 2000 m3 of effluent per day. A pilot plant of 1000 m 3 /d for treating textile-dyeing wastewater has been constructed in Daegu, Korea with 1 MeV, 40 kW electron accelerator. High-energy irradiation produces instantaneous radiolytical transformations by energy transfer from accelerated electrons to orbital electrons of water molecules. Absorbed energy disturbs the electron system of the molecule and results in breakage of inter-atomic bonds. Hydrated electron eaq, H atom, . OH and HO 2 . radicals and hydrogen peroxide H 2 O 2 and H 2 are the most important products of the primary interactions (radiolysis products). Generally, radiation processing of wastewater has maximum efficiency at pollutant concentration less than 10 -3 mol/L (∼100 ppm). The treatment of such wastewater is simple, requires low dose (about 1 kGy or less) and gives almost complete elimination of odor, color, taste and turbidity. The radiation processing of polluted water containing specific contaminants may require creation of special conditions to

  10. Synthetic biology, inspired by synthetic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, V; Nallani, M; Meier, W P; Sinner, E K

    2012-07-16

    The topic synthetic biology appears still as an 'empty basket to be filled'. However, there is already plenty of claims and visions, as well as convincing research strategies about the theme of synthetic biology. First of all, synthetic biology seems to be about the engineering of biology - about bottom-up and top-down approaches, compromising complexity versus stability of artificial architectures, relevant in biology. Synthetic biology accounts for heterogeneous approaches towards minimal and even artificial life, the engineering of biochemical pathways on the organismic level, the modelling of molecular processes and finally, the combination of synthetic with nature-derived materials and architectural concepts, such as a cellular membrane. Still, synthetic biology is a discipline, which embraces interdisciplinary attempts in order to have a profound, scientific base to enable the re-design of nature and to compose architectures and processes with man-made matter. We like to give an overview about the developments in the field of synthetic biology, regarding polymer-based analogs of cellular membranes and what questions can be answered by applying synthetic polymer science towards the smallest unit in life, namely a cell. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristics of grey wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Auffarth, Karina Pipaluk Solvejg; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    The composition of grey wastewater depends on sources and installations from where the water is drawn, e.g. kitchen, bathroom or laundry. The chemical compounds present originate from household chemicals, cooking, washing and the piping. In general grey wastewater contains lower levels of organic...

  12. Application of non-invasive low strength pulsed electric field to EGCG treatment synergistically enhanced the inhibition effect on PANC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chih-Hsiung; Lu, Chueh-Hsuan; Chen, Wei-Ting; Ma, Bo-Lun; Chao, Chih-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Traditional therapies for pancreatic cancer are usually expensive and likely to cause side effects, and most patients have the risk of recurrence and suffering pain. Here, we investigated combination treatment of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and non-invasive low strength pulsed electric field (PEF) on the human pancreatic cell line PANC-1. Cells were cultured in various concentrations of EGCG and exposed to trains of PEF. The results showed that the low strength PEF alone or single treatment with low concentration of EGCG did not obviously affect the cell proliferation and migration in PANC-1. However, the EGCG-induced inhibitions of cell viability and migration ability in PANC-1 were dramatically enhanced by the further exposure of low strength PEF (60 V/cm). In particular, the same combination treatment caused less inhibition of cell viability in non-malignant HEK293 cells. We also found the combination treatment significantly decreased the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax protein and increased caspase activity in PANC-1 cells, resulting in the promotion of apoptotic responses, evidenced by chromatin condensation. The findings of the present study reveal the synergistic reactions in the combination treatment may severely disturb mitochondria, enhance the intrinsic pathway transduction, and effectively induce apoptosis; moreover, the migration and invasion of PANC-1 cancer cells were also significantly suppressed. Since normal cells are less sensitive to this combination treatment, and the non-invasive PEF could be modified to focus on a specific location, this treatment may serve as a promising method for anti-cancer therapy.

  13. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  15. The formulation of synthetic domestic wastewater sludge medium to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to study anaerobic biological treatment of acid mine drainage in the laboratory ... when exposed to dissolved oxygen, water and micro-organisms. (Nordstrom and ..... HUGHES TA and GREY NF (2013) Co-treatment of acid mine drainage.

  16. Biological nitrate removal from synthetic wastewater using a fungal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-04-02

    -stage ... grass, instead of non-autoclaved grass containing natural microbial consortia, as sup- ... 25ºC within a 20 ℓ plastic bag, along with a 1 ℓ conical flask ... of cellulases and xylanases – the two major hydrolytic enzyme.

  17. Removal of Pentachlorophenol Using Microwave Assisted Persulfate from Synthetic Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorban Asgari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pentachlorophenol (PCP is an important class of environmental pollutants which is excessively used in industry in spite of strong evidence about its hazards. Therefore, the removal of PCP from aqua solution is recommended due to its toxicity and health risks. In the present study, the removal of PCP using a modified domestic microwave (MW oven alone and in combination with persulfate (MW/PS was investigated. The effects of operational parameters such as pH of solution, the power of microwave radiations and the amount of persulfate concentration were studied. A spectrophotometer was used for determining of the concentration of pentachlorophenol. The experimental results showed that the removal of PCP was influenced by many factors, such as the pH value, the amount of persulfate and microwave power. The optimum conditions for the best removal rate were obtained at pH=11, a persulfate concentration of 0.02mol/L and microwave irradiation power of about 600W for MW/PS system at constant PCP concentration.  Also, the direct degradation results showed that the removal of PCP was 2% in MW system without PS after 30 min of MW irradiation. The removal of PCP by MW/PS and MW alone were follow first order rate decay kinetics and the rate constants were 0.093 and 0.00066 min-1, respectively.

  18. A nine-point pH titration method to determine low-concentration VFA in municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Hainan; Zhang, Daijun; Lu, Peili; He, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of volatile fatty acid (VFA) in wastewater is significant for understanding the wastewater nature and the wastewater treatment process optimization based on the usage of Activated Sludge Models (ASMs). In this study, a nine-point pH titration method was developed for the determination of low-concentration VFA in municipal wastewater. The method was evaluated using synthetic wastewater containing VFA with the concentration of 10-50 mg/l and the possible interfering buffer systems of carbonate, phosphate and ammonium similar to those in real municipal wastewater. In addition, the further evaluation was conducted through the assay of real wastewater using chromatography as reference. The results showed that the recovery of VFA in the synthetic wastewater was 92%-102 and the coefficient of variance (CV) of reduplicate measurements 1.68%-4.72%. The changing content of the buffering substances had little effect on the accuracy of the method. Moreover, the titration method was agreed with chromatography in the determination of VFA in real municipal wastewater with R(2)= 0.9987 and CV =1.3-1.7. The nine-point pH titration method is capable of satisfied determination of low-concentration VFA in municipal wastewater.

  19. Evaluation of constructed wetland treatment performance for winery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, Mark E; Carr, Melanie A; Shepherd, Heather L

    2003-01-01

    Rapid expansion of wineries in rural California during the past three decades has created contamination problems related to winery wastewater treatment and disposal; however, little information is available about performance of on-site treatment systems. Here, the project objective was to determine full-scale, subsurface-flow constructed wetland retention times and treatment performance through assessment of water quality by daily sampling of total dissolved solids, pH, total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), tannins, nitrate, ammonium, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, phosphate, sulfate, and sulfide across operating systems for winery wastewater treatment. Measurements were conducted during both the fall crush season of heavy loading and the spring following bottling and racking operations at the winery. Simple decay model coefficients for these constituents as well as COD and tannin removal efficiencies from winery wastewater in bench-scale reactors are also determined. The bench-scale study used upward-flow, inoculated attached-growth (pea-gravel substrate) reactors fed synthetic winery wastewater. Inlet and outlet tracer studies for determination of actual retention times were essential to analyses of treatment performance from an operational subsurface-flow constructed wetland that had been overloaded due to failure to install a pretreatment system for suspended solids removal. Less intensive sampling conducted at a smaller operational winery wastewater constructed wetland that had used pretreatment suspended solids removal and aeration indicated that the constructed wetlands were capable of complete organic load removal from the winery wastewater.

  20. Dairy wastewater treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... treatment processes to treat dairy wastewater such as activated sludge system .... Gas chromatograph. (Perkin Elmer, Auto system XL), equipped with thermal conductivity ..... Enzymatic hydrolysis of molasses. Bioresour. Tech.

  1. Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Individual permits for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)...

  2. Recycling phosphorus from wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Camilla Kjærulff

    wastewater-derived products, and to relate this to the availability from other P-containing waste products and mineral P fertiliser. This included aspects of development over time and soil accumulation, as well as effects of soil pH and the spatial distribution in soil. The P sources applied in this PhD work...... reserves. Wastewater represents the largest urban flow of P in waste. Hence, knowledge about plant P availability of products from the wastewater treatment system, and also comparison to other waste P sources and mineral P is essential to obtain an efficient recycling and to prioritise between different P...... recycling options. The work of this PhD focused on the plant P availability of sewage sludge, a P-rich residue from wastewater treatment which is commonly applied to agricultural soil in Denmark. The overall objective of the PhD work was to evaluate the plant availability of P in sewage sludge and other...

  3. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The actual treatment areas for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  4. Preliminary study on the effect of mixing and time on turbidity removal in wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Bakar, A.; Jaafar, J.

    2006-01-01

    The current trend favorable in the wastewater treatment industry is to use natural polymer as a coagulant. It is believed that this natural polymer can perform as well as synthetic organic polymer. In this study, natural polymer - Moringa Oleifera was used to destabilize the colloidal particles in wastewater so that the floc will be formed in this process. Jar test was used to evaluate, to determine the dosages and to optimize the coagulant - Moringa Oleifera in these processes. The experimental result has showed that, by using Moringa Oleifera as a coagulant the turbidity of the wastewater can be removed up to 98% which is comparable to the performance of synthetic polymer, alum. This study however is applicable for wastewater which in the medium to high turbidity ranging from 80 to 100 NTU. (Author)

  5. Lignin Biodegradation in Pulp-and-Paper Mill Wastewater by Selected White Rot Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Costa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation has been carried out to explore the lignin-degrading ability of white rot fungi, as B. adusta and P. crysosporium, grown in different media containing (i glucose and mineral salts; (ii a dairy residue; (iii a dairy residue and mineral salts. Both fungi were then used as inoculum to treat synthetic and industrial pulp-and-paper mill wastewater. On synthetic wastewater, up to 97% and 74% of lignin degradation by B. adusta and P. crysosporium, respectively, have been reached. On industrial wastewater, both fungal strains were able to accomplish 100% delignification in 8–10 days, independent from pH control, with a significant reduction of total organic carbon (TOC of the solution. Results have confirmed the great biotechnological potential of both B. adusta and P. crysosporium for complete lignin removal in industrial wastewater, and can open the way to next industrial applications on large scale.

  6. Synthetic musk fragrances in Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Aaron M; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2004-01-15

    Synthetic musk fragrances are added to a wide variety of personal care and household products and are present in treated wastewater effluent. Here we report for the first time ambient air and water measurements of six polycyclic musks (AHTN, HHCB, ATII, ADBI, AHMI, and DPMI) and two nitro musks (musk xylene and musk ketone) in North America. The compounds were measured in the air and water of Lake Michigan and in the air of urban Milwaukee, WI. All of the compounds except DPMI were detected. HHCB and AHTN were found in the highest concentrations in all samples. Airborne concentrations of HHCB and AHTN average 4.6 and 2.9 ng/m3, respectively, in Milwaukee and 1.1 and 0.49 ng/m3 over the lake. The average water concentration of HHCB and AHTN in Lake Michigan was 4.7 and 1.0 ng/L, respectively. A lake-wide annual mass budget shows that wastewater treatment plant discharge is the major source (3470 kg/yr) of the synthetic musks while atmospheric deposition contributes less than 1%. Volatilization and outflow through the Straits of Mackinac are major loss mechanisms (2085 and 516 kg/yr for volatilization and outflow, respectively). Concentrations of HHCB are about one-half the predicted steady-state water concentrations in Lake Michigan.

  7. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

  8. Study of electroflotation method for treatment of wastewater from washing soil contaminated by heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira da Mota, Izabel; de Castro, José Adilson; de Góes Casqueira, Rui; de Oliveira Junior, Angelo Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Electroflotation method (EFM) for treatment of synthetic solutions simulating wastewater from washing soil contaminated by drilling fluids from oil wells was investigated in this paper. Experiments were carried out to examine the effects of the operating conditions on the removal of lead, barium and zinc from solutions containing 15 mg dm−3 for each metal representing a typical concentration of wastewater generated in the washing soil in this treatment. The experimental results showed that it...

  9. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  10. [From synthetic biology to synthetic humankind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvel, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an historical survey of the expression "synthetic biology" in order to identify its main philosophical components. The result of the analysis is then used to investigate the meaning of the notion of "synthetic man". It is shown that both notions share a common philosophical background that can be summed up by the short but meaningful assertion: "biology is technology". The analysis allows us to distinguish two notions that are often confused in transhumanist literature: the notion of synthetic man and the notion of renewed man. The consequences of this crucial distinction are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Wastewater Treatment from Batik Industries Using TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifan, Fahmi; Nugraheni, FS; Rama Devara, Hafiz; Lianandya, Niken Elsa

    2018-02-01

    Batik is cultural patterned fabric, and the this industries produce wastewater that can pollute the aquatic environment. Besides dyes, batik wastewater also contains synthetic compounds that are hard degraded, such as heavy metals, suspended solids, or organic compounds. In this study, photocatalitic membrane TiO2 coated plastic sheets have been used to degrade batik wastewater under solar exposure. A total of 8 pieces of catalyst sheets are added on 1000 ml of the waste, and managed to degrade 50.41% of the initial concentration during 5-days irradiation. In this study, several parameters of the water quality such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), and total suspensed solids (TSS) of the wastewater were observed to be decreasing during photodegradation process. The catalyst sheet also is stable to be used repeatedly in wastewater treatment.

  12. Microplastics en route : Field measurements in the Dutch river delta and Amsterdam canals, wastewater treatment plants, North Sea sediments and biota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leslie, H A; Brandsma, S H; van Velzen, M J M; Vethaak, A D

    2017-01-01

    Environmental contamination by plastic particles, also known as 'microplastics', brings synthetic materials that are non-degradable and biologically incompatible into contact with ecosystems. In this paper we present concentration data for this emerging contaminant in wastewater treatment plants

  13. Removal of Textile Dyestufes From Wastewater by Adsorptive Biodegradation

    OpenAIRE

    KAPDAN, İlgi KARAPINAR; KARGI, Fikret

    2000-01-01

    Removal of dyestuffs from a synthetic wastewater by adsorptive biodegradation was investigated in this study. The dyestuff adsorption capacities of granular, powdered activated carbon (GAC and PAC) and low-cost adsorbents such as zeolite, wood chips and wood ash were evaluated in order to obtain a low-cost adsorbent for use in an activated sludge unit. Then various activated sludge cultures were tested for biodegradation of a selected dyestuff. An activated sludge unit with the selected activ...

  14. Phenol Removal from Industrial Wastewater by HRP Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iran Alemzadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, horseradish peroxidase for phenol removal was utilized. First, the process was studied at the laboratory scale using a synthetic phenol solution (1-10 mM. Results showed that horseradish peroxidase (HRP could effectively remove phenolic compounds from wastewater and that the catalytic capability of the enzyme was maintained for a wide range of pH, temperature, and aromatic concentration levels. The performance conditions were optimized for at lease 95% and 100% removal of phenolic compounds for both actual and synthetic wastewaters under high and low phenol concentrations (1 and 10 mM. The phenolic wastewater used was an olive mill effluent with a phenol concentration of 1221 mg/L (13 mM and a pH value of 3.5. At the end of the reaction, the phenolic compounds changed to insoluble polymers and precipitated. Each enzyme/wastewater system was optimized for the following chemical dosages: hydrogen peroxide, enzyme, polyethylene glycol (PEG, and buffer. Furthermore, the reaction time to achieve at least 95% phenol removal was determined. According to the results, COD and BOD reduced to 58% and 78%, respectively. Experimental results showed an increase in H2O2 concentration beyond the optimum dose resulting from enzyme inactivation, thus reducing the phenol removal efficiency. On the other hand, increasing the enzyme, PEG, and/or reaction time beyond the optimum values resulted in only a marginal increase in removal efficiency.

  15. A critical review on textile wastewater treatments: Possible approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holkar, Chandrakant R; Jadhav, Ananda J; Pinjari, Dipak V; Mahamuni, Naresh M; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2016-11-01

    Waste water is a major environmental impediment for the growth of the textile industry besides the other minor issues like solid waste and resource waste management. Textile industry uses many kinds of synthetic dyes and discharge large amounts of highly colored wastewater as the uptake of these dyes by fabrics is very poor. This highly colored textile wastewater severely affects photosynthetic function in plant. It also has an impact on aquatic life due to low light penetration and oxygen consumption. It may also be lethal to certain forms of marine life due to the occurrence of component metals and chlorine present in the synthetic dyes. So, this textile wastewater must be treated before their discharge. In this article, different treatment methods to treat the textile wastewater have been presented along with cost per unit volume of treated water. Treatment methods discussed in this paper involve oxidation methods (cavitation, photocatalytic oxidation, ozone, H2O2, fentons process), physical methods (adsorption and filtration), biological methods (fungi, algae, bacteria, microbial fuel cell). This review article will also recommend the possible remedial measures to treat different types of effluent generated from each textile operation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  17. Production of Spirulina sp by utilization of wastewater from the powder type energy drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumantri, Indro; Priyambada, Ika Bagus

    2015-12-01

    Wastewater of energy drink type of powder produced when the the production equipment required cleaning treatment to produce one taste to others. These equipments washed by water, so that, it produced wastewater. It contains high organic substances and classified as high degradable due to food product. The content of wastewater is high carbon and nitrogen substances. Microalgae is an autotrophic microorganism, live without carbon presence, utilized to digest the substances in wastewater especially for nitrogen substances. Spirulina sp is the type of microalgae selected to utilize the wastewater of energy drink, the selection criteria is the size of Spirulina sp is relatively large and easy to separated from its solution. The experiment conducted by cultivate the seeding microalgae with certain nutrients until the certain volume. The synthetic wastewater obtained from one of energy drink type of powder with commercial brand as Kuku Bima Ener-G, the wastewater concentration selected under the close to the real condition of wastewater as basis of COD measurement (6 sachet/L or COD of 12.480mg/L) and aqueous concentration (1 sachet/L or COD of 2080mg/L). The batch experiments with 1L volume conducted and with variable of percent volume of wastewater added in order to observe the growth of microlagae. The response of the microalgae growth obtained by increasing the optical density of the microalgae solution and continued by calculation for the growth rate of microalgae. The result of the experiments indicated that for the aqueous concentration (1 sachet/L or COD of 2080mg/L) the optimum added of wastewater is 40 % with growrate of 0.55/day while for the concentrated wastewater (6 sachet/L or COD of 12.480mg/L), the optimum condition is 25 % wastewater added with growth rate of 0.43/day.

  18. Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment is the second volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, and focusses on the unit operations and processes associated with biological wastewater treatment. The major topics covered are: microbiology and ecology of wastewater treatment reaction kinetics and reactor hydraulics conversion of organic and inorganic matter sedimentation aeration The theory presented in this volume forms the basis upon which the other books...

  19. Microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to explore the possibilities of using microalgal biofilms for the treatment of municipal wastewater, with a focus on the post-treatment of municipal wastewater effluent. The potential of microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment was first investigated using a

  20. Problems with textile wastewater discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantala, Pentti

    1987-01-01

    The general character of textile industry wastewaters is briefly discussed. General guidelines and practice in Finland when discharging textile industry wastewaters to municipal sewer systems is described. A survey revealed that most municipalities experience some problems due to textile industry wastewaters. Pretreatment is not always practiced and in some cases pretreatment is not operated efficiently. (author)

  1. LCA of Wastewater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred

    2018-01-01

    of LCA studies addressing wastewater treatment have from the very first published cases, been on energy and resource consumption. In recent time, the use of characterisation has increased and besides global warming potential, especially eutrophication is in focus. Even the toxicity-related impact......The main purpose of wastewater treatment is to protect humans against waterborne diseases and to safeguard aquatic bio-resources like fish. The dominating environmental concerns within this domain are indeed still potential aquatic eutrophication/oxygen depletion due to nutrient/organic matter...

  2. Synthetic Musk Fragrances in a Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Plant with Lime Softening

    OpenAIRE

    Wombacher, William D.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic musk fragrances are common personal care product additives and wastewater contaminants that are routinely detected in the environment. This study examines the presence eight synthetic musk fragrances (AHTN, HHCB, ATII, ADBI, AHMI, musk xylene, and musk ketone) in source water and the removal of these compounds as they flow through a Midwestern conventional drinking water plant with lime softening. The compounds were measured in water, waste sludge, and air throughout the plant. HHCB...

  3. Wastewater treatment by nanofiltration membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyanti, R.; Susanto, H.

    2018-03-01

    Lower energy consumption compared to reverse osmosis (RO) and higher rejection compared to ultrafiltration make nanofiltration (NF) membrane get more and more attention for wastewater treatment. NF has become a promising technology not only for treating wastewater but also for reusing water from wastewater. This paper presents various application of NF for wastewater treatments. The factors affecting the performance of NF membranes including operating conditions, feed characteristics and membrane characteristics were discussed. In addition, fouling as a severe problem during NF application is also presented. Further, future prospects and challenges of NF for wastewater treatments are explained.

  4. Synthetic Defects for Vibrothermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Jeremy; Holland, Stephen D.; Thompson, R. Bruce; Eisenmann, David J.

    2010-02-01

    Synthetic defects are an important tool used for characterizing the performance of nondestructive evaluation techniques. Viscous material-filled synthetic defects were developed for use in vibrothermography (also known as sonic IR) as a tool to improve inspection accuracy and reliability. This paper describes how the heat-generation response of these VMF synthetic defects is similar to the response of real defects. It also shows how VMF defects can be applied to improve inspection accuracy for complex industrial parts and presents a study of their application in an aircraft engine stator vane.

  5. Synthetic biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, Eric; Süel, Gürol M

    2013-01-01

    Despite their obvious relationship and overlap, the field of physics is blessed with many insightful laws, while such laws are sadly absent in biology. Here we aim to discuss how the rise of a more recent field known as synthetic biology may allow us to more directly test hypotheses regarding the possible design principles of natural biological networks and systems. In particular, this review focuses on synthetic gene regulatory networks engineered to perform specific functions or exhibit particular dynamic behaviors. Advances in synthetic biology may set the stage to uncover the relationship of potential biological principles to those developed in physics. (review article)

  6. Synthetic fibers as an indicator of land application of sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubris, Kimberly Ann V.; Richards, Brian K.

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic fabric fibers have been proposed as indicators of past spreading of wastewater sludge. Synthetic fiber detectability was examined in sludges (dewatered, pelletized, composted, alkaline-stabilized) and in soils from experimental columns and field sites applied with those sludge products. Fibers (isolated by water extraction and examined using polarized light microscopy) were detectable in sludge products and in soil columns over 5 years after application, retaining characteristics observed in the applied sludge. Concentrations mirrored (within a factor of 2) predictions based on soil dilution. Fibers were detectable in field site soils up to 15 years after application, again retaining the characteristics seen in sludge products. Concentrations correlated with residual sludge metal concentration gradients in a well-characterized field site. Fibers found along preferential flow paths and/or in horizons largely below the mixed layer suggest some potential for translocation. Synthetic fibers were shown to be rapid and semi-quantitative indicators of past sludge application. - Synthetic fabric fibers present in wastewater sludge are a semi-quantitative long-term indicator of past sludge application in soils

  7. Paper 1: Wastewater characterisation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    1998). Research is directed on quantifying the C, N and P fractions in the secondary ... and prefermented wastewater, applicable for a basic in-line APT and other prefermenter ... representative composite samples, and from these samples the ... Constituents in true solution (dissolved) (particle size < 1 nm);. • not visible by ...

  8. Techniques of Wastewater Treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    organisms: These are small plants as well as animals and they are some of the most difficult ... It is measured by the oxygen consumption of a pre-inoculated sample at 20-250C in .... Organic wastewater components may be oxidised all the way to CO2.

  9. Models for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2007-11-06

    Synthetic biological engineering is emerging from biology as a distinct discipline based on quantification. The technologies propelling synthetic biology are not new, nor is the concept of designing novel biological molecules. What is new is the emphasis on system behavior. The objective is the design and construction of new biological devices and systems to deliver useful applications. Numerous synthetic gene circuits have been created in the past decade, including bistable switches, oscillators, and logic gates, and possible applications abound, including biofuels, detectors for biochemical and chemical weapons, disease diagnosis, and gene therapies. More than fifty years after the discovery of the molecular structure of DNA, molecular biology is mature enough for real quantification that is useful for biological engineering applications, similar to the revolution in modeling in chemistry in the 1950s. With the excitement that synthetic biology is generating, the engineering and biological science communities appear remarkably willing to cross disciplinary boundaries toward a common goal.

  10. Technical Assessment: Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Pfizer, Bausch & Lomb, Coca - Cola , and other Fortune 500 companies 8 Data estimated by the... financial prize for ideas to drive forward the production of a sensor relying on synthetic organisms that can detect exposure to 500 specific chemicals

  11. Hydraulic continuity and biological effects of low strength very low frequency electromagnetic waves: Case of microbial biofilm growth in water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, Merlin; Noamen, Omri; Evelyne, Gonze; Eric, Valette; Gilles, Cauffet; Marc, Henry

    2015-10-15

    This study aims to elucidate the interactions between water, subjected to electromagnetic waves of very low frequency (VLF) (kHz) with low strength electromagnetic fields (3.5 mT inside the coils), and the development of microbial biofilms in this exposed water. Experimental results demonstrate that in water exposed to VLF electromagnetic waves, the biomass of biofilm is limited if hydraulic continuity is achieved between the electromagnetic generator and the biofilm media. The measured amount of the biofilm's biomass is approximately a factor two lower for exposed biofilm than the non-exposed biofilm. Measurements of electromagnetic fields in the air and simulations exhibit very low intensities of fields (electromagnetic generator. Exposure to electric and magnetic fields of the quoted intensities cannot explain thermal and ionizing effects on the biofilm. A variable electrical potential with a magnitude close to 20 mV was detected in the tank in hydraulic continuity with the electromagnetic generator. The application of quantum field theory may help to explain the observed effects in this case. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Screening new psychoactive substances in urban wastewater using high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mariño, Iria; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Bagnati, Renzo; Martins, Claudia P B; Zuccato, Ettore; Castiglioni, Sara

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of drug residues in urban wastewater could complement epidemiological studies in detecting the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS), a continuously changing group of drugs hard to monitor by classical methods. We initially selected 52 NPS potentially used in Italy based on seizure data and consumption alerts provided by the Antidrug Police Department and the National Early Warning System. Using a linear ion trap-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometer, we designed a suspect screening and a target method approach and compared them for the analysis of 24 h wastewater samples collected at the treatment plant influents of four Italian cities. This highlighted the main limitations of these two approaches, so we could propose requirements for future research. A library of MS/MS spectra of 16 synthetic cathinones and 19 synthetic cannabinoids, for which analytical standards were acquired, was built at different collision energies and is available on request. The stability of synthetic cannabinoids was studied in analytical standards and wastewater, identifying the best analytical conditions for future studies. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first stability data on NPS. Few suspects were identified in Italian wastewater samples, in accordance with recent epidemiological data reporting a very low prevalence of use of NPS in Italy. This study outlines an analytical approach for NPS identification and measurement in urban wastewater and for estimating their use in the population.

  13. Water and Wastewater Disinfection with Peracetic Acid and UV Radiation and Using Advanced Oxidative Process PAA/UV

    OpenAIRE

    Beber de Souza, Jeanette; Queiroz Valdez, Fernanda; Jeranoski, Rhuan Felipe; Vidal, Carlos Magno de Sousa; Cavallini, Grasiele Soares

    2015-01-01

    The individual methods of disinfection peracetic acid (PAA) and UV radiation and combined process PAA/UV in water (synthetic) and sanitary wastewater were employed to verify the individual and combined action of these advanced oxidative processes on the effectiveness of inactivation of microorganisms indicators of fecal contamination E. coli, total coliforms (in the case of sanitary wastewater), and coliphages (such as virus indicators). Under the experimental conditions investigated, doses o...

  14. Occurrence of pharmaceutically active and non-steroidal estrogenic compounds in three different wastewater recycling schemes in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rifai, J.; Gabelish, C. L.; Schaefer, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    The discovery that natural and synthetic chemicals, in the form of excreted hormones and pharmaceuticals, as well as a vast array of compounds with domestic and industrial applications, can enter the environment via wastewater treatment plants and cause a wide variety of environmental and health problems even at very low concentrations, suggests the need for improvement of water recycling. Three Australian wastewater recycling schemes, two of which employ reverse osmosis (RO) technology, ...

  15. Wastewater Treatment in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur

    treatment in these regions. However, designing, constructing and operating wastewater collection systems in the Arctic is challenging because of e.g. permafrost conditions, hard rock surfaces, freezing, limited quantity of water and high costs of electricity, fuel and transportation, as well as a settlement...... or water saving toilets. This opens up for co-treatment of organic waste fractions. Freezing and thawing has also been recognised as being a cost-effective wastewater treatment method in cold regions. Thus it was chosen to concentrate on the effect of the mentioned processes, namely freezing, anaerobic...... spreading of nutrients, diseases and potential pollution issues. Due to the above mentioned challenges alternative treatment methods are needed, especially in small and remotely located communities. Decentralized solutions are well suited for Greenland. Ideal solutions should reduce the need for expensive...

  16. Identification of wastewater processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Niels Jacob

    The introduction of on-line sensors for monitoring of nutrient salts concentrations on wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal, opens a wide new area of modelling wastewater processes. The subject of this thesis is the formulation of operational dynamic models based on time series...... of ammonia, nitrate, and phosphate concentrations, which are measured in the aeration tanks of the biological nutrient removal system. The alternatign operation modes of the BIO-DENITRO and BIO-DENIPHO processes are of particular interest. Time series models of the hydraulic and biological processes are very......-known theory of the processes with the significant effects found in data. These models are called grey box models, and they contain rate expressions for the processes of influent load of nutrients, transport of nutrients between the aeration tanks, hydrolysis and growth of biomass, nitrification...

  17. Parasitological Contamination of Wastewater Irrigated and Raw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    Occurrence of infective stages of intestinal parasites on wastewater- irrigated vegetables ..... reported the health hazards of agricultural reuse of untreated wastewater through detection of .... State of knowledge in land treatment of wastewater.

  18. Microplastic in Danish wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the role of Danish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the emission of microplastic to the environment in terms of amounts and types of plastic polymers emitted and if possible, to evaluate which sources these plastic polymers could originate...... investigations (Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy imaging applying a Focal Plane Array). This method allows both determination of the microplastic concentrations in the samples and identification of the type of plastic polymer of each microplastic particle....

  19. Electrochemical catalytic treatment of phenol wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hongzhu; Zhang Xinhai; Ma Qingliang; Wang Bo

    2009-01-01

    The slurry bed catalytic treatment of contaminated water appears to be a promising alternative for the oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. In this paper, the electrochemical oxidation of phenol in synthetic wastewater catalyzed by ferric sulfate and potassium permanganate adsorbed onto active bentonite in slurry bed electrolytic reactor with graphite electrode has been investigated. In order to determine the optimum operating condition, the orthogonal experiments were devised and the results revealed that the system of ferric sulfate, potassium permanganate and active bentonite showed a high catalytic efficiency on the process of electrochemical oxidation phenol in initial pH 5. When the initial concentration of phenol was 0.52 g/L (the initial COD 1214 mg/L), up to 99% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was obtained in 40 min. According to the experimental results, a possible mechanism of catalytic degradation of phenol was proposed. Environmental estimation was also done and the results showed that the treated wastewater have little impact on plant growth and could totally be applied to irrigation.

  20. Electrochemical catalytic treatment of phenol wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Hongzhu, E-mail: hzmachem@snnu.edu.cn [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Zhang Xinhai [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Ma Qingliang [Department of Applied Physics, College of Sciences, Taiyuan University of Technology, 030024 Taiyuan (China); Wang Bo [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The slurry bed catalytic treatment of contaminated water appears to be a promising alternative for the oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. In this paper, the electrochemical oxidation of phenol in synthetic wastewater catalyzed by ferric sulfate and potassium permanganate adsorbed onto active bentonite in slurry bed electrolytic reactor with graphite electrode has been investigated. In order to determine the optimum operating condition, the orthogonal experiments were devised and the results revealed that the system of ferric sulfate, potassium permanganate and active bentonite showed a high catalytic efficiency on the process of electrochemical oxidation phenol in initial pH 5. When the initial concentration of phenol was 0.52 g/L (the initial COD 1214 mg/L), up to 99% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was obtained in 40 min. According to the experimental results, a possible mechanism of catalytic degradation of phenol was proposed. Environmental estimation was also done and the results showed that the treated wastewater have little impact on plant growth and could totally be applied to irrigation.

  1. PFP Wastewater Sampling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    This test report documents the results obtained while conducting operational testing of the sampling equipment in the 225-WC building, the PFP Wastewater Sampling Facility. The Wastewater Sampling Facility houses equipment to sample and monitor the PFP's liquid effluents before discharging the stream to the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). The majority of the streams are not radioactive and discharges from the PFP Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC). The streams that might be contaminated are processed through the Low Level Waste Treatment Facility (LLWTF) before discharging to TEDF. The sampling equipment consists of two flow-proportional composite samplers, an ultrasonic flowmeter, pH and conductivity monitors, chart recorder, and associated relays and current isolators to interconnect the equipment to allow proper operation. Data signals from the monitors are received in the 234-5Z Shift Office which contains a chart recorder and alarm annunciator panel. The data signals are also duplicated and sent to the TEDF control room through the Local Control Unit (LCU). Performing the OTP has verified the operability of the PFP wastewater sampling system. This Operability Test Report documents the acceptance of the sampling system for use

  2. Supported graphene oxide hollow fibre membrane for oily wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Nur Hidayati; Alias, Nur Hashimah; Shahruddin, Munawar Zaman; Hussein, Siti Nurliyana Che Mohamed; Dollah, Aqilah

    2017-12-01

    Oil and gas industry deals with a large amount of undesirable discharges of liquid, solid, and gaseous wastes and the amounts can considerably change during the production phases. Oilfield wastewater or produced water is known to constitute various organic and inorganic components. Discharging the produced water can pollute surface and underground water and therefore the necessity to treat this oily wastewater is an inevitable challenge. The current technologies for the treatment of this metastable oil-in-water are not really effective and very pricey. As a result, there is a great interest from many parties around the world in finding cost-effective technologies. In recent years, membrane processes have been utilized for oily wastewater treatment. In these work, a graphene oxide membrane supported on a highly porous Al2O3 hollow fibre was prepared using vacuum assisted technique and its performance in treating oily wastewater was investigated. Graphene oxide (GO) was prepared using a modified Hummer's method and further characterized using XRD, FTIR, TGA and SEM. The results showed that the GO was successfully synthesized. The GO membrane was deposited on alumina hollow fibre substrates. The membrane performance was then investigated using dead-end filtration setup with synthetic oily wastewater as a feed. The effects of operating times on rejection rate and permeate flux were investigated. The experimental results showed that the oil rejections were over 90%. It was concluded that the supported GO membrane developed in this study may be considered feasible in treating oily wastewater. Detail study on the effects of transmembrane pressure, oil concentration, pH and fouling should be carried out in the future

  3. Anaerobic biodegradation of diesel fuel-contaminated wastewater in a fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, M Alvarez; Vezuli, J; Lohi, A; Upreti, S R

    2006-06-01

    Diesel fuel spills have a major impact on the quality of groundwater. In this work, the performance of an Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR) treating synthetic wastewater is experimentally evaluated. The wastewater comprises tap water containing 100, 200 and 300 mg/L of diesel fuel and nutrients. Granular, inert, activated carbon particles are employed to provide support for biomass inside the reactor where diesel fuel is the sole source of carbon for anaerobic microorganisms. For different rates of organic loading, the AFBR performance is evaluated in terms of the removal of diesel fuel as well as chemical oxygen demand (COD) from wastewater. For the aforementioned diesel fuel concentrations and a wastewater flow rate of 1,200 L/day, the COD removal ranges between 61.9 and 84.1%. The concentration of diesel fuel in the effluent is less than 50 mg/L, and meets the Level II groundwater standards of the MUST guidelines of Alberta.

  4. Performance Evaluation of Moving Bed Bio Film Reactor in Saline Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ahmadi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose:Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor is an aerobic attached growth with better biofilm thickness control, lack of plugging and lower head loss. Consequently, this system is greatly used by different wastewater treatment plants. High TDS wastewater produced petrochemical, leather tanning, sea food processing, cannery, pickling and dairy industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of MBBR in saline wastewater treatment. Materials and methods: In this study, 50 percent of a cylindrical reactor with 9.5 liter occupied media with 650 m2.m-3. In the first step, hydraulic regime was evaluated and startup reactor was done by sanitary sludge. Bio film was generated with glucose as the sole carbon source in synthetic wastewater. MBBR performance evaluation was performed in 6:30 and 8:45 with saline wastewater after bio film produced on media. Results: After 83 days of passing MBBR operation with saline wastewater containing 3000-12000 mg.L-1 TDS, organic loading rate of 2.2-3.5 kg/m3.d COD removal efficiency reached 80-92%. Conclusion: Moving bed biofilm reactor is effective in organic load elimination from saline wastewater.

  5. Treatment of melanoidin wastewater by anaerobic digestion and coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimi, Milton M; Zhang, Yongjun; Götz, Gesine; Geißen, Sven-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Melanoidins are dark-coloured recalcitrant pollutants found in many industrial wastewaters including coffee-manufacturing effluent, molasses distillery wastewater (MDWW) and other wastewater with molasses as the raw material. The wastewaters are mostly treated with anaerobic digestion after some dilution to minimize the inhibition effect. However, the dark colour and recalcitrant dissolved organic carbon (DOC) mainly caused by melanoidin are not effectively removed. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of colour and remnant DOC by different coagulants from anaerobically digested MDWW. From the six coagulants tested, ferric chloride had the highest melanoidin (48%), colour (92.7%) and DOC (63.3%) removal at pH 5 and a dosage of 1.6 g/l. Both polymer and inorganic salt coagulants tested had optimal colour, melanoidin and DOC removal at acidic pH. The molecular size distribution of synthetic melanoidins by liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection indicated a preferential removal of high-molecular-weight melanoidins over low weight melanoidins by the coagulation. Further studies should focus on how to improve biodegradability of the treated effluent for it to be reused as dilution water for anaerobic digestion.

  6. Microbial community analysis of anaerobic reactors treating soft drink wastewater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Narihiro

    Full Text Available The anaerobic packed-bed (AP and hybrid packed-bed (HP reactors containing methanogenic microbial consortia were applied to treat synthetic soft drink wastewater, which contains polyethylene glycol (PEG and fructose as the primary constituents. The AP and HP reactors achieved high COD removal efficiency (>95% after 80 and 33 days of the operation, respectively, and operated stably over 2 years. 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analyses on a total of 25 biofilm samples generated 98,057 reads, which were clustered into 2,882 operational taxonomic units (OTUs. Both AP and HP communities were predominated by Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and candidate phylum KSB3 that may degrade organic compound in wastewater treatment processes. Other OTUs related to uncharacterized Geobacter and Spirochaetes clades and candidate phylum GN04 were also detected at high abundance; however, their relationship to wastewater treatment has remained unclear. In particular, KSB3, GN04, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi are consistently associated with the organic loading rate (OLR increase to 1.5 g COD/L-d. Interestingly, KSB3 and GN04 dramatically decrease in both reactors after further OLR increase to 2.0 g COD/L-d. These results indicate that OLR strongly influences microbial community composition. This suggests that specific uncultivated taxa may take central roles in COD removal from soft drink wastewater depending on OLR.

  7. Advanced wastewater treatment system (SEADS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' This presentation will describe the nature, scope, and findings of a third-party evaluation of a wastewater treatment technology identified as the Advanced Wastewater Treatment System Inc.'s Superior Extended Aerobic Digester System (SEADS). SEADS is an advanced miniaturized wastewater treatment plant that can meet advanced wastewater treatment standards for effluent public reuse. SEADS goes beyond primary and secondary treatment operations to reduce nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, which are typically found in excessive quantities in traditional wastewater treatment effluent. The objective of this evaluation will be to verify the performance and reliability of the SEADS to treat wastewater from a variety of sources, including domestic wastewater and commercial industrial wastewater. SEADS utilizes remote telemetry equipment to achieve added reliability and reduces monitoring costs as compared to many package wastewater treatment plants. The evaluation process will be overseen and coordinated by the Environmental Technology Evaluation Center (EvTEC), a program of the Civil Engineering Research Foundation (CERF), the research and technology transfer arm of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). EvTEC is a pilot program evaluating innovative environmental technologies under the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. Among other performance issues, the SEADS technology evaluation will address its ability to treat low flows-from remote individual and clustered housing applications, and individual commercial applications in lieu of a main station conventional wastewater treatment plant. The unneeded reliance on particular soil types for percolation and the improved effluent water quality over septic systems alone look to make these types of package treatment plants a viable option for rural communities, small farms, and other low-flow remote settings. Added benefits to be examined

  8. What Are Synthetic Cannabinoids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... years, synthetic cannabinoid mixtures have been easy to buy in drug paraphernalia shops, novelty stores, gas stations, and over ... abuse, authorities have made it illegal to sell, buy, or possess some of ... use is that standard drug tests cannot easily detect many of the chemicals ...

  9. Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2008-01-01

    A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective is to im......A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective...... is to improve and obtain a more range independent lateral resolution compared to conventional dynamic receive focusing (DRF) without compromising frame rate. SASB is a two-stage procedure using two separate beamformers. First a set of Bmode image lines using a single focal point in both transmit and receive...... is stored. The second stage applies the focused image lines from the first stage as input data. The SASB method has been investigated using simulations in Field II and by off-line processing of data acquired with a commercial scanner. The performance of SASB with a static image object is compared with DRF...

  10. Building synthetic cellular organization

    OpenAIRE

    Polka, Jessica K.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    The elaborate spatial organization of cells enhances, restricts, and regulates protein–protein interactions. However, the biological significance of this organization has been difficult to study without ways of directly perturbing it. We highlight synthetic biology tools for engineering novel cellular organization, describing how they have been, and can be, used to advance cell biology.

  11. Towards a synthetic chloroplast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Agapakis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of eukaryotic cells is widely agreed to have proceeded through a series of endosymbiotic events between larger cells and proteobacteria or cyanobacteria, leading to the formation of mitochondria or chloroplasts, respectively. Engineered endosymbiotic relationships between different species of cells are a valuable tool for synthetic biology, where engineered pathways based on two species could take advantage of the unique abilities of each mutualistic partner.We explored the possibility of using the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 as a platform for studying evolutionary dynamics and for designing two-species synthetic biological systems. We observed that the cyanobacteria were relatively harmless to eukaryotic host cells compared to Escherichia coli when injected into the embryos of zebrafish, Danio rerio, or taken up by mammalian macrophages. In addition, when engineered with invasin from Yersinia pestis and listeriolysin O from Listeria monocytogenes, S. elongatus was able to invade cultured mammalian cells and divide inside macrophages.Our results show that it is possible to engineer photosynthetic bacteria to invade the cytoplasm of mammalian cells for further engineering and applications in synthetic biology. Engineered invasive but non-pathogenic or immunogenic photosynthetic bacteria have great potential as synthetic biological devices.

  12. Synthetic Metabolic Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Synthetic Metabolic Pathways: Methods and Protocols aims to ensure successful results in the further study...

  13. Wastewater treatment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    description of biological phosphorus removal, physicalchemical processes, hydraulics and settling tanks. For attached growth systems, biofilm models have progressed from analytical steady-state models to more complex 2D/3D dynamic numerical models. Plant-wide modeling is set to advance further the practice......The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...

  14. Wastewater Treatment Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    description of biological phosphorus removal, physical–chemical processes, hydraulics, and settling tanks. For attached growth systems, biofilm models have progressed from analytical steady-state models to more complex 2-D/3-D dynamic numerical models. Plant-wide modeling is set to advance further......The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...

  15. Synthetic Electric Microbial Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-10

    domains and DNA-binding domains into a single protein for deregulation of down stream genes of have been favored [10]. Initially experiments with... Germany DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited.   Talk title: “Synthetic biology based microbial biosensors for the...toolbox” in Heidelberg, Germany Poster title: “Anaerobic whole cell microbial biosensors” Link: http://phdsymposium.embl.org/#home   September, 2014

  16. Neutralization of wastewater from nitrite passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, L.; Mientki, B.; Wasag, H.

    1982-01-01

    A method for neutralization of wastewater formed in nitrite passivation has been presented. The method consists of introducing urea into wastewater and acidifying it with sulphuric acid. Wastewater is neutralized with lime. After clarification, wastewater can be drained outside the plant

  17. Synthetic Fuels Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrs, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on aquatic transport studies with regard to photolysis of polycyclic compounds in water; volatilization of PAH from water; bioaccumulation of anthracene by fathead minnows; bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by aquatic invertebrates; bioaccumulation of arylamines by zooplankton; availability of sediment-bound trace metals to bluegill; microbial transformation; transport and transformation of anthracene in natural waters; and microcosm studies. Progress is also reported on acute and chronic aquatic effects; acute and chronic terrestrial effects; leaching and chemical and physical characterization of solid wastes; toxicology of solid wastes; and field site task studies with regard to aquatic transport behavior of trace contaminants in wastewater discharges and airborne contaminants at coking plant field site

  18. Removal of heavy metals from synthetic solution by electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ilou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work concerns the optimization of the operating conditions for the removal of heavy metals from synthetic solution by Electrocoagulation (EC. To reach this purpose, we prepared a synthetic wastewater containing certain heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe and Pb to study the influence of various parameters (conductivity, pH, time of electrolysis, current density and the initial concentration of the metal on the rate of removal of these metals. The results show that this rate of removal can reach 99.9 % in the following optimal conditions: pH included between 6 and 8 and a density of the current of 1~1.5A / dm2. This study shows that it is possible to remove metals in aqueous solution by the technique of electrocoagulation. 

  19. Opportunities in plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Charis; Martin, Lisa; Bastow, Ruth

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging field uniting scientists from all disciplines with the aim of designing or re-designing biological processes. Initially, synthetic biology breakthroughs came from microbiology, chemistry, physics, computer science, materials science, mathematics, and engineering disciplines. A transition to multicellular systems is the next logical step for synthetic biologists and plants will provide an ideal platform for this new phase of research. This meeting report highlights some of the exciting plant synthetic biology projects, and tools and resources, presented and discussed at the 2013 GARNet workshop on plant synthetic biology.

  20. Factors affecting reuse of wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraszti, L

    1981-01-01

    Changing the quality of circulating water, raising the effectiveness of sedimentation, examples of biological treatment of wastewater are presented. The necessity of continuing the studies on biological treatment of wastewater is demonstrated. It is considered useful to define the importance of KhPK and BP5 in each case. During biological treatment in ponds, to define the relation BPK5:N:P, research on conditions for nutrient removal must be done. To do this, as well as decrease the significance of KhPK, a mathematical model for defining the effectiveness of biological treatment of wastewater and consequently their reuse must be developed.

  1. Engineered nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge - Evidence and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brar, Satinder K.; Verma, Mausam; Tyagi, R.D.; Surampalli, R.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology has widespread application in agricultural, environmental and industrial sectors ranging from fabrication of molecular assemblies to microbial array chips. Despite the booming application of nanotechnology, there have been serious implications which are coming into light in the recent years within different environmental compartments, namely air, water and soil and its likely impact on the human health. Health and environmental effects of common metals and materials are well-known, however, when the metals and materials take the form of nanoparticles - consequential hazards based on shape and size are yet to be explored. The nanoparticles released from different nanomaterials used in our household and industrial commodities find their way through waste disposal routes into the wastewater treatment facilities and end up in wastewater sludge. Further escape of these nanoparticles into the effluent will contaminate the aquatic and soil environment. Hence, an understanding of the presence, behavior and impact of these nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge is necessary and timely. Despite the lack of sufficient literature, the present review attempts to link various compartmentalization aspects of the nanoparticles, their physical properties and toxicity in wastewater and wastewater sludge through simile drawn from other environmental streams.

  2. Modelling of wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Henrik

    to analyze and quantify the effect of the Aeration Tank Settling (ATS) operating mode, which is used during rain events. Furthermore, the model is used to propose a control algorithm for the phase lengths during ATS operation. The models are mainly formulated as state space model in continuous time......In this thesis, models of pollution fluxes in the inlet to 2 Danish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as well as of suspended solids (SS) concentrations in the aeration tanks of an alternating WWTP and in the effluent from the aeration tanks are developed. The latter model is furthermore used...... at modelling the fluxes in terms of the multiple correlation coefficient R2. The model of the SS concentrations in the aeration tanks of an alternating WWTP as well as in the effluent from the aeration tanks is a mass balance model based on measurements of SS in one aeration tank and in the common outlet...

  3. Synthetic staggered architecture composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Abhishek; Tekalur, Srinivasan Arjun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Composite design inspired by nature. ► Tuning microstructure via changing ceramic content and aspect ratio. ► Experimental display of structure–property correlationship in synthetic composites. - Abstract: Structural biocomposites (for example, nacre in seashells, bone, etc.) are designed according to the functional role they are delegated for. For instance, bone is primarily designed for withstanding time-dependent loading (for example, withstanding stresses while running, jumping, accidental fall) and hence the microstructure is designed primarily from enhanced toughness and moderate stiffness point of view. On the contrary, seashells (which lie in the abyss of oceans) apart from providing defense to the organism (it is hosting) against predatory attacks, are subjected to static loading (for example, enormous hydrostatic pressure). Hence, emphasis on the shell structure evolution is directed primarily towards providing enhanced stiffness. In order to conform between stiffness and toughness, nature precisely employs a staggered arrangement of inorganic bricks in a biopolymer matrix (at its most elementary level of architecture). Aspect ratio and content of ceramic bricks are meticulously used by nature to synthesize composites having varying degrees of stiffness, strength and toughness. Such an amazing capability of structure–property correlationship has rarely been demonstrated in synthetic composites. Therefore, in order to better understand the mechanical behavior of synthetic staggered composites, the problem becomes two-pronged: (a) synthesize composites with varying brick size and contents and (b) experimental investigation of the material response. In this article, an attempt has been made to synthesize and characterize staggered ceramic–polymer composites having varying aspect ratio and ceramic content using freeze-casting technique. This will in-turn help us in custom-design manufacture of hybrid bio-inspired composite materials

  4. Enhancement of Chlorella vulgaris growth and bioremediation ability of aquarium wastewater using diazotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sayeda Mohammed; Nasr, Hoda Shafeek; Abbas, Wafaa Tawfik

    2012-08-15

    Treatment of aquarium wastewater represents an important process to clean and recycle wastewater to be safely returned to the environment, used for cultivation or to minimize the multiple renewal of water. Chlorella vulgaris was an important freshwater microalgae which used in wastewater treatment, and increasing its potential of treatment can be achieved with existence of N2-fixing bacteria. Co-culturing of Chlorella vulgaris with the diazotrophs, Azospirillum brasilense or Azotobacter chroococcum in three different media; aquarium wastewater (AWW), sterile enriched natural aquarium wastewater (GPM) and synthetic wastewater media (SWW) were studied. Biomass yield of the microalgae was estimated by determination of chlorophylls (a and b), total carotenoid and the dry weight of C. vulgaris. Also determination of ammonia, nitrite, phosphate and nitrate in the culture were done. The presence of diazotrophs significantly increased the biomass of C. vulgaris by increasing its microalgae pigments (chlorophylls a and b, and total carotenoids). The highest pigments percentage was reported due to addition of A. brasilense to C. vulgaris (18.3-133.5%) compared to A. chroococcum (23.9-56.9%). As well as increased dry weight from 12 to 50%. There was also improved removal of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia and phosphate; where, the highest removal percentage was reported due to addition of A. chroococcum to C. vulgaris (0.0-52%) compared to A. brasilense (0.6-16.4%). A. brasilense and A. chroococcum can support C. vulgaris biomass production and bioremediation activity in the aquarium to minimize the periodical water renewal.

  5. Toxicity Evaluation of Through Fish Bioassay Raw Bulk Drug Industry Wastewater After Electrochemical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Satyanarayan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the high pollution potential that the synthetic Bulk Drug industry Wastewater (BDW possesses due to the presence of variety of refractory organics, toxicity evaluation is of prime importance in assessing the efficiency of the applied wastewater treatment system and in establishing the discharge standards. Therefore, in this study the toxic effects of high strength bulk drug industry wastewater before and after electrochemical treatment on common fish Lebistes reticulatus-(peter were studied under laboratory conditions. Results indicated that wastewater being very strong in terms of color, COD and BOD is found to be very toxic to the studied fish. The LC50 values for raw wastewater and after electrochemical treatment with carbon and aluminium electrodes for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours ranged between, 2.5-3.6%, 6.8-8.0%, 5.0-5.8% respectively. Carbon electrode showed marginally better removals for toxicity than aluminium electrode. It was evident from the studies that electrochemical treatment reduces toxicity in proportion to the removal efficiency shown by both the electrodes. The reduction in toxicity after treatment indicates the intermediates generated are not toxic than the parent compounds. Furthermore, as the electrochemical treatment did not result in achieving disposal standards it could be used only as a pre-treatment and the wastewater needs further secondary treatment before final disposal.

  6. Stabilization of heavy metals in fired clay brick incorporated with wastewater treatment plant sludge: Leaching analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Hassan, M. I. H.; Salim, N. S. A.; Sarani, N. A.; Ahmad, S.; Rahmat, N. A. I.

    2018-04-01

    Wastewater treatment sludge or known as sewage sludge is regarded as the residue and produced by the sedimentation of the suspended solid during treatment at the wastewater treatment plant. As such, this sludge was gained from the separation process of the liquids and solids. This sludge wastes has becomes national issues in recent years due to the increasing amount caused by population and industrialization growth in Malaysia. This research was conducted to fully utilize the sludge that rich in dangerous heavy metals and at the same time act as low cost alternative materials in brick manufacturing. The investigation includes determination of heavy metal concentration and chemical composition of the sludge, physical and mechanical properties. Wastewater treatment sludge samples were collected from wastewater treatment plant located in Johor, Malaysia. X-Ray Fluorescence was conducted to determine the heavy metals concentration of wastewater treatment sludge. Different percentage of sludges which are 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20%, has been incorporated into fired clay brick. The leachability of heavy metals in fired clay brick that incorporated with sludge were determined by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Synthetic Precipitation Leachability Procedure (SPLP) that has been analyzed by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show a possibility to stabilize the heavy metals in fired clay brick incorporated with wastewater treatment sludge. 20% of the sludge incorporated into the brick is the most suitable for building materials as it leached less heavy metals concentration and complying with USEPA standard.

  7. Characteristics of microbial community functional structure of a biological coking wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Dev Raj; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Hong; Gao, Yingxin; Yang, Min

    2018-01-01

    Nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds are key pollutants in coking wastewater; however, the functional potential of microbial communities for biodegradation of such contaminants during biological treatment is still elusive. Herein, a high throughput functional gene array (GeoChip 5.0) in combination with Illumina HiSeq2500 sequencing was used to compare and characterize the microbial community functional structure in a long run (500days) bench scale bioreactor treating coking wastewater, with a control system treating synthetic wastewater. Despite the inhibitory toxic pollutants, GeoChip 5.0 detected almost all key functional gene (average 61,940 genes) categories in the coking wastewater sludge. With higher abundance, aromatic ring cleavage dioxygenase genes including multi ring1,2diox; one ring2,3diox; catechol represented significant functional potential for degradation of aromatic pollutants which was further confirmed by Illumina HiSeq2500 analysis results. Response ratio analysis revealed that three nitrogenous compound degrading genes- nbzA (nitro-aromatics), tdnB (aniline), and scnABC (thiocyanate) were unique for coking wastewater treatment, which might be strong cause to increase ammonia level during the aerobic process. Additionally, HiSeq2500 elucidated carbozole and isoquinoline degradation genes in the system. These findings expanded our understanding on functional potential of microbial communities to remove organic nitrogenous pollutants; hence it will be useful in optimization strategies for biological treatment of coking wastewater. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Oil refinery wastewater treatment using physicochemical, Fenton and Photo-Fenton oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony, Maha A; Purcell, Patrick J; Zhao, Yaqian

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to the treatment of wastewaters contaminated with hydrocarbon oil. Three different oil-contaminated wastewaters were examined and compared: (i) a 'real' hydrocarbon wastewater collected from an oil refinery (Conoco-Phillips Whitegate refinery, County Cork, Ireland); (ii) a 'real' hydrocarbon wastewater collected from a car-wash facility located at a petroleum filling station; and (iii) a 'synthetic' hydrocarbon wastewater generated by emulsifying diesel oil and water. The AOPs investigated were Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) (Fenton's reagent), Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)/UV (Photo-Fenton's reagent) which may be used as an alternative to, or in conjunction with, conventional treatment techniques. Laboratory-scale batch and continuous-flow experiments were undertaken. The photo-Fenton parametric concentrations to maximize COD removal were optimized: pH = 3, H(2)O(2) = 400 mg/L, and Fe(2+) = 40 mg/L. In the case of the oil-refinery wastewater, photo-Fenton treatment achieved approximately 50% COD removal and, when preceded by physicochemical treatment, the percentage removal increased to approximately 75%.

  9. Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the use of synthetic aperture (SA) imaging in medical ultrasound. SA imaging is a radical break with today's commercial systems, where the image is acquired sequentially one image line at a time. This puts a strict limit on the frame rate and the possibility of acquiring...... a sufficient amount of data for high precision flow estimation. These constrictions can be lifted by employing SA imaging. Here data is acquired simultaneously from all directions over a number of emissions, and the full image can be reconstructed from this data. The talk will demonstrate the many benefits...

  10. Transition in synthetic jets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Kordík, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 187, NOV 2012 (2012), s. 105-117 ISSN 0924-4247 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA02020795; GA ČR(CZ) GPP101/12/P556; GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : turbulence * synthetic jet * transition * velocity spectra Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.841, year: 2012 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0924424712005031

  11. Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) for sustainable energy production and product recovery from organic wastes and industrial wastewaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pant, Deepak; Singh, Anoop; Van Bogaert, Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are unique systems capable of converting the chemical energy of organic waste including low-strength wastewaters and lignocellulosic biomass into electricity or hydrogen/chemical products in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) or microbial electrolysis cells (MECs......) respectively, or other products formed at the cathode by an electrochemical reduction process. As compared to conventional fuel cells, BESs operate under relatively mild conditions, use a wide variety of organic substrates and mostly do not use expensive precious metals as catalysts. The recently discovered...... use of BES for product synthesis via microbial electrosynthesis have greatly expanded the horizon for these systems. Newer concepts in application as well as development of alternative materials for electrodes, separators, and catalysts, along with innovative designs have made BESs very promising...

  12. A review on wastewater disinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin; Hassan Hashemi; Amir Mohammadi Bovini; Yung Tse Hung

    2013-01-01

    Changes in regulations and development of new technologies have affected the selection of alternative for treated wastewater disinfection. Disinfection is the last barrier of wastewater reclamation process to protect ecosystem safety and human health. Driving forces include water scarcity and drinking water supply, irrigation, rapid industrialization, using reclaimed water, source protection, overpopulation, and environmental protection. The safe operation of water reuse depends on effluent d...

  13. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project

    OpenAIRE

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D.; Mathews, Debra J. H.

    2015-01-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with...

  14. Analog synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpeshkar, R

    2014-03-28

    We analyse the pros and cons of analog versus digital computation in living cells. Our analysis is based on fundamental laws of noise in gene and protein expression, which set limits on the energy, time, space, molecular count and part-count resources needed to compute at a given level of precision. We conclude that analog computation is significantly more efficient in its use of resources than deterministic digital computation even at relatively high levels of precision in the cell. Based on this analysis, we conclude that synthetic biology must use analog, collective analog, probabilistic and hybrid analog-digital computational approaches; otherwise, even relatively simple synthetic computations in cells such as addition will exceed energy and molecular-count budgets. We present schematics for efficiently representing analog DNA-protein computation in cells. Analog electronic flow in subthreshold transistors and analog molecular flux in chemical reactions obey Boltzmann exponential laws of thermodynamics and are described by astoundingly similar logarithmic electrochemical potentials. Therefore, cytomorphic circuits can help to map circuit designs between electronic and biochemical domains. We review recent work that uses positive-feedback linearization circuits to architect wide-dynamic-range logarithmic analog computation in Escherichia coli using three transcription factors, nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient in parts than prior digital implementations.

  15. Synthetic lubricating oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Jurado, J

    1953-01-01

    A yellow solid petroleum paraffin d/sup 60/ 0.808, I number 3.5, average molecular weight 350, chlorinated and condensed with benzene, xylene, or naphthalene by the Friedel and Crafts reaction, in the presence of anhydrous AlCl/sub 3/ or activated Al, gave synthetic lubricating oils. Xylene was the preferred aromatic compound, naphthalene required the use of less completely chlorinated paraffin, benzene produced resins difficult to remove and gave darker oils with excessive green fluorescence. Activated Al rather than anhydrous AlCl/sub 3/ gave darker oils with higher viscosity and Conradson C values. Tar from the low-temperature distillation of lignite, used as a source of a paraffin fraction melting 40/sup 0/ to 48/sup 0/ (chlorinated to 26.5 percent Cl) and an aromatic fraction, 45 percent aromatic compounds by volume (mainly polysubstituted benzenes), I number 10, was converted to a similar synthetic lubricant with the following properties: Kinematic viscosity at 210/sup 0/ F., 50.4 centistokes; viscosity index, 92; Conradson C, 1.5 percent; solidification point, 9/sup 0/; S, 0.41 percent.

  16. Coloring of synthetic fluorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birsoy, R.

    1980-01-01

    A synthetic fluorite of the Harshaw Chemical Company is analyzed for rare earth elements, yttrium, and sodium. Samples of this fluorite are irradiated with X-rays, γ-rays, neutrons, electrons, protons, and α-particles at different energies, and their absorption spectra are analyzed. Analyzing the thermal bleaching of these radiation-coloured fluorites shows that both, impurities and radiation play a part in the coloration of synthetic fluorite. However, the main contribution comes from the radiation induced lattice defects. In the visible region spectra, the colour centre of the 5800 to 5900 A absorption band is probably mainly related with large aggregates of F-centres. The 5450 and the 5300 A absorption bands are mainly related to monovalent and divalent ion impurities and their association with lattice defects. The 3800 A absorption band seems to be related with F-centre aggregates. However, the contribution from the rare earth elements related complex color centres also plays some part for the production of this absorption band. These results indicate that the color centres of different origin can absorb light at the same wavelength. (author)

  17. Degradation of Synthetic Dyes by Laccases – A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legerská Barbora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Laccases provide a promising future as a tool to be used in the field of biodegradation of synthetic dyes with different chemical structures. These enzymes are able to oxidize a wide range of phenolic substrates without the presence of additional co-factors. Laccases have been confirmed for their potential of synthetic dye degradation from wastewater and degradation products of these enzymatic reactions become less toxic than selected dyes. This study discusses the potential of laccase enzymes as agents for laccase-catalyzed degradation in terms of biodegradation efficiency of synthetic dyes, specifically: azo dyes, triphenylmethane, indigo and anthraquinone dyes. Review also summarizes the laccase-catalyzed degradation mechanisms of the selected synthetic dyes, as well as the degradation products and the toxicity of the dyes and their degradation products.

  18. Cultivation of Arthrospira (spirulina platensis in desalinator wastewater and salinated synthetic medium: protein content and amino-acid profile Cultivo de Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis em rejeito de dessalinizador e meio sintético salinizado: teor protéico e perfil de aminoácidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Volkmann

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis was cultivated in laboratory under controlled conditions (30ºC, photoperiod of 12 hours light/dark provided by fluorescent lamps at a light intensity of 140 µmol photons.m-2.s-1 and constant bubbling air in three different culture media: (1 Paoletti medium (control, (2 Paoletti supplemented with 1 g.L-1 NaCl (salinated water and (3 Paoletti medium prepared with desalinator wastewater. The effects of these treatments on growth, protein content and amino acid profile were measured. Maximum cell concentrations observed in Paoletti medium, Paoletti supplemented with salinated water or with desalinator wastewater were 2.587, 3.545 and 4.954 g.L-1, respectively. Biomass in medium 3 presented the highest protein content (56.17%, while biomass in medium 2 presented 48.59% protein. All essential amino acids, except lysine and tryptophan, were found in concentrations higher than those requiried by FAO.Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis foi cultivada em laboratório sob condições controladas (30ºC, intensidade luminosa de 140 µmol fótons.m-2.s-1, 12 horas claro/escuro e insuflação constante de ar atmosférico, em três meios de cultivo: (1 meio de Paoletti (controle, (2 meio de Paoletti suplementado com 1,0 g.L-1 de NaCl (água salinizada e (3 meio de Paoletti preparado com rejeito de dessalinizador. Foi verificado o efeito destes tratamentos no crescimento, teor de proteínas e aminoácidos. As concentrações celulares máximas obtidas foram de 2,587; 3,545 e 4,954 g.L-1 no meio controle, meio de Paoletti suplementado com água salinizada ou com rejeito de dessalinizador, respectivamente. Com relação às concentrações protéicas, estas foram maiores na biomassa cultivada no meio 3, com 56,17%, enquanto que a biomassa cultivada no meio 2 apresentou 48,59%. A maioria dos aminoácidos essenciais encontrou-se acima dos limites requeridos pela FAO, com exceção apenas de lisina e triptofano.

  19. Process model economics of xanthan production from confectionery industry wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajić, Bojana Ž; Vučurović, Damjan G; Dodić, Siniša N; Grahovac, Jovana A; Dodić, Jelena M

    2017-12-01

    In this research a process and cost model for a xanthan production facility was developed using process simulation software (SuperPro Designer ® ). This work represents a novelty in the field for two reasons. One is that xanthan gum has been produced from several wastes but never from wastewaters from confectionery industries. The other more important is that the aforementioned software, which in intended exclusively for bioprocesses, is used for generating a base case, i.e. starting point for transferring the technology to industrial scales. Previously acquired experimental knowledge about using confectionery wastewaters from five different factories as substitutes for commercially used cultivation medium have been incorporated into the process model in order to obtain an economic viability of implementing such substrates. A lower initial sugar content in the medium based on wastewater (28.41 g/L) compared to the synthetic medium (30.00 g/L) gave a lower xanthan content at the end of cultivation (23.98 and 26.27 g/L, respectively). Although this resulted in somewhat poorer economic parameters, they were still in the range of being an investment of interest. Also the possibility of utilizing a cheap resource (waste) and reducing pollution that would result from its disposal has a positive effect on the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Removal of Chromium from Industrial Wastewater Using Silicon Nanoparticle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Ranandeh Kalankesh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hexavalent chromium is a pollutant found in surface and underground waters that causes serious environmental hazards. Chromium enters water as a result of industrial activities such as electroplating, dyeing, leather tanning, and metal manufacturing. The objective of the present laboratory-experimental study was to remove chromate from industrial effluents using silicon nanoparticles. The experiments were performed with both simulated synthetic wastewater and true wastewater. Various parameters such as pH, contact time, and different concentrations of Cr(VI and SiO2 were examined. The data obtained were analyzed using the Excel and SPSS Ver. 16. It was found that Cr(VI removal increased with decreasing pH and increasing contact time. The highest Cr(VI removal was achieved at pH=3 and a contact time of 120 minutes. It was also observed that removal observed to obey the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo second-order kinetic models, respectively. The findings indicate that silicon nanoparticles are capable of removeing Cr(VI from industrial effluents. Given the Cr(VI removal efficiency of 93.6% achieved under optimum conditions and  the removal efficiency of 88.6% achieved in real samples, the method may be recommended as a highly efficient one for removing Cr(VI from industrial wastewaters.

  1. Space Synthetic Biology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David; Roman, Monsi; Mansell, James (Matt)

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an effort to make genetic engineering more useful by standardizing sections of genetic code. By standardizing genetic components, biological engineering will become much more similar to traditional fields of engineering, in which well-defined components and subsystems are readily available in markets. Specifications of the behavior of those components and subsystems can be used to model a system which incorporates them. Then, the behavior of the novel system can be simulated and optimized. Finally, the components and subsystems can be purchased and assembled to create the optimized system, which most often will exhibit behavior similar to that indicated by the model. The Space Synthetic Biology project began in 2012 as a multi-Center effort. The purpose of this project was to harness Synthetic Biology principals to enable NASA's missions. A central target for application was to Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLS). Engineers from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) ECLS Systems Development Branch (ES62) were brought into the project to contribute expertise in operational ECLS systems. Project lead scientists chose to pursue the development of bioelectrochemical technologies to spacecraft life support. Therefore, the ECLS element of the project became essentially an effort to develop a bioelectrochemical ECLS subsystem. Bioelectrochemical systems exploit the ability of many microorganisms to drive their metabolisms by direct or indirect utilization of electrical potential gradients. Whereas many microorganisms are capable of deriving the energy required for the processes of interest (such as carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation) from sunlight, it is believed that subsystems utilizing electrotrophs will exhibit smaller mass, volume, and power requirements than those that derive their energy from sunlight. In the first 2 years of the project, MSFC personnel conducted modeling, simulation, and conceptual design efforts to assist the

  2. Fungal biotrap for retrieval of heavy metals from industrial wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crusberg, T.C.; Weathers, P.; Baker, E.

    1989-01-01

    Biotraps are living cells or specific cell components capable of removing or stabilizing toxic substances form waste streams. The fungus Penicillium ochro-chloron was discovered growing in an electroplating wastewater stream in Japan. It is not only tolerant to very high concentrations of divalent metal ions, but it can effectively remove heavy metals (such as uranium cadmium, nickel, etc.) from almost any aqueous waste stream. This paper discussed P. ochro-chloron biotrap which was prepared by growing spores in a glucose-minimal salts medium supplemented with 0.5 percent Tween 80 for 5 days with constant gentle agitation. The while mycelia beads 4-6 mm dia. were treated in a Buchner funnel with 80% ethanol to kill the cells, 15 percent sodium carbonate/bicarbonate pH 9.5, and then resuspended in an aqueous slurry at pH 4.0. The mycelia beads were used as an adsorbent in a batch experiment to determine copper-to-mycelia binding. This system should be capable of heavy metal uptake and recovery from both electroplating wastewaters and contaminated aqueous environments. The use of this fungus biotrap will rival synthetic cation environments. The use of this fungus biotrap will rival synthetic cation exchange resins because of lower cost, lower weight per unit of exchange capacity and ease of application

  3. Current status of synthetic epikeratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K P; Hanna, K; Waring, G O; Gipson, I; Liu, Y; Gailitis, R P; Johnson-Wint, B; Green, K

    1991-01-01

    Many of the deficiencies with human tissue epikeratoplasty might be improved by the use of a suitable synthetic lenticule. Potential biomaterials for epikeratoplasty include collagen (types I, III, or IV), collagen-hydrogel copolymers, bioactive synthetics, and coated hydrogels. The biomaterial must be engineered to achieve strict specifications of optical clarity, support of epithelial migration and adhesion, permeability to solutes, and stability to corneal proteases. Attaching synthetic lenticules to the cornea without cutting Bowman's layer by adhesives, laser welding, or direct adhesion may also improve the efficacy of synthetic epikeratoplasty.

  4. Synthetic biology and occupational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir; Schulte, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biotechnology that involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems. Biosafety professionals have done an excellent job in addressing research laboratory safety as synthetic biology and gene editing have emerged from the larger field of biotechnology. Despite these efforts, risks posed by synthetic biology are of increasing concern as research procedures scale up to industrial processes in the larger bioeconomy. A greater number and variety of workers will be exposed to commercial synthetic biology risks in the future, including risks to a variety of workers from the use of lentiviral vectors as gene transfer devices. There is a need to review and enhance current protection measures in the field of synthetic biology, whether in experimental laboratories where new advances are being researched, in health care settings where treatments using viral vectors as gene delivery systems are increasingly being used, or in the industrial bioeconomy. Enhanced worker protection measures should include increased injury and illness surveillance of the synthetic biology workforce; proactive risk assessment and management of synthetic biology products; research on the relative effectiveness of extrinsic and intrinsic biocontainment methods; specific safety guidance for synthetic biology industrial processes; determination of appropriate medical mitigation measures for lentiviral vector exposure incidents; and greater awareness and involvement in synthetic biology safety by the general occupational safety and health community as well as by government occupational safety and health research and regulatory agencies.

  5. Finding Hope in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, Tuija

    2017-04-01

    For some, synthetic biology represents great hope in offering possible solutions to many of the world's biggest problems, from hunger to sustainable development. Others remain fearful of the harmful uses, such as bioweapons, that synthetic biology can lend itself to, and most hold that issues of biosafety are of utmost importance. In this article, I will evaluate these points of view and conclude that although the biggest promises of synthetic biology are unlikely to become reality, and the probability of accidents is fairly substantial, synthetic biology could still be seen to benefit humanity by enhancing our ethical understanding and by offering a boost to world economy.

  6. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB...

  7. Life after the synthetic cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Nature asked eight synthetic-biology experts about the implications for science and society of the “synthetic cell” made by the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). The institute's team assembled, modified and implanted a synthesized genome into a DNA-free bacterial shell to make a self-replicating ......Nature asked eight synthetic-biology experts about the implications for science and society of the “synthetic cell” made by the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). The institute's team assembled, modified and implanted a synthesized genome into a DNA-free bacterial shell to make a self...

  8. A study on the Removal of Chloroform from Wastewaters by Means of Pervaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urtiaga, A.M.; Gorri, E.D.; Ruiz, G.; Ortiz, I.

    1999-01-01

    Pervaporation is a membrane separation process in which the feed liquid mixture to be separated is placed in contact with one side of a dense selective membrane, producing an enriched vapor permeate on the other side of the membrane. One of the applications of pervaporation is the removal and recovery of organic compounds from contaminated industrial wastewaters. In the present work the separation and recovery of chloroform from synthetic wastewaters was investigated. Experiments were conducted in two hollow fiber modules, using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as membrane material. The effect of the volumetric flowrate and the thickness of membrane were investigated. The viability of the removal of chloroform from wastewaters was assessed. The results were analysed according to the continuity mass conservation equation, determining that the design parameter is the diffusion coefficient of chloroform in the aqueous phase. The value of D at 40 1.51*10 -9 m 2/ s

  9. A soil infiltration system incorporated with sulfur-utilizing autotrophic denitrification (SISSAD) for domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhe; Feng, Chuanping; Chen, Nan; Tong, Shuang; Zhang, Baogang; Hao, Chunbo; Chen, Kun

    2014-05-01

    To enhance the denitrification performance of soil infiltration, a soil infiltration system incorporated with sulfur-utilizing autotrophic denitrification (SISSAD) for domestic wastewater treatment was developed, and the SISSAD performance was evaluated using synthetic domestic wastewater in this study. The aerobic respiration and nitrification were mainly taken place in the upper aerobic stage (AES), removed 88.44% COD and 89.99% NH4(+)-N. Moreover, autotrophic denitrification occurred in the bottom anaerobic stage (ANS), using the CO2 produced from AES as inorganic carbon source. Results demonstrated that the SISSAD showed a remarkable performance on COD removal efficiency of 95.09%, 84.86% for NO3(-)-N, 95.25% for NH4(+)-N and 93.15% for TP. This research revealed the developed system exhibits a promising application prospect for domestic wastewater in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance of Microbial Fuel Cell for Wastewater Treatment and Electricity Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Yavari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy will have an important role as a resource of energy in the future. Microbial fuel cell (MFC is a promising method to obtain electricity from organic matter andwastewater treatment simultaneously. In a pilot study, use of microbial fuel cell for wastewater treatment and electricity generation investigated. The bacteria of ruminant used as inoculums. Synthetic wastewater used at different organic loading rate. Hydraulic retention time was aneffective factor in removal of soluble COD and more than 49% removed. Optimized HRT to achieve the maximum removal efficiency and sustainable operation could be regarded 1.5 and 2.5 hours. Columbic efficiency (CE affected by organic loading rate (OLR and by increasing OLR, CE reduced from 71% to 8%. Maximum voltage was 700mV. Since the microbial fuel cell reactor considered as an anaerobic process, it may be an appropriate alternative for wastewater treatment

  11. The anaerobic and anoxic treatment of wastewater in a rotating disc reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breithaupt, T.; Thelitz, A.; Zhang Yicheng; Wiesmann, U.

    1994-01-01

    A new rotation disc reactor for anaerobic and anoxic treatment of wastewater is presented. The discs are covered with a structured textile material for immobilization of bacteria. In contrast to the wellknown rotating disc contactor the discs are completely flooded. A slow rotation causes a flow into the gaps which are formed by the parallel discs and increases the mass transfer rate. For a mean residence time of 45 min and a revolution of 38 min -1 the distribution of residence times corresponds with that of a cascade with four or five steps. This has a favourable effect on mean reaction rate if the reaction is limitted by substrate concentration. For the anaerobic treatment of a wastewater produced by the dewatering of sewage sludge (10 000 mg/l COD) and for the denitrification of a synthetic wastewater (1000 mg/l NO 3 -N) high removal rates could be obtained resulting from a high concentration of immobilized bacteria. (orig.) [de

  12. Computational synthetic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bokowski, Jürgen

    1989-01-01

    Computational synthetic geometry deals with methods for realizing abstract geometric objects in concrete vector spaces. This research monograph considers a large class of problems from convexity and discrete geometry including constructing convex polytopes from simplicial complexes, vector geometries from incidence structures and hyperplane arrangements from oriented matroids. It turns out that algorithms for these constructions exist if and only if arbitrary polynomial equations are decidable with respect to the underlying field. Besides such complexity theorems a variety of symbolic algorithms are discussed, and the methods are applied to obtain new mathematical results on convex polytopes, projective configurations and the combinatorics of Grassmann varieties. Finally algebraic varieties characterizing matroids and oriented matroids are introduced providing a new basis for applying computer algebra methods in this field. The necessary background knowledge is reviewed briefly. The text is accessible to stud...

  13. Synthetic Aperture Compound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk

    and the limiting factor is the amount of memory IO resources available. An equally high demand for memory throughput is found in the computer gaming industry, where a large part of the processing takes place on the graphics processing unit (GPU). Using the GPU, a framework for synthetic aperture imaging......Medical ultrasound imaging is used for many purposes, e.g. for localizing and classifying cysts, lesions, and other processes. Almost any mass is first observed using B-mode imaging and later classified using e.g. color flow, strain, or attenuation imaging. It is therefore important that the B......-mode images have high contrast. Like all imaging modalities, ultrasound is subject to a number of inherent artifacts that compromise image quality. The most prominent artifact is the degradation by coherent wave interference, known as “speckle”, which gives a granular appearance to an otherwise homogeneous...

  14. Transionospheric synthetic aperture imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Gilman, Mikhail; Tsynkov, Semyon

    2017-01-01

    This landmark monograph presents the most recent mathematical developments in the analysis of ionospheric distortions of SAR images and offers innovative new strategies for their mitigation. As a prerequisite to addressing these topics, the book also discusses the radar ambiguity theory as it applies to synthetic aperture imaging and the propagation of radio waves through the ionospheric plasma, including the anisotropic and turbulent cases. In addition, it covers a host of related subjects, such as the mathematical modeling of extended radar targets (as opposed to point-wise targets) and the scattering of radio waves off those targets, as well as the theoretical analysis of the start-stop approximation, which is used routinely in SAR signal processing but often without proper justification. The mathematics in this volume is clean and rigorous – no assumptions are hidden or ambiguously stated. The resulting work is truly interdisciplinary, providing both a comprehensive and thorough exposition of the field,...

  15. Radioimmunoassay of synthetic steroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynaud, J -P; Bucourt, R; Salmon, J

    1975-12-01

    The sensitivity of a radioimmunoassay depends on the intrinsic association constant of the interaction between ligand and antibody. Its specificity depends on the position of the chain which forms the link with the antigen. Thus, an antibody specific of estradiol has been obtained by coupling estradiol to albumin via a chain at position 7. For synthetic steroids the structure of which is sufficiency different from that of natural hormones, the requirements for a sensitive assay method not involving chromatography are simply maximum affinity and positioning of the couple at a site which does not undergo metabolic attack. These criteria were used to develop assays for R 2858 and R 2453 which obviate the need to administer radioactive product in clinical pharmacology. Cross-reaction with structural analogs may be used to assay competitors. Thus, R 2323 antibody, highly specific for endogenous steroids, may be used to assay other trienes such as R 1697 (trenbolone) and R 2010 (norgestrienone).

  16. Synthetic fuels and fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillo, J A; Powell, J; Steinberg, M [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)

    1981-03-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. equal to 40-60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. equal to 50-70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long-term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  17. Effect of adding low-concentration of rhamnolipid on reactor performances and microbial community evolution in MBBRs for low C/N ratio and antibiotic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Pengcheng; Huang, Hui; Ren, Hongqiang

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to explore the potential of low-concentration of rhamnolipid in efficient treatment of wastewater with poor biodegradability. Six lab-scale moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) were applied to investigate the effect of rhamnolipid concentration (0, 20, 50 mg/L) on pollutants removal, biomass accumulation, microbial morphology and community evolution in synthetic low C/N ratio (3:1) and antibiotic (50 μg/L tetracycline) wastewater. 20 mg/L rhamnolipid treated groups exhibited significant increase (p poorly biodegradable wastewater by biofilm process with moderate amount of rhamnolipid. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of rapid methods for in-situ characterization of organic contaminant load and biodegradation rates in winery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvallo, M J; Vargas, I; Vega, A; Pizarro, G; Pizarr, G; Pastén, P

    2007-01-01

    Rapid methods for the in-situ evaluation of the organic load have recently been developed and successfully implemented in municipal wastewater treatment systems. Their direct application to winery wastewater treatment is questionable due to substantial differences between municipal and winery wastewater. We critically evaluate the use of UV-VIS spectrometry, buffer capacity testing (BCT), and respirometry as rapid methods to determine organic load and biodegradation rates of winery wastewater. We tested three types of samples: actual and treated winery wastewater, synthetic winery wastewater, and samples from a biological batch reactor. Not surprisingly, respirometry gave a good estimation of biodegradation rates for substrate of different complexities, whereas UV-VIS and BCT did not provide a quantitative measure of the easily degradable sugars and ethanol, typically the main components of the COD in the influent. However, our results strongly suggest that UV-VIS and BCT can be used to identify and estimate the concentration of complex substrates in the influent and soluble microbial products (SMP) in biological reactors and their effluent. Furthermore, the integration of UV-VIS spectrometry, BCT, and mathematical modeling was able to differentiate between the two components of SMPs: substrate utilization associated products (UAP) and biomass associated products (BAP). Since the effluent COD in biologically treated wastewaters is composed primarily by SMPs, the quantitative information given by these techniques may be used for plant control and optimization.

  19. Removal of Arsenic from Wastewaters by Airlift Electrocoagulation: Part 3: Copper Smelter Wastewater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2010-01-01

    The arsenic content in wastewater is of major concern for copper smelters. A typical complex wastewater treatment is needed with a combination of chemical and physical processes. Electrocoagulation (EC) has shown its potential for arsenic removal due to the formation of ferric hydroxide-arsenate ...... threshold value for wastewater discharge could rapidly be reached when the conventional method did not clean the wastewater sufficiently....

  20. Water brief-WDM & wastewater reuse

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    aalfouns

    Wastewater Reuse for Water Demand Management in the Middle East and ... Among the substantial WDM tools in MENA is the use of wastewater to reduce the pressure on scarce freshwater .... recycled water to irrigate crops with associated ...

  1. Management and Planning for Small Community Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operators Small Systems Management and Planning for Small Community Wastewater The NESC has provided of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA) Achieving Environmental Excellence: An Environmental Management Agencies, The Office of Wastewater Management at EPA, in cooperation with the Global Environment and

  2. Properties of Concrete Mixes with Carwash Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidan Shahiron

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the car wash industry today results in the need for wastewater reclamation. Thus, this paper aims to investigate the effect of using car wash wastewater on concrete properties in terms of mechanical properties. The basic characteristics of wastewater were investigated according to USEPA (Method 150.1 & 3 00.0 while the mechanical properties of concrete with car wash wastewater were compared according to ASTM C1602 and BS EN 1008 standards. In this research, the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and tensile strength were studied. The percentages of wastewater replaced in the concrete mix ranged from 0% up to 40%. In addition, the results also suggest that the concrete with 20% car wash wastewater achieved the highest compressive strength and modulus of elasticity compared to other compositions of wastewater. Moreover, the results also recommended that concrete mixed with car wash wastewater has better compressive strength compared to conventional concrete.

  3. Imaging with Synthetic Aperture Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Massonnet, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Describing a field that has been transformed by the recent availability of data from a new generation of space and airborne systems, the authors offer a synthetic geometrical approach to the description of synthetic aperture radar, one that addresses physicists, radar specialists, as well as experts in image processing.  

  4. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps that lead to the

  5. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.D. Zegers (Netty)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractSynthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps

  6. Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2012-11-16

    Metabolic engineering emerged 20 years ago as the discipline occupied with the directed modification of metabolic pathways for the microbial synthesis of various products. As such, it deals with the engineering (design, construction, and optimization) of native as well as non-natural routes of product synthesis, aided in this task by the availability of synthetic DNA, the core enabling technology of synthetic biology. The two fields, however, only partially overlap in their interest in pathway engineering. While fabrication of biobricks, synthetic cells, genetic circuits, and nonlinear cell dynamics, along with pathway engineering, have occupied researchers in the field of synthetic biology, the sum total of these areas does not constitute a coherent definition of synthetic biology with a distinct intellectual foundation and well-defined areas of application. This paper reviews the origins of the two fields and advances two distinct paradigms for each of them: that of unit operations for metabolic engineering and electronic circuits for synthetic biology. In this context, metabolic engineering is about engineering cell factories for the biological manufacturing of chemical and pharmaceutical products, whereas the main focus of synthetic biology is fundamental biological research facilitated by the use of synthetic DNA and genetic circuits.

  7. The Ethics of Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    The dissertation analyses and discusses a number of ethical issues that have been raised in connection with the development of synthetic biology. Synthetic biology is a set of new techniques for DNA-level design and construction of living beings with useful properties. The dissertation especially...

  8. Synthetic biology of polyketide synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuzawa, Satoshi; Backman, Tyler W.H.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2018-01-01

    ). The modules are composed of enzymatic domains that share sequence and functional similarity across all known PKSs. We have used the nomenclature of synthetic biology to classify the enzymatic domains and modules as parts and devices, respectively, and have generated detailed lists of both. In addition, we...... realize the potential that synthetic biology approaches bring to this class of molecules....

  9. Understanding farmers' preferences for wastewater reuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater has emerged as an alternative source of water. Since the agricultural sector remains the largest water user world-wide, it is the main potential user of treated wastewater. However, while there are trade-offs in using wastewater, it may be the only option in water scarce regions. South Africa has included water ...

  10. Quantum leap for treating wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Full text: For many Australian food manufacturers there is increasing pressure from government agencies to reach higher standards of wastewater treatment for environmental discharge. In fact, throughout the western wolrd industrual water users are facing a similar challenge. One of the big problems is ageing pipe networks, particularly sewage pipes. Also, industrial wastewaters with high sugar-nutrient loads can cause serious damage to pipelines. This is because fermentation occurs within the wastewater, eroding and degrading the pipes, causing numerous cracks and fractures. This in turn leads to water ingress, which puts a strain on treatment plants because of the higher volume of water, especially in wet weather. Food manufacturing produces large volumes of mostly biodegradable liquid and solid waste. Wastewaters released from food manufacturing can be 'muddy', with high concentrations of suspended solids, fats, oils and grease (FOGs), and, usually, nutrients such as nitrogen. The issue for many food manufacturers is that existing wastewater treatment systems are unable to reduce the nutrient load in the biological treatment stage to a level allowing acceptable discharge. In addition, most rely on large tanks housing bacteria that are submerged in water and aerated. Aeration is energy-hungry and can create a 'sludge-cake' on top of the water, which is difficult to treat. Most existing technologies also use filters, but they foul easily and require ongoing maintenance. According to BioGill chief executive John West, the BioGill technology is groundbreaking and radically different from conventional bioreactors because the 'gills' are not submerged. Instead, the gills, composed of Nano-Ceramic Membrane sheets arranged vertically in pairs, are suspended in the air, above ground, with wastewater travelling down between them. “Fungi and bacteria, known as biomass, grow on the membranes in direct contact with the air, eating nutrients much faster than other systems

  11. Automatic Regulation of Wastewater Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolea Yolanda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater plants, mainly with secondary treatments, discharge polluted water to environment that cannot be used in any human activity. When those dumps are in the sea it is expected that most of the biological pollutants die or almost disappear before water reaches human range. This natural withdrawal of bacteria, viruses and other pathogens is due to some conditions such as the salt water of the sea and the sun effect, and the dumps areas are calculated taking into account these conditions. However, under certain meteorological phenomena water arrives to the coast without the full disappearance of pollutant elements. In Mediterranean Sea there are some periods of adverse climatic conditions that pollute the coast near the wastewater dumping. In this paper, authors present an automatic control that prevents such pollution episodes using two mathematical models, one for the pollutant transportation and the other for the pollutant removal in wastewater spills.

  12. Computing with synthetic protocells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbet, Alexis; Molina, Franck; Amar, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    In this article we present a new kind of computing device that uses biochemical reactions networks as building blocks to implement logic gates. The architecture of a computing machine relies on these generic and composable building blocks, computation units, that can be used in multiple instances to perform complex boolean functions. Standard logical operations are implemented by biochemical networks, encapsulated and insulated within synthetic vesicles called protocells. These protocells are capable of exchanging energy and information with each other through transmembrane electron transfer. In the paradigm of computation we propose, protoputing, a machine can solve only one problem and therefore has to be built specifically. Thus, the programming phase in the standard computing paradigm is represented in our approach by the set of assembly instructions (specific attachments) that directs the wiring of the protocells that constitute the machine itself. To demonstrate the computing power of protocellular machines, we apply it to solve a NP-complete problem, known to be very demanding in computing power, the 3-SAT problem. We show how to program the assembly of a machine that can verify the satisfiability of a given boolean formula. Then we show how to use the massive parallelism of these machines to verify in less than 20 min all the valuations of the input variables and output a fluorescent signal when the formula is satisfiable or no signal at all otherwise.

  13. Bioremediation of wastewater using microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalivendra, Saikumar

    Population expansion and industrial development has deteriorated the quality of freshwater reservoirs around the world and has caused freshwater shortages in certain areas. Discharge of industrial effluents containing toxic heavy metals such as Cd and Cr into the environment have serious impact on human, animal and aquatic life. In order to solve these problems, the present study was focused on evaluating and demonstrating potential of microalgae for bioremediation of wastewater laden with nitrogen (N) in the form of nitrates, phosphorous (P) in the form of phosphates, chromium (Cr (VI)) and cadmium (Cd (II)). After screening several microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and algae taken from Pleasant Hill Lake were chosen as candidate species for this study. The viability of the process was demonstrated in laboratory bioreactors and various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial metal concentration, algae concentration, pH and temperature that would affect remediation rates were studied. Based on the experimental results, correlations were developed to enable customizing and designing a commercial Algae based Wastewater Treatment System (AWTS). A commercial AWTS system that can be easily customized and is suitable for integration into existing wastewater treatment facilities was developed, and capital cost estimates for system including installation and annual operating costs were determined. The work concludes that algal bioremediation is a viable alternate technology for treating wastewater in an economical and sustainable way when compared to conventional treatment processes. The annual wastewater treatment cost to remove N,P is ~26x lower and to remove Cr, Cd is 7x lower than conventional treatment processes. The cost benefit analysis performed shows that if this technology is implemented at industrial complexes, Air Force freight and other Department of Defense installations with wastewater treatment plants, it could lead to millions of dollars in

  14. EFFECT OF STARCH ADDITION ON THE PERFORMANCE AND SLUDGE CHARACTERIZATION OF UASB PROCESS TREATING METHANOLIC WASTEWATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Feng; Kobayashi, Takuro; Takahashi, Shintaro; Li, Yu-You; Omura, Tatsuo

    A mesophilic(35℃) UASB reactor treating synthetic wastewater containing methanol with addition of starch was continuously operated for over 430 days by changing the organic loading rate from 2.5 to 120kg-COD/m3.d. The microbial community structure of the granules was analyzed with the molecular tools and its metabolic characteristics were evaluated using specific methanogenic activity tests. The process was successfully operated with over 98% soluble COD removal efficiency at VLR 30kg-COD/m3.d for approximately 300 days, and granulation satisfactory proceeded. The results of cloning and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis suggest that groups related the genus Methanomethylovorans and the genus Methanosaeta were predominant in the reactor although only the genus Methanomethylovorans was predominant in the reactor treating methanolic wastewater in the previous study. Abundance of the granules over 0.5 mm in diameter in the reactor treating methanolic wastewater with addition of starch was 3 times larger than that in the reactor treating methanolic wastewater. Specific methanogenic activity tests in this study indicate that the methanol-methane pathway and the methanol-H2/CO2-methane pathway were predominant, and however, there was a certain level of activity for acetate-methane pathway unlike the reactor treating methanolic wastewater. These results suggest addition of starch might be responsible for diversifying the microbial community and encouraging the granulation.

  15. Airlift bioreactor containing chitosan-immobilized Sphingobium sp. P2 for treatment of lubricants in wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khondee, Nichakorn; Tathong, Sitti; Pinyakong, Onruthai; Powtongsook, Sorawit; Chatchupong, Thawach; Ruangchainikom, Chalermchai; Luepromchai, Ekawan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sphingobium sp. P2 effectively degraded various lubricant samples. ► Efficiency of Sphingobium sp. P2 increased after immobilization on chitosan. ► High removal efficiency was due to both sorption and degradation processes. ► The immobilized bacteria (4 g L −1 ) were applied in internal loop airlift bioreactor. ► The bioreactor continuously removed lubricant from emulsified wastewater. - Abstract: An internal loop airlift bioreactor containing chitosan-immobilized Sphingobium sp. P2 was applied for the removal of automotive lubricants from emulsified wastewater. The chitosan-immobilized bacteria had higher lubricant removal efficiency than free and killed-immobilized cells because they were able to sorp and degrade the lubricants simultaneously. In a semi-continuous batch experiment, the immobilized bacteria were able to remove 80–90% of the 200 mg L −1 total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from both synthetic and carwash wastewater. The internal loop airlift bioreactor, containing 4 g L −1 immobilized bacteria, was later designed and operated at 2.0 h HRT (hydraulic retention time) for over 70 days. At a steady state, the reactor continuously removed 85 ± 5% TPH and 73 ± 11% chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the carwash wastewater with 25–200 mg L −1 amended lubricant. The internal loop airlift reactor's simple operation and high stability demonstrate its high potential for use in treating lubricants in emulsified wastewater from carwashes and other industries.

  16. The assessment of the coke wastewater treatment efficacy in rotating biological contractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cema, G; Żabczyński, S; Ziembińska-Buczyńska, A

    2016-01-01

    Coke wastewater is known to be relatively difficult for biological treatment. Nonetheless, biofilm-based systems seem to be promising tool for such treatment. That is why a rotating biological contactor (RBC) system focused on the Anammox process was used in this study. The experiment was divided into two parts with synthetic and then real wastewater. It was proven that it is possible to treat coke wastewater with RBC but such a procedure requires a very long start-up period for the nitritation (190 days), as well as for the Anammox process, where stable nitrogen removal over 70% was achieved after 400 days of experiment. Interestingly, it was possible at a relatively low (20.2 ± 2.2 °C) temperature. The polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) based monitoring of the bacterial community showed that its biodiversity decreased when the real wastewater was treated and it was composed mainly of GC-rich genotypes, probably because of the modeling influence of this wastewater and the genotypes specialization.

  17. Winery wastewater inhibits seed germination and vegetative growth of common crop species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosse, Kim P M; Patti, Antonio F; Christen, Evan W; Cavagnaro, Timothy R

    2010-08-15

    The ability to reuse winery wastewater would be of significant benefit to the wine industry, as it could potentially be a cost-effective method of wastewater management, whilst at the same time providing a valuable water resource. This study investigated the effects of different dilutions of a semi-synthetic winery wastewater on the growth and germination of four common crop species in a glasshouse study; barley (Hordeum vulgare), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), lucerne (Medicago sativa) and phalaris (Phalaris aquatica). The wastewater caused a significant delay in the germination of lucerne, millet and phalaris, although overall germination percentage of all species was not affected. Vegetative growth was significantly reduced in all species, with millet being the most severely affected. The germination index of barley correlated very highly (r(2)=0.99) with barley biomass, indicating that barley seed germination bioassays are highly relevant to plant growth, and therefore may be of use as a bioassay for winery wastewater toxicity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthetic Biology and Personalized Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology, application of synthetic chemistry to biology, is a broad term that covers the engineering of biological systems with structures and functions not found in nature to process information, manipulate chemicals, produce energy, maintain cell environment and enhance human health. Synthetic biology devices contribute not only to improve our understanding of disease mechanisms, but also provide novel diagnostic tools. Methods based on synthetic biology enable the design of novel strategies for the treatment of cancer, immune diseases metabolic disorders and infectious diseases as well as the production of cheap drugs. The potential of synthetic genome, using an expanded genetic code that is designed for specific drug synthesis as well as delivery and activation of the drug in vivo by a pathological signal, was already pointed out during a lecture delivered at Kuwait University in 2005. Of two approaches to synthetic biology, top-down and bottom-up, the latter is more relevant to the development of personalized medicines as it provides more flexibility in constructing a partially synthetic cell from basic building blocks for a desired task. PMID:22907209

  19. Photocatalytic Degradation of Oil using Polyvinylidene Fluoride/Titanium Dioxide Composite Membrane for Oily Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusli Ummi Nadiah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of industrial wastewater is increasing as the oil and gas industry grows rapidly over the years. The constituents in the industrial wastewater such as organic and inorganic matters, dispersed and lubricant oil and metals which have high toxicity become the major concern to the environment and ecosystem. There are many technologies are being used for oil removal from industrial wastewater. However, there are still needs to find an effective technology to treat oily wastewater before in can be discharge safely to the environment. Membrane technology is an attractive separation technology to treat oily wastewater. The aim of this study is to fabricate polyvinylidene/titanium dioxide (PVDF/TiO2 composite membrane with further treatment using hot pressed method to enhance the adhesion between TiO2 with the membrane surfaces. In this study the structural and physical properties of fabricated membrane were conducted using X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR respectively. The photocatalytic degradation of oil was measured using UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The FTIR results confirmed that, hot pressed PVDF/TiO2 membrane TiO2 was successfully deposited onto PVDF membranes surface and XRD results shows that the XRD pattern of PVDF//TiO2 found that the crystalline structure was remained unchanged after hot pressed. Clear water was obtained after synthetic oily wastewater was exposed to visible light for at least 6 hours. In conclusion, PVDF/TiO2 composite membrane can be a potential candidate to degrade oil in oily wastewater and suggested to possess an excellent performance if perform simultaneously with membrane separation process.

  20. Economic evaluation of alternative wastewater treatment plant options for pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukkamaci, Nurdan; Koken, Emre

    2010-11-15

    Excessive water consumption in pulp and paper industry results in high amount of wastewater. Pollutant characteristics of the wastewater vary depending on the processes used in production and the quality of paper produced. However, in general, high organic material and suspended solid contents are considered as major pollutants of pulp and paper industry effluents. The major pollutant characteristics of pulp and paper industry effluents in Turkey were surveyed and means of major pollutant concentrations, which were grouped in three different pollution grades (low, moderate and high strength effluents), and flow rates within 3000 to 10,000m(3)/day range with 1000m(3)/day steps were used as design parameters. Ninety-six treatment plants were designed using twelve flow schemes which were combinations of physical treatment, chemical treatment, aerobic and anaerobic biological processes. Detailed comparative cost analysis which includes investment, operation, maintenance and rehabilitation costs was prepared to determine optimum treatment processes for each pollution grade. The most economic and technically optimal treatment processes were found as extended aeration activated sludge process for low strength effluents, extended aeration activated sludge process or UASB followed by an aeration basin for medium strength effluents, and UASB followed by an aeration basin or UASB followed by the conventional activated sludge process for high strength effluents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of potential for reuse of industrial wastewater using metal-immobilized catalysts and reverse osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeongyun; Chung, Jinwook

    2015-04-01

    This report describes a novel technology of reusing the wastewater discharged from the display manufacturing industry through an advanced oxidation process (AOP) with a metal-immobilized catalyst and reverse osmosis (RO) in the pilot scale. The reclaimed water generated from the etching and cleaning processes in display manufacturing facilities was low-strength organic wastewater and was required to be recycled to secure a water source. For the reuse of reclaimed water to ultrapure water (UPW), a combination of solid-phase AOP and RO was implemented. The removal efficiency of TOC by solid-phase AOP and RO was 92%. Specifically, the optimal acid, pH, and H2O2 concentrations in the solid-phase AOP were determined. With regard to water quality and operating costs, the combination of solid-phase AOP and RO was superior to activated carbon/RO and ultraviolet AOP/anion polisher/coal carbon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthetic Biology: Advancing Biological Frontiers by Building Synthetic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yvonne Yu-Hsuan; Galloway, Kate E; Smolke, Christina D

    2012-01-01

    Advances in synthetic biology are contributing to diverse research areas, from basic biology to biomanufacturing and disease therapy. We discuss the theoretical foundation, applications, and potential of this emerging field.

  3. A review on wastewater disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in regulations and development of new technologies have affected the selection of alternative for treated wastewater disinfection. Disinfection is the last barrier of wastewater reclamation process to protect ecosystem safety and human health. Driving forces include water scarcity and drinking water supply, irrigation, rapid industrialization, using reclaimed water, source protection, overpopulation, and environmental protection. The safe operation of water reuse depends on effluent disinfection. Understanding the differences in inactivation mechanisms is critical to identify rate-limiting steps involved in the inactivation process as well as to develop more effective disinfection strategies. Disinfection byproducts discharged from wastewater treatment plants may impair aquatic ecosystems and downstream drinking-water quality. Numerous inorganic and organic micropollutants can undergo reactions with disinfectants. Therefore, to mitigate the adverse effects and also to enhance that efficiency, the use of alternative oxidation/disinfection systems should be evaluated as possible alternative to chlorine. This review gives a summary of the traditional, innovative, and combined disinfection alternatives and also disinfection byproducts for effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

  4. Design in Domestic Wastewater Irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, F.P.; Raschid-Sally, L.

    2005-01-01

    When looking at the domestic wastewater streams, from freshwater source to destination in an agricultural field, we are confronted with a complexity of issues that need careful attention. Social and economic realities arise, along with technical, biological and institutional issues. Local realities

  5. Imprinted Polymers in Wastewater Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastman, Christopher; Goodrich, Scott; Gartner, Isabelle; Mueller, Anja

    2004-03-31

    In wastewater treatment, a method that specifically recognizes a variety of impurities in a flexible manner would be useful for treatment facilities with varying needs. Current purification techniques (i.e. bacteria, oxidation, reduction, precipitation and filtration) are nonspecific and difficult to control in complex mixtures. Heavy metal removal is particularly important in improving the efficiency of wastewater treatment, as they inhibit or even destroy the bacteria used for filtration. Imprinting polymerization is a technique that allows for the efficient removal of specific compounds and has been used in purification of enantiomers. It has potential to be applied in wastewater systems with the impurities acting as the template for the imprinting polymerization. The polymer with the bound impurities intact can then be removed via precipitation. After removal of the impurity the polymer can be reused. Data for the imprinting polymerization of polyacrylates and polyacrylamides for several metal complexes will be presented. Imprinting polymerization in combination with emulsion polymerization to improve the removal of hydrophobic contaminants will be described. Removal efficiencies will be presented and compared with conventional wastewater treatment methods.

  6. Artificial wetland for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias I, Carlos A; Brix, Hans

    2003-01-01

    The development of constructed wetland technology for wastewater treatment has gone a long way and from an experimental and unknown empirical method, which was capable of handling wastewater a sound technology was developed. Thanks to research, and the work of many public and private companies that have gather valuable operation information, constructed wetland technology has evolved to be a relievable, versatile and effective way to treat wastewater, run off, handle sludge and even improve environmental quality and provide recreation sites, while maintaining low operation and maintenance costs, and at the same time, producing water of quality that can meet stringent regulations, while being and environmental friendly solution to treat waste-waters. Constructed wetlands can be established in many different ways and its characteristics can differ greatly, according to the user needs, the geographic site and even the climatic conditions of the area. The following article deals with the general characteristics of the technology and the physical and chemical phenomena that govern the pollution reduction with in the different available systems

  7. Green Systems for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Plants found in marshlands and wetlands in many parts of the world may play an increasing part in a very new, yet very old approach to treatment of water and wastewater--the application of biological methods. Biological water pollution control methods being utilized around the world are examined. (BT)

  8. Fluidization of Dried Wastewater Sludge.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Trnka, Otakar

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 178, 3 (2007) , s. 166-172 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidization characteristics * multiphase reactors * dried stabilized wastewater sludge Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.130, year: 2007

  9. Approaches to chemical synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarabelli, Cristiano; Stano, Pasquale; Anella, Fabrizio; Carrara, Paolo; Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2012-07-16

    Synthetic biology is first represented in terms of two complementary aspects, the bio-engineering one, based on the genetic manipulation of extant microbial forms in order to obtain forms of life which do not exist in nature; and the chemical synthetic biology, an approach mostly based on chemical manipulation for the laboratory synthesis of biological structures that do not exist in nature. The paper is mostly devoted to shortly review chemical synthetic biology projects currently carried out in our laboratory. In particular, we describe: the minimal cell project, then the "Never Born Proteins" and lastly the Never Born RNAs. We describe and critically analyze the main results, emphasizing the possible relevance of chemical synthetic biology for the progress in basic science and biotechnology. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthetic Biology for Specialty Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Kelly A; Alper, Hal S

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we address recent advances in the field of synthetic biology and describe how those tools have been applied to produce a wide variety of chemicals in microorganisms. Here we classify the expansion of the synthetic biology toolbox into three different categories based on their primary function in strain engineering-for design, for construction, and for optimization. Next, focusing on recent years, we look at how chemicals have been produced using these new synthetic biology tools. Advances in producing fuels are briefly described, followed by a more thorough treatment of commodity chemicals, specialty chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. Throughout this review, an emphasis is placed on how synthetic biology tools are applied to strain engineering. Finally, we discuss organism and host strain diversity and provide a future outlook in the field.

  11. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  12. Adaptive Synthetic Forces: Situation Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Randall

    2001-01-01

    ...: perception, comprehension, and prediction. Building on these ideas, we developed techniques for improving the situation awareness in synthetic helicopter pilots for the ModSAF military simulation by giving them more human-like perception...

  13. Programming languages for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, P; Naveen, F; Rao, Chanchala Uma Maheswara; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2010-12-01

    In the backdrop of accelerated efforts for creating synthetic organisms, the nature and scope of an ideal programming language for scripting synthetic organism in-silico has been receiving increasing attention. A few programming languages for synthetic biology capable of defining, constructing, networking, editing and delivering genome scale models of cellular processes have been recently attempted. All these represent important points in a spectrum of possibilities. This paper introduces Kera, a state of the art programming language for synthetic biology which is arguably ahead of similar languages or tools such as GEC, Antimony and GenoCAD. Kera is a full-fledged object oriented programming language which is tempered by biopart rule library named Samhita which captures the knowledge regarding the interaction of genome components and catalytic molecules. Prominent feature of the language are demonstrated through a toy example and the road map for the future development of Kera is also presented.

  14. Nitrogen and COD Removal from Septic Tank Wastewater in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Plants Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, R S; Grismer, M E

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetland treatment performance with respect to organics (COD) and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) removal from domestic (septic tank) wastewater as affected by the presence of plants, substrate "rock" cation exchange capacity (CEC), laboratory versus field conditions and use of synthetic as compared to actual domestic wastewater. This article considers the effects of plants on constructed wetland treatment in the field. Each constructed wetland system was comprised of two beds (2.6 m long by 0.28 m wide and deep filled with ~18 mm crushed lava rock) separated by an aeration tank connected in series. The lava rock had a porosity of ~47% and a CEC of 4 meq/100 gm. One pair of constructed wetland systems was planted with cattails in May 2008, while an adjacent pair of systems remained un-planted. Collected septic tank or synthesized wastewater was allowed to gravity feed each constructed wetland system and effluent samples were regularly collected and tested for COD and nitrogen species during four time periods spanning November 2008 through June 2009. These effluent concentrations were tested for statistical differences at the 95% level for individual time periods as well as the overall 6-month period. Organics removal from domestic wastewater was 78.8% and 76.1% in the planted and un-planted constructed wetland systems, respectively, while ammonium removal was 94.5% and 90.2%, respectively. Similarly, organics removal from the synthetic wastewater of equivalent strength was 88.8% and 90.1% for planted and un-planted constructed wetland systems, respectively, while ammonium removal was 96.9% and 97.3%, respectively.

  15. Treatment of a simulated textile wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with addition of a low-cost adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sílvia C R; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2015-06-30

    Color removal from textile wastewaters, at a low-cost and consistent technology, is even today a challenge. Simultaneous biological treatment and adsorption is a known alternative to the treatment of wastewaters containing biodegradable and non-biodegradable contaminants. The present work aims at evaluating the treatability of a simulated textile wastewater by simultaneously combining biological treatment and adsorption in a SBR (sequencing batch reactor), but using a low-cost adsorbent, instead of a commercial one. The selected adsorbent was a metal hydroxide sludge (WS) from an electroplating industry. Direct Blue 85 dye (DB) was used in the preparation of the synthetic wastewater. Firstly, adsorption kinetics and equilibrium were studied, in respect to many factors (temperature, pH, WS dosage and presence of salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the aqueous media). At 25 °C and pH 4, 7 and 10, maximum DB adsorption capacities in aqueous solution were 600, 339 and 98.7 mg/g, respectively. These values are quite considerable, compared to other reported in literature, but proved to be significantly reduced by the presence of dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the wastewater. The simulated textile wastewater treatment in SBR led to BOD5 removals of 53-79%, but color removal was rather limited (10-18%). The performance was significantly enhanced by the addition of WS, with BOD5 removals above 91% and average color removals of 60-69%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Decoloration of textile wastewater by means of a fluidized-bed loop reactor and immobilized anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiou, D.; Aivasidis, A.

    2006-01-01

    Textile wastewater was treated by means of a fluidized-bed loop reactor and immobilized anaerobic bacteria. The main target of this treatment was decoloration of the wastewater and transformation of the non-biodegradable azo-reactive dyes to the degradable, under aerobic biological conditions, aromatic amines. Special porous beads (Siran'' (registered)) were utilized as the microbial carriers. Acetic acid solution, enriched with nutrients and trace elements, served both as a pH-regulator and as an external substrate for the growth of methanogenic bacteria. The above technique was firstly applied on synthetic wastewater (an aqueous solution of a mixture of different azo-reactive dyes). Hydraulic residence time was gradually decreased from 24 to 6 h over a period of 3 months. Full decoloration of the wastewater could be achieved even at such a low hydraulic residence time (6 h), while methane-rich biogas was also produced. The same technique was then applied on real textile wastewater with excellent results (full decoloration at a hydraulic residence time of 6 h). Furthermore, the effluent proved to be highly biodegradable by aerobic microbes (activated-sludge). Thus, the above-described anaerobic/aerobic biological technique seems to be a very attractive method for treating textile wastewater since it is cost-effective and environment-friendly

  17. An aerated and fluidized bed membrane bioreactor for effective wastewater treatment with low membrane fouling

    KAUST Repository

    Ye, Yaoli; Labarge, Nicole; Kashima, Hiroyuki; Kim, Kyoung Yeol; Hong, Pei-Ying; Saikaly, Pascal; Logan, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactors (AFMBRs) use granular activated carbon (GAC) particles suspended by recirculation to effectively treat low strength wastewaters (∼100–200 mg L−1, chemical oxygen demand, COD), but the effluent can contain dissolved methane. An aerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor (AOFMBR) was developed to avoid methane production and the need for wastewater recirculation by using rising air bubbles to suspend GAC particles. The performance of the AOFMBR was compared to an AFMBR and a conventional aerobic membrane bioreactor (AeMBR) for domestic wastewater treatment over 130 d at ambient temperatures (fixed hydraulic retention time of 1.3 h). The effluent of the AOFMBR had a COD of 20 ± 8 mg L−1, and a turbidity of <0.2 NTU, for low-COD influent (153 ± 19 and 214 ± 27 mg L−1), similar to the AeMBR and AFMBR. For the high-COD influent (299 ± 24 mg L−1), higher effluent CODs were obtained for the AeMBR (38 ± 9 mg L−1) and AFMBR (51 ± 11 mg L−1) than the AOFMBR (26 ± 6 mg L−1). Transmembrane pressure of the AOFMBR increased at 0.04 kPa d−1, which was 20% less than the AeMBR and 57% less than the AFMBR, at the low influent COD. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated a more uniform biofilm on the membrane in AOFMBR than that from the AeMBR biofilm, and no evidence of membrane damage. High similarity was found between communities in the suspended sludge in the AOFMBR and AeMBR (square-root transformed Bray–Curtis similarity, SRBCS, 0.69). Communities on the GAC and suspended sludge were dissimilar in the AOFMBR (SRBCS, 0.52), but clustered in the AFMBR (SRBCS, 0.63).

  18. An aerated and fluidized bed membrane bioreactor for effective wastewater treatment with low membrane fouling

    KAUST Repository

    Ye, Yaoli

    2016-09-24

    Anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactors (AFMBRs) use granular activated carbon (GAC) particles suspended by recirculation to effectively treat low strength wastewaters (∼100–200 mg L−1, chemical oxygen demand, COD), but the effluent can contain dissolved methane. An aerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor (AOFMBR) was developed to avoid methane production and the need for wastewater recirculation by using rising air bubbles to suspend GAC particles. The performance of the AOFMBR was compared to an AFMBR and a conventional aerobic membrane bioreactor (AeMBR) for domestic wastewater treatment over 130 d at ambient temperatures (fixed hydraulic retention time of 1.3 h). The effluent of the AOFMBR had a COD of 20 ± 8 mg L−1, and a turbidity of <0.2 NTU, for low-COD influent (153 ± 19 and 214 ± 27 mg L−1), similar to the AeMBR and AFMBR. For the high-COD influent (299 ± 24 mg L−1), higher effluent CODs were obtained for the AeMBR (38 ± 9 mg L−1) and AFMBR (51 ± 11 mg L−1) than the AOFMBR (26 ± 6 mg L−1). Transmembrane pressure of the AOFMBR increased at 0.04 kPa d−1, which was 20% less than the AeMBR and 57% less than the AFMBR, at the low influent COD. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated a more uniform biofilm on the membrane in AOFMBR than that from the AeMBR biofilm, and no evidence of membrane damage. High similarity was found between communities in the suspended sludge in the AOFMBR and AeMBR (square-root transformed Bray–Curtis similarity, SRBCS, 0.69). Communities on the GAC and suspended sludge were dissimilar in the AOFMBR (SRBCS, 0.52), but clustered in the AFMBR (SRBCS, 0.63).

  19. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  20. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D; Mathews, Debra J H

    2015-08-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) PROJECT is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with this field of research and operate under a common set of principles. In this commentary, we survey the current ethics and regulatory landscape of synthetic biology and present the Sc2.0 Statement of Ethics and Governance to which all members of the project adhere. This statement focuses on four aspects of the Sc2.0 PROJECT: societal benefit, intellectual property, safety, and self-governance. We propose that such project-level agreements are an important, valuable, and flexible model of self-regulation for similar global, large-scale synthetic biology projects in order to maximize the benefits and minimize potential harms. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  1. Testing of Synthetic Biological Membranes for Forward Osmosis Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Jurek; Mangado, Jaione Romero; Stefanson, Ofir; Flynn, Michael; Mancinelli, Rocco; Kawashima, Brian; Trieu, Serena; Brozell, Adrian; Rosenberg, Kevan

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available forward osmosis membranes have been extensively tested for human space flight wastewater treatment. Despite the improvements achieved in the last decades, there is still a challenge to produce reliable membranes with anti-fouling properties, chemical resistance, and high flux and selectivity. Synthetic biological membranes that mimic the ones present in nature, which underwent millions of years of evolution, represent a potential solution for further development and progress in membrane technology. Biomimetic forward osmosis membranes based on a polymeric support filter and coated with surfactant multilayers have been engineered to investigate how different manufacturing processes impact the performance and structure of the membrane. However, initial results of the first generation prototype membranes tests reveal a high scatter in the data, due to the current testing apparatus set up. The testing apparatus has been upgraded to improve data collection, reduce errors, and to allow higher control of the testing process.

  2. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Young Choi; Seung-Ryong Baek; Jae-In Kim; Jeong-Woo Choi; Jin Hur; Tae-U Lee; Cheol-Joon Park; Byung Joon Lee

    2017-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industri...

  3. Meeting Report: Synthetic Biology Jamboree for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology (the name is derived from an analogy to synthetic chemistry) has recognized itself as a "field" only since about 2002. Synthetic biology has gotten some high-profile attention recently, but most people are not aware the field even exists. Synthetic biologists apply engineering principles to genomic circuits to…

  4. Sequential micro and ultrafiltration of distillery wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Vesna M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water reuse and recycling, wastewater treatment, drinking water production and environmental protection are the key challenges for the future of our planet. Membrane separation technologies for the removal of all suspended solids and a fraction of dissolved solids from wastewaters, are becoming more and more promising. Also, these processes are playing a major role in wastewater purification systems because of their high potential for recovery of water from many industrial wastewaters. The aim of this work was to evaluate the application of micro and ultrafiltration for distillery wastewater purification in order to produce water suitable for reuse in the bioethanol industry. The results of the analyses of the permeate obtained after micro and ultrafiltration showed that the content of pollutants in distillery wastewater was significantly reduced. The removal efficiency for chemical oxygen demand, dry matter and total nitrogen was 90%, 99.2% and 99.9%, respectively. Suspended solids were completely removed from the stillage.

  5. Water and Wastewater Rate Hikes Outpace CPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fuchs, Heidi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Yuting [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dunham, Camilla [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Water and wastewater treatment and delivery is the most capital-intensive of all utility services. Historically underpriced, water and wastewater rates have exhibited unprecedented growth in the past fifteen years. Steep annual increases in water and wastewater rates that outpace the Consumer Price Index (CPI) have increasingly become the norm across the United States. In this paper, we analyze water and wastewater rates across U.S. census regions between 2000 and 2014. We also examine some of the driving factors behind these rate increases, including drought, water source, required infrastructure investment, population patterns, and conservation effects. Our results demonstrate that water and wastewater prices have consistently increased and have outstripped CPI throughout the study period nationwide, as well as within each census region. Further, evaluation of the current and upcoming challenges facing water and wastewater utilities suggests that sharp rate increases are likely to continue in the foreseeable future.

  6. Synthetic biology, metaphors and responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Carmen; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2017-08-29

    Metaphors are not just decorative rhetorical devices that make speech pretty. They are fundamental tools for thinking about the world and acting on the world. The language we use to make a better world matters; words matter; metaphors matter. Words have consequences - ethical, social and legal ones, as well as political and economic ones. They need to be used 'responsibly'. They also need to be studied carefully - this is what we want to do through this editorial and the related thematic collection. In the context of synthetic biology, natural and social scientists have become increasingly interested in metaphors, a wave of interest that we want to exploit and amplify. We want to build on emerging articles and books on synthetic biology, metaphors of life and the ethical and moral implications of such metaphors. This editorial provides a brief introduction to synthetic biology and responsible innovation, as well as a comprehensive review of literature on the social, cultural and ethical impacts of metaphor use in genomics and synthetic biology. Our aim is to stimulate an interdisciplinary and international discussion on the impact that metaphors can have on science, policy and publics in the context of synthetic biology.

  7. Content metamorphosis in synthetic holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desbiens, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    A synthetic hologram is an optical system made of hundreds of images amalgamated in a structure of holographic cells. Each of these images represents a point of view on a three-dimensional space which makes us consider synthetic holography as a multiple points of view perspective system. In the composition of a computer graphics scene for a synthetic hologram, the field of view of the holographic image can be divided into several viewing zones. We can attribute these divisions to any object or image feature independently and operate different transformations on image content. In computer generated holography, we tend to consider content variations as a continuous animation much like a short movie. However, by composing sequential variations of image features in relation with spatial divisions, we can build new narrative forms distinct from linear cinematographic narration. When observers move freely and change their viewing positions, they travel from one field of view division to another. In synthetic holography, metamorphoses of image content are within the observer's path. In all imaging Medias, the transformation of image features in synchronisation with the observer's position is a rare occurrence. However, this is a predominant characteristic of synthetic holography. This paper describes some of my experimental works in the development of metamorphic holographic images.

  8. Control theory meets synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Domitilla; Dy, Aaron J; Qian, Yili

    2016-07-01

    The past several years have witnessed an increased presence of control theoretic concepts in synthetic biology. This review presents an organized summary of how these control design concepts have been applied to tackle a variety of problems faced when building synthetic biomolecular circuits in living cells. In particular, we describe success stories that demonstrate how simple or more elaborate control design methods can be used to make the behaviour of synthetic genetic circuits within a single cell or across a cell population more reliable, predictable and robust to perturbations. The description especially highlights technical challenges that uniquely arise from the need to implement control designs within a new hardware setting, along with implemented or proposed solutions. Some engineering solutions employing complex feedback control schemes are also described, which, however, still require a deeper theoretical analysis of stability, performance and robustness properties. Overall, this paper should help synthetic biologists become familiar with feedback control concepts as they can be used in their application area. At the same time, it should provide some domain knowledge to control theorists who wish to enter the rising and exciting field of synthetic biology. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jannie Munk; Nierychlo, Marta; Albertsen, Mads

    Incoming microorganisms to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are usually considered to be removed in the treatment process. Analyses of the effluent generally show a very high degree of reduction of pathogens supporting this assumption. However, standard techniques for detecting bacteria......-independent 16SrRNA gene amplicon sequencing was applied for the identification and quantification of the microorganisms. In total 84 effluent samples from 14 full-scale Danish wastewater treatment plants were investigated over a period of 3 months. The microbial community composition was investigated by 16S r...... contain pathogenic species. One of these was Arcobacter (Campylobacteraceae) which was found in up to 16% relative abundance. This indicates that Arcobacter, and perhaps other pathogenic genera, are not being removed efficiently in full-scale plants and may pose a potential health safety problem. Further...

  10. Treatment of wastewaters containing anilines using enzymes: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantha, R.; Biswas, N.; Taylor, K.E.; Bewtra, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Aromatic amines are manufactured in a large scale for use in industries dealing with resins, dyes, plastics and rubber, pesticides and explosives. The majority of the production-related waste is either incinerated or released into the environment. The majority of them are highly toxic, carcinogenic or mutagenic and impose serious health hazards to mankind. Available conventional physical-chemical processes including activated carbon adsorption processes, solvent extraction processes, microbial degradation and various chemical-oxidation processes developed over the years are not selective in terms of the range of the aromatic pollutant removed during treatment. Thus, such treatment strategies are more economically suitable for treatment of dilute wastewaters and are invariably used as polishing steps. Enzymes such as peroxidases, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, and laccases, in the presence of oxygen, catalyze the oxidation of a wide variety of phenols, biphenyls, anilines, benzidines and other related aromatic compounds. Various peroxidases and laccases have been used to treat wastewaters. With respect to anilines, the potential, scope and cost of enzymatic treatment is reviewed here and compared with conventional technology, e.g., the cost of enzymatic treatment using a crude enzyme preparation of soybean peroxidase was reported to be about $0.36/m 3 for synthetic wastewater containing 1 mM of aniline, compared to an activated sludge process of $1.05/m 3 and $1.31/m 3 for activated carbon process, while for p-toluidine, it was about $0.17/m 3 . Thus, through choice of enzyme and its mode of operation, treatment costs less than the conventional treatment strategies can be achieved. (author)

  11. Biological reduction of nitrate wastewater using fluidized-bed bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Hancher, C.W.; Patton, B.D.; Kowalchuk, M.

    1981-01-01

    There are a number of nitrate-containing wastewater sources, as concentrated as 30 wt % NO 3 - and as large as 2000 m 3 /d, in the nuclear fuel cycle as well as in many commercial processes such as fertilizer production, paper manufacturing, and metal finishing. These nitrate-containing wastewater sources can be successfully biologically denitrified to meet discharge standards in the range of 10 to 20 gN(NO 3 - )/m 3 by the use of a fluidized-bed bioreactor. The major strain of denitrification bacteria is Pseudomonas which was derived from garden soil. In the fluidized-bed bioreactor the bacteria are allowed to attach to 0.25 to 0.50-mm-diam coal particles, which are fluidized by the upward flow of influent wastewater. Maintaining the bacteria-to-coal weight ratio at approximately 1:10 results in a bioreactor bacteria loading of greater than 20,000 g/m 3 . A description is given of the results of two biodenitrification R and D pilot plant programs based on the use of fluidized bioreactors capable of operating at nitrate levels up to 7000 g/m 3 and achieving denitrification rates as high as 80 gN(NO 3 - )/d per liter of empty bioreactor volume. The first of these pilot plant programs consisted of two 0.2-m-diam bioreactors, each with a height of 6.3 m and a volume of 208 liters, operating in series. The second pilot plant was used to determine the diameter dependence of the reactors by using a 0.5-m-diam reactor with a height of 6.3 m and a volume of 1200 liters. These pilot plants operated for a period of six months and two months respectively, while using both a synthetic waste and the actual waste from a gaseous diffusion plant operated by Goodyear Atomic Corporation

  12. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... and NH4; therefore it is classified as a strong waste. ... Key words: Wastewater, treatment plants, water reuse, wastewater characteristics, wastewater treatment,. Jordan. ..... MSc. thesis, university of Jordan. Bataineh F, Najjar ...

  13. Purification and detoxification of petroleum refinery wastewater by electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gousmi, N; Sahmi, A; Li, H Z; Poncin, S; Djebbar, R; Bensadok, K

    2016-09-01

    The treatment of synthetic oily wastewater having the characteristics of a typical petroleum refinery wastewater (PRW) by electrocoagulation (EC) using iron and aluminum electrodes was conducted in an electrolytic reactor equipped with fluid recirculation. During the treatment, the emulsion stability was followed by the measurement of Zeta potential and particle sizes. Effects of some operating conditions such as electrodes material, current density and electrolysis time on removal efficiencies of turbidity, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were investigated in detail. The PRW purification by the EC process was found to be the most effective using aluminum as the anode and cathode, current density of 60 A/m(2) and 30 min of electrolysis time. Under these conditions, the process efficiencies were 83.52% and 99.94%, respectively, for COD and turbidity removals which correspond to final values of 96 mg O2/L and 0.5 NTU. A moderate energy consumption (0.341 kWh) was needed to treat 1 m(3) of PRW. Besides, the ecotoxicity test proved that toxic substances presented in the PRW, and those inhibiting the germination growth of whet, were eliminated by the EC technique.

  14. Biogas generation in anaerobic wastewater treatment under tetracycline antibiotic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meiqing; Niu, Xiaojun; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jie; Yang, Jia; Wang, Wenqi; Yang, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    The effect of tetracycline (TC) antibiotic on biogas generation in anaerobic wastewater treatment was studied. A lab-scale Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) with three compartments was used. The reactor was operated with synthetic wastewater in the absence of TC and in the presence of 250 μg/L TC for 90 days, respectively. The removal rate of TC, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), biogas compositions (hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2)), and total biogas production in each compartment were monitored in the two operational conditions. Results showed that the removal rate of TC was 14.97–67.97% in the reactor. The presence of TC had a large negative effect on CH4 and CO2 generation, but appeared to have a positive effect on H2 production and VFAs accumulation. This response indicated that the methanogenesis process was sensitive to TC presence, but the acidogenesis process was insensitive. This suggested that the presence of TC had less influence on the degradation of organic matter but had a strong influence on biogas generation. Additionally, the decrease of CH4 and CO2 generation and the increase of H2 and VFAs accumulation suggest a promising strategy to help alleviate global warming and improve resource recovery in an environmentally friendly approach. PMID:27341657

  15. Separation of Tritium from Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JEPPSON, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    A proprietary tritium loading bed developed by Molecular Separations, Inc (MSI) has been shown to selectively load tritiated water as waters of hydration at near ambient temperatures. Tests conducted with a 126 (micro)C 1 tritium/liter water standard mixture showed reductions to 25 (micro)C 1 /L utilizing two, 2-meter long columns in series. Demonstration tests with Hanford Site wastewater samples indicate an approximate tritium concentration reduction from 0.3 (micro)C 1 /L to 0.07 (micro)C 1 /L for a series of two, 2-meter long stationary column beds Further reduction to less than 0.02 (micro)C 1 /L, the current drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL), is projected with additional bed media in series. Tritium can be removed from the loaded beds with a modest temperature increase and the beds can be reused Results of initial tests are presented and a moving bed process for treating large quantities of wastewaters is proposed. The moving bed separation process appears promising to treat existing large quantities of wastewater at various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The enriched tritium stream can be grouted for waste disposition. The separations system has also been shown to reduce tritium concentrations in nuclear reactor cooling water to levels that allow reuse. Energy requirements to reconstitute the loading beds and waste disposal costs for this process appear modest

  16. Sonochemical disinfection of municipal wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, Apostolos; Poulios, Ioannis; Nikolakaki, Eleni; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2007-01-01

    The application of high intensity, low frequency ultrasound for the disinfection of simulated and septic tank wastewaters is evaluated in this work. Laboratory scale experiments were conducted at 24 and 80 kHz ultrasound frequency with horn-type sonicators capable of operating in continuous and pulsed irradiation modes at nominal ultrasound intensities up to 450 W. For the experiments with simulated wastewaters, Escherichia coli were used as biological indicator of disinfection efficiency, while for the experiments with septic tank wastewaters, the total microbiological load was used. Complete elimination of E. coli could be achieved within 20-30 min of irradiation at 24 kHz and 450 W with the efficiency decreasing with decreasing intensity and frequency. Moreover, continuous irradiation was more effective than intermittent treatment based on a common energy input. Irradiation of the septic tank effluent prior to biological treatment at 24 kHz and 450 W for 30 min resulted in a three-log total microbiological load reduction, and this was nearly equal to the reduction that could be achieved during biological treatment. Bacterial cell elimination upon irradiation was irreversible as no reappearance of the microorganisms occurred after 24 h

  17. Bioremediation of Synthetic and Industrial Effluents by Aspergillus niger Isolated from Contaminated Soil Following a Sequential Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulzar, Tahsin; Huma, Tayyaba; Jalal, Fatima; Iqbal, Sarosh; Abrar, Shazia; Kiran, Shumaila; Nosheen, Sofia; Hussain, Waqar; Rafique, Muhammad Asim

    2017-12-16

    The present study aimed to assess and compare the ability to remediate synthetic textile and industrial wastewaters by Fenton treatment, a biological system and sequential treatments using Aspergillus niger ( A. niger ). All studied treatments were found to be effective in decolorization of the effluents under study. Fenton treatment followed by A. niger showed excellent potential for the maximum decolorization of the synthetic and industrial effluents under study. The effectiveness of sequential treatment was evaluated by water quality parameters such as total organic carbon (TOC), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) before and after each treatment. The results indicated that A. niger is an effective candidate for detoxification of textile wastewaters.

  18. Bioremediation of Synthetic and Industrial Effluents by Aspergillus niger Isolated from Contaminated Soil Following a Sequential Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahsin Gulzar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess and compare the ability to remediate synthetic textile and industrial wastewaters by Fenton treatment, a biological system and sequential treatments using Aspergillus niger (A. niger. All studied treatments were found to be effective in decolorization of the effluents under study. Fenton treatment followed by A. niger showed excellent potential for the maximum decolorization of the synthetic and industrial effluents under study. The effectiveness of sequential treatment was evaluated by water quality parameters such as total organic carbon (TOC, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5 and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD before and after each treatment. The results indicated that A. niger is an effective candidate for detoxification of textile wastewaters.

  19. Microfluidic Technologies for Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kuk Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic technologies have shown powerful abilities for reducing cost, time, and labor, and at the same time, for increasing accuracy, throughput, and performance in the analysis of biological and biochemical samples compared with the conventional, macroscale instruments. Synthetic biology is an emerging field of biology and has drawn much attraction due to its potential to create novel, functional biological parts and systems for special purposes. Since it is believed that the development of synthetic biology can be accelerated through the use of microfluidic technology, in this review work we focus our discussion on the latest microfluidic technologies that can provide unprecedented means in synthetic biology for dynamic profiling of gene expression/regulation with high resolution, highly sensitive on-chip and off-chip detection of metabolites, and whole-cell analysis.

  20. Synthetic neurosteroids on brain protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurosteroids, like allopregnanolone and pregnanolone, are endogenous regulators of neuronal excitability. Inside the brain, they are highly selective and potent modulators of GABA A receptor activity. Their anticonvulsant, anesthetics and anxiolytic properties are useful for the treatments of several neurological and psychiatric disorders via reducing the risks of side effects obtained with the commercial drugs. The principal disadvantages of endogenous neurosteroids administration are their rapid metabolism and their low oral bioavailability. Synthetic steroids analogues with major stability or endogenous neurosteroids stimulation synthesis might constitute promising novel strategies for the treatment of several disorders. Numerous studies indicate that the 3α-hydroxyl configuration is the key for binding and activity, but modifications in the steroid nucleus may emphasize different pharmacophores. So far, several synthetic steroids have been developed with successful neurosteroid-like effects. In this work, we summarize the properties of various synthetic steroids probed in trials throughout the analysis of several neurosteroids-like actions.

  1. Enhancing biodegradation of wastewater by microbial consortia with fractional factorial design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yuancai [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640, Guangdong (China); Lin Chejen, E-mail: Jerry.Lin@lamar.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710-0024 (United States); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, Guangdong (China); Jones, Gavin [Texas Research Institute for Environmental Studies, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX 77341-2506 (United States); Fu Shiyu; Zhan Huaiyu [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640, Guangdong (China)

    2009-11-15

    Batch experiments were conducted on the degradation of synthetic and municipal wastewater by six different strains, i.e., Agrobacterium sp., Bacillus sp., Enterobacter cloacae, Gordonia, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas putida. By applying a fractional factorial design (FFD) of experiments, the influence of each strain and their interactions were quantified. An empirical model predicting the treatment efficiency was built based on the results of the FFD experiments with an R{sup 2} value of 99.39%. For single strain, Enterobacter cloacae, Gordonia and P. putida (p = 0.008, 0.009 and 0.023, respectively) showed significant enhancement on organic removal in the synthetic wastewater. Positive interaction from Enterobacter cloacae, Gordonia (p = 0.046) was found, indicating that syntrophic interaction existed, and their coexistence can improve total organic carbon (TOC) degradation. Verification experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of bioaugmentation by introducing three selected strains into an activated sludge reactor for treating municipal wastewater. The removal efficiency of TOC with the bioaugmentation was increased from 67-72% to 80-84% at an influent TOC concentration of 200 mg/L. The results derived from this study indicate that the FFD is a useful screening tool for optimizing the microbial community to enhance treatment efficiency.

  2. Enhancing biodegradation of wastewater by microbial consortia with fractional factorial design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuancai; Lin Chejen; Jones, Gavin; Fu Shiyu; Zhan Huaiyu

    2009-01-01

    Batch experiments were conducted on the degradation of synthetic and municipal wastewater by six different strains, i.e., Agrobacterium sp., Bacillus sp., Enterobacter cloacae, Gordonia, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas putida. By applying a fractional factorial design (FFD) of experiments, the influence of each strain and their interactions were quantified. An empirical model predicting the treatment efficiency was built based on the results of the FFD experiments with an R 2 value of 99.39%. For single strain, Enterobacter cloacae, Gordonia and P. putida (p = 0.008, 0.009 and 0.023, respectively) showed significant enhancement on organic removal in the synthetic wastewater. Positive interaction from Enterobacter cloacae, Gordonia (p = 0.046) was found, indicating that syntrophic interaction existed, and their coexistence can improve total organic carbon (TOC) degradation. Verification experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of bioaugmentation by introducing three selected strains into an activated sludge reactor for treating municipal wastewater. The removal efficiency of TOC with the bioaugmentation was increased from 67-72% to 80-84% at an influent TOC concentration of 200 mg/L. The results derived from this study indicate that the FFD is a useful screening tool for optimizing the microbial community to enhance treatment efficiency.

  3. Treatment of wastewaters from manufactured gas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocheci, V.; Bogatu, C.; Radovan, C. [Technical University of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    1995-12-31

    The treatment of wastewaters with high concentrations of organic compounds often represents a difficult problem. In some cases, for the destruction and removal of toxic compounds using processes like biological and chemical oxidation were proposed. Wastewaters from manufactured gas plants contain high concentrations of organic pollutants and ammonia. In this paper a technology for the treatment of these wastewaters is proposed. The experiments were realized with wastewaters from two Romanian manufactured gas plants. The process consists of the following steps: polycondensation-settling-stripping-biological treatment-electrocoagulation-electrochemical oxidation, or chemical oxidation. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Synthetic biology as red herring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Beth

    2013-12-01

    It has become commonplace to say that with the advent of technologies like synthetic biology the line between artifacts and living organisms, policed by metaphysicians since antiquity, is beginning to blur. But that line began to blur 10,000 years ago when plants and animals were first domesticated; and has been thoroughly blurred at least since agriculture became the dominant human subsistence pattern many millennia ago. Synthetic biology is ultimately only a late and unexceptional offshoot of this prehistoric development. From this perspective, then, synthetic biology is a red herring, distracting us from more thorough philosophical consideration of the most truly revolutionary human practice-agriculture. In the first section of this paper I will make this case with regard to ontology, arguing that synthetic biology crosses no ontological lines that were not crossed already in the Neolithic. In the second section I will construct a parallel case with regard to cognition, arguing that synthetic biology as biological engineering represents no cognitive advance over what was required for domestication and the new agricultural subsistence pattern it grounds. In the final section I will make the case with regard to human existence, arguing that synthetic biology, even if wildly successful, is not in a position to cause significant existential change in what it is to be human over and above the massive existential change caused by the transition to agriculture. I conclude that a longer historical perspective casts new light on some important issues in philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. US Competitiveness in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronvall, Gigi Kwik

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technical field that aims to make biology easier to engineer; the field has applications in strategically important sectors for the US economy. While the United States currently leads in synthetic biology R&D, other nations are heavily investing in order to boost their economies, which will inevitably diminish the US leadership position. This outcome is not entirely negative--additional investments will expand markets--but it is critical that the US government take steps to remain competitive: There are applications from which the US population and economy may benefit; there are specific applications with importance for national defense; and US technical leadership will ensure that US experts have a leading role in synthetic biology governance, regulation, and oversight. Measures to increase competitiveness in S&T generally are broadly applicable for synthetic biology and should be pursued. However, the US government will also need to take action on fundamental issues that will affect the field's development, such as countering anti-GMO (genetically modified organism) sentiments and anti-GMO legislation. The United States should maintain its regulatory approach so that it is the product that is regulated, not the method used to create a product. At the same time, the United States needs to ensure that the regulatory framework is updated so that synthetic biology products do not fall into regulatory gaps. Finally, the United States needs to pay close attention to how synthetic biology applications may be governed internationally, such as through the Nagoya Protocol of the Convention on Biological Diversity, so that beneficial applications may be realized.

  6. Effective removal of coordinated copper from wastewater using a new dithiocarbamate-type supramolecular heavy metal precipitant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Fenglian; Zeng, Haiyan; Cai, Qinhong; Qiu, Rongliang; Yu, Jimmy; Xiong, Ya

    2007-11-01

    A new dithiocarbamate-type heavy metal precipitant, sodium 1,3,5-hexahydrotriazinedithiocarbamate (HTDC), was prepared and used to remove coordinated copper from wastewater. In the reported dithiocarbamate-type precipitants, HTDC possesses the highest percentage of the effective functional groups. It could effectively precipitate copper to less than 0.5mgl(-1) from both synthetic and actual industrial wastewater containing CuEDTA in the range of pH 3-9. UV-vis spectral investigation and elemental analysis suggested that the precipitate was a kind of coordination supramolecular compound, [Cu(3)(HTDC)(2)](n). The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and semi-dynamic leaching test (SDLT) indicated that the supramolecular precipitate was non-hazardous and stable in weak acid and alkaline conditions. Tests of an anion exchange resin D231 provided a clue to simultaneously remove excess HTDC and residual CuEDTA in practical process of wastewater treatment.

  7. Current as an indicator of ammonia concentration during wastewater treatment in an integrated microbial electrolysis cell - Nitrification system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Nannan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    2018-01-01

    with synthetic ammonia-rich wastewater. A good linear relationship (R2 = 0.9419) was observed between current (0.5130–3.906 mA) and ammonia levels (0–62.1 mg NH4+-N/L). Such linear relationship was always obtained regardless of the tested external power supply or wastewater pH. The external electrochemical cell......A key challenge for ammonia monitoring during nitrogen removal process is the extra cost and toxic reagent consuming. Herein the feasibility of current generated by an integrated microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) - nitrification reactor as an indicator of initial ammonia levels (NH3/NH4......+) in wastewater was explored. In this loop system, ammonia was first oxidized to nitrate in the nitrification reactor, and then the effluent was introduced into the cathode of MEC where nitrate was reduced as electron acceptor. The correlation between current and ammonia concentration was first investigated...

  8. Recovery and removal of nutrients from swine wastewater by using a novel integrated reactor for struvite decomposition and recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiming; Xiao, Dean; Liu, Jiahui; Hou, Li; Ding, Li

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, struvite decomposition was performed by air stripping for ammonia release and a novel integrated reactor was designed for the simultaneous removal and recovery of total ammonia-nitrogen (TAN) and total orthophosphate (PT) from swine wastewater by internal struvite recycling. Decomposition of struvite by air stripping was found to be feasible. Without supplementation with additional magnesium and phosphate sources, the removal ratio of TAN from synthetic wastewater was maintained at >80% by recycling of the struvite decomposition product formed under optimal conditions, six times. Continuous operation of the integrated reactor indicated that approximately 91% TAN and 97% PT in the swine wastewater could be removed and recovered by the proposed recycling process with the supplementation of bittern. Economic evaluation of the proposed system showed that struvite precipitation cost can be saved by approximately 54% by adopting the proposed recycling process in comparison with no recycling method. PMID:25960246

  9. Synthetic Phage for Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling structural organization and signaling motif display is of great importance to design the functional tissue regenerating materials. Synthetic phage, genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage has been recently introduced as novel tissue regeneration materials to display a high density of cell-signaling peptides on their major coat proteins for tissue regeneration purposes. Structural advantages of their long-rod shape and monodispersity can be taken together to construct nanofibrous scaffolds which support cell proliferation and differentiation as well as direct orientation of their growth in two or three dimensions. This review demonstrated how functional synthetic phage is designed and subsequently utilized for tissue regeneration that offers potential cell therapy.

  10. Synthetic biology and its promises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel De Cózar Escalante

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology is a new science and emerging technology, or rather a technoscience, which converges with others such as nanotechnology, information technology, robotics, artificial intelligence and neuroscience. All have common features that could have highly concerning social and environmental impacts. With its ambitious goals of controlling complexity, redesigning and creating new living entities, synthetic biology perfectly exemplifies the new bioeconomic reality. This requires expanding the focus of the discussion beyond the limited comparative analysis of risks and benefits, to address uncertainties, reassign responsibilities and initiate a thorough social assessment of what is at stake.

  11. The use of Moringa Oleifera Seed Powder as Coagulant to Improve the Quality of Wastewater and Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrawati; Rani Yuliastri, Indra; Nurhasni; Rohaeti, Eti; Effendi, Hefni; Darusman, Latifah K.

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater and ground water treatment are mostly using Polyaluminum Chloride (PAC), a synthetic coagulant, which possess health risk and require expensive cost. This research was carried out to observe the effect of Moringa oleifera seed as natural coagulant to replace synthetic coagulant. M. oleifera reduced 98.6% turbidity of wastewater, 10.8% of its conductivity, 11.7% of its BOD and removed its metal contents (Cd, Cr, Mn). When applied to ground water, M. oleifera removed the turbidity of ground water as much as 97.5%, while reduced the conductivity and BOD of ground water 53.4% and 18%, respectively. The use of M. oleifera also reduced total number of coliform. The advantage of using M. oleifera is that it does not reduce pH as PAC, hence does not require further treatment to adjust pH of the treated water.

  12. Strategies for Reducing the Start-up Operation of Microbial Electrochemical Treatments of Urban Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema Borjas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial electrochemical technologies (METs constitute the core of a number of emerging technologies with a high potential for treating urban wastewater due to a fascinating reaction mechanism—the electron transfer between bacteria and electrodes to transform metabolism into electrical current. In the current work, we focus on the model electroactive microorganism Geobacter sulfurreducens to explore both the design of new start-up procedures and electrochemical operations. Our chemostat-grown plug and play cells, were able to reduce the start-up period by 20-fold while enhancing chemical oxygen demand (COD removal by more than 6-fold during this period. Moreover, a filter-press based bioreactor was successfully tested for both acetate-supplemented synthetic wastewater and real urban wastewater. This proof-of-concept pre-pilot treatment included a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC followed in time by a microbial fuel cell (MFC to finally generate electrical current of ca. 20 A·m−2 with a power of 10 W·m−2 while removing 42 g COD day−1·m−2. The effective removal of acetate suggests a potential use of this modular technology for treating acetogenic wastewater where Geobacter sulfurreducens outcompetes other organisms.

  13. Soil infiltration bioreactor incorporated with pyrite-based (mixotrophic) denitrification for domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhe; Li, Lu; Feng, Chuanping; Chen, Nan; Dong, Shanshan; Hu, Weiwu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an integrated two-stage soil infiltration bioreactor incorporated with pyrite-based (mixotrophic) denitrification (SIBPD) was designed for domestic wastewater treatment. Benefited from excellent adsorption ability and water-permeability, soil infiltration could avoid clogging, shorten operating time and lower maintenance cost. Respiration and nitrification were mostly engaged in aerobic stage (AES), while nitrate was majorly removed by pyrite-based mixotrophic denitrification mainly occurred in anaerobic stage (ANS). Fed with synthetic and real wastewater for 120days at 1.5h HRT, SIBPD demonstrated good removal performance showing 87.14% for COD, 92.84% for NH4(+)-N and 82.58% for TP along with 80.72% of nitrate removed by ANS. TN removal efficiency was 83.74% when conducting real wastewater. Compared with sulfur-based process, the effluent pH of SIBPD was maintained at 6.99-7.34 and the highest SO4(2-) concentration was only 64.63mgL(-1). This study revealed a promising and feasible application prospect for on-site domestic wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of HRT on SBR Performance for Treatability of Combined Domestic and Textile Wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, M.S.; Khan, S.J.; Khan, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Textile wastewater contains organics and color dyes which need to be treated before discharging into receiving water bodies. Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is proved promising against textile wastewater due to its high organic and nutrient removal efficiencies. In this study the influence of variable hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the performance of SBR in treating combined textile and domestic wastewater was evaluated. Six SBRs were operated in parallel at 12 and 8 hrs HRTs respectively, three for synthetic and three for real textile plus domestic wastewater. SBRs were operated at constant temperature 25 +- 1 degree C and pH 7 +- 1 to avoid seasonal effects. The biological oxygen demand (BOD) removal efficiency was consistent at 73% while, total suspended solids (TSS) removal efficiency increased from 52 to 63% in SBRs with decrease in HRT from 12 to 8 hrs. The organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 0.45 to 0.68 Kg/m3/d, SVI decreased from 94 to 84 mL/g and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency increased in real waste water (RWW) SBRs from 59 to 63% with decrease in HRT from 12 to 8 hrs. Low COD removal at 12 hr HRT can be attributed to poor settling characteristics of sludge due to possible filamentous growth at low F/M (0.03) and greater SRT (28 days) as compared to 8 hr HRT condition, where F/M was 0.05 and SRT of 20 days. (author)

  15. High-Strength Domestic Wastewater Treatment and Reuse with Onsite Passive Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Anda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the preliminary monitoring results of an onsite pilot wastewater treatment plant consisting of a septic tank, an anaerobic up-flow filter, and a horizontal subsurface flow wetland system planted with Agapanthus africanus. The system was designed to treat heavily polluted domestic wastewater produced in a research and development (R&D center, reaching additional goals of zero energy consumption and eliminating the use of chemical additives. First water quality data shows that organic load in the treated sewage were removed achieving more than 95% efficiency. Nutrients were removed by almost 50%, and fecal and total coliform counts decreased by 99.96%. The results were compared to official Mexican regulations for wastewater discharged into lakes and reservoirs complied with all of them except for nutrients. In this pilot project, the resulting treated wastewater was directly reused for watering the green areas of the R&D center. The result was that the excess of nutrients improved the quality of the grass, avoiding the use of synthetic fertilizers, and created a wetland habitat for small wildlife species living in the area.

  16. Redistribution of wastewater alkalinity with a microbial fuel cell to support nitrification of reject water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modin, Oskar; Fukushi, Kensuke; Rabaey, Korneel; Rozendal, René A; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2011-04-01

    In wastewater treatment plants, the reject water from the sludge treatment processes typically contains high ammonium concentrations, which constitute a significant internal nitrogen load in the plant. Often, a separate nitrification reactor is used to treat the reject water before it is fed back into the plant. The nitrification reaction consumes alkalinity, which has to be replenished by dosing e.g. NaOH or Ca(OH)(2). In this study, we investigated the use of a two-compartment microbial fuel cell (MFC) to redistribute alkalinity from influent wastewater to support nitrification of reject water. In an MFC, alkalinity is consumed in the anode compartment and produced in the cathode compartment. We use this phenomenon and the fact that the influent wastewater flow is many times larger than the reject water flow to transfer alkalinity from the influent wastewater to the reject water. In a laboratory-scale system, ammonium oxidation of synthetic reject water passed through the cathode chamber of an MFC, increased from 73.8 ± 8.9 mgN/L under open-circuit conditions to 160.1 ± 4.8 mgN/L when a current of 1.96 ± 0.37 mA (15.1 mA/L total MFC liquid volume) was flowing through the MFC. These results demonstrated the positive effect of an MFC on ammonium oxidation of alkalinity-limited reject water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Treatment of Rural Wastewater Using a Spiral Fiber Based Salinity-Persistent Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Xin Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Differing from municipal wastewater, rural wastewater in salinization areas is characterized with arbitrary discharge and high concentration of salt, COD, nitrogen and phosphorus, which would cause severe deterioration of rivers and lakes. To overcome the limits of traditional biological processes, a spiral fiber based salinity-persistent Sequencing Biofilm Batch Reactor (SBBR was developed and investigated with synthetic rural wastewater (COD = 500 mg/L, NH4+-N = 50 mg/L, TP = 6 mg/L under different salinity (0.0–10.0 g/L of NaCl. Results indicated that a quick start-up could be achieved in 15 days, along with sufficient biomass up to 7275 mg/L. During operating period, the removal of COD, NH4+-N, TN was almost not disturbed by salt varying from 0.0 to 10.0 g/L with stable efficiency reaching 92%, 82% and 80%, respectively. Although TP could be removed at high efficiency of 90% in low salinity conditions (from 0.0 to 5.0 g/L of NaCl, it was seriously inhibited due to nitrite accumulation and reduction of Phosphorus Accumulating Organisms (PAOs after addition of 10.0 g/L of salt. The behavior proposed in this study will provide theoretical foundation and guidance for application of SBBR in saline rural wastewater treatment.

  18. Green synthesis of palm oil mill effluent-based graphenic adsorbent for the treatment of dye-contaminated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teow, Yeit Haan; Nordin, Nadzirah Ilyiani; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab

    2018-05-12

    Textile wastewater contains methylene blue (MB), a major coloring agent in textile industry. Activated carbon (AC) is the most widely used adsorbent in removing dyes from industrial wastewater. However, high production cost of AC is the major obstacle for its wide application in dye wastewater treatment. In this study, a sustainable approach in synthesizing graphenic adsorbent from palm oil mill effluent (POME), a potential carbonaceous source, has been explored. This new development in adsorption technique is considered as green synthesis as it does not require any binder during the synthesis process, and at the same time, it helps to solve the bottleneck of palm oil industry as POME is the main cause contributed to Malaysia's water pollution problem. The synthesized GSC was characterized through XRD, FESEM, and EDX. The adsorption performance of the synthesized GSC was evaluated by adsorption of MB. The effect of initial concentration of synthetic MB solution (1-20 mg/L) and weight of GSC (5-20 g) were investigated. A remarkable change in color of synthetic MB solution from blue to crystal clear was observed at the end of adsorption study. High efficiency of the synthesized GSC for dye-contaminated wastewater treatment is concluded.

  19. Performance of Anaerobic Baffled Reactor with Three Compartments in Removal of COD of Wastewater of Chilly Sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumantri Indro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this study is to examine the performance of each compartment of the number of compartments of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR to the COD removal of the chilly sauce wastewater. Three-compartments of ABR were conducted in this experiment with the total volume of 60 l. ABR is very suitable for processing waste water with high content of COD. Wastewater conducted in this research is a degradable chilly sauce synthetic and high content of organic compounds. While the COD parameter is the main parameter to indicate the achievement of wastewater treatment plant. Stepwise in the research starting with the preparation of raw materials such as sample preparation of synthetic wastewater and preparation of activated sludge. Variable used is the time digestion in the ABR, sludge volume (50% and 70%, and initial COD concentrations (6000 – 14000 mg/L. The response is observed up to 7 days process. For a load of organic compounds, the first compartment has high degree of decomposition of organic compounds than 2nd and 3rd, it is shown that the COD removal the second and third compartment increase insignificantly compare the first compartment. As for the different height of the activated sludge indicated that for organic load of of 6170 mg/L up to 14265 mg/L, the first compartment has removal efficiency 79-73%, in the second compartment is 81-75%, 81-77% and third compartment.

  20. Where Synthetic Biology Meets ET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. And what about the limits for life? Can we create organisms that expand the envelope for life? In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

  1. Stereoscopy in cinematographic synthetic imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Jonathan; Parent, Rick

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we present experiments and results pertaining to the perception of depth in stereoscopic viewing of synthetic imagery. In computer animation, typical synthetic imagery is highly textured and uses stylized illumination of abstracted material models by abstracted light source models. While there have been numerous studies concerning stereoscopic capabilities, conventions for staging and cinematography in stereoscopic movies have not yet been well-established. Our long-term goal is to measure the effectiveness of various cinematography techniques on the human visual system in a theatrical viewing environment. We would like to identify the elements of stereoscopic cinema that are important in terms of enhancing the viewer's understanding of a scene as well as providing guidelines for the cinematographer relating to storytelling. In these experiments we isolated stereoscopic effects by eliminating as many other visual cues as is reasonable. In particular, we aim to empirically determine what types of movement in synthetic imagery affect the perceptual depth sensing capabilities of our viewers. Using synthetic imagery, we created several viewing scenarios in which the viewer is asked to locate a target object's depth in a simple environment. The scenarios were specifically designed to compare the effectiveness of stereo viewing, camera movement, and object motion in aiding depth perception. Data were collected showing the error between the choice of the user and the actual depth value, and patterns were identified that relate the test variables to the viewer's perceptual depth accuracy in our theatrical viewing environment.

  2. Synthetic biology meets tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jamie A; Cachat, Elise

    2016-06-15

    Classical tissue engineering is aimed mainly at producing anatomically and physiologically realistic replacements for normal human tissues. It is done either by encouraging cellular colonization of manufactured matrices or cellular recolonization of decellularized natural extracellular matrices from donor organs, or by allowing cells to self-organize into organs as they do during fetal life. For repair of normal bodies, this will be adequate but there are reasons for making unusual, non-evolved tissues (repair of unusual bodies, interface to electromechanical prostheses, incorporating living cells into life-support machines). Synthetic biology is aimed mainly at engineering cells so that they can perform custom functions: applying synthetic biological approaches to tissue engineering may be one way of engineering custom structures. In this article, we outline the 'embryological cycle' of patterning, differentiation and morphogenesis and review progress that has been made in constructing synthetic biological systems to reproduce these processes in new ways. The state-of-the-art remains a long way from making truly synthetic tissues, but there are now at least foundations for future work. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  3. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H; Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E; Katayama, S; Koyano, M

    2010-01-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO 4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO 2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  4. Assessment of synthetic image fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kevin D.; Moorhead, Ian R.; Gilmore, Marilyn A.; Watson, Graham H.; Thomson, Mitch; Yates, T.; Troscianko, Tomasz; Tolhurst, David J.

    2000-07-01

    Computer generated imagery is increasingly used for a wide variety of purposes ranging from computer games to flight simulators to camouflage and sensor assessment. The fidelity required for this imagery is dependent on the anticipated use - for example when used for camouflage design it must be physically correct spectrally and spatially. The rendering techniques used will also depend upon the waveband being simulated, spatial resolution of the sensor and the required frame rate. Rendering of natural outdoor scenes is particularly demanding, because of the statistical variation in materials and illumination, atmospheric effects and the complex geometric structures of objects such as trees. The accuracy of the simulated imagery has tended to be assessed subjectively in the past. First and second order statistics do not capture many of the essential characteristics of natural scenes. Direct pixel comparison would impose an unachievable demand on the synthetic imagery. For many applications, such as camouflage design, it is important that nay metrics used will work in both visible and infrared wavebands. We are investigating a variety of different methods of comparing real and synthetic imagery and comparing synthetic imagery rendered to different levels of fidelity. These techniques will include neural networks (ICA), higher order statistics and models of human contrast perception. This paper will present an overview of the analyses we have carried out and some initial results along with some preliminary conclusions regarding the fidelity of synthetic imagery.

  5. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, A.; Okuno, M.; Okudera, H.; Mashimo, T.; Omurzak, E.; Katayama, S.; Koyano, M.

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  6. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H [Department of Earth Sciences, Kanazawa University Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan); Katayama, S; Koyano, M, E-mail: okuno@kenroku.kanazawa-u.ac.j [JAIST, Nomi, Ishikawa, 923-1297 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO{sub 4} tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO{sub 2} glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  7. Methods for preparing synthetic freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E J; Davison, W; Hamilton-Taylor, J

    2002-03-01

    Synthetic solutions that emulate the major ion compositions of natural waters are useful in experiments aimed at understanding biogeochemical processes. Standard recipes exist for preparing synthetic analogues of seawater, with its relatively constant composition, but, due to the diversity of freshwaters, a range of compositions and recipes is required. Generic protocols are developed for preparing synthetic freshwaters of any desired composition. The major problems encountered in preparing hard and soft waters include dissolving sparingly soluble calcium carbonate, ensuring that the ionic components of each concentrated stock solution cannot form an insoluble salt and dealing with the supersaturation of calcium carbonate in many hard waters. For acidic waters the poor solubility of aluminium salts requires attention. These problems are overcome by preparing concentrated stock solutions according to carefully designed reaction paths that were tested using a combination of experiment and equilibrium modeling. These stock solutions must then be added in a prescribed order to prepare a final solution that is brought into equilibrium with the atmosphere. The example calculations for preparing hard, soft and acidic freshwater surrogates with major ion compositions the same as published analyses, are presented in a generalized fashion that should allow preparation of any synthetic freshwater according to its known analysis.

  8. Protease-sensitive synthetic prions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Colby

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prions arise when the cellular prion protein (PrP(C undergoes a self-propagating conformational change; the resulting infectious conformer is designated PrP(Sc. Frequently, PrP(Sc is protease-resistant but protease-sensitive (s prions have been isolated in humans and other animals. We report here that protease-sensitive, synthetic prions were generated in vitro during polymerization of recombinant (rec PrP into amyloid fibers. In 22 independent experiments, recPrP amyloid preparations, but not recPrP monomers or oligomers, transmitted disease to transgenic mice (n = 164, denoted Tg9949 mice, that overexpress N-terminally truncated PrP. Tg9949 control mice (n = 174 did not spontaneously generate prions although they were prone to late-onset spontaneous neurological dysfunction. When synthetic prion isolates from infected Tg9949 mice were serially transmitted in the same line of mice, they exhibited sPrP(Sc and caused neurodegeneration. Interestingly, these protease-sensitive prions did not shorten the life span of Tg9949 mice despite causing extensive neurodegeneration. We inoculated three synthetic prion isolates into Tg4053 mice that overexpress full-length PrP; Tg4053 mice are not prone to developing spontaneous neurological dysfunction. The synthetic prion isolates caused disease in 600-750 days in Tg4053 mice, which exhibited sPrP(Sc. These novel synthetic prions demonstrate that conformational changes in wild-type PrP can produce mouse prions composed exclusively of sPrP(Sc.

  9. Reuse of Winery Wastewater by Application to Vineyard Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosse, K. P.; Patti, A. F.; Parikh, S.; Steenwerth, K. L.; Buelow, M. C.; Cavagnaro, T. R.

    2010-12-01

    The ability to reuse winery wastewater (WWW) has potential benefits both with respect to treatment of a waste stream, as well as providing a beneficial water resource in water limited regions such as south-eastern Australia, California and South Africa. Our study in south-eastern Australia and California has focused on characterizing the physicochemical properties and microbial communities on soils following WWW application. Studies in the Yarra Valley, Victoria, Australia considered the effect of a single WWW application on paired soil sites, one of which was acclimatized to WWW application via 30 years of this practice, and the other of which was not. Soils that had received WWW appear to have a primed microbial population, with soil respiration showing a significantly greater spike following the single WWW application. In addition, the nitrate and ammonium spikes were impacted upon in the acclimatised site. Taken together, this information suggests that long-term WWW application causes an alteration to the microbial community, which may be more readily able to assimilate the carbon and nitrogen sources present in WWW. Studies are currently underway to assess the impacts of the application of a synthetic WWW on vineyard soils in Davis, California. In this study, four different synthetic WWWs are being applied as irrigation water, and soil will be sampled at the time of grape harvest. Results from this ongoing work will be presented with a view to informing long term vineyard management for sustainability.

  10. Concomitant uptake of antimicrobials and Salmonella in soil and into lettuce following wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallach, J Brett; Zhang, Yuping; Hodges, Laurie; Snow, Daniel; Li, Xu; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon

    2015-02-01

    The use of wastewater for irrigation may introduce antimicrobials and human pathogens into the food supply through vegetative uptake. The objective of this study was to investigate the uptake of three antimicrobials and Salmonella in two lettuce cultivars. After repeated subirrigation with synthetic wastewater, lettuce leaves and soil were collected at three sequential harvests. The internalization frequency of Salmonella in lettuce was low. A soil horizon-influenced Salmonella concentration gradient was determined with concentrations in bottom soil 2 log CFU/g higher than in top soil. Lincomycin and sulfamethoxazole were recovered from lettuce leaves at concentrations as high as 822 ng/g and 125 ng/g fresh weight, respectively. Antimicrobial concentrations in lettuce decreased from the first to the third harvest suggesting that the plant growth rate may exceed antimicrobial uptake rates. Accumulation of antimicrobials was significantly different between cultivars demonstrating a subspecies level variation in uptake of antibiotics in lettuce. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adsorption of boron from boron-containing wastewaters by ion exchange in a continuous reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem; Boncukcuoglu, Recep; Yilmaz, M. Tolga; Kocakerim, M. Muhtar

    2005-01-01

    In this study, boron removal from boron-containing wastewaters prepared synthetically was investigated. The experiments in which Amberlite IRA 743, boron specific resin was used were carried out in a column reactor. The bed volume of resin, boron concentration, flow rate and temperature were selected as experimental parameters. The experimental results showed that percent of boron removal increased with increasing amount of resin and with decreasing boron concentration in the solution. Boron removal decreased with increasing of flow rate and the effect of temperature on the percent of total boron removal increased the boron removal rate. As a result, it was seen that about 99% of boron in the wastewater could be removed at optimum conditions

  12. A fluidized bed membrane bioelectrochemical reactor for energy-efficient wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Ge, Zheng; He, Zhen

    2014-09-01

    A fluidized bed membrane bioelectrochemical reactor (MBER) was investigated using fluidized granular activated carbon (GAC) as a mean of membrane fouling control. During the 150-day operation, the MBER generated electricity with contaminant removal from either synthetic solution or actual wastewater, as a standalone or a coupled system. It was found that fluidized GAC could significantly reduce transmembrane pressure (TMP), although its function as a part of the anode electrode was minor. When the MBER was linked to a regular microbial fuel cell (MFC) for treating a wastewater from a cheese factory, the MFC acted as a major process for energy recovery and contaminant removal, and the coupled system removed more than 90% of chemical oxygen demand and >80% of suspended solids. The analysis showed that the ratio of energy recovery and consumption was slightly larger than one, indicating that the coupled system could be theoretically energy neutral. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plants reveal diverse yeast and protist communities of potential significance in biofouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liébana, Raquel; Arregui, Lucía; Belda, Ignacio; Gamella, Luis; Santos, Antonio; Marquina, Domingo; Serrano, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The yeast community was studied in a municipal full-scale membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plant (MBR-WWTP). The unexpectedly high diversity of yeasts indicated that the activated sludge formed a suitable environment for them to proliferate, with cellular concentrations of 2.2 ± 0.8 × 10(3) CFU ml(-1). Sixteen species of seven genera were present in the biological reactor, with Ascomycetes being the most prevalent group (93%). Most isolates were able to grow in a synthetic wastewater medium, adhere to polyethylene surfaces, and develop biofilms of variable complexity. The relationship between yeast populations and the protists in the MBR-WWTP was also studied, revealing that some protist species preyed on and ingested yeasts. These results suggest that yeast populations may play a role in the food web of a WWTP and, to some extent, contribute to membrane biofouling in MBR systems.

  14. Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2002-01-01

    A recent study by the Toxic Substances Hydrology Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) shows that a broad range of chemicals found in residential, industrial, and agricultural wastewaters commonly occurs in mixtures at low concentrations downstream from areas of intense urbanization and animal production. The chemicals include human and veterinary drugs (including antibiotics), natural and synthetic hormones, detergent metabolites, plasticizers, insecticides, and fire retardants. One or more of these chemicals were found in 80 percent of the streams sampled. Half of the streams contained 7 or more of these chemicals, and about one-third of the streams contained 10 or more of these chemicals. This study is the first national-scale examination of these organic wastewater contaminants in streams and supports the USGS mission to assess the quantity and quality of the Nation's water resources. A more complete analysis of these and other emerging water-quality issues is ongoing.

  15. Secondary wastewater treatment by microalgae isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microalgae play a fundamental role in primary and secondary wastewater treatment. In this work the growth, photosynthetic activity and removal of phosphorus from wastewater effluents by indigenous blue-green algal species, Spirulina and Oscillatoria, isolated from Gaborone oxidation ponds was studied. Oscillatoria and ...

  16. Treatment and recycling of textile wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciardelli, G.; Brighetti, G.

    1999-01-01

    The results of an experimental campaign involving the treatment of textile wastewaters for recycle by mean of an absorption resins pilot plant are briefly described. The case study concerned the treatment and reuse of yarns dyeing wastewaters. Results obtained indicate the possibility of an industrial scale implementation of the technique [it

  17. Industrial wastewater treatment with electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Bumsoo; Ko, Jaein; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yuri; Chung, Wooho [Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries Co., Taejon (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    Global withdrawals of water to satisfy human demands have grown dramatically in this century. Between 1900 and 1945, water consumption increased by over six times, more than double the rate of population growth. This rapid growth in water demand is due to the increasing reliance on irrigation to achieve food security, the growth of industrial uses, and the increasing use per capita for domestic purposes. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. In the Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI), many industrial wastewater including leachate from landfill area, wastewater from papermill, dyeing complex, petrochemical processes, etc. are under investigation with electron beam irradiation. For the study of treating dyeing wastewater combined with conventional facilities, an electron beam pilot plant for treating 1,000m{sup 3}/day of wastewater from 80,000m{sup 3}/day of total dyeing wastewater has constructed and operated in Taegu Dyeing Industrial Complex. A commercial plant for re-circulation of wastewater from Papermill Company is also designed for S-paper Co. in Cheongwon City, and after the successful installation, up to 80% of wastewater could be re-used in paper producing process. (author)

  18. Industrial wastewater treatment with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Ko, Jaein; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yuri; Chung, Wooho

    2001-01-01

    Global withdrawals of water to satisfy human demands have grown dramatically in this century. Between 1900 and 1945, water consumption increased by over six times, more than double the rate of population growth. This rapid growth in water demand is due to the increasing reliance on irrigation to achieve food security, the growth of industrial uses, and the increasing use per capita for domestic purposes. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. In the Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI), many industrial wastewater including leachate from landfill area, wastewater from papermill, dyeing complex, petrochemical processes, etc. are under investigation with electron beam irradiation. For the study of treating dyeing wastewater combined with conventional facilities, an electron beam pilot plant for treating 1,000m 3 /day of wastewater from 80,000m 3 /day of total dyeing wastewater has constructed and operated in Taegu Dyeing Industrial Complex. A commercial plant for re-circulation of wastewater from Papermill Company is also designed for S-paper Co. in Cheongwon City, and after the successful installation, up to 80% of wastewater could be re-used in paper producing process. (author)

  19. Nutrients requirements in biological industrial wastewater treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In both these wastewaters nutrients were not added. A simple formula is introduced to calculate nutrient requirements based on removal efficiency and observed biomass yield coefficient. Key Words: Olive mill wastewater; anaerobic treatment; aerobic treatment; sequencing batch reactor; biomass yield; nutrient requirement.

  20. Domestic wastewater treatment using electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrely, Sueli I.

    1995-01-01

    This work aims the application of an industrial electron beam accelerator to disinfect sludge and to remove organic matter existent in the influent and effluent from the Mairipora domestic wastewater treatment plant. The in vitro Co-60 radiosensitivity of the major representative Salmonella species in wastewater from Sao Paulo city was also studied. (author). 66 refs., 19 figs., 12 tabs

  1. Cytogenotoxicity screening of untreated hospital wastewaters using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical parameters of the wastewaters were determined in accordance with standard methods. Onions root growth inhibition test was used to assess the toxic status of the wastewaters, while cytogenotoxicity was measured by microscopic investigation of the chromosomal aberrations. Onion bulbs were exposed ...

  2. Options for wastewater management in Harare, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nhapi, I.

    2004-01-01

    The sustainable management of wastewater should aim at pollution prevention and reduction first, followed by resource recovery and reuse. This thesis shows that substantial water quality improvements could be achieved through a so-called 3-Step Strategic Approach to wastewater management. This

  3. Investigation of the behaviour of zero-valent iron nanoparticles and their interactions with Cd2+ in wastewater by single particle ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmar, Janja; Oprčkal, Primož; Milačič, Radmila; Mladenovič, Ana; Ščančar, Janez

    2018-04-12

    Zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) exhibit great potential for the removal of metal contaminants from wastewater. After their use, there is a risk that nZVI will remain dispersed in remediated water and represent potential nano-threats to the environment. Therefore, the behaviour of nZVI after remediation must be explored. To accomplish this, we optimised a novel method using single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) for the sizing and quantification of nZVI in wastewater matrices. H 2 reaction gas was used in MS/MS mode for the sensitive and interference-free determination of low concentrations of nZVI with a low size limit of detection (36nm). This method was applied to study the influence of different iron (Fe) loads (0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0gL -1 ) and water matrices (Milli-Q water, synthetic and effluent wastewater) on the behaviour of nZVI, their interactions with Cd 2+ and the efficiency of Cd 2+ removal. The aggregation and sedimentation of nZVI increased with settling time. Sedimentation was slower in effluent wastewater than in Milli-Q water or synthetic wastewater. Consequently, Cd 2+ was more efficiently (86%) removed from effluent wastewater than from synthetic wastewater (73%), while its removal from Milli-Q water was inefficient (19%). The trace amounts of Cd 2+ that remained in the remediated water were either dissolved or sorbed to residual nZVI. The results of the nanoremediation of effluent wastewater with varying Fe loads showed that sedimentation was faster at higher initial concentrations of nZVI. After seven days of settling, low concentrations of Fe remained in the effluent wastewater at Fe loads of 0.5gL -1 or higher, which could indicate that the use of nZVI in nanoremediation under the described conditions may not represent an environmental nano-threat. However, further studies are needed to assess the ecotoxicological impact of Fe-related NPs used for the nanoremediation of wastewaters. Copyright © 2018

  4. Treatment of Preserved Wastewater with UASB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yongli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The preserved wastewater was treated by the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, the effects of the anaerobic time on COD, turbidity, pH, conductivity, SS, absorbance, and decolorization rate of the preserved wastewater were investigated. The results showed that with the increase of the anaerobic time, the treatment effect of the UASB reactor on the preserved wastewater was improved. Under the optimum anaerobic time condition, the COD removal rate, turbidity removal rate, pH, conductivity, SS removal rate, absorbance, and decoloration rate of the wastewater were 49.6%, 38.5%, 5.68, 0.518×104, 24%, 0.598, and 32.4%, respectively. Therefore, the UASB reactor can be used as a pretreatment for the preserved wastewater, in order to reduce the difficulty of subsequent aerobic treatment.

  5. Electron beam treatment of industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, JinKyu; Kim, Yuri

    2004-01-01

    For industrial wastewater with low impurity levels such as contaminated ground water, cleaning water and etc., purification only with electron beam is possible, but it should be managed carefully with reducing required irradiation doses as low as possible. Also for industrial wastewater with high impurity levels such as dyeing wastewater, leachate and etc., purification only with electron beam requires high amount of doses and far beyond economies. Electron beam treatment combined with conventional purification methods such as coagulation, biological treatment, etc. is suitable for reduction of non-biodegradable impurities in wastewater and will extend the application area of electron beam. A pilot plant with electron beam for treating 1,000 m 3 /day of wastewater from dyeing industries has constructed and operated continuously since Oct 1998. Electron beam irradiation instead of chemical treatment shows much improvement in removing impurities and increases the efficiency of biological treatment. Actual plant is under consideration based upon the experimental results. (author)

  6. Occurrence of pharmaceutically active and non-steroidal estrogenic compounds in three different wastewater recycling schemes in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rifai, Jawad H; Gabelish, Candace L; Schäfer, Andrea I

    2007-10-01

    The discovery that natural and synthetic chemicals, in the form of excreted hormones and pharmaceuticals, as well as a vast array of compounds with domestic and industrial applications, can enter the environment via wastewater treatment plants and cause a wide variety of environmental and health problems even at very low concentrations, suggests the need for improvement of water recycling. Three Australian wastewater recycling schemes, two of which employ reverse osmosis (RO) technology, the other applying ozonation and biological activated carbon filtration, have been studied for their ability to remove trace organic contaminants including 11 pharmaceutically active compounds and two non-steroidal estrogenic compounds. Contaminant concentrations were determined using a sensitive analytical method comprising solid phase extraction, derivatization and GC with MS using selected ion monitoring. In raw wastewater, concentrations of analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications were comparable to those found in wastewaters around the world. Remarkably, removal efficiencies for the three schemes were superior to literature values and RO was responsible for the greatest proportion of contaminant removal. The ability of RO membranes to concentrate many of the compounds was demonstrated and highlights the need for continued research into monitoring wastewater treatment, concentrate disposal, improved water recycling schemes and ultimately, safer water and a cleaner environment.

  7. Synthetic Biology and Microbial Fuel Cells: Towards Self-Sustaining Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, John Andrew

    2014-01-01

    NASA ARC and the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) collaborated to investigate the development of advanced microbial fuels cells (MFCs) for biological wastewater treatment and electricity production (electrogenesis). Synthetic biology techniques and integrated hardware advances were investigated to increase system efficiency and robustness, with the intent of increasing power self-sufficiency and potential product formation from carbon dioxide. MFCs possess numerous advantages for space missions, including rapid processing, reduced biomass and effective removal of organics, nitrogen and phosphorus. Project efforts include developing space-based MFC concepts, integration analyses, increasing energy efficiency, and investigating novel bioelectrochemical system applications

  8. Application of reverse osmosis in radioactive wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong; Guo Weiqun

    2012-01-01

    Considering the disadvantages of the conventional evaporation and ion exchange process for radioactive wastewater treatment, the reverse osmosis is used to treat the low level radioactive wastewater. The paper summarizes the research and application progress of the reverse osmosis in the radioactive wastewater treatment and indicates that the reverse osmosis in the radioactive wastewater treatment is very important. (authors)

  9. Catalysts for synthetic liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, L.A.; Turney, T.W.

    1987-12-01

    Fischer-Tropsch catalysts have been designed, characterized and tested for the selective production of hydrocarbons suitable as synthetic liquid transport fuels from synthesis gas (i.e., by the reduction of carbon monoxide with hydrogen). It was found that hydrocarbons in the middle distillate range, or suitable for conversion to that range, could be produced over several of the new catalyst systems. The various catalysts examined included: (1) synthetic cobalt clays, mainly cobalt chlorites; (2) cobalt hydrotalcites; (3) ruthenium metal supported on rare earth oxides of high surface area; and (4) a novel promoted cobalt catalyst. Active and selective catalysts have been obtained, in each category. With the exception of the clays, reproducibility of catalyst performance has been good. Catalysts in groups 2 and 4 have exhibited very high activity, with long lifetimes and easy regeneration.

  10. Design Automation in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Evan; Madsen, Curtis; Roehner, Nicholas; Densmore, Douglas

    2017-04-03

    Design automation refers to a category of software tools for designing systems that work together in a workflow for designing, building, testing, and analyzing systems with a target behavior. In synthetic biology, these tools are called bio-design automation (BDA) tools. In this review, we discuss the BDA tools areas-specify, design, build, test, and learn-and introduce the existing software tools designed to solve problems in these areas. We then detail the functionality of some of these tools and show how they can be used together to create the desired behavior of two types of modern synthetic genetic regulatory networks. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  11. Synthetic biology character and impact

    CERN Document Server

    Pade, Christian; Wigger, Henning; Gleich, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is already an object of intensive debate. However, to a great extent the discussion to date has been concerned with fundamental ethical, religious and philosophical questions. By contrast, based on an investigation of the field’s scientific and technological character, this book focuses on new functionalities provided by synthetic biology and explores the associated opportunities and risks. Following an introduction to the subject and a discussion of the most central paradigms and methodologies, the book provides an overview of the structure of this field of science and technology. It informs the reader about the current stage of development, as well as topical problems and potential opportunities in important fields of application. But not only the science itself is in focus. In order to investigate its broader impact, ecological as well as ethical implications will be considered, paving the way for a discussion of responsibilities in the context of a field at a transitional crossroads be...

  12. Synthetic greenhouse gases under control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horisberger, B.; Karlaganis, G.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses new Swiss regulations on the use of synthetic materials that posses a considerable greenhouse-warming potential. Synthetic materials such as hydro-chlorofluorocarbons HCFCs, perfluoride-hydrocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride have, in recent years, replaced chlorofluorocarbons CFCs, which were banned on account of their ozone depletion characteristics. The use of these persistent substances is now being limited to applications where more environment-friendly alternatives are not available. The measures decreed in the legislation, which include a general ban on HCFCs as of 2004 and a ban on the export of installations and equipment that use ozone-depleting refrigerants are described. Details on the legislation's effects on the Swiss refrigeration industry are listed and discussed

  13. Development of an energy-saving anaerobic hybrid membrane bioreactors for 2-chlorophenol-contained wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Kun; Pan, Xin-Rong; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Li, Wen-Wei; Shi, Bing-Jing; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-12-01

    A novel energy-saving anaerobic hybrid membrane bioreactor (AnHMBR) with mesh filter, which takes advantage of anaerobic membrane bioreactor and fixed-bed biofilm reactor, is developed for low-strength 2-chlorophenol (2-CP)-contained wastewater treatment. In this system, the anaerobic membrane bioreactor is stuffed with granular activated carbon to construct an anaerobic hybrid fixed-bed biofilm membrane bioreactor. The effluent turbidity from the AnHMBR system was low during most of the operation period, and the chemical oxygen demand and 2-CP removal efficiencies averaged 82.3% and 92.6%, respectively. Furthermore, a low membrane fouling rate was achieved during the operation. During the AnHMBR operation, the only energy consumption was for feed pump. And a low energy demand of 0.0045-0.0063kWhm(-3) was estimated under the current operation conditions. All these results demonstrated that this novel AnHMBR is a sustainable technology for treating 2-CP-contained wastewater. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthetic LDL as targeted drug delivery vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Trudy M [Berkeley, CA; Nikanjam, Mina [Richmond, CA

    2012-08-28

    The present invention provides a synthetic LDL nanoparticle comprising a lipid moiety and a synthetic chimeric peptide so as to be capable of binding the LDL receptor. The synthetic LDL nanoparticle of the present invention is capable of incorporating and targeting therapeutics to cells expressing the LDL receptor for diseases associated with the expression of the LDL receptor such as central nervous system diseases. The invention further provides methods of using such synthetic LDL nanoparticles.

  15. Vibrational spectrum of synthetic carnotite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, E J; Botto, I L [La Plata Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas

    1976-05-01

    The infrared and laser-Raman spectra of synthetic carnotite, K/sub 2/((UO/sub 2/)/sub 2/V/sub 2/O/sub 8/), are reported and discussed. Force constants for the terminal V-O bonds as well as for the UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ ions are evaluated. From the spectroscopic data, a U-O bond length of 1.81 A is estimated for the uranyl ion in this compound.

  16. Designer Drugs: A Synthetic Catastrophe

    OpenAIRE

    Fratantonio, James; Andrade, Lawrence; Febo, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic stimulants can cause hallucinations, aggressive behaviors, death and are sometimes legal. These substances are sold as plant food and bath salts that are "Not for Human Consumption", therefore skirting the 1986 Federal Analogue Act and giving a false pretense of safety. Studies have proved that these substances are toxic, have a high abuse potential, and are becoming extremely prevalent in the United States. This creates a dilemma for law enforcement agents, hospitals, and substance...

  17. Hydrogen speciation in synthetic quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, R.D.; Kirby, S.H.; Rossman, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The dominant hydrogen impurity in synthetic quartz is molecular H2O. H-OH groups also occur, but there is no direct evidence for the hydrolysis of Si-O-Si bonds to yield Si-OH HO-Si groups. Molecular H2O concentrations in the synthetic quartz crystals studied range from less than 10 to 3,300 ppm (H/Si), and decrease smoothly by up to an order of magnitude with distance away from the seed. OH- concentrations range from 96 to 715 ppm, and rise smoothly with distance away from the seed by up to a factor of three. The observed OH- is probably all associated with cationic impurities, as in natural quartz. Molecular H2O is the dominant initial hydrogen impurity in weak quartz. The hydrolytic weakening of quartz may be caused by the transformation H2O + Si-O-Si ??? 2SiOH, but this may be a transitory change with the SiOH groups recombining to form H2O, and the average SiOH concentration remaining very low. Synthetic quartz is strengthened when the H2O is accumulated into fluid inclusions and cannot react with the quartz framework. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Characterization of synthetic peptides by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhala, Bala Krishna; Mirza, Osman Asghar; Højrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is well suited for analysis of the identity and purity of synthetic peptides. The sequence of a synthetic peptide is most often known, so the analysis is mainly used to confirm the identity and purity of the peptide. Here, simple procedures are described for MALDI......-TOF-MS and LC-MS of synthetic peptides....

  19. Estimating biozone hydraulic conductivity in wastewater soil-infiltration systems using inverse numerical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumgarner, Johnathan R; McCray, John E

    2007-06-01

    During operation of an onsite wastewater treatment system, a low-permeability biozone develops at the infiltrative surface (IS) during application of wastewater to soil. Inverse numerical-model simulations were used to estimate the biozone saturated hydraulic conductivity (K(biozone)) under variably saturated conditions for 29 wastewater infiltration test cells installed in a sandy loam field soil. Test cells employed two loading rates (4 and 8cm/day) and 3 IS designs: open chamber, gravel, and synthetic bundles. The ratio of K(biozone) to the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the natural soil (K(s)) was used to quantify the reductions in the IS hydraulic conductivity. A smaller value of K(biozone)/K(s,) reflects a greater reduction in hydraulic conductivity. The IS hydraulic conductivity was reduced by 1-3 orders of magnitude. The reduction in IS hydraulic conductivity was primarily influenced by wastewater loading rate and IS type and not by the K(s) of the native soil. The higher loading rate yielded greater reductions in IS hydraulic conductivity than the lower loading rate for bundle and gravel cells, but the difference was not statistically significant for chamber cells. Bundle and gravel cells exhibited a greater reduction in IS hydraulic conductivity than chamber cells at the higher loading rates, while the difference between gravel and bundle systems was not statistically significant. At the lower rate, bundle cells exhibited generally lower K(biozone)/K(s) values, but not at a statistically significant level, while gravel and chamber cells were statistically similar. Gravel cells exhibited the greatest variability in measured values, which may complicate design efforts based on K(biozone) evaluations for these systems. These results suggest that chamber systems may provide for a more robust design, particularly for high or variable wastewater infiltration rates.

  20. Airlift bioreactor containing chitosan-immobilized Sphingobium sp. P2 for treatment of lubricants in wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khondee, Nichakorn; Tathong, Sitti [International Postgraduate Programs in Environmental Management, Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); Bioremediation Research Unit, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); Pinyakong, Onruthai [Bioremediation Research Unit, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management (NCE-EHWM), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); Powtongsook, Sorawit [Center of Excellence for Marine Biotechnology (c/o Department of Marine Science, Chulalongkorn University), National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Pathum Thani (Thailand); Chatchupong, Thawach; Ruangchainikom, Chalermchai [Environmental Research and Management Department, PTT Research and Technology Institute, Ayutthaya (Thailand); Luepromchai, Ekawan, E-mail: ekawan.l@chula.ac.th [Bioremediation Research Unit, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management (NCE-EHWM), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sphingobium sp. P2 effectively degraded various lubricant samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficiency of Sphingobium sp. P2 increased after immobilization on chitosan. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High removal efficiency was due to both sorption and degradation processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The immobilized bacteria (4 g L{sup -1}) were applied in internal loop airlift bioreactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bioreactor continuously removed lubricant from emulsified wastewater. - Abstract: An internal loop airlift bioreactor containing chitosan-immobilized Sphingobium sp. P2 was applied for the removal of automotive lubricants from emulsified wastewater. The chitosan-immobilized bacteria had higher lubricant removal efficiency than free and killed-immobilized cells because they were able to sorp and degrade the lubricants simultaneously. In a semi-continuous batch experiment, the immobilized bacteria were able to remove 80-90% of the 200 mg L{sup -1} total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from both synthetic and carwash wastewater. The internal loop airlift bioreactor, containing 4 g L{sup -1} immobilized bacteria, was later designed and operated at 2.0 h HRT (hydraulic retention time) for over 70 days. At a steady state, the reactor continuously removed 85 {+-} 5% TPH and 73 {+-} 11% chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the carwash wastewater with 25-200 mg L{sup -1} amended lubricant. The internal loop airlift reactor's simple operation and high stability demonstrate its high potential for use in treating lubricants in emulsified wastewater from carwashes and other industries.

  1. RECENT ADVANCES IN LEATHER TANNERY WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOFRANO Giusy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tannery industry is one of the most important economic sectors in many countries, representing an important economic field also in developing countries. Leather tannery industry is water intensive and originates highly polluted wastewater that contain various micropollutants raising environmental and health concerns. Tannery wastewater is difficult to treat biologically because of complex characteristics like high salinity e high content of xenobiotics compounds. After conventional treatment (i.e., chromium precipitation–primary sedimentation–biological oxidation–secondary sedimentation, effluents still do not meet the required limits, at least for some parameters such as BOD, COD, salinity, ammonia and surfactants. The leather industry is being pressured to search cleaner, economically as well as environmentally friendly wastewater treatment technologies alternative or integrative to the conventional treatment in order to face the challenge of sustainability. The most spread approach to manage tannery wastewater is the steam segregation before conveying wastewaters to in treatment plants that typically include pre-treatment, mechanical and physico-chemical treatment, biological treatment, and treatment of the generated sludge. Thus proper treatment technologies are needed to handle tannery wastewater to remove effectively the environmental benign pollutants. However among various processes applied or proposed the sustainable technologies are emerging concern. This paper, as the-state-of-the-art, attempts to revise the over world trends of treatment technologies and advances for pollution prevention from tannery chemicals and wastewater.

  2. Priorities for toxic wastewater management in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, A. [Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    1996-12-31

    This study assesses the number of industries in Pakistan, the total discharge of wastewater, the biological oxygen demand (BOD) load, and the toxicity of the wastewater. The industrial sector is a major contributor to water pollution, with high levels of BOD, heavy metals, and toxic compounds. Only 30 industries have installed water pollution control equipment, and most are working at a very low operational level. Priority industrial sectors for pollution control are medium- to large-scale textile industries and small-scale tanneries and electroplating industries. Each day the textile industries discharge about 85,000 m{sup 3} of wastewater with a high BOD, while the electroplating industries discharge about 23,000 m{sup 3} of highly toxic and hazardous wastewater. Various in-plant modifications can reduce wastewater discharges. Economic incentives, like tax rebates, subsidies, and soft loans, could be an option for motivating medium- to large-scale industries to control water pollution. Central treatment plants may be constructed for treating wastewater generated by small-scale industries. The estimated costs for the treatment of textile and electroplating wastewater are given. The legislative structure in Pakistan is insufficient for control of industrial pollution; not only do existing laws need revision, but more laws and regulations are needed to improve the state of affairs, and enforcement agencies need to be strengthened. 15 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  3. Generation of (synthetic) influent data for performing wastewater treatment modelling studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Ort, Christoph; Martin, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    resolution (from minutes to years). The importance of calibration/validation is addressed and the authors critically analyse the pros and cons of manual versus automatic and frequentistic vs Bayesian methods. The presentation will focus on potential engineering applications of influent generators...

  4. Biological nitrate removal from synthetic wastewater using a fungal consortium in one stage bioreactors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, HA

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available - autoclaved grass In a repeat study FR was operated for 110 d similar to the meth- odology explained above, but now grass cuttings were added on a more regular basis. Initially, 700 g grass cuttings (35 g grass/ℓ) were added to FR, whereafter 25 g grass... consortium was the sole contributor to the denitrification process occurring in FRp. The experimental period of AFRp was 129 d. The AFRp reactor initially received 100 g grass/2 ℓ (50 g grass/ℓ). Fresh grass (40 g) was added on Days 9, 28, 39, 44, 52, 56...

  5. Biomass characteristics in three sequencing batch reactors treating a wastewater containing synthetic organic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Z.Q.; Ferraina, R.A.; Ericson, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    in all reactors. In contrast, effluent 3-nitrobenzoate was recorded when its influent concentration was increased to 5 mg L-1 and dropped only to below 1 mg L-1 after 300 days of operation. The competent (active) biomass fractions for these compounds were between 0.04% and 5.52% of the total biomass...... characteristics in the aerobic SBR and SBBR. While all reactors had very good COD removal (> 90%) and displayed nitrification, substantial nitrogen removal (74%) was only achieved in the anoxic/aerobic SBR. During the entire operational period, benzoate, theophylline and 4-chlorophenol were completely removed...... inferred from substrate-specific microbial enumerations. The measured competent biomass fractions for 4-chlorophenol and 3-nitrobenzoate degradation were significantly lower than the influent COD fractions of these compounds. Correspondent to the highest competent biomass fraction for benzoate degradation...

  6. Removal and Degradation Pathways of Sulfamethoxazole Present in Synthetic Municipal Wastewater via an Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor

    KAUST Repository

    Sanchez Huerta, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The current global water crisis in addition to continues contamination of natural water bodies with harmful organic micropollutants (OMPs) have driven the development of new water treatment technologies that allow the efficient removal

  7. AN INTEGRATED REMEDIATION SYSTEM USING SYNTHETIC AND NATURAL ZEOLITES FOR TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER AND CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS RIOS REYES

    2011-01-01

    reproducirse en una mayor escala. Aunque esto se ha desarrollado para los sedimentos de canal, la estrategia de remediación se puede adaptar a diferentes cursos de agua tales como ríos. El desarrollo del sistema de remediación propuesto en un sitio experimental específico, representando la parte más importante de un parque de innovación, puede proporcionar grandes beneficios a la población que vive cerca de efluentes contaminados. Ofrece no sólo oportunidades para la mitigación del impacto ambiental, la mejora de la calidad del agua y la amenidad del paisaje, sino también varias oportunidades de recreación.

  8. Application of advanced oxidation processes for removing salicylic acid from synthetic wastewaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Djalma; Ribeiro; da; Silva; Carlos; A.Martinez-Huítle

    2010-01-01

    In this study,advanced oxidation processes(AOPs) such as anodic oxidation(AO),UV/H_2O_2 and Fenton processes(FP) were investigated for the degradation of salicylic acid(SA) in lab-scale experiments.Boron-doped diamond(BDD) film electrodes using Ta as substrates were employed for AO of SA.In the case of FP and UV/H_2O_2,most favorable experimental conditions were determined for each process and these were used for comparing with AO process.The study showed that the FP was the most effective process under ...

  9. Generation of synthetic influent data to perform (micro)pollutant wastewater treatment modelling studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snip, Laura; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Aymerich, I

    2016-01-01

    metabolites with samples taken every 2-4h: the anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen (IBU), the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and the psychoactive carbamazepine (CMZ). Information about type of excretion and total consumption rates forms the basis for creating the data-defined profiles used to generate...

  10. Treatment of Synthetic Urinous Wastewater Using Combined Reverse Osmosis, Immobilized Urease, and Ion Exchange Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-01

    invertase on DEAE-Cellulose while glucoamylase bound to the same carrier has been studied (Bachler et al., 1970; Gruesbeck and Rase, 1972). Adsorption of...Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 130, 384. Katchalski, E., Silman, I., and Goldstein, R. (1971) Adv. Enzymology 34., 445. Katz, S. A., and Cowans, J

  11. Removal of Azo Dye from Synthetic Wastewater Using Immobilized Nano-Diatomite Within Calcium Alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Khodabandelou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The presence of organic dyes, discharged by textile industries, in aqueous environments can cause detrimental effects on aquatic life and subsequently human health. Therefore, the decolorization of aquatic environments is mandatory to protect the environment. For this reason, in the present study, nano-sized diatomite was immobilized within calcium alginate as a nanocomposite adsorbent for removing organic azo dye (Direct blue 15 from aqueous solutions.  Methods: First of all, Iranian diatomite was grinded in a planetary ball mill equipped with tungsten carbide cup for 20 h to achieve nanoparticles of the diatomite. For the immobilization of nanostructured diatomite, a 2% sodium alginate solution was used. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR spectroscopy were used to characterize immobilized nano-diatomite. Fifty milliliter Erlenmeyer flasks were used as batch flow mode experimental reactors. Working solutions were prepared by the dilution of stock solution (1 g/L to desired concentrations. The effect of different operational parameters including contact time, initial pH, adsorbent dosage and initial dye concentration along with kinetic and isotherm of the adsorption were evaluated. After each experiment, the residual concentration of the dyes was measured spectrophotometrically. Results: As results, the adsorption of organic dye increased with increasing contact time and adsorbent dosage, while increasing initial dye concentrations resulted in decreasing the adsorption. The adsorption of DB-15 was favored at basic PH. The immobilization of diatomite led to enhancing the adsorption of  DB-15 compared to diatomite alone. According to the obtained correlation coefficient, the adsorption of DB-15 obeyed pseudo-second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity of diatomite/alginate nanocomposite for the adsorption of DB-15 were found about 33.22 mg/g. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the diatomite/alginate nanocomposite can be used effectively for treating colored effluents containing azo dyes. Because of its high efficiency, availability of diatomite mines in our country, it can be used as an economic adsorbent for the decolorization of textile effluents.

  12. Selection of technologies for municipal wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Rodríguez Miranda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In water environmental planning in watersheds should contain aspects for the decontamination of receiving water body, therefore the selection of the treatment plants municipal wastewater in developing countries, you should consider aspects of the typical composition raw wastewater pollutant removal efficiency by technology, performance indicators for technology, environmental aspects of localization and spatial localization strategy. This methodology is built on the basis of technical, economic and environmental attributes, such as a tool for decision making future investments in treatment plants municipal wastewater with multidisciplinary elements.

  13. Hazardous substances in wastewater systems:a delicate issue for wastewater management

    OpenAIRE

    Palmquist, Helena

    2001-01-01

    Many substances derived from human activity end up in wastewater systems at some point. A large number of different substances - up to 30,000 - are present in wastewater. Some of them are valuable, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, but there are also hazardous substances such as heavy metals and anthropogenic organic substances. To be able to utilise the wastewater nutrients on arable land (agriculture, forestry or other alternatives), it is of great importance to investigate the sources of ha...

  14. A Canadian refiner's perspective of synthetic crudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halford, T.L.; McIntosh, A.P.; Rasmussen

    1997-01-01

    Some of the factors affecting a refiner's choice of crude oil include refinery hardware, particularly gas oil crackers, products slate and product specifications, crude availability, relative crude price and crude quality. An overview of synthetic crude, the use of synthetic crude combined with other crudes and a comparison of synthetic crude with conventional crude oil was given. The two main users of synthetic crude are basically two groups of refiners, those large groups who use synthetic crude combined with other crudes, and a smaller group who run synthetic crude on specially designed units as a sole feed. The effects of changes in fuel legislation were reviewed. It was predicted that the changes will have a mixed impact on the value of synthetic crude, but low sulphur diesel regulations and gasoline sulphur regulations will make current synthetic crudes attractive. The big future change with a negative impact will be diesel cetane increases to reduce engine emissions. This will reduce synthetic crude attractiveness due to distillate yields and quality and high gas oil yields. Similarly, any legislation limiting aromatics in diesel fuel will also make synthetic crudes less attractive. Problems experienced by refiners with hardware dedicated to synthetic crude (salt, naphthenic acid, fouling, quality variations) were also reviewed. 3 tabs

  15. Synthetic biology: Emerging bioengineering in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhandono, Sony

    2017-05-01

    The development of synthetic biology will shape the new era of science and technology. It is an emerging bioengineering technique involving genetic engineering which can alter the phenotype and behavior of the cell or the new product. Synthetic biology may produce biomaterials, drugs, vaccines, biosensors, and even a recombinant secondary metabolite used in herbal and complementary medicine, such as artemisinin, a malaria drug which is usually extracted from the plant Artemisia annua. The power of synthetic biology has encouraged scientists in Indonesia, and is still in early development. This paper also covers some research from an Indonesian research institute in synthetic biology such as observing the production of bio surfactants and the enhanced production of artemisinin using a transient expression system. Synthetic biology development in Indonesia may also be related to the iGEM competition, a large synthetic biology research competition which was attended by several universities in Indonesia. The application of synthetic biology for drug discovery will be discussed.

  16. Printability of Synthetic Papers by Electrophotography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozália Szentgyörgyvölgyi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the printability of synthetic papers by the electrophotography technique. Prints of cmyk colour fields from 20% to 100% raster tone values were printed on three types of synthetic papers (one film synthetic paper and two fiber synthetic papers. The investigation of the appearance included densitometric measurement of the cmyk prints. The results have shown differences in the optical density and optical tone value between cmyk prints made on various synthetic papers. The highest optical density and the increase of the optical tone value were observed on the film synthetic paper, where cmyk prints were more saturated. The highest abrasion resistance of cmyk prints was obtained from the fibre synthetic paper.

  17. Characterization of livestock wastewater at various stages of wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting Teo Ming; Kim, Tak Hyun; Lee, Myun Joo

    2007-01-01

    A characterization study has been conducted at Gongju Livestock Wastewater Treatment Plant, Gongju, South Korea. It is owned and operated by the government with treatment capacity of 250 tons per day. Livestock wastewater was collected from individual farmer and treated at the treatment plant. The centralized livestock wastewater treatment plant has various treatment processes namely pre-treatment, anaerobic digestion, nitrification, de-nitrification , chemical treatment, sand filtration and ozonization. The livestock wastewater was characterized by high COD, SS, T-N and T-P with concentration of 20600 mg/l, 6933 mg/l, 2820 mg/l and 700 mg/ l, respectively. After the wastewater has undergone various treatment processes it was discharged to waterways with concentration of COD, SS, T-N and T-P at 105 mg/l, 73 mg/l, 2.1 mg/l and 9 mg/l, respectively. This is part of the study to investigate the potential of irradiation to be applied at the centralized livestock wastewater treatment plant. Although livestock wastewater can be potentially applied to crop as source of nutrients it also affect the water quality due to runoff and leaching. When the wastewater applied at the rates in excess of crop uptake rates, the excess wastewater could potentially enter surface and groundwater and polluted them. (author)

  18. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Young Choi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industrial discharges in a biological WWTP. In contrast to most previous studies targeting a specific group of organic compounds or traditional water quality indices, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD, this study was purposed to quantify and characterize the biodegradable and nonbiodegradable fractions of the wastewater organic matter. Chemical oxygen demand (COD fractionation tests and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the industrial discharge from dyeing or pulp mill factories contained more non-biodegradable soluble organic matter than did the domestic wastewater. Statistical analysis on the WWTPs’ monitoring data indicated that the industrial discharge containing non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was not treated effectively in a biological WWTP, but was escaping from the system. Thus, industrial discharge that contained non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was a major factor in the decrease in biodegradability of the discharge, affecting the ultimate fate of wastewater organic matter in a biological WWTP. Further application of COD fractionation and fluorescence spectroscopy to wastewaters, with various industrial discharges, will help scientists and engineers to better design and operate a biological WWTP, by understanding the fate of wastewater organic matter.

  19. Duckweed cultures in animal wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradi, M; Copelli, M; Ghetti, P F

    1981-01-01

    Cultures of duckweed (Lemna gibba and L. minor) were made for 2 months in 2 ponds fed by a semicontinuous flow of partially treated animal wastewaters. The growth rate of the organic load were obtained from weekly data and the rate of removal of N and P was evaluated. At high loads (concentrations greater than 400 COD, 60 NH/sub 4/+, 10 mg/L PO/sub 4/ to the power of 3-) an average yield (dry weight) of approximately 7 g/square meters/day was established. The mean dry weight of biomass was 6%. The N and P content in duckweed was 1.1 and 4.7%, respective, and the daily absorption rates were 415 N and 97 mg/square meters/day P. The technique of skimming biomass at a rate proportional to the growth rate is useful to maintain duckweed cultures in continuous active growth conditions.

  20. EFFECT OF TREATED DOMESTIC WASTEWATER USED AS CULTURE MEDIUM ON THE GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF Chlamydomonas sp. STRAIN ISOLATED FROM LANDFILL LEACHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Farias Neves

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have been culturing to fix carbon and produce biofuels from the biomass. However, it is important to develop low cost strategies for microalgae production in orther to make it a viable alternative of renewable energy. The present research studied the effect of treated wastewater used as an alternative culture medium for growth and productivity of a Chlamydomonas sp. strain isolated from landfills leachate of a treatment pond located in Southern Brazil. Three culture media were evaluated, the control consisted of synthetic TAP medium, other, consisting of 50% TAP medium and 50% wastewater, and another consisting of 100% wastewater. The growth parameters do not have significant difference among the three culture media. Also, productivity do not have significant difference among the cultures with TAP medium and with 100% wastewater, resulting in dry weight values of 1,4±0,14g/L and 1,3±0,19g/L respectively. The culture with 50% TAP medium and 50% wastewater showed the highest productivity, showing an average dry weight value of 1,7±0,07g/L. The results indicate that treated wastewater can be used as an alternative culture medium for Chlamydomonas sp. strain without negative effects on growth and productivity, and possible leading to a decrease in production costs.

  1. A novel image processing-based system for turbidity measurement in domestic and industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Darragh; Coburn, Derek; Hannon, Louise; Jones, Edward; Clifford, Eoghan; Glavin, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Wastewater treatment facilities are continually challenged to meet both environmental regulations and reduce running costs (particularly energy and staffing costs). Improving the efficiency of operational monitoring at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) requires the development and implementation of appropriate performance metrics; particularly those that are easily measured, strongly correlate to WWTP performance, and can be easily automated, with a minimal amount of maintenance or intervention by human operators. Turbidity is the measure of the relative clarity of a fluid. It is an expression of the optical property that causes light to be scattered and absorbed by fine particles in suspension (rather than transmitted with no change in direction or flux level through a fluid sample). In wastewater treatment, turbidity is often used as an indicator of effluent quality, rather than an absolute performance metric, although correlations have been found between turbidity and suspended solids. Existing laboratory-based methods to measure turbidity for WWTPs, while relatively simple, require human intervention and are labour intensive. Automated systems for on-site measuring of wastewater effluent turbidity are not commonly used, while those present are largely based on submerged sensors that require regular cleaning and calibration due to fouling from particulate matter in fluids. This paper presents a novel, automated system for estimating fluid turbidity. Effluent samples are imaged such that the light absorption characteristic is highlighted as a function of fluid depth, and computer vision processing techniques are used to quantify this characteristic. Results from the proposed system were compared with results from established laboratory-based methods and were found to be comparable. Tests were conducted using both synthetic dairy wastewater and effluent from multiple WWTPs, both municipal and industrial. This system has an advantage over current methods as it

  2. Satellite Remote Sensing Detection of Coastal Pollution in Southern California: Stormwater Runoff and Wastewater Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, R. C.; Holt, B.; Gierach, M.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal pollution poses a major health and environmental hazard, not only for beach goers and coastal communities but for marine organisms as well. Stormwater runoff is the largest source of environmental pollution in coastal waters of the Southern California Bight (SCB) and is of great concern in increasingly urbanized areas. Buoyant wastewater plumes also pose a marine environmental risk. In this study we provide a comprehensive overview of satellite remote sensing capabilities in detecting buoyant coastal pollutants in the form of stormwater runoff and wastewater effluent. The SCB is the final destination of four major urban rivers that act as channels for runoff and pollution during and after rainstorms. We analyzed and compared sea surface roughness data from various Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) instruments to ocean color data from the Moderate Imaging System (MODIS) sensor on board the Aqua satellite and correlated the results with existing environmental data in order to create a climatology of naturally occurring stormwater plumes in coastal waters after rain events, from 1992 to 2014 from four major rivers in the area. Heat maps of the primary extent of stormwater plumes were constructed to specify areas that may be subject to the greatest risk of coastal contamination. In conjunction with our efforts to monitor coastal pollution and validate the abilities of satellite remote sensing, a recent Fall 2015 wastewater diversion from the City of Los Angeles Hyperion Treatment Plant (HTP) provided the opportunity to apply these remote sensing methodologies of plume detection to wastewater. During maintenance of their 5-mile long outfall pipe, wastewater is diverted to a shorter outfall pipe that terminates 1-mile offshore and in shallower waters. Sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (chl-a) fluorescence, remote sensing reflectance and particulate backscatter signatures were analyzed from MODIS. Terra-ASTER and Landsat-8 thermal infrared data were also

  3. Synthetic Aperture Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando

    The main objective of this project was to continue the development of a synthetic aperture vector flow estimator. This type of estimator is capable of overcoming two of the major limitations in conventional ultrasound systems: 1) the inability to scan large region of interest with high temporal......, this thesis showed that novel information can be obtained with vector velocity methods providing quantitative estimates of blood flow and insight into the complexity of the hemodynamics dynamics. This could give the clinician a new tool in assessment and treatment of a broad range of diseases....

  4. Synthetic Biology Guides Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Connor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of microbial processes for the production of renewable liquid fuels has increased with concerns about the current fuel economy. The development of advanced biofuels in particular has risen to address some of the shortcomings of ethanol. These advanced fuels have chemical properties similar to petroleum-based liquid fuels, thus removing the need for engine modification or infrastructure redesign. While the productivity and titers of each of these processes remains to be improved, progress in synthetic biology has provided tools to guide the engineering of these processes through present and future challenges.

  5. Quality of concrete plant wastewater for reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Paula

    Full Text Available Efficient water use is one of the most important requirements of cleaner production, and the use of the wastewater from concrete production can be an important means to this end. However, there are no Brazilian studies on the quality of concrete plant wastewater and the activities in which such water can be used. This paper aims to evaluate the quality of concrete plant wastewater and to propose guidelines for its treatment for non-potable applications. Wastewater samples were collected from three points in the studied treatment system, and tests were later performed in the laboratory to evaluate the water quality. The results obtained were compared with the limit values for the quality parameters that have been used for the analysis of the non-potable water supply in Brazil. The results indicate a need to at least add coagulation and pH correction processes to the treatment system.

  6. Utility Bill Insert for Wastewater Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intended for use by wastewater and water supply utilities, one side of the utility bill insert has information for customers that discharge to sanitary sewer systems; the other side is for customers with septic systems.

  7. Tertiary Treatment Process of Preserved Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qingyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the composite coagulants on coagulation sedimentation for the preserved wastewater was investigated by changing the composite coagulant dosages, and the coagulant was composed of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS, polyaluminium chloride (PAC, and polyaluminum ferric silicate (PAFSC, while the effect of the tertiary treatment process on the preserved wastewater was tested, which was exceeded the standard seriously. The results showed that 400 mg/L was the optimum composite coagulant dosage. The removal rates of salt and sugar were as high as 99.1% and 99.5% respectively, and the removal rates of CODCr and SS were 99.3% and 96.0%, respectively after the preserved wastewater was treated by the tertiary treatment technology, which both reached the primary standard of “The Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard” (GB8978-1996.

  8. Leidenfrost Driven Waste-Water Separator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Leidenfrost Driven Waste-Water Separator (LDS) is proposed in response to TA 6.1: Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Habitation Systems. The LDS...

  9. Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary technical assessment. ... living in informal settlements with the effluent produced being used on agricultural land. ... Banana and taro required 3 514 mm of irrigation effluent.

  10. Chemical Characterisation of Printed Circuit Board Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobri, S; Ali, A H M, E-mail: eeza@eng.upm.edu.my [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Manufacturing of PCBs is highly complicated and involves many processes. Recycling of PCB wastewater receives wide concerns as the recent international growth in the electronics industry has generated a drastic increase in the amount of waste PCBs with profound environmental impacts such as soil and groundwater contamination. This paper reports on the chemical characterization of PCB wastewater as the initial investigation for selective metal recovery.

  11. Design Criteria for Process Wastewater Pretreatment Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Stripping Column H13 ’Re Purpose: The purpose of this report, is to provide design criteria for pretreatment needs for ’ I. INTRODUCTION ’". discharge of...which a portion of the vessel is filled with packing. Packing materials vary from corrugated steel to bundles of fibers (Langdon et al., 1972) to beds...concentration(s) using Table 20. Wastewater treatability studies should be considered as a process-screening tool for all wastewater streams for

  12. Treatment of wastewater with the constructed wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, R.; Olivares, S.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed wetland is an environmental sound, actual and economic solution for the treatment of wastewater. The use of these constructed wetlands increased in the last few years, principally in developed countries. However there is not much information about the performance of these biological systems in tropical and subtropical climates. In these review the state of art of these technology is given, and also the advantage of the use of the constructed wetland for the wastewater treatment in our country

  13. Review of wastewater problems and wastewater-management planning in the San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Walter G.

    1973-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay region has suffered adverse environmental effects related to the discharge of municipal-, industrial-, and agricultural- wastewater and storm-water runoff. Specific pollutional properties of theses discharges are not well understood in all cases although the toxic materials and aquatic-plant nutrients (biostimulants) found in municipal and industrial waterwater are considered to be a major cause of regional water-quality problems. Other water-quality problems in the region are commonly attributed to pesticides found in agricultural wastewater and potentially pathogenic bacteria in municipal-wastewater discharges and in storm-water runoff. The geographical distribution and magnitude of wastewater discharges in the bay region, particularly those from municipalities and industries, is largely a function of population, economic growth, and urban development. As might be expected, the total volume of wastewater has increased in a trend paralleling this growth and development. More significant, perhaps, is the fact that the total volume parameters such as BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), biostimulant concentrations, and toxicity, has increased despite large expenditures on new and improved municipal- and industrial-wastewater-treatment plants. Also, pollutant loadings from other major source, such as agriculture and storm-water runoff, have increased. At the time of writing (1972), many Federal, State, regional, and local agencies are engaged in a comprehensive wastewater-management-planning effort for the entire bay region. Initial objectives of this planning effort are: (1) the consolidation and coordination of loosely integrated wastewater-management facilities and (2) the elimination of wastewater discharges to ecologically sensitive areas, such as fresh-water streams and shallow extremities of San Francisco Bay. There has been some investigation of potential long-range wastewater-management alternatives based upon disposal in deep water in the

  14. Municipal wastewater biological nutrient removal driven by the fermentation liquid of dairy wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Yinguang; Wu, Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Carbon substrate is required by biological nutrient removal (BNR) microorganism, but it is usually insufficient in the influent of many municipal wastewater treatment plants. In this study the use of ethanol-enriched fermentation liquid, which was derived from dairy wastewater, as the preferred carbon substrate of BNR was reported. First, the application of dairy wastewater and food processing wastewater and their fermentation liquid as the carbon substrate of BNR was compared in the short-term tests. The fermented wastewater showed higher BNR performance than the unfermented one, and the fermentation liquid of dairy wastewater (FL-DW), which was obtained under pH 8 and fermentation time of 6 day, exhibited the highest phosphorus (95.5%) and total nitrogen (97.6%) removal efficiencies due to its high ethanol content (57.9%). Then, the long-term performance of FL-DW acting as the carbon substrate of BNR was compared with that of acetate and ethanol, and the FL-DW showed the greatest phosphorus and total nitrogen removal. Further investigation showed that the use of FL-DW caused the highest polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) synthesis in BNR microbial cells, and more PHAs were used for phosphorus uptake and denitrification rather than glycogen synthesis and microbial growth. The FL-DW can be used as a preferred carbon substrate for BNR microbes. AB: aerobic end sludge active biomass; BNR: biological nutrient removal; DW: dairy wastewater; FL-DW: fermentation liquid of dairy wastewater; FPW: food processing wastewater; FL-FPW: fermentation liquid of food processing wastewater; PHAs: polyhydroxyalkanoates; PHB: poly-3-hydroxybutyrate; PHV: poly-3-hydroxyvalerate; PH2MV: poly-3-hydroxy-2- methylvalerate; PAOs: phosphorus accumulating organisms; SBR: sequencing batch reactor; SOP: soluble ortho-phosphorus; TN: total nitrogen; TSS: total suspended solids; VSS: volatile suspended solids; VFAs: volatile fatty acids; WWTPs: wastewater treatment plants.

  15. Tracking the emergence of synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Philip; Kwon, Seokbeom; Youtie, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging domain that combines biological and engineering concepts and which has seen rapid growth in research, innovation, and policy interest in recent years. This paper contributes to efforts to delineate this emerging domain by presenting a newly constructed bibliometric definition of synthetic biology. Our approach is dimensioned from a core set of papers in synthetic biology, using procedures to obtain benchmark synthetic biology publication records, extract keywords from these benchmark records, and refine the keywords, supplemented with articles published in dedicated synthetic biology journals. We compare our search strategy with other recent bibliometric approaches to define synthetic biology, using a common source of publication data for the period from 2000 to 2015. The paper details the rapid growth and international spread of research in synthetic biology in recent years, demonstrates that diverse research disciplines are contributing to the multidisciplinary development of synthetic biology research, and visualizes this by profiling synthetic biology research on the map of science. We further show the roles of a relatively concentrated set of research sponsors in funding the growth and trajectories of synthetic biology. In addition to discussing these analyses, the paper notes limitations and suggests lines for further work.

  16. Ultraviolet disinfection of treated municipal wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vander Laan, H; Cairns, B

    1993-12-31

    A wastewater disinfection system developed by a Canadian company, Trojan Technologies Inc., was discussed. Disinfection for pathogen reduction prior to discharge of treated municipal wastewater back into rivers and lakes has been either ignored or treated by the use of chemicals. In 1979 the first pilot ultraviolet (UV) wastewater disinfection system was established. Since then, over 500 municipal UV installations have been commissioned. The largest installation can process 212 million gallons of water per day. The advantages of UV as a disinfectant are: (1) It is more effective than chlorine. (2) There are no mutagenic/carcinogenic byproducts formed with UV. (3) No toxic chemical residuals are discharged. (4) UV is safe to both the operators and the public. (5) It is cost effective. Europe has not been as active in wastewater disinfection as has North America. One result of the absence of wastewater disinfection in Europe is that the Rhine River, for example, carries 50 million salmonella per second. Disinfection of wastewater effluents is, of course, indispensable in protecting our drinking water supply. 2 figs.

  17. Wastewater heat recovery method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  18. Toxicity identification evaluation of cosmetics industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Elisa Dias; Mounteer, Ann H; Leão, Lucas Henrique de Souza; Bahia, Renata Cibele Barros; Campos, Izabella Maria Ferreira

    2013-01-15

    The cosmetics industry has shown steady growth in many developing countries over the past several years, yet little research exists on toxicity of wastewaters it generates. This study describes a toxicity identification evaluation conducted on wastewater from a small Brazilian hair care products manufacturing plant. Physicochemical and ecotoxicological analyses of three wastewater treatment plant inlet and outlet samples collected over a six month period revealed inefficient operation of the treatment system and thus treated wastewater organic matter, suspended solids and surfactants contents consistently exceeded discharge limits. Treated wastewater also presented high acute toxicity to Daphnia similis and chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. This toxicity was associated with suspended solids, volatile or sublatable and non-polar to moderately polar organic compounds that could be recovered in filtration and aeration residues. Seven surfactants used in the largest quantities in the production process were highly toxic to P. subcapitata and D. similis. These results indicated that surfactants, important production raw materials, are a probable source of toxicity, although other possible sources, such as fragrances, should not be discarded. Improved treatment plant operational control may reduce toxicity and lower impact of wastewater discharge to receiving waters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. CURRENT TECHNOLOGIES OF AMMONIUM WITHDRAWAL FROM WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Shved

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of analysis of the current technologies, as well as their trends and developments in the field of wastewater treatment in Ukraine and the world are given. The legal documents and the system of state regulation and control in the field of sanitation and wastewater treatment in Ukraine have been analyzed. The information about government programs aimed at protecting the natural water bodies is also included. The global trends concerning development of biotechnology in the field of wastewater from nitrogen compounds have been investigated. The analysis of traditional (nitrification-denitrification and the latest biotechnology wastewater from inorganic nitrogen has been done. Current status of the present key technologies of nitrogen removal from wastewater has been formulated. The main advantages and disadvantages of these biotechnologies are described. It was determined that a major problem in the field of sanitation and wastewater treatment in Ukraine is the usage of outdated technologies and regulatory documentation that is a consequence of the lack of sufficient funding for the sector and the low level of environmental awareness of the government and the population.

  20. DNA recognition by synthetic constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Elena; Mosquera, Jesús; Vázquez, M Eugenio; Mascareñas, José L

    2011-09-05

    The interaction of transcription factors with specific DNA sites is key for the regulation of gene expression. Despite the availability of a large body of structural data on protein-DNA complexes, we are still far from fully understanding the molecular and biophysical bases underlying such interactions. Therefore, the development of non-natural agents that can reproduce the DNA-recognition properties of natural transcription factors remains a major and challenging goal in chemical biology. In this review we summarize the basics of double-stranded DNA recognition by transcription factors, and describe recent developments in the design and preparation of synthetic DNA binders. We mainly focus on synthetic peptides that have been designed by following the DNA interaction of natural proteins, and we discuss how the tools of organic synthesis can be used to make artificial constructs equipped with functionalities that introduce additional properties to the recognition process, such as sensing and controllability. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Synthetic Biology of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, De-Chuan; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are a family of biodegradable and biocompatible polyesters which have been extensively studied using synthetic biology and metabolic engineering methods for improving production and for widening its diversity. Synthetic biology has allowed PHA to become composition controllable random copolymers, homopolymers, and block copolymers. Recent developments showed that it is possible to establish a microbial platform for producing not only random copolymers with controllable monomers and their ratios but also structurally defined homopolymers and block copolymers. This was achieved by engineering the genome of Pseudomonas putida or Pseudomonas entomophiles to weaken the β-oxidation and in situ fatty acid synthesis pathways, so that a fatty acid fed to the bacteria maintains its original chain length and structures when incorporated into the PHA chains. The engineered bacterium allows functional groups in a fatty acid to be introduced into PHA, forming functional PHA, which, upon grafting, generates endless PHA variety. Recombinant Escherichia coli also succeeded in producing efficiently poly(3-hydroxypropionate) or P3HP, the strongest member of PHA. Synthesis pathways of P3HP and its copolymer P3HB3HP of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxypropionate were assembled respectively to allow their synthesis from glucose. CRISPRi was also successfully used to manipulate simultaneously multiple genes and control metabolic flux in E. coli to obtain a series of copolymer P3HB4HB of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB). The bacterial shapes were successfully engineered for enhanced PHA accumulation.

  2. Vectoring of parallel synthetic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Tim; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram; Gomit, Guillaume

    2015-11-01

    A pair of parallel synthetic jets can be vectored by applying a phase difference between the two driving signals. The resulting jet can be merged or bifurcated and either vectored towards the actuator leading in phase or the actuator lagging in phase. In the present study, the influence of phase difference and Strouhal number on the vectoring behaviour is examined experimentally. Phase-locked vorticity fields, measured using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), are used to track vortex pairs. The physical mechanisms that explain the diversity in vectoring behaviour are observed based on the vortex trajectories. For a fixed phase difference, the vectoring behaviour is shown to be primarily influenced by pinch-off time of vortex rings generated by the synthetic jets. Beyond a certain formation number, the pinch-off timescale becomes invariant. In this region, the vectoring behaviour is determined by the distance between subsequent vortex rings. We acknowledge the financial support from the European Research Council (ERC grant agreement no. 277472).

  3. Synthetic membrane-targeted antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vooturi, S K; Firestine, S M

    2010-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance continues to evolve and presents serious challenges in the therapy of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The rise of resistant strains like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) suggests that antimicrobial resistance is an inevitable evolutionary response to antimicrobial use. This highlights the tremendous need for antibiotics against new bacterial targets. Agents that target the integrity of bacterial membrane are relatively novel in the clinical armamentarium. Daptomycin, a lipopeptide is a classical example of membrane-bound antibiotic. Nature has also utilized this tactic. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are found in all kingdoms, function primarily by permeabilizing the bacterial membrane. AMPs have several advantages over existing antibiotics including a broad spectrum of activity, rapid bactericidal activity, no cross-resistance with the existing antibiotics and a low probability for developing resistance. Currently, a small number of peptides have been developed for clinical use but therapeutic applications are limited because of poor bioavailability and high manufacturing cost. However, their broad specificity, potent activity and lower probability for resistance have spurred the search for synthetic mimetics of antimicrobial peptides as membrane-active antibiotics. In this review, we will discuss the different classes of synthetic membrane-bound antibiotics published since 2004.

  4. Synthetic vision display evaluation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regal, David M.; Whittington, David H.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research was to help us understand the display requirements for a synthetic vision system for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of different levels of perceptual cue complexity in displays used by pilots in a flare and landing task. Increased levels of texture mapping of terrain and runway produced mixed results, including harder but shorter landings and a lower flare initiation altitude. Under higher workload conditions, increased texture resulted in an improvement in performance. An increase in familiar size cues did not result in improved performance. Only a small difference was found between displays using two patterns of high resolution texture mapping. The effects of increased perceptual cue complexity on performance was not as strong as would be predicted from the pilot's subjective reports or from related literature. A description of the role of a synthetic vision system in the High Speed Civil Transport is provide along with a literature review covering applied research related to perceptual cue usage in aircraft displays.

  5. A wastewater game-changer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Anaerobic ammonium oxidation is a biotechnology that could slash energy use, chemical inputs and greenhouse emissions in wastewater treatment. The Australian water sector is slowly tuning in to one of the world's most promising wastewater and trade waste treatment technologies, anammox. SA Water, Queensland United Utilities and Veolia Water are each at different stages of trials of ''anaerobic ammonium oxidation'' to replace activated sludge in removing nitrogen. It relies on special anammox bacteria, which were first identified in 1999 and have been heavily researched ever since. The bacteria short circuit the normal nitrification/denitrification process and oxidise ammonia (NH_3) to nitrogen (N_2) under anaerobic conditions, promising deep cuts in energy demand, chemical use, fugitive greenhouse emissions and waterway impacts. Most local utilities have taken a look at it, but WME is aware of only three that have proceeded to trial stage. Veolia Water is keeping the trial it is supporting with its ANITA Mox technology under wraps for now, but municipal client manager Voon Chin said the technology has been proven for numerous applications overseas, including sludge dewatering effluent (SDE). QUU is in now stepping up from bench-scale tests to a full pilot at its Luggage Point sewage treatment plant (STP). It is currently enriching anammox cultures in 200-litre drums onsite to speed up the painstaking conditioning process when the plant gets up and running shortly in a 40-foot shipping container. But the most advanced are SA Water and Degremont through their Allwater joint venture, which runs Adelaide's water and sewerage network. It has wrapped up Australia's first pilot project, a 4m"3 plant treating SDE at the Bolivar STP. An Allwater spokesperson told WME in a statement that the pilot was a success and they are now assessing full- scale options. A paper to Enviro 2012anticipated a full-scale plant at Bolivar would create operational savings of $650

  6. Wastewater garden--a system to treat wastewater with environmental benefits to community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Jaya

    2008-01-01

    Many communities and villages around the world face serious problems with lack of sanitation especially in disposing of the wastewater-black water and grey water from the houses, or wash outs from animal rearing sheds. Across the world diverting wastewater to the surroundings or to the public spaces are not uncommon. This is responsible for contaminating drinking water sources causing health risks and environmental degradation as they become the breeding grounds of mosquitoes and pathogens. Lack of collection and treatment facilities or broken down sewage systems noticed throughout the developing world are associated with this situation. Diverting the wastewater to trees and vegetable gardens was historically a common practice. However the modern world has an array of problems associated with such disposal such as generation of large quantity of wastewater, unavailability of space for onsite disposal or treatment and increase in population. This paper considers the wastewater garden as a means for wastewater treatment and to improve the vegetation and biodiversity of rural areas. This can also be implemented in urban areas in association with parks and open spaces. This also highlights environmental safety in relation to the nutrient, pathogen and heavy metal content of the wastewater. The possibilities of different types of integration and technology that can be adopted for wastewater gardens are also discussed. IWA Publishing 2008.

  7. A California Winery Wastewater Survey: Assessing the Salinity Challenge for Wastewater Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing scarcity of water and tighter regulations for discharge make onsite wastewater reuse an attractive prospect for the California wine industry. This study reports winery wastewater (WW) data from eighteen Northern California (Northern CA) wineries. The current study provides a baseline ...

  8. Integrated bio-oxidation and adsorptive filtration reactor for removal of arsenic from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamde, Kalyani; Dahake, Rashmi; Pandey, R A; Bansiwal, Amit

    2018-01-08

    Recently, removal of arsenic from different industrial effluent discharged using simple, efficient and low-cost technique has been widely considered. In this study, removal of arsenic (As) from real wastewater has been studied employing modified bio-oxidation followed by adsorptive filtration method in a novel continuous flow through the reactor. This method includes biological oxidation of ferrous to ferric ions by immobilized Acidothiobacillus ferrooxidans bacteria on granulated activated carbon (GAC) in fixed bed bio-column reactor with the adsorptive filtration unit. Removal efficiency was optimized regarding the initial flow rate of media and ferrous ions concentration. Synthetic wastewater sample having different heavy metal ions such as Arsenic (As), Cobalt (Co), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb) and Manganese (Mn) were also used in the study. The structural and surface changes occurring after the treatment process were scrutinized using FT-IR and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis. The finding showed that not only arsenic can be removed considerably in the bioreactor system, but also removing efficiency was much more (oxidation with adsorptive filtration method improves the removal efficiency of arsenic and other heavy metal ions in wastewater sample.

  9. Fungi-based treatment of brewery wastewater-biomass production and nutrient reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultberg, M; Bodin, H

    2017-06-01

    The beer-brewing process produces high amounts of nutrient-rich wastewater, and the increasing number of microbreweries worldwide has created a need for innovative solutions to deal with this waste. In the present study, fungal biomass production and the removal of organic carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen from synthetic brewery wastewater were studied. Different filamentous fungi with a record of safe use were screened for growth, and Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus and Trichoderma harzianum were selected for further work. The highest biomass production, 1.78 ± 0.31 g L -1 of dry weight, was observed when P. ostreatus was used for the treatment, while T. harzianum demonstrated the best capability for removing nutrients. The maximum reduction of chemical oxygen demand, 89% of the initial value, was observed with this species. In the removal of total nitrogen and phosphorus, no significant difference was observed between the species, while removal of ammonium varied between the strains. The maximum reduction of ammonium, 66.1% of the initial value, was also found in the T. harzianum treatment. It can be concluded that all treatments provided significant reductions in all water-quality parameters after 3 days of growth and that the utilisation of filamentous fungi to treat brewery wastewater, linked to a deliberate strategy to use the biomass produced, has future potential in a bio-based society.

  10. Evaluation of synergy and bacterial regrowth in photocatalytic ozonation disinfection of municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecha, Achisa C; Onyango, Maurice S; Ochieng, Aoyi; Momba, Maggy N B

    2017-12-01

    The use of solar and ultraviolet titanium dioxide photocatalytic ozonation processes to inactivate waterborne pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, Shigella species and Vibrio cholerae) in synthetic water and secondary municipal wastewater effluent is presented. The performance indicators were bacterial inactivation efficiency, post-disinfection regrowth and synergy effects (collaboration) between ozonation and photocatalysis (photocatalytic ozonation). Photocatalytic ozonation effectively inactivated the target bacteria and positive synergistic interactions were observed, leading to synergy indices (SI) of up to 1.86 indicating a performance much higher than that of ozonation and photocatalysis individually (SI≤1, no synergy; SI>1 shows synergy between the two processes). Furthermore, there was a substantial reduction in contact time required for complete bacterial inactivation by 50-75% compared to the individual unit processes of ozonation and photocatalysis. Moreover, no post-treatment bacterial regrowth after 24 and 48h in the dark was observed. Therefore, the combined processes overcame the limitations of the individual unit processes in terms of the suppression of bacterial reactivation and regrowth owing to the fact that bacterial cells were irreparably damaged. The treated wastewater satisfied the bacteriological requirements in treated wastewater for South Africa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Concomitant uptake of antimicrobials and Salmonella in soil and into lettuce following wastewater irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallach, J. Brett; Zhang, Yuping; Hodges, Laurie; Snow, Daniel; Li, Xu; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The use of wastewater for irrigation may introduce antimicrobials and human pathogens into the food supply through vegetative uptake. The objective of this study was to investigate the uptake of three antimicrobials and Salmonella in two lettuce cultivars. After repeated subirrigation with synthetic wastewater, lettuce leaves and soil were collected at three sequential harvests. The internalization frequency of Salmonella in lettuce was low. A soil horizon-influenced Salmonella concentration gradient was determined with concentrations in bottom soil 2 log CFU/g higher than in top soil. Lincomycin and sulfamethoxazole were recovered from lettuce leaves at concentrations as high as 822 ng/g and 125 ng/g fresh weight, respectively. Antimicrobial concentrations in lettuce decreased from the first to the third harvest suggesting that the plant growth rate may exceed antimicrobial uptake rates. Accumulation of antimicrobials was significantly different between cultivars demonstrating a subspecies level variation in uptake of antibiotics in lettuce. - Highlights: • Antimicrobial uptake in lettuce is cultivar dependent. • Antimicrobial concentrations in lettuce decrease despite repeated exposure. • Lincomycin is better conserved in the soil-plant system than oxytetracycline or sulfamethoxazole. • Subirrigation resulted in more Salmonella in bottom soil than in top soil. • Internalization frequency of Salmonella in lettuce is low despite repeated exposure. - Cultivar-specific differences in lincomycin and sulfamethazine uptake were observed in lettuce, while uptake of Salmonella was low despite repeated exposure from wastewater

  12. Removal of Mn(II) from the acid mine wastewaters using coal fired bottom ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahidin, M.; Sulaiman, T. N.; Muslim, A.; Gani, A.

    2017-06-01

    Acid mine wastewater (AMW), the wastewater from mining activities which has low pH about 3-5 and contains hazardous heavy metals such as Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, etc. Those heavy metals pollution is of prime concern from the environmental view point. Among the heavy metals, Mn occupies the third position in the AMW from one the iron ore mining company in Aceh, Indonesia. In this study, the possibility use of bottom ash from coal fired boiler of steam power plants for the removal of Mn(II) in AMW has been investigated. Experimental has been conducted as follows. Activation of bottom ash was done both by physical and chemical treatments through heating at 270 °C and washing with NaOH activator 0.5 and 1 M. Adsorption test contains two parts observation; preliminary and primary experiments. Preliminary study is addressed to select the best condition of three independent variables i.e.: pH of AMW (3 & 7), bottom ash particle size (40, 60 & 100 mesh) and initial Mn(II) concentrations (100 & 600 mg/l). AMW used was synthetics wastewater. It was found that the best value for NaOH is 1 M, pH is 7, particle size is 100 meshes and initial Mn(II) concentration is 600 mg/l from the adsorption efficiency point of view. The maximum adsorption capacity (q e) is 63.7 mg/g with the efficiency of 85%.

  13. Evaluating the impacts of triclosan on wastewater treatment performance during startup and acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzem, R M; Gardner, C M; Gunsch, C K

    2018-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad range antimicrobial agent used in many personal care products, which is commonly discharged to wastewater treatment facilities (WWTFs). This study examined the impact of TCS on wastewater treatment performance using laboratory bench-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) coupled with anaerobic digesters. The SBRs were continuously fed synthetic wastewater amended with or without 0.68 μM TCS, with the aim of determining the effect of chronic TCS exposure as opposed to a pulse TCS addition as previously studied. Overall, the present study suggests inhibition of nitrogen removal during reactor startup. However, NH 4 + removal fully rebounded after 63 days, suggesting acclimation of the associated microbial communities to TCS. An initial decrease in microbial community diversity was observed in the SBRs fed TCS as compared to the control SBRs, followed by an increase in community diversity, which coincided with the increase in NH 4 + removal. Elevated levels of NO 3 - and NO 2 - were found in the reactor effluent after day 58, however, suggesting ammonia oxidizing bacteria rebounding more rapidly than nitrogen oxidizing bacteria. Similar effects on treatment efficiencies at actual WWTFs have not been widely observed, suggesting that continuous addition of TCS in their influent may have selected for TCS-resistant nitrogen oxidizing bacteria.

  14. Textile wastewater treatment: colour and COD removal of reactive black-5 by ozonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawan, I. W. K.; Helmy, Q.; Notodarmojo, S.

    2018-01-01

    Textile industries produced a large amount of highly coloured wastewater containing variety of dyes in different concentrations. Due to the high concentration of organics in the effluents and the higher stability of modern synthetic dyes, the conventional biological treatment methods are ineffective for the complete colour removal and degradation of organics and dyes. On the other hand, physical-chemical treatment are not destructive, mainly just concentrate and separate the pollutants phases. This research paper investigates the removal of colour and chemical oxygen demand/COD from textile wastewater using ozone treatment. Varied ozone dosages of 1.16; 3.81; 18.79; and 40.88 mg/minute were used in the experiment. Varied wastewater containing Reactive Black 5 (RB-5) concentrations of 40 mg/L, 100 mg/L were also applied. Research result showed the highest colour removal efficiency of 96.9 % was achieved after 5 hours incubation time, while the highest COD removal efficiency of 77.5% was achieved after 2 hours incubation time.

  15. Toxicity formation and distribution in activated sludge during treatment of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Na; Chen, Xiurong, E-mail: xrchen@ecust.edu.cn; Lin, Fengkai; Ding, Yi; Zhao, Jianguo; Chen, Shanjia

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • We studied mechanism of sludge organic toxicity formation in wastewater treatment. • The organic toxicity distributed mainly in the inner section of sludge flocs. • The organic toxicity of sludge increased with DMF initial concentrations increments. • The property of bacteria community correlates significantly with sludge toxicity. -- Abstract: The organic toxicity of sludge in land applications is a critical issue; however, minimal attention has been given to the mechanism of toxicity formation during high-strength wastewater treatment. To investigate the relevant factors that contribute to sludge toxicity, synthetic wastewater with N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) was treated in a sequential aerobic activated sludge reactor. The acute toxicity of sludge, which is characterised by the inhibition rate of luminous bacteria T3, is the focus of this study. Using an operational time of 28 days and a hydraulic retention time of 12 h, the study demonstrated a positive relationship between the acute toxicity of sludge and the influent DMF concentration; the toxicity centralised in the intracellular and inner sections of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in sludge flocs. Due to increased concentrations of DMF, which ranged from 40 to 200 mg L{sup −1}, the sludge toxicity increased from 25 to 45%. The organic toxicity in sludge flocs was primarily contributed by the biodegradation of DMF rather than adsorption of DMF. Additional investigation revealed a significant correlation between the properties of the bacterial community and sludge toxicity.

  16. Contaminant removal by wastewater treatment plants in the Stillaguamish River Basin, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, Jack E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Wagner, Richard J.; Wolanek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Human activities in most areas of the developed world typically release nutrients, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides, and other contaminants into the environment, many of which reach freshwater ecosystems. In urbanized areas, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are critical facilities for collecting and reducing the amounts of wastewater contaminants (WWCs) that ultimately discharge to rivers, coastal areas, and groundwater. Most WWTPs use multiple methods to remove contaminants from wastewater. These include physical methods to remove solid materials (primary treatment), biological and chemical methods to remove most organic matter (secondary treatment), advanced methods to reduce the concentrations of various contaminants such as nitrogen, phosphorus and (or) synthetic organic compounds (tertiary treatment), and disinfection prior to discharge (Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., 1979). This study examined the extent to which 114 organic WWCs were removed by each of three WWTPs, prior to discharge to freshwater and marine ecosystems, in a rapidly developing area in northwestern Washington State. Removal percentages for each WWC were estimated by comparing the concentrations measured in the WWTP influents with those measured in the effluents. The investigation was carried out in the 700-mi2Stillaguamish River Basin, the fifth largest watershed that discharges to Puget Sound (fig. 1).

  17. Combination of Advanced Oxidation Processes and biological treatments for wastewater decontamination-A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oller, I.; Malato, S.; Sanchez-Perez, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there is a continuously increasing worldwide concern for development of alternative water reuse technologies, mainly focused on agriculture and industry. In this context, Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) are considered a highly competitive water treatment technology for the removal of those organic pollutants not treatable by conventional techniques due to their high chemical stability and/or low biodegradability. Although chemical oxidation for complete mineralization is usually expensive, its combination with a biological treatment is widely reported to reduce operating costs. This paper reviews recent research combining AOPs (as a pre-treatment or post-treatment stage) and bioremediation technologies for the decontamination of a wide range of synthetic and real industrial wastewater. Special emphasis is also placed on recent studies and large-scale combination schemes developed in Mediterranean countries for non-biodegradable wastewater treatment and reuse. The main conclusions arrived at from the overall assessment of the literature are that more work needs to be done on degradation kinetics and reactor modeling of the combined process, and also dynamics of the initial attack on primary contaminants and intermediate species generation. Furthermore, better economic models must be developed to estimate how the cost of this combined process varies with specific industrial wastewater characteristics, the overall decontamination efficiency and the relative cost of the AOP versus biological treatment.

  18. Recent Advances in Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Bagheri, Samira; Bee Abd Hamid, Sharifah

    2014-01-01

    During the process and operation of the dyes, the wastes produced were commonly found to contain organic and inorganic impurities leading to risks in the ecosystem and biodiversity with the resultant impact on the environment. Improper effluent disposal in aqueous ecosystems leads to reduction of sunlight penetration which in turn diminishes photosynthetic activity, resulting in acute toxic effects on the aquatic flora/fauna and dissolved oxygen concentration. Recently, photodegradation of various synthetic dyes has been studied in terms of their absorbance and the reduction of oxygen content by changes in the concentration of the dye. The advantages that make photocatalytic techniques superior to traditional methods are the ability to remove contaminates in the range of ppb, no generation of polycyclic compounds, higher speed, and lower cost. Semiconductor metal oxides, typically TiO2, ZnO, SnO, NiO, Cu2O, Fe3O4, and also CdS have been utilized as photocatalyst for their nontoxic nature, high photosensitivity, wide band gap and high stability. Various process parameters like photocatalyst dose, pH and initial dye concentrations have been varied and highlighted. Research focused on surface modification of semiconductors and mixed oxide semiconductors by doping them with noble metals (Pt, Pd, Au, and Ag) and organic matter (C, N, Cl, and F) showed enhanced dye degradation compared to corresponding native semiconductors. This paper reviews recent advances in heterogeneous photocatalytic decolorization for the removal of synthetic dyes from water and wastewater. Thus, the main core highlighted in this paper is the critical selection of semiconductors for photocatalysis based on the chemical, physical, and selective nature of the poisoning dyes. PMID:25054183

  19. Recent Advances in Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayatullaili Muhd Julkapli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the process and operation of the dyes, the wastes produced were commonly found to contain organic and inorganic impurities leading to risks in the ecosystem and biodiversity with the resultant impact on the environment. Improper effluent disposal in aqueous ecosystems leads to reduction of sunlight penetration which in turn diminishes photosynthetic activity, resulting in acute toxic effects on the aquatic flora/fauna and dissolved oxygen concentration. Recently, photodegradation of various synthetic dyes has been studied in terms of their absorbance and the reduction of oxygen content by changes in the concentration of the dye. The advantages that make photocatalytic techniques superior to traditional methods are the ability to remove contaminates in the range of ppb, no generation of polycyclic compounds, higher speed, and lower cost. Semiconductor metal oxides, typically TiO2, ZnO, SnO, NiO, Cu2O, Fe3O4, and also CdS have been utilized as photocatalyst for their nontoxic nature, high photosensitivity, wide band gap and high stability. Various process parameters like photocatalyst dose, pH and initial dye concentrations have been varied and highlighted. Research focused on surface modification of semiconductors and mixed oxide semiconductors by doping them with noble metals (Pt, Pd, Au, and Ag and organic matter (C, N, Cl, and F showed enhanced dye degradation compared to corresponding native semiconductors. This paper reviews recent advances in heterogeneous photocatalytic decolorization for the removal of synthetic dyes from water and wastewater. Thus, the main core highlighted in this paper is the critical selection of semiconductors for photocatalysis based on the chemical, physical, and selective nature of the poisoning dyes.

  20. Word selection affects perceptions of synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonidandel Scott

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the synthetic biology community have discussed the significance of word selection when describing synthetic biology to the general public. In particular, many leaders proposed the word "create" was laden with negative connotations. We found that word choice and framing does affect public perception of synthetic biology. In a controlled experiment, participants perceived synthetic biology more negatively when "create" was used to describe the field compared to "construct" (p = 0.008. Contrary to popular opinion among synthetic biologists, however, low religiosity individuals were more influenced negatively by the framing manipulation than high religiosity people. Our results suggest that synthetic biologists directly influence public perception of their field through avoidance of the word "create".

  1. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  2. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  3. Treatment of a simulated textile wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with addition of a low-cost adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Sílvia C.R.; Boaventura, Rui A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Treating textile dyeing effluents by SBR coupled with waste sludge adsorption. • Metal hydroxide sludge: a good adsorbent for a direct textile dye. • Good adsorption capacities were found with the low-cost adsorbent. • Adsorbent performance considerably reduced by auxiliary products. • Color removal complies with discharge limits. - Abstract: Color removal from textile wastewaters, at a low-cost and consistent technology, is even today a challenge. Simultaneous biological treatment and adsorption is a known alternative to the treatment of wastewaters containing biodegradable and non-biodegradable contaminants. The present work aims at evaluating the treatability of a simulated textile wastewater by simultaneously combining biological treatment and adsorption in a SBR (sequencing batch reactor), but using a low-cost adsorbent, instead of a commercial one. The selected adsorbent was a metal hydroxide sludge (WS) from an electroplating industry. Direct Blue 85 dye (DB) was used in the preparation of the synthetic wastewater. Firstly, adsorption kinetics and equilibrium were studied, in respect to many factors (temperature, pH, WS dosage and presence of salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the aqueous media). At 25 °C and pH 4, 7 and 10, maximum DB adsorption capacities in aqueous solution were 600, 339 and 98.7 mg/g, respectively. These values are quite considerable, compared to other reported in literature, but proved to be significantly reduced by the presence of dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the wastewater. The simulated textile wastewater treatment in SBR led to BOD 5 removals of 53–79%, but color removal was rather limited (10–18%). The performance was significantly enhanced by the addition of WS, with BOD 5 removals above 91% and average color removals of 60–69%

  4. Sulfamethoxazole in poultry wastewater: Identification, treatability and degradation pathway determination in a membrane-photocatalytic slurry reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Raju C; Kumar, Mathava

    2015-01-01

    The presence of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in a real-time poultry wastewater was identified via HPLC analysis. Subsequently, SMX removal from the poultry wastewater was investigated using a continuous-mode membrane-photocatalytic slurry reactor (MPSR). The real-time poultry wastewater was found to have an SMX concentration of 0-2.3 mg L(-1). A granular activated carbon supported TiO2 (GAC-TiO2) was synthesized, characterized and used in MPSR experiments. The optimal MPSR condition, i.e., HRT ∼ 125 min and catalyst dosage 529.3 mg L(-1), for complete SMX removal was found out using unconstrained optimization technique. Under the optimized condition, the effect of SMX concentration on MPSR performance was investigated by synthetic addition of SMX (i.e., 1, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg L(-1)) into the wastewater. Interestingly, complete removals of total volatile solids (TVS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and SMX were observed under all SMX concentrations investigated. However, a decline in SMX removal rate and proportionate increase in transmembrane-pressure (TMP) were observed when the SMX concentration was increased to higher levels. In the MPSR, the SMX mineralization was through one of the following degradation pathways: (i) fragmentation of the isoxazole ring and (ii) the elimination of methyl and amide moieties followed by the formation of phenyl sulfinate ion. These results show that the continuous-mode MPSR has great potential in the removal for SMX contaminated real-time poultry wastewater and similar organic micropollutants from wastewater.

  5. Treatment of a simulated textile wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with addition of a low-cost adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sílvia C.R., E-mail: scrs@fe.up.pt; Boaventura, Rui A.R.

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • Treating textile dyeing effluents by SBR coupled with waste sludge adsorption. • Metal hydroxide sludge: a good adsorbent for a direct textile dye. • Good adsorption capacities were found with the low-cost adsorbent. • Adsorbent performance considerably reduced by auxiliary products. • Color removal complies with discharge limits. - Abstract: Color removal from textile wastewaters, at a low-cost and consistent technology, is even today a challenge. Simultaneous biological treatment and adsorption is a known alternative to the treatment of wastewaters containing biodegradable and non-biodegradable contaminants. The present work aims at evaluating the treatability of a simulated textile wastewater by simultaneously combining biological treatment and adsorption in a SBR (sequencing batch reactor), but using a low-cost adsorbent, instead of a commercial one. The selected adsorbent was a metal hydroxide sludge (WS) from an electroplating industry. Direct Blue 85 dye (DB) was used in the preparation of the synthetic wastewater. Firstly, adsorption kinetics and equilibrium were studied, in respect to many factors (temperature, pH, WS dosage and presence of salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the aqueous media). At 25 °C and pH 4, 7 and 10, maximum DB adsorption capacities in aqueous solution were 600, 339 and 98.7 mg/g, respectively. These values are quite considerable, compared to other reported in literature, but proved to be significantly reduced by the presence of dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the wastewater. The simulated textile wastewater treatment in SBR led to BOD{sub 5} removals of 53–79%, but color removal was rather limited (10–18%). The performance was significantly enhanced by the addition of WS, with BOD{sub 5} removals above 91% and average color removals of 60–69%.

  6. The role of tannins in conventional and membrane treatment of tannery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, G; De Angelis, D; Gori, R; Mori, G; Casarci, M; Lubello, C

    2009-05-30

    The role that tannins play in tannery wastewater treatment has been evaluated employing a pilot Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) plant and a full scale Conventional Activated Sludge Process (CASP) plant conducted in parallel. The proposed methodology has established the preliminary use of respirometry to examine the biodegradability of a selection of commercial products (synthetic and natural tannins); the subsequent analysis, by means of spectrophotometric reading and RP-IPC (Reverse-Phase Ion-Pair) liquid chromatography, estimates the concentrations of natural tannins and naphthalenesulfonic tanning agents in the influent and effluent samples. The results show that a consistent percentage of the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in the effluent of the biological phase of the plants is attributable to the presence of natural and synthetic (Sulfonated Naphthalene-Formaldehyde Condensates, SNFC) tannins (17% and 14% respectively). The titrimetric tests that were aimed at evaluating the levels of inhibition on the nitrifying biomass samples did not allow a direct inhibiting effect to be associated with the concentration levels of the tannin in the effluent. Nonetheless, the reduced specific growth rates of ammonium and nitrite oxidising bacteria imply that a strong environmental pressure is present, if not necessarily due to the concentration of tannins, due to the wastewater as a whole. The differences that have emerged by comparing the two technologies (CASP and MBR), in regards to the role that tannins play in terms of biodegradability, did not appear to be significant.

  7. SYNTHESIS OF MAGNETITE NANOPARTICLES AND EVALUATION OF ITS EFFICIENCY FOR ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM SIMULATED INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khodabakhshi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles for removal of trivalent arsenic from synthetic industrial wastewater was evaluated. The nanoparticles was prepared by sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray methods including XRD, XRF, and SEM, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. The results showed that synthesized nanoparticles were in the size range of 40-300 nm, purity of about 90%, and magnetization of nanoparticles was 36.5emu/g. In initial conditions including: pH=7, As(III concentration of 10 mg/L, nanomagnetite concentration of 1g/L, shaking speed of 250 rpm and 20 minute retention time, 82% of As (III was removed. Competition from common coexisting ions such as Na+, Ni2+, Cu2+, SO42-, and Cl- was ignorable but for NO3- was significant. The adsorption data of magnetite nanoparticles fit well with Freundlich isotherm equations. The adsorption capacity of the Fe3O4 for As (III at pH=7 was obtained as 23.8 mg/g. It was concluded that magnetite nanoparticles have considerable potential in removal of As(III from synthetic industrial wastewaters.

  8. Synthetic approaches to uniform polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Monzur; Brocchini, Steve

    2006-12-30

    Uniform polymers are characterised by a narrow molecular weight distribution (MWD). Uniformity is also defined by chemical structure in respect of (1) monomer orientation, sequence and stereo-regularity, (2) polymer shape and morphology and (3) chemical functionality. The function of natural polymers such as polypeptides and polynucleotides is related to their conformational structure (e.g. folded tertiary structure). This is only possible because of their high degree of uniformity. While completely uniform synthetic polymers are rare, polymers with broad structure and MWD are widely used in medicine and the biomedical sciences. They are integral components in final dosage forms, drug delivery systems (DDS) and in implantable devices. Increasingly uniform polymers are being used to develop more complex medicines (e.g. delivery of biopharmaceuticals, enhanced formulations or DDS's for existing actives). In addition to the function imparted by any new polymer it will be required to meet stringent specifications in terms of cost containment, scalability, biocompatibility and performance. Synthetic polymers with therapeutic activity are also being developed to exploit their polyvalent properties, which is not possible with low molecular weight molecules. There is need to utilise uniform polymers for applications where the polymer may interact with the systemic circulation, tissues or cellular environment. There are also potential applications (e.g. stimuli responsive coatings) where uniform polymers may be used for their more defined property profile. While it is not yet practical to prepare synthetic polymers to the same high degree of uniformity as proteins, nature also effectively utilises many polymers with lower degrees of uniformity (e.g. polysaccharides, poly(amino acids), polyhydroxyalkanoates). In recent years it has become possible to prepare with practical experimental protocols sufficient quantities of polymers that display many aspects of uniformity. This

  9. Synthetic Lipoproteins as Carriers for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gangliang; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hualiang

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic lipoprotein is an effective carrier of targeted delivery for drugs. It has the very small size, good biocompatibility, suitable half-life, and specific lipoprotein receptorbinding capacity. Compared with the traditional natural lipoprotein, synthetic lipoprotein not only retains the original biological characteristics and functions, but also exhibits the excellent characteristics in drug delivery. Herein, the advantages, development, applications, and prospect of synthetic lipoproteins as drug carriers were summarized.

  10. Influence of wastewater characteristics on methane potential in food-processing industry wastewaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maya Altamira, Larisa; Baun, Anders; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    ) were compared to the theoretical methane yields (Bo,th) in order to evaluate the biodegradability of the tested wastewaters and the influence of their physico-chemical characteristics. The analytical method applied to quantify the wastewaters’ organic content proved to influence the estimation...... of their theoretical yields. The substrate:inoculum ratio as well as the dilution factor of the wastewaters influenced the ultimate practical methane yields differently in each of the wastewaters assessed. Substrate chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations did not present any influence on ultimate practical methane...... yields; on the other hand, it was found that they were affected positively by concentrations of total inorganic carbon when wastewaters were 25% and 50% diluted and affected negatively by concentrations of total acetate when wastewaters were undiluted. Carbohydrate and protein concentrations affected...

  11. Geo synthetic-reinforced Pavement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zornberg, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Geo synthetics have been used as reinforcement inclusions to improve pavement performance. while there are clear field evidence of the benefit of using geo synthetic reinforcements, the specific conditions or mechanisms that govern the reinforcement of pavements are, at best, unclear and have remained largely unmeasured. Significant research has been recently conducted with the objectives of: (i) determining the relevant properties of geo synthetics that contribute to the enhanced performance of pavement systems, (ii) developing appropriate analytical, laboratory and field methods capable of quantifying the pavement performance, and (iii) enabling the prediction of pavement performance as a function of the properties of the various types of geo synthetics. (Author)

  12. Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA's Veteran Health Administration, in support of the Open Data Initiative, is providing the Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset (VASPSD). The...

  13. Synthetic biology assemblies for sustainable space exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The work utilized synthetic biology to create sustainable food production processes by developing technology to efficiently convert inedible crop waste to...

  14. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K.

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore, used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery. PMID:23654251

  15. Preparation of synthetic standard minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrick, C.C.; Bustamante, S.J.; Charls, R.W.; Cowan, R.E.; Hakkila, E.A.; Hull, D.E.; Olinger, B.W.; Roof, R.B.; Sheinberg, H.; Herrick, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    A number of techniques for synthetic mineral preparations have been examined. These techniques include hot-pressing in graphite dies at moderate pressures, high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis in a piston and cylinder apparatus, isostatic pressing under helium gas pressures, hydrous mineral preparations using water as the pressure medium, explosion-generated shock waves, and radiofrequency heating. Minerals suitable for equation-of-state studies (three-inch, high-density discs), for thermodynamic property determinations (low-density powders) and for microprobe standards (fusion-cast microbeads) have been prepared. Mechanical stress-strain calculations in the piston-cylinder apparatus have been initiated and their integration with thermal stress calculations is currently under investigation

  16. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K

    2013-07-19

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug-resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery.

  17. Synthetic biology: a utilitarian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    I examine the positive and negative features of synthetic biology ('SynBio') from a utilitarian ethical perspective. The potential beneficial outcomes from SynBio in the context of medicine are substantial; however it is not presently possible to predict precise outcomes due to the nascent state of the field. Potential negative outcomes from SynBio also exist, including iatrogenesis and bioterrorism; however it is not yet possible to quantify these risks. I argue that the application of a 'precautionary' approach to SynBio is ethically fraught, as is the notion that SynBio-associated knowledge ought to be restricted. I conclude that utilitarians ought to support a broadly laissez-faire stance in respect of SynBio. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Synthetic biology: engineering molecular computers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Complicated systems cannot survive the rigors of a chaotic environment, without balancing mechanisms that sense, decide upon and counteract the exerted disturbances. Especially so with living organisms, forced by competition to incredible complexities, escalating also their self-controlling plight. Therefore, they compute. Can we harness biological mechanisms to create artificial computing systems? Biology offers several levels of design abstraction: molecular machines, cells, organisms... ranging from the more easily-defined to the more inherently complex. At the bottom of this stack we find the nucleic acids, RNA and DNA, with their digital structure and relatively precise interactions. They are central enablers of designing artificial biological systems, in the confluence of engineering and biology, that we call Synthetic biology. In the first part, let us follow their trail towards an overview of building computing machines with molecules -- and in the second part, take the case study of iGEM Greece 201...

  19. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  20. Biological nitrate removal from water and wastewater by solid-phase denitrification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianlong; Chu, Libing

    2016-11-01

    Nitrate pollution in receiving waters has become a serious issue worldwide. Solid-phase denitrification process is an emerging technology, which has received increasing attention in recent years. It uses biodegradable polymers as both the carbon source and biofilm carrier for denitrifying microorganisms. A vast array of natural and synthetic biopolymers, including woodchips, sawdust, straw, cotton, maize cobs, seaweed, bark, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), polycaprolactone (PCL), polybutylene succinate (PBS) and polylactic acid (PLA), have been widely used for denitrification due to their good performance, low cost and large available quantities. This paper presents an overview on the application of solid-phase denitrification in nitrate removal from drinking water, groundwater, aquaculture wastewater, the secondary effluent and wastewater with low C/N ratio. The types of solid carbon source, the influencing factors, the microbial community of biofilm attached on the biodegradable carriers, the potential adverse effect, and the cost of denitrification process are introduced and evaluated. Woodchips and polycaprolactone are the popular and competitive natural plant-like and synthetic biodegradable polymers used for denitrification, respectively. Most of the denitrifiers reported in solid-phase denitrification affiliated to the family Comamonadaceae in the class Betaproteobacteria. The members of genera Diaphorobacter, Acidovorax and Simplicispira were mostly reported. In future study, more attention should be paid to the simultaneous removal of nitrate and toxic organic contaminants such as pesticide and PPCPs by solid-phase denitrification, to the elucidation of the metabolic and regulatory relationship between decomposition of solid carbon source and denitrification, and to the post-treatment of the municipal secondary effluent. Solid-phase denitrification process is a promising technology for the removal of nitrate from water and wastewater. Copyright © 2016

  1. Bacterial nitrogen fixation in sand bioreactors treating winery wastewater with a high carbon to nitrogen ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welz, Pamela J; Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Braun, Lorenz; Vikram, Surendra; Le Roes-Hill, Marilize

    2018-02-01

    Heterotrophic bacteria proliferate in organic-rich environments and systems containing sufficient essential nutrients. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are the nutrients required in the highest concentrations. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen is an important consideration for wastewater bioremediation because insufficient nitrogen may result in decreased treatment efficiency. It has been shown that during the treatment of effluent from the pulp and paper industry, bacterial nitrogen fixation can supplement the nitrogen requirements of suspended growth systems. This study was conducted using physicochemical analyses and culture-dependent and -independent techniques to ascertain whether nitrogen-fixing bacteria were selected in biological sand filters used to treat synthetic winery wastewater with a high carbon to nitrogen ratio (193:1). The systems performed well, with the influent COD of 1351 mg/L being reduced by 84-89%. It was shown that the nitrogen fixing bacterial population was influenced by the presence of synthetic winery effluent in the surface layers of the biological sand filters, but not in the deeper layers. It was hypothesised that this was due to the greater availability of atmospheric nitrogen at the surface. The numbers of culture-able nitrogen-fixing bacteria, including presumptive Azotobacter spp. exhibited 1-2 log increases at the surface. The results of this study confirm that nitrogen fixation is an important mechanism to be considered during treatment of high carbon to nitrogen wastewater. If biological treatment systems can be operated to stimulate this phenomenon, it may obviate the need for nitrogen addition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. SBAS Analysis of Induced Ground Surface Deformation from Wastewater Injection in East Central Oklahoma, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Loesch

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The state of Oklahoma has experienced a dramatic increase in the amount of measurable seismic activities over the last decade. The needs of a petroleum-driven world have led to increased production utilizing various technologies to reach energy reserves locked in tight formations and stimulate end-of-life wells, creating significant amounts of undesirable wastewater ultimately injected underground for disposal. Using Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR data, we performed a differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR technique referred to as the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS-based analysis over east central Oklahoma to identify ground surface deformation with respect to the location of wastewater injection wells for the period of December 2006 to January 2011. Our results show broad spatial correlation between SBAS-derived deformation and the locations of injection wells. We also observed significant uplift over Cushing, Oklahoma, the largest above ground crude oil storage facility in the world, and a key hub of the Keystone Pipeline. This finding has significant implications for the oil and gas industry due to its close proximity to the zones of increased seismicity attributed to wastewater injection. Results southeast of Drumright, Oklahoma represent an excellent example of the potential of InSAR, identifying a fault bordered by an area of subduction to the west and uplift to the east. This differentiated movement along the fault may help explain the lack of any seismic activity in this area, despite the large number of wells and high volume of fluid injected.

  3. Amagnetic field-enhanced filtration/sorption Device and its potential for inexpensive water and wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    A magnetic field-enhanced filtration/sorption device is described for removal of radioactive and heavy metals from water and wastewater. The device consists of a column of supported magnetite surrounded by a movable permanent magnet. The mineral magnetite, or synthetically prepared iron ferrite (Fe O Fe 2 O 3 ), is typically supported on various materials to permit adequate water passage through the column. In the presence of the external magnetic field, enhanced capacity was observed in using supported magnetite for removal of actinides and heavy metals from wastewater. The enhanced capacity is primarily due to magnetic filtration of colloidal and submicron particles along with some complex and ion exchange sorption mechanisms. The loaded magnetite can easily be regenerated by the removal of the magnetic field and use of a regenerating solution. This paper will review previous work on the use of iron oxides for wastewater treatment and discuss the development and potential of the magnetic filtration/sorption process for water and wastewater treatment

  4. Simultaneous photocatalytic and microbial degradation of dye-containing wastewater by a novel g-C3N4-P25/photosynthetic bacteria composite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinying Zhang

    Full Text Available Azo dyes are very resistant to light-induced fading and biodegradation. Existing advanced oxidative pre-treatment methods based on the generation of non-selective radicals cannot efficiently remove these dyes from wastewater streams, and post-treatment oxidative dye removal is problematic because it may leave many byproducts with unknown toxicity profiles in the outgoing water, or cause expensive complete mineralization. These problems could potentially be overcome by combining photocatalysis and biodegradation. A novel visible-light-responsive hybrid dye removal agent featuring both photocatalysts (g-C3N4-P25 and photosynthetic bacteria encapsulated in calcium alginate beads was prepared by self-assembly. This system achieved a removal efficiency of 94% for the dye reactive brilliant red X-3b and also reduced the COD of synthetic wastewater samples by 84.7%, successfully decolorized synthetic dye-contaminated wastewater and reduced its COD, demonstrating the advantages of combining photocatalysis and biocatalysis for wastewater purification. The composite apparently degrades X-3b by initially converting the dye into aniline and phenol derivatives whose aryl moieties are then attacked by free radicals to form alkyl derivatives, preventing the accumulation of aromatic hydrocarbons that might suppress microbial activity. These alkyl intermediates are finally degraded by the photosynthetic bacteria.

  5. Occurrence of Organic Wastewater Compounds in Selected Surface-Water Supplies, Triangle Area of North Carolina, 2002-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgino, M.J.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Pfeifle, C.M .

    2007-01-01

    Selected organic wastewater compounds, such as household, industrial, and agricultural-use compounds, sterols, pharmaceuticals, and antibiotics, were measured at eight sites classified as drinking-water supplies in the Triangle Area of North Carolina. From October 2002 through July 2005, seven of the sites were sampled twice, and one site was sampled 28 times, for a total of 42 sets of environmental samples. Samples were analyzed for as many as 126 compounds using three laboratory analytical methods. These methods were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to detect low levels (generally less than or equal to 1.0 microgram per liter) of the target compounds in filtered water. Because analyses were conducted on filtered samples, the results presented in this report may not reflect the total concentration of organic wastewater compounds in the waters that were sampled. Various quality-control samples were used to quality assure the results in terms of method performance and possible laboratory or field contamination. Of the 108 organic wastewater compounds that met method performance criteria, 24 were detected in at least one sample during the study. These 24 compounds included 3 pharmaceutical compounds, 6 fire retardants and plasticizers, 3 antibiotics, 3 pesticides, 6 fragrances and flavorants, 1 disinfectant, and 2 miscellaneous-use compounds, all of which likely originated from a variety of domestic, industrial, and agricultural sources. The 10 most frequently detected compounds included acetyl-hexamethyl tetrahydronaphthalene and hexahydro-hexamethyl cyclopentabenzopyran (synthetic musks that are widely used in personal-care products and are known endocrine disruptors); tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tri(dichloroisopropyl) phosphate, and tributyl phosphate (fire retardants); metolachlor (herbicide); caffeine (nonprescription stimulant); cotinine (metabolite of nicotine); acetaminophen (nonprescription analgesic); and sulfamethoxazole (prescription antibiotic

  6. Feasibility study on recovering hydrogen energy from industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Der Bai; Chia-Jung Hsiao

    2006-01-01

    Three wastewater obtained from different industries were evaluated for the feasibility of hydrogen fermentation. Because of the various components of the wastewater, the characteristics of the hydrogen accumulation were different. Several stages with different hydrogen producing rate were observed during the batch hydrogen fermentation of each wastewater. The obvious hydrogen consumption was observed in the last phase of hydrogen fermentation of the wastewater from the winery. It is similar to the reported hydrogen fermentation characteristic of starch. The wastewater coming from the fructose manufactory has the greatest hydrogen potential nearly 150 L-H 2 /kg-COD. The wastewater from food industry has the lower hydrogen potential of 65 L-H 2 /kg-COD. Some of its compounds were not suitable for hydrogen production. The lowest hydrogen potential was observed in the fermentation of the wastewater from the winery, because hydrogen consumption affects the hydrogen recovery from the wastewater from winery. (authors)

  7. Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with/without intermittent ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... wastewater infiltration systems (SWISs) with and without intermittent aeration, ...

  8. The Role of Anaerobic Digestion in Wastewater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater systems potentially contribute significant negative impacts not only on regional water bodies, but also on global energy, climate, and sustainability. Energy recovery from wastewater is one way to reduce the negative impacts and achieve greater resource recovery. The ...

  9. Heavy metal pollution of vegetable crops irrigated with wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    144) and edible parts of both exotic and traditional vegetables (samples = 240) irrigated with wastewater from some parts of Accra were studied. The concentrations of heavy metals in mg/l were quantified in wastewater from Accra and ...

  10. Quality Evaluation of Household Wastewater for Irrigation MUSA, J J ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    waste-water discharge and disposal practices that may ... impacts from sewage contamination in urban areas are well documented ... tanks, aerated wastewater treatment systems (AWTS) ..... water sources in selected rural communities of the.

  11. Upgrading of technology of absorptive cleaning of oily wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Pavluh, L. I .

    2013-01-01

    Oily wastewater treatment technology is improved through the improvement of the absorptive properties of sorbents based on plant waste. The cost of flowsheets for treatment of wastewaters contaminated with oil products is presented.

  12. Emerging energy-efficient technologies for the Californian wastewater industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaa, Jan Willem

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Wastewater treatment is of vital importance for protecting human health and minimizing the environmental impact of polluted water. Since the beginning of the 20th century public facilities have been installed globally which treat wastewater at a

  13. Feasibility study on recovering hydrogen energy from industrial wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming Der Bai; Chia-Jung Hsiao [Energy and Resource Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195, sec. 4 Chung Hsing Rd., Chutung, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 301 R.O.C. (China)

    2006-07-01

    Three wastewater obtained from different industries were evaluated for the feasibility of hydrogen fermentation. Because of the various components of the wastewater, the characteristics of the hydrogen accumulation were different. Several stages with different hydrogen producing rate were observed during the batch hydrogen fermentation of each wastewater. The obvious hydrogen consumption was observed in the last phase of hydrogen fermentation of the wastewater from the winery. It is similar to the reported hydrogen fermentation characteristic of starch. The wastewater coming from the fructose manufactory has the greatest hydrogen potential nearly 150 L-H{sub 2}/kg-COD. The wastewater from food industry has the lower hydrogen potential of 65 L-H{sub 2}/kg-COD. Some of its compounds were not suitable for hydrogen production. The lowest hydrogen potential was observed in the fermentation of the wastewater from the winery, because hydrogen consumption affects the hydrogen recovery from the wastewater from winery. (authors)

  14. Assessment of Cryptosporidium in wastewater reuse for drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Cryptosporidium in wastewater reuse for drinking water ... water supply needs and/or to reduce costs in many communities around the world. ... in a treatment plant geared for the production of drinking water from wastewater ...

  15. Current Status of On-Site Wastewater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Charles L.

    1978-01-01

    Wastewater management is becoming an important environmental issue nationally. This article reports the history and current status of wastewater management. Regulatory programs are discussed with specific state examples. Needs assessment is also included. (MA)

  16. Improved Electrocoagulation Reactor for Rapid Removal of Phosphate from Wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Yushi; He, Weihua; Zhu, Xiuping; Yang, Wulin; Ren, Nanqi; Logan, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    by electrocoagulation. The performance of this process, called a reverse-electric field, air cathode electrocoagulation (REAEC) reactor, was tested using domestic wastewater as a function of charging time and electrocoagulation time. REAEC wastewater treatment removed

  17. Textile wastewater biocoagulation by Caesalpinia spinosa extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Revelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/12/06 - Accepted: 2015/03/24The textile industry in Ecuador is still a matter of concern because of the inappropriate disposal of their effluents into the local water supply. The present research was carried out in Pelileo (Tungurahua-Ecuador where textile wastewaters are discharged into waterways. An environmentally friendly solution to treat highly contaminated organic textile wastewaters is herein evaluated: a remediation process of biocoagulation was performed using extracts from the Caesalpinia spinosa plant also known as guarango or tara. It was determined that using C. spinosa extracts to treat wastewater has the same statistical effect as when applying a chemical coagulant (polyaluminum chloride 15%. Activated zeolite adsorbed color residuals from treated water to obtain turbidity removal more than 90%. A mathematical model showed that turbidity removal between 50-90% can be obtained by applying 25-45 g/L of guarango extracts and zeolite per 700 mL of textile wastewater. The natural coagulation using C. spinosa extracts produced 85% less sludge than polyaluminum chloride, and removed high organic matter content in the wastewater (1050 mg/L by 52%.

  18. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  19. Wilsonville wastewater sampling program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-10-01

    As part of its contrast to design, build and operate the SRC-1 Demonstration Plant in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE), International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) was required to collect and evaluate data related to wastewater streams and wastewater treatment procedures at the SRC-1 Pilot Plant facility. The pilot plant is located at Wilsonville, Alabama and is operated by Catalytic, Inc. under the direction of Southern Company Services. The plant is funded in part by the Electric Power Research Institute and the DOE. ICRC contracted with Catalytic, Inc. to conduct wastewater sampling. Tasks 1 through 5 included sampling and analysis of various wastewater sources and points of different steps in the biological treatment facility at the plant. The sampling program ran from May 1 to July 31, 1982. Also included in the sampling program was the generation and analysis of leachate from SRC product using standard laboratory leaching procedures. For Task 6, available plant wastewater data covering the period from February 1978 to December 1981 was analyzed to gain information that might be useful for a demonstration plant design basis. This report contains a tabulation of the analytical data, a summary tabulation of the historical operating data that was evaluated and comments concerning the data. The procedures used during the sampling program are also documented.

  20. Treatment of Biodiesel Wastewater by Electrocoagulation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anchalee Srirangsan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the optimum conditions for biodiesel wastewater treatment using an electrocoagulation process. Wastewater samples were obtained from a small-scale, commercial biodiesel production plant that employs an alkali-catalyzed tranesterification process. The wastewater was characterized by the high contents of alkali and high oil content of 6,020 mg/L. Tested operational conditions included types of electrode, current density, retention time and initial pH. The tested electrode materials for electrocoagulation were aluminum (Al, iron (Fe and graphite (C. Five tested pairs of anode and cathode materials included Fe-Fe, Fe-C, Al-Al, Al-C, C-C. Results show that the optimum conditions were achieved by using the electrodes of Al-C, applying the current density of 8.32 mA/cm2 to the wastewater with an initial pH value of 6 for 25 min. The removal efficiency was found to be 97.8 % for grease & oil (G&O, 96.9 % for SS and 55.4 % for COD. Moreover, the small amount of produced sludge was readily to remove from the treated wastewater.

  1. High power accelerators and wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.; Kim, S.M.; Makaov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    The problems of environmental damage and degradation of natural resources are receiving increasing attention throughout the world. The increased population, higher living standards, increased urbanization and enhanced industrial activities of humankind are all leading to degradation of the environment. Increasing urbanization has been accompanied by significant water pollution. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. Therefore, cost-effective treatment of the municipal and industrial wastewater containing refractory pollutant with electron beam is actively studied in EB TECH Co.. Electron beam treatment of wastewater is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis (hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom). However, to have advantages over existing processes, the electron beam process should have cost-effective and reliable in operation. Therefore high power accelerators (400kW∼1MW) are developed for environmental application and they show the decrease in the cost of construction and operation of electron beam plant. In other way to reduce the cost for wastewater treatment, radical reactions accompanied by the other processes are introduced, and the synergistic effect upon the use of combined methods such as electron beam treatment with ozonation, biological treatment and physico-chemical adsorption and others also show the improvement of the effect of electron beam treatment for the wastewater purification. (author)

  2. Optimization of an integrated electrodisinfection/electrocoagulation process with Al bipolar electrodes for urban wastewater reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotillas, Salvador; Llanos, Javier; Cañizares, Pablo; Mateo, Sara; Rodrigo, Manuel A

    2013-04-01

    In this work, a novel integrated electrochemical process for urban wastewater regeneration is described. The electrochemical cell consists in a Boron Doped Diamond (BDD) or a Dimensionally Stable Anode (DSA) as anode, a Stainless Steel (SS) as cathode and a perforated aluminum plate, which behaves as bipolar electrode, between anode and cathode. Thus, in this cell, it is possible to carry out, at the same time, two different electrochemical processes: electrodisinfection (ED) and electrocoagulation (EC). The treatment of urban wastewater with different anodes and different operating conditions is studied. First of all, in order to check the process performance, experiments with synthetic wastewaters were carried out, showing that it is possible to achieve a 100% of turbidity removal by the electrodissolution of the bipolar electrode. Next, the effect of the current density and the anode material are studied during the ED-EC process of actual effluents. Results show that it is possible to remove Escherichia coli and turbidity simultaneously of an actual effluent from a WasteWater Treatment Facility (WWTF). The use of BDD anodes allows to remove the E. coli completely at an applied electric charge of 0.0077 A h dm(-3) when working with a current density of 6.65 A m(-2). On the other hand, with DSA anodes, the current density necessary to achieve the total removal of E. coli is higher (11.12 A m(-2)) than that required with BDD anodes. Finally, the influence of cell flow path and flow rate have been studied. Results show that the performance of the process strongly depends on the characteristics of the initial effluent (E. coli concentration and Cl(-)/NH(4)(+) initial ratio) and that a cell configuration cathode (inlet)-anode (outlet) and a higher flow rate enhance the removal of the turbidity from the treated effluent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clarification of Pharmaceutical Wastewater with Moringa Oleifera: Optimization Through Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Rustanti Eri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Herbal pharmaceutical industrial wastewater contains a high amount of suspended solids and alkaline (pH > 8; therefore it requires approprite coagulant and flocculant compounds for its wastewater treatment. The most widely used flocculant is a synthetic that has certain problems such as non-biodegradability and releases of toxic residual monomers. The use of eco-friendly flocculants as alternative materials for conventional flocculant in water and wastewater treatments is increasing. Numerous factors influence the performance of coagulation-flocculation process, such as coagulant dosage, flocculant dosage, initial potential of hydrogen (pH and velocity gradient of coagulation-flocculation. The main aim of this research is to evaluate the capability and effectiveness of Moringa oleifera extract for removal of suspended solid in herbal pharmaceutical industry. A coagulation-flocculation test was done by performing jar test at various speeds, according to the variation of the conducted treatment research. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM approach was used to optimize the concentration of coagulant dosage, flocculant dosage and flocculation velocity gradient (G, and the results were measured as maximum percentage of suspended solid removal. The wastewater used in this research originally came from the inlet of herbal pharmaceutical industry wastewater treatment plant, which was collected over 3 days. The wastewater has a total suspended solids of more than 1250 mg/L, and was alkaline (pH 9-10. The moringa extract was made from the extraction of a fat free moringa powder with a salt solution in a certain ratio. The percentage removal of suspended solid was 93.42-99.54%. The final results of the analysis of response surface showed that the variables of flocculant dosage and the flocculation velocity gradient (G have a huge impact on the amount of suspended solid removal, compared with the coagulant dosage. The model generated from the

  4. Impact of treated wastewater for irrigation on soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, A M; Gonzalez-Rubio, A; Suarez, D L

    2018-05-01

    The use of treated wastewater (TWW) for irrigation has been suggested as an alternative to use of fresh water because of the increasing scarcity of fresh water in arid and semiarid regions of the world. However, significant barriers exist to widespread adoption due to some potential contaminants that may have adverse effects on soil quality and or public health. In this study, we investigated the abundance and diversity of bacterial communities and the presence of potential pathogenic bacterial sequences in TWW in comparison to synthetic fresh water (SFW) using pyrosequencing. The results were analyzed using UniFrac coupled with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) to compare diversity and abundance of different bacterial groups in TWW irrigated soils to soils treated with SFW. Shannon diversity index values (H') suggest that microbial diversity was not significantly different (P<0.086) between soils with TWW and SFW. Pyrosequencing detected sequences of 17 bacterial phyla with Proteobacteria (32.1%) followed by Firmicutes (26.5%) and Actinobacteria (14.3%). Most of the sequences associated with nitrifying bacteria, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, carbon degraders, denitrifying bacteria, potential pathogens, and fecal indicator bacteria were more abundant in TWW than in SFW. Therefore, TWW effluent may contain bacterial that may be very active in many soil functions as well as some potential pathogens. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Isolation of Rhodocyclus gelatinosus from poultry slaughterhouse wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Helena Giglio Ponsano

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Four cultures of photosynthetic bacteria isolated from poultry slaughterhouse wastewater were identified as Rhodocyclus gelatinosus based on the following properties: reddish color of cultures in synthetic medium, presence of motility, slightly curved Gram-negative rods morphology, gelatin liquefying activity, utilization of citrate as carbon source and production of bacteriochlorophyl a and carotenoids of the spirilloxanthin alternative series. R. gelatinosus may represent a source of nutrients and pigments with application in poultry feed.Quatro culturas de bactérias fotossintetizantes isoladas de águas residuárias de abatedouro de aves foram identificadas como Rhodocyclus gelatinosus com base nas seguintes propriedades: desenvolvimento de cor avermelhada nos cultivos em meio sintético, motilidade positiva, morfologia de bastonetes gram-negativos ligeiramente curvos, atividade de liquefação da gelatina, utilização de citrato como fonte de carbono e produção de bacterioclorofila a e carotenóides da série espiriloxantina alternativa. Esses testes foram também aplicados para uma linhagem de Rhodocyclus gelatinosus de referência para efeito de comparação. A biomassa de R. gelatinosus pode representar uma fonte de nutrientes e de pigmentos na alimentação de aves.

  6. Development of an irradiation device for electron beam wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rela, Paulo Roberto

    2003-01-01

    When domestic or industrial effluents with synthetic compounds are disposed without an adequate treatment, they impact negatively the environment with damages to aquatic life and for the human being. Both population and use of goods and services that contribute for the hazardous waste are growing. Hazardous regulations are becoming more restrictive and technologies, which do not destroy these products, are becoming less acceptable. The electron beam radiation process is an advanced oxidation process, that produces highly reactive radicals resulting in mineralization of the contaminant. In this work was developed an irradiation system in order to optimize the interaction of electron beam delivered from the accelerator with the processed effluent. It is composed by an irradiation device where the effluent presents to the electron beam in an up flow stream and a process control unit that uses the calorimetric principle. The developed irradiation device has a different configuration from the devices used by others researchers that are working with this technology. It was studied the technical and economic feasibility, comparing with the literature the results of the irradiation device demonstrated that it has a superior performance, becoming an process for use in disinfection and degradation of hazardous organic compounds of wastewater from domestic and industrial origin, contributing as an alternative technology for Sanitary Engineering. (author)

  7. Removal of Pharmaceuticals from Wastewater by Intermittent Electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Marie B. Ensano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous release of emerging contaminants (ECs in the aquatic environment, as a result of the inadequate removal by conventional treatment methods, has prompted research to explore viable solutions to this rising global problem. One promising alternative is the use of electrochemical processes since they represent a simple and highly efficient technology with less footprint. In this paper, the feasibility of treating ECs (i.e., pharmaceuticals using an intermittent electrocoagulation process, a known electrochemical technology, has been investigated. Diclofenac (DCF, carbamazepine (CBZ and amoxicillin (AMX were chosen as being representative of highly consumed drugs that are frequently detected in our water resources and were added in synthetic municipal wastewater. The removal efficiencies of both individual and combined pharmaceuticals were determined under different experimental conditions: hydraulic retention time (HRT (6, 19 and 38 h, initial concentration (0.01, 4 and 10 mg/L and intermittent application (5 min ON/20 min OFF of current density (0.5, 1.15 and 1.8 mA/cm2. Results have shown that these parameters have significant effects on pharmaceutical degradation. Maximum removals (DCF = 90%, CBZ = 70% and AMX = 77% were obtained at a current density of 0.5 mA/cm2, an initial concentration of 10 mg/L and HRT of 38 h.

  8. Wastewater screening method for evaluating applicability of zero-valent iron to industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.W.; Cha, D.K.; Oh, Y.K.; Ko, K.B.; Jin, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a screening protocol to evaluate the applicability of the ZVI pretreatment to various industrial wastewaters of which major constituents are not identified. The screening protocol consisted of a sequential analysis of UV-vis spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC), and bioassay. The UV-vis and HPLC analyses represented the potential reductive transformation of unknown constituents in wastewater by the ZVI. The UV-vis and HPLC results were quantified using principal component analysis (PCA) and Euclidian distance (ED). The short-term bioassay was used to assess the increased biodegradability of wastewater constituents after ZVI treatment. The screening protocol was applied to seven different types of real industrial wastewaters. After identifying one wastewater as the best candidate for the ZVI treatment, the benefit of ZVI pretreatment was verified through continuous operation of an integrated iron-sequencing batch reactor (SBR) resulting in the increased organic removal efficiency compared to the control. The iron pretreatment was suggested as an economical option to modify some costly physico-chemical processes in the existing wastewater treatment facility. The screening protocol could be used as a robust strategy to estimate the applicability of ZVI pretreatment to a certain wastewater with unknown composition.

  9. Microbial Community Profiles in Wastewaters from Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Jałowiecki

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the potential of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs methodology as an assay for characterization of the metabolic diversity of wastewater samples and to link the metabolic diversity patterns to efficiency of select onsite biological wastewater facilities. Metabolic fingerprints obtained from the selected samples were used to understand functional diversity implied by the carbon substrate shifts. Three different biological facilities of onsite wastewater treatment were evaluated: fixed bed reactor (technology A, trickling filter/biofilter system (technology B, and aerated filter system (the fluidized bed reactor, technology C. High similarities of the microbial community functional structures were found among the samples from the three onsite wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs, as shown by the diversity indices. Principal components analysis (PCA showed that the diversity and CLPPs of microbial communities depended on the working efficiency of the wastewater treatment technologies. This study provided an overall picture of microbial community functional structures of investigated samples in WWTPs and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and technologies of onsite WWTPs used. The results obtained confirmed that metabolic profiles could be used to monitor treatment processes as valuable biological indicators of onsite wastewater treatment technologies efficiency. This is the first step toward understanding relations of technology types with microbial community patterns in raw and treated wastewaters.

  10. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units in Concert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancelation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multi-drug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications.

  11. Study of seed for synthetical quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, C.K.; Torikai, D.

    1988-01-01

    Natural quartz blocks for seed (synthetic quartz technology) were studied by using various characterization techniques, such as X-ray topography, optical micrography, inspectoscopy, polariscopy and conoscopy, and etching. One of the most commonly found defect is the electrical or Dauphine twin. In The present research, we have developed a methodology to obtain a highly perfect seed for the synthetic quartz industries. (author) [pt

  12. Synthetic biology: programming cells for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörner, Maximilian; Reischmann, Nadine; Weber, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of synthetic biology is a novel biological discipline at the interface between traditional biology, chemistry, and engineering sciences. Synthetic biology aims at the rational design of complex synthetic biological devices and systems with desired properties by combining compatible, modular biological parts in a systematic manner. While the first engineered systems were mainly proof-of-principle studies to demonstrate the power of the modular engineering approach of synthetic biology, subsequent systems focus on applications in the health, environmental, and energy sectors. This review describes recent approaches for biomedical applications that were developed along the synthetic biology design hierarchy, at the level of individual parts, of devices, and of complex multicellular systems. It describes how synthetic biological parts can be used for the synthesis of drug-delivery tools, how synthetic biological devices can facilitate the discovery of novel drugs, and how multicellular synthetic ecosystems can give insight into population dynamics of parasites and hosts. These examples demonstrate how this new discipline could contribute to novel solutions in the biopharmaceutical industry.

  13. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units in Concert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancelation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multi-drug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications. PMID:25022769

  14. Metal immobilization in soils using synthetic zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osté, L.A.; Lexmond, T.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2002-01-01

    In situ immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils is a technique to improve soil quality. Synthetic zeolites are potentially useful additives to bind heavy metals. This study selected the most effective zeolite in cadmium and zinc binding out of six synthetic zeolites (mordenite-type,

  15. Synthetic and Empirical Capsicum Annuum Image Dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, R.

    2016-01-01

    This dataset consists of per-pixel annotated synthetic (10500) and empirical images (50) of Capsicum annuum, also known as sweet or bell pepper, situated in a commercial greenhouse. Furthermore, the source models to generate the synthetic images are included. The aim of the datasets are to

  16. Synthetic aperture radar: principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.A.; Yahya, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper an introduction to synthetic aperture radar is presented. Synthetic aperture radar is a relatively new remote sensing platform and the technology has matured a lot in the last two decades. This paper introduces the concepts behind SAR principles as well as the major areas where this new technology has shown additional information. (author)

  17. Opportunities for microfluidic technologies in synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Shelly; Rouilly, Vincent; Niu, Xize; Chappell, James; Kitney, Richard I.; Edel, Joshua B.; Freemont, Paul S.; deMello, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce microfluidics technologies as a key foundational technology for synthetic biology experimentation. Recent advances in the field of microfluidics are reviewed and the potential of such a technological platform to support the rapid development of synthetic biology solutions is discussed.

  18. Steel desulphurization with synthetic slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heput, T.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, sulphur is considered a harmful element for steel quality, reason why all the technological steps are being taken in order to eliminate it from the metal bath. This paper deals with the influence of the chemical composition, on the slag quantity and of the bath stirring condition upon the desulphurization process in the casting ladle by treatment with synthetic slag. The experiments were made at an open-hearth plant with the steel tapping in two ladles (the desulphurization was made with synthetic slag at one ladle while the other one was considered standard and at the electric steel plant and for the synthetic slag formation a mix was used, made, according to several receipts, of: lime (50-75%, fluorine (0-17%, bauxite (0-32% and aluminous slag (8-22%. The data were processed in the calculation programs EXCEL and MATLAB, which resulted in a series of correlations between the desulphurization degree and the chemical composition of the slag, respectively the slag quantity both for the charges bubbled with Argon and the unbubbled ones.

    En general, el azufre es considerado un elemento nocivo para la calidad del acero y, por eso, en la práctica, se toman todas las medidas de orden tecnológico para su eliminación del baño metálico. En este trabajo se analiza la influencia de la composición química, de la cantidad de escoria y del estado de agitación del baño sobre el proceso de desulfuración en la cuchara para fundir por tratamiento con escoria sintética. Los experimentos se han realizado en una acería evacuando el acero en dos ollas (en una cuchara se efectuó la desulfuración con escoria sintética y a la otra se consideró como patrón y en un acería eléctrica y para la formación de la escoria sintética se utilizó una mezcla producida según muchas recetas, formada por: cal (50-75%, fluorina (0-17%, bauxita (0-32% y escoria aluminosa (8-22%. Los datos han sido procesados en los programas de c

  19. Water and Wastewater Disinfection with Peracetic Acid and UV Radiation and Using Advanced Oxidative Process PAA/UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Beber de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The individual methods of disinfection peracetic acid (PAA and UV radiation and combined process PAA/UV in water (synthetic and sanitary wastewater were employed to verify the individual and combined action of these advanced oxidative processes on the effectiveness of inactivation of microorganisms indicators of fecal contamination E. coli, total coliforms (in the case of sanitary wastewater, and coliphages (such as virus indicators. Under the experimental conditions investigated, doses of 2, 3, and 4 mg/L of PAA and contact time of 10 minutes and 60 and 90 s exposure to UV radiation, the results indicated that the combined method PAA/UV provided superior efficacy when compared to individual methods of disinfection.

  20. Performance of diatomite/iron oxide modified nonwoven membrane used in membrane bioreactor process for wastewater reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yueling; Zhang, Wenqi; Rao, Pinhua; Jin, Peng

    2014-01-01

    This study describes an approach for surface modification of a nonwoven membrane by diatomite/iron oxide to examine its filterability. Analysis results showed that nonwoven hydrophilicity is enhanced. Static contact angle decreases dramatically from 122.66° to 39.33°. Scanning electron micrograph images show that diatomite/iron oxide is attached on nonwoven fiber. X-ray diffraction analysis further proves that the compound is mostly magnetite. Fourier transformed infrared spectra results reveal that two new absorption peaks might be attributed to Si-O and Fe-O, respectively. Modified and original membranes were used in double nonwoven membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for synthetic wastewater treatment. High critical flux, long filtration time, slow trans-membrane pressure rise and stable sludge volume index confirmed the advantages of modified nonwoven. Comparing with original nonwoven, similar effluent qualities are achieved, meeting the requirements for wastewater reclamation.