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Sample records for low-risk levels relative

  1. Low risk of concussions in top-level karate competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Rafael; Cierna, Dusana; Regueiro, Patricia; Inman, David; Roman, Franco; Abarca, Benjamin; Barrientos, Mercé; Saavedra, Miguel A

    2017-02-01

    Although it is well known that injuries occur in combat sports, the true incidence of concussions is not clearly defined in the literature for karate competition. To determine the incidence of concussions in top-level (World Karate Federation World Championships) karate competition. Injuries that took place in 4 consecutive World Karate Championships (from 2008 to 2014) were prospectively registered. A total of 4625 fights (2916 in the male category and 1709 in the female category) were scrutinised, and concussions were identified and analysed separately for frequency (rate per fight) and injury risk. A total of 4 concussions were diagnosed by the attending physicians after carrying out athlete examinations. Globally, there was 1 concussion in every 1156 fights, or 0.43/1000 athlete-exposures (AE). In male athletes, the rate of concussion was 1/5832 min of fighting, and in female athletes, it was 1/6836 min. OR for concussion in women is 0.57 (95% CI 0.06 to 5.47; z=0.489; p=0.6249) and risk ratio for concussions in men is RR 1.478 (95% CI 0.271 to 8.072), p=0.528, representing a higher risk of definite concussions in men than in women, but not statistically significant. There is not a significantly higher risk of concussions in team competition (no weight limit) when compared with individual competition (held with strict weight limits for each category). The risk of concussions in top-level karate competition is low, with a tendency for an increased risk for men and for competition without weight limits, but not statistically significant with respect to women or individual competition. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. DNA-polymorphisms and plasma levels of vascular disease risk factors in Greenland Inuit--is there a relation with the low risk of cardiovascular disease in the Inuit?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maat, M de; Bladbjerg, E-M; Johansen, L G

    1999-01-01

    Greenland Inuit are a population with a low risk of cardiovascular disease. Recently, we stated that frequencies of potentially high risk alleles of the apolipoproteins, fibrinogen, factor V, glycoprotein IIIa and factor VII (FVII) genes have different allele frequencies in the Inuit when compared...... and CVD risk in Caucasian populations, but for other measures this was not the case (allele frequencies of the PAI-1 polymorphism, and plasma levels of fibrinogen, FVII and t-PA). In conclusion there are clear differences in genetic background and plasma levels of risk factors in Greenland Inuit compared......, aged 30-34 gamma. In addition, we compared the plasma levels of these factors and those of C-reactive protein (CRP) and D-Dimer in Inuit and in Danes, comparable for age and gender. Frequencies (f) were assessed of the alleles that are known as the potential high risk alleles in Caucasians...

  3. Maternal hormone levels and risk of cryptorchism among populations at high and low risk of testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Katherine A; Graubard, Barry I; Nam, Jun-Mo; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Longnecker, Matthew P; Klebanoff, Mark A

    2005-07-01

    Cryptorchism is one of the few well-described risk factors for testicular cancer. It has been suggested that both conditions are related to increased in utero estrogen exposure. The evidence supporting the "estrogen hypothesis" has been inconsistent, however. An alternative hypothesis suggests that higher in utero androgen exposure may protect against the development of cryptorchism and testicular cancer. In order to examine both hypotheses, we studied maternal hormone levels in two populations at diverse risks of testicular cancer; Black Americans (low-risk) and White Americans (high-risk). The study population of 200 mothers of cryptorchid sons and 200 mothers of noncryptorchid sons was nested within the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a cohort study of pregnant women and their children. Third trimester serum levels of estradiol (total, free, bioavailable), estriol, testosterone (total, free, bioavailable), sex hormone-binding globulin, alpha-fetoprotein, and the ratios of estradiols to testosterones were compared between the case and control mothers. The results found no significant differences in the levels of testosterone (total, free, bioavailable), alpha-fetoprotein, sex hormone-binding globulin, or in the ratios of estrogens to androgens. Total estradiol, however, was significantly lower in the cases versus the controls (P = 0.03) among all mothers and, separately, among White mothers (P = 0.05). Similarly, estriol was significantly lower among all cases (P = 0.05) and among White cases (P = 0.05). These results do not support either the estrogen or the androgen hypothesis. Rather, lower estrogens in case mothers may indicate that a placental defect increases the risk of cryptorchism and, possibly, testicular cancer.

  4. Low-risk factor profile, estrogen levels, and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Ase Marie; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI......Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI...

  5. Low Risk of Injuries in Young Adolescents Participating in Top-Level Karate Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Rafael; Inman, David; Arriaza, Alvaro; Saavedra, Miguel A

    2016-02-01

    Prospective studies on injuries in martial arts competition are scarce, especially those involving young practitioners, but the upsurge of children and adolescents taking part in organized training and competition in these sports requires clarification of the injury risk that they represent for youths. Top-level karate competition for young adolescents (cadets, or 14- to 15-year-olds) has a low injury rate and can be safely promoted. Descriptive epidemiological study. Prospective recording of the injuries resulting from all bouts in 3 consecutive World Karate Championships (2009, 2011, and 2013) for cadets was performed. Data were collected prospectively in situ with checklists that described competitor sex, bout category, and weight as well as injured area, diagnosis, mechanism of injury, severity, and treatment. A total of 1020 bouts were reviewed, 671 in the male category and 349 in the female category. A total of 61 injuries were recorded. Of those, only 3 were time-loss injuries. During the 2009 and 2011 championships, there was 1 injury per 25.6 fights, while during the 2013 championship the number of injuries increased, with 1 injury per 10 fights (P = .003). There was no statistical difference in the total injury rate between the male and female categories (P = .71), with an odds ratio of 1.16 (95% CI, 0.52-2.55). The injury rate for cadet top-level karate competition found in this prospective study is much lower than the rates previously published for karate or other martial arts competitions, but there seems to be a marked increase as more championships are held, which is a matter of concern. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Performance of Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-8 serum levels in pediatric oncology patients with neutropenia and fever for the assessment of low-risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontny Udo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with chemotherapy-related neutropenia and fever are usually hospitalized and treated on empirical intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic regimens. Early diagnosis of sepsis in children with febrile neutropenia remains difficult due to non-specific clinical and laboratory signs of infection. We aimed to analyze whether IL-6 and IL-8 could define a group of patients at low risk of septicemia. Methods A prospective study was performed to assess the potential value of IL-6, IL-8 and C-reactive protein serum levels to predict severe bacterial infection or bacteremia in febrile neutropenic children with cancer during chemotherapy. Statistical test used: Friedman test, Wilcoxon-Test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, Mann-Whitney U-Test and Receiver Operating Characteristics. Results The analysis of cytokine levels measured at the onset of fever indicated that IL-6 and IL-8 are useful to define a possible group of patients with low risk of sepsis. In predicting bacteremia or severe bacterial infection, IL-6 was the best predictor with the optimum IL-6 cut-off level of 42 pg/ml showing a high sensitivity (90% and specificity (85%. Conclusion These findings may have clinical implications for risk-based antimicrobial treatment strategies.

  7. Plasma IL-8 and IL-6 levels can be used to define a group with low risk of septicaemia among cancer patients with fever and neutropenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bont, ESJM; Vellenga, E; Swaanenburg, JCJM; Fidler, [No Value; Visser-van Brummen, PJ; Kamps, WA

    The standard therapy for patients with fever and chemotherapy-related neutropenia is hospitalization and infusion of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Early discharge of a defined group of patients at low risk for septicaemia would be of great advantage for these patients. Ih this study plasma

  8. Plasma IL-8 and IL-6 levels can be used to define a group with low risk of septicaemia among cancer patients with fever and neutropenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bont, ESJM; Vellenga, E; Swaanenburg, JCJM; Fidler, [No Value; Visser-van Brummen, PJ; Kamps, WA

    1999-01-01

    The standard therapy for patients with fever and chemotherapy-related neutropenia is hospitalization and infusion of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Early discharge of a defined group of patients at low risk for septicaemia would be of great advantage for these patients. Ih this study plasma

  9. Low Risk Anomalies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Paul; Wagner, Christian; Zechner, Josef

    . Empirically, we find that option-implied ex-ante skewness is strongly related to ex-post residual coskewness and alphas. Beta- and volatility-based low risk anomalies are largely driven by a single principal component, which is in turn largely explained by skewness. Controlling for skewness renders the alphas......This paper shows that stocks' CAPM alphas are negatively related to CAPM betas if investors demand compensation for negative skewness. Thus, high (low) beta stocks appear to underperform (outperform). This apparent anomaly merely reflects compensation for residual coskewness ignored by the CAPM...... of betting-against-beta and -volatility insignificant....

  10. Life-time risk of mortality due to different levels of alcohol consumption in seven European countries: implications for low-risk drinking guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Kevin D; Gmel, Gerrit; Gmel, Gerhard; Mäkelä, Pia; Probst, Charlotte; Room, Robin; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-09-01

    Low-risk alcohol drinking guidelines require a scientific basis that extends beyond individual or group judgements of risk. Life-time mortality risks, judged against established thresholds for acceptable risk, may provide such a basis for guidelines. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate alcohol mortality risks for seven European countries based on different average daily alcohol consumption amounts. The maximum acceptable voluntary premature mortality risk was determined to be one in 1000, with sensitivity analyses of one in 100. Life-time mortality risks for different alcohol consumption levels were estimated by combining disease-specific relative risk and mortality data for seven European countries with different drinking patterns (Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy and Poland). Alcohol consumption data were obtained from the Global Information System on Alcohol and Health, relative risk data from meta-analyses and mortality information from the World Health Organization. The variation in the life-time mortality risk at drinking levels relevant for setting guidelines was less than that observed at high drinking levels. In Europe, the percentage of adults consuming above a risk threshold of one in 1000 ranged from 20.6 to 32.9% for women and from 35.4 to 54.0% for men. Life-time risk of premature mortality under current guideline maximums ranged from 2.5 to 44.8 deaths per 1000 women in Finland and Estonia, respectively, and from 2.9 to 35.8 deaths per 1000 men in Finland and Estonia, respectively. If based upon an acceptable risk of one in 1000, guideline maximums for Europe should be 8-10 g/day for women and 15-20 g/day for men. If low-risk alcohol guidelines were based on an acceptable risk of one in 1000 premature deaths, then maximums for Europe should be 8-10 g/day for women and 15-20 g/day for men, and some of the current European guidelines would require downward revision. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. The value of routine mid-trimester ultrasound in low-risk pregnancies at primary care level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B van Dyk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of routine second-trimester ultrasound scanning on obstetric management and pregnancy outcomes. This was an open cluster, randomised, controlled trial. Clusters of women with low-risk pregnancies presenting in the second trimester were randomised to receive an ultrasound scan followed by usual antenatal care, or to an unscanned control group undergoing conventional antenatal care only. Out of the 962 women randomised, follow-up was successful for 804 (83.6%, with 416 allocated to the ultrasound scan group and 388 controls. There were no significant differences between the ultrasound scan group and the control group in terms of prenatal hospitalisation, mode of delivery, miscarriage, perinatal mortality rate and low birthweight rate. Ultrasound dating was associated with a lower rate of induction of labour for post-term pregnancy (1.4% vs. 3.6%; P=0.049. However, ultrasound scanning in low-risk pregnancies was not associated with improvements in pregnancy outcome. Opsomming Hierdie studie het die effek van roetine mid-trimester ultraklankskandering op swangerskapsorg en –uitkomste ondersoek. Dit was ’n oop tros, lukrake, beheerde proef. Groepe vroue met laerisikoswanger- skap in die midtrimester is lukraak toegewys vir ’n ultraklank-skandering, gevolg deur voorgeskrewe voorgeboor-tesorg, of vir ’n kontrolegroep wat voorgeboortesorg volgens nasionaal voorgeskrewe protokol sonder skandering ontvang het. Van die 962 vroue wat aan die steekproef deelgeneem het kon data vir 804 (83.6% suksesvol opgevolg word, met 416 in die ultraklankgroep en 388 in die kontrolegroep. Geen beduidende verskille is tussen die twee groepe gevind ten opsigte van voorgeboorte-hospitalisasie, geboortemetode, miskraamstatistiek, perinatale komplikasies of laegeboortegewig nie. Ultraklankdatering van swangerskappe is met minder kraaminduksie (1.4% teen 3.6%; P=0.049 vir natrimesterswangerskap geassosieer. Roetine ultraklankskandering

  12. Low Risk Anomalies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Paul; Wagner, Christian; Zechner, Josef

    This paper shows theoretically and empirically that beta- and volatility-based low risk anomalies are driven by return skewness. The empirical patterns concisely match the predictions of our model that endogenizes the role of skewness for stock returns through default risk. With increasing downside...... risk, the standard capital asset pricing model (CAPM) increasingly overestimates expected equity returns relative to firms' true (skew-adjusted) market risk. Empirically, the profitability of betting against beta/volatility increases with firms' downside risk, and the risk-adjusted return differential...... of betting against beta/volatility among low skew firms compared to high skew firms is economically large. Our results suggest that the returns to betting against beta or volatility do not necessarily pose asset pricing puzzles but rather that such strategies collect premia that compensate for skew risk...

  13. HFE C282Y/H63D compound heterozygotes are at low risk of hemochromatosis-related morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrin, Lyle C; Bertalli, Nadine A; Dalton, Gregory W; Osborne, Nicholas J; Constantine, Clare C; McLaren, Christine E; English, Dallas R; Gertig, Dorota M; Delatycki, Martin B; Nicoll, Amanda J; Southey, Melissa C; Hopper, John L; Giles, Graham G; Anderson, Gregory J; Olynyk, John K; Powell, Lawrie W; Allen, Katrina J

    2009-07-01

    The risk of hemochromatosis-related morbidity is unknown among HFE compound heterozygotes (C282Y/H63D). We used a prospective population-based cohort study to estimate the prevalence of elevated iron indices and hemochromatosis-related morbidity for compound heterozygotes. In all, 31,192 subjects of northern European descent were genotyped for HFE C282Y and H63D. An HFE-genotype stratified random sample of 1,438 subjects, followed for an average of 12 years to a mean age of 65 years, completed questionnaires and gave blood. Clinical examinations were blinded to HFE genotype. A total of 180 (84 males) clinically examined C282Y/H63D participants were compared with 330 (149 males) controls with neither HFE mutation; 132 (65 males) and 270 (122 males), respectively, had serum iron measures at both timepoints. Mean serum ferritin (SF) and transferrin saturation (TS) were significantly greater for male and female compound heterozygotes than for wild-types at baseline and follow-up (all P females who were premenopausal at baseline, where SF was similar in both genotype groups. For subjects with serum measures from both baseline and follow-up, mean SF and TS levels did not change significantly for men or for postmenopausal women, but for premenopausal women SF levels increased from 43 to 109 microg/L for compound heterozygotes and from 35 to 64 microg/L for wild-types (both P female compound heterozygotes had a similar prevalence of hemochromatosis-related morbidity to wild-types. One of 82 males and zero of 95 females had documented iron overload-related disease. For male compound heterozygotes, mean iron indices do not change during middle age but for female compound heterozygotes menopause results in increased mean SF. Although compound heterozygotes might maintain elevated iron indices during middle age, documented iron overload-related disease is rare.

  14. Low risk of suicide and lithium in drinking water: A Danish individual-level cohort study using spatial analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikoline Nygård; Schullehner, Jörg; Jørgensen, Lisbeth Flindt

    Importance of the work and objectives: Lithium occurs naturally in drinking water and may have a positive effect on mental health and suicide. In clinical practice, lithium in high therapeutic doses is used as a mood-stabilizer in the treatment of affective disorders. Previous studies performed...... at an ecological level have found an association between lithium in drinking water and risk of suicide. The present study is the first to investigate this association at an individual level considering long-term exposure. Methodologies: The study population consisted of all 3,724,588 Danish adults (≥20 years......) of which 15,370 committed suicide from 1990-2012. Information on suicides was obtained from the nationwide Danish Register of Causes of Death. Data on lithium concentrations were obtained through a nationwide drinking water campaign from 2013 including 151 measurements from waterworks supplying...

  15. Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels as a possible predictor of psychopathology in healthy twins at high and low risk for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    and low risk twins, respectively). Participants were followed up longitudinally with questionnaires at 6-month intervals for mean seven years and then reassessed with a personal interview to obtain information about whether they had developed psychiatric illness. At follow-up 36 participants (15.4%) had...... developed psychiatric disorder. Cox regression analysis revealed that BDNF levels at baseline were not associated with onset of illness in this explorative study. Further, two-way interactions between BDNF levels and the Val66Met polymorphism or between familial risk and the Val66Met polymorphism did......Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a potential biomarker of affective disorder. However, longitudinal studies evaluating a potential predictive role of BDNF on subsequent psychopathology are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF alone or in interaction...

  16. Low-risk alternative waste forms for problematic high-level and long-lived nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.W.A.; Begg, B.D.; Moricca, S.; Day, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The highest cost component the nuclear waste clean up challenge centres on high-level waste (HLW) and consequently the greatest opportunity for cost and schedule savings lies with optimising the approach to HLW cleanup. The waste form is the key component of the immobilisation process. To achieve maximum cost savings and optimum performance the selection of the waste form should be driven by the characteristics of the specific nuclear waste to be immobilised, rather than adopting a single baseline approach. This is particularly true for problematic nuclear wastes that are often not amenable to a single baseline approach. The use of tailored, high-performance, alternative waste forms that include ceramics and glass-ceramics, coupled with mature process technologies offer significant performance improvements and efficiency savings for a nuclear waste cleanup program. It is the waste form that determines how well the waste is locked up (chemical durability), and the number of repository disposal canisters required (waste loading efficiency). The use of alternative waste forms for problematic wastes also lowers the overall risk by providing high performance HLW treatment alternatives. The benefits tailored alternative waste forms bring to the HLW cleanup program will be briefly reviewed with reference to work carried out on the following: The HLW calcines at the Idaho National Laboratory; SYNROC ANSTO has developed a process utilising a glass-ceramic combined with mature hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) technology and has demonstrated this at a waste loading of 80 % and at a 30 kg HIP scale. The use of this technology has recently been estimated to result in a 70 % reduction in waste canisters, compared to the baseline borosilicate glass technology; Actinide-rich waste streams, particularly the work being done by SYNROC ANSTO with Nexia Solutions on the Plutonium-residues wastes at Sellafield in the UK, which if implemented is forecast to result in substantial

  17. Age-related changes of healthy bone marrow cell signaling in response to growth factors provide insight into low risk MDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornblau, Steven M; Cohen, Aileen C; Soper, David; Huang, Ying-Wen; Cesano, Alessandra

    2014-11-01

    Single Cell Network Profiling (SCNP) is a multiparametric flow cytometry-based assay that quantifiably and simultaneously measures changes in intracellular signaling proteins in response to in vitro extracellular modulators at the single cell level. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous clonal disorder of hematopoietic stem cells that occurs in elderly subjects and is characterized by dysplasia and ineffective hematopoiesis. The functional responsiveness of MDS bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic cells, including functionally distinct myeloid and erythroid precursor subsets, to hematopoietic growth factors (HGF) and the relationship of modulated signaling to disease characteristics is poorly understood. SCNP was used first to examine the effects of age on erythropoietin (EPO) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF)-induced signaling in myeloid, nucleated red blood cells (nRBC), and CD34 expressing cell subsets in healthy BM (n = 15). SCNP was then used to map functional signaling profiles in low risk (LR) MDS (n = 7) for comparison to signaling in samples from healthy donors and to probe signaling associations within clinically defined subgroups. In healthy BM samples, signaling responses to HGF were quite homogeneous (i.e., tightly regulated) with age-dependent effects observed in response to EPO but not to GCSF. Despite the relatively small number of samples assayed in the study, LR MDS could be classified into distinct subgroups based on both cell subset frequency and signaling profiles. As a correlate of underlying genetic abnormalities, signal transduction analyses may provide a functional and potentially clinically relevant classification of MDS. Further evaluation in a larger cohort is warranted. © 2013 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  18. HFE C282Y/H63D Compound Heterozygotes Are at Low Risk of Hemochromatosis-Related Morbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Gurrin, Lyle C.; Bertalli, Nadine A.; Dalton, Gregory W.; Osborne, Nicholas J.; Constantine, Clare C.; McLaren, Christine E.; English, Dallas R.; Gertig, Dorota M.; Delatycki, Martin B.; Nicoll, Amanda J.; Southey, Melissa C.; Hopper, John L.; Giles, Graham G.; Anderson, Gregory J.; Olynyk, John K.

    2009-01-01

    The risk of hemochromatosis-related morbidity is unknown among HFE compound heterozygotes (C282Y/H63D). We used a prospective population-based cohort study to estimate the prevalence of elevated iron indices and hemochromatosis-related morbidity for compound heterozygotes. In all, 31,192 subjects of northern European descent were genotyped for HFE C282Y and H63D. An HFE-genotype stratified random sample of 1,438 subjects, followed for an average of 12 years to a mean age of 65 years, complete...

  19. Is there any association between National Institute of Health category IV prostatitis and prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with low-risk localized prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Ceylan, Cavit; Kilinc, Fatih; Gazel, Eymen; Resorlu, Berkan; Odabas, Oner

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the association between National Institute of Health category IV prostatitis and prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with low-risk localized prostate cancer. The data of 440 patients who had undergone prostate biopsies due to high PSA levels and suspicious digital rectal examination findings were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence of accompanying NIH IV prostatitis. The exclusion criteria were as follows: Gleason score>6, PSA level>20ng/mL, >2 positive cores, >50% cancerous tissue per biopsy, urinary tract infection, urological interventions at least 1 week previously (cystoscopy, urethral catheterization, or similar procedure), history of prostate biopsy, and history of androgen or 5-alpha reductase use. All patient's age, total PSA and free PSA levels, ratio of free to total PSA, PSA density and prostate volume were recorded. In total, 101 patients were included in the study. Histopathological examination revealed only PCa in 78 (77.2%) patients and PCa+NIH IV prostatitis in 23 (22.7%) patients. The median total PSA level was 7.4 (3.5-20.0) ng/mL in the PCa+NIH IV prostatitis group and 6.5 (0.6-20.0) ng/mL in the PCa group (p=0.67). The PSA level was≤10ng/mL in 60 (76.9%) patients in the PCa group and in 16 (69.6%) patients in the PCa+NIH IV prostatitis group (p=0.32). Our study showed no statistically significant difference in PSA levels between patients with and without NIH IV prostatitis accompanying PCa.

  20. High-risk versus low-risk football game weekends: differences in problem drinking and alcohol-related consequences on college campuses in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Heather; Blocker, Jill N; Buettner, Cynthia K; Martin, Barbara A; Parries, Maria; Mccoy, Thomas P; Mitra, Ananda; Andrews, David W; Rhodes, Scott D

    2009-01-01

    Collegiate football games provide multiple social opportunities for alcohol use by students over the course of the weekend. The goal of this study was to examine alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences on football game weekends to determine differences based on characteristics of the game. A random sample of students from two large, public universities in the United States completed a survey on the Sunday-Friday following a high-risk weekend (HRW, important, home game) and low-risk weekend (LRW, no home game or game of importance) (N = 3,238 total). The survey measured the number of days students drank (0-3) and got drunk (0-3) over the weekend and whether 1+ consequences were experienced due to one's own drinking (yes/no) and due to others' drinking (yes/no). Ordinal logistic regression analyses revealed greater odds of drinking alcohol (OR = 1.70, CI = 1.46-1.97) and getting drunk (OR = 1.49, CI = 1.27-1.76) on HRW versus LRW. Logistic regression analyses revealed greater odds of experiencing 1+ consequences as a result of one's own drinking (OR = 1.38, CI = 1.16-1.63) and experiencing 1+ consequences as a result of others' drinking (OR = 1.52, CI = 1.30-1.78) on HRW versus LRW. These findings suggest that additional prevention efforts aimed at reducing risky drinking are needed over HRW and have implications for campus administrators, law enforcement, and substance abuse program coordinators.

  1. Quality of life, physical function and MRI T2* in elderly low-risk MDS patients treated to a haemoglobin level of ≥120 g/L with darbepoetin alfa ± filgrastim or erythrocyte transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson-Ehle, Herman; Birgegård, Gunnar; Samuelsson, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Anaemia in low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is associated with reduced quality of life (QoL). Response to treatment with erythropoietin ± granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is associated with improved QoL, but whether transfusion therapy with higher haemoglobin (Hb) target levels...... has similar effects is unknown. The objective for this prospective phase II Nordic multicentre trial was to assess QoL, response rate and physical function in elderly anaemic MDS patients treated to a target Hb level of >120 g/L....

  2. Circulating free soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 during late first trimester in relation with placental volume as a surrogate for trophoblastic production: a physiology study in low-risk cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthati, Sudtawin; Pratumvinit, Busadee; Hanyongyuth, Ratchaneekorn; Udompunthurak, Suthipol; Phaophan, Amprapha; Wataganara, Tuangsit

    2017-08-01

    Data on first-trimester circulating soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and ischemic placental disease is limited and conflicting. This study aimed to study its physiology in relation to trophoblastic mass as the source of production. Low-risk (representing normal placentation) women from 11 0/7 to 13 6/7 weeks' gestation were prospectively enrolled. Selective measurement of serum free sFlt-1 using a new automated assay from 100 eligible subjects was analyzed with gestational age, maternal weight, fetal crown-rump length (CRL), and mean uterine artery Doppler pulsatility index (PI). Placental volume (surrogate for trophoblastic mass) was estimated using 3-dimensional ultrasound and was assessed for its association with serum free sFlt-1. There was no significant association between serum free sFlt-1 and placental volume in either arithmetic (r = 0.053, p = 0.600), logarithmic (r = 0.005, p = 0.963), or quartile (p = 0.703) scale. There was a significant negative correlation between free sFlt-1 level and maternal weight (r=-0.213, p = 0.033). No significant correlation was found between free sFlt-1 level and gestational age (r = 0.007, p = 0.947), CRL (r = 0.027, p = 0.788), and uterine artery Doppler mean PI (r = 0.020, p = 0.828). Lack of correlation between circulating free sFlt-1 level and placental volume suggests that trophoblasts are not its major source during first trimester with presumably physiologic placentation.

  3. Detection of serous precursor lesions in resected fallopian tubes from patients with benign diseases and a relatively low risk for ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Naoyo; Murakami, Fumihiro; Higaki, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    The frequency of ovarian cancers in Japan has increased; however, doubts have been raised concerning the mechanism by which high-grade serous adenocarcinomas (HGSCs) arise. Conventionally, HGSC is thought to originate from the ovarian surface epithelium or epithelial inclusion cyst. However, recent data indicate that HGSCs may in fact develop from precursor lesions in the fallopian tube, including epithelia with a p53 signature, serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs), secretory cell outgrowths (SCOUTs), and tubal intraepithelial lesions in transition (TILT). Here, we determined the frequency of these fallopian tube precursors in surgically excised samples from 123 patients with benign pelvic diseases. We identified 12 cases with a p53 signature (9.7%), 26 with observable SCOUTs (21.1%), and 4 with TILT (3.2%), but no STIC cases. Although the lifetime risk for developing ovarian cancer is only around 1.4% for women without germ-line mutations, it is important to evaluate the presence of precursor lesions to understand HGSC pathogenesis better. Taken together, salpingectomy appears to be an option for women who are past their childbearing age and plan to undergo elective pelvic surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the presence of these specific precursors post-salpingectomy in low-risk patients. © 2016 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy compared with permanent prostate implantation in low-risk prostate cancer based on endorectal magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging and prostate-specific antigen level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, Barby; Kurhanewicz, John; Pouliot, Jean; Weinberg, Vivian; Shinohara, Katsuto; Coakley, Fergus; Roach, Mack

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the metabolic response by comparing the time to resolution of spectroscopic abnormalities (TRSA) and the time to prostate-specific antigen level in low-risk prostate cancer patients after treatment with three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT) compared with permanent prostate implantation (PPI). Recent studies have suggested that the treatment of low-risk prostate cancer yields similar results for patients treated with 3D-CRT or PPI. Methods and Materials: A total of 50 patients, 25 in each group, who had been treated with 3D-CRT or PPI, had undergone endorectal magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging before and/or at varying times after therapy. The 3D-CRT patients had received radiation doses of ≥72 Gy compared with 144 Gy for the PPI patients. The spectra from all usable voxels were examined for detectable levels of metabolic signal, and the percentages of atrophic and cancerous voxels were tabulated. Results: The median time to resolution of the spectroscopic abnormalities was 32.2 and 24.8 months and the time to the nadir prostate-specific antigen level was 52.4 and 38.0 months for the 3D-CRT and PPI patients, respectively. Of the 3D-CRT patients, 92% achieved negative endorectal magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging findings, with 40% having complete metabolic atrophy. All 25 PPI patients had negative endorectal magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging findings, with 60% achieving complete metabolic atrophy. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that metabolic and biochemical responses of the prostate are more pronounced after PPI. Our results have not proved PPI is more effective at curing prostate cancer, but they have demonstrated that it may be more effective at destroying prostate metabolism

  5. Do Parents and Clinicians Agree on Ratings of Autism-Related Behaviors at 12 Months of Age? A Study of Infants at High and Low Risk for ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macari, Suzanne L.; Wu, Grace C.; Powell, Kelly K.; Fontenelle, Scuddy, IV; Macris, Deanna M.; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Given the emphasis on early screening for ASD, it is crucial to examine the concordance between parent report and clinician observation of autism-related behaviors. Similar items were compared from the First Year Inventory (Baranek et al. "First-Year Inventory (FYI) 2.0." University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 2003), a parent…

  6. Low-risk diet for colorectal cancer in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calza, S; Ferraroni, M; La Vecchia, C; Franceschi, S; Decarli, A

    2001-12-01

    An innovative approach was used to define a low-risk diet for colorectal cancer from a multicentric case-control study of 1953 incident cases and 4154 hospital controls from Italy. A logistic regression model was fitted on the reported intake of five macronutrients, and the estimated coefficients were used to compute a diet-related logistic risk score (LRS). The mean of LRS within risk decile ranged from 0.89 to 1.86. Total energy intake and absolute consumption of each macronutrient increased with increasing LRS. In relative terms, however, starch intake showed an almost threefold increase across subsequent score levels, while a decline was observed for unsaturated fat, sugar and protein. Saturated fat consumption remained fairly stable in relative terms. When food groups were considered, bread and cereals dishes, cakes and desserts and refined sugar were positively associated, while the consumption of vegetables, fruit, fish, poultry and olive oils was inversely associated with LRS.

  7. Can a Gleason 6 or Less Microfocus of Prostate Cancer in One Biopsy and Prostate-Specific Antigen Level <10 ng/mL Be Defined as the Archetype of Low-Risk Prostate Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Taverna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC remains a cause of death worldwide. Here we investigate whether a single microfocus of PC at the biopsy (graded as Gleason 6 or less, ≤5% occupancy and the PSA <10 ng/mL can define the archetype of low-risk prostate disease. 4500 consecutive patients were enrolled. Among them, 134 patients with a single micro-focus of PC were followed up, and the parameters influencing the biochemical relapse (BR were analysed. Out of 134 patients, 94 had clinically significant disease, specifically in 74.26% of the patients with PSA <10 ng/mL. Positive surgical margins and the extracapsular invasion were found in 29.1% and 51.4% patients, respectively. BR was observed in 29.6% of the patients. Cox regression evidenced a correlation between the BR and Gleason grade at the retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP, capsular invasion, and the presence of positive surgical margins. Multivariate regression analysis showed a statistically significant correlation between the presence of surgical margins at the RRP and BR. Considering a single micro-focus of PC at the biopsy and PSA serum level <10 ng/mL, clinically significant disease was found in 74.26% patients and only positive surgical margins are useful for predicting the BR.

  8. Financial impact of outpatient clinic radioiodine therapy with sodium iodide I-131 for the treatment of patients with differentiated low-risk thyroid carcinoma in relation to hospital doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berenguer, P.F.; Chang, T.M.C.; Silva, R.A.M.; Neto, A.H.D.; Belo, I.B.; Santos, M.A.P.

    2017-01-01

    Differential thyroid carcinoma (CDT) is the most prevalent endocrine malignancy in the world, with an excellent prognosis and a 10-year survival rate of over 95%. By 2013, the lowest activity of I-131 authorized by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) in the therapy of patients with low-risk CDT was 3,700 MBq, requiring hospitalization. Recent studies have shown similar effectiveness between low and high doses of I-131 in the treatment of low-risk CDT. In 2014, the Ministry of Health included in the list of SUS procedures the use of lower activities (1,110 MBq and 1,850 MBq) for this purpose. The Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) also authorized the outpatient use of activity up to 1,850 MBq of I-131. Objective: To evaluate the financial impact of the adoption of ambulatory radioiodine therapy in patients with CDT of low-risk when compared to the hospital dose. Methods: Analysis of patients with CDT low-risk who were treated with an outpatient dose of I-131 from August / 2014 to January / 2017 at a nuclear medicine service in Recife, PE, Brazil. The cost of outpatient versus hospital doses was calculated. Results: A total of 289 patients underwent low doses of iodine therapy were evaluated, resulting in a savings of R$227,793.80. Conclusion: Outpatient radioiodine therapy in the treatment of patients with CDT of low-risk resulted in a 61.10% reduction in SUS expense, in addition to enabling faster care

  9. Cost-effective treatment of low-risk carcinoma not invading bladder muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David A; Rink, Michael; Cha, Eugene K; Xylinas, Evanguelos; Chughtai, Bilal; Scherr, Douglas S; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Lee, Richard K

    2013-03-01

    Study Type - Therapy (cost effectiveness analysis) Level of Evidence 2a What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Bladder cancer is one of the costliest malignancies to treat throughout the life of a patient. The most cost-effective management for low-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer is not known. The current study shows that employing cystoscopic office fulguration for low-risk appearing bladder cancer recurrences can materially impact the cost-effectiveness of therapy. In a follow-up protocol where office fulguration is routinely employed for low-risk bladder cancers, peri-operative intravesical chemotherapy may not provide any additional cost-effectiveness benefit. To examine the cost-effectiveness of fulguration vs transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) with and without perioperative intravesical chemotherapy (PIC) for managing low-risk carcinoma not invading bladder muscle (NMIBC). Low-risk NMIBC carries a low progression rate, lending support to the use of office-based fulguration for small recurrences rather than traditional TURBT. A Markov state transition model was created to simulate treatment of NMIBC with vs without PIC, with recurrence treated by formal TURBT vs treatment with fulguration. Costing data were obtained from the Medicare Resource Based Relative Value Scale. Data regarding the success of PIC were obtained from the peer-reviewed literature, as were corresponding utilities for bladder cancer-related procedures. Sensitivity analyses were performed. At 5-year follow-up, a strategy of fulguration without PIC was the most cost-effective (mean cost-effectiveness = US $654.8/quality-adjusted life year), despite a lower recurrence rate with PIC. Both fulguration strategies dominated each TURBT strategy. Sensitivity analysis showed that fulguration without PIC dominated all other strategies when the recurrence rate after PIC was increased to ≥14.2% per year. Similarly, the cost-effectiveness of TURBT becomes more

  10. Low-Risk Investing without Industry Bets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    The strategy of buying safe low-beta stocks while shorting (or underweighting) riskier high-beta stocks (“betting against beta”) has been shown to deliver significant risk-adjusted returns. Some have suggested, however, that such “low-risk investing” delivers high returns primarily because...... of industry bets that favor a slowly changing set of stodgy, stable industries. The authors refute this notion by showing that a strategy of betting against beta has delivered positive returns both as an industry-neutral bet within each industry and as a pure bet across industries....

  11. Hormone levels in radiotherapy treatment related fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswal, B.M.; Mallik, G.S.

    2003-01-01

    Radiotherapy is known to cause debilitating treatment related fatigue. Fatigue in general is a conglomeration of psychological, physical, hematological and unknown factors influencing the internal milieu of the cancer patient. Radiotherapy can add stress at the cellular and somatic level to aggravate further fatigue in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Stress related hormones might be mediating in the development of fatigue. This is an ongoing prospective study to evaluate if the hormonal profile related to stress is influenced by radiotherapy treatment related fatigue. The study was conducted from September 2002 onwards in the division of Radiotherapy and Oncology of our Medical School. Previously untreated patients with histopathology proof of malignancy requiring external beam radiotherapy were considered for this study. Selection criteria were applied to exclude other causes of fatigue. Initial fatigue score was obtained using Pipers Fatigue Score questionnaire containing 23 questions, subsequently final fatigue score was obtained at the end of radiotherapy. Blood samples were obtained to estimate the levels of ACTH, TSH, HGH, and cortisol on the final assessment. The hormone levels were compared with resultant post radiotherapy fatigue score. At the time of reporting 50 patients were evaluable for the study. The total significant fatigue score was observed among 12 (24%) patients. The individual debilitating fatigue score were behavioral severity 14 (28%), affective meaning 14(28%), Sensory 13 (26%) and cognitive mood 10 (20%) respectively. From the analysis of hormonal profile, growth hormone level > 1 ng/mL and TSH <0.03 appears to be associated with high fatigue score (though statistically not significant); whereas there was no correlation with ACTH and serum cortisol level. In our prospective study severe radiotherapy treatment related fatigue was found among our patient population. Low levels of TSH and high levels of GH appear to be associated

  12. Colloids related to low level and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, J.D.F.; Russell, P.J.; Avery, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive research investigation has been undertaken to improve the understanding of the potential role of colloids in the context of disposal and storage of low level and intermediate level waste immobilized in cement. Several topics have been investigated which include: (a) the study of the formation and characteristics of colloids in cement leachates; (b) the effects of the near-field aqueous chemistry on the characteristics of colloids in repository environments; (c) colloid sorption behaviour; (d) interactions of near-field materials with leachates; (e) characteristics of near-field materials in EC repository simulation tests; and (f) colloid migration behaviour. These experimental investigations should provide data and a basis for the development of transport models and leaching mechanisms, and thus relate directly to the part of the Task 3 programme concerned with migration and retention of radionuclides in the near field. 114 Figs.; 39 Tabs.; 12 Refs

  13. Nonvisible tumors on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging does not predict low-risk prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Lee

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Even though cancer foci were not visualized by postbiopsy MRI, the pathological tumor volumes and extent of GS upgrading were relatively high. Therefore, nonvisible tumors by multiparametric MRI do not appear to be predictive of low-risk PCA.

  14. Quantifying the benefits of achieving or maintaining long-term low risk profile for cardiovascular disease: The Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Smit, Henriëtte A; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Daviglus, Martha L; Verschuren, W M Monique

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating the relation between risk profiles and cardiovascular disease have measured risk at baseline only. We investigated maintenance and changes of risk profiles over time and their potential impact on incident cardiovascular disease. Population-based cohort study. Risk factors were measured at baseline (1987-1991) among 5574 cardiovascular disease-free adults aged 20-59 years. They were classified into four risk categories according to smoking status, presence of diabetes and widely accepted cut-off values for blood pressure, total cholesterol/HDL-ratio and body mass index. Categories were subdivided (maintenance, deterioration, improvement) based on risk factor levels at six and 11 years of follow-up. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for cardiovascular disease incidence 5-10 years following the risk-change period were fitted using Cox proportional hazards models. Only 12% of participants were low risk at baseline, and only 7% maintained it. Participants who maintained a low risk profile over 11 years had seven times lower risk of cardiovascular disease (HR: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.05-0.41) than participants with long-term high risk profile, whereas those low risk at baseline whose profile deteriorated had three times lower risk (HR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.18-0.71). Our results suggest that, within each baseline risk profile group, compared with a stable profile, improving profiles may be associated with up to two-fold lower HRs, and deteriorating profiles with about two-fold higher HRs. Our study, using long-term risk profiles, demonstrates the full benefits of low risk profile. These findings underscore the importance of achieving and maintaining low risk from young adulthood onwards. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  15. Work related stress and blood glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancini, A; Ricci, S; Tomei, F; Sacco, C; Pacchiarotti, A; Nardone, N; Ricci, P; Suppi, A; De Cesare, D P; Anzelmo, V; Giubilati, R; Pimpinella, B; Rosati, M V; Tomei, G

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate work-related subjective stress in a group of workers on a major Italian company in the field of healthcare through the administration of a valid "questionnaire-tool indicator" (HSE Indicator Tool), and to analyze any correlation between stress levels taken from questionnaire scores and blood glucose values. We studied a final sample consisting of 241 subjects with different tasks. The HSE questionnaire - made up of 35 items (divided into 7 organizational dimensions) with 5 possible answers - has been distributed to all the subjects in occasion of the health surveillance examinations provided by law. The questionnaire was then analyzed using its specific software to process the results related to the 7 dimensions. These results were compared using the Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression with the blood glucose values obtained from each subject. From the analysis of the data the following areas resulted critical, in other words linked to an intermediate (yellow area) or high (red area) condition of stress: sustain from managers, sustain from colleagues, quality of relationships and professional changes. A significant positive correlation (p work stress can be statistically associated with increased levels of blood glucose.

  16. Selection of low-risk design guidelines for energetic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, D.; Marchaterre, J.; Graham, J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper recommends the establishment of specific design guidelines for protection against potential, but low-probability, energetic events. These guidelines recognize the plant protective features incorporated to prevent such events, as well as the inherent capability of the plant to accommodate a certain level of energy release. Further, their application is recommended within the context of necessary standardized and agreed-upon acceptance criteria which are less restrictive than ASME code requirements. The paper provides the background upon which the selection of the design is made, including the characterization of energetic events dependent on various core-design parameters, and including the necessity of a low-risk design balanced between prevention of accidents and the mitigation of consequences

  17. Eustatic and Relative Sea Level Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovere, A.; Stocchi, P.; Vacchi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Sea level changes can be driven by either variationsin the masses or volume of the oceans, or bychanges of the land with respect to the sea surface. Inthe first case, a sea level change is defined ‘eustatic’;otherwise, it is defined ‘relative’. Several techniques canbe used to observe changes in sea

  18. Colloids related to low level and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, J.D.F.; Russell, P.J.; Avery, R.G.

    1991-03-01

    A comprehensive investigation has been undertaken to improve the understanding of the potential role of colloids in the context of disposal and storage of low and intermediate level waste immobilised in cement. Several topics have been investigated using a wide range of advanced physico-chemical and analytical techniques. These include: (a) the study of formation and characteristics of colloids in cement leachates, (b) the effects of the near-field aqueous chemistry on the characteristics of colloids in repository environments, (c) colloid sorption behaviour, (d) interactions of near-field materials with leachates, and (e) preliminary assessment of colloid migration behaviour. It has been shown that the generation of colloids in cement leachates can arise from a process of nucleation and growth leading to an amorphous phase which is predominantly calcium silicate hydrate. Such colloidal material has a capacity for association with polyvalent rare earths and actinides and these may be significant in the source term and processes involving radionuclide retention in the near field. It has also been shown that the near-field aqueous chemistry (pH, Ca 2+ concentration) has a marked effect on colloid behaviour (deposition and stability). A mechanistic approach to predict colloid sorption affinity has been developed which highlights the importance of colloid characteristics and the nature of the ionic species. (author)

  19. Low-risk susceptibility alleles in 40 human breast cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Elstrodt, Fons; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Dehghan, Abbas; Klijn, Jan GM; Schutte, Mieke

    2009-01-01

    Low-risk breast cancer susceptibility alleles or SNPs confer only modest breast cancer risks ranging from just over 1.0 to1.3 fold. Yet, they are common among most populations and therefore are involved in the development of essentially all breast cancers. The mechanism by which the low-risk SNPs confer breast cancer risks is currently unclear. The breast cancer association consortium BCAC has hypothesized that the low-risk SNPs modulate expression levels of nearby located genes. Genotypes of five low-risk SNPs were determined for 40 human breast cancer cell lines, by direct sequencing of PCR-amplified genomic templates. We have analyzed expression of the four genes that are located nearby the low-risk SNPs, by using real-time RT-PCR and Human Exon microarrays. The SNP genotypes and additional phenotypic data on the breast cancer cell lines are presented. We did not detect any effect of the SNP genotypes on expression levels of the nearby-located genes MAP3K1, FGFR2, TNRC9 and LSP1. The SNP genotypes provide a base line for functional studies in a well-characterized cohort of 40 human breast cancer cell lines. Our expression analyses suggest that a putative disease mechanism through gene expression modulation is not operative in breast cancer cell lines

  20. Low-risk diet for breast cancer in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschi, S; La Vecchia, C; Russo, A; Negri, E; Favero, A; Decarli, A

    1997-11-01

    To define a low-risk diet for breast cancer in Italy, a multicentric case-control study of 2569 incident cases of breast cancer and 2588 controls from Italy was analyzed. A logistic regression model was applied to the estimated intake of five macronutrients and used to compute a diet-related risk score (RS). The pattern of macronutrient and food group intake across RS deciles was defined. The mean of diet-related RSs across subsequent risk deciles ranged from 0.83 to 1.44. Total energy intake first decreased slightly, from the first to the second decile, and then increased, mostly in the last three risk deciles. Intake of starch increased in absolute and relative terms, whereas saturated fat intake rose in absolute terms but remained stable as a proportion. A relative decline was observed for unsaturated fat and sugars, with a hint, however, of U-shape effect. From a food group viewpoint, there was a marked increase in the intake of bread and cereal dishes, cakes and desserts, and refined sugar across subsequent deciles, whereas the consumption of vegetables, olive and seed oils, and fruit decreased.

  1. Public relations work at a regional level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchhoff, H.R.

    1982-04-01

    With 'Elektrizitaets-AG Mitteldeutschland (EAM)' (power corporation central Germany) - head office in Kassel and five works maintained in Kassel, Goettingen, Marburg, Dillenburg and Hanau - public relations work has a tradition. It is seen as conscious, planned and continued effort to build up the public understanding: Public relations work is intended to present the enterprise as a community with a multitude of technical, economic and social tasks, which can be carried out with optimal success only if supported by the confidence of society.

  2. Lack of international consensus in low-risk drinking guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtwaengler, Nina A F F; de Visser, Richard O

    2013-01-01

    To encourage moderate alcohol consumption, many governments have developed guidelines for alcohol intake, guidelines for alcohol consumption during pregnancy and legislation relating to blood alcohol limits when driving. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of international consensus within such guidelines. Official definitions of standard drinks and consumption guidelines were searched for on government websites, including all 27 European Union Member States and countries from all global geographic regions. There was a remarkable lack of agreement about what constitutes harmful or excessive alcohol consumption on a daily basis, a weekly basis and when driving, with no consensus about the ratios of consumption guidelines for men and women. International consensus in low-risk drinking guidelines is an important--and achievable--goal. Such agreement would facilitate consistent labelling of packaged products and could help to promote moderate alcohol consumption. However, there are some paradoxes related to alcohol content labelling and people's use of such information: although clearer information could increase people's capacity to monitor and regulate their alcohol consumption, not all drinkers are motivated to drink moderately or sensibly, and drinkers who intend to get drunk may use alcohol content labelling to select more alcoholic products. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  3. Level of Work Related Stress among Teachers in Elementary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuta Agai–Demjaha

    2015-07-01

    CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that the majority of interviewed teachers perceived their work-related stress as high or very high. In terms of the relationship between the level of teachers’ stress and certain demographic and job characteristics, according to our results, the level of work-related stress has shown significantly high relation to gender, age, levels of grades taught as well as working experience, and significant relation to the level of education.

  4. [Draft of the best medical treatment in patients with low-risk thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlček, Petr; Nováková, Dagmar; Vejvalka, Jan; Zimák, Jaroslav; Křenek, Martin; Vošmiková, Květuše; Smutný, Svatopluk; Bavor, Petr; Astl, Jaromír; Lukáš, Jindřich

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of well-differentiated low-risk thyroid cancer have increased globally over the last three decades. Thyroid cancer treatment relates to a suitable surgical procedure and the use of adjuvant radio-iodine therapy in selected patients. Evaluation of prognostic factors and risk stratification are critical for determining appropriate treatment. Survival of patients with low-risk thyroid cancer is excellent. Appropriate choice of medical treatment resulted in full recovery in most patients. Relapse risk increases with the size of the primary tumor, along with the findings of the risk factors in men. Our study included a total of 1 980 patients in whom were diagnosed T1a and T1b tumors between the years 2003 to 2012. The population included 1 675 women (84.6 %) of average age of 45.22 years and 305 men (15.4 %) of average age of 50.0 years. The bulk of the file represented papillary carcinomas (1 868; 94.4 %), and smaller group of follicular carcinomas (112; 5.6 %). Patients were divided into four groups according to tumor size. Patients were evaluated according to risk factors: unifocality no other risk factors, multifocality - more bearings in thyroid tumor, metastases in regional lymph nodes, distant metastases or combination of risk factors. Group A: In the monitored set of 678 patients with papillary and follicular microcarcinoma up to 5 mm, during histological input, the findings revealed one bearing (unifocal type of cancer) in 566 patients. Multifocality was found in 112 patients, local nodal metastasis were demonstrated in 24 cases and pulmonary metastasis was discove-red in 1 case. Group B: In this group there were 576 study patients with papillary and follicular microcarcinoma size of 5-10 mm. Histological findings were captured input one bearing carcinoma in 434 patients, 142 patients with multifocality, in 53 cases of local nodal metastasis, and 1 case of bone metastases. Group C: In this group there were 467 study patients with papillary

  5. High-Risk and Low-Risk Human Papillomavirus and the Absolute Risk of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia or Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louise T; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Munk, Christian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the absolute risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 or cervical cancer (CIN 3 or worse) after detection of low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) and after a negative high-risk HPV test. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, consecutive liquid......-based cervical cytology samples were collected from women screened for cervical cancer in Copenhagen, Denmark, during 2002-2005. Samples were tested with a clinical test for 13 high-risk and five low-risk HPV types. The cohort (N=35,539; aged 14-90 years) was monitored in a nationwide pathology register for up...... cytology. Detection of low-risk HPV does not predict CIN 3 or worse. Cervical cancer screening should not include testing for low-risk HPV types. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II....

  6. 40 CFR 266.109 - Low risk waste exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.109 Low risk waste exemption. (a) Waiver of DRE standard. The DRE standard of § 266.104(a) does not apply if the boiler or... 99.9 percent destruction and removal efficiency. That is, assume that 0.1 percent of the mass weight...

  7. Contemporary management of low-risk bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falke, J.; Witjes, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Bladder cancer comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors, the majority of which are non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) at initial presentation. Low-risk bladder cancer--defined as pTa low-grade papillary tumors--is the type of NMIBC with the most favorable oncologic outcome. Although the

  8. Spirituality and low-risk consumption of alcohol in young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Heredia, Luz Patricia; Muñoz Sánchez, Alba Idaly

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between spirituality and health, as well as it effect on adopting healthy behaviors, is a topic of interest for nursing and, in general, for social and life sciences. Spirituality, as a human realm, is a relevant research theme that is often related to the promotion of health in individuals. Studies indicate that spirituality is related to mental and physical health, being a protective and promoting factor of healthy behaviors, among them low-risk consumption of alcohol in yo...

  9. A theory of biological relativity: no privileged level of causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Denis

    2012-02-06

    Must higher level biological processes always be derivable from lower level data and mechanisms, as assumed by the idea that an organism is completely defined by its genome? Or are higher level properties necessarily also causes of lower level behaviour, involving actions and interactions both ways? This article uses modelling of the heart, and its experimental basis, to show that downward causation is necessary and that this form of causation can be represented as the influences of initial and boundary conditions on the solutions of the differential equations used to represent the lower level processes. These insights are then generalized. A priori, there is no privileged level of causation. The relations between this form of 'biological relativity' and forms of relativity in physics are discussed. Biological relativity can be seen as an extension of the relativity principle by avoiding the assumption that there is a privileged scale at which biological functions are determined.

  10. Level of Work Related Stress among Teachers in Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agai-Demjaha, Teuta; Bislimovska, Jovanka Karadzinska; Mijakoski, Dragan

    2015-09-15

    Teaching is considered a highly stressful occupation, with work-related stress levels among teachers being among the highest compared to other professions. Unfortunately there are very few studies regarding the levels of work-related stress among teachers in the Republic of Macedonia. To identify the level of self-perceived work-related stress among teachers in elementary schools and its relationship to gender, age, position in the workplace, the level of education and working experience. We performed a descriptive-analytical model of a cross-sectional study that involved 300 teachers employed in nine elementary schools. Evaluation of examined subjects included completion of a specially designed questionnaire. We found that the majority of interviewed teachers perceive their work-related stress as moderate. The level of work-related stress was significantly high related to the gender, age, position in workplace, as well as working experience (p related to level of education (p stressful as compared to the upper-grade teachers (18.5% vs. 5.45%), while the same is true for female respondents as compared to the male ones (15.38% vs. 3.8%). In addition, our results show that teachers with university education significantly more often associate their workplace with stronger stress than their colleagues with high education (13.48% vs. 9.4%). We also found that there is no significant difference of stress levels between new and more experienced teachers. Our findings confirm that the majority of interviewed teachers perceived their work-related stress as high or very high. In terms of the relationship between the level of teachers' stress and certain demographic and job characteristics, according to our results, the level of work-related stress has shown significantly high relation to gender, age, levels of grades taught as well as working experience, and significant relation to the level of education.

  11. Inter-level relations in computer science, biology, and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, F.; Bruggeman, F.; Jonker, C.M.; Looren de Jong, H.; Tamminga, A.; Treur, J.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigations into inter-level relations in computer science, biology and psychology call for an empirical turn in the philosophy of mind. Rather than concentrate on a priori discussions of inter-level relations between 'completed' sciences, a case is made for the actual study of the way

  12. Inter-level relations in computer science, biology and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, F.C.; Bruggeman, F.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Looren De Jong, H.; Tamminga, A.M.; Treur, J.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigations into inter-level relations in computer science, biology and psychology call for an empirical turn in the philosophy of mind. Rather than concentrate on a priori discussions of inter-level relations between "completed" sciences, a case is made for the actual study of the way

  13. Inter-level relations in computer science, biology, and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, Fred; Bruggeman, Frank; Jonker, Catholijn; Looren de Jong, Huib; Tamminga, Allard; Treur, Jan; Westerhoff, Hans; Wijngaards, Wouter

    2002-01-01

    Investigations into inter-level relations in computer science, biology and psychology call for an *empirical* turn in the philosophy of mind. Rather than concentrate on *a priori* discussions of inter-level relations between “completed” sciences, a case is made for the actual study of the way

  14. Determinants of low risk of asthma exacerbation during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Z; Nilas, L; Ulrik, C S

    2018-01-01

    of Asthma during Pregnancy (MAP) programme at Hvidovre Hospital since 2007. Assessment of asthma control, adjustment of treatment, spirometry and measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) were performed, and baseline characteristics and exacerbation history were collected at enrolment. Determinants of low......: Clinically stable asthma at enrolment, together with no history of previous exacerbations and no prescribed controller medication, is a determinant of low risk of an asthma exacerbation during pregnancy, which may guide clinicians in individualizing surveillance of asthma during pregnancy.......BACKGROUND: Assessment of asthma control every 4-6 weeks during pregnancy is recommended to reduce risk of exacerbation, and by that improve outcome. OBJECTIVE: To identify determinants of pregnancies with low risk of asthma exacerbation. METHODS: All pregnant women enrolled into the Management...

  15. Emergency caesarean section in low risk nulliparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haerskjold, Ann; Hegaard, H K; Kjaergaard, H

    2012-01-01

    and identifies maternal and fetal risk factors associated with ECS. We included 2,748 low-risk women and 8.7% had ECS. Failure-to-progress (FTP) accounted for 68.3% of the ECS and 30.4% were performed due to suspected fetal distress (SFD). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were done to estimate.......26-3.20) were associated with increased risk of ECS due to FTP....

  16. Relatives' level of satisfaction with advanced cancer care in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustussen, Mikaela; Hounsgaard, Lise; Pedersen, Michael Lynge

    2017-01-01

    Palliative cancer care in Greenland is provided by health professionals at local level, the national Queen Ingrid's Hospital and at Rigshospitalet in Denmark. To improve and develop care for relatives of patients with advanced cancer, we conducted a mixed method study examining relatives' level...... of satisfaction with care and treatment and their current main concerns. The aim was to investigate relatives' level of satisfaction with advanced cancer care and bring to light their current main concerns. The FAMCARE-20 questionnaire was translated to Greenlandic and pilot tested. The questionnaire...... (66%) and relatives were the most dissatisfied with the lack of inclusion in decision making related to treatment and care (71%) and the length of time required to diagnose cancer (70%). Responses to the open-ended questions revealed that relatives faced challenges in gaining access to information...

  17. Sport psychological skill levels and related psychosocial factors that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport psychological skill levels and related psychosocial factors that distinguish ... players' perceived ability to be psychologically well prepared for competitions. ... reference to practical implications for future sport psychological skills training

  18. Relatives' level of satisfaction with advanced cancer care in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustussen, Mikaela; Hounsgaard, Lise; Pedersen, Michael Lynge

    2017-01-01

    from health professionals. They experienced a lack of security, worries about the future and a lack of support at home. The study showed a substantial level of dissatisfaction among relatives of patients with advanced cancer. We strongly recommend a focus on psychosocial care, more access......Palliative cancer care in Greenland is provided by health professionals at local level, the national Queen Ingrid's Hospital and at Rigshospitalet in Denmark. To improve and develop care for relatives of patients with advanced cancer, we conducted a mixed method study examining relatives' level...... was supplemented by open-ended questions about relative's current main concerns and analyzed with a phenomenological hermeneutical approach. Greenlandic patients with advanced cancer who were previously participating in a prospective study were asked if their closest adult relative would participate in the study...

  19. Willingness to pay for a cure of low-risk melanoma patients in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Matthias; Blome, Christine; Forschner, Andrea; Gutzmer, Ralf; Hauschild, Axel; Heinzerling, Lucie; Livingstone, Elisabeth; Loquai, Carmen; Schadendorf, Dirk; Utikal, Jochen; Wagner, Tobias; Wilden, Sophia; Kähler, Katharina C

    2018-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is potentially life-threatening but in most cases curable if detected early. Willingness to pay (WTP) is a preference-based construct that reflects burden of disease by assessment of the monetary value for a hypothetical cure from disease. Since WTP (directly as total amount of money) has not been assessed so far in patients with low risk melanoma, it was interesting to gain insights in this patient population and then, in a second step, compare it directly with the WTP of their treating dermato-oncologists. WTP was assessed in 125 patients with low-risk melanoma and additionally in 105 treating physicians, asking for the one-time and continuous payments they would be willing to make for a sustainable cure, both as absolute sums and as percentages of monthly income. The median WTP based on one-time payment was €10,000 for patients and €100,000 for physicians; relative numbers were 100% versus 300% of monthly income. For continuous monthly payments, WTP was €500 for patients and €1000 for physicians, relative numbers 25% and 50% of income, respectively. Even after controlling for income differences, there was a significantly higher WTP in physicians for all four questions. Compared to patients with chronic skin diseases such as vitiligo, rosacea, atopic eczema and psoriasis, patients with low-risk melanoma showed a significantly higher WTP. Our data suggest that there is a relevant burden of disease even in patients with low-risk tumors. Higher WTP of physicians underlines the prevalence of differences in disease perception.

  20. Determinants for hospitalization in " low-risk" community acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Muktar H

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variable decision in managing community acquired pneumonia (CAP is the initial site of care; in-patient versus outpatient. These variations persist despite comprehensive practice guidelines. Patients with a Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI score lower than seventy have low risk for complications and outpatient antibiotic management is recommended in this group. These patients are generally below the age of fifty years, non-nursing home residents, HIV negative and have no major cardiac, hepatic, renal or malignant diseases. Methods A retrospective analysis of 296 low-risk CAP patients evaluated within a year one period at St. Agnes Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland was undertaken. All patients were assigned a PSI score. 208 (70% were evaluated and discharged from the emergency department (E.D. to complete outpatient antibiotic therapy, while 88 (30% were hospitalized. Patients were sub-stratified into classes I-V according to PSI. A comparison of demographic, clinical, social and financial parameters was made between the E.D. discharged and hospitalized groups. Results Statistically significant differences in favor of the hospitalized group were noted for female gender (CI: 1.46-5.89, p= 0.0018, African Americans (CI: 0.31-0.73, p= 0.004, insurance coverage (CI: 0.19-0.63, p= 0.0034, temperature (CI: 0.04-0.09, p= 0.0001 and pulse rate (CI: 0.03-0.14, p= 0.0001. No statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups for altered mental status, hypotension, tachypnea, laboratory/radiological parameters and social indicators (p>0.05. The average length of stay for in-patients was 3.5 days at about eight time's higher cost than outpatient management. There was no difference in mortality or treatment failures between the two groups. The documentation rate and justifications for hospitalizing low risk CAP patients by admitting physicians was less than optimal. Conclusions High fever, tachycardia, female gender

  1. Evaluation of yield and water-level relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushman, R.L.; Purtymun, W.D.

    1975-10-01

    Yield and water relations in the Los Alamos supply wells were evaluated because of the increasing demand for water. Water-level declines were extrapolated for 10 yr, to 1983, on the basis of past records. On the basis of current pumpage, the extrapolations indicate that nonpumping water levels in individual wells will decline from 10 to 30 ft. Well characteristics were compiled to provide an individual history of each well, and recommendations for improving water production are presented

  2. Relative Price Levels and Current Accounts: An Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Aizenman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the links between current accounts and relative price levels, finding that current account changes are associated with sizable future relative price levels effects. This is done in panel regressions of the Penn effect, adding a lagged current account/GDP and other explanatory variables. Higher GDP/ capita and a greater export share of manufacturing tend to mitigate the real exchange rate impact of lagged current accounts. Active management of current accounts may provide a powerful adjustment channel, mitigating the real exchange rate effects of volatile terms of trade, and may explain the growing proliferation of Sovereign Wealth Funds.

  3. Comparison between visual and computerized cardiotocography in low risk pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirghani, Hisham M.; Khair, Howaida

    2005-01-01

    To compare between visual and computerized cardiotocography (cCTG) in low-risk pregnant women in predicting pregnancy outcome. One hundred and fifty-three consecutive computerized fetal heart tracings were recorded from non-laboring pregnant women at >/- 30 weeks gestation. All traces were reviewed by 2 experienced obstetricians. The study was carried out at Al-Ain Medical District, United Arab Emirates, between August 2004 and December 2004. Of the 153 pregnant women, 11 (7.2%) were delivered by cesarean section. The interobserver agreement was 0.60. The observers cCTG agreement were 0.48 and 0.45. The difference in cesarean section rate was not statistically significant. Observers interpretation and cCTG did not correlate well with Apgar score at 5 minutes and admission to special care baby unit. Computerized CTG has little advantage over conventional CTG in the prediction of Apgar score and need for neonatal intensive care unit admission in a low-risk population. (author)

  4. University students' understanding level about words related to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oiso, Shinichi; Watabe, Motoki

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a survey of university students' understanding level about words related to nuclear power before and after Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant accident, and analyzed the difference between before and after the accident. The results show that university students' understanding level improved after the accident, especially in the case of reported words by mass media. Understanding level of some nuclear power security words which were not reported so much by mass media also improved. That may be caused by rising of people's concern about nuclear power generation after the accident, and there is a possibility that the accident motivated people to access such words via internet, journals, etc. (author)

  5. Pre-Feedback Risk Expectancies and Reception of Low-Risk Health Feedback: Absolute and Comparative Lack of Reassurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamp, Martina; Renner, Britta

    2016-11-01

    Personalised health-risk assessment is one of the most common components of health promotion programs. Previous research on responses to health risk feedback has commonly focused on the reception of bad news (high-risk feedback). The reception of low-risk feedback has been comparably neglected since it is assumed that good news is reassuring and readily received. However, field studies suggest mixed responses to low-risk health feedback. Accordingly, we examine whether pre-feedback risk expectancies can mitigate the reassuring effects of good news. In two studies (N = 187, N = 565), after assessing pre-feedback risk expectancies, participants received low-risk personalised feedback about their own risk of developing (the fictitious) Tucson Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (TCFS). Study 2 also included peer TCFS risk status feedback. Afterwards, self- and peer-related risk perception for TCFS was assessed. In both studies, participants who expected to be at high risk but received good news (unexpected low-risk feedback) showed absolute lack of reassurance. Specifically, they felt at significantly greater TCFS risk than participants who received expected good news. Moreover, the unexpected low-risk group even believed that their risk was as high as (Study 1) or higher (Study 2) than that of their peers (comparative lack of reassurance). Results support the notion that high pre-feedback risk expectancies can mitigate absolute and comparative reassuring effects of good news. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  6. Vitamin D levels and menopause-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Erin S; Desai, Manisha; Perrin, Nancy; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Manson, JoAnn E; Cauley, Jane A; Michael, Yvonne L; Tang, Jean; Womack, Catherine; Song, Yiqing; Johnson, Karen C; O'Sullivan, Mary J; Woods, Nancy; Stefanick, Marcia L

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to determine whether vitamin D levels are associated with menopause-related symptoms in older women. A randomly selected subset of 1,407 women, among 26,104 potentially eligible participants of the Women's Health Initiative Calcium and Vitamin D trial of postmenopausal women aged 51 to 80 years, had 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels measured at the Women's Health Initiative Calcium and Vitamin D trial baseline visit. Information about menopause-related symptoms at baseline was obtained by questionnaire and included overall number of symptoms and composite measures of sleep disturbance, emotional well-being, and energy/fatigue, as well as individual symptoms. After exclusions for missing data, 530 women (mean [SD] age, 66.2 [6.8] y) were included in these analyses. Borderline significant associations between 25(OH)D levels and total number of menopausal symptoms were observed (with P values ranging from 0.05 to 0.06 for fully adjusted models); however, the effect was clinically insignificant and disappeared with correction for multiple testing. No associations between 25(OH)D levels and composite measures of sleep disturbance, emotional well-being, or energy/fatigue were observed (P's > 0.10 for fully adjusted models). There is no evidence for a clinically important association between serum 25(OH)D levels and menopause-related symptoms in postmenopausal women.

  7. Use of advanced treatment technologies among men at low risk of dying from prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bruce L; Zhang, Yun; Schroeck, Florian R; Skolarus, Ted A; Wei, John T; Montie, James E; Gilbert, Scott M; Strope, Seth A; Dunn, Rodney L; Miller, David C; Hollenbeck, Brent K

    2013-06-26

    The use of advanced treatment technologies (ie, intensity-modulated radiotherapy [IMRT] and robotic prostatectomy) for prostate cancer is increasing. The extent to which these advanced treatment technologies have disseminated among patients at low risk of dying from prostate cancer is uncertain. To assess the use of advanced treatment technologies, compared with prior standards (ie, traditional external beam radiation treatment [EBRT] and open radical prostatectomy) and observation, among men with a low risk of dying from prostate cancer. Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data, we identified a retrospective cohort of men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2004 and 2009 who underwent IMRT (n = 23,633), EBRT (n = 3926), robotic prostatectomy (n = 5881), open radical prostatectomy (n = 6123), or observation (n = 16,384). Follow-up data were available through December 31, 2010. The use of advanced treatment technologies among men unlikely to die from prostate cancer, as assessed by low-risk disease (clinical stage ≤T2a, biopsy Gleason score ≤6, and prostate-specific antigen level ≤10 ng/mL), high risk of noncancer mortality (based on the predicted probability of death within 10 years in the absence of a cancer diagnosis), or both. In our cohort, the use of advanced treatment technologies increased from 32% (95% CI, 30%-33%) to 44% (95% CI, 43%-46%) among men with low-risk disease (P risk of noncancer mortality (P use of these advanced treatment technologies among men with both low-risk disease and high risk of noncancer mortality increased from 25% (95% CI, 23%-28%) to 34% (95% CI, 31%-37%) (P use of advanced treatment technologies for men unlikely to die from prostate cancer increased from 13% (95% CI, 12%-14%), or 129.2 per 1000 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer, to 24% (95% CI, 24%-25%), or 244.2 per 1000 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer (P risk disease, high risk of noncancer mortality, or both, the use of

  8. National Trends and Predictors of Androgen Deprivation Therapy Use in Low-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, David D. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Muralidhar, Vinayak [Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Mahal, Brandon A. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Labe, Shelby A.; Nezolosky, Michelle D.; Vastola, Marie E.; King, Martin T.; Martin, Neil E.; Orio, Peter F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Choueiri, Toni K. [Department of Medical Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Trinh, Quoc-Dien [Division of Urological Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Spratt, Daniel E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hoffman, Karen E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Feng, Felix Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Departments of Urology & Medicine and Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); and others

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is not recommended for low-risk prostate cancer because of its lack of benefit and potential for harm. We evaluated the incidence and predictors of ADT use in low-risk disease. Methods and Materials: Using the National Cancer Database, we identified 197,957 patients with low-risk prostate cancer (Gleason score of 3 + 3 = 6, prostate-specific antigen level <10 ng/mL, and cT1-T2a) diagnosed from 2004 to 2012 with complete demographic and treatment information. We used multiple logistic regression to evaluate predictors of ADT use and Cox regression to examine its association with all-cause mortality. Results: Overall ADT use decreased from 17.6% in 2004 to 3.5% in 2012. In 2012, 11.5% of low-risk brachytherapy patients and 7.6% of external beam radiation therapy patients received ADT. Among 82,352 irradiation-managed patients, predictors of ADT use included treatment in a community versus academic cancer program (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50-1.71; P<.001; incidence, 14.0% vs 6.0% in 2012); treatment in the South (AOR, 1.51), Midwest (AOR, 1.81), or Northeast (AOR, 1.90) versus West (P<.001); and brachytherapy use versus external beam radiation therapy (AOR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.27-1.37; P<.001). Among 25,196 patients who did not receive local therapy, predictors of primary ADT use included a Charlson-Deyo comorbidity score of ≥2 versus 0 (AOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.06-1.91; P=.018); treatment in a community versus academic cancer program (AOR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.37-1.90; P<.001); and treatment in the South (AOR, 1.26), Midwest (AOR, 1.52), or Northeast (AOR, 1.28) versus West (P≤.008). Primary ADT use was associated with increased all-cause mortality in patients who did not receive local therapy (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.14-1.43; P<.001) after adjustment for age and comorbidity. Conclusions: ADT use in low-risk prostate cancer has declined nationally but may remain an issue

  9. MECHANICAL HEART-VALVE PROSTHESES - SOUND LEVEL AND RELATED COMPLAINTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LAURENS, RRP; WIT, HP; EBELS, T

    In a randomised study, we investigated the sound production of mechanical heart valve prostheses and the complaints related to this sound. The CarboMedics, Bjork-Shiley monostrut and StJude Medical prostheses were compared. A-weighted levels of the pulse-like sound produced by the prosthesis were

  10. Characteristics of medically related low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, G.J. Jr.; Teele, B.

    1986-07-01

    This report describes a survey that identified the current sources of medically generated radioactive wastes. Included are recommendations on how to reduce the volume of medically-related material classified as low-level radioactive wastes, to improve handling techniques for long-lived radioisotopes, and for options for the use of radioactive materials in medical studies. 8 refs., 11 tabs

  11. Comparison of norovirus RNA levels in outbreak-related oysters with background environmental levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowther, James A; Gustar, Nicole E; Hartnell, Rachel E; Lees, David N

    2012-02-01

    Norovirus is the principal agent of bivalve shellfish-associated gastroenteric illness worldwide. Numerous studies using PCR have demonstrated norovirus contamination in a significant proportion of both oyster and other bivalve shellfish production areas and ready-to-eat products. By comparison, the number of epidemiologically confirmed shellfish-associated outbreaks is relatively low. This suggests that factors other than the simple presence or absence of virus RNA are important contributors to the amount of illness reported. This study compares norovirus RNA levels in oyster samples strongly linked to norovirus or norovirus-type illness with the levels typically found in commercial production areas (non-outbreak-related samples). A statistically significant difference between norovirus levels in the two sets of samples was observed. The geometric mean of the levels in outbreak samples (1,048 copies per g) was almost one order of magnitude higher than for positive non-outbreak-related samples (121 copies per g). Further, while none of the outbreak-related samples contained fewer than 152 copies per g, the majority of positive results for non-outbreak-related samples was below this level. These observations support the concept of a dose-response for norovirus RNA levels in shellfish and could help inform the establishment of threshold criteria for risk management.

  12. Extraction of Children's Friendship Relation from Activity Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Aki; Shintani, Kimio; Katsuki, Takuya; Kihara, Shin'ya; Ueda, Mari; Kaneda, Shigeo; Haga, Hirohide

    Children learn to fit into society through living in a group, and it's greatly influenced by their friend relations. Although preschool teachers need to observe them to assist in the growth of children's social progress and support the development each child's personality, only experienced teachers can watch over children while providing high-quality guidance. To resolve the problem, this paper proposes a mathematical and objective method that assists teachers with observation. It uses numerical data of activity level recorded by pedometers, and we make tree diagram called dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering with recorded activity level. Also, we calculate children's ``breadth'' and ``depth'' of friend relations by using more than one dendrogram. When we record children's activity level in a certain kindergarten for two months and evaluated the proposed method, the results usually coincide with remarks of teachers about the children.

  13. SOUND LABOR RELATIONS AT ENTERPRISE LEVEL IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vichai Thosuwonchinda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the pattern of sound labor relations in Thailand in order to reduce conflicts between employers and workers and create cooperation. The research was based on a qualitative approach, using in-depth interview with 10 stakeholder groups of Thai industrial relations system. They were employees of non unionized companies at the shop floor level, employees of non unionized companies at the supervisor level, trade union leaders at the company level, trade union leaders at the national level, employers of non-unionized companies, employers’ organization leaders, and human resource managers, members of tripartite bodies, government officials and labor academics. The findings were presented in a model identifying 5 characteristics that enhance sound relations in Thailand, i.e. recognition between employer and workers, good communication, trust, data revealing and workers’ participation. It was suggested that all parties, employers, workers and the government should take part in the promotion of sound labor relations. The employer have to acknowledge labor union with a positive attitude, have good communication with workers , create trust with workers, disclose information, create culture of mutual benefits as well as accept sincerely the system that include workers’ participation. Workers need a strong labor union, good and sincere representatives for clear communication, trust, mutual benefits and seek conflict solutions with employer by win-win strategy. The government has a supporting role in adjusting the existing laws in the appropriate way, by creating policy for sound labor relations, and putting the idea of sound labor relations into practice.

  14. Changes in Holocene relative sea-level and coastal morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Sander, Lasse; Clemmensen, Lars B

    2015-01-01

    Changes in relative sea-level (RSL) during the Holocene are reconstructed based on ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data collected across a raised beach ridge system on the island of Samsø, Denmark. The internal architecture of the beach ridge and swale deposits is divided into characteristic radar...... ridge progradation through time. The vertical levels of identified downlap points are combined with an age model based on optically stimulated luminescence-dated samples to reconstruct RSL for the past c. 5000 years. Overall, the reconstruction shows that the period between c. 4800 and 3800 yr BP...

  15. Outcome of planned home and planned hospital births in low risk pregnancies: prospective study in midwifery practices in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegers, T.A.; Keirse, M.J.N.C.; Zee, J. van der; Berghs, G.A.H.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relation between the intended place of birth (home or hospital) and perinatal outcome in women with low risk pregnancies after controlling for parity and social, medical, and obstetric background. Design: Analysis of prospective data from midwives and their clients.

  16. Salt marsh stability modelled in relation to sea level rise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jesper; Bartholdy, Anders; Kroon, Aart

    2010-01-01

    thickness. Autocompaction was incorporated in the model, and shown to play a major role for the translation of accretion rates measured as length per unit time to accumulation rates measured as mass per area per unit time. This is important, even for shallow salt marsh deposits for which it is demonstrated...... that mass depth down core can be directly related to the bulk dry density of the surface layer by means of a logarithmic function. The results allow for an evaluation of the use of marker horizons in the topmost layers and show that it is important to know the level of the marker in relation to the salt...... marsh base. In general, deeper located markers will indicate successively smaller accretion rates with the same sediment input. Thus, stability analysis made on the basis of newly established marker horizons will be biased and indicate salt marsh stabilities far above the correct level. Running...

  17. 38 CFR 41.530 - Criteria for a low-risk auditee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... low-risk auditee and be eligible for reduced audit coverage in accordance with § 41.520: (a) Single... entity that has biennial audits does not qualify as a low-risk auditee, unless agreed to in advance by... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria for a low-risk...

  18. Relative Sea Level, Tidal Range, and Extreme Water Levels in Boston Harbor from 1825 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talke, S. A.; Kemp, A.; Woodruff, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Long time series of water-level measurements made by tide gauges provide a rich and valuable observational history of relative sea-level change, the frequency and height of extreme water levels and evolving tidal regimes. However, relatively few locations have available tide-gauge records longer than 100 years and most of these places are in northern Europe. This spatio-temporal distribution hinders efforts to understand global-, regional- and local-scale trends. Using newly-discovered archival measurements, we constructed a 200 year, instrumental record of water levels, tides, and storm surges in Boston Harbor. We detail the recovery, datum reconstruction, digitization, quality assurance, and analysis of this extended observational record. Local, decadally-averaged relative sea-level rose by 0.28 ± 0.05 m since the 1820s, with an acceleration of 0.023 ±0.009 mm/yr2. Approximately 0.13 ± 0.02 m of the observed RSL rise occurred due to ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment, and the remainder occurred due to changes in ocean mass and volume associated with the onset of modern mean sea-level rise. Change-point analysis of the new relative sea level record confirms that anthropogenic rise began in 1924-1932, which is in agreement with global mean sea level estimates from the global tide gauge network. Tide range decreased by 5.5% between 1830 and 1910, likely due in large part to anthropogenic development. Storm tides in Boston Harbor are produced primarily by extratropical storms during the November-April time frame. The three largest storm tides occurred in 1851, 1909, and 1978. Because 90% of the top 20 storm tides since 1825 occurred during a spring tide, the secular change in tide range contributes to a slight reduction in storm tide magnitudes. However, non-stationarity in storm hazard was historically driven primarily by local relative sea-level rise; a modest 0.2 m increase in relative sea level reduces the 100 year high water mark to a once-in-10 year event.

  19. Work-related driver safety: A multi-level investigation

    OpenAIRE

    AMANDA ROSE WARMERDAM

    2017-01-01

    This program of research explored the organisational determinants of work-related road traffic injury in light vehicle fleets. The landscape of risk management in workplace road safety in Australia and organisational practices that influence safe driver behaviour were investigated. Key findings included that safe driving is influenced by factors at multiple levels, including senior managers, supervisors and individual fleet drivers and workplace road safety is not well integrated within curre...

  20. Mangrove Sedimentation and Response to Relative Sea-Level Rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, C D; Rogers, K; McKee, K L; Lovelock, C E; Mendelssohn, I A; Saintilan, N

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves occur on upper intertidal shorelines in the tropics and subtropics. Complex hydrodynamic and salinity conditions, related primarily to elevation and hydroperiod, influence mangrove distributions; this review considers how these distributions change over time. Accumulation rates of allochthonous and autochthonous sediment, both inorganic and organic, vary between and within different settings. Abundant terrigenous sediment can form dynamic mudbanks, and tides redistribute sediment, contrasting with mangrove peat in sediment-starved carbonate settings. Sediments underlying mangroves sequester carbon but also contain paleoenvironmental records of adjustments to past sea-level changes. Radiometric dating indicates long-term sedimentation, whereas measurements made using surface elevation tables and marker horizons provide shorter perspectives, indicating shallow subsurface processes of root growth and substrate autocompaction. Many tropical deltas also experience deep subsidence, which augments relative sea-level rise. The persistence of mangroves implies an ability to cope with moderately high rates of relative sea-level rise. However, many human pressures threaten mangroves, resulting in a continuing decline in their extent throughout the tropics.

  1. Mangrove sedimentation and response to relative sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, CD; Rogers, K.; Mckee, Karen L.; Lovelock, CE; Mendelssohn, IA; Saintilan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves occur on upper intertidal shorelines in the tropics and subtropics. Complex hydrodynamic and salinity conditions influence mangrove distributions, primarily related to elevation and hydroperiod; this review considers how these adjust through time. Accumulation rates of allochthonous and autochthonous sediment, both inorganic and organic, vary between and within different settings. Abundant terrigenous sediment can form dynamic mudbanks; tides redistribute sediment, contrasting with mangrove peat in sediment-starved carbonate settings. Sediments underlying mangroves sequester carbon, but also contain paleoenvironmental records of adjustments to past sea-level changes. Radiometric dating indicates long-term sedimentation, whereas Surface Elevation Table-Marker Horizon measurements (SET-MH) provide shorter perspectives, indicating shallow subsurface processes of root growth and substrate autocompaction. Many tropical deltas also experience deep subsidence, which augments relative sea-level rise. The persistence of mangroves implies an ability to cope with moderately high rates of relative sea-level rise. However, many human pressures threaten mangroves, resulting in continuing decline in their extent throughout the tropics.

  2. Monitoring of air pollution levels related to Charilaos Trikoupis Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigiannis, D A; Handakas, E J; Kermenidou, M; Zarkadas, I; Gotti, A; Charisiadis, P; Makris, K; Manousakas, M; Eleftheriadis, K; Karakitsios, S P

    2017-12-31

    Charilaos Trikoupis bridge is the longest cable bridge in Europe that connects Western Greece with the rest of the country. In this study, six air pollution monitoring campaigns (including major regulated air pollutants) were carried out from 2013 to 2015 at both sides of the bridge, located in the urban areas of Rio and Antirrio respectively. Pollution data were statistically analyzed and air quality was characterized using US and European air quality indices. From the overall campaign, it was found that air pollution levels were below the respective regulatory thresholds, but once at the site of Antirrio (26.4 and 52.2μg/m 3 for PM 2.5 and ΡΜ 10 , respectively) during the 2nd winter period. Daily average PM 10 and PM 2.5 levels from two monitoring sites were well correlated to gaseous pollutant (CO, NO, NO 2 , NO x and SO 2 ) levels, meteorological parameters and factor scores from Positive Matrix Factorization during the 3-year period. Moreover, the elemental composition of PM 10 and PM 2.5 was used for source apportionment. That analysis revealed that major emission sources were sulfates, mineral dust, biomass burning, sea salt, traffic and shipping emissions for PM 10 and PM 2.5 , for both Rio and Antirrio. Seasonal variation indicates that sulfates, mineral dust and traffic emissions increased during the warm season of the year, while biomass burning become the dominant during the cold season. Overall, the contribution of the Charilaos Trikoupis bridge to the vicinity air pollution is very low. This is the result of the relatively low daily traffic volume (~10,000 vehicles per day), the respective traffic fleet composition (~81% of the traffic fleet are private vehicles) and the speed limit (80km/h) which does not favor traffic emissions. In addition, the strong and frequent winds further contribute to the rapid dispersion of the emitted pollutants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Thyrotropin Suppressive Therapy for Low-Risk Small Thyroid Cancer: A Propensity Score-Matched Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Suyeon; Kim, Won Gu; Han, Minkyu; Jeon, Min Ji; Kwon, Hyemi; Kim, Mijin; Sung, Tae-Yon; Kim, Tae Yong; Kim, Won Bae; Hong, Suck Joon; Shong, Young Kee

    2017-09-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH) suppression has improved the clinical outcomes of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). However, the efficacy of TSH suppressive therapy (TST) is unclear in patients with low-risk DTC. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of TST and optimal TSH levels of patients with low-risk DTC. This retrospective propensity score-matched cohort study included DTC patients (n = 446) who underwent lobectomy from 2002 to 2008 with or without TST (TST group and No-TST group). Disease-free survival (DFS) and dynamic risk stratification were compared between both groups using serum TSH levels. Approximately 74% of TST patients and 11% of No-TST patients had suppressed serum TSH levels (<2 mIU/L). The median follow-up period was 8.6 years. During follow-up, the disease recurred in 10 (2.7%) patients, with no significant difference in DFS between the groups (p = 0.63). The proportion of patients with excellent treatment response was similar between the TST (65.2%) and No-TST (64.4%) groups. Incomplete biochemical response was noted in 17.2% of the TST group patients and 9.4% of the No-TST group patients. No significant difference was observed in the DFS between both groups by comparing serum TSH level (p = 0.57). TST did not improve clinical outcomes, and serum TSH levels were not associated with recurrence in patients with low-risk small DTC. No clinical benefits were shown for TSH suppression in low-risk patients who underwent lobectomy. Thus, levothyroxine is not necessary for patients without evidence of hypothyroidism.

  4. Relating measurement invariance, cross-level invariance, and multilevel reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Jak, S.; Jorgensen, T.D.

    2017-01-01

    Data often have a nested, multilevel structure, for example when data are collected from children in classrooms. This kind of data complicate the evaluation of reliability and measurement invariance, because several properties can be evaluated at both the individual level and the cluster level, as well as across levels. For example, cross-level invariance implies equal factor loadings across levels, which is needed to give latent variables at the two levels a similar interpretation. Reliabili...

  5. A Systematic Approach to Discussing Active Surveillance with Patients with Low-risk Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehdaie, Behfar; Assel, Melissa; Benfante, Nicole; Malhotra, Deepak; Vickers, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    Physicians report difficulty convincing patients with prostate cancer about the merits of active surveillance (AS); as a result, a majority of patients unnecessarily choose to undergo radical treatment. To develop and evaluate a systematic approach for physicians to counsel patients with low-risk prostate cancer to increase acceptance of AS. A systematic counseling approach was developed and piloted in one clinic. Then five surgeons participated in a 1-h training session in which they learned about the approach. A total of 1003 patients with Gleason 3+3 prostate cancer were included in the study. We compared AS rates for 761 patients who were counseled over a 24-mo period before the training intervention with AS rates for 242 patients who were counseled over a 12-mo period afterwards, controlling for temporal trends and case mix. A systematic approach for communicating the merits of AS using appropriate framing techniques derived from principles studied by negotiation scholars. The rate of AS acceptance by patients for management of low-risk prostate cancer. In the pilot phase, 81 of 86 patients (94%) accepted AS after counseling by the physician who developed the counseling approach. In the subsequent study, the cohort for the training intervention comprised 1003 consecutive patients, 80% of whom met the Epstein criteria for very low-risk disease. The proportion of patients who selected AS increased from 69% before the training intervention to 81% afterwards. After adjusting for time trends and case mix, the rate of AS after the intervention was 9.1% higher (95% confidence interval -0.4% to 19.4%) than expected, a relative reduction of approximately 30% in the risk of unnecessary curative treatment. A systematic approach to counseling can be taught to physicians in a 1-h lecture. We found evidence that even this minimal intervention can decrease overtreatment. Our novel approach offers a framework to help address cancer screening-related overtreatment that occurs

  6. Intelligent Structured Intermittent Auscultation (ISIA): evaluation of a decision-making framework for fetal heart monitoring of low-risk women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Research-informed fetal monitoring guidelines recommend intermittent auscultation (IA) for fetal heart monitoring for low-risk women. However, the use of cardiotocography (CTG) continues to dominate many institutional maternity settings. Methods A mixed methods intervention study with before and after measurement was undertaken in one secondary level health service to facilitate the implementation of an initiative to encourage the use of IA. The intervention initiative was a decision-making framework called Intelligent Structured Intermittent Auscultation (ISIA) introduced through an education session. Results Following the intervention, medical records review revealed an increase in the use of IA during labour represented by a relative change of 12%, with improved documentation of clinical findings from assessments, and a significant reduction in the risk of receiving an admission CTG (RR 0.75, 95% CI, 0.60 – 0.95, p = 0.016). Conclusion The ISIA informed decision-making framework transformed the practice of IA and provided a mechanism for knowledge translation that enabled midwives to implement evidence-based fetal heart monitoring for low risk women. PMID:24884597

  7. The selection of low-risk design guidelines for energetic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fergusson, Donald; Marchaterre, John; Graham, John

    1982-01-01

    This paper recommends the establishment of specific design guidelines for protection against potential, but low probability, energetic events. These guidelines recognize the plant protective features incorporated to prevents such events, as well as the inherent capability of the plant to accommodate a certain level of energy release. Further, their application is recommended within the context of necessary standardized and agreed upon acceptance criteria which are less restrictive than ASME code requirements. The paper provides the background upon which the selection of the design is made, including the characterization of energetic events dependent on various core-design parameters, and including the necessity of a low-risk design balanced between prevention of accidents and the mitigation of consequences

  8. The relation between oxygen saturation level and retionopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gharavi Fard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oxygen therapy used for preterm infant disease might be associated with oxygen toxicity or oxidative stress. The exact oxygen concentration to control and maintain the arterial oxygen saturation balance is not certainly clear. We aimed to compare the efficacy of higher or lower oxygen saturations on the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity which is a major cause of blindness in preterm neonates. Methods: PubMed was searched for obtaining the relevant articles. A total of seven articles were included after studying the titles, abstracts, and the full text of retrieved articles at initial search. Inclusion criteria were all the English language human clinical randomized controlled trials with no time limitation, which studied the efficacy of low versus high oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry in preterm infants.Result: It can be suggested that lower limits of oxygen saturations have higher efficacy at postmesetural age of ≤28 weeks in preterm neonates. This relation has been demonstrated in five large clinical trials including three Boost trials, COT, and Support.Discussion: Applying higher concentrations of oxygen supplementations at mesentural age ≥32 weeks reduced the development of retinopathy of prematurity. Lower concentrations of oxygen saturation decreased the incidence and the development of retinopathy of prematurity in preterm neonates while applied soon after the birth.Conclusions: Targeting levels of oxygen saturation in the low or high range should be performed cautiously with attention to the postmesentural age in preterm infants at the time of starting the procedures.

  9. Fat free mass and obesity in relation to educational level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen-Nuijten, Elina; Lahti-Koski, Marjaana; Männistö, Satu; Knekt, Paul; Rissanen, Harri; Aromaa, Arpo; Heliövaara, Markku

    2009-12-04

    The aim of the study was to describe the body composition of Finnish adults, especially by education, and to investigate whether fat-free mass (FFM) can explain educational gradients relating to body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Data for this cross-sectional study were based on data collected in 2000-2001 for the Health 2000 Survey. Of the nationally representative sample of 8,028 Finnish men and women aged 30 years and older, 6,300 (78.5%) were included in the study. Body composition measurements were carried out in the health examination, where FFM was assessed with eight-polar bioelectrical impedance analysis. Questions on education were included in the health interview. The mean FFM varied by education in older (>or= 65 y.) men only. In the middle-aged group (30-64 y.), highly educated men were less likely to belong to the lowest quintile of FFM (OR 0.67, 95%CI 0.48-0.93) compared with the least educated subjects. The level of education was inversely associated with the prevalence of high BMI and WHR in middle-aged men. In women, the respective associations were found both in middle-aged women and their older counterparts. Adjustment for FFM slightly strengthened the associations of education with BMI and WHR. The association between education and FFM is weak. Educational gradients of high BMI and high WHR cannot be explained by FFM.

  10. Age-Related Changes in Binaural Interaction at Brainstem Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Yper, Lindsey N; Vermeire, Katrien; De Vel, Eddy F J; Beynon, Andy J; Dhooge, Ingeborg J M

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss hampers the ability to understand speech in adverse listening conditions. This is attributed to a complex interaction of changes in the peripheral and central auditory system. One aspect that may deteriorate across the lifespan is binaural interaction. The present study investigates binaural interaction at the level of the auditory brainstem. It is hypothesized that brainstem binaural interaction deteriorates with advancing age. Forty-two subjects of various age participated in the study. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded using clicks and 500 Hz tone-bursts. ABRs were elicited by monaural right, monaural left, and binaural stimulation. Binaural interaction was investigated in two ways. First, grand averages of the binaural interaction component were computed for each age group. Second, wave V characteristics of the binaural ABR were compared with those of the summed left and right ABRs. Binaural interaction in the click ABR was demonstrated by shorter latencies and smaller amplitudes in the binaural compared with the summed monaural responses. For 500 Hz tone-burst ABR, no latency differences were found. However, amplitudes were significantly smaller in the binaural than summed monaural condition. An age-effect was found for 500 Hz tone-burst, but not for click ABR. Brainstem binaural interaction seems to decline with age. Interestingly, these changes seem to be stimulus-dependent.

  11. Accuracy of simple urine tests for diagnosis of urinary tract infections in low-risk pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Feitosa,Danielle Cristina Alves; Silva,Márcia Guimarães da; Parada,Cristina Maria Garcia de Lima

    2009-01-01

    Anatomic and physiological alterations during pregnancy predispose pregnant women to urinary tract infections (UTI). This study aimed to identify the accuracy of the simple urine test for UTI diagnosis in low-risk pregnant women. Diagnostic test performance was conducted in Botucatu, SP, involving 230 pregnant women, between 2006 and 2008. Results showed 10% UTI prevalence. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the simple urine test were 95.6%, 63.3% and 66.5%, respectively, in relation to...

  12. Home birth or short-stay hospital birth in a low risk population in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegers, T.A.; Zee, J. van der; Kerssens, J.J.; Keirse, M.J.N.C.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands women with low risk pregnancies can choose whether they want to give birth at home or in hospital, under the care of their own primary caregiver. The majority of these women prefer to give birth at home, but over the last few decades an increasing number of low risk women have

  13. Different pituitary. beta. -endorphin and adrenal cortisol response to ethanol in individuals with high and low risk for future development of alcoholism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianoulakis, C.G.; Beliveau, D.; Angelogianni, P.; Meaney, M.; Thavundayil, J.; Tawar, V.; Dumas, M. (McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada))

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to investigate the activity of the adrenal gland and the pituitary {beta}-endorphin system in individuals from families with a 3 generation history of alcoholism, High Risk group, or from families without history of alcoholism, Low Risk group. On the day of testing, blood sample was taken at 9:00 a.m., then the subject drank a placebo drink or an ethanol solution. Additional blood samples were taken at 15, 45 and 120 minutes post-drink. Results indicated that individuals of the High Risk group had lower basal levels of {beta}-endorphin like immunoreactivity ({beta}-EPLIR) than individuals of the Low Risk group. The dose of 0.5 g ethanol/kg B.Wt. induced an induce an increase in the plasma content of {beta}-EPLIR of the High Risk group, but not of the Low Risk group. In the Low Risk group ethanol did not induce an increase above the 9:00 a.m. levels, however, it attenuated the {beta}-endorphin decrease overtime, observed following the placebo drink. Analysis of {beta}-endorphin-like peptides in the plasma of the High Risk group, with Sephadex G-75 chromatography indicated that the major component of the plasma {beta}-EPLIR was {beta}-lipotropin. Plasma cortisol levels, following ethanol intake, presented a small increase in the High Risk group but not in the Low Risk group.

  14. [FRAX® thresholds to identify people with high or low risk of osteoporotic fracture in Spanish female population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagra, Rafael; Roca, Genís; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Casado, Enrique; Encabo, Gloria; Zwart, Marta; Aguyé, Amada; Díez-Pérez, Adolf

    2015-01-06

    To detect FRAX(®) threshold levels that identify groups of the population that are at high/low risk of osteoporotic fracture in the Spanish female population using a cost-effective assessment. This is a cohort study. Eight hundred and sixteen women 40-90 years old selected from the FRIDEX cohort with densitometry and risk factors for fracture at baseline who received no treatment for osteoporosis during the 10 year follow-up period and were stratified into 3 groups/levels of fracture risk (low20%) according to the real fracture incidence. The thresholds of FRAX(®) baseline for major osteoporotic fracture were: low riskX-ray absorptiometry (DXA-scan) for FRAX(®)≥ 5 (Intermediate and high risk) to reclassify by FRAX(®) with DXA-scan at high/low risk. These thresholds select 17.5% of women for DXA-scan and 10% for treatment. With these thresholds of FRAX(®), compared with the strategy of opportunistic case finding isolated risk factors, would improve the predictive parameters and reduce 82.5% the DXA-scan, 35.4% osteoporosis prescriptions and 28.7% cost to detect the same number of women who suffer fractures. The use of FRAX ® thresholds identified as high/low risk of osteoporotic fracture in this calibration (FRIDEX model) improve predictive parameters in Spanish women and in a more cost-effective than the traditional model based on the T-score ≤ -2.5 of DXA scan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors associated with the prevalence of periodontal disease in low-risk pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence of periodontal disease (PD) among Brazilian low-risk pregnant women and its association with sociodemographic factors, habits and oral hygiene. Method This cross-sectional study included 334 low-risk pregnant women divided in groups with or without PD. Indexes of plaque and gingival bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and gingival recession were evaluated at one periodontal examination below 32 weeks of gestation. Independent variables were: age, race/color, schooling, marital status, parity, gestational age, smoking habit, alcohol and drugs consumption, use of medication, presence of any systemic diseases and BMI (body mass index). Statistical analyses provided prevalence ratios and their respective 95%CI and also a multivariate analysis. Results The prevalence of PD was 47% and significantly associated with higher gestational age (PR 1.40; 1.01 - 1.94 for 17-24 weeks and PR 1.52; 1.10 - 2.08 for 25-32 weeks), maternal age 25-29 years, obesity (PR 1.65; 1.02 - 2.68) and the presence of gingival bleeding on probing (ORadj 2.01, 95%CI 1.41 - 2.88). Poor oral hygiene was associated with PD by the mean values of plaque and bleeding on probing indexes significantly greater in PD group. Conclusions The prevalence of PD is high and associated with gingival bleeding on probing, more advanced gestational age and obesity. A program of oral health care should be included in prenatal care for early pregnancy, especially for low-income populations. PMID:22273008

  16. Prospective Validation of Modified NEXUS Cervical Spine Injury Criteria in Low-risk Elderly Fall Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Tran

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The National Emergency X-radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS criteria are used extensively in emergency departments to rule out C-spine injuries (CSI in the general population. Although the NEXUS validation set included 2,943 elderly patients, multiple case reports and the Canadian C-Spine Rules question the validity of applying NEXUS to geriatric populations. The objective of this study was to validate a modified NEXUS criteria in a low-risk elderly fall population with two changes: a modified definition for distracting injury and the definition of normal mentation. Methods: This is a prospective, observational cohort study of geriatric fall patients who presented to a Level I trauma center and were not triaged to the trauma bay. Providers enrolled non-intoxicated patients at baseline mental status with no lateralizing neurologic deficits. They recorded midline neck tenderness, signs of trauma, and presence of other distracting injury. Results: We enrolled 800 patients. One patient fall event was excluded due to duplicate enrollment, and four were lost to follow up, leaving 795 for analysis. Average age was 83.6 (range 65-101. The numbers in parenthesis after the negative predictive value represent confidence interval. There were 11 (1.4% cervical spine injuries. One hundred seventeen patients had midline tenderness and seven of these had CSI; 366 patients had signs of trauma to the face/neck, and 10 of these patients had CSI. Using signs of trauma to the head/neck as the only distracting injury and baseline mental status as normal alertness, the modified NEXUS criteria was 100% sensitive (CI [67.9-100] with a negative predictive value of 100 (98.7-100. Conclusion: Our study suggests that a modified NEXUS criteria can be safely applied to low-risk elderly falls.

  17. Prospective Validation of Modified NEXUS Cervical Spine Injury Criteria in Low-risk Elderly Fall Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, John; Jeanmonod, Donald; Agresti, Darin; Hamden, Khalief; Jeanmonod, Rebecca K

    2016-05-01

    The National Emergency X-radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) criteria are used extensively in emergency departments to rule out C-spine injuries (CSI) in the general population. Although the NEXUS validation set included 2,943 elderly patients, multiple case reports and the Canadian C-Spine Rules question the validity of applying NEXUS to geriatric populations. The objective of this study was to validate a modified NEXUS criteria in a low-risk elderly fall population with two changes: a modified definition for distracting injury and the definition of normal mentation. This is a prospective, observational cohort study of geriatric fall patients who presented to a Level I trauma center and were not triaged to the trauma bay. Providers enrolled non-intoxicated patients at baseline mental status with no lateralizing neurologic deficits. They recorded midline neck tenderness, signs of trauma, and presence of other distracting injury. We enrolled 800 patients. One patient fall event was excluded due to duplicate enrollment, and four were lost to follow up, leaving 795 for analysis. Average age was 83.6 (range 65-101). The numbers in parenthesis after the negative predictive value represent confidence interval. There were 11 (1.4%) cervical spine injuries. One hundred seventeen patients had midline tenderness and seven of these had CSI; 366 patients had signs of trauma to the face/neck, and 10 of these patients had CSI. Using signs of trauma to the head/neck as the only distracting injury and baseline mental status as normal alertness, the modified NEXUS criteria was 100% sensitive (CI [67.9-100]) with a negative predictive value of 100 (98.7-100). Our study suggests that a modified NEXUS criteria can be safely applied to low-risk elderly falls.

  18. Factors associated with the prevalence of periodontal disease in low-risk pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogt Marianna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the prevalence of periodontal disease (PD among Brazilian low-risk pregnant women and its association with sociodemographic factors, habits and oral hygiene. Method This cross-sectional study included 334 low-risk pregnant women divided in groups with or without PD. Indexes of plaque and gingival bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and gingival recession were evaluated at one periodontal examination below 32 weeks of gestation. Independent variables were: age, race/color, schooling, marital status, parity, gestational age, smoking habit, alcohol and drugs consumption, use of medication, presence of any systemic diseases and BMI (body mass index. Statistical analyses provided prevalence ratios and their respective 95%CI and also a multivariate analysis. Results The prevalence of PD was 47% and significantly associated with higher gestational age (PR 1.40; 1.01 - 1.94 for 17-24 weeks and PR 1.52; 1.10 - 2.08 for 25-32 weeks, maternal age 25-29 years, obesity (PR 1.65; 1.02 - 2.68 and the presence of gingival bleeding on probing (ORadj 2.01, 95%CI 1.41 - 2.88. Poor oral hygiene was associated with PD by the mean values of plaque and bleeding on probing indexes significantly greater in PD group. Conclusions The prevalence of PD is high and associated with gingival bleeding on probing, more advanced gestational age and obesity. A program of oral health care should be included in prenatal care for early pregnancy, especially for low-income populations.

  19. Relating measurement invariance, cross-level invariance, and multilevel reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jak, S.; Jorgensen, T.D.

    2017-01-01

    Data often have a nested, multilevel structure, for example when data are collected from children in classrooms. This kind of data complicate the evaluation of reliability and measurement invariance, because several properties can be evaluated at both the individual level and the cluster level, as

  20. Drinking patterns and adherence to "low-risk" guidelines among community-residing older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ben; Garcia, Christian C; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2018-06-01

    Older adults constitute a rapidly expanding proportion of the U.S. Contemporary studies note the increasing prevalence of alcohol consumption in this group. Thus, understanding alcohol effects, consumption patterns, and associated risks in aging populations constitute critical areas of study with increasing public health relevance. Participants (n = 643; 292 women; ages 21-70) were community residing adult volunteers. Primary measures of interest included four patterns of alcohol consumption (average [oz./day]; typical quantity [oz./occasion]; frequency [% drinking days]; and maximal quantity [oz.]). Regression analyses explored associations between these measures, age, and relevant covariates. Subsequent between-group analyses investigated differences between two groups of older adults and a comparator group of younger adults, their adherance to "low-risk" guidelines, and whether alcohol-associated risks differed by age and adherence pattern. Average consumption did not vary by age or differ between age groups. In contrast, markedly higher frequencies and lower quantities of consumption were observed with increasing age. These differences persisted across adherence categories and were evident even in the oldest age group. Exceeding "low-risk" guidelines was associated with greater risk for alcohol-related problems among the older groups. These results emphasize the utility of considering underlying constituent patterns of consumption in older drinkers. Findings highlight difficulties in identifying problem drinking among older adults and contribute to the few characterizations of "risky" drinking patterns in this group. Taken together, our data contribute to literatures of import for the design and enhancement of screening, prevention, and education initiatives directed toward aging adults. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Setting up low-risk bone marrow transplantation for children with thalassemia may facilitate pediatric cancer care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence B Faulkner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In many South Asian countries there is shortage of centers providing care for pediatric malignancies. This report describes the experience of the Cure2Children Foundation (C2C in supporting, both financially and professionally, the startup of two bone marrow transplant (BMT centers, one in Pakistan and one in India, for the cure of transfusion-dependent thalassemia. Even though transplantation is generally considered as a more complex and advanced step relatively to basic pediatric cancer care, the authors argue that BMT for low-risk thalassemia patients with a matched sibling is a relatively simple procedure amenable to focused training. Materials and Methods: Since 2008 the C2C, an Italian Nongovernmental Organization (NGO, has supported a BMT network in Pakistan. The primary aim of this project was to assess feasibility, outcomes, and costs of matched-related BMT for thalassemia in young low-risk children employing a well established and quite tolerable strategy employed in Italy. This initiative relied primarily on focused training and task-shift strategies within a structured cooperation program. The initial success of that strategy led to its replication in India with 100 total BMTs performed over the past 4 years, 91 of which were for thalassemia major. Results: Low-risk matched-related BMT in children younger than 5 years could deliver a 92% thalassemia-free survival with 100% performance score and no extensive chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD, for an average cost of 10,000 USD per BMT. Within an existing hospital facility, 50,000 USD were sufficient to renovate and fully equip a 2-3 bedded start up BMT unit capable of performing safe low-risk compatible marrow transplantation. Conclusions: In low resource settings matched-related low-risk BMT for thalassemia can be performed with outcomes comparable to richer countries and with a fraction of the costs. Within structured and intensive cooperation, good outcomes can be

  2. Cancer risk in relation to serum copper levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, R J; Weiss, N S; Daling, J R; Rettmer, R L; Warnick, G R

    1989-08-01

    A nested, matched case-control study was conducted to assess the relationship between serum levels of copper and the subsequent risk of cancer. One hundred thirty-three cases of cancer were identified during 1974-1984 among 5000 members of a northwest Washington State employee cohort from whom serum specimens had been previously obtained and stored. Two hundred forty-one controls were selected at random from the cohort and were matched to the cases on the basis of age, sex, race, and date of blood draw. Serum copper levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Risk of a subsequent diagnosis of cancer was positively associated with serum copper levels, but only among those cases diagnosed within 4 years of the time the serum specimens were collected. Among cases diagnosed more than 4 years after specimen collection, there was no consistent association between serum copper levels and risk. Adjustment for age, sex, race, occupational status, cigarette smoking, family history of cancer, alcohol consumption, and, among females, use of exogenous hormones had no appreciable effect on these relationships. The findings suggest that the presence of cancer may increase serum copper levels several years prior to its diagnosis. They are less supportive of the hypothesis that serum copper levels affect cancer risk.

  3. Financial impact of outpatient clinic radioiodine therapy with sodium iodide I-131 for the treatment of patients with differentiated low-risk thyroid carcinoma in relation to hospital doses; Impacto financeiro da radioiodoterapia ambulatorial com iodeto de sódio I-131 para tratamento de pacientes com carcinoma diferenciado da tireóide de baixo risco em relação às doses hospitalares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berenguer, P.F.; Chang, T.M.C.; Silva, R.A.M.; Neto, A.H.D.; Belo, I.B., E-mail: pricilaberenguer@gmail.com [Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira, Recife, PE (Brazil). Serviço de Medicina Nuclear; Santos, M.A.P. [Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife (Brazil). Coordenação de Radioproteção

    2017-07-01

    Differential thyroid carcinoma (CDT) is the most prevalent endocrine malignancy in the world, with an excellent prognosis and a 10-year survival rate of over 95%. By 2013, the lowest activity of I-131 authorized by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) in the therapy of patients with low-risk CDT was 3,700 MBq, requiring hospitalization. Recent studies have shown similar effectiveness between low and high doses of I-131 in the treatment of low-risk CDT. In 2014, the Ministry of Health included in the list of SUS procedures the use of lower activities (1,110 MBq and 1,850 MBq) for this purpose. The Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) also authorized the outpatient use of activity up to 1,850 MBq of I-131. Objective: To evaluate the financial impact of the adoption of ambulatory radioiodine therapy in patients with CDT of low-risk when compared to the hospital dose. Methods: Analysis of patients with CDT low-risk who were treated with an outpatient dose of I-131 from August / 2014 to January / 2017 at a nuclear medicine service in Recife, PE, Brazil. The cost of outpatient versus hospital doses was calculated. Results: A total of 289 patients underwent low doses of iodine therapy were evaluated, resulting in a savings of R$227,793.80. Conclusion: Outpatient radioiodine therapy in the treatment of patients with CDT of low-risk resulted in a 61.10% reduction in SUS expense, in addition to enabling faster care.

  4. Psychological impact of amniocentesis on low-risk women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, A; Jønsson, M H

    1987-01-01

    anxiety and worry were used on four occasions to evaluate psychological changes during pregnancy. The anxiety level in the younger women decreased after amniocentesis and a further decrease was observed after the results were communicated to them. However, similar changes were seen in the group of younger...

  5. Affective factors which relate to dance on secondary school level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation. Journal Home · ABOUT ... Motivation, stress, anxiety and self-concept are affective variables which may relate to dance performance. An empirical investigation ...

  6. The Relation Between Metabolic Syndrome and Testosterone Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel Prashant

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that increases the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The most important pathogenic factors for metabolic syndrome are insulin resistance and obesity. The clinical presentation of this syndrome results from its influence on glucose and fat metabolism. Testosterone deficiency has a prevalence of up to 50% in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. A low level of testosterone is a factor for cardiovascular diseases and predictor of metabolic syndrome and, on the other hand, the components of metabolic syndrome can lead to low testosterone. This article reveals the bidirectional link between low testosterone level or hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome.

  7. State-Level Estimates of Cancer-Related Absenteeism Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangka, Florence K.; Trogdon, Justin G.; Nwaise, Isaac; Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Guy, Gery P.; Orenstein, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer is one of the top five most costly diseases in the United States and leads to substantial work loss. Nevertheless, limited state-level estimates of cancer absenteeism costs have been published. Methods In analyses of data from the 2004–2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey, the U.S. Census Bureau for 2008, and the 2009 Current Population Survey, we used regression modeling to estimate annual state-level absenteeism costs attributable to cancer from 2004 to 2008. Results We estimated that the state-level median number of days of absenteeism per year among employed cancer patients was 6.1 days and that annual state-level cancer absenteeism costs ranged from $14.9 million to $915.9 million (median = $115.9 million) across states in 2010 dollars. Absenteeism costs are approximately 6.5% of the costs of premature cancer mortality. Conclusions The results from this study suggest that lost productivity attributable to cancer is a substantial cost to employees and employers and contributes to estimates of the overall impact of cancer in a state population. PMID:23969498

  8. Results of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the Spanish MDS registry: prognostic factors for low risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez Campelo, M; Sánchez-Barba, M; de Soria, V Gómez-García; Martino, R; Sanz, G; Insunza, A; Bernal, T; Duarte, R; Amigo, M L; Xicoy, B; Tormo, M; Iniesta, F; Bailén, A; Benlloch, L; Córdoba, I; López-Villar, O; Del Cañizo, M C

    2014-10-01

    Although new agents have been approved for the treatment of MDS, the only curative approach is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and thus, in particular circumstances this procedure has been proposed as a treatment option for low risk patients. We have retrospectively analyzed the results of HSCT in 291 patients from the Spanish MDS registry with special attention to low risk MDS (LR-MDS) in order to define the variables that could impact their clinical evolution after transplantation. At 2 years OS was 51% and EFS was 50% (95% CI 0.7-4.5 years for OS and 95% CI 0.1-3.9 years for EFS). Among 43 LR-MDS, transplant-related mortality was 28%. At 3 years, OS was 67% (95% CI 264.7-8927.2 days for OS) and EFS was 64% (95% CI 0-9697.2 days for EFS). In the multivariate analysis only cytogenetics retained statistical significant effect on both OS (p=.047) and EFS (p=.046). Conditioning regimen could improve outcome among this subset of patients (OS 86% and RFS 100% for patients receiving RIC regimen). The present study confirms that specific disease characteristic as well as transplant characteristics have a significant impact on transplant outcome. Regarding low risk patients a non-myeloablative conditioning would be preferable especially in cases without high-risk cytogenetics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Haloperidol plasma levels in relation to antimanic effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Annette; Bech, P.; Christensen, Christian Broen

    2016-01-01

    n the treatment of mania, lithium (Li) has been found in several controlled studies as clearly superior to placebo, but haloperidol, when compared to Li, seems to be faster acting, at least with regard to motor activity (Shopsin et al., 1975). Hence, haloperidol has increasingly been recommended...... as the antimanic drug of choice (Shaw, 1979). However, the recommended dose of haloperidol for mania varies extremely, from 4 mg to 100 mg daily (Hollister, 1978). The haloperidol dose required obviously depends on the severity of the manic state, but might also depend on the metabolism of the drug, which varies...... in different patients (Forsman, 1977). To our knowledge the relationship between plasma levels of haloperidol and antimanic effect has not been evaluated. In the present study we have measured plasma levels of haloperidol in manic patients treated with a fixed haloperidol dose and examined the relationship...

  10. Free market in practice. Customer loyalty related to service level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zewald, H.

    2003-01-01

    Sixty percent of the bulk consumers of energy have changed to a different supplier since the liberalization of the market. Newcomers like Vattenfall and EnBW are doing reasonably well, while small (gas) companies like Cogas and Rendo are also performing a lot better than the known big players, especially where it concerns the level of service. These are some of the remarkable results of research conducted by the market research agency Datamonitor [nl

  11. Age-Related Changes in Binaural Interaction at Brainstem Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yper, L.N. Van; Vermeire, K.; Vel, E.F. De; Beynon, A.J.; Dhooge, I.J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Age-related hearing loss hampers the ability to understand speech in adverse listening conditions. This is attributed to a complex interaction of changes in the peripheral and central auditory system. One aspect that may deteriorate across the lifespan is binaural interaction. The

  12. Preferences for a third-trimester ultrasound scan in a low-risk obstetric population: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Fiona A; Crealey, Grainne E; Alderdice, Fiona A; McElnay, James C

    2015-10-01

    Establish maternal preferences for a third-trimester ultrasound scan in a healthy, low-risk pregnant population. Cross-sectional study incorporating a discrete choice experiment. A large, urban maternity hospital in Northern Ireland. One hundred and forty-six women in their second trimester of pregnancy. A discrete choice experiment was designed to elicit preferences for four attributes of a third-trimester ultrasound scan: health-care professional conducting the scan, detection rate for abnormal foetal growth, provision of non-medical information, cost. Additional data collected included age, marital status, socio-economic status, obstetric history, pregnancy-specific stress levels, perceived health and whether pregnancy was planned. Analysis was undertaken using a mixed logit model with interaction effects. Women's preferences for, and trade-offs between, the attributes of a hypothetical scan and indirect willingness-to-pay estimates. Women had significant positive preference for higher rate of detection, lower cost and provision of non-medical information, with no significant value placed on scan operator. Interaction effects revealed subgroups that valued the scan most: women experiencing their first pregnancy, women reporting higher levels of stress, an adverse obstetric history and older women. Women were able to trade on aspects of care and place relative importance on clinical, non-clinical outcomes and processes of service delivery, thus highlighting the potential of using health utilities in the development of services from a clinical, economic and social perspective. Specifically, maternal preferences exhibited provide valuable information for designing a randomized trial of effectiveness and insight for clinical and policy decision makers to inform woman-centred care. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Maternal Medical Complexity: Impact on Prenatal Health Care Spending among Women at Low Risk for Cesarean Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Shayna D; Herrera, Carolina; Udo, Ifeyinwa E; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Barrette, Eric; Magriples, Urania; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    Obstetric procedures are among the most expensive health care services, yet relatively little is known about health care spending among pregnant women, particularly the commercially-insured. The objective of this study was to examine the association between maternal medical complexity, as a result of having one or more comorbid conditions, and health care spending during the prenatal period among a national sample of 95,663 commercially-insured women at low risk for cesarean delivery. We conducted secondary analyses of 2010-2011 inpatient, outpatient, and professional claims for health care services from the Health Care Cost Institute. Allowed charges were summed for the prenatal and childbirth periods. Ordinary least squares regressions tested associations between maternal health conditions and health care expenditures during pregnancy. Thirty-four percent of pregnant women had one or more comorbidities; 8% had two or more. Pregnant women with one or more comorbidities had significantly higher allowed charges than those without comorbidities (p prenatal period was nearly three times higher for women with preexisting diabetes compared with women with no comorbid conditions. Average levels of prenatal period spending associated with maternal comorbidities were similar for women who had vaginal and cesarean deliveries. Patient characteristics accounted for 30% of the variance in prenatal period expenditures. The impact of maternal comorbidities, and in particular preexisting diabetes, on prenatal care expenditures should be taken into account as provider payment reforms, such as pay-for performance incentives and bundled payments for episodes of care, extend to maternal and child health-related services. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Alcohol consumption and low-risk drinking guidelines among adults: a cross-sectional analysis from Alberta's Tomorrow Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Darren R; Haig, Tiffany R; Poirier, Abbey E; Akawung, Alianu; Friedenreich, Christine M; Robson, Paula J

    2017-12-01

    Moderate to heavy alcohol consumption is a risk factor for all-cause mortality and cancer incidence. Although cross-sectional data are available through national surveys, data on alcohol consumption in Alberta from a large prospective cohort were not previously available. The goal of these analyses was to characterize the levels of alcohol consumption among adults from the Alberta's Tomorrow Project in the context of cancer prevention guidelines. Furthermore, we conducted analyses to examine the relationships between alcohol consumption and other high-risk or risk-related behaviours. Between 2001 and 2009, 31 072 men and women aged 35 to 69 years were enrolled into Alberta's Tomorrow Project, a large provincial cohort study. Data concerning alcohol consumption in the past 12 months were obtained from 26 842 participants who completed self-administered health and lifestyle questionnaires. We conducted cross-sectional analyses on daily alcohol consumption and cancer prevention guidelines for alcohol use in relation to sociodemographic factors. We also examined the combined prevalence of alcohol consumption and tobacco use, obesity and comorbidities. Approximately 14% of men and 12% of women reported alcohol consumption exceeding recommendations for cancer prevention. Higher alcohol consumption was reported in younger age groups, urban dwellers, those with higher incomes and those who consumed more red meat. Moreover, volume of daily alcohol consumption was positively associated with current tobacco use in both men and women. Overall, men were more likely to fall in the moderate and high-risk behavioural profiles and show higher daily alcohol consumption patterns compared to women. Despite public health messages concerning the adverse impact of alcohol consumption, a sizeable proportion of Alberta's Tomorrow Project participants consumed alcohol in excess of cancer prevention recommendations. Continued strategies to promote low-risk drinking among those who choose to

  15. Online Activity Levels Are Related to Caffeine Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James G; Landhuis, C Erik; Shepherd, Daniel; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2016-05-01

    Online activity could serve in the future as behavioral markers of emotional states for computer systems (i.e., affective computing). Hence, this study considered relationships between self-reported stimulant use and online study patterns. Sixty-two undergraduate psychology students estimated their daily caffeine use, and this was related to study patterns as tracked by their use of a Learning Management System (Blackboard). Caffeine dependency was associated with less time spent online, lower rates of file access, and fewer online activities completed. Reduced breadth or depth of processing during work/study could be used as a behavioral marker of stimulant use.

  16. Spin interferometry and phase relations in three level systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehring, M.; Stoll, M.E.; Wolff, E.K.

    1978-01-01

    The sign of the wavefunctions of deuterium, a spin-1 nucleus, under a 2π rotation (spinor character) has been studied with using a single crystal of 98% deuterated hexamethyl-benzene (HMB, C 6 (CD 3 ) 6 ). In a large magnetic fields, the three energy levels of the Zeeman hamiltonian have equal spacing, whereas unequivalent transition frequencies may occur if a suitable quadrupolar interaction is included. Three types of experiment are discussed. Simultaneous irradiation of both transitions with a field strength ω 1 in the x direction verified spin-locking, quadrature, or phase variation; consecutive irradiation at both transition with π-pulses showed coherence transfer from transition 1-2 to the forbidden transition 1-3; double quantum spinor behavior was demonstrated by applying rf field of strength ω 1 = γH 1 at the 'double quantum transition' frequency ω 0

  17. Preventive dentistry: practitioners' recommendations for low-risk patients compared with scientific evidence and practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, P S; Sawai, R; Bowen, W H; Meyerowitz, C

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare published evidence supporting procedures to prevent dental caries and periodontal disease, in low-risk patients, with the actual preventive recommendations of practicing dentists. Methods included (1) a survey questionnaire of general dentists practicing in western New York State concerning the preventive procedures they would recommend and at what intervals for low-risk children, young adults, and older adults; and (2) review of the published, English-language literature for evidence supporting preventive dental interventions. The majority of dentists surveyed recommended semiannual visits for visual examination and probing to detect caries (73% to 79%), and scaling and polishing to prevent periodontal disease (83% to 86%) for low-risk patients of all ages. Bite-wing radiographs were recommended for all age groups at annual or semiannual intervals. In-office fluoride applications were recommended for low-risk children at intervals of 6 to 12 months by 73% of dentists but were recommended for low-risk older persons by only 22% of dentists. Application of sealants to prevent pit and fissure caries was recommended for low-risk children by 22% of dentists. Literature review found no studies comparing different frequencies of dental examinations and bite-wing radiographs to determine the optimal screening interval in low-risk patients. Two studies of the effect of scaling and polishing on the prevention of periodontal disease found no benefit from more frequent than annual treatments. Although fluoride is clearly a major reason for the decline in the prevalence of dental caries, there are no studies of the incremental benefit of in-office fluoride treatments for low-risk patients exposed to fluoridated water and using fluoridated toothpaste. Comparative studies using outcome end points are needed to determine the optimal frequency of dental examinations and bite-wing radiographs for the early detection of caries, and of scaling

  18. CAREM-25: a low-risk nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, Jorge H.; Nunez Mac Leod, J.E.; Rivera, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    The future use of nuclear energy for electricity production is assumed as a viable alternative at present, mainly taking into account the high environmental impact of the fossil fuel alternatives (greenhouse effect, acid rain). In the worldwide context, however, it is desirable that the next generation of nuclear power stations to be safer than the present ones. To demonstrate the safety level of a particular nuclear installation, the Risk Analysis (or Probabilistic Safety Assessment) is the most appropriate tool. Quantitative risk estimations can be performed with PSA. The risk can be split as the product of two factors: the first one takes into account the occurrence probability of accidental sequences that involve the release of radioactive material, and the second takes into account the magnitude and consequences of such a release. In the present work, the reduction of both factors is analyzed. The probability is reduced by the use of simpler and more reliable systems to perform the safety functions, and the consequence by the use of small power production units, provided with passive mitigation systems and long response times. The work is illustrated with a risk comparison for electricity production with CAREM-25 units, towards classic production units (Atucha II). The results are based on PSAs performed for both plants. The conclusions show an effective risk reduction (both in probability and in consequence) for the innovative CAREM-25 plant, coming to doses so low as to prevent any acute effect in the nearby population. (author)

  19. Applicator-guided volumetric-modulated arc therapy for low-risk endometrial cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cilla, Savino, E-mail: savinocilla@gmail.com [Medical Physics Unit, Fondazione di ricerca e cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Macchia, Gabriella [Radiation Oncology Unit, Fondazione di ricerca e cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Sabatino, Domenico [Medical Physics Unit, Fondazione di ricerca e cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Digesù, Cinzia; Deodato, Francesco [Radiation Oncology Unit, Fondazione di ricerca e cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Piermattei, Angelo [Physics Institute, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome (Italy); De Spirito, Marco [Medical Physics Unit, Fondazione di ricerca e cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Morganti, Alessio G. [Radiation Oncology Unit, Fondazione di ricerca e cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Radiation Oncology Unit, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome (Italy)

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to report the feasibility of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in the postoperative irradiation of the vaginal vault. Moreover, the VMAT technique was compared with 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), in terms of target coverage and organs at risk sparing. The number of monitor units and the delivery time were analyzed to score the treatment efficiency. All plans were verified in a dedicated solid water phantom using a 2D array of ionization chambers. Twelve patients with endometrial carcinoma who underwent radical hystero-adenexectomy and fixed-field IMRT treatments were retrospectively included in this analysis; for each patient, plans were compared in terms of dose-volume histograms, homogeneity index, and conformity indexes. All techniques met the prescription goal for planning target volume coverage, with VMAT showing the highest level of conformity at all dose levels. VMAT resulted in significant reduction of rectal and bladder volumes irradiated at all dose levels compared with 3D-CRT. No significant differences were found with respect to IMRT. Moreover, a significant improvement of the dose conformity was reached by VMAT technique not only at the 95% dose level (0.74 vs. 0.67 and 0.62) but also at 50% and 75% levels of dose prescription. In addition, VMAT plans showed a significant reduction of monitor units by nearly 28% with respect to IMRT, and reduced treatment time from 11 to <3 minutes for a single 6-Gy fraction. In conclusion, VMAT plans can be planned and carried out with high quality and efficiency for the irradiation of vaginal vault alone, providing similar or better sparing of organs at risk to fixed-field IMRT and resulting in the most efficient treatment option. VMAT is currently our standard approach for radiotherapy of low-risk endometrial cancer.

  20. Strengthening health-related rehabilitation services at national levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Bickenbach, Jerome; Melvin, John; Lains, Jorge; Nugraha, Boya

    2018-04-18

    One of the aims of the World Health Organization's Global Disability Action Plan is to strengthen rehabilitation services. Some countries have requested support to develop (scale-up) rehabilitation services. This paper describes the measures required and how (advisory) missions can support this purpose, with the aim of developing National Disability, Health and Rehabilitation Plans. It is important to clarify the involvement of governments in the mission, to define clear terms of reference, and to use a systematic pathway for situation assessment. Information must be collected regarding policies, health, disability, rehabilitation, social security systems, the need for rehabilitation, and the existing rehabilitation services and workforce. Site visits and stakeholder dialogues must be done. In order to develop a Rehabilitation Service Implementation Framework, existing rehabilitation services, workforce, and models for service implementation and development of rehabilitation professions are described. Governance, political will and a common understanding of disability and rehabilitation are crucial for implementation of the process. The recommendations of the World Report on Disability are used for reporting purposes. This concept is feasible, and leads to concrete recommendations and proposals for projects and a high level of consensus stakeholders.

  1. Strengthening health-related rehabilitation services at national levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Gutenbrunner

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the aims of the World Health Organization’s Global Disability Action Plan is to strengthen rehabilitation services. Some countries have requested support to develop (scale-up rehabilitation services. This paper describes the measures required and how (advisory missions can support this purpose, with the aim of developing National Disability, Health and Rehabilitation Plans. Recommendations: It is important to clarify the involvement of governments in the mission, to define clear terms of reference, and to use a systematic pathway for situation assessment. Information must be collected regarding policies, health, disability, rehabilitation, social security systems, the need for rehabilitation, and the existing rehabilitation services and workforce. Site visits and stakeholder dialogues must be done. In order to develop a Rehabilitation Service Implementation Framework, existing rehabilitation services, workforce, and models for service implementation and development of rehabilitation professions are described. Governance, political will and a common understanding of disability and rehabilitation are crucial for implementation of the process. The recommendations of the World Report on Disability are used for reporting purposes. Conclusion: This concept is feasible, and leads to concrete recommendations and proposals for projects and a high level of consensus stakeholders.

  2. Relation between pretransplant serum levels of soluble CD30 and acute rejection during the first 6 months after a kidney transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooshtarizadeh, Tina; Mohammadali, Ali; Ossareh, Shahrzad; Ataipour, Yousef

    2013-06-01

    The immunologic status of kidney allograft recipients affects transplant outcome. High levels of pretransplant serum soluble CD30 correlate with an increased risk of acute rejection. Studies show conflicting results. We evaluated the relation between pretransplant serum sCD30 levels with the risk of posttransplant acute kidney rejection in renal transplant recipients. This prospective cohort study was performed between March 2010 and March 2011 on 77 kidney transplant recipients (53 men [68.8%], 24 women [31.2%]; mean age, 41 ± 14 y). Serum samples were collected 24 hours before transplant and analyzed for soluble CD30 levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients were followed for 6 months after transplant. Acute biopsy-proven rejection episodes were recorded, serum creatinine levels were measured, and glomerular filtration rates were calculated at the first and sixth months after transplant. Preoperative serum soluble CD30 levels were compared in patients with and without rejection. The mean pretransplant serum soluble CD30 level was 92.1 ± 47.3 ng/mL. At 6 months' follow-up, 10 patients experienced acute rejection. Mean pretransplant soluble CD30 levels were 128.5 ± 84 ng/mL versus 86.7 ± 37 ng/mL in patients with and without acute rejection episodes (P = .008). At 100 ng/mL, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of pretransplant serum soluble CD30 level to predict acute rejection were 70%, 73.6%, 29.1%, and 94.3%. We showed a significant relation between pretransplant serum soluble CD30 levels and acute allograft rejection. High pretransplant levels of serum soluble CD30 can be a risk factor for kidney transplant rejection, and its high negative predictive value at various cutoffs make it useful to find candidates with a low risk of acute rejection after transplant.

  3. A Comparison of Postpartum Depression among Low-risk-pregnant Women with Emotion- and Problem-focused Coping Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibeh Salehi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Postpartum depression is one of most important health problems in women. This study was performed with the purpose of comparing the frequency of postpartum depression in pregnant women with emotion and problem-focused coping strategies. Methods: This study was conducted as a prospective cohort study on 200 pregnant women with stress (low and high levels. The samples were pregnant women referred to all health-treatment, centers of Ardabil, which were selected using a multi-stage sampling method; and according to coping strategy, they were divided into two groups: emotion-focused and problem-focused. Low-risk pregnant women completed questionnaires about demographic characteristics, perceived stress, and Billings and Moos coping strategies in the 38th to 42th week of their pregnancy, and completed the Edinburgh depression scale in the 3th to 4th weeks after childbirth. Data were analyzed using chi 2 and t tests. p<0.05 considered significant.Results: In this study, 170 participant women (85% used emotion-focused strategy and 30 women (15% used problem-focused strategy. Frequency of postpartum depression was 6.7% in the problem-focused group and 8.2% in the emotion-focused group. There was no significant difference in the frequency of postpartum depression between women with the problem- and emotion-focused strategies. Relative risk for postpartum depression was 1.2 times more among the women used emotion-focused strategy than women used problem-focused strategy (p<0.05.Conclusion: According to the results of this study, there was no significant relationship between postpartum depression and the two emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies. This can be due to high influence of postpartum specific endocrine factors in the etiology of this type of depression compared to other depressions.

  4. Periodontal disease and some adverse perinatal outcomes in a cohort of low risk pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecatti Jose G

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the association of periodontal disease (PD in pregnancy with some adverse perinatal outcomes. Method This cohort study included 327 pregnant women divided in groups with or without PD. Indexes of plaque and gingival bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and gingival recession were evaluated at one periodontal examination below 32 weeks of gestation. The rates of preterm birth (PTB, low birth weight (LBW, small for gestational age (SGA neonates and prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM were evaluated using Risk Ratios (95%CI and Population Attributable Risk Fractions. Results PD was associated with a higher risk of PTB (RRadj. 3.47 95%CI 1.62-7.43, LBW (RRadj. 2.93 95%CI 1.36-6.34 and PROM (RRadj. 2.48 95%CI 1.35-4.56, but not with SGA neonates (RR 2.38 95%CI 0.93 - 6.10. Conclusions PD was a risk factor for PT, LBW and PROM among Brazilian low risk pregnant women.

  5. Obesity and pregnancy: a transversal study from a low-risk maternity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Ana Carolina S; Quintana, Silvana M; Marcolin, Alessandra C; Berezowski, Aderson T; Brito, Luiz Gustavo O; Duarte, Geraldo; Cavalli, Ricardo C

    2014-07-28

    Obesity is a public health problem and is increasing in all populations, including pregnant women. It influences maternal and neonatal outcomes; however, data are scarce in developing countries. We aimed to compare perinatal results between obese and non-obese pregnant women in a low-risk maternity. Transversal study of 1,779 40-week-pregnancies from 2005 to 2009 that completed a standard questionnaire with sociodemographic, obstetrical and neonatal variables and performed an ultrasound with amniotic fluid index (AFI) measurement and foetal vitality (FBP, non-stress test). They were analysed about their association with obesity on pregnancy. When compared with non-obese women, the group of obese patients had higher systolic (118.1 vs 109.2 mmHg; p < 0.01) and diastolic (76.6 vs 70.4 mmHg; p < 0.01) pressure levels, AFI (12.52 vs. 9.61 cm; p = 0.02), presence of meconium on labour (20.52 vs. 14.67%; p = 0.02), birthweight (3602 vs. 3437 g; p < 0.01) and caesarean section (39.74 vs. 29.98%, p < 0.01). Labour induction before 40 weeks in the antenatal period associated with foetal weight estimation should be considered as a recommendation for decreasing high percentages of caesarean delivery found in obese women.

  6. Peripheral QCT: a low risk procedure to identify women predisposed to osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.; Rueegsegger, E.; Rueegsegger, P.

    1989-01-01

    A low-risk procedure is described for the precise quantitation of changes of trabecular and cortical bone density at peripheral measuring sites. The method is based on quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Bone parameters are calculated for a sample volume common to all examinations of a patient. This is achieved by matching stacks of tomograms according to the cross sectional area of the bone measured. With the help of a special-purpose CT system the described procedure enables a reproducibility for trabecular and cortical bone parameters of 0.3% (1 SD) at a local radiation dose of of 0.1 mSv (10 mrem). The method was used to assess the individual changes in bone density of 39 perimenopausal women during an observation period of 2 to 3 years. The results are grouped according to their menstrual state. Regularly menstruating women experience minute or no changes in bone density. After menopause the interindividual differences are considerable: some women lose bone excessively, others remain relatively stable. The frequency distribution of the rate of bone loss appears to be bimodal. Hence women can be classified in fast losers and slow losers. We conclude that the rate of bone loss may be most helpful in the identification of those women predisposed to osteoporosis. (author)

  7. Placental histological inflammation and reproductive tract infections in a low risk pregnant population in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezeberga, Dace; Lazdane, Gunta; Kroica, Juta; Sokolova, Ludmila; Donders, Gilbert G G

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the correlation of reproductive tract infections (RTI) and endogenous vaginal flora at first antenatal consultation with placental histological inflammation. In a follow-up study, 154 low risk women with no miscarriage risk factors were examined for the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis, Gardnerella vaginalis, Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS), Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis (GDS) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). At delivery, outcome data were collected and the histology of the placenta was studied. Some 85 (56.3%) of all pregnant women had RTI or endogenous vaginal flora. Placental histological inflammation correlated with genital tract colonisation with G. vaginalis (p =0.013), BV (p =0.031), S. aureus (p =0.04) and aerobic vaginitis (p =0.017). BV and BV-related G. vaginalis correlated with the presence of parietal and placental chorioamnionitis in 53.8 and 43.5% of cases. Genital tract colonisation with GDS and other aerobic flora in combination with inflammatory vaginitis correlated with the presence of funisitis in 33.3 and 40.0% of cases. Mycoplasmas increased the risk for intrauterine infection only when present in combination with other RTIs (p =0.023). Histological placental inflammation is associated with both BV and genital tract colonisation with aerobic bacteria, while funisitis is associated with colonisation of aerobic bacteria at first prenatal visit before the 17th gestational week.

  8. The Relation between Self Esteem Levels and Life Quality Levels of Disabled and Non-Disabled Tennis Sportsmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civan, Adem

    2015-01-01

    This research was carried out to determine the self-esteem and life quality levels of disabled and non-disabled tennis sportsmen; and also to set forth the relation between their self-esteem and life quality levels. The research group consists of total 44 sportsmen including 22 disabled tennis sportsmen (n[subscript (female)]=9, n[subscript…

  9. Safety and cost benefit of an ambulatory program for patients with low-risk neutropenic fever at an Australian centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Benjamin W; Brown, Christine; Joyce, Trish; Worth, Leon J; Slavin, Monica A; Thursky, Karin A

    2018-03-01

    Neutropenic fever (NF) is a common complication of cancer chemotherapy. Patients at low risk of medical complications from NF can be identified using a validated risk assessment and managed in an outpatient setting. This is a new model of care for Australia. This study described the implementation of a sustainable ambulatory program for NF at a tertiary cancer centre over a 12-month period. Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre introduced an ambulatory care program in 2014, which identified low-risk NF patients, promoted early de-escalation to oral antibiotics, and early discharge to a nurse-led ambulatory program. Patients prospectively enrolled in the ambulatory program were compared with a historical-matched cohort of patients from 2011 for analysis. Patient demographics, clinical variables (cancer type, recent chemotherapy, treatment intent, site of presentation) and outcomes were collected and compared. Total cost of inpatient admissions was determined from diagnosis-related group (DRG) codes and applied to both the prospective and historical cohorts to allow comparisons. Twenty-five patients were managed in the first year of this program with a reduction in hospital median length of stay from 4.0 to 1.1 days and admission cost from Australian dollars ($AUD) 8580 to $AUD2360 compared to the historical cohort. Offsetting salary costs, the ambulatory program had a net cost benefit of $AUD 71895. Readmission for fever was infrequent (8.0%), and no deaths were reported. Of relevance to hospitals providing cancer care, feasibility, safety, and cost benefits of an ambulatory program for low-risk NF patients have been demonstrated.

  10. The Effect of Parenting Style on Social Smiling in Infants at High and Low Risk for ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, Colleen M; Ibañez, Lisa V; Nguyen, Thanh P; Messinger, Daniel S; Stone, Wendy L

    2016-07-01

    This study examined how parenting style at 9 months predicts growth in infant social engagement (i.e., social smiling) between 9 and 18 months during a free-play interaction in infants at high (HR-infants) and low (LR-infants) familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Results indicated that across all infants, higher levels of maternal responsiveness were concurrently associated with higher levels of social smiling, while higher levels of maternal directiveness predicted slower growth in social smiling. When accounting for maternal directiveness, which was higher in mothers of HR-infants, HR-infants exhibited greater growth in social smiling than LR-infants. Overall, each parenting style appears to make a unique contribution to the development of social engagement in infants at high- and low-risk for ASD.

  11. Growth recovery lines are more common in infants at high vs. low risk for abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapala, Matthew A.; Tsai, Andy; Kleinman, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Growth recovery lines, also known as growth arrest lines, are transverse radiodense metaphyseal bands that develop due to a temporary arrest of endochondral ossification caused by local or systemic insults. To determine if growth recovery lines are more common in infants at high risk versus low risk for abuse. Reports of American College of Radiology compliant skeletal surveys (1999-2013) were reviewed with clinical records. Infants at low risk for abuse had a skull fracture without significant intracranial injury, history of a fall and clinical determination of low risk (child protection team/social work assessment). Infants at high risk had significant intracranial injury, retinal hemorrhages, other skeletal injuries and clinical determination of high risk. There were 52 low-risk infants (mean: 4.7 months, range: 0.4-12 months) and 21 high-risk infants (mean: 4.2 months, range: 0.8-9.1 months). Two blinded radiologists independently evaluated the skeletal survey radiographs of the knees/lower legs for the presence of at least one growth recovery line. When growth recovery lines are scored as probably present or definitely present, their prevalence in the low-risk group was 38% (standard deviation [SD] = 8%; reader 1 = 17/52, reader 2 = 23/52) vs. 71% (SD = 7%; reader 1 = 16/21, reader 2 = 14/21) in the high-risk group (P < 0.001; odds ratio 4.0, 95% CI: 1.7-9.5). Growth recovery lines are encountered at a significantly higher rate in infants at high risk vs. low risk for abuse. This suggests that abused infants are prone to a temporary disturbance in endochondral ossification as a result of episodic physiological stresses. (orig.)

  12. Relationship between polycythemia and in-hospital mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lu; Chughtai, Aamer Rasheed; Jiang, Hongli; Gao, Lingyun; Yang, Yan; Yang, Yang; Liu, Yuejian

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds Pulmonary embolism (PE) is frequent in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and associated with high mortality. This multi-center retrospective study was performed to investigate if secondary polycythemia is associated with in-hospital mortality in COPD patients with low-risk PE. Methods We identified COPD patients with proven PE between October, 2005 and October, 2015. Patients in risk classes III–V on the basis of the PESI score were excluded. We extracted demographic, clinical and laboratory information at the time of admission from medical records. All subjects were followed until hospital discharge to identify all-cause mortality. Results We enrolled 629 consecutive patients with COPD and PE at low risk: 132 of them (21.0%) with and 497 (79.0%) without secondary polycythemia. Compared with those without polycythemia, the polycythemia group had significantly lower forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) level (0.9±0.3 vs. 1.4±0.5, P=0.000), lower PaO2 and SpO2 as well as higher PaCO2 (P=0.03, P=0.03 and P=0.000, respectively). COPD patients with polycythemia had a higher proportion of arrhythmia in electrocardiogram (ECG) (49.5% vs. 35.7%, P=0.02), a longer hospital duration time (15.3±10.1 vs. 9.7±9.1, P=0.001), a higher mechanical ventilation rate (noninvasive and invasive, 51.7% vs. 30.3%, P=0.04 and 31.0% vs. 7.9%, P=0.04, respectively), and a higher in-hospital mortality (12.1% vs. 6.6%, P=0.04). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that polycythemia was associated with mortality in COPD patients with low-risk PE (adjusted OR 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04–1.66). Conclusions Polycythemia is an independent risk factor for all-cause in-hospital mortality in COPD patients with PE at low risk. PMID:28066591

  13. Comparison of frequency of obesity in high risk non diabetic young individuals with low risk non diabetic young individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, M.A.; Kumar, R.; Ghori, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the body mass index and waist circumferences of high risk non diabetic young individuals and compare them with low risk non diabetic young individuals. Method: A cross sectional, case control comparative study was conducted in the department of medicine, LUMHS from January 2008 to March 2009. Five hundred individuals 20-40 years of age were selected and divided into two groups i.e. Group A: high risk (250 individuals) and Group B: low risk (250 individuals) on the basis of same age and gender. Group A included those who had positive family history of type 2 DM in first degree relatives while group B had no family history of type 2 DM in first degree relatives. The blood pressure, BMI and Waist Circumference was measured and Fasting Blood Sugar was estimated in each individual. In each group 125 (50%) were males and 125 (50%) were females. Results: In group A 58% and in group B 28.8% individuals represented raised BMI whereas 42% in group A and 36% in group B individuals showed an increased waist circumference. Mean fasting blood glucose was significantly higher in Group A than in Group B (P=0.001). Conclusion: Impaired Fasting Glucose is strongly associated with family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Presence of obesity specially in high risk non-diabetic young individuals emphasize the need for routine health screening for early institution of preventive measures. (author)

  14. Managing coopetition through horizontal supply chain relations : Linking dyadic and network levels of analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, Miriam M.

    2011-01-01

    A growing research stream has expanded the level of analysis beyond single buyer-supplier relations to the network, including supplier-supplier relations. These supplier-supplier relations may constitute a missing link between the traditional analysis of the dyadic and the network level of analysis

  15. Managing coopetition through horizontal supply chain relations : Linking dyadic and network levels of analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, Miriam M.

    A growing research stream has expanded the level of analysis beyond single buyer-supplier relations to the network, including supplier-supplier relations. These supplier-supplier relations may constitute a missing link between the traditional analysis of the dyadic and the network level of analysis

  16. Randomized trial of pragmatic education for low-risk COPD patients: impact on hospitalizations and emergency department visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Haamid H; Olson, Raymond H; Parenti, Connie M; Rector, Thomas S; Caldwell, Michael; Dewan, Naresh A; Rice, Kathryn L

    2012-01-01

    Most interventions aimed at reducing hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have employed resource-intense programs in high-risk individuals. Although COPD is a progressive disease, little is known about the effectiveness of proactive interventions aimed at preventing hospitalizations and ED visits in the much larger population of low-risk (no known COPD-related hospitalizations or ED visits in the prior year) patients, some of whom will eventually become high-risk. We tested the effect of a simple educational and self-efficacy intervention (n = 2243) versus usual care (n = 2182) on COPD/breathing-related ED visits and hospitalizations in a randomized study of low-risk patients at three Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers in the upper Midwest. Administrative data was used to track VA admissions and ED visits. A patient survey was used to determine health-related events outside the VA. Rates of COPD-related VA hospitalizations in the education and usual care group were not significantly different (3.4 versus 3.6 admissions per 100 person-years, respectively; 95% CI of difference -1.3 to 1.0, P = 0.77). The much higher patient-reported rates of non-VA hospitalizations for breathing-related problems were lower in the education group (14.0 versus 19.0 per 100 person-years; 95% CI -8.6 to -1.4, P = 0.006). Rates of COPD-related VA ED visits were not significantly different (6.8 versus 5.3; 95% CI -0.1 to 3.0, P = 0.07), nor were non-VA ED visits (32.4 versus 36.5; 95% CI -9.3 to 1.1, P = 0.12). All-cause VA admission and ED rates did not differ. Mortality rates (6.9 versus 8.3 per 100 person-years, respectively; 95% CI -3.0 to 0.4, P = 0.13) did not differ. An educational intervention that is practical for large numbers of low-risk patients with COPD may reduce the rate of breathing-related hospitalizations. Further research that more closely tracks hospitalizations to non-VA facilities is

  17. Applying decision tree for identification of a low risk population for type 2 diabetes. Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezankhani, Azra; Pournik, Omid; Shahrabi, Jamal; Khalili, Davood; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to create a prediction model using data mining approach to identify low risk individuals for incidence of type 2 diabetes, using the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) database. For a 6647 population without diabetes, aged ≥20 years, followed for 12 years, a prediction model was developed using classification by the decision tree technique. Seven hundred and twenty-nine (11%) diabetes cases occurred during the follow-up. Predictor variables were selected from demographic characteristics, smoking status, medical and drug history and laboratory measures. We developed the predictive models by decision tree using 60 input variables and one output variable. The overall classification accuracy was 90.5%, with 31.1% sensitivity, 97.9% specificity; and for the subjects without diabetes, precision and f-measure were 92% and 0.95, respectively. The identified variables included fasting plasma glucose, body mass index, triglycerides, mean arterial blood pressure, family history of diabetes, educational level and job status. In conclusion, decision tree analysis, using routine demographic, clinical, anthropometric and laboratory measurements, created a simple tool to predict individuals at low risk for type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Results of implementation of a hospital-based strategy to reduce cesarean delivery among low-risk women in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Esther S; Bourgeault, Ivy L; Cameron, Carol; Graham, Ian D; Hutton, Eileen K

    2017-11-01

    To assess the cesarean delivery (CD) rate among low-risk pregnancies before and after implementation of a hospital-based program in Canada. A prospective before-and-after study was conducted to assess the effects of the CARE (CAesarean REduction) strategy, which was developed and implemented at Markham Stouffville Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada, in 2010 to reduce CD among low-risk women. Hospital records were reviewed to identify changes in the proportions of CD performed during 12 months (April 2009-March 2010) before implementation of the CARE strategy versus 12 months after implementation (April 2012-March 2013) at Markham Stouffville Hospital and 36 hospitals of the same level in the same province. At the intervention hospital, 30.3% (964/3181) of women underwent CD in 2009-2010, compared with 26.4% (803/3045) in 2012-2013 (difference -3.9%, PImplementation of the CARE strategy reduced rates of CD among the target population. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  19. Consumer understanding, interpretation and perceived levels of personal responsibility in relation to satiety-related claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilman, E.M.; Kleef, van E.; Mela, D.J.; Hulshof, T.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore (a) whether and how consumers may (over-) interpret satiety claims, and (b) whether and to what extent consumers recognize that personal efforts are required to realize possible satiety-related or weight loss benefits. Following means-end chain theory, we

  20. Serum levels of oestrogen and some biochemical parameters in relation to reproductive activities and level of production in fowl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El - Abiad, N.M.F.

    1982-01-01

    This work was carried out at the poultry experiment station department of animal production, faculty of agriculture zagazig university, benha branch. radioimmunological and biochemical assays were performed in the laboratories of radioimmunology and biochemistry unit of atomic energy establishment . It was intended to study: 1. The effect of oestrogen level along the time of egg formation on some parameters in blood serum related to metabolic efficiency. 2. The variations in oestrogen level and blood serum parameters due to clutch size of hens. 3.Changes in oestrogen levels and some blood constituents along the time of egg formation

  1. Event-related potentials reveal the relations between feature representations at different levels of abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Samuel D; Shedden, Judith M; Brooks, Lee R; Grundy, John G

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we use behavioural methods and event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the relations between informational and instantiated features, as well as the relation between feature abstraction and rule type. Participants are trained to categorize two species of fictitious animals and then identify perceptually novel exemplars. Critically, two groups are given a perfectly predictive counting rule that, according to Hannah and Brooks (2009. Featuring familiarity: How a familiar feature instantiation influences categorization. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale, 63, 263-275. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.1037/a0017919), should orient them to using abstract informational features when categorizing the novel transfer items. A third group is taught a feature list rule, which should orient them to using detailed instantiated features. One counting-rule group were taught their rule before any exposure to the actual stimuli, and the other immediately after training, having learned the instantiations first. The feature-list group were also taught their rule after training. The ERP results suggest that at test, the two counting-rule groups processed items differently, despite their identical rule. This not only supports the distinction that informational and instantiated features are qualitatively different feature representations, but also implies that rules can readily operate over concrete inputs, in contradiction to traditional approaches that assume that rules necessarily act on abstract inputs.

  2. Determinants of prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen-de Jong, Esther I.; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Baarveld, Frank; Boerleider, Agatha W.; Spelten, Evelien; Schellevis, Francois; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Background: Prenatal health care is pivotal in providing adequate prevention and care to pregnant women. Aim: We examined the determinants of inadequate prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women in primary midwifery-led care in the Netherlands. Methods: We used longitudinal data from the

  3. Determinants of prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen-de Jong, E.I.; Jansen, D.E.M.C.; Baarveld, F.; Boerleider, A.W.; Spelten, E.; Schellevis, F.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prenatal health care is pivotal in providing adequate prevention and care to pregnant women. Aim: We examined the determinants of inadequate prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women in primary midwifery-led care in the Netherlands. Methods: We used longitudinal data from the

  4. Determinants of prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen-de Jong, E.I.; Jansen, D.E.M.C.; Baarveld, F.; Boerleider, A.W.; Spelten, E.; Schellevis, F.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prenatal health care is pivotal in providing adequate prevention and care to pregnant women. Aim: We examined the determinants of inadequate prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women in primary midwifery-led care in the Netherlands. Methods: We used longitudinal data from the

  5. 29 CFR 99.530 - Criteria for a low-risk auditee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... management of Federal awards and provide a waiver. (c) There were no deficiencies in internal control which... periods) in which they were classified as Type A programs: (1) Internal control deficiencies which were... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Criteria for a low-risk auditee. 99.530 Section 99.530 Labor...

  6. 7 CFR 3052.530 - Criteria for a low-risk auditee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... management of Federal awards and provide a waiver. (c) There were no deficiencies in internal control which... periods) in which they were classified as Type A programs: (1) Internal control deficiencies which were... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for a low-risk auditee. 3052.530 Section...

  7. 76 FR 16234 - Prompt Corrective Action; Amended Definition of Low-Risk Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ...; Amended Definition of Low-Risk Assets AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Final... to reflect the absence of credit risk. Having considered the public comments addressing the Interim...), (f) and (g); 12 CFR 702.204(a)-(b). For a credit union that is subject to an additional Risk-Based...

  8. 75 FR 66298 - Prompt Corrective Action; Amended Definition of Low-Risk Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ...; Amended Definition of Low-Risk Assets AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Interim...-weighting of zero, reflecting the absence of credit risk. The amendment will expand the definition of ``low... exists today, the NGNs held by a natural person credit union would fall within the ``investments'' risk...

  9. Peripheral arterial tonometry cannot detect patients at low risk of coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. van den Heuvel (Mieke); O. Sorop (Oana); P. Musters (Paul); R.T. van Domburg (Ron); T.W. Galema (Tjebbe); D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk); W.J. van der Giessen (Wim); K. Nieman (Koen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground Endothelial dysfunction precedes coronary artery disease (CAD) and can be measured by peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT). We examined the applicability of PAT to detect a low risk of CAD in a chest pain clinic. Methods In 93 patients, PAT was performed resulting in reactive

  10. High- and Low-Risk Characteristics of Youth: The Five Cs of Competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, J. Jeffries; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Identifies and discusses five basic skill strengths or skill deficits that mark critical difference between low-risk and high-risk youth. The "Five Cs of Competency" described include critical school competencies, concept of self and self-esteem, communication skills, coping ability, and control. Contends that these characteristics discriminate…

  11. Biomarkers and low risk in heart failure. Data from COACH and TRIUMPH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, Wouter C.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Jaarsma, Tiny; Hillege, Hans L.; Maisel, Alan S.; Di Somma, Salvatore; Voors, Adriaan A.; Peacock, W. Frank

    2015-01-01

    AimTraditionally, risk stratification in heart failure (HF) emphasizes assessment of high risk. We aimed to determine if biomarkers could identify patients with HF at low risk for death or HF rehospitalization. Methods and resultsThis analysis was a substudy of The Coordinating Study Evaluating

  12. Active surveillance can reduce overtreatment in patients with low-risk prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk; Røder, Martin Andreas; Hvarness, Helle

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of prostate cancer in Denmark rose approximately 50% from 2000 to 2009 in parallel with the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-testing. Available evidence indicates a significant overtreatment of patients with low-risk prostate cancer. Active surveillance has been...

  13. Client experiences with perinatal healthcare for high-risk and low-risk women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stenus, Cherelle M.V.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Kerkhof, Erna F.G.M.; Need, Ariana

    2018-01-01

    Problem: It is unknown if client experiences with perinatal healthcare differ between low-risk and high-risk women. Background: In the Netherlands, risk selection divides pregnant women into low- and high-risk groups. Receiving news that a pregnancy or childbirth has an increased likelihood of

  14. Bad experience, good birthing: Dutch low-risk pregnant women with a history of sexual abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, Leonie A. M.; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Eskes, Martine; Birnie, Erwin; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Bleker, Otto P.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The long-term effects on women in childbirth with a history of sexual abuse have only been studied to a limited degree. We estimated the prevalence of lifetime experience among low-risk pregnant women (non-clinical) in The Netherlands as well as the association with (1) psycho-social

  15. Mother-Child Interactional Patterns in High- and Low-Risk Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz, Laura; Cerezo, M. Angeles; Milner, Joel S.

    1997-01-01

    A study of 10 high-risk (of child physical abuse) and 10 demographically similar low-risk Spanish mother-child dyads investigated interactional patterns in the home. High-risk mothers made fewer neutral approaches to their children, displayed more negative behaviors toward their children, and made more indiscriminate responses to their children's…

  16. Does regional disadvantage affect health-related sport and physical activity level? A multi-level analysis of individual behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Pamela; Downward, Paul; Lera-López, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the role of regional government quality in health-related participation in sport and physical activity among adults (18-64 years) in 28 European countries. The importance of the analysis rests in the relative autonomy that regional and local governments have over policy decisions connected with sport and physical activity. While existing studies have focussed on economic and infrastructural investment and expenditure, this research investigates the quality of regional governments across 208 regions within 28 European countries. The individual-level data stem from the 2013 Eurobarometer 80.2 (n = 18,675) and were combined with regional-level data from Eurostat. An individual's level of participation in sport and physical activity was measured by three variables reflecting whether an individual's activity level is below, meets, or exceeds the recommendations of the World Health Organization. The results of multi-level analyses reveal that regional government quality has a significant and positive association with individual participation in sport and physical activity at a level meeting or exceeding the guidelines. The impact is much larger than that of regional gross domestic product per capita, indicating that regional disadvantage in terms of political quality is more relevant than being disadvantaged in terms of economic wealth.

  17. Increased levels of circulating CD34+ cells in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: relation with clinical and OCT features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Caner; Özdal, Pınar Ç; Beyazyıldız, Emrullah; Özcan, Nurgül E; Teke, Mehmet Y; Vural, Gülden; Öztürk, Faruk

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the levels of circulating CD34+ stem cells in patients with neovascular type age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and its relation with clinical and optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings. The study consisted of 55 patients: 28 patients (18 male and 10 female) with neovascular type AMD as a study group and 27 patients (12 male and 15 female) scheduled for cataract surgery as a control group. The level of CD34+ stem cells was measured by flow cytometry. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. The mean ages of patients in the study and control groups were 71 ± 8 and 68 ± 6 years, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of age, sex, or systemic disease association between study and control groups. However, smoking status was significantly higher in the study group (67.9% vs 37.0%; p = 0.02). Stem cell levels were significantly higher in the study group (1.5 ± 0.9 vs 0.5 ± 0.3; p<0.001), but there was no relation between stem cell levels and clinical and OCT findings. Increased circulating CD34+ stem cell levels were observed in patients with choroidal neovascular membrane associated with AMD, but no significant relation was found between cell levels and clinical and OCT findings.

  18. [Change of awareness level of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top and relation with sociodemographic and health-related characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaizumi, Kanae; Harada, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sociodemographic and health-related characteristics of those who are unaware of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top (Food Guide). A longitudinal study was conducted using an Internet-based questionnaire with 1,012 Japanese adults (40.2 +/- 10.0 years, mean +/- SD) recruited from registrants of a Japanese social research company. Conducted between November 2007 (T1) and December 2008 (T2), the survey included items on awareness level ("I know the contents." "I have heard of this Guide." or "I have not heard of this Guide.") of the Food Guide as the dependent variable, and demographics factors (e.g., age, education status, marital status, household income, and employment status) and health-related characteristics (obesity, abdominal obesity, and insufficient physical activity) as the independent variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relation between awareness level and each variable. The relation between change of awareness level (T1-T2) and each variable was analyzed using a chi-square test. All the analyses were stratified by gender. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for all variables, men with a household income of 5,000,000-10,000,000 yen (OR=1.78; 95% CI=1.10-2.88) were positively associated with awareness level ("I have heard of this Guide."). In contrast, unmarried women were negatively associated with awareness level in T1 ("I know the contents"; OR=0.35; 95% CI=0.17-0.70. "I have heard of this Guide"; OR=0.50; 95% CI=0.27-0.92). In men, the awareness level of the Food Guide increased from T1 to T2, change of awareness level (T1; "I have not heard of this Guide") and education status being related (P=0.023). In women, the awareness levels overall did not improve from T1 to T2, but change of awareness level (T1; "I have heard of this Guide") was associated with household income (Plevel was not associated with health-related characteristics. The results

  19. Total Water Level Fun Facts: The Relative Contribution of Extreme Total Water Levels Along the US West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, K.; Ruggiero, P.; Stockdon, H. F.

    2016-02-01

    In the fall of 2014, parts of the US West Coast endured some of the highest monthly mean sea level anomalies on record, likely due to the presence of "the blob" (Bond et al., 2015), an anomalously warm water mass in the NE Pacific. However, despite the significantly above average water levels, the coastline experienced only marginal coastal flooding and erosion hazards because the ensuing winter lacked significant storms, underscoring the fact that extreme total water levels (TWLs) are compound events. To better understand how several individual processes combine to cause devastating coastal hazards, we investigate the relative contribution that each component (waves, tides, and non-tidal residuals) has on extreme TWLs on sandy beaches. Water level records along the US West Coast are decomposed into mean sea level, astronomical tide, and non-tidal residuals (NTRs). The NTR is further split into an intra-annual seasonal signal, monthly mean sea level anomalies (inter-annual variability), and meteorological surge. TWL time series are then generated by combining water levels with wave runup, computed using wave data and beach morphology. We use this data-driven, structural function approach to investigate the spatial variability of the relative contribution of each component to the maximum TWL event on record. We also use a probabilistic, full simulation TWL model (Serafin and Ruggiero, 2014) to generate multiple, synthetic TWL records, to explore the relative contribution of each component to extreme TWL return levels. We assess the sensitivity to local beach morphology by computing TWLs for a range of observed beach slopes. Extreme TWLs are higher in Oregon and Washington than in California. Wave runup typically comprises > 50% of the TWL signal, while NTRs often compose < 5%, illustrating the importance wave climate has on the potential for extreme TWLs. While waves are typically larger in the North, California experiences greater contributions to extreme TWLs from

  20. Relative productivity levels, 1947-1973: an international comparison. [US and eight major trading partners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, L.R. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison); Cummings, D.; Jorgenson, D.W.

    1981-05-01

    This paper provides an international comparison of levels of output, input, and productivity for the US and 8 of its major trading partners - Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. It first compares levels of output per capita in 1970 and allocates differences in these levels among differences in levels of capital and labor input per capita and differences in total factor productivity. Output per capita relative to the US in 1970 varied from 0.101 for Korea to 0.811 for Canada. For the industrialized countries except Canada, the range was from 0.460 for Italy to 0.721 for Germany. Variations in capital input per capita relative to the US were greater than for output, running from 0.082 for Korea to 0.920 for Canada. Again, excluding Canada, the range for industrialized countries was from 0.325 for Japan to 0.709 for Germany. Differences between levels of total factor productivity in the US and the eight remaining countries in 1970 were much smaller than differences in output per capita. Secondly, relative levels of output, input, and productivity are compared among all 9 countries for the period 1947 to 1973. The time-series results show that relative levels of output per capita between the US and its 8 trading partners have narrowed substantially during the postwar period. Levels of capital per capita have also narrowed throughout the postwar period for all countries relative to the US. Finally, relative productivity levels between the US and its major trading partners have narrowed substantially over the postwar period. For the 7 industrialized countries relative productivity levels in 1973 fell within the narrow range of 0.775 for the United Kingdom to 0.907 for Canada. For Korea the productivity gap remained very substantial; its level relative to the United States was 0.348. 46 references, 14 tables.

  1. Examining the Relation between Social Values Perception and Moral Maturity Level of Folk Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Pinar Karacan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the relation between social values perceptions and moral maturity levels of folk dancers, and evaluate this relation in terms of some variables. The relational screening model was used in the study. The "Multi-dimensional Social Values Scale," which was developed by Bolat (2013), and the…

  2. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism: relation to familiar risk of affective disorder, BDNF levels and salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Trajkovska, Viktorija; Bennike, Bente

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are considered to play an important role in the pathophysiology of affective disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated...... with a familiar risk of affective disorder and whether these genotypes affect whole blood BDNF level and salivary cortisol. METHOD: In a high-risk study, healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with and without a co-twin (high- and low-risk twins, respectively) history of affective disorder were identified...... through nationwide registers. RESULTS: Familiar predisposition to unipolar and bipolar disorder was not associated with any specific genotype pattern of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, not in this sample of 124 val/val, 58 val/met and 8 met/met individuals. However, the combination of having a high...

  3. Auto-segmentation of low-risk clinical target volume for head and neck radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinzhong; Beadle, Beth M; Garden, Adam S; Gunn, Brandon; Rosenthal, David; Ang, Kian; Frank, Steven; Williamson, Ryan; Balter, Peter; Court, Laurence; Dong, Lei

    2014-01-01

    To investigate atlas-based auto-segmentation methods to improve the quality of the delineation of low-risk clinical target volumes (CTVs) of unilateral tonsil cancers. Sixteen patients received intensity modulated radiation therapy for left tonsil tumors. These patients were treated by a total of 8 oncologists, who delineated all contours manually on the planning CT image. We chose 6 of the patients as atlas cases and used atlas-based auto-segmentation to map each the atlas CTV to the other 10 patients (test patients). For each test patient, the final contour was produced by combining the 6 individual segmentations from the atlases using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation algorithm. In addition, for each test patient, we identified a single atlas that produced deformed contours best matching the physician's manual contours. The auto-segmented contours were compared with the physician's manual contours using the slice-wise Hausdorff distance (HD), the slice-wise Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), and a total volume overlap index. No single atlas consistently produced good results for all 10 test cases. The multiatlas segmentation achieved a good agreement between auto-segmented contours and manual contours, with a median slice-wise HD of 7.4 ± 1.0 mm, median slice-wise DSC of 80.2% ± 5.9%, and total volume overlap of 77.8% ± 3.3% over the 10 test cases. For radiation oncologists who contoured both the test case and one of the atlas cases, the best atlas for a test case had almost always been contoured by the oncologist who had contoured that test case, indicating that individual physician's practice dominated in target delineation and was an important factor in optimal atlas selection. Multiatlas segmentation may improve the quality of CTV delineation in clinical practice for unilateral tonsil cancers. We also showed that individual physician's practice was an important factor in selecting the optimal atlas for atlas-based auto

  4. Characteristics of high- and low-risk individuals in the PRIORITY study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofte, N; Lindhardt, M; Adamova, K

    2018-01-01

    variable. In a logistic regression model including clinical variables known to be associated with diabetic kidney disease, estimated GFR, gender, log urinary albumin:creatinine ratio and use of renin-angiotensin system-blocking agents remained significant determinants of the CKD273 high-risk group: area......AIM: To compare clinical baseline data in individuals with Type 2 diabetes and normoalbuminuria, who are at high or low risk of diabetic kidney disease based on the urinary proteomics classifier CKD273. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled international...... multicentre clinical trial and observational study in participants with Type 2 diabetes and normoalbuminuria, stratified into high- or low-risk groups based on CKD273 score. Clinical baseline data for the whole cohort and stratified by risk groups are reported. The associations between CKD273 and traditional...

  5. Do Ontarians drink in moderation? a baseline assessment against Canadian low risk drinking guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondy, S J; Ashley, M J; Rehm, J T; Walsh, G

    1999-01-01

    We used the 1997 Ontario Drug Monitor, a population-based, random-digit dialing survey of 2,776 adults, to obtain a baseline assessment of alcohol drinking by Ontarians against the 1997 low-risk drinking guidelines of the Addiction Research Foundation and the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse. Average weekly alcohol consumption and the frequency of exceeding the daily limit, estimated using the graduated frequency scale, were determined for the population overall, and by sex and age group (18-44 and 45+ years). Most Ontarians drank alcohol in a pattern associated with a low risk of health consequences. About 10% of women and 25% of men drank in a style associated with some increase in acute or long-term risk. Younger men were most likely to drink in a risky pattern. Most drinkers of middle age or older, for whom cardiovascular disease is a significant health risk, consumed alcohol in a pattern associated with cardiovascular benefit.

  6. Predictive value of late decelerations for fetal acidemia in unselective low-risk pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameshima, Hiroshi; Ikenoue, Tsuyomu

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical significance of late decelerations (LD) of intrapartum fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring to detect low pH (LD (occasional, 50%; recurrent, > or = 50%) and severity (reduced baseline FHR accelerations and variability) of LD, and low pH (test, and one-way analysis of variance with the Bonferroni/Dunn test. In the 5522 low-risk pregnancies, 301 showed occasional LD and 99 showed recurrent LD. Blood gases and pH values deteriorated as the incidence of LD increased and as baseline accelerations or variability was decreased. Positive predictive value for low pH (LD, and > 50% in recurrent LD with no baseline FHR accelerations and reduced variability. In low-risk pregnancies, information on LD combined with acceleration and baseline variability enables us to predict the potential incidence of fetal acidemia.

  7. Allergy Testing in Children With Low-Risk Penicillin Allergy Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyles, David; Adams, Juan; Chiu, Asriani; Simpson, Pippa; Nimmer, Mark; Brousseau, David C

    2017-08-01

    Penicillin allergy is commonly reported in the pediatric emergency department (ED). True penicillin allergy is rare, yet the diagnosis results from the denial of first-line antibiotics. We hypothesize that all children presenting to the pediatric ED with symptoms deemed to be low-risk for immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity will return negative results for true penicillin allergy. Parents of children aged 4 to 18 years old presenting to the pediatric ED with a history of parent-reported penicillin allergy completed an allergy questionnaire. A prespecified 100 children categorized as low-risk on the basis of reported symptoms completed penicillin allergy testing by using a standard 3-tier testing process. The percent of children with negative allergy testing results was calculated with a 95% confidence interval. Five hundred ninety-seven parents completed the questionnaire describing their child's reported allergy symptoms. Three hundred two (51%) children had low-risk symptoms and were eligible for testing. Of those, 100 children were tested for penicillin allergy. The median (interquartile range) age at testing was 9 years (5-12). The median (interquartile range) age at allergy diagnosis was 1 year (9 months-3 years). Rash (97 [97%]) and itching (63 [63%]) were the most commonly reported allergy symptoms. Overall, 100 children (100%; 95% confidence interval 96.4%-100%) were found to have negative results for penicillin allergy and had their labeled penicillin allergy removed from their medical record. All children categorized as low-risk by our penicillin allergy questionnaire were found to have negative results for true penicillin allergy. The utilization of this questionnaire in the pediatric ED may facilitate increased use of first-line penicillin antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. First-line chemotherapy in low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alazzam, Mo'iad

    2012-01-01

    This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in Issue 1, 2009. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a rare but curable disease arising in the fetal chorion during pregnancy. Most women with low-risk GTN will be cured by evacuation of the uterus with or without single-agent chemotherapy. However, chemotherapy regimens vary between treatment centres worldwide and the comparable benefits and risks of these different regimens are unclear.

  9. Image-Guided Hypofractionated Radiotherapy in Low-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Valeriani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate efficacy and toxicity of image-guided hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFRT in the treatment of low-risk prostate cancer. Outcomes and toxicities of this series of patients were compared to another group of 32 low-risk patients treated with conventional fractionation (CFRT. Methods. Fifty-nine patients with low-risk prostate cancer were analysed. Total dose for the prostate and proximal seminal vesicles was 60 Gy delivered in 20 fractions. Results. The median follow-up was 30 months. The actuarial 4-year overall survival, biochemical free survival, and disease specific survival were 100%, 97.4%, and 97.4%, respectively. Acute grade 1-2 gastrointestinal (GI and genitourinary (GU toxicity rates were 11.9% and 40.7%, respectively. Grade 1 GI and GU late toxicity rates were 8.5% and 13.6%, respectively. No grade ≥2 late toxicities were recorded. Acute grade 2-3 GU toxicity resulted significantly lower (P=0.04 in HFRT group compared to the CFRT group. The cumulative 4-year incidence of grade 1-2 GU toxicity was significantly higher (P<0.001 for HFRT patients. Conclusions. Our study demonstrated that hypofractionated regimen provided excellent biochemical control in favorable risk prostate cancer patients. The incidence of GI and GU toxicity was low. However, HFRT presented higher cumulative incidence of low-grade late GU toxicity than CFRT.

  10. Visual performance in preterm infants with brain injuries compared with low-risk preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Merçè; Forns, Maria; Calderón, Caterina; Reinoso, Marta; Gargallo, Estrella

    2012-08-01

    Neonatal brain injuries are the main cause of visual deficit produced by damage to posterior visual pathways. While there are several studies of visual function in low-risk preterm infants or older children with brain injuries, research in children of early age is lacking. To assess several aspects of visual function in preterm infants with brain injuries and to compare them with another group of low-risk preterm infants of the same age. Forty-eight preterm infants with brain injuries and 56 low-risk preterm infants. The ML Leonhardt Battery of Optotypes was used to assess visual functions. This test was previously validated at a post-menstrual age of 40 weeks in newborns and at 30-plus weeks in preterm infants. The group of preterm infants with brain lesions showed a delayed pattern of visual functions in alertness, fixation, visual attention and tracking behavior compared to infants in the healthy preterm group. The differences between both groups, in the visual behaviors analyzed were around 30%. These visual functions could be identified from the first weeks of life. Our results confirm the importance of using a straightforward screening test with preterm infants in order to assess altered visual function, especially in infants with brain injuries. The findings also highlight the need to provide visual stimulation very early on in life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Governmental standard drink definitions and low-risk alcohol consumption guidelines in 37 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Agnieszka; Humphreys, Keith

    2016-07-01

    One of the challenges of international alcohol research and policy is the variability in and lack of knowledge of how governments in different nations define a standard drink and low-risk drinking. This study gathered such information from governmental agencies in 37 countries. A pool of 75 countries that might have definitions was created using World Health Organization (WHO) information and the authors' own judgement. Structured internet searches of relevant terms for each country were supplemented by efforts to contact government agencies directly and to consult with alcohol experts in the country. Most of the 75 national governments examined were not identified as having adopted a standard drink definition. Among the 37 that were so identified, the modal standard drink size was 10 g pure ethanol, but variation was wide (8-20 g). Significant variability was also evident for low-risk drinking guidelines, ranging from 10-42 g per day for women and 10-56 g per day for men to 98-140 g per week for women and 150-280 g per week for men. Researchers working and communicating across national boundaries should be sensitive to the substantial variability in 'standard' drink definitions and low-risk drinking guidelines. The potential impact of guidelines, both in general and in specific national cases, remains an important question for public health research. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. [Clinical guideline for management of patients with low risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan José; Oleaga, Amelia; Álvarez-Escolá, Cristina; Martín, Tomás; Galofré, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing in Spain and worldwide. Overall thyroid cancer survival is very high, and stratification systems to reliably identify patients with worse prognosis have been developed. However, marked differences exist between the different specialists in clinical management of low-risk patients with thyroid carcinoma. Almost half of all papillary thyroid carcinomas are microcarcinomas, and 90% are tumors < 2 cm that have a particularly good prognosis. However, they are usually treated more aggressively than needed, despite the lack of adequate scientific support. Surgery remains the gold standard treatment for these tumors. However, lobectomy may be adequate in most patients, without the need for total thyroidectomy. Similarly, prophylactic lymph node dissection of the central compartment is not required in most cases. This more conservative approach prevents postoperative complications such as hypoparathyroidism or recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. Postoperative radioiodine remnant ablation and strict suppression of serum thyrotropin, although effective for the more aggressive forms of thyroid cancer, have not been shown to be beneficial for the treatment of low risk patients, and may impair their quality of life. This guideline provides recommendations from the task force on thyroid cancer of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition for adequate management of patients with low-risk thyroid cancer. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. [Postoperative radioiodine ablation in patients with low risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan J; Grande, Enrique; Iglesias, Pedro

    2015-01-06

    Most patients with newly diagnosed differentiated thyroid carcinoma have tumors with low risk of mortality and recurrence. Standard therapy has been total or near total thyroidectomy followed by postoperative radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA). Although RRA provides benefits, current clinical guidelines do not recommend it universally, since an increase in disease-free survival or a decrease in mortality in low risk patients has not been demonstrated so far. Advancements in our understanding of the biological behavior of thyroid cancer have been translated into the clinic in a personalized approach to the patients based on their individual risk of recurrence and mortality. Current evidence suggests that RRA is not indicated in most low-risk patients, especially those with papillary carcinomas smaller than 1cm, without extrathyroidal extension, unfavorable histology, lymph node involvement or distant metastases. Follow-up of these patients with serial measurements of serum thyroglobulin and neck ultrasound is adequate. Careful evaluation of all risk factors of clinical relevance will allow a more realistic assessment of each individual patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Perinatal mortality and morbidity in a nationwide cohort of 529,688 low-risk planned home and hospital births

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de jonge, A.; van der Goes, B. Y.; Ravelli, A. C. J.; Amelink-Verburg, M. P.; Mol, B. W.; Nijhuis, J. G.; Bennebroek Gravenhorst, J.; Buitendijk, S. E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare perinatal mortality and severe perinatal morbidity between planned home and planned hospital births, among low-risk women who started their labour in primary care. DESIGN: A nationwide cohort study. SETTING: The entire Netherlands. POPULATION: A total of 529,688 low-risk women

  15. A Coordinated Approach to Communicating Pediatric-Related Information on Pandemic Influenza at the Community Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT CHE

    2009-12-16

    The purpose of this document is to provide a suggested approach, based on input from pediatric stakeholders, to communicating pediatric-related information on pandemic influenza at the community level in a step-by-step manner.

  16. Biomarkers and low risk in heart failure. Data from COACH and TRIUMPH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijers, Wouter C; de Boer, Rudolf A; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Jaarsma, Tiny; Hillege, Hans L; Maisel, Alan S; Di Somma, Salvatore; Voors, Adriaan A; Peacock, W Frank

    2015-12-01

    Traditionally, risk stratification in heart failure (HF) emphasizes assessment of high risk. We aimed to determine if biomarkers could identify patients with HF at low risk for death or HF rehospitalization. This analysis was a substudy of The Coordinating Study Evaluating Outcomes of Advising and Counselling in Heart Failure (COACH) trial. Enrolment of HF patients occurred before discharge. We defined low risk as the absence of death and/or HF rehospitalizations at 180 days. We tested a diverse group of 29 biomarkers on top of a clinical risk model, with and without N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and defined the low risk biomarker cut-off at the 10th percentile associated with high positive predictive value. The best performing biomarkers together with NT-proBNP and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) were re-evaluated in a validation cohort of 285 HF patients. Of 592 eligible COACH patients, the mean (± SD) age was 71 (± 11) years and median (IQR) NT-proBNP was 2521 (1301-5634) pg/mL. Logistic regression analysis showed that only galectin-3, fully adjusted, was significantly associated with the absence of events at 180 days (OR 8.1, 95% confidence interval 1.06-50.0, P = 0.039). Galectin-3, showed incremental value when added to the clinical risk model without NT-proBNP (increase in area under the curve from 0.712 to 0.745, P = 0.04). However, no biomarker showed significant improvement by net reclassification improvement on top of the clinical risk model, with or without NT-proBNP. We confirmed our results regarding galectin-3, NT-proBNP, and cTnI in the independent validation cohort. We describe the value of various biomarkers to define low risk, and demonstrate that galectin-3 identifies HF patients at (very) low risk for 30-day and 180-day mortality and HF rehospitalizations after an episode of acute HF. Such patients might be safely discharged. © 2015 The Authors European Journal of Heart Failure © 2015 European Society of

  17. A study on relations between the levels of GMP-140 and microangiopathy in NIDDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tongxin; Wang Zizheng; Shi Hongzhen

    1995-01-01

    The relations between the level of GMP-140 and microangiopathy in NIDDM for earlier diagnosis or better treatment are investigated, the level of GMP-140 in both platelet and plasma was measured. The level of GMP-140 in both platelet and plasma in 104 cases with NIDDM (55 with and 49 without microagiopathy) and 38 controls were assayed by RIA and also simultaneously with direct platelet count. The level of GMP-140 in both platelet and plasma in NIDDM was remarkably higher than that in controls (P 1 = 0.69, r 2 = 0.75). No differences existed in platelet count between NIDDM and controls. The level of GMP-140 and ophthalmoscopic study had no change after decreasing the concentration of blood glucose (<7.8 mmol/L) and administrating aspirin for 6 months. Microangiopathy in NIDDM had close relation with platelet function and the level of GMP-140

  18. Physical Activity Level of Ambulatory Stroke Patients: Is it Related to Neuropsychological Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersöz Hüseyinsinoğlu, Burcu; Kuran Aslan, Gökşen; Tarakci, Devrim; Razak Özdinçler, Arzu; Küçükoğlu, Hayriye; Baybaş, Sevim

    2017-06-01

    Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for stroke and stroke recurrence. There is insufficient knowledge about the physical activity (PA) level in stroke patients who are ambulatory in the subacute phase. Our aim was to compare the PA level between ambulatory stroke patients and a population of the same age and to investigate neuropsychological factors that could affect the PA level in the same stroke group. Eighty-five subacute stroke patients and 58 healthy subjects were included. Patients' demographic features, disease-related features, and comorbidities were recorded. The PA level was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Version and a pedometer (OMRON Walking style II). The Apathy Rating Scale was applied to determine the apathy level. Depression level was investigated by the Geriatric Depression Scale. The standardized Mini-mental State Examination was performed to assess the cognitive status. The PA level was significantly higher in the healthy group than in the stroke group (plevel of men was significantly higher than that of women (p=0.03). Participants who were classified as level 4 had a lower PA level than those who were classified as level 5 according to the Functional Ambulation Category. There was no relationship between the PA level and the apathy, cognitive, and depression levels in the stroke patients (p>0.05). Subacute stroke patients have a lower PA level than healthy subjects. This is not related to neuropsychological factors. The reasons for minor deficits related to ambulation should be researched further while developing strategies for increasing the PA level of subacute stroke patients.

  19. Ebola-related stigma in Ghana: Individual and community level determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkorang, Eric Y

    2017-06-01

    Although Ebola-related stigmatization continues to undermine efforts to re-integrate survivors, few studies have examined what influences such stigmatizing attitudes. This paper explores the effects of both individual- and community-level factors on Ebola-related stigma in Ghana. Data were collected from a cross-section of 800 respondents, nested within 40 communities in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Multi-level modelling was employed for analysis. Both individual- and community-level factors were significant determinants of stigma. Respondents who endorsed myths about Ebola were significantly more likely to also endorse Ebola-related stigma. Similarly, those who were worried about a potential outbreak of Ebola in the future, had moderate risk perceptions of contracting Ebola, had primary and secondary education, and were not confident of the quality of health care in the event of an outbreak, were more likely to endorse Ebola-related stigma. Knowledge of Ebola was significant at the community level, but not at the individual level. Communities with more knowledge were less likely to endorse Ebola-related stigma. These findings underscore the need to increase the knowledge base while countering myths that undermine preventive behaviours to fight Ebola-related stigma. It is equally important to adopt multi-level interventions that emphasize community-based strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of Scientific Research Related Anxiety Levels of Undergraduate Students'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Sefa; Hasiloglu, Mehmet Akif

    2018-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to identify the scientific research-related anxiety levels of the undergraduate students studying in the department of faculty of science and letters and faculty of education to analyse these anxiety levels in terms of various variables (students' gender, using web based information sources, going to the library,…

  1. Serum homocysteine levels in relation to clinical progression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, C.E.; Killestein, J.; Kragt, J.J.; Polman, C.H.; Dijkstra, C.D.; Blom, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Elevated homocysteine levels are associated with various neurodegenerative diseases and have even been identified as a risk factor for some of these. Homocysteine levels may be elevated in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) but large studies are lacking and the relation with disease

  2. The Impact of Pathological Levels of Internet-Related Anxiety on Internet Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark; Joiner, Richard; Gavin, Jeff; Crook, Charles; Maras, Pam; Guiller, Jane; Scott, Adrian J.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the use of the Internet during the first year of university education of students who have pathological levels of Internet anxiety with those who do not. Two hundred and sixteen first year psychology students (females 184, males 32) were surveyed for their levels of Internet-related anxiety, from which 12 (5.6%) were…

  3. Policy-level interventions and work-related psychosocial risk management in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leka, S.; Jain, A.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Cox, T.

    2010-01-01

    There exists a substantial degree of diversity across strategies to prevent and manage work- related psychosocial risks and their associated health effects. Whereas it is common to distinguish between organizational and individual interventions, the important level of policy- level interventions has

  4. Quantification of mold contamination in multi-level buildings using the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the possible use of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) to quantify mold contamination in multi-level, office buildings. Settled-dust samples were collected in multi-level, office buildings and the ERMI value for each sample de...

  5. Factors contributing to postpartum blood-loss in low-risk mothers through expectant management in Japanese birth centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Hiromi; Hasegawa, Ayako; Kataoka, Yaeko; Porter, Sarah E

    2017-08-01

    To describe aspects of expectant midwifery care for low-risk women conducted in midwifery-managed birth centres during the first two critical hours after delivery and to compare differences between midwifery care, client factors and postpartum blood loss volume. As a secondary analysis from a larger study, this descriptive retrospective study examined data from birth records of 4051 women who birthed from 2001 to 2006 at nine (21%) of the 43 midwifery centres in Tokyo. Nonparametric and parametric analyses identified factors related to increased blood loss. Interviews to establish sequence of midwifery care were conducted. The midwifery centres provided care based on expectant management principles from birth to after expulsion of the placenta. Approximately 63.3% of women were within the normal limits of blood loss volume under 500g. A minority of women (12.9%) experienced blood loss between 500 and 800g and 4% had blood loss exceeding 1000g. Blood loss volume tended to increase with infant birth weight and duration of delivery. The total blood loss volume was significantly higher for primiparas than for multiparas during the critical two hours after delivery and for immediately after delivery, yet blood loss volume was significantly higher for multiparas than for primiparas during the first hour after delivery. Preventive uterine massage and umbilical cord clamping after placenta expulsion resulted in statistically significant less blood loss. Identified were two patterns of midwifery care based on expectant management principles from birth to after expulsion of the placenta. The practice of expectant management was not a significant factor for increased postpartum blood loss. These results detail specific midwifery practices and highlight the clinical significance of expectant management with low risk pregnant women experiencing a normal delivery. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Less-Restrictive Food Intake During Labor in Low-Risk Singleton Pregnancies: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardulli, Andrea; Saccone, Gabriele; Anastasio, Hannah; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate benefits and harms of food intake during labor. Electronic databases such as MEDLINE and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from their inception until October 2016. We included randomized trials comparing a policy of less-restrictive food intake with a policy of more restrictive food intake during labor. The primary outcome was the mean duration of labor. Meta-analysis was performed using the random-effects model of DerSimonian and Laird to produce summary treatment effects in terms of either a relative risk or a mean difference with 95% confidence interval (CI). Ten trials, including 3,982 laboring women, were included. All the studies involved laboring singletons considered at low risk because they had no obstetric or medical complications that would increase the likelihood of cesarean delivery. In three studies, women were allowed to select from a low-residue diet throughout the course of labor. One study had honey date syrup as the allowed food intake. Five studies had carbohydrate drinks as food intake in labor. The last one was the only trial that allowed unrestrictive food intake. In the included studies, all women in the intervention group were allowed the assigned food intake until delivery, whereas women in a control group were allowed only ice chips, water, or sips of water until delivery. A policy of less-restrictive food intake was associated with a significantly shorter duration of labor (mean difference -16 minutes, 95% CI -25 to -7). No other benefits or harms in obstetric or neonatal outcome were noticed. Regurgitation during general anesthesia and Mendelson syndrome did not occur in either group. Women with low-risk singleton pregnancies who were allowed to eat more freely during labor had a shorter duration of labor. A policy of less-restrictive food intake during labor did not influence other obstetric or neonatal outcomes nor did it increase the incidence of vomiting. Operative delivery rates were similar.

  7. Preservice Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Level of Relating Mathematical Concepts in Daily Life Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkus, Oylum

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate preservice elementary mathematics teachers' ability of relating mathematical concepts and daily life context. Two research questions were set; what is the preservice elementary mathematics teachers' level of relating mathematical concepts and daily life context regarding to their education year and…

  8. Anal Cytology and Human Papillomavirus Genotyping in Women With a History of Lower Genital Tract Neoplasia Compared With Low-Risk Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Katina; Cronin, Beth; Bregar, Amy; Luis, Christine; DiSilvestro, Paul; Schechter, Steven; Pisharodi, Latha; Raker, Christina; Clark, Melissa

    2015-12-01

    To compare the prevalence of abnormal anal cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) among women with a history of HPV-related genital neoplasia with women without a history of HPV-related genital neoplasia. A cross-sectional cohort study was performed from December 2012 to February 2014. Women were recruited from outpatient clinics at an academic medical center. Women with a history of high-grade cervical, vulvar, or vaginal cytology, dysplasia, or cancer were considered the high-risk group. Women with no history of high-grade anogenital dysplasia or cancer were considered the low-risk group. Human immunodeficiency virus-positive women were excluded. Anal cytology and HPV genotyping were performed. Women with abnormal anal cytology were referred for high-resolution anoscopy. There were 190 women in the high-risk group and 83 in the low-risk group. The high-risk group was slightly older: 57 years compared with 47 years (P=.045); 21.7% of low-risk women had abnormal anal cytology compared with 41.2% of high-risk women (P=.006). High-risk HPV was detected in the anal canal of 1.2% of the low-risk group compared with 20.8% of the high-risk group (PHuman immunodeficiency virus-negative women with a history of lower genital tract neoplasia are more likely to have positive anal cytology, anal high-risk HPV, and anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Anal cancer screening should be considered for these high-risk women. II.

  9. Poster - 47: A parametrized prediction model of rectal toxicity in focal SBRT of low risk prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Todd; Bauman, Glenn [Saint John Regional Hospital, London Regional Cancer Program (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    There has been a recent trend towards watchful waiting in place of intervention for early stage prostate cancer (CaP). However, this approach can allow for disease progression, and subsequent whole-gland therapies such as prostatectomy and whole gland irradiation can result in functional deficits or rectal toxicities or both. A controversial alternative approach for this patient cohort is the use of focal therapy, where the treatment is focussed on an identified dominant index lesion (DIL). This work aims to investigate the treatment parameters for focal SBRT of the prostate under which clinically acceptable rectal NTCP levels can be achieved. For each of 25 low risk CaP patients, a hypothetical 2 cc DIL was modeled in the right-posterior quadrant of the prostate, and was used to build a PTV as the target for SBRT simulation. An SBRT prescriptions of 41 Gy and 37 Gy in 5 fractions were chosen, corresponding to the boost levels used in previous CaP dose escalation studies. DVH data were exported and used to calculate rectal NTCP values based on the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model using the QUANTEC reccommended model parameters. Rectal NTCP dependence on DIL-to-rectum separation, dose level, and DIL volume were investigated. The final goal of this ongoing work is to create a map of the maximum allowable prescription dose for a given patient geometry that achieves a clinically acceptable rectal NTCP level.

  10. Physical activity level in Achilles tendinosis is associated with blood levels of pain-related factors: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagge, J; Gaida, J E; Danielson, P; Alfredson, H; Forsgren, S

    2011-12-01

    Physical activity affects the pain symptoms for Achilles tendinosis patients. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and their receptors have been detected in human Achilles tendon. This pilot study aimed to compare serum BDNF and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I (sTNFRI) levels in Achilles tendinosis patients and healthy controls and to examine the influence of physical activity, and BMI and gender, on these levels. Physical activity was measured with a validated questionnaire, total physical activity being the parameter analyzed. Physical activity was strongly correlated with BDNF among tendinosis women [Spearman's rho (ρ)=0.90, Pwomen (ρ=-0.08, P=0.83), or among tendinosis and control men. Physical activity was significantly correlated with sTNFRI in the entire tendinosis group and among tendinosis men (ρ=0.65, P=0.01), but not in the entire control group or among control men (ρ=0.04, P=0.91). Thus, the physical activity pattern is related to the TNF and BDNF systems for tendinosis patients but not controls, the relationship being gender dependent. This is new information concerning the relationship between physical activity and Achilles tendinosis, which may be related to pain for the patients. This aspect should be further evaluated using larger patient materials. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Classification of the European Union member states according to the relative level of sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Bluszcz

    Nowadays methods of measurement and assessment of the level of sustained development at the international, national and regional level are a current research problem, which requires multi-dimensional analysis. The relative assessment of the sustainability level of the European Union member states and the comparative analysis of the position of Poland relative to other countries was the aim of the conducted studies in the article. EU member states were treated as objects in the multi-dimensional space. Dimensions of space were specified by ten diagnostic variables describing the sustainability level of UE countries in three dimensions, i.e., social, economic and environmental. Because the compiled statistical data were expressed in different units of measure, taxonomic methods were used for building an aggregated measure to assess the level of sustainable development of EU member states, which through normalisation of variables enabled the comparative analysis between countries. Methodology of studies consisted of eight stages, which included, among others: defining data matrices, calculating the variability coefficient for all variables, which variability coefficient was under 10 %, division of variables into stimulants and destimulants, selection of the method of variable normalisation, developing matrices of normalised data, selection of the formula and calculating the aggregated indicator of the relative level of sustainable development of the EU countries, calculating partial development indicators for three studies dimensions: social, economic and environmental and the classification of the EU countries according to the relative level of sustainable development. Statistical date were collected based on the Polish Central Statistical Office publication.

  12. Noise levels, noise annoyance, and hearing-related problems in a dental college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hafiz Omer; Ali, Wesal Jasim

    2017-05-04

    Through a cross-sectional survey and integrated sound level meter, this research examined noise exposure and auditory- and nonauditory-related problems experienced by students of a dentistry college located in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A structured interview questionnaire was used to examine hearing-related problems, noise annoyance, and awareness of 114 students toward noise. The results showed that maximum noise levels were between 65 and 79 dB(A) with peak levels (high and low frequencies) ranging between 89 and 93 dB(A). Around 80% of the students experienced a certain degree of noise annoyance; 54% reported one of the hearing-related problems; and about 10% claimed to have hearing loss to a certain extent. It is recommended that sound-absorbent materials be used during the construction of dental clinics and laboratories to reduce the noise levels.

  13. Relations between vegetation and water level in groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystems (GWDTEs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch Johansen, Ole; Andersen, Dagmar Kappel; Ejrnæs, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    , management and conservation of fens are constrained by limited knowledge on the relations between vegetation and measurable hydrological conditions. This study investigates the relations between vegetation and water level dynamics in groundwater dependent wetlands in Denmark. A total of 35 wetland sites...... across Denmark were included in the study. The sites represent a continuum of wetlands with respect to vegetation and hydrological conditions. Water level was measured continuously using pressure transducers at each site. Metrics expressing different hydrological characteristics, such as mean water level...... and low and high water level periods, were calculated based on the water level time series. A complete plant species list was recorded in plots covering 78.5 m2 at each site. Community metrics such as total number of species and the number of bryophytes were generated from the species lists and Ellenberg...

  14. Relation between workplace accidents and the levels of carboxyhemoglobin in motorcycle taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Almeida da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate the relation between workplace accidents and the levels of carboxyhemoglobin found in motorcycle taxi drivers. METHOD: correlational, quantitative study involving 111 workers and data obtained in July 2012 through a questionnaire to characterize the participants and blood collection to measure carboxyhemoglobin levels. RESULT: 28.8% had suffered workplace accidents; 27.6% had fractured the lower limbs and significant symptoms of carbon monoxide exposure were verified in smokers. The carboxyhemoglobin levels were higher among smokers and victims of workplace accidents. CONCLUSION: motorcycle taxi drivers had increased levels of carboxyhemoglobin, possibly due to the exposure to carbon monoxide; these levels are also increased among smokers and victims of workplace accidents. The study provides advances in the knowledge about occupational health and environmental science, and also shows that carboxyhemoglobin can be an indicator of exposure to environmental pollutants for those working outdoors, which can be related to workplace accidents.

  15. Relation between workplace accidents and the levels of carboxyhemoglobin in motorcycle taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luiz Almeida; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz; Terra, Fábio de Souza

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relation between workplace accidents and the levels of carboxyhemoglobin found in motorcycle taxi drivers. Correlational, quantitative study involving 111 workers and data obtained in July 2012 through a questionnaire to characterize the participants and blood collection to measure carboxyhemoglobin levels. 28.8% had suffered workplace accidents; 27.6% had fractured the lower limbs and significant symptoms of carbon monoxide exposure were verified in smokers. The carboxyhemoglobin levels were higher among smokers and victims of workplace accidents. Motorcycle taxi drivers had increased levels of carboxyhemoglobin, possibly due to the exposure to carbon monoxide; these levels are also increased among smokers and victims of workplace accidents. The study provides advances in the knowledge about occupational health and environmental science, and also shows that carboxyhemoglobin can be an indicator of exposure to environmental pollutants for those working outdoors, which can be related to workplace accidents.

  16. Increased deoxythymidine triphosphate levels is a feature of relative cognitive decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Frederiksen, Jane H; Olsen, Maria Nathalie Angleys

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial bioenergetics, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular levels of nucleotides have been hypothesized as early indicators of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Utilizing relative decline of cognitive ability as a predictor of AD risk, we evaluated the correlation between change...... of cognitive ability and mitochondrial bioenergetics, ROS and cellular levels of deoxyribonucleotides. Change of cognitive abilities, scored at ages of approximately 20 and 57 was determined for a cohort of 1985 male participants. Mitochondrial bioenergetics, mitochondrial ROS and whole-cell levels...... of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a total of 103 selected participants displaying the most pronounced relative cognitive decline and relative cognitive improvement. We show that relative cognitive decline is associated with higher PBMC content...

  17. Severe adverse maternal outcomes among low risk women with planned home versus hospital births in the Netherlands: nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Ank; Mesman, Jeanette A J M; Manniën, Judith; Zwart, Joost J; van Dillen, Jeroen; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2013-06-13

    To test the hypothesis that low risk women at the onset of labour with planned home birth have a higher rate of severe acute maternal morbidity than women with planned hospital birth, and to compare the rate of postpartum haemorrhage and manual removal of placenta. Cohort study using a linked dataset. Information on all cases of severe acute maternal morbidity in the Netherlands collected by the national study into ethnic determinants of maternal morbidity in the netherlands (LEMMoN study), 1 August 2004 to 1 August 2006, merged with data from the Netherlands perinatal register of all births occurring during the same period. 146 752 low risk women in primary care at the onset of labour. Severe acute maternal morbidity (admission to an intensive care unit, eclampsia, blood transfusion of four or more packed cells, and other serious events), postpartum haemorrhage, and manual removal of placenta. Overall, 92 333 (62.9%) women had a planned home birth and 54 419 (37.1%) a planned hospital birth. The rate of severe acute maternal morbidity among planned primary care births was 2.0 per 1000 births. For nulliparous women the rate for planned home versus planned hospital birth was 2.3 versus 3.1 per 1000 births (adjusted odds ratio 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.56 to 1.06), relative risk reduction 25.7% (95% confidence interval -0.1% to 53.5%), the rate of postpartum haemorrhage was 43.1 versus 43.3 (0.92, 0.85 to 1.00 and 0.5%, -6.8% to 7.9%), and the rate of manual removal of placenta was 29.0 versus 29.8 (0.91, 0.83 to 1.00 and 2.8%, -6.1% to 11.8%). For parous women the rate of severe acute maternal morbidity for planned home versus planned hospital birth was 1.0 versus 2.3 per 1000 births (0.43, 0.29 to 0.63 and 58.3%, 33.2% to 87.5%), the rate of postpartum haemorrhage was 19.6 versus 37.6 (0.50, 0.46 to 0.55 and 47.9%, 41.2% to 54.7%), and the rate of manual removal of placenta was 8.5 versus 19.6 (0.41, 0.36 to 0.47 and 56.9%, 47.9% to 66.3%). Low risk

  18. A pharmacoeconomic analysis of the use of single MMC instillation in low risk NMIBC in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Colombo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer accounts for 5-10% of all cancers in Europe and up to 85% patients presents a noninvasive tumor, whose treatment of choice is the transurethral bladder resection (TURB paired with adjuvant intravesical chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Despite several clinical trials showed that this treatment is safe and decreases recurrences by 17% to 44% this practice is limited for many reasons. The study objective is to analyze the economical advantages of the single immediate post operative Mitomycin C instillation in Non Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer (NMIBC low-risk patients.METHODS: A cost-benefit analysis was performed evaluating the economical gain that would raised from a scenario with a single immediate post operative mitomycin C instillation in each low-risk NMIBC patient who underwent to TURB. Net present value and cost-benefit ratio were calculated and sensitivity analyses were performed. Base case analysis was performed considering tumor recurrence rate reduction of 11.7% and a TURB costs of 2,167.0 €, while sensitivity analyses were performed using a recurrence rate reduction of 19.2% and 15.0% and a TURB cost of 2,472.93 €. The discount rate was 2%.RESULTS: The single immediate post operative instillation of mitomycin C resulted to be cost-beneficial with a cost-benefit ratio that goes from 0.48 to 0.79 when compared to TURB alone raising a Net Present Value that goes from 660,284.39 € to 2,650,530.79 €.CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that even assuming conservative parameters for recurrence rates reduction, a single immediate post operative mitomycin C instillation in low risk NMIBC patients would lower not only the recurrence rate but also the caring cost for bladder cancer.

  19. Unilateral Prostate Cancer Cannot be Accurately Predicted in Low-Risk Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isbarn, Hendrik; Karakiewicz, Pierre I.; Vogel, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Hemiablative therapy (HAT) is increasing in popularity for treatment of patients with low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). The validity of this therapeutic modality, which exclusively treats PCa within a single prostate lobe, rests on accurate staging. We tested the accuracy of unilaterally unremarkable biopsy findings in cases of low-risk PCa patients who are potential candidates for HAT. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 243 men with clinical stage ≤T2a, a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration of <10 ng/ml, a biopsy-proven Gleason sum of ≤6, and a maximum of 2 ipsilateral positive biopsy results out of 10 or more cores. All men underwent a radical prostatectomy, and pathology stage was used as the gold standard. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were tested for significant predictors of unilateral, organ-confined PCa. These predictors consisted of PSA, %fPSA (defined as the quotient of free [uncomplexed] PSA divided by the total PSA), clinical stage (T2a vs. T1c), gland volume, and number of positive biopsy cores (2 vs. 1). Results: Despite unilateral stage at biopsy, bilateral or even non-organ-confined PCa was reported in 64% of all patients. In multivariable analyses, no variable could clearly and independently predict the presence of unilateral PCa. This was reflected in an overall accuracy of 58% (95% confidence interval, 50.6-65.8%). Conclusions: Two-thirds of patients with unilateral low-risk PCa, confirmed by clinical stage and biopsy findings, have bilateral or non-organ-confined PCa at radical prostatectomy. This alarming finding questions the safety and validity of HAT.

  20. Preferred place of birth: characteristics and motives of low-risk nulliparous women in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haaren-Ten Haken, Tamar; Hendrix, Marijke; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne; Budé, Luc; de Vries, Raymond; Nijhuis, Jan

    2012-10-01

    to explores preferences, characteristics and motives regarding place of birth of low-risk nulliparous women in the Netherlands. a prospective cohort study of low-risk nulliparous women and their partners starting their pregnancy in midwifery-led care or in obstetric-led care. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire, including questions on demographic, psychosocial and pregnancy factors and statements about motives with regard to place of birth. Depression, worry and self-esteem were explored using the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS), the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSE). participants were recruited in 100 independent midwifery practices and 14 hospitals from 2007 to 2011. 550 low-risk nulliparous women; 231 women preferred a home birth, 170 women a hospital birth in midwifery-led care and 149 women a birth in obstetric-led care. Significant differences in characteristics were found in the group who preferred a birth in obstetric-led care compared to the two groups who preferred midwifery-led care. Those women were older (F (2,551)=16.14, pbirth is driven by a desire for greater personal autonomy, whereas women's choice for a hospital birth is driven by a desire to feel safe and control risks. the characteristics of women who prefer a hospital birth are different than the characteristics of women who prefer a home birth. It appears that for women preferring a hospital birth, the assumed safety of the hospital is more important than type of care provider. This brings up the question whether women are fully aware of the possibilities of maternity care services. Women might need concrete information about the availability and the characteristics of the services within the maternity care system and the risks and benefits associated with either setting, in order to make an informed choice where to give birth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Perioperative pulmonary aspiration is infrequent and low risk in pediatric anesthetic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Christopher J; Walker, Robert W M

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have reported perioperative pulmonary aspiration in pediatric practice to be an uncommon problem associated with low morbidity and mortality. This paper examines the recent publications in both the adult and pediatric literature and looks at some of the potential risk factors involved, both patient and anesthetic, in the development of aspiration of gastric contents. We also look at the risk of severe morbidity following pulmonary aspiration and speculate on possible reasons behind the assertion that pulmonary aspiration in pediatric anesthetic practice is rare and a low-risk event. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A case series of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma among Indians, a low risk population, in Perak State, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, B; Philip, R; Norain, K; Harvinder, S; Gurdeep, S M

    2012-12-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is rare among people of Indian ethnicity. A short retrospective case review of clinical records of Indian patients diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a period of 5 years was conducted. Their slides were further subjected to EBV encoded RNA (EBER) - In- situ Hybridization (ISH). The histologic subtype was nonkeratinizing carcinoma in all 4 patients. All were Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) positive. We believe that the crucial factor responsible for nasopharyngeal carcinoma is genetics; either a genetic susceptibility among high risk groups or genetic resistance/immunity in low risk groups. Further genetic studies are required to look for somatic or inherited chromosomal mutations among the various risk populations.

  3. Clinically low-risk prostate cancer: evaluation with transrectal doppler ultrasound and functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Novis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate transrectal ultrasound, amplitude Doppler ultrasound, conventional T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, spectroscopy and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in localizing and locally staging low-risk prostate cancer. INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer has been diagnosed at earlier stages and the most accepted classification for low-risk prostate cancer is based on clinical stage T1c or T2a, Gleason score <6, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA <10 ng/ml. METHODS: From 2005 to 2006, magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 42 patients, and transrectal ultrasound in 26 of these patients. Seven patients were excluded from the study. Mean patient age was 64.94 years and mean serum PSA was 6.05 ng/ml. The examinations were analyzed for tumor identification and location in prostate sextants, detection of extracapsular extension, and seminal vesicle invasion, using surgical pathology findings as the gold standard. RESULTS: Sixteen patients (45.7% had pathologically proven organ-confined disease, 11 (31.4% had positive surgical margin, 8 (28.9% had extracapsular extension, and 3 (8.6% presented with extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and accuracy values for localizing low-risk prostate cancer were 53.1%, 48.3%, 63.4%, 37.8% and 51.3% for transrectal ultrasound; 70.4%, 36.2%, 65.1%, 42.0% and 57.7% for amplitude Doppler ultrasound; 71.5%, 58.9%, 76.6%, 52.4% and 67.1% for magnetic resonance imaging; 70.4%, 58.7%, 78.4%, 48.2% and 66.7% for magnetic resonance spectroscopy; 67.2%, 65.7%, 79.3%, 50.6% and 66.7% for dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy values for detecting extracapsular extension were 33.3%, 92%, 14.3%, 97.2% and 89.7% for transrectal ultrasound and 50.0%, 77.6%, 13.7%, 95.6% and 75.7% for magnetic resonance imaging

  4. Relative and absolute level populations in beam-foil--excited neutral helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.

    1975-01-01

    Relative and absolute populations of 19 levels in beam-foil--excited neutral helium at 0.275 MeV have been measured. The singlet angular-momentum sequences show dependences on principal quantum number consistent with n -3 , but the triplet sequences do not. Singlet and triplet angular-momentum sequences show similar dependences on level excitation energy. Excitation functions for six representative levels were measured in the range 0.160 to 0.500 MeV. The absolute level populations increase with energy, whereas the neutral fraction of the beam decreases with energy. Further, the P angular-momentum levels are found to be overpopulated with respect to the S and D levels. The overpopulation decreases with increasing principal quantum number

  5. Relative and absolute level populations in beam-foil-excited neutral helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J.

    1975-01-01

    Relative and absolute populations of 19 levels in beam-foil-excited neutral helium at 0.275 MeV have been measured. The singlet angular-momentum sequences show dependences on principal quantum number consistent with n to the -3rd power, but the triplet sequences do not. Singlet and triplet angular-momentum sequences show similar dependences on level excitation energy. Excitation functions for six representative levels were measured in the range from 0.160 to 0.500 MeV. The absolute level populations increase with energy, whereas the neutral fraction of the beam decreases with energy. Further, the P angular-momentum levels are found to be overpopulated with respect to the S and D levels. The overpopulation decreases with increasing principal quantum number.

  6. Changes of serum leptin and other related hormones levels in simple obese children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Jinhua; Wang Yaping; Xu Yan; Gao Yufeng

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To measure the serum leptin concentration in simple obese children together with other four kinds of related hormones. Methods: Serum Leptin, Ins, T 3 , T 4 and GH levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in thirty-eight obese children and thirty healthy controls. Results: The levels of serum leptin, Ins and T 3 in obese group were dramatically higher than those in control group (all P 4 concentration between simple obese children and control group (P > 0.05), Serum GH levels was significantly decreased in simple obese children (P < 0.01). There was a positive correlation between serum leptin levels and lns levels (r = 0.46, P < 0.01). Conclusion: In simple obese children there were leptin resistance and endocrine metabolic disturbances, the later might be correlated with the increasing of serum leptin levels; It is suggested that Leptin resistance might play a key role in the development of obesity

  7. Systematic review with meta-analysis: the incidence of advanced neoplasia after polypectomy in patients with and without low-risk adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, C; Gimeno-García, A; Kalager, M; Spada, C; Zullo, A; Costamagna, G; Senore, C; Rex, D K; Quintero, E

    2014-05-01

    Patients with one to two tubular adenomas advanced neoplasia as those with no neoplasia at baseline colonoscopy. To compare incidence of metachronous advanced neoplasia between patients in the low-risk adenoma group and those without neoplasia at index colonoscopy. Relevant publications were identified by MEDLINE/EMBASE and other databases for the period 1992-2013. Studies comparing the incidence of post-polypectomy advanced neoplasia (adenomas ≥10 mm/high-grade dysplasia/villous or cancer) between the low-risk group and patients without colorectal neoplasia at the first colonoscopy were included. Detection rates for advanced neoplasia at endoscopic surveillance were extracted. Study quality was ascertained according to Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Forest plot was produced based on random-effect models. Inter-study heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2) statistic. Seven studies provided data on 11 387 patients. Mean surveillance periods ranged between 2 and 5 years. Altogether, 267 patients with post-polypectomy advanced neoplasia were detected in the two groups. The incidence of advanced neoplasia was 1.6% (119/7308) in those without neoplasia and 3.6% (148/4079) in those with low-risk adenoma, respectively, corresponding to a relative risk of 1.8 (95% CI: 1.3-2.6). Inter-study heterogeneity was only moderate (I(2) : 37%). No publication bias was present. Patients with low-risk adenomas at baseline had a higher risk of metachronous advanced neoplasia than the group with no adenomas at baseline, though the absolute risk was low in both groups. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Postglacial relative sea level change at Fildes Peninsula, King George Island (West Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Polishchuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and integration of data obtained in our field and laboratory investigations of 2008–2012 together with results of previous paleogeographic studies were conducted to reveal parameters and factors of the post-glacial changes in the relative sea-level on the Fildes Peninsula and the King George Island. Results of dating of organic material taken from cross-sections of Quaternary deposits, data on morphology of marine landforms as well as on bottom sediments in lakes were used to construct a curve of changes in the relative sea-level.Our research has shown that the rapid rise of relative sea level in the area (since the beginning of the Holocene decelerated about 8000 years BP, achieving its maximum about 7000 years BP. This was followed by the fall of relative sea-level (the land elevation by 18–20  m in total, and it was characterized by relatively high rate of fall during periods of 6000– 5000 years BP, 4000–2500 years BP, and during the last 1500 years; the rate decreased in 5000–4000 years BP and 2500– 1600 years BP. The changes in relative sea level in this region were determined by the following factors: the eustatic component of the global changes in sea-level and, possibly, oscillations in the global sea level of another nature; local parameters of the Last glacial maximum; a course of the Peninsula deglaciation; regional physical characteristics of the Earth's crust and the mantle substances; local tectonic processes, including the isostatic rebound. Since the beginning of the Holocene up to about 7000 years BP, the main contribution to changes of the relative sea-level in this area was made by the global eustatic factor. The subsequent fall of the relative sea-level (elevation of the Peninsula surface proceeded under condition of reduced role of the eustatic factor and predominance of other factors.

  9. The relation of plasma androgen levels to sexual behaviors and attitudes of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, H; Dreisbach, L; Miller, W R; O'Brien, C P; Khan, M A; Lief, H I; Charney, N; Strauss, D

    1982-09-01

    Four androgens: dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a variety of sexual behaviors and attitudes, and several moods were determined regularly in two groups of healthy, married women who differed by three decades in age. The younger women exhibited significantly higher levels of each androgen, the differences being almost entirely attributable to ovarian failure in the older group. Although the older women reported the same levels of sexual desire and sexual arousal as the younger women, their intercourse frequencies and self-rated sexual gratification scores were significantly lower than the values obtained for the younger wives. One or more of the androgen levels related significantly and in the expected direction to each stage of the four-stage sexual response process. Global measures of so-called "sexual adjustment" and estimates of anxiety, depression, and hostility feelings experienced by these women did not relate significantly to any of the four androgen levels.

  10. RELATIVE MPORTANCE OF PAY LEVEL SATISFACTION, CAREER DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES, AND SUPERVISOR SUPPORT IN PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Hasnu, Muhammed WASEEM SAF

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the relative impact of supervisor support, pay level satisfaction & career growth opportunities on the development of perceived organizational support (POS) of employees. Survey data were collected from banking sector professionals working in the branches of four major private commercial banks of Pakistan in Hazara Division. The findings of this study highlighted that “career growth opportunities” is a stronger predictor of POS than supervisor support and pay level...

  11. Levels of Subjective Comprehension in Advertising Processing and Their Relations to Ad Perceptions, Attitudes, and Memory.

    OpenAIRE

    Mick, David Glen

    1992-01-01

    Two fundamental orientations toward message comprehension have appeared in advertising research: the traditional objective view, which applies an accuracy criterion to conceptualize and evaluate comprehension, and the subjective view, which applies other criteria related to the individual comprehender and the actual experience of the message. This article develops a framework for four levels of subjective comprehension on the basis of an elaboration criterion. Comprehension levels are hypothe...

  12. Recommended level of physical activity and health-related quality of life among Japanese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura Yoshio; Oka Koichiro; Shibata Ai; Muraoka Isao

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The benefits of a recommended level of physical activity on physiological health indicators such as morbidity and mortality are well-accepted, but less research has addressed whether or not the association between the recommended level of physical activity and a health-related quality of life (HRQOL) exists in the Japanese population. Thus, the present study examined whether the recommended physical activity would be associated with HRQOL in the general Japanese middle-age...

  13. Creep behavior of sweetgum OSB: effect of load level and relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.H. Pu; R.C. Tang; Chung-Yun Hse

    1994-01-01

    Flexural creep behavior of laboratory-fabricated sweetgum oriented strandboard (OSB). under constnat (65% and 95%) and cyclic (65% 95% at a 96-hr. frequency) relative humidity (RH) conditions at 75 F (23.9 C) is presented. Two levels (4.5% and 6.5%) of resin content (RC) of phenol-formaldehyde were used in fabricating the test panels. Two load levels (20% and...

  14. The relation among steroid hormone levels, lipid profile and menopausal symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Cihan; Cengiz, Hüseyin; Yeşil, Ali; Ekin, Murat; Yaşar, Levent

    2017-12-01

    Many postmenopausal women experience hot flashes, night sweats, non-specific emotional and psychological distresses. Our aim was to investigate the relation among steroid hormone levels, lipid profile and menopausal symptom severity using the menopause rating scale (MRS). A cross-sectional study was performed at our outpatient clinic with natural postmenopausal women. A total of 444 women were included in this study. The basic characteristics of the study population, such as age, gravidity, parity, time to menopause onset and body mass index (BMI) were recorded. Venous blood samples were collected from subjects after overnight fasting. The levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), fasting plasma glucose, C-reactive protein, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), cortisol, estradiol (E2), progesterone, testosterone and dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate (DHEA-S) were analyzed. The MRS questionnaire validated for the Turkish population was used to assess the menopausal symptoms. There was a statistically significant difference between mild and severe total symptom scores for TG, and elevated TG levels were observed in the severe group (p = 0.04). Elevated testosterone levels were observed with severe psychological symptom and total symptom scores. There were significant differences in progesterone level in psychological, urogenital, and total scores and lower levels were seen in severe symptom groups. There was a significant negative correlation between urogenital symptom scores and progesterone levels (p symptom and total menopausal symptom scores. A decrease in progesterone levels was related to high psychological, urogenital and total menopausal symptom scores. Elevated TG levels were also related to the total severe symptom scores.

  15. Factors Associated With Mortality in Low-Risk Pediatric Critical Care Patients in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlaat, Carin W; Visser, Idse H; Wubben, Nina; Hazelzet, Jan A; Lemson, Joris; van Waardenburg, Dick; van der Heide, Douwe; van Dam, Nicolette A; Jansen, Nicolaas J; van Heerde, Mark; van der Starre, Cynthia; van Asperen, Roelie; Kneyber, Martin; van Woensel, Job B; van den Boogaard, Mark; van der Hoeven, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    To determine differences between survivors and nonsurvivors and factors associated with mortality in pediatric intensive care patients with low risk of mortality. Retrospective cohort study. Patients were selected from a national database including all admissions to the PICUs in The Netherlands between 2006 and 2012. Patients less than 18 years old admitted to the PICU with a predicted mortality risk lower than 1% according to either the recalibrated Pediatric Risk of Mortality or the Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 were included. None. In total, 16,874 low-risk admissions were included of which 86 patients (0.5%) died. Nonsurvivors had more unplanned admissions (74.4% vs 38.5%; p < 0.001), had more complex chronic conditions (76.7% vs 58.8%; p = 0.001), were more often mechanically ventilated (88.1% vs 34.9%; p < 0.001), and had a longer length of stay (median, 11 [interquartile range, 5-32] d vs median, 3 [interquartile range, 2-5] d; p < 0.001) when compared with survivors. Factors significantly associated with mortality were complex chronic conditions (odds ratio, 3.29; 95% CI, 1.97-5.50), unplanned admissions (odds ratio, 5.78; 95% CI, 3.40-9.81), and admissions in spring/summer (odds ratio, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.08-2.58). Nonsurvivors in the PICU with a low predicted mortality risk have recognizable risk factors including complex chronic condition and unplanned admissions.

  16. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for low-risk prostate cancer: five-year outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Christopher R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Hypofractionated, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT is an emerging treatment approach for prostate cancer. We present the outcomes for low-risk prostate cancer patients with a median follow-up of 5 years after SBRT. Method and Materials Between Dec. 2003 and Dec. 2005, a pooled cohort of 41 consecutive patients from Stanford, CA and Naples, FL received SBRT with CyberKnife for clinically localized, low-risk prostate cancer. Prescribed dose was 35-36.25 Gy in five fractions. No patient received hormone therapy. Kaplan-Meier biochemical progression-free survival (defined using the Phoenix method and RTOG toxicity outcomes were assessed. Results At a median follow-up of 5 years, the biochemical progression-free survival was 93% (95% CI = 84.7% to 100%. Acute side effects resolved within 1-3 months of treatment completion. There were no grade 4 toxicities. No late grade 3 rectal toxicity occurred, and only one late grade 3 genitourinary toxicity occurred following repeated urologic instrumentation. Conclusion Five-year results of SBRT for localized prostate cancer demonstrate the efficacy and safety of shorter courses of high dose per fraction radiation delivered with SBRT technique. Ongoing clinical trials are underway to further explore this treatment approach.

  17. Foot length measurements of newborns of high and low risk pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karina Marques Salge

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Comparing foot length measurements of newborns in high and low risk pregnancies at a public hospital in Goiânia, GO, Brazil. METHOD A cross-sectional study carried out between April, 2013 and May, 2015, with a sample consisting of 180 newborns; 106 infants of women from high-risk pregnancies and 74 of women from low-risk pregnancies. Data were descriptively analyzed. Foot length measurement was performed using a stiff transparent plastic ruler, graduated in millimeters. The length of both feet was measured from the tip of the hallux (big toe to the end of the heel. RESULTS A statistically significant relationship was found between the foot length and newborn’s weight, between the cephalic and thoracic perimeters in the high-risk group and between the cephalic perimeter in the control group. CONCLUSION There is a need for creating cut-off points to identify newborns with intrauterine growth disorders using foot length.

  18. Milk intake is not associated with low risk of diabetes or overweight-obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Helle K M; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Ellervik, Christina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High dairy/milk intake has been associated with a low risk of type 2 diabetes observationally, but whether this represents a causal association is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that high milk intake is associated with a low risk of type 2 diabetes and of overweight-obesity......, observationally and genetically. DESIGN: In 97,811 individuals from the Danish general population, we examined the risk of incident type 2 diabetes and of overweight-obesity by milk intake observationally and by LCT-13910 C/T genotype [polymorphism (rs4988235) upstream from the lactase (LCT) gene], where TT...... and TC genotypes are associated with lactase persistence and CC with nonpersistence. RESULTS: Observationally for any compared with no milk intake, the HR for type 2 diabetes was 1.10 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.24; P = 0.11), whereas the OR for overweight-obesity was 1.06 (1.02, 1.09; P = 0.002). Median milk...

  19. Vaginal flora alterations and clinical symptoms in low-risk pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondo, Fausto; da Silva, Márcia G; Polettini, Jossimara; Tristao, Andréa da R; Peracoli, José C; Witkin, Steven S; Rudge, Marilza V C

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate associations between alterations in vaginal flora and clinical symptoms in low-risk pregnant women. Vaginal specimens from 245 pregnant women were analyzed by microscopy for vaginal flora. Signs and symptoms of vaginal infection were determined by patient interviews and gynecologic examinations. Abnormal vaginal flora was identified in 45.7% of the subjects. The final clinical diagnoses were bacterial vaginosis (21.6%), vaginal candidosis (10.2%), intermediate vaginal flora (5.2%), aerobic vaginitis (2.9%), mixed flora (2.9%) and other abnormal findings (2.9%). The percentage of women with or without clinical signs or symptoms was not significantly different between these categories. The presence of vaginal odor or vaginal discharge characteristics was not diagnostic of any specific flora alteration; pruritus was highly associated with candidosis (p vaginal odor was associated with bacterial vaginosis (p = 0.0026). The prevalence of atypical vaginal flora is common in our low-risk pregnant population and is not always associated with pathology. The occurrence of specific signs or symptoms does not always discriminate between women with different types of atypical vaginal flora or between those with abnormal and normal vaginal flora. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Ureteral diameter in low-risk vesicoureteral reflux in infancy and childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellstroem, M.; Hjaelmaas, K.; Jacobsson, B.; Jodal, U.; Oestra Sjukhuset, Goeteborg; Oestra Sjukhuset, Goeteborg

    1986-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of the grading of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), reference values for ureteral diameter at micturition cystourethrography (MCUG) were established in infants and children with low-risk VUR. Low-risk VUR was defined as VUR not associated with infection, obstruction, calculi, duplication, malformations (except for hypospadia) or neurogenic bladder disturbances. Forty-six children (age 1 day - 14 years) were selected by examining the records of 12000 MCUG:s performed 1960-1983. Ureteral diameter was measured at the widest point of the ureter on the films from MCUG:s and urographies. Ureteral diameter was slightly larger at MCUG than at urography in the same individuals but the difference was not significant. The ureteral diameter at MCUG also correlated closely to normal values at urography in a previous study. It is proposed that the reference values obtained at MCUG in the present investigation can be used for the differentiation between dilatation and no dilatation in the grading of VUR. (orig.)

  1. Prevalence of cervical human papillomavirus infection in healthy women is related to sexual behaviours and educational level: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Sun Kuie; Oon, Lynette Lin Ean

    2014-12-01

    This study reports the prevalence and risk factors of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in healthy women in Singapore. Demography, education, sexual and reproductive history and cigarette smoking habits were obtained from a cross-sectional population of healthy women and girls aged above 12 years of age. Cervical or vaginal cytology samples were investigated for 37 known anogenital HPV subtypes using the linear array PCR method. Chi square statistics were used to test for associations of individual epidemiological factors with HPV infection. Independent risk factors were identified with binomial logistic regression analysis. Of 891 subjects, the prevalence of HPV infection was 9.31% (83/891 women) for any-type HPV and 5.05% (46/891 women) for the high-risk HPV (hrHPV). Of 30 HPV subtypes detected, the most prevalent genotypes in descending order of frequency were subtypes 51, 16, 52, 58 and 66 for hrHPV and subtypes 62, 61, 84, 72 and 53 for the low-risk HPV. This frequency distribution of HPV subtypes was different from reports from other countries within Asia. Forty-six virgins studied tested negative for HPV infection. Significant independent risk factors for any-type HPV infection were multiple sexual partners (adjusted OR 1.4) and low (≤6 years) educational level (adjusted OR 4.0). The distribution of HPV subtypes in healthy women varies between different countries within Asia. In Singapore, the prevalence of HPV infection was 9.31% and was related to penetrative sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners and low educational level. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Geographic factors related to site suitability of low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zittel, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    A number of factors related to the site suitability of low-level waste disposal sites are discussed. The factors are a combination of those which might be considered environmental and those dealing with site criteria. Among the factors covered are: possible population criteria, alternative site selection, transportation criteria and community involvement considerations. All these factors are discussed in a manner based on the premise that the technology exists to carry out low-level waste disposal in a manner such that public health and safety can be insured. The conclusion of the discussion is that problems encountered in siting low-level waste facilities will be largely societal and political in nature

  3. Geographic factors related to site suitability of low-level waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittel, H. E.

    Factors related to the site suitability of low level waste disposal sites are discussed including those which might be considered environmental and those dealing with site criteria. Possible population criteria, alternative site selection, transportation criteria, and community involvement are considered. All these factors are based on the premise that the technology exists to carry out low level waste disposal in a manner such that public health and safety can be insured. It is concluded that problems encountered in siting low level waste facilities are largely societal and political in nature.

  4. Enriching PubMed Related Article Search with Sentence Level Co-citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nam; Alves, Pedro; Ma, Shuangge

    2009-01-01

    PubMed related article links identify closely related articles and enhance our ability to navigate the biomedical literature. They are derived by calculating the word similarity between two articles, relating articles with overlapping word content. In this paper, we propose to enrich PubMed with a new type of related article link based on citations within a single sentence (i.e. sentence level co-citations or SLCs). Using different similarity metrics, we demonstrated that articles linked by SLCs are highly related. We also showed that only half of SLCs are found among PubMed related article links. Additionally, we discuss how the citing sentence of an SLC explains the connection between two articles. PMID:20351935

  5. Kramers–Kronig relation in a Doppler-broadened Λ-type three-level system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Meng; Lu Xiao-Gang; Bai Jin-Hai; Miao Xing-Xu; Gao Yan-Lei; Wu Ling-An; Fu Pan-Ming; Wang Ru-Quan; Zuo Zhan-Chun; Pei Li-Ya; Yang Shi-Ping; Pang Zhao-Guang

    2015-01-01

    We measure the absorption and dispersion in a Doppler-broadened Λ-type three level system by resonant stimulated Raman spectroscopy with homodyne detection. Through studying the dressed state energies of the system, it is found that the absorption and dispersion satisfy the Kramers–Kronig relation. The absorption and dispersion spectra calculated by employing this relation agree well with our experimental observations. (rapid communication)

  6. Compact QED tree-level amplitudes from dressed BCFW recursion relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badger, Simon D.; Henn, Johannes M.

    2010-05-01

    We construct a modified on-shell BCFW recursion relation to derive compact analytic representations of tree-level amplitudes in QED. As an application, we study the amplitudes of a fermion pair coupling to an arbitrary number of photons and give compact formulae for the NMHV and N 2 MHV case. We demonstrate that the new recursion relation reduces the growth in complexity with additional photons to be exponential rather than factorial. (orig.)

  7. Compact QED tree-level amplitudes from dressed BCFW recursion relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, Simon D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Henn, Johannes M. [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2010-05-15

    We construct a modified on-shell BCFW recursion relation to derive compact analytic representations of tree-level amplitudes in QED. As an application, we study the amplitudes of a fermion pair coupling to an arbitrary number of photons and give compact formulae for the NMHV and N{sup 2}MHV case. We demonstrate that the new recursion relation reduces the growth in complexity with additional photons to be exponential rather than factorial. (orig.)

  8. Serum pepsin levels Hiroshima adult health study. Relation to radiation, ABO blood groups, and gastrointestinal diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knittle, J L

    1961-07-12

    At the ABCC clinic in Hiroshima 1330 subjects were investigated as to serum pepsin levels over a four month period. The normal mean values compared well with those reported for a United States population using a similar technique. There appeared to be no significant change in serum pepsin level with age, and no difference could be detected among individuals of the ABO blood groups. No relationship was found between serum pepsin level and exposure to ionizing radiation. Patients with gastric and duodenal ulcers had mean levels which were higher than normal mean values, while patients with leukemia had lower than normal mean levels. Patients with gastric polyps and gastric cancer had normal mean values. It is believed that the relation of serum pepsin activity to cancer of the stomach is not settled and deserves further investigation. 23 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  9. Alcohol consumption and low-risk drinking guidelines among adults: a cross-sectional analysis from Alberta’s Tomorrow Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darren R., Brenner; Tiffany R., Haig; Abbey E, Poirier; Alianu, Akawung; Christine M., Friedenreich; Paula J., Robson

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Moderate to heavy alcohol consumption is a risk factor for all-cause mortality and cancer incidence. Although cross-sectional data are available through national surveys, data on alcohol consumption in Alberta from a large prospective cohort were not previously available. The goal of these analyses was to characterize the levels of alcohol consumption among adults from the Alberta’s Tomorrow Project in the context of cancer prevention guidelines. Furthermore, we conducted analyses to examine the relationships between alcohol consumption and other high-risk or risk-related behaviours. Methods: Between 2001 and 2009, 31 072 men and women aged 35 to 69 years were enrolled into Alberta’s Tomorrow Project, a large provincial cohort study. Data concerning alcohol consumption in the past 12 months were obtained from 26 842 participants who completed self-administered health and lifestyle questionnaires. We conducted cross-sectional analyses on daily alcohol consumption and cancer prevention guidelines for alcohol use in relation to sociodemographic factors. We also examined the combined prevalence of alcohol consumption and tobacco use, obesity and comorbidities. Results: Approximately 14% of men and 12% of women reported alcohol consumption exceeding recommendations for cancer prevention. Higher alcohol consumption was reported in younger age groups, urban dwellers, those with higher incomes and those who consumed more red meat. Moreover, volume of daily alcohol consumption was positively associated with current tobacco use in both men and women. Overall, men were more likely to fall in the moderate and high-risk behavioural profiles and show higher daily alcohol consumption patterns compared to women. Conclusion: Despite public health messages concerning the adverse impact of alcohol consumption, a sizeable proportion of Alberta’s Tomorrow Project participants consumed alcohol in excess of cancer prevention recommendations. Continued

  10. Serum PBDE levels in exposed rats in relation to effects on thyroxine homeostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darnerud, P.O.; Aune, M.; Larsson, L.; Hallgren, S. [National Food Administration, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) is a group of environmental chemicals for which lately both interest and knowledge have increased considerably. Among the BFRs, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have attained special interest. Much data on environmental and human levels have been presented and several toxicological reviews are now published. Among interesting results is the difference in human PBDE levels that seem to exist between U.S.A. and Europe, results that suggest differences in exposure but without being able to pin-point the exact sources. In experimental studies PBDEs alter serum thyroxin levels, an effect seen both in rats and in mice. The mechanism(s) are still not completely clarified, but are thought to include alterations in serum transport, induced enzymatic degradation and possibly also direct effects on the thyroid gland. As perinatal alterations in thyroid homeostasis could affect brain development, early effects on thyroid hormones may be of special concern. Indeed, PBDEs have been shown to affect behaviour and learning in mice, when given neonatally. The aim of the present study was to relate the serum levels of PBDEs in rats to effects of these compounds on thyroxine homeostasis in these animals. Specifically, the relation between serum PBDE levels and effects on serum thyroxine levels was investigated, after two weeks of daily oral exposure. The result may have consequences for the future risk assessment activities on PBDE and specifically in finding the critical serum PBDE concentration at which the effect on thyroid hormone levels begin to occur.

  11. The relationship between Piaget and cognitive levels in persons with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, M A; Linton, A D; Barnes, S J; Cleary, B L; Lichtenstein, M J

    1996-02-01

    Clinical observations and research studies have documented that people with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders (ADRD) appear to regress developmentally during the course of the disease. The purpose of this study was to prospectively determine the association between changes in Piaget levels of cognitive development and cognitive decline in nursing home residents in various stages of ADRD. Fifty-seven people were tested three times at yearly intervals, using the Folstein Mini-Mental State Exam to determine cognitive levels and a set of 14 Piaget tasks to determine cognitive developmental levels: 1) Formal Operations; 2) Concrete Operations; 3) Preoperational; and 4) Sensorimotor. Mean MMSE scores declined from 12.7 to 9.4, and there was a downward trend in Piaget levels over the study period. ANOVA showed significant differences (p Piaget levels, and Spearman rho analysis showed significant correlations between Piaget levels and MMSE for each year (p < 0.0005, Years 1, 2, 3). The results suggest that there is a concurrent decline in cognitive developmental levels and cognition in people in various stages of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders.

  12. Community pharmacists' burnout levels and related factors: an example from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calgan, Zeynep; Aslan, Dilek; Yegenoglu, Selen

    2011-02-01

    To determine community pharmacists' burnout levels and prevalences as well as factors associated with burnout. Study was conducted in Ankara, the capital of Turkey. In this cross-sectional study, 251 pharmacists were randomly selected from 1,504 community pharmacists registered in Ankara Chamber of Pharmacists. A questionnaire including questions related to pharmacists' individual and professional characteristics and Maslach Burnout Inventory was administered. The data was collected between February 27 and May 25, 2007. Three Maslach Burnout Inventory subscales (emotional exhaustion-EE, depersonalization-D, and personal accomplishment-PA) scores. Pharmacists' mean emotional exhaustion score was found to be 16.84 (SD: 6.25), depersonalization score was 4 (Range: 0-14), and personal accomplishment score was 22 (Range: 9-32). Of the pharmacists, 1.2% had high level of EE, .8% had high level of D, and 71.3% had high level of inefficacy. Age, marital status, work experience, work contentment, workload, time pressure, stress, and satisfaction with customers were found to be related with pharmacists' burnout levels. It can be useful to monitor pharmacists' burnout levels and prevalences periodically. Interventions on individual and organizational basis were needed to cope with burnout, respond to job demands, minimize the level of chronic stress, and increase work contentment and satisfaction.

  13. Simultaneous reconstruction, segmentation, and edge enhancement of relatively piecewise continuous images with intensity-level information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Z.; Jaszczak, R.; Coleman, R.; Johnson, V.

    1991-01-01

    A multinomial image model is proposed which uses intensity-level information for reconstruction of contiguous image regions. The intensity-level information assumes that image intensities are relatively constant within contiguous regions over the image-pixel array and that intensity levels of these regions are determined either empirically or theoretically by information criteria. These conditions may be valid, for example, for cardiac blood-pool imaging, where the intensity levels (or radionuclide activities) of myocardium, blood-pool, and background regions are distinct and the activities within each region of muscle, blood, or background are relatively uniform. To test the model, a mathematical phantom over a 64x64 array was constructed. The phantom had three contiguous regions. Each region had a different intensity level. Measurements from the phantom were simulated using an emission-tomography geometry. Fifty projections were generated over 180 degree, with 64 equally spaced parallel rays per projection. Projection data were randomized to contain Poisson noise. Image reconstructions were performed using an iterative maximum a posteriori probability procedure. The contiguous regions corresponding to the three intensity levels were automatically segmented. Simultaneously, the edges of the regions were sharpened. Noise in the reconstructed images was significantly suppressed. Convergence of the iterative procedure to the phantom was observed. Compared with maximum likelihood and filtered-backprojection approaches, the results obtained using the maximum a posteriori probability with the intensity-level information demonstrated qualitative and quantitative improvement in localizing the regions of varying intensities

  14. Schistosome infection intensity is inversely related to auto-reactive antibody levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Mutapi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In animal experimental models, parasitic helminth infections can protect the host from auto-immune diseases. We conducted a population-scale human study investigating the relationship between helminth parasitism and auto-reactive antibodies and the subsequent effect of anti-helminthic treatment on this relationship. Levels of antinuclear antibodies (ANA and plasma IL-10 were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in 613 Zimbabweans (aged 2-86 years naturally exposed to the blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium. ANA levels were related to schistosome infection intensity and systemic IL-10 levels. All participants were offered treatment with the anti-helminthic drug praziquantel and 102 treated schoolchildren (5-16 years were followed up 6 months post-antihelminthic treatment. ANA levels were inversely associated with current infection intensity but were independent of host age, sex and HIV status. Furthermore, after allowing for the confounding effects of schistosome infection intensity, ANA levels were inversely associated with systemic levels of IL-10. ANA levels increased significantly 6 months after anti-helminthic treatment. Our study shows that ANA levels are attenuated in helminth-infected humans and that anti-helminthic treatment of helminth-infected people can significantly increase ANA levels. The implications of these findings are relevant for understanding both the aetiology of immune disorders mediated by auto-reactive antibodies and in predicting the long-term consequences of large-scale schistosomiasis control programs.

  15. Orbit-related sea level errors for TOPEX altimetry at seasonal to decadal timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselborn, Saskia; Rudenko, Sergei; Schöne, Tilo

    2018-03-01

    Interannual to decadal sea level trends are indicators of climate variability and change. A major source of global and regional sea level data is satellite radar altimetry, which relies on precise knowledge of the satellite's orbit. Here, we assess the error budget of the radial orbit component for the TOPEX/Poseidon mission for the period 1993 to 2004 from a set of different orbit solutions. The errors for seasonal, interannual (5-year), and decadal periods are estimated on global and regional scales based on radial orbit differences from three state-of-the-art orbit solutions provided by different research teams: the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), the Groupe de Recherche de Géodésie Spatiale (GRGS), and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The global mean sea level error related to orbit uncertainties is of the order of 1 mm (8 % of the global mean sea level variability) with negligible contributions on the annual and decadal timescales. In contrast, the orbit-related error of the interannual trend is 0.1 mm yr-1 (27 % of the corresponding sea level variability) and might hamper the estimation of an acceleration of the global mean sea level rise. For regional scales, the gridded orbit-related error is up to 11 mm, and for about half the ocean the orbit error accounts for at least 10 % of the observed sea level variability. The seasonal orbit error amounts to 10 % of the observed seasonal sea level signal in the Southern Ocean. At interannual and decadal timescales, the orbit-related trend uncertainties reach regionally more than 1 mm yr-1. The interannual trend errors account for 10 % of the observed sea level signal in the tropical Atlantic and the south-eastern Pacific. For decadal scales, the orbit-related trend errors are prominent in a several regions including the South Atlantic, western North Atlantic, central Pacific, South Australian Basin, and the Mediterranean Sea. Based on a set of test orbits calculated at GFZ, the sources of the

  16. Orbit-related sea level errors for TOPEX altimetry at seasonal to decadal timescales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Esselborn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Interannual to decadal sea level trends are indicators of climate variability and change. A major source of global and regional sea level data is satellite radar altimetry, which relies on precise knowledge of the satellite's orbit. Here, we assess the error budget of the radial orbit component for the TOPEX/Poseidon mission for the period 1993 to 2004 from a set of different orbit solutions. The errors for seasonal, interannual (5-year, and decadal periods are estimated on global and regional scales based on radial orbit differences from three state-of-the-art orbit solutions provided by different research teams: the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ, the Groupe de Recherche de Géodésie Spatiale (GRGS, and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC. The global mean sea level error related to orbit uncertainties is of the order of 1 mm (8 % of the global mean sea level variability with negligible contributions on the annual and decadal timescales. In contrast, the orbit-related error of the interannual trend is 0.1 mm yr−1 (27 % of the corresponding sea level variability and might hamper the estimation of an acceleration of the global mean sea level rise. For regional scales, the gridded orbit-related error is up to 11 mm, and for about half the ocean the orbit error accounts for at least 10 % of the observed sea level variability. The seasonal orbit error amounts to 10 % of the observed seasonal sea level signal in the Southern Ocean. At interannual and decadal timescales, the orbit-related trend uncertainties reach regionally more than 1 mm yr−1. The interannual trend errors account for 10 % of the observed sea level signal in the tropical Atlantic and the south-eastern Pacific. For decadal scales, the orbit-related trend errors are prominent in a several regions including the South Atlantic, western North Atlantic, central Pacific, South Australian Basin, and the Mediterranean Sea. Based on a set of test

  17. Impaired Expression of Focal Adhesion Kinase in Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Low-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuenv Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenic role of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS development and progression has been investigated by numerous studies, yet, it remains controversial in some aspects (1, 2. In the present study, we found distinct features of MSCs from low-risk (LR-MDS stromal microenvironment as compared to those from healthy subjects. At the molecular level, focal adhesion kinase, a key tyrosine kinase in control of cell proliferation, survival, and adhesion process, was found profoundly suppressed in expression and activation in LR-MDS MSC. At a functional level, LR-MDS MSCs showed impaired growth and clonogenic capacity, which were independent of cellular senescence and apoptosis. The pro-adipogenic differentiation and attenuated osteogenic capacity along with reduced SDF-1 expression could be involved in creating an unfavorable microenvironment for hematopoiesis. In conclusion, our experiments support the theory that the stromal microenvironment is fundamentally altered in LR-MDS, and these preliminary data offer a new perspective on LR-MDS pathophysiology.

  18. Plasma glutamine levels before cardiac surgery are related to post-surgery infections; an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Buter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A low plasma glutamine level was found in 34% of patients after elective cardiothoracic surgery. This could be a result of the inflammation caused by surgical stress or the use of extracorporeal circulation (ECC. But it is also possible that plasma glutamine levels were already lowered before surgery and reflect an impaired metabolic state and a higher likelihood to develop complications. In the present study plasma glutamine levels were measured before and after cardiac surgery and we questioned whether there is a relation between plasma glutamine levels and duration of ECC and the occurrence of postoperative infections. Methods We performed a single-centre prospective, observational study in a closed-format, 20-bed, mixed ICU in a tertiary teaching hospital. We included consecutive patients after elective cardiac surgery with use of extracorporeal circulation. Blood samples were collected on the day prior to surgery and at admission on the ICU. The study was approved by the local Medical Ethics Committee (Regional Review Committee Patient-related Research, Medical Centre Leeuwarden, nWMO 115, April 28th 2015. Results Ninety patients were included. Pre-operative plasma glutamine level was 0.42 ± 0.10 mmol/l and post-operative 0.38 ± 0.09 mmol/l (p < 0.001. There was no relation between duration of extracorporeal circulation or aortic occlusion time and changes in plasma glutamine levels. A logistic regression analysis showed a significant correlation between the presence of a positive culture during the post-operative course and pre-operative plasma glutamine levels (p = 0.04. Conclusion Plasma glutamine levels are significantly lower just after cardiac surgery compared to pre-operative levels. We did not find a relation between the decrease in plasma glutamine levels and the duration of extracorporeal circulation or aortic clamp time. There was a correlation between pre-operative plasma glutamine levels

  19. Trichomonas vaginalis infection in a low-risk women attended in Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhayati Moktar

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The present study reported zero incidence rate of trichomoniasis. The low incidence rate was postulated due to all women who participated in this study were categorized into a low-risk group.

  20. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism: relation to familiar risk of affective disorder, BDNF levels and salivary cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinberg, Maj; Trajkovska, Viktorija; Bennike, Bente; Knorr, Ulla; Knudsen, Gitte M; Kessing, Lars V

    2009-10-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are considered to play an important role in the pathophysiology of affective disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with a familiar risk of affective disorder and whether these genotypes affect whole blood BDNF level and salivary cortisol. In a high-risk study, healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with and without a co-twin (high- and low-risk twins, respectively) history of affective disorder were identified through nationwide registers. Familiar predisposition to unipolar and bipolar disorder was not associated with any specific genotype pattern of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, not in this sample of 124 val/val, 58 val/met and 8 met/met individuals. However, the combination of having a high familiar risk of affective disorder and the met allele was associated with a higher whole blood BDNF (p=0.02) and a higher evening cortisol level (p=0.01), but not with awakening cortisol. Individuals at high risk of affective disorders and who are carriers of the met allele of the Val66Met polymorphism may present with an enhanced stress response. The presence of a specific genotype alone may not enhance the risk of developing an affective episode. Rather, the altered stress response may be expressed only in combination with other risk variants through interactions with the environment.

  1. Domain-Specific Creativity in Relation to the Level of Empathy and Systemizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostál, Daniel; Plháková, Alena; Záškodná, Tereza

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore self-reported domain-specific creativity in relation to the level of empathy, systemizing, and the Big Five personality dimensions. The research sample consisted of 1112 college students to whom the Kaufman Domains of Creativity Scale (K-DOCS), the Creative Achievement Questionnaire (CAQ), Baron-Cohen's empathy and…

  2. Exploring a Relational Cultural Group Trainee Model for Master's Level Counseling Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brenda S.; Harper, Irene; Korcuska, James

    2018-01-01

    We explored students' experiences of a graduate level group course infused with components of the Relational Cultural Theory (RCT). During the didactic and experiential aspects of 2 semester-long group courses, the faculty instructors and students focused on creating an environment of safety, connection, and empowerment. The instructor and…

  3. School Effectiveness at Primary Level of Education in Relation to Classroom Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Manas Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the relationship of School Effectiveness with regard to classroom teaching at primary level of education. The objectives of the study were to identify the more-effective and less-effective schools; to find out the differences between more-effective and less-effective schools in relation to physical facilities, Head…

  4. Differences in the association between smoking and relative body weight by level of education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molarius, A.; Seidell, J C

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in the association between smoking and relative body weight by sex, age group and level of education. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: About 36,000 men and women who participated in the Monitoring Project on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in the

  5. Social groups preferences relation to motivations and ability levels of whitewater kayakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth Turner; Rod Zwick

    2002-01-01

    Social groups play an important role in many adventure recreation activities. The purpose of this study was to examine the social group preference relation to motives and ability levels of whitewater kayakers. When participants go out on a kayaking trip they are seeking varying degrees of experiences, a major contributor to that experience comes from the members of...

  6. Suicide risk in relation to level of urbanicity - a population-based linkage study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ping

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The extent to which the high suicide rate in urban areas is influenced by exposures to risk factors for suicide other than urbanicity remains unknown. This population-based study aims to investigate suicide risk in relation to the level of urbanicity in the context of other factors...

  7. Exploring Sequence Characteristics Related to High- Level Production of Secreted Proteins in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, B.A.; Reinders, M.J.T.; Hulsman, M.; Wu, L.; Pel, H.J.; Roubos, J.A.; De Ridder, D.

    2012-01-01

    Protein sequence features are explored in relation to the production of over-expressed extracellular proteins by fungi. Knowledge on features influencing protein production and secretion could be employed to improve enzyme production levels in industrial bioprocesses via protein engineering. A large

  8. Altered medial temporal activation related to local glutamate levels in subjects with prodromal signs of psychosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Valli, I; Stone, J; Mechelli, A; Bhattacharyya, S; Raffin, M; Allen, P; Fusar-Poli, P; Lythgoe, D; O'Gorman, R; Seal, M; McGuire, P

    2011-01-01

    In individuals at high risk of psychosis, medial temporal dysfunction seemed related to a loss of the normal relationship with local glutamate levels. This study provides the first evidence that links medial temporal dysfunction with the central glutamate system in humans and is consistent with evidence that drugs that modulate glutamatergic transmission might be useful in the treatment of psychosis.

  9. Legislation and litigation related to low-level radiation injury claims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCraw, T.

    1985-01-01

    Current legislation and litigation related to radiation exposure will have an enormous impact on the radiation protection and monitoring requirements of the future. A brief review of some proposed injury compensation bills for veterans and a recent court decision for low-level radiation injury claims are reviewed

  10. [Plasma IL-18 levels are related to insulin and are modulated by IL-18 gene polymorphisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Martínez-Barquero, Vanesa; Nuñez Savall, Ester; Lendínez, Verónica; Olivares, Laura; Benito, Esther; Real, Jose T; Chaves, F Javier; Ascaso, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory chronic disease influenced by multiple factors. Different prospective studies have shown that plasmatic levels of inflammatory markers were related to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. To evaluate whether plasmatic levels of interleukin 18 (IL-18) are modulated by SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) of the IL 18 gene and its possible association with insulin levels and other cardiovascular risk factors. 746 individuals were studied for a period of two years by opportunistic selection in the metropolitan area of Valencia. Parameters of lipid and glucose metabolism were analyzed by standard methodology. IL-18 was measured by ELISA. Individuals with insulin resistance showed significant higher levels of IL-18. IL 18 was significantly correlated with insulin levels and other cardiovascular risk factors. The CC genotype of the rs1834481 SNP was significantly associated with lower levels of IL-18. However, the GG genotype of the rs7559479 was associated with significant higher levels of IL-18. IL-18 is associated with insulin resistance and other cardiovascular risk factors, being those levels genetically regulated. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of depression and its relation to stress level among medical students in Puducherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ganesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Currently, depression among medical students is an important health issue at the global level. There is also a paucity of information on its relation to the stress level. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of depression and its relation to stress level and other factors among medical students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical students at a tertiary care medical institution in Puducherry, coastal south India. Beck Depression Inventory Scale was used for screening of depression and Cohen's Perceived Stress scale to assess perceived stress level. Data on associated factors were collected by self-administered questionnaire. Results: The overall prevalence of depression was found to be 48.4% (215/444. According to the cutoff scores, 229 (51.6% students scored as normal (0–9, 149 (33.6% as mild (10–18, 60 (13.5% as moderate (19–29, 3 (0.7% as severe (30–40, and 3 (0.7% students scored as very severe (>40 depression. Depression was significantly less among those with mild stress (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.010 and moderate stress level (adjusted OR = 0.099 compared to severe stress level and those without interpersonal problems (adjusted OR = 0.448. Conclusion: Depression is more common among medical students. Stress coping mechanisms and improvement of interpersonal relationship may help to reduce depressive symptoms among medical students.

  12. Technology, Incentives, or Both? Factors Related to Level of Hospital Health Information Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sunny C; Everson, Jordan; Adler-Milstein, Julia

    2018-02-28

    To assess whether the level of health information exchange (HIE) in U.S. hospitals is related to technology capabilities, incentives to exchange, or both. A total of 1,812 hospitals attesting to stage 2 of Medicare's Meaningful Use Incentive Program through April 2016. Hospital-level, multivariate OLS regression with state fixed effects was used to analyze the relationship between technology capability and incentives measures, and percent of care transitions with summary of care records (SCRs) sent electronically to subsequent providers. Stage 2 hospitals reported sending SCRs electronically for an average of 41 percent (median = 33 percent) of transitions. HIE level is related to four capability measures, one incentive measure, and one measure that is related to both capability and incentive. Percent of transitions with SCRs sent electronically was 3 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 0.1-5.1) for hospitals with a third-party HIE vendor, 3 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 0.5-5.4) for hospitals with an EHR vendor as their HIE vendor, and 3 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 0.4-5.4) for hospitals that automatically alert primary care providers. The direction and statistical significance of the relationships between specific EHR vendor and electronic SCR transmission level varied by vendor. Nonprofits and government hospitals performed 5 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 1.5-9.1) and 8 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 3.4-12.3) than for-profits. Hospitals in systems performed 3 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 0.8-6.1). The overall level of HIE is low, with hospitals sending an SCR electronically for less than half of patient transitions. Specific hospital characteristics related to both technology capabilities and incentives were associated with higher levels of HIE. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  13. Effects of caesarean section on maternal health in low risk nulliparous women: a prospective matched cohort study in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Xiao-ling

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of caesarean section are progressively increasing in many parts of the world. As a result of psychosocial factors there has been an increasing tendency for pregnant women without justifiable medical indications for caesarean section to ask for this procedure in China. A critical examination of this issue in relation to maternal outcomes is important. At present there are no clinical trials to help assess the risks and benefits of caesarean section in low risk women. To fill the gap left by trials, this indication-matched cohort study was carried out to examine prospectively the outcomes of caesarean section on women with no absolute obstetric indication compared with similar women who had vaginal delivery. Methods An indication-matched cohort study was undertaken to compare maternal outcomes following caesarean section with those undergoing vaginal delivery, in which the two groups were matched for non-absolute indications. 301 nulliparous women with caesarean section were matched successfully with 301 women who delivered vaginally in the Maternal and Children's Hospitals (MCHs in Shanghai, China. Logistic regression model or binomial regression model was used to estimate the relative risk (RR directly. Adjusted RRs were calculated adjusting for propensity score and medical indications. Results The incidence of total complications was 2.2 times higher in the caesarean section group during hospitalization post-partum, compared with the vaginal delivery group (RR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-4.4. The risk of haemorrhage from the start of labour until 2 hours post-partum was significantly higher in the caesarean group (RR = 5.6; 95% CI: 1.2-26.9. The risk of chronic abdominal pain was significantly higher for the caesarean section group (RR = 3.6; 95% CI: 1.2-10.9 than for the vaginal delivery group within 12 months post-partum. The two groups had similar incidences of anaemia and complicating infections such as wound complications

  14. Inferring regional vertical crustal velocities from averaged relative sea level trends: A proof of concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bâki Iz H.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates that relative sea level trends calculated from long-term tide gauge records can be used to estimate relative vertical crustal velocities in a region with high accuracy. A comparison of the weighted averages of the relative sea level trends estimated at six tide gauge stations in two clusters along the Eastern coast of United States, in Florida and in Maryland, reveals a statistically significant regional vertical crustal motion of Maryland with respect to Florida with a subsidence rate of −1.15±0.15 mm/yr identified predominantly due to the ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment process. The estimate is a consilience value to validate vertical crustal velocities calculated from GPS time series as well as towards constraining predictive GIA models in these regions.

  15. Height, Weight, and Aerobic Fitness Level in Relation to the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Jan; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Sundquist, Kristina

    2018-03-01

    Tall stature and obesity have been associated with a higher risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but there have been conflicting reports of the effects of aerobic fitness. We conducted a national cohort study to examine interactions between height or weight and level of aerobic fitness among 1,547,478 Swedish military conscripts during 1969-1997 (97%-98% of all 18-year-old men) in relation to AF identified from nationwide inpatient and outpatient diagnoses through 2012 (maximal age, 62 years). Increased height, weight, and aerobic fitness level (but not muscular strength) at age 18 years were all associated with a higher AF risk in adulthood. Positive additive and multiplicative interactions were found between height or weight and aerobic fitness level (for the highest tertiles of height and aerobic fitness level vs. the lowest, relative excess risk = 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.40, 0.62; ratio of hazard ratios = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.34, 1.65). High aerobic fitness levels were associated with higher risk among men who were at least 186 cm (6 feet, 1 inch) tall but were protective among shorter men. Men with the combination of tall stature and high aerobic fitness level had the highest risk (for the highest tertiles vs. the lowest, adjusted hazard ratio = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.61, 1.80). These findings suggest important interactions between body size and aerobic fitness level in relation to AF and may help identify high-risk subgroups.

  16. Alterations of serum levels of BDNF-related miRNAs in patients with depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Jie Li

    Full Text Available Depression is a serious and potentially life-threatening mental disorder with unknown etiology. Emerging evidence shows that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and microRNAs (miRNAs play critical roles in the etiology of depression. Here this study was aimed to identify and characterize the roles of BDNF and its putative regulatory miRNAs in depression. First, we identified that miR-182 may be a putative miRNA that regulates BDNF levels by bioinformatic studies, and characterized the effects of miR-182 on the BDNF levels using cell-based studies, side by side with miR-132 (a known miRNA that regulates BDNF expression. We showed that treatment of miR-132 and miR-182 respectively decreased the BDNF protein levels in a human neuronal cell model, supporting the regulatory roles of miR-132 and miR-182 on the BDNF expression. Furthermore, we explored the roles of miR-132 and miR-182 on the BDNF levels in depression using human subjects by assessing their serum levels. Compared with the healthy controls, patients with depression showed lower serum BDNF levels (via the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and higher serum miR-132 and miR-182 levels (via the real-time PCR. Finally, the Pearson's (or Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to study whether there was a relationship among the Self-Rating Depression Scale score, the serum BDNF levels, and serum BDNF-related miRNA levels. Our results revealed that there was a significant negative correlation between the SDS scores and the serum BDNF levels, and a positive correlation between the SDS scores and miR-132 levels. In addition, we found a reverse relationship between the serum BDNF levels and the miR-132/miR-182 levels in depression. Collectively, we provided evidence supporting that miR-182 is a putative BDNF-regulatory miRNA, and suggested that the serum BDNF and its related miRNAs may be utilized as important biomarkers in the diagnosis or as therapeutic targets of depression.

  17. Relation between serum vitamin B12 level and duration of treatment with carbamazepine in epilepsy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tariqul Islam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 levels in the serum of 58 epileptic patients receiving only carbamazepine for at least 6 months were measured. Same number of epilepsy patients with no history of taking antiepileptic medicine were taken as control. The mean level of vitamin B12 in carbamazepine-treated epileptic patients was 265.5 pg/mL whereas it was 478.3 pg/mL in control. Increased duration of treatment of carbamazepine in epilepsy caused significantly decreased level of serum vitamin B12 (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = -0.9, p<0.0001. In conclusion, serum vitamin B12 level significantly decreased in relation to duration of carbamazepine treatment in epileptic patients.

  18. Association between vitamin D levels and allergy-related outcomes vary by race and other factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Zoratti, Edward M; Kim, Haejin; Ownby, Dennis R; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2015-11-01

    Allergy-related studies that include biological measurements of vitamin D preceding well-measured outcomes are needed. We sought to examine the associations between early-life vitamin D levels and the development of allergy-related outcomes in the racially diverse Wayne County Health, Environment, Allergy, and Asthma Longitudinal Study birth cohort. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels were measured in stored blood samples from pregnancy, cord blood, and age 2 years. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs for a 5 ng/mL increase in 25(OH)D levels for the following outcomes at age 2 years: eczema, skin prick tests (SPTs), increased allergen-specific IgE level (≥ 0.35 IU/mL), and doctor's diagnosis of asthma (3-6 years). Prenatal 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with eczema (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.75-0.96). The association was stronger in white children (white children: OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.57-1.09; black children: OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.82-1.12), although this was not statistically significant. Cord blood 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with having 1 or more positive SPT responses and aeroallergen sensitization. Both associations were statistically significant in white children (positive SPT response: OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.32-0.80; ≥ 1 aeroallergen sensitization: OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.28-0.92) in contrast with black children (positive SPT response: OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.68-1.14; ≥ 1 aeroallergen sensitization: OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.65-1.11). 25(OH)D levels measured concurrently with outcome assessment were inversely associated with aeroallergen sensitization (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.66-0.96) only among black children (white children: OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.87-1.69). Prenatal and cord blood 25(OH)D levels were associated with some allergy-related outcomes, with a general pattern indicating that children with higher 25(OH)D levels tend to have fewer allergy-related outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy

  19. Plasticity in leaf-level water relations of tropical rainforest trees in response to experimental drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Oliver; Meir, Patrick; Rowland, Lucy; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Lola; Vasconcelos, Steel Silva; de Oliveira, Alex Antonio Ribeiro; Ferreira, Leandro; Christoffersen, Bradley; Nardini, Andrea; Mencuccini, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    The tropics are predicted to become warmer and drier, and understanding the sensitivity of tree species to drought is important for characterizing the risk to forests of climate change. This study makes use of a long-term drought experiment in the Amazon rainforest to evaluate the role of leaf-level water relations, leaf anatomy and their plasticity in response to drought in six tree genera. The variables (osmotic potential at full turgor, turgor loss point, capacitance, elastic modulus, relative water content and saturated water content) were compared between seasons and between plots (control and through-fall exclusion) enabling a comparison between short- and long-term plasticity in traits. Leaf anatomical traits were correlated with water relation parameters to determine whether water relations differed among tissues. The key findings were: osmotic adjustment occurred in response to the long-term drought treatment; species resistant to drought stress showed less osmotic adjustment than drought-sensitive species; and water relation traits were correlated with tissue properties, especially the thickness of the abaxial epidermis and the spongy mesophyll. These findings demonstrate that cell-level water relation traits can acclimate to long-term water stress, and highlight the limitations of extrapolating the results of short-term studies to temporal scales associated with climate change. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. An Inverse Relative Age Effect in Male Alpine Skiers at the Absolute Top Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerke, Øyvind; Pedersen, Arve Vorland; Aune, Tore K; Lorås, Håvard

    2017-01-01

    The Relative Age Effect (RAE) can be described as the advantage of being born early after a certain cut-off date within a group of selection. The effect has been found across a wide range of sports and is particularly evident in pre-elite sports and team sports with a high selection pressure. At the absolute top level in team elite sports, the advantage of being relatively older has been reported to disappear, and even reverse, so that the relatively younger athletes are advantaged. In order to further examine such a reversal of the RAE, we investigated the performance of the overall top 50 skiers each year in the alpine World Cup, over a period of 20 years, among men ( N = 234) and women ( N = 235). The data indicated that the relatively younger male athletes at the absolute top level had accumulated, on average, more World Cup points compared to the relatively older skiers. No such effect was observed among the female skiers. This finding suggest the existence of a reversed relative age effect in male elite alpine skiing.

  1. An Inverse Relative Age Effect in Male Alpine Skiers at the Absolute Top Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Bjerke

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Relative Age Effect (RAE can be described as the advantage of being born early after a certain cut-off date within a group of selection. The effect has been found across a wide range of sports and is particularly evident in pre-elite sports and team sports with a high selection pressure. At the absolute top level in team elite sports, the advantage of being relatively older has been reported to disappear, and even reverse, so that the relatively younger athletes are advantaged. In order to further examine such a reversal of the RAE, we investigated the performance of the overall top 50 skiers each year in the alpine World Cup, over a period of 20 years, among men (N = 234 and women (N = 235. The data indicated that the relatively younger male athletes at the absolute top level had accumulated, on average, more World Cup points compared to the relatively older skiers. No such effect was observed among the female skiers. This finding suggest the existence of a reversed relative age effect in male elite alpine skiing.

  2. Increased serum level of prolactin is related to autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Li, Q; Yang, X; Li, M

    2016-04-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is known to aid effector B cells and augment autoimmunity, but the role of PRL in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the serum levels of PRL and autoantibody production in SLE. Blood levels of PRL, anti-double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) antibody, immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were determined in samples from 30 adult patients with SLE and 25 healthy controls. The relationships between the serum level of PRL and SLE disease activity, as well as the titres of the ds-DNA antibody, IgM and IgG were determined. The serum level of PRL was higher in the SLE patients than in the healthy controls. PRL concentration increased during SLE flares-ups and decreased following disease remission. There was a positive correlation between the PRL concentration and serum levels of IgM, IgG and ds-DNA antibody titre. These data suggest that the serum level of PRL was closely related to the antibody production and disease activity of SLE patients. PRL concentration was dramatically reduced upon the remission of disease activity, indicating that PRL levels might be a promising predictor of SLE disease severity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Inflammation-related microRNA expression level in the bovine milk is affected by mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Chang; Fujikawa, Takuro; Maemura, Tadashi; Ando, Takaaki; Kitahara, Go; Endo, Yasuyuki; Yamato, Osamu; Koiwa, Masateru; Kubota, Chikara; Miura, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) in tissue and liquid samples have been shown to be associated with many diseases including inflammation. We aimed to identify inflammation-related miRNA expression level in the bovine mastitis milk. Expression level of inflammation-related miRNA in milk from mastitis-affected and normal cows was analyzed using qPCR. We found that expression level of miR-21, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-222, and miR-383 was significantly upregulated in California mastitis test positive (CMT+) milk. We further analyzed these miRNA using a chip-based QuantStudio Digital PCR System. The digital PCR results correlated with those of qPCR, demonstrating upregulation of miR-21, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-222, and miR-383 in CMT+ milk. In conclusion, we identified miRNA that are upregulated in CMT+ milk. These miRNA exhibited sensitivity and specificity greater than 80% for differentiating between CMT+ milk and normal milk. Our findings suggest that inflammation-related miRNA expression level in the bovine milk was affected by mastitis, and miRNA in milk have potential for use as biomarkers of bovine mastitis.

  4. Fear of childbirth and emergency caesarean section in low-risk nulliparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Cecilie; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Schroll, Anne-Mette

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between fear of childbirth (FOC) and emergency caesarean section. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study of low-risk nulliparous women at term. SETTING: Nine obstetric departments in Denmark, May 2004-July 2005. POPULATION: A total of 2598 nulliparous women...... in spontaneous labor with a single fetus in cephalic presentation at term. METHODS: Self-reported FOC was assessed at 37 weeks of gestation by the Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ) version A and at admission to the labor ward by the Delivery Fear Scale (DFS). Mode of delivery...... was recorded by the attending staff. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of emergency caesarean section in women who feared childbirth. RESULTS: FOC (W-DEQ sum score ≥ 85 and DFS sum score ≥ 70) was not associated...

  5. Providing reliable equipment to IAEA through a low risk transition plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, L.; Weinstock, E.V.; Karlin, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    The development and production of safeguards equipment is a complex process containing many potential pitfalls between the conceptual design and its implementation in the field. The conditions for equipment use are especially demanding. At the same time, the consequences of failure may be serious. Repeated failure may result in the loss of credibility of safeguards. Expensive back up measures such as re-verification of inventories may be required. Inspectors may come to distrust the equipment. Finally, the expense of maintaining the equipment may be excessive. It is therefore essential that the process for bringing equipment for the conceptual stage to actual routine use minimizes the risk of producing equipment that is unsuitable for the job. Fortunately, approaches for accomplishing this have already been developed in both the industrial and commercial sectors. One such approach, the Low Risk Transition Plan (LRTP) is described to show it can be applied to the production of reliable safeguards equipment

  6. Protein level affects the relative lysine requirement of growing rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Noelie; Govaerts, Bernadette; Abboudi, Tarik; Detavernier, Christel; De Saeger, Sarah; Larondelle, Yvan; Rollin, Xavier

    2009-07-01

    The effect of two digestible protein levels (310 and 469 g/kg DM) on the relative lysine (Lys; g Lys/kg DM or g Lys/100 g protein) and the absolute Lys (g Lys intake/kg 0.75 per d) requirements was studied in rainbow trout fry using a dose-response trial. At each protein level, sixteen isoenergetic (22-23 MJ digestible energy/kg DM) diets were tested, involving a full range (2-70 g/kg DM) of sixteen Lys levels. Each diet was given to one group of sixty rainbow trout fry (mean initial body weight 0.78 g) reared at 15 degrees C for 31 feeding d. The Lys requirements were estimated based on the relationships between weight, protein, and Lys gains (g/kg 0.75 per d) and Lys concentration (g/kg DM or g/100 g protein) or Lys intake (g/kg 0.75 per d), using the broken-line model (BLM) and the non-linear four-parameter saturation kinetics model (SKM-4). Both the model and the response criterion chosen markedly impacted the relative Lys requirement. The relative Lys requirement for Lys gain of rainbow trout estimated with the BLM (and SKM-4 at 90 % of the maximum response) increased from 16.8 (19.6) g/kg DM at a low protein level to 23.4 (24.5) g/kg DM at a high protein level. However, the dietary protein content affected neither the absolute Lys requirement nor the relative Lys requirement expressed as g Lys/100 g protein nor the Lys requirement for maintenance (21 mg Lys/kg 0.75 per d).

  7. Premenstrual Symptoms in Dysmenorrheic College Students: Prevalence and Relation to Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayan A. Obeidat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of premenstrual symptoms (PMS due to primary dysmenorrhea among a sample of university female students, and to explore possible association with vitamin D and parathyroid (PTH levels, as well as frequency of consumption of dairy products. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: One Jordanian university. Subjects: A total of 177 female students aged between 18 and 24 years who experienced primary dysmenorrhea participated in the study and completed a self administered questionnaire to collect information concerning demographics, menstruation- related information, associated specified premenstrual symptoms, and consumption of dairy products. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin vitamin D level and intact parathyroid hormone level were measured. Results: Of the 177 participants 91.5% had two or more symptoms among which fatigue, mood swings, anxiety, abdominal bloating, and depression were the most prevalent symptoms. There was no evident association between presence of symptoms and vitamin D status, PTH level or dairy products consumption. Headaches and social withdrawal were significantly lower in those women who consumed high amounts of dairy products. Conclusion: Premenstrual symptoms are very common in young women with primary dysmenorrhea. PMS has no relation to levels of vitamin D, parathyroid hormone or dairy products consumption. Headache and social withdrawal may be affected by dairy product consumption.

  8. Energy levels of one-dimensional systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardo, Reginald Christian S., E-mail: rcbernardo@nip.upd.edu.ph; Esguerra, Jose Perico H., E-mail: jesguerra@nip.upd.edu.ph

    2016-10-15

    The standard approach to calculating the energy levels for quantum systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation is to solve an eigenvalue problem involving a fourth- or higher-order differential equation in quasiposition space. It is shown that the problem can be reformulated so that the energy levels of these systems can be obtained by solving only a second-order quasiposition eigenvalue equation. Through this formulation the energy levels are calculated for the following potentials: particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, Pöschl–Teller well, Gaussian well, and double-Gaussian well. For the particle in a box, the second-order quasiposition eigenvalue equation is a second-order differential equation with constant coefficients. For the harmonic oscillator, Pöschl–Teller well, Gaussian well, and double-Gaussian well, a method that involves using Wronskians has been used to solve the second-order quasiposition eigenvalue equation. It is observed for all of these quantum systems that the introduction of a nonzero minimal length uncertainty induces a positive shift in the energy levels. It is shown that the calculation of energy levels in systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation is not limited to a small number of problems like particle in a box and the harmonic oscillator but can be extended to a wider class of problems involving potentials such as the Pöschl–Teller and Gaussian wells.

  9. Serum prolactin, leptin, lipids and lipoproteins levels during antipsychotics treatment in Parkinson's disease and related psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustembegovic, Avdo; Sofic, Emin; Wichart, Ildiko

    2006-01-01

    Weight gain is a common adverse effect associated with the use of most typical and atypical antipsychotic. Aim of this study was to investigate serum prolactin, leptin, cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoproteins, such high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD)-related psychosis during long-term medication with atypical antipsychotic. The study population comprised 40 patients, who were divided into 4 groups: olanzapine (n=10), risperidone (n=10), seroquel (n=10) monotherapy, a group of 10 patients receiving only antiparkinson drugs and a control group of 8 healthy persons. The patients were evaluated at baseline and at the sixth and twelfth week according to the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), body mass index (BMI), and fasting serum prolactin, leptin, lipids and lipoproteins levels. Treatment of patients with olanzapine caused marked increase of serum LDL, cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin levels (prelationship between serum leptin, lipid levels and BMI. However, treatment of patients with seroquel did not cause changes in serum prolactin, leptin, lipids, and lipoproteins levels. Our results suggest that treatment of patients with PD-related psychosis with seroquel appears to have minimal influence on serum leptin, prolactin, lipids, lipoproteins and BMI compared with olanzapine and risperidone.

  10. Damage related deep electron levels in ion implanted GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allsopp, D.W.E.; Peaker, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    A study has been made of the deep electron levels in semi-insulating GaAs implanted with either 78 Se + or 29 Si + ions and rendered n-type by subsequent annealing without encapsulation in partial pressures of arsenic or arsine. Three implantation related deep states were detected with concentration profiles approximating to the type of Gaussian distributions expected for point defects related to ion implantation damage. Further heat treatment of the samples at 500 0 C in a gas ambient of U 2 /H 2 substantially reduced concentration of these deep levels. Two of these states were thought to be related to displacements of the substrate atoms. The third, at Esubc -0.67 eV, was found in only 78 Se + ion implanted GaAs substrates and was thought to be a defect involving both Se and As atoms, rather than intrinsic lattice disorder. It is proposed that the annealing rate of these implantation related deep levels depends crucially on the in-diffusion of arsenic vacancies during heat treatments. (author)

  11. Determinants of prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijen-de Jong, Esther I; Jansen, Danielle E M C; Baarveld, Frank; Boerleider, Agatha W; Spelten, Evelien; Schellevis, François; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal health care is pivotal in providing adequate prevention and care to pregnant women. We examined the determinants of inadequate prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women in primary midwifery-led care in the Netherlands. We used longitudinal data from the population-based DELIVER study with 20 midwifery practices across the Netherlands in 2009 and 2010 as the experimental setting. The participants were 3070 pregnant women starting pregnancy care in primary midwifery care. We collected patient-reported data on potential determinants of prenatal care utilisation derived from the Andersen model. Prenatal health care utilisation was measured by a revised version of the Kotelchuck Index, which measures a combination of care entry and number of visits. Low-risk pregnant women (not referred during pregnancy) were more likely to use prenatal care inadequately if they intended to deliver at a hospital, if they did not use folic acid adequately periconceptionally, or if they were exposed to cigarette smoke during pregnancy. Among those who were referred to secondary care, women reporting a chronic illnesses or disabilities, and women who did not use folic acid periconceptionally were more likely to make inadequate use of prenatal care. Inadequate prenatal health care use in primary midwifery care is more likely in specific groups, and the risk groups differ when women are referred to secondary care. The findings suggest routes that can target interventions to women who are at risk of not adequately using prenatal prevention and care services. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Outcome of pregnancy subsequent to chemotherapy with actinomycin-D in low risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Aminimoghaddam

    2017-07-01

    Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients with GTN who were referred to Firoozgar and Mirza Koochak Khan teaching hospitals during 10 years, starting from 2004. The inclusion criterion was patients with low-risk persistent GTN after molar pregnancy, EP, and abortion, that treated with single agent chemotherapy actinomycin-D. After following the patients for 12 months, patients with serum βHCG lower than 5 mIU/ml, who intended to have child were allowed to become pregnant. The following items were observed in the study: age, body mass index (BMI, parity, chemotherapy duration, and pregnancy outcomes such as spontaneous abortion or preterm labor, pre-eclampsia, stillbirth, fetal malformation, and repeated molar pregnancy. Results: 74 patients were monitored, 83.78% of them had uncomplicated pregnancy and labor, 4.05% had the abortion, 4.05% had second molar pregnancy, 2.7% had pre-eclampsia, 5.40% had preterm labor. Moreover, stillbirth and malformation did not occur in this study even after chemotherapy treatment. There was not any significant correlation between age, BMI, parity, and chemotherapy duration with pregnancy outcomes. Conclusion: The outcomes of pregnancy after chemotherapy with actinomycin-D is similar to the general population who did not have chemotherapy. The abortion rate and repeated molar pregnancy were similar between population and sample too. Thus, the study shows that the cured patients with low-risk GTN have as much chance of having a normal pregnancy as normal women. In other words, treatment with actinomycin-D does not have any adverse effect in future pregnancies.

  13. Distinct evolutionary mechanisms for genomic imbalances in high-risk and low-risk neuroblastomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisselsson David

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroblastoma (NB is the most common extracranial solid tumour of childhood. Several genomic imbalances correlate to prognosis in NB, with structural rearrangements, including gene amplification, in a near-diploid setting typically signifying high-risk tumours and numerical changes in a near-triploid setting signifying low-risk tumours. Little is known about the temporal sequence in which these imbalances occur during the carcinogenic process. Methods We have reconstructed the appearance of cytogenetic imbalances in 270 NBs by first grouping tumours and imbalances through principal component analysis and then using the number of imbalances in each tumour as an indicator of evolutionary progression. Results Tumours clustered in four sub-groups, dominated respectively by (1 gene amplification in double minute chromosomes and few other aberrations, (2 gene amplification and loss of 1p sequences, (3 loss of 1p and other structural aberrations including gain of 17q, and (4 whole-chromosome gains and losses. Temporal analysis showed that the structural changes in groups 1–3 were acquired in a step-wise fashion, with loss of 1p sequences and the emergence of double minute chromosomes as the earliest cytogenetic events. In contrast, the gains and losses of whole chromosomes in group 4 occurred through multiple simultaneous events leading to a near-triploid chromosome number. Conclusion The finding of different temporal patterns for the acquisition of genomic imbalances in high-risk and low-risk NBs lends strong support to the hypothesis that these tumours are biologically diverse entities, evolving through distinct genetic mechanisms.

  14. Fermi level alignment in molecular nanojunctions and its relation to charge transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadler, Robert; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2006-01-01

    The alignment of the Fermi level of a metal electrode within the gap of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of a molecule is a key quantity in molecular electronics, which can vary the electron transparency of a single-molecule junction...... by orders of magnitude. We present a quantitative analysis of the relation between this level alignment (which can be estimated from charging free molecules) and charge transfer for bipyridine and biphenyl dithiolate (BPDT) molecules attached to gold leads based on density functional theory calculations...... end of the gap in the transmission function for bipyridine and at its lower end for BPDT....

  15. Joint effect of alcohol consumption and educational level on alcohol-related medical events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl Christensen, Helene; Diderichsen, Finn; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur

    2017-01-01

    alcohol consumption at baseline using self-administrated questionnaires. Information on highest attained education 1 year before study entry and hospital and mortality data on alcohol-related medical events were obtained through linkage to nationwide registries. We performed analyses using the Aalen...... may also play a role. We investigated the joint effect of alcohol consumption and educational level on the rate of alcohol-related medical events.Methods: We pooled seven prospective cohorts from Denmark that enrolled 74,278 men and women age 30–70 years (study period, 1981 to 2009). We measured...... additive hazards model.Results: During follow-up (1,085,049 person-years), a total of 1718 alcohol-related events occurred. The joint effect of very high alcohol consumption (>21 [>28] drinks per week in women [men]) and low education on alcohol-related events exceeded the sum of their separate effects...

  16. Psychological Distress in Healthy Low-Risk First-Time Mothers during the Postpartum Period: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Murphey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological distress, defined as depression, anxiety, and insomnia in this study, can occur following the birth of a baby as new mothers, in addition to marked physiological changes, are faced with adapting to new roles and responsibilities. We investigated the cooccurrence of stress, depression, anxiety, and insomnia in mothers during the postpartum period; tested the feasibility of study methods and procedures for use in this population; and identified new mothers interest in using cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES as an intervention for reducing psychological distress. We recruited healthy, low-risk, English speaking first-time mothers, ages 18–32 years, with healthy babies (N=33, within 12 months of an uncomplicated birth. Participants completed the PSS, HAM-D14, HAM-A17, and PSQI19. No problems were encountered with study procedures. Mothers reported a high interest (4.9 in the potential use of CES to treat or prevent the occurrence of psychological distress. All participants (N=33 reported moderate levels of depression and anxiety, while 75.8% (n=25 reported insomnia. PSS scores were within the norms for healthy women. Further research is recommended to investigate if our findings can be replicated or if different patterns of associations emerge. Implications for clinical practice are addressed.

  17. Serum levels of lipid metabolites in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Tivadar; Johnson, William M; Dong, Zhiqian; Maeda, Tadao; Maeda, Akiko; Sakai, Tsutomu; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi; Mieyal, John J; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2015-11-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes adult-onset blindness. There are 2 forms of this progressive disease: wet and dry. Currently there is no cure for AMD, but several treatment options have started to emerge making early detection critical for therapeutic success. Analysis of the eyes of Abca4(-/-)Rdh8(-/-) mice that display light-induced retinal degeneration indicates that 11-cis-retinal and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were significantly decreased as compared with the eyes of control dark-adapted C57BL/6J mice. In addition, exposure to intense light correlated with higher levels of prostaglandin G2 in the eyes of Abca4(-/-)Rdh8(-/-) mice. Intense light exposure also lowered DHA levels in the eyes of wild-type C57BL/6J mice without discernible retinal degeneration. Analysis of human serum from patients with AMD recapitulated these dysregulated DHA levels and revealed dysregulation of arachidonic acid (AA) levels as well (∼32% increase in patients with AMD compared with average levels in healthy individuals). From these observations, we then built a statistical model that included levels of DHA and AA from human serum. This model had a 74% probability of correctly identifying patients with AMD from controls. Addition of a genetic analysis for one of the most prevalent amino acid substitutions in the age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 gene linked to AMD, Ala(69)→Ser, did not improve the statistical model. Thus, we have characterized a reliable method with the potential to detect AMD without a genetic component, paving the way for a larger-scale clinical evaluation. Our studies on mouse models along with the analysis of human serum suggest that our small molecule-based model may serve as an effective tool to estimate the risk of developing AMD. © FASEB.

  18. Associations between serum apelin-12 levels and obesity-related markers in Chinese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Jun Ba

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible correlations between apelin-12 levels and obesity in children in China and associations between apelin-12 and obesity-related markers, including lipids, insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR. METHODS: Forty-eight obese and forty non-obese age- and gender-matched Chinese children were enrolled between June 2008 and June 2009. Mean age was 10.42 ± 2.03 and 10.86±2.23 years in obesity and control groups, respectively. Main outcome measures were apelin-12, BMI, lipids, glucose and insulin. HOMA-IR was calculated for all subjects. RESULTS: All obesity group subjects had significantly higher total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, insulin levels and HOMA-IR (all P<0.05. In separate analyses, obese girls had significantly higher LDL-C, insulin and HOMA-IR than controls, and obese boys had significantly higher TC, TG, insulin and HOMA-IR than controls (all P<0.05. Apelin-12 levels were significantly higher in obese girls compared to controls (P = 0.024, and correlated positively with TG in all obese subjects. Among obese girls, apelin-12 levels correlated positively with TG, insulin and HOMA-IR after adjusting for age and BMI. In all boys (obese and controls apelin-12 was positively associated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG. No significant correlations were found in either group between apelin-12 levels and other characteristics after adjusting for age, sex, and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Apelin-12 levels are significantly higher in obese vs. non-obese girls in China and correlate significantly with obesity-related markers insulin, HOMA-IR, and TG. Increased apelin-12 levels may be involved in the pathological mechanism of childhood obesity.

  19. BURNOUT SYNDROME, JOB SATISFACTION LEVELS AND RELATED FACTORS IN CENTRAL TRABZON PROVINCE PRIMARY HEALTH CENTER WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuman YAVUZYILMAZ

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Burnout manifests itself in individuals working in professions involving face-to-face contact with the public in depersonalization towards others, feelings of emotional exhaustion, and reduced feelings of personal achievement and adequacy. The objective in this study was to determine burnout and job satisfaction levels and related factors in primary health center personnel in the central part of the Turkish province of Trabzon. A total of 227 people working in central Trabzon province primary health centers participated in this cross-sectional study, a level of 90.4%. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to determine burnout level and the Job Satisfaction Inventory for job satisfaction. Burnout levels in health personnel were high among women (15.06±5.57, married individuals (14.80±5.65 and those dissatisfied with their working conditions (16.80±5.81; physicians (5.00±2.79, those without children (5.19±2.54, those whose spouses were not working (4.69±2.70 and smokers (4.71±3.29 had a high level of depersonalization; and married individuals were determined to have a low personal achievement level (10.24±4.14 (p=0.020, p=0.028, p=0.011, p=0.038, p=0.028, p=0.012 and p=0.010, respectively. In conclusion, gender, marital status, age, satisfaction with working conditions and income level were determined to be related to burnout and job satisfaction. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(1.000: 41-50

  20. BURNOUT SYNDROME, JOB SATISFACTION LEVELS AND RELATED FACTORS IN CENTRAL TRABZON PROVINCE PRIMARY HEALTH CENTER WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat TOPBAS

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Burnout manifests itself in individuals working in professions involving face-to-face contact with the public in depersonalization towards others, feelings of emotional exhaustion, and reduced feelings of personal achievement and adequacy. The objective in this study was to determine burnout and job satisfaction levels and related factors in primary health center personnel in the central part of the Turkish province of Trabzon. A total of 227 people working in central Trabzon province primary health centers participated in this cross-sectional study, a level of 90.4%. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to determine burnout level and the Job Satisfaction Inventory for job satisfaction. Burnout levels in health personnel were high among women (15.06±5.57, married individuals (14.80±5.65 and those dissatisfied with their working conditions (16.80±5.81; physicians (5.00±2.79, those without children (5.19±2.54, those whose spouses were not working (4.69±2.70 and smokers (4.71±3.29 had a high level of depersonalization; and married individuals were determined to have a low personal achievement level (10.24±4.14 (p=0.020, p=0.028, p=0.011, p=0.038, p=0.028, p=0.012 and p=0.010, respectively. In conclusion, gender, marital status, age, satisfaction with working conditions and income level were determined to be related to burnout and job satisfaction. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(1: 41-50

  1. Autism and increased paternal age related changes in global levels of gene expression regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Alter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A causal role of mutations in multiple general transcription factors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism suggested that alterations in global levels of gene expression regulation might also relate to disease risk in sporadic cases of autism. This premise can be tested by evaluating for changes in the overall distribution of gene expression levels. For instance, in mice, variability in hippocampal-dependent behaviors was associated with variability in the pattern of the overall distribution of gene expression levels, as assessed by variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in the hippocampus. We hypothesized that a similar change in variance might be found in children with autism. Gene expression microarrays covering greater than 47,000 unique RNA transcripts were done on RNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of children with autism (n = 82 and controls (n = 64. Variance in the distribution of gene expression levels from each microarray was compared between groups of children. Also tested was whether a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age, was associated with variance. A decrease in the variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in PBL was associated with the diagnosis of autism and a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age. Traditional approaches to microarray analysis of gene expression suggested a possible mechanism for decreased variance in gene expression. Gene expression pathways involved in transcriptional regulation were down-regulated in the blood of children with autism and children of older fathers. Thus, results from global and gene specific approaches to studying microarray data were complimentary and supported the hypothesis that alterations at the global level of gene expression regulation are related to autism and increased paternal age. Global regulation of transcription, thus, represents a possible point of convergence for multiple etiologies of autism and other

  2. Association of Genetic Variants Related to Serum Calcium Levels With Coronary Artery Disease and Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Burgess, Stephen; Michaëlsson, Karl

    2017-07-25

    Serum calcium has been associated with cardiovascular disease in observational studies and evidence from randomized clinical trials indicates that calcium supplementation, which raises serum calcium levels, may increase the risk of cardiovascular events, particularly myocardial infarction. To evaluate the potential causal association between genetic variants related to elevated serum calcium levels and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction using mendelian randomization. The analyses were performed using summary statistics obtained for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified from a genome-wide association meta-analysis of serum calcium levels (N = up to 61 079 individuals) and from the Coronary Artery Disease Genome-wide Replication and Meta-analysis Plus the Coronary Artery Disease Genetics (CardiogramplusC4D) consortium's 1000 genomes-based genome-wide association meta-analysis (N = up to 184 305 individuals) that included cases (individuals with CAD and myocardial infarction) and noncases, with baseline data collected from 1948 and populations derived from across the globe. The association of each SNP with CAD and myocardial infarction was weighted by its association with serum calcium, and estimates were combined using an inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. Genetic risk score based on genetic variants related to elevated serum calcium levels. Co-primary outcomes were the odds of CAD and myocardial infarction. Among the mendelian randomized analytic sample of 184 305 individuals (60 801 CAD cases [approximately 70% with myocardial infarction] and 123 504 noncases), the 6 SNPs related to serum calcium levels and without pleiotropic associations with potential confounders were estimated to explain about 0.8% of the variation in serum calcium levels. In the inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis (combining the estimates of the 6 SNPs), the odds ratios per 0.5-mg/dL increase (about 1 SD) in genetically

  3. Relative sea-level change in the central Cyclades (Greece) since the Early Bronze Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganits, E.

    2012-04-01

    The Aegean is a focus of important cultural achievements in Europe since the Neolithic period. The resulting abundance of archaeological remains, many of them below sea-level represent an advantageous area for the study of local relative sea-level change. We have carried out detailed mapping of Despotiko Island (SW of Antiparos) and its surrounding. Despotiko is situated almost exactly in the center of the Cyclades (as defined nowadays), more so than Delos, and therefore is very well suited for sea-level studies of the Cyclades. This beneficial location, combined with a spacious and protected bay, additionally may explain its former importance as stepping-stone in the Aegean Sea. The island is uninhabited at present, but Early Bronze Age settlement sites and graveyards as well as a large Archaic sanctuary proof its former importance. The sanctuary is situated on a gently northeast dipping slope in the northeast part of Despotiko, in range of sight of the Órmos Despotiko. Since 1997 large parts of this important sanctuary have been excavated during several excavation campaigns. Tectonically, Despotiko, Antiparos and Paros, belong to the Attic-Cycladic Crystalline of the Central Hellenides, a stack of metamorphic tectonic nappes, mainly comprising variable types of gneiss, schist, marble and amphibolite, and tectonic slices of unmetamorphosed sediments on top, separated by low-angle normal faults from the metamorphic units below. Submerged archaeological structures at the sea bottom of the Órmos Despotiko, a Classical marble inscription from the sanctuary and partly submerged agriculture trenches at the east coast Despotiko, indicate that the relative sea-level in this area was some 3 m lower during the Early Bronze Age and still more than 1 m lower during Classical time. These values of relative sea-level rise indicate a subsidence component additional to the global sea-level rise in the investigated time period. Neglecting possible vertical tectonic movements and

  4. Exposure to pyrethroids insecticides and serum levels of thyroid-related measures in pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jie; Hisada, Aya; Yoshinaga, Jun; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Shimodaira, Kazuhisa; Okai, Takashi; Noda, Yumiko; Shirakawa, Miyako; Kato, Nobumasa

    2013-01-01

    Possible association between environmental exposure to pyrethroid insecticides and serum thyroid-related measures was explored in 231 pregnant women of 10–12 gestational weeks recruited at a university hospital in Tokyo during 2009–2011. Serum levels of free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid biding globulin (TBG) and urinary pyrethroid insecticide metabolite (3-phenoxybenzoic acid, 3-PBA) were measured. Obstetrical information was obtained from medical records and dietary and lifestyle information was collected by self-administered questionnaire. Geometric mean concentration of creatinine-adjusted urinary 3-PBA was 0.363 (geometric standard deviation: 3.06) μg/g cre, which was consistent with the previously reported levels for non-exposed Japanese adult females. The range of serum fT4, TSH and TBG level was 0.83–3.41 ng/dL, 0.01–27.4 μIU/mL and 16.4–54.4 μg/mL, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was carried out by using either one of serum levels of thyroid-related measures as a dependent variable and urinary 3-PBA as well as other potential covariates (age, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, urinary iodine, smoking and drinking status) as independent variables: 3-PBA was not found as a significant predictor of serum level of thyroid-related measures. Lack of association may be due to lower pyrethroid insecticide exposure level of the present subjects. Taking the ability of pyrethroid insecticides and their metabolite to bind to nuclear thyroid hormone (TH) receptor, as well as their ability of placental transfer, into consideration, it is warranted to investigate if pyrethroid pesticides do not have any effect on TH actions in fetus brain even though maternal circulating TH level is not affected. -- Highlights: • Pyrethroid exposure and thyroid hormone status was examined in pregnant women. • Urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid was used as a biomarker of exposure. • Iodine nutrition, age and other covariates were included

  5. Exposure to pyrethroids insecticides and serum levels of thyroid-related measures in pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie; Hisada, Aya [Department of Environmental Studies, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8563 (Japan); Yoshinaga, Jun, E-mail: junyosh@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Environmental Studies, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8563 (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroaki [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8563 (Japan); Shimodaira, Kazuhisa; Okai, Takashi [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Showa University School of Medicine, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Noda, Yumiko; Shirakawa, Miyako; Kato, Nobumasa [Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Showa University School of Medicine, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Possible association between environmental exposure to pyrethroid insecticides and serum thyroid-related measures was explored in 231 pregnant women of 10–12 gestational weeks recruited at a university hospital in Tokyo during 2009–2011. Serum levels of free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid biding globulin (TBG) and urinary pyrethroid insecticide metabolite (3-phenoxybenzoic acid, 3-PBA) were measured. Obstetrical information was obtained from medical records and dietary and lifestyle information was collected by self-administered questionnaire. Geometric mean concentration of creatinine-adjusted urinary 3-PBA was 0.363 (geometric standard deviation: 3.06) μg/g cre, which was consistent with the previously reported levels for non-exposed Japanese adult females. The range of serum fT4, TSH and TBG level was 0.83–3.41 ng/dL, 0.01–27.4 μIU/mL and 16.4–54.4 μg/mL, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was carried out by using either one of serum levels of thyroid-related measures as a dependent variable and urinary 3-PBA as well as other potential covariates (age, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, urinary iodine, smoking and drinking status) as independent variables: 3-PBA was not found as a significant predictor of serum level of thyroid-related measures. Lack of association may be due to lower pyrethroid insecticide exposure level of the present subjects. Taking the ability of pyrethroid insecticides and their metabolite to bind to nuclear thyroid hormone (TH) receptor, as well as their ability of placental transfer, into consideration, it is warranted to investigate if pyrethroid pesticides do not have any effect on TH actions in fetus brain even though maternal circulating TH level is not affected. -- Highlights: • Pyrethroid exposure and thyroid hormone status was examined in pregnant women. • Urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid was used as a biomarker of exposure. • Iodine nutrition, age and other covariates were included

  6. Distributions and natural levels of related metals in a trophic pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemons, J.D.

    1976-06-01

    The first objective was to test the hypothesis that metal distributions and trends in organisms are, in part, a function of metal positions in the periodic table in unpolluted ecosystems. The data have shown that large soil crustal abundance differences of related elements (e.g. alkali metals) are proportionately approximated in higher organisms. Concentration factors for related nutritious and nonessential and toxic metals were determined along a trophic pathway. When the concentration factors were reported as the concentration of a particular metal by itself, all metal concentrations increased along the trophic pathway. The second objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that distributions and natural levels of chemically related nonessential and toxic metals can better be known when the metals are reported as a ratio, in ash, of the nonessential or toxic metal to its chemically related nutritious metal (e.g. strontium/calcium) as the metals are transferred through trophic pathways. The data have shown that when this method of reporting metal abundances in trophic levels is used, nonessential and toxic metals are discriminated against, relative to their chemically related nutritious metal, as the metals are transferred through the trophic pathway levels. The third objective was designed to test the hypothesis that surface deposition of toxic metals upon plants influences the trends of metal abundances through trophic pathways. This study indicates that metal pollution in the form of deposition upon plant surfaces bypasses the discrimination mechanisms in plants, and consequently elevates the total body burden in herbivores. It is likely that there is no herbivore defense for this type of metal exposure, because herbivores have probably come to rely, in part, upon the discriminatory mechanism of plants throughout the course of evolutionary history to keep toxic metal burdens low

  7. Muscle Torque and its Relation to Technique, Tactics, Sports Level and Age Group in Judo Contestants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Grzegorz; Chwała, Wiesław; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Sterkowicz, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of maximal muscle torques at individual stages of development of athletes and to determine the relationship between muscle torques, fighting methods and the level of sports performance. The activity of 25 judo contestants during judo combats and the effectiveness of actions were evaluated. Maximum muscle torques in flexors/extensors of the body trunk, shoulder, elbow, hip and knee joints were measured. The level of significance was set at p≤0.05; for multiple comparisons the Mann-Whitney U test, p≤0.016, was used. Intergroup differences in relative torques in five muscle groups studied (elbow extensors, shoulder flexors, knee flexors, knee extensors, hip flexors) were not significant. In cadets, relative maximum muscle torques in hip extensors correlated with the activity index (Spearman’s r=0.756). In juniors, maximum relative torques in elbow flexors and knee flexors correlated with the activity index (r=0.73 and r=0.76, respectively). The effectiveness of actions correlated with relative maximum torque in elbow extensors (r=0.67). In seniors, the relative maximum muscle torque in shoulder flexors correlated with the activity index during the second part of the combat (r=0.821). PMID:25964820

  8. Muscle torque and its relation to technique, tactics, sports level and age group in judo contestants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Grzegorz; Chwała, Wiesław; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Sterkowicz, Stanisław

    2015-03-29

    The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of maximal muscle torques at individual stages of development of athletes and to determine the relationship between muscle torques, fighting methods and the level of sports performance. The activity of 25 judo contestants during judo combats and the effectiveness of actions were evaluated. Maximum muscle torques in flexors/extensors of the body trunk, shoulder, elbow, hip and knee joints were measured. The level of significance was set at p≤0.05; for multiple comparisons the Mann-Whitney U test, p≤0.016, was used. Intergroup differences in relative torques in five muscle groups studied (elbow extensors, shoulder flexors, knee flexors, knee extensors, hip flexors) were not significant. In cadets, relative maximum muscle torques in hip extensors correlated with the activity index (Spearman's r=0.756). In juniors, maximum relative torques in elbow flexors and knee flexors correlated with the activity index (r=0.73 and r=0.76, respectively). The effectiveness of actions correlated with relative maximum torque in elbow extensors (r=0.67). In seniors, the relative maximum muscle torque in shoulder flexors correlated with the activity index during the second part of the combat (r=0.821).

  9. Absorption of technetium by plants in relation to soil type contamination level and time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousny, J.M.; Myttenaere, C. (Louvain Univ. (Belgium). Lab. de Physiologie Vegetale)

    1981-01-01

    Plants of Pisum sativum (var. Merveille de Kelvedon) were grown on seven typical european soils contaminated with different levels of /sup 99/Tc(0.17; 1.7 and 17 ..mu..Ci/kg). Added initially as pertechnetate, the technetium absorption has been studied for three successive cultures. The translocation of technetium from soil to plant leaves is high, but its transfer is reduced in soils rich in organic matter (Fen) or poorly drained (Braunerde). Aging reduces the technetium transfer and modify its relative distribution in plant (relatively more technetium is found in fruits); these results let suppose some modification of the technetium chemical form in soils with time.

  10. Gaucher disease: plasmalogen levels in relation to primary lipid abnormalities and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitou, Marina; Dimitriou, Evangelia; Dekker, Nick; Monopolis, Ioannis; Aerts, Johannes; Michelakakis, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Plasmalogens represent a unique class of phospholipids. Reduced red blood cell plasmalogen levels in Gaucher disease patients were reported, correlating to total disease burden. The relation between plasmalogen abnormalities in Gaucher disease patients and primary glycosphingolipid abnormalities, malonyldialdehyde levels, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, and the total antioxidant status was further investigated. Significant reduction of C16:0 and C18:0 plasmalogens in red blood cells of Gaucher disease patients was confirmed. In parallel, a significant increase in the glucosylceramide/ceramide ratio in red blood cell membranes, as well as an average 200-fold increase in plasma glucosylsphingosine levels was observed. Red blood cell malonyldialdehyde levels were significantly increased in patients, whereas their total antioxidant status was significantly reduced. A negative correlation between plasmalogen species and glucosylceramide, ceramide, glucosylceramide/ceramide ratio, glucosylsphingosine and malonyldialdehyde, significant for the C16:0 species and all the above parameters with the exception of malonyldialdehyde levels, was found along with a positive non-significant correlation with the total antioxidant status. Our results indicate that increased lipid peroxidation and reduced total antioxidant status exist in Gaucher disease patients. They demonstrate a clear link between plasmalogen levels and the primary glycolipid abnormalities characterizing the disorder and an association with the increased oxidative stress observed in Gaucher disease patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Recommended level of physical activity and health-related quality of life among Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Yoshio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of a recommended level of physical activity on physiological health indicators such as morbidity and mortality are well-accepted, but less research has addressed whether or not the association between the recommended level of physical activity and a health-related quality of life (HRQOL exists in the Japanese population. Thus, the present study examined whether the recommended physical activity would be associated with HRQOL in the general Japanese middle-aged population. Methods Data were obtained from 1211 male and female respondents (39.4 ± 10.9 year, mean ± SD from an Internet-based survey of registrants of an Internet research service. Physical activity level was estimated from the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. HRQOL was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-8 questionnaire (SF-8. Based on the current national guidelines for exercise in Japan, respondents were divided into a recommended group, an insufficient group, and an inactive group according to their estimated weekly physical activity level. Multivariate analyses of covariance were utilized. Results Across both genders, the recommended group had significantly higher physical functioning (PF scores than the inactive group (p Conclusion Individuals who attained the recommended level of physical activity had better scores on some dimensions of HRQOL than those who did not, suggesting that the recommended level of physical activity may be applicable not only to the physiological objective outcomes but also to some dimensions in both the physical and mental aspects of HRQOL.

  12. Adriatic storm surges and related cross-basin sea-level slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Međugorac, Iva; Orlić, Mirko; Janeković, Ivica; Pasarić, Zoran; Pasarić, Miroslava

    2018-05-01

    Storm surges pose a severe threat to the northernmost cities of the Adriatic coast, with Venice being most prone to flooding. It has been noted that some flooding episodes cause significantly different effects along the eastern and western Adriatic coasts, with indications that the difference is related to cross-basin sea-level slope. The present study aims to determine specific atmospheric conditions under which the slope develops and to explore connection with increased sea level along the two coastlines. The analysis is based on sea-level time series recorded at Venice and Bakar over the 1984-2014 interval, from which 38 most intensive storm-surge episodes were selected, and their meteorological backgrounds (ERA-Interim) were studied. The obtained sea-level extremes were grouped into three categories according to their cross-basin sea-level slope: storm surges that slope strongly westward (W type), those that slope eastward (E type) and ordinary storm surges (O type). Results show that the slope is controlled by wind action only, specifically, by the wind component towards a particular coast and by the cross-basin shear of along-basin wind. Meteorological fields were used to force an oceanographic numerical model in order to confirm the empirically established connection between the atmospheric forcing and the slope. Finally, it has been found that the intensity of storm surges along a particular Adriatic coast is determined by an interplay of sea-level slopes in the along and cross-basin directions.

  13. Experimental study of relative level populations in beam-foil excited Ar+7 and Kr+7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashkin, S.; Oona, H.; Veje, E.

    1981-01-01

    The relative level populations in beam-foil excited sodium-like argon (Ar VIII) and copper-like krypton (Kr VIII) have been studied at 2 MeV projectile energy. In Ar VIII, the 3p and the 3d terms are strongly excited. The level population decreases rapidly with increasing value of the principal quantum number n, reaches a minimum for levels with n = 5 or 6, but increases then and reaches a strong maximum for levels with n approximately 11. Also the Kr VIII data show a population maximum for levels with n = 11. The strong 3p and 3d level excitations in Ar VIII are explained as selective inner-shell processes which can be understood in the molecular-orbital electron-promotion picture. The preferential population of high-flying Rydberg states is explained as resulting from a near-resonance electron transfer from the valence band of the carbon foil to the projectile. This process takes place when the projectile leaves the back of the foil. (Auth.)

  14. Age related patterns of immunoglobulin serum levels in the Quechua Indians of Andean Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memeo, S. A.; Piantanelli, L.; Mazzufferi, G.; Guerra, L.; Nikolitz, M.; Fabris, N.

    1982-03-01

    Age-dependent changes of IgA, IgG, IgM, and IgD serum levels in a population of Quechua Indians of Peruvian Andes at 4 300 m were investigated. A first increase and a subsequent decrease in IgA and IgM levels were observed with advancing age. IgG and IgD only display an increase during development. More or less pronounced sex-related changes were also found in all Ig classes, the sex dependent pattern of IgA being the more evident one. It has been suggested that sexual, genetic and environmental influences strongly superimpose to high altitude related changes in Ig profile during ageing.

  15. The Relation of Serum Bilirubin Level With Coronary Artery Disease Based on Angiographic Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taban Sadeghi Mohammadreza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Lipid oxidation and generation of free radicals are important factors contributing to the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. Bilirubin is supposed to play a protective role against atherosclerosis, coronary artery diseases (CAD and inflammation for its strong antioxidant property. Thus, this study aims at investigating the relationship of bilirubin level with the severity and type of coronary artery stenosis (CAS in different patient groups. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study 200 consecutive patients, who underwent elective angiography in Madani Heart hospital, Tabriz, Iran, were selected and their blood samples were measured for total, direct, and indirect bilirubin level, with Diazo method using colorimetric technique. Following angiography, comparisons were made between the severity and location of CAS and therapeutic follow-up plan with total, direct, and indirect bilirubin level. Results: Of 200 studied patients, 129 (64.5% and 71 (35.5% subjects were male and female, respectively. The cases were classified into 5 subgroups based on angiography results as follows: 59 (29.5% cases with normal angiography, 11 cases (5.5% with minimal CAD, 56 cases (28% with single vessel involvement, 35 (17.5% cases with two vessel involvement and 39 cases (19.5% with three vessel involvement. The mean total bilirubin level was 1.47 ± 0.8 mg/dl, 1.27 ± 0.12 mg/dl, 1.27 ± 0.06 mg/dl, 1.6 ± 0.04 mg/dl and 0.98 ± 0.05 mg/dl, respectively for the cases with above order. The mean difference in serum total bilirubin between normal angiography group and three-vessel involvement group was 0.49 mg/dl (P < .0001. There was a significant inverse relation between bilirubin level (total, direct and indirect and number of involved vessels and involvement intensity increased as serum bilirubin level decreased. Severity of coronary arteries stenosis as well as the number of involved vessels increased as serum bilirubin level decreased

  16. Circulating levels of p,p'-DDE are related to prevalent hypertension in the elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, P. Monica; Penell, Johanna; Salihovic, Samira; Bavel, Bert van; Lind, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin given to experimental animals increase the blood pressure. We therefore investigated if circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were related to hypertension in a population-based sample of men and women. Methods: One thousand and sixteen subjects aged 70 years were investigated in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Twenty-three POPs were analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, and/or use of antihypertensive medication. Results: Seven hundred and thirty-two subjects (72%) showed hypertension. When the POPs were treated as continuous variables and adjusted for gender only, two PCBs with a low number of chlorine atoms (PCB 105 and 118) were related to prevalent hypertension. Also the OC pesticide p,p'-DDE was related to hypertension. The strongest of these associations was seen for p,p'-DDE (OR 1.35 for a 1 SD change, 95% CI 1.17–1.56, p<0.0001). Following further adjustment also for BMI, smoking status, education level and exercise habits, only p,p'-DDE was still significantly related to hypertension (OR 1.23 for a 1 SD change, 95% CI 1.06–1.43, p=0.006). Conclusion: In this cross-sectional analysis of an elderly population, high levels of circulating levels of p,p'-DDE were associated with prevalent hypertension, further strengthening the experimental findings that POPs might influence blood pressure. - Highlights: • We evaluated the relation between POPs and hypertension. • Cross sectional data from a cohort of elderly men and women were analyzed. • The main exposure was circulating levels of 23 different POPs. • Hypertension was defined as ≥140/90 mmHg and/or antihypertensive treatment. • High levels of p,p'-DDE were associated with prevalent hypertension

  17. Circulating levels of p,p'-DDE are related to prevalent hypertension in the elderly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, P. Monica, E-mail: monica.lind@medsci.uu.se [Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Ulleråkersvägen 40, 751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Penell, Johanna [Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Ulleråkersvägen 40, 751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Salihovic, Samira; Bavel, Bert van [MTM Research Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro (Sweden); Lind, Lars [Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-02-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin given to experimental animals increase the blood pressure. We therefore investigated if circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were related to hypertension in a population-based sample of men and women. Methods: One thousand and sixteen subjects aged 70 years were investigated in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Twenty-three POPs were analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, and/or use of antihypertensive medication. Results: Seven hundred and thirty-two subjects (72%) showed hypertension. When the POPs were treated as continuous variables and adjusted for gender only, two PCBs with a low number of chlorine atoms (PCB 105 and 118) were related to prevalent hypertension. Also the OC pesticide p,p'-DDE was related to hypertension. The strongest of these associations was seen for p,p'-DDE (OR 1.35 for a 1 SD change, 95% CI 1.17–1.56, p<0.0001). Following further adjustment also for BMI, smoking status, education level and exercise habits, only p,p'-DDE was still significantly related to hypertension (OR 1.23 for a 1 SD change, 95% CI 1.06–1.43, p=0.006). Conclusion: In this cross-sectional analysis of an elderly population, high levels of circulating levels of p,p'-DDE were associated with prevalent hypertension, further strengthening the experimental findings that POPs might influence blood pressure. - Highlights: • We evaluated the relation between POPs and hypertension. • Cross sectional data from a cohort of elderly men and women were analyzed. • The main exposure was circulating levels of 23 different POPs. • Hypertension was defined as ≥140/90 mmHg and/or antihypertensive treatment. • High levels of p,p'-DDE were associated with

  18. Environmental factors related to water level regulation - a comparative study in northern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellsten, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The environmental conditions of the littoral zone were studied in the regulated Lake Ontojaervi and the unregulated Lake Lentua in northern Finland. The general aims of the study were to analyse the environmental factors related to water level regulation in the littoral zone and to produce information for assessing the effects of hydroelectric development in northern lakes. The study was basically carried out by comparing the littoral environments of the two study lakes. The most visible effects of water level regulation were related to the raised water level, which yielded erosion of sandy shores at the beginning of the regulation. Another effect of lake regulation was the altered fluctuation of the water level, which led to bottom instability and increased the size of the frozen and ice penetration zones. The effect of ice penetration was also easy to recognize on the shores of Lake Ontojaervi, where the surface sediment was frozen to a greater depth and across wider areas than in Lake Lentua. Below the freezing zone, the ice just pressed down on the sediment. The shores of Lake Ontojaervi were steeper than those of Lake Lentua, which affected the distribution of bottom types, with sandy bottoms being more common in Lake Lentua than in Lake Ontojaervi. The factors related to site exposure included effective fetch and the shape of the shoreline. The sedimentation level correlated only with the slope and was not predicted by the fetch or shape. The vertical reduction of light was estimated on the basis of water colour. The main environmental factors from the two lakes were used in a discriminant analysis to predict the bottom type distribution of the littoral (r 2 = 0.41). (orig.) 66 refs

  19. Environmental factors related to water level regulation - a comparative study in northern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, S K [VTT Communities and Infrastructure. Water Engineering and Ecotechnology, Oulu (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The environmental conditions of the littoral zone were studied in the regulated Lake Ontojaervi and the unregulated Lake Lentua in northern Finland. The general aims of the study were to analyse the environmental factors related to water level regulation in the littoral zone and to produce information for assessing the effects of hydroelectric development in northern lakes. The study was basically carried out by comparing the littoral environments of the two study lakes. The most visible effects of water level regulation were related to the raised water level, which yielded erosion of sandy shores at the beginning of the regulation. Another effect of lake regulation was the altered fluctuation of the water level, which led to bottom instability and increased the size of the frozen and ice penetration zones. The effect of ice penetration was also easy to recognize on the shores of Lake Ontojaervi, where the surface sediment was frozen to a greater depth and across wider areas than in Lake Lentua. Below the freezing zone, the ice just pressed down on the sediment. The shores of Lake Ontojaervi were steeper than those of Lake Lentua, which affected the distribution of bottom types, with sandy bottoms being more common in Lake Lentua than in Lake Ontojaervi. The factors related to site exposure included effective fetch and the shape of the shoreline. The sedimentation level correlated only with the slope and was not predicted by the fetch or shape. The vertical reduction of light was estimated on the basis of water colour. The main environmental factors from the two lakes were used in a discriminant analysis to predict the bottom type distribution of the littoral (r{sup 2} = 0.41). (orig.) 66 refs.

  20. Relative level of occurrence of the principal heuristics in Nigeria property valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Iroham C.O.,; Ogunba, O.A.; Oloyede, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    The neglect of the other principal heuristics namely avaialability, representative and positivity in real estate behaviourial property research as against the exclusive focus on anchoring and adjustment heuristics invariably results to a lopsided research. This work studied the four principal heuristics in property behaviourial property valutaion in a bid to discovering its relative level of occurrence. The study adopted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey approach of 159 of the 270 Head O...

  1. Postglacial relative sea-level history of the Prince Rupert area, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letham, Bryn; Martindale, Andrew; Macdonald, Rebecca; Guiry, Eric; Jones, Jacob; Ames, Kenneth M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a history of relative sea level (RSL) change for the last 15,000 years in the Prince Rupert region on the northern coast of British Columbia, Canada. One hundred twenty-three radiocarbon ages of organic material from isolation basin cores, sediment sequence exposures, and archaeological sites having a recognized relation to past sea levels constrain postglacial RSL. The large number of new measurements relating to past sea-level provides a well constrained RSL curve that differs in significant ways from previously published results. After deglaciation following the Last Glacial Maximum, the region experienced an isostatically-induced rapid RSL drop from as much 50 m asl to as low as -6.3 m asl in as little as a few centuries between 14,500 BP and 13,500 BP. After a lowstand below current sea level for about 2000 years during the terminal Pleistocene, RSL rose again to a highstand at least 6 m asl after the end of the Younger Dryas. RSL slowly dropped through the Holocene to close to its current position by 2000-1500 BP, with some potential fluctuations between 3500 and 1500 BP. This study highlights variation in RSL histories across relatively short distances, which must be accounted for by local RSL reconstructions such as this one. This RSL curve aided in the identification of an 8000-9000 year old archaeological site on a 10-12 m asl terrace, which is currently the earliest dated archaeological site in the area, and it provides guidance for searching for even older archaeological remains. We highlight the utility and potential of this refined RSL history for developing surveys for other archaeological sites associated with paleoshorelines.

  2. Thyroid hormone levels in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related complex.

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, W W; Kaptein, E M

    1989-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction and thyroid gland cytomegalovirus inclusions have been described in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex (ARC). We evaluated 80 patients with AIDS or ARC for the frequency of hypothalamic-pituitary or thyroid gland failure and altered serum thyroid hormone levels due to nonthyroidal disorders. One patient had subclinical hypothyroidism. Of these patients, 60% had low free triiodothyronine (T3) index values and ...

  3. METODE RESET PASSWORD LEVEL ROOT PADA RELATIONAL DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (RDBMS MySQL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taqwa Hariguna

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Database merupakan sebuah hal yang penting untuk menyimpan data, dengan database organisasi akan mendapatkan keuntungan dalam beberapa hal, seperti kecepatan akases dan mengurangi penggunaan kertas, namun dengan implementasi database tidak jarang administrator database lupa akan password yang digunakan, hal ini akan mempersulit dalam proses penangganan database. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggali cara mereset password level root pada relational database management system MySQL.

  4. The Relation Between Skill Levels and the Cyclical Variability of Employment, Hours, and Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Michael P. Keane; Eswar S Prasad

    1993-01-01

    This paper uses micro data to examine differences in the cyclical variability of employment, hours, and wages for skilled and unskilled workers. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we find that, at the aggregate level, skilled and unskilled workers are subject to essentially the same degree of cyclical variation in wages. That is, relative offer wage differentials between skilled and unskilled workers are acyclical. However, we do find important differences in the patterns of employment and hour...

  5. Patient perceptions of risky drinking: Knowledge of daily and weekly low-risk guidelines and standard drink sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Debra J; Vinson, Daniel C

    2017-01-01

    Effective intervention for risky drinking requires that clinicians and patients know low-risk daily and weekly guidelines and what constitutes a "standard drink." The authors hypothesized that most patients lack this knowledge, and that education is required. Following primary care visits, patients completed anonymous exit questionnaires that included the 3 Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) questions, "How many drinks (containing alcohol) can you safely have in one day?" and questions about size, in ounces, of a standard drink of wine, beer, and liquor. Descriptive analyses were done in Stata. Of 1,331 respondents (60% female, mean age: 49.6, SD = 17.5), 21% screened positive on the AUDIT-C for risky drinking. Only 10% of those accurately estimated daily low-risk limits, with 9% accurate on weekly limits, and half estimated low-risk limits at or below guidelines. Fewer than half who checked "Yes" to "Do you know what a 'standard drink' is?" provided accurate answers for beer, wine, or liquor. Patients with a positive screen were twice as likely to say they knew what a standard drink is, but only a third gave accurate estimates. When asked about plans in the next month regarding change in drinking behavior, 23% with a positive AUDIT-C indicated they were at least considering a change. Most patients in primary care don't know specifics of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) guidelines for low-risk drinking. Exploring patient perceptions of low-risk guidelines and current drinking behavior may reveal discrepancies worth discussing. For risky drinkers, most of whom don't know daily and weekly low-risk guidelines or standard drink sizes, education can be vital in intervening. Findings suggest the need for detailed and explicit social marketing and communication on exactly what low-risk drinking entails.

  6. Accuracy of simple urine tests for diagnosis of urinary tract infections in low-risk pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Danielle Cristina Alves; da Silva, Márcia Guimarães; de Lima Parada, Cristina Maria Garcia

    2009-01-01

    Anatomic and physiological alterations during pregnancy predispose pregnant women to urinary tract infections (UTI). This study aimed to identify the accuracy of the simple urine test for UTI diagnosis in low-risk pregnant women. Diagnostic test performance was conducted in Botucatu, SP, involving 230 pregnant women, between 2006 and 2008. Results showed 10% UTI prevalence. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the simple urine test were 95.6%, 63.3% and 66.5%, respectively, in relation to UTI diagnoses. The analysis of positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values showed that, when a regular simple urine test was performed, the chance of UTI occurrence was small (NPV 99.2%). In view of an altered result for such a test, the possibility of UTI existence was small (PPV 22.4%). It was concluded that the accuracy of the simple urine test as a diagnostic means for UTI was low, and that performing a urine culture is essential for appropriate diagnosis.

  7. Serum levels of progesterone and some biochemical parameters in relation to productive activities and level of production in fowl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Sayed, S.M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: 1- estimation of progesterone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine levels and some biochemical parameters in blood serum of fayoumi and rhode island red laying pullets during the time of egg formation. 2 - The variation in progesterone, thyroxine, triiodo-thyronine levels and some blood serum parameters in fayoumi and RIR breeds due to the different clutch size. 3- The relationship between serum progesterone levels and the thyroxine, triiodothyronine, total protein, albumin, globulin, calcium, inorganic phosphorus and cholesterol levels at ovulation time in fayoumi and RIR pullets

  8. The Relation Between Blood Lead Levels and Osteoporosis in Turkish Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurver Turfaner Ertürk

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a toxic heavy element which is to 90% deposited in bone until the 6th decade and is given to the blood with pregnancy, lactation and physiologic osteoporosis. When it is over certain amounts it may cause osteoporosis and an increase in cardiac events and cancer. In order to evaluate the effect of menopause and osteoporosis on blood lead 20 post-menopausal osteoporotic, 19 non-osteoporotic and 21 pre-menopausal women were selected and their blood levels were measured. In post-menopausal women, its relation with bone mineral density was also investigated. There was no difference between osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic women and pre and postmenopausal women in terms of blood lead (Pb. There was no relation between age and Pb levels but in non-osteoporotic postmenopausal women there was a negative correlation between Pb levels and duration of menopause. There was no relation between bone mineral density and blood lead whereas blood lead and environmental pollution displayed a meaningful correlation.

  9. Nuisance Flooding and Relative Sea-Level Rise: the Importance of Present-Day Land Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karegar, Makan A; Dixon, Timothy H; Malservisi, Rocco; Kusche, Jürgen; Engelhart, Simon E

    2017-09-11

    Sea-level rise is beginning to cause increased inundation of many low-lying coastal areas. While most of Earth's coastal areas are at risk, areas that will be affected first are characterized by several additional factors. These include regional oceanographic and meteorological effects and/or land subsidence that cause relative sea level to rise faster than the global average. For catastrophic coastal flooding, when wind-driven storm surge inundates large areas, the relative contribution of sea-level rise to the frequency of these events is difficult to evaluate. For small scale "nuisance flooding," often associated with high tides, recent increases in frequency are more clearly linked to sea-level rise and global warming. While both types of flooding are likely to increase in the future, only nuisance flooding is an early indicator of areas that will eventually experience increased catastrophic flooding and land loss. Here we assess the frequency and location of nuisance flooding along the eastern seaboard of North America. We show that vertical land motion induced by recent anthropogenic activity and glacial isostatic adjustment are contributing factors for increased nuisance flooding. Our results have implications for flood susceptibility, forecasting and mitigation, including management of groundwater extraction from coastal aquifers.

  10. Myoglobin plasma level related to muscle mass and fiber composition: a clinical marker of muscle wasting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marc-André; Kinscherf, Ralf; Krakowski-Roosen, Holger; Aulmann, Michael; Renk, Hanna; Künkele, Annette; Edler, Lutz; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Hildebrandt, Wulf

    2007-08-01

    Progressive muscle wasting is a central feature of cancer-related cachexia and has been recognized as a determinant of poor prognosis and quality of life. However, until now, no easily assessable clinical marker exists that allows to predict or to track muscle wasting. The present study evaluated the potential of myoglobin (MG) plasma levels to indicate wasting of large locomotor muscles and, moreover, to reflect the loss of MG-rich fiber types, which are most relevant for daily performance. In 17 cancer-cachectic patients (weight loss 22%) and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls, we determined plasma levels of MG and creatine kinase (CK), maximal quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) by magnetic resonance imaging, muscle morphology and fiber composition in biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle, body cell mass (BCM) by impedance technique as well as maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max). In cachectic patients, plasma MG, muscle CSA, BCM, and VO(2)max were 30-35% below control levels. MG showed a significant positive correlation to total muscle CSA (r = 0.65, p max as an important functional readout. CK plasma levels appear to be less reliable because prolonged increases are observed in even subclinical myopathies or after exercise. Notably, cancer-related muscle wasting was not associated with increases in plasma MG or CK in this study.

  11. Population-level interventions to reduce alcohol-related harm: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, Fred; Tyner, Elizabeth; Lorenc, Theo; Petticrew, Mark; Lock, Karen

    2013-10-01

    To analyse available review-level evidence on the effectiveness of population-level interventions in non-clinical settings to reduce alcohol consumption or related health or social harm. Health, social policy and specialist review databases between 2002 and 2012 were searched for systematic reviews of the effectiveness of population-level alcohol interventions on consumption or alcohol-related health or social outcomes. Data were extracted on review research aim, inclusion criteria, outcome indicators, results, conclusions and limitations. Reviews were quality-assessed using AMSTAR criteria. A narrative synthesis was conducted overall and by policy area. Fifty-two reviews were included from ten policy areas. There is good evidence for policies and interventions to limit alcohol sale availability, to reduce drink-driving, to increase alcohol price or taxation. There is mixed evidence for family- and community-level interventions, school-based interventions, and interventions in the alcohol server setting and the mass media. There is weak evidence for workplace interventions and for interventions targeting illicit alcohol sales. There is evidence of the ineffectiveness of interventions in higher education settings. There is a pattern of support from the evidence base for regulatory or statutory enforcement interventions over local non-regulatory approaches targeting specific population groups. © 2013.

  12. How school climate relates to chronic absence: A multi-level latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, Kathryn; Johnson, Stacy R; Bettencourt, Amie; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2017-04-01

    Chronic absence is a significant problem in schools. School climate may play an important role in influencing chronic absence rates among schools, yet little research has evaluated how school climate constructs relate to chronic absence. Using multilevel latent profile analysis, we evaluated how profiles of student perceptions of school climate at both the student and school level differentiated school-level rates of chronic absence. Participants included 25,776 middle and high school students from 106 schools who completed a district administered school climate survey. Students attended schools in a large urban school district where 89% of 6th through 12th grade students were African-American and 61% were eligible for the federally subsidized school meals program. Three student-level profiles of perceptions of school climate emerged that corresponded to "positive," "moderate," and "negative" climate. Two predominant patterns regarding the distribution of these profiles within schools emerged that corresponded to the two school-level profiles of "marginal climate" and "climate challenged" schools. Students reporting "moderate" and "negative" climate in their schools were more likely to attend schools with higher chronic absence rates than students reporting that their school had "positive" climate. Likewise, "climate challenged" schools had significantly higher chronic absence rates than "marginal climate" schools. These results suggest that school climate shares an important relation with chronic absence among adolescent students attending urban schools. Implications for prevention and intervention programs are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antimüllerian hormone levels are independently related to ovarian hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert L.; Wroblewski, Kristen; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Mortensen, Monica; Ehrmann, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) levels to polycystic ovaries and ovarian androgenic function. Design Prospective case-control study. Setting General clinical research center. Participant(s) Eumenorrheic asymptomatic volunteers without (V-NO; n = 19; reference population) or with (V-PCO; n = 28) a polycystic ovary and hyperandrogenemic anovulatory subjects grouped according to ovarian function into typical PCOS (PCOS-T; n = 37) and atypical PCOS (PCOS-A; n = 18). Intervention(s) Pelvic ultrasonography, short dexamethasone androgen-suppression test (SDAST), and GnRH agonist (GnRHag) test. Main Outcome Measure(s) Baseline AMH levels were related to polycystic ovary status, testosterone response to SDAST, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone response to GnRHag test. Result(s) AMH levels correlated with SDAST and GnRHag test outcomes. AMH was elevated (>6.2 ng/mL) in 32% of V-PCO versus 5% V-NO. The 21% of V-PCO who met Rotterdam PCOS criteria all had functional ovarian hyperandrogenism, but AMH levels were similar to nonhyperandrogenic V-PCO. AMH >10.7 ng/mL discriminated V-PCO from PCOS with 96% specificity and 41% sensitivity for PCOS-T, and insignificantly for PCOS-A. Conclusion(s) AMH levels are independently related to ovarian androgenic function and polycystic ovaries. Very high AMH levels are specific but insensitive for PCOS. In the absence of hyperandrogenism, moderate AMH elevation in women with normal-variant polycystic ovaries seems to indicate an enlarged oocyte pool. PMID:22541936

  14. Antimüllerian hormone levels are independently related to ovarian hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert L; Wroblewski, Kristen; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Mortensen, Monica; Ehrmann, David A

    2012-07-01

    To determine the relationship of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) levels to polycystic ovaries and ovarian androgenic function. Prospective case-control study. General clinical research center. Eumenorrheic asymptomatic volunteers without (V-NO; n = 19; reference population) or with (V-PCO; n = 28) a polycystic ovary and hyperandrogenemic anovulatory subjects grouped according to ovarian function into typical PCOS (PCOS-T; n = 37) and atypical PCOS (PCOS-A; n = 18). Pelvic ultrasonography, short dexamethasone androgen-suppression test (SDAST), and GnRH agonist (GnRHag) test. Baseline AMH levels were related to polycystic ovary status, testosterone response to SDAST, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone response to GnRHag test. AMH levels correlated with SDAST and GnRHag test outcomes. AMH was elevated (>6.2 ng/mL) in 32% of V-PCO versus 5% V-NO. The 21% of V-PCO who met Rotterdam PCOS criteria all had functional ovarian hyperandrogenism, but AMH levels were similar to nonhyperandrogenic V-PCO. AMH >10.7 ng/mL discriminated V-PCO from PCOS with 96% specificity and 41% sensitivity for PCOS-T, and insignificantly for PCOS-A. AMH levels are independently related to ovarian androgenic function and polycystic ovaries. Very high AMH levels are specific but insensitive for PCOS. In the absence of hyperandrogenism, moderate AMH elevation in women with normal-variant polycystic ovaries seems to indicate an enlarged oocyte pool. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Relations of serum phosphorus and calcium levels to the incidence of cardiovascular disease in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Ravi; Sullivan, Lisa M; Fox, Caroline S; Wang, Thomas J; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Gaziano, J Michael; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2007-05-14

    Higher levels of serum phosphorus and the calcium-phosphorus product are associated with increased mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or prior CVD. However, it is unknown if serum phosphorus levels influence vascular risk in individuals without CKD or CVD. We prospectively evaluated 3368 Framingham Offspring study participants (mean age, 44 years; 51% were women) free of CVD and CKD. We used multivariable Cox models to relate serum phosphorus and calcium levels to CVD incidence. On follow-up (mean duration, 16.1 years), there were 524 incident CVD events (159 in women). In multivariable analyses and adjusting for established risk factors and additionally for glomerular filtration rate and for hemoglobin, serum albumin, proteinuria, and C-reactive protein levels, a higher level of serum phosphorus was associated with an increased CVD risk in a continuous fashion (adjusted hazard ratio per increment of milligrams per deciliter, 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.63; P=.02; P value for trend across quartiles = .004). Individuals in the highest serum phosphorus quartile experienced a multivariable-adjusted 1.55-fold CVD risk (95% confidence interval, 1.16%-2.07%; P=.004) compared with those in the lowest quartile. These findings remained robust in time-dependent models that updated CVD risk factors every 4 years and in analyses restricted to individuals without proteinuria and an estimated glomerular filtration rate greater than 90 mL/min per 1.73 m(2). Serum calcium was not related to CVD risk. Higher serum phosphorus levels are associated with an increased CVD risk in individuals free of CKD and CVD in the community. These observations emphasize the need for additional research to elucidate the potential link between phosphorus homeostasis and vascular risk.

  16. Third Level of International Relations: Characteristics of Sub-State Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey P. Arteev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is in the genre of the review for textbook O. V. Plotnikova and O. Y. Dubrovina International relations of the regions States: characteristics and features (Moscow: Norma; INFRA-M, 2016. 192 p.. Textbook on international activities of sub-state/subnational actors in international relations. Under the sub-state/subnational actors refers to the regions of the States. The authors propose an along with interstate relations (first level and supranational organizations (second level to distinguish a third level of international relations - international relations of the regions in Federal and unitary States. The topic is very relevant due to the ongoing restructuring of the architecture of international relations and world politics. In addition, these processes lead to involvement in international relations new actors. The resulting configuration and the role of traditional players. In addition to long-term evolutionary processes, we should not forget about the position of Russia in the last few years. It is obvious that the current tensions around the Russian Federation may not be fully resolved with the old methods. At the same time, sub-state/ subnational actors as subjects of a combined nature, the role played by regions of the Russian Federation, able to combine harmoniously in its international activities as the techniques characteristic of the traditional actors - States and developments in the tools of non-traditional actors - international non-governmental and non-profit organizations etc. As a result of positive results can be achieved faster and at the interstate level. The review considers the subject and the relevance of the topic, presents the analysis of the content of the work. Marked strengths of the textbook, including those associated with the consideration of the diagonal ties and the political components in the international activities of the regions. In addition to the advantages, attention is paid to the analysis of

  17. Brachial blood flow under relative levels of blood flow restriction is decreased in a nonlinear fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouser, J Grant; Ade, Carl J; Black, Christopher D; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

    2018-05-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR), the application of external pressure to occlude venous return and restrict arterial inflow, has been shown to increase muscular size and strength when combined with low-load resistance exercise. BFR in the research setting uses a wide range of pressures, applying a pressure based upon an individual's systolic pressure or a percentage of occlusion pressure; not a directly determined reduction in blood flow. The relationship between relative pressure and blood flow has not been established. To measure blood flow in the arm under relative levels of BFR. Forty-five people (18-40 years old) participated. Arterial occlusion pressure in the right arm was measured using a 5-cm pneumatic cuff. Blood flow in the brachial artery was measured at rest and at pressures between 10% and 90% of occlusion using ultrasound. Blood flow decreased in a nonlinear, stepped fashion. Blood flow decreased at 10% of occlusion and remained constant until decreasing again at 40%, where it remained until 90% of occlusion. The decrease in brachial blood flow is not proportional to the applied relative pressure. The prescription of blood flow restriction should take into account the stimulus provided at each relative level of blood flow. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. STUDY OF SERUM HAPTOGLOBIN LEVEL AND ITS RELATION TO ERYTHROPOIETIC ACTIVITY IN BETA THALASSEMIA CHILDREN .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seham Ragab

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background  :Serum haptoglobin (Hp is a reliable marker for hemolysis regardless the inflammatory state.  Objective: We investigated the possible relation between Hp depletion and hemolysis severity, hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and iron load in β-thalassemia children. Methods: Twenty  two β-thalassemia major (TM ,20 β-thalassemia  intermedia (TI children with 20 age and sex matched healthy controls were involved. Pre-transfusion hemoglobin level was considered . Serum ferritin , Hp  and transferrin receptor  levels (sTfR  (by ELISA , alanine aminotransferase (ALT and  aspartate aminotransferase (AST  (by colorimetric method were assayed. Markers of hepatitis C virus  (HCV  were done by PCR. Results:  The mean Hp levels among the studied groups were as follows; 8.02 ± 0.93 (mg/dl , 8.6 ±0.72 (mg/dl  and 122  ± 18.5(mg/dl   for TM ,TI and the controls respectively . Both patient groups had significantly lower Hp level compared to the controls (P<0.0001  with significant lower level in TM compared to TI  children ( P= 0.034  .Significant inverse correlations were  found between serum Hp and sTfR levels in thalassemia children combined and in each group (TM and TI as well as among HCV infected children. STfR   was the only significant independent predictor for  serum Hp level (t= -5.585 , P<0.0001 . Among  HCV infected patients , no significant correlation was found between serum Hp and serum transaminases  .Conclusion:  Serum Hp depletion in thalassemia had significant relation to disease severity and correlated   well with their erythropoietic activity, as assessed by the measurement of  sTfR without significant relation  HCV infection . Large sample  multicenter studies are  recommended.

  19. Early follicular phase hormone levels in relation to patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and coffee use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, J; Harlow, B L; Barbieri, R L; Sluss, P; Cramer, D W

    2001-10-01

    To examine the effects of alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco use on early follicular phase FSH, LH, E2, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Cross-sectional study. Academic medical center. Four hundred ninety-eight women selected from the general population, ages 36-45, who were not currently pregnant, breast feeding, or using exogenous hormones. A general questionnaire assessing demography, anthropometry, and smoking habits and a standardized dietary questionnaire assessing food and beverage frequencies, including sources of alcohol and caffeine. FSH, LH, E2, and SHBG levels measured during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Significant associations observed in a univariate analysis included age > or =40 and current smoking associated with higher FSH; higher body mass index (BMI) associated with lower SHBG levels; and daily alcohol use, cholesterol consumption greater than the median, and coffee use >1 cup/d associated with higher E2 levels. In a multivariate model, total caffeine use was significantly associated with E2 levels after adjustment for age, BMI, total calories, current smoking, alcohol, cholesterol consumption, and day of sampling. Early follicular phase E2 increased from 28.2 pg/mL for women consuming or =500 mg of caffeine per day, about a 70% increase. Coffee consumption and total caffeine use may increase early follicular phase E2 levels independent of related habits of alcohol or tobacco use.

  20. Circulating DNA and its methylation level in inflammatory bowel disease and related colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xuming; Zhu, Yaqun; Pu, Wangyang; Xiao, Li; Li, Kai; Xing, Chungen; Jin, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Both of chronic inflammation and abnormal immune in inflammatory bowel disease can induce colon cancer. Previous research showed that cell apoptosis and necrosis become the main source of circulating DNA in the peripheral blood during tumorigenesis that reduced along with methylation degree. However, its role in the process of colitis transforming to colon cancer is not clarified. Drinking 3% DSS was used to establish colitis model, while 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) combined with azo oxidation methane (AOM) intraperitoneal injection was applied to establish colitis related colon cancer model. Circulating DNA and its methylation level in peripheral blood were tested. Morphology observation, HE staining, and p53 and β-catenin expression detection confirmed that drinking 3% DSS and 3% DSS combined with AOM intraperitoneal injection can successfully establish colitis and colitis associated colorectal cancer models. Circulating DNA level in colitis and colon cancer mice increased by gradient compared with control, while significant difference was observed between each other. Circulating DNA methylation level decreased obviously in colitis and colon cancer, and significant difference was observed between each other. Abnormal protein expression, circulating DNA and its methylation level in ulcerative colitis associated colorectal tissues change in gradient, suggesting that circulating DNA and its methylation level can be treated as new markers for colitis cancer transformation that has certain significance to explore the mechanism of human ulcerative colitis canceration.

  1. Relative Sea Level Trends Along the Coast of the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M.; Calmant, S.; Papa, F.; Delebecque, C.; Islam, A. S.; Shum, C. K.

    2016-12-01

    In the coastal belt of the Bay of Bengal, the sea level rise is one of a major threat, linked to climate change, which drastically affects the livelihoods of millions of people. A comprehensive understanding of sea level trends and its variability in this region is therefore crucial and should help to anticipate the impacts of climate change and implement adaptation strategies. This region is bordered mostly by Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Thailand. Here, we revisit the sea level changes in the Bay of Bengal region from tide gauges and satellite altimetry over the period 1993-2014. The 23 monthly mean tide gauge records, used in this study, are retrieved from PSMSL (15 records) and supplemented with Bangladeshi observations (8 records). We show that, over the satellite altimetry era, the sea level interannual/decadal variability is mainly due to ocean thermal expansion variability driven by IOD/ENSO events and their low frequency modulation. We focus on relative sea level rise at major coastal cities and try to separate the climatic signal (long term trend plus interannual/decadal variability) from local effects, in particular vertical land movements. Results from GPS are analysed where available. When no such data exist, vertical land movements are deduced from the combined use of tide gauge and altimetry data. While the analysis is performed over the whole region, a particular attention is given to the low-lyingBangladesh's coastal area.

  2. False memory and level of processing effect: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, Maria Soledad; Boldini, Angela; Cadavid, Sara

    2012-09-12

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to determine the effects of level of processing on true and false memory, using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In the DRM paradigm, lists of words highly associated to a single nonpresented word (the 'critical lure') are studied and, in a subsequent memory test, critical lures are often falsely remembered. Lists with three critical lures per list were auditorily presented here to participants who studied them with either a shallow (saying whether the word contained the letter 'o') or a deep (creating a mental image of the word) processing task. Visual presentation modality was used on a final recognition test. True recognition of studied words was significantly higher after deep encoding, whereas false recognition of nonpresented critical lures was similar in both experimental groups. At the ERP level, true and false recognition showed similar patterns: no FN400 effect was found, whereas comparable left parietal and late right frontal old/new effects were found for true and false recognition in both experimental conditions. Items studied under shallow encoding conditions elicited more positive ERP than items studied under deep encoding conditions at a 1000-1500 ms interval. These ERP results suggest that true and false recognition share some common underlying processes. Differential effects of level of processing on true and false memory were found only at the behavioral level but not at the ERP level.

  3. Dislocation-related trap levels in nitride-based light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturi, Giulia; Castaldini, Antonio; Cavallini, Anna [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, Bologna 40127 (Italy); Meneghini, Matteo; Zanoni, Enrico [Department of Information Engineering, University of Padova, via Gradenigo 6/B, Padova 35131 (Italy); Zhu, Dandan; Humphreys, Colin [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-26

    Deep level transient spectroscopy was performed on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes (LEDs) in order to determine the effect of the dislocation density on the deep intragap electronic levels. The LEDs were grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on GaN templates with a high dislocation density of 8 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −2} and a low dislocation density of 3 × 10{sup 8} cm{sup −2}. Three trapping levels for electrons were revealed, named A, A1, and B, with energies E{sub A} ≈ 0.04 eV, E{sub A1} ≈ 0.13 eV, and E{sub B} ≈ 0.54 eV, respectively. The trapping level A has a much higher concentration in the LEDs grown on the template with a high density of dislocations. The logarithmic dependence of the peak amplitude on the bias pulse width for traps A and A1 identifies the defects responsible for these traps as associated with linearly arranged defects. We conclude that traps A and A1 are dislocation-related intragap energy levels.

  4. Dislocation-related trap levels in nitride-based light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturi, Giulia; Castaldini, Antonio; Cavallini, Anna; Meneghini, Matteo; Zanoni, Enrico; Zhu, Dandan; Humphreys, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy was performed on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes (LEDs) in order to determine the effect of the dislocation density on the deep intragap electronic levels. The LEDs were grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on GaN templates with a high dislocation density of 8 × 10 9 cm −2 and a low dislocation density of 3 × 10 8 cm −2 . Three trapping levels for electrons were revealed, named A, A1, and B, with energies E A  ≈ 0.04 eV, E A1  ≈ 0.13 eV, and E B  ≈ 0.54 eV, respectively. The trapping level A has a much higher concentration in the LEDs grown on the template with a high density of dislocations. The logarithmic dependence of the peak amplitude on the bias pulse width for traps A and A1 identifies the defects responsible for these traps as associated with linearly arranged defects. We conclude that traps A and A1 are dislocation-related intragap energy levels.

  5. Sex-related differences in the association of ghrelin levels with obesity in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Guillén, Leandro; Ortega, Lorena; Navarro, Pilar; Riestra, Pía; Gavela-Pérez, Teresa; Garcés, Carmen

    2016-08-01

    The utility of ghrelin as a biomarker may be different depending on gender. The aim of this study was to assess ghrelin levels in a population-based sample of adolescents, and to evaluate their association with obesity and obesity-related parameters depending on sex. The studied population included 601 randomly selected 14-to 16-year-old children. Anthropometrical data were measured and body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio calculated. Body composition was assessed using an impedance body composition analyzer. Total serum ghrelin levels were determined using a multiplexed bead immunoassay. Serum leptin and adiponectin levels were determined by ELISA and insulin by RIA. Ghrelin levels were significantly higher in girls than in boys. Serum ghrelin concentrations were significantly lower (pobese than in normal weight (NW) girls, but showed no differences by weight category in boys. Ghrelin showed a significant negative relationship with waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio and fat mass (pgenders, and with weight and BMI (pdifferent association of ghrelin levels with obesity by gender that suggests a different appetite and energy expenditure control depending on sex at this age.

  6. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. III. Water level fluctuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, S.G. (ed.)

    1980-10-01

    Potential environmental impacts in reservoirs and downstream river reaches below dams that may be caused by the water level fluctuation resulting from development and operation of small scale (under 25MW) hydroelectric projects are identified. The impacts discussed will be of potential concern at only those small-scale hydroelectric projects that are operated in a store and release (peaking) mode. Potential impacts on physical and chemical characteristics in reservoirs resulting from water level fluctuation include resuspension and redistribution of bank and bed sediment; leaching of soluble organic matter from sediment in the littoral zone; and changes in water quality resulting from changes in sediment and nutrient trap efficiency. Potential impacts on reservoir biota as a result of water level fluctuation include habitat destruction and the resulting partial or total loss of aquatic species; changes in habitat quality, which result in reduced standing crop and production of aquatic biota; and possible shifts in species diversity. The potential physical effects of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams are streambed and bank erosion and water quality problems related to resuspension and redistribution of these materials. Potential biological impacts of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams result from changes in current velocity, habitat reduction, and alteration in food supply. These alterations, either singly or in combination, can adversely affect aquatic populations below dams. The nature and potential significance of adverse impacts resulting from water level fluctuation are discussed. Recommendations for site-specific evaluation of water level fluctuation at small-scale hydroelectric projects are presented.

  7. Hair mercury levels in relation to fish consumption among Vietnamese in Hanoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Van Anh Thi; Do, Hien Thu Thi; Agusa, Tetsuro; Koriyama, Chihaya; Akiba, Suminori; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Yamamoto, Megumi

    2017-01-01

    People are exposed to methylmercury (MeHg) mainly through fish consumption, which is increasing in Vietnam. However, little information is available on estimating the health risk of MeHg exposure through fish consumption in Vietnam. The present study examined the association between mercury (Hg) levels in hair and selenium (Se) levels in toenails of 196 Vietnamese people and their fish consumption, using a dietary questionnaire to obtain information pertinent for assessing health risk owing to MeHg exposure. The geometric mean of Hg levels in the hair of males and females was 617 ng/g and 575 ng/g, respectively. We found that Hg levels in the hair of 98% of the Vietnamese study subjects were lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake for MeHg (1.6 µg Hg/kg body weight; which is equivalent to a hair Hg concentration of approximately 2,300 ng/g, with an uncertainty factor of 6.4). There were significant differences in the age-adjusted geometric mean of Hg levels found in hair from females related to their frequency of freshwater fish consumption. The levels of Hg in hair and Se in toenails increased with an increased frequency of marine fish consumption, and both showed a significant positive correlation in subjects who consumed marine fish ≥ once/week. This is the first cross-sectional study to investigate the association between hair Hg levels and fish consumption in Vietnam. These findings provide valuable information for future assessments of the health risk of MeHg exposure through fish consumption in Vietnam.

  8. The relation between intra- and interpersonal factors and food consumption level among Iranian adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Kazemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor nutrition habits in adolescent girls endanger their health and are followed by serious systemic diseases in adulthood and negative effects on their reproductive health. To design health promotion programs, understanding of the intra- and interpersonal associated factors with treatment is essential, and this was the aim of this study. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 193 adolescent girls of age 11-15 years. Random cluster selection was used for sample selection. Food group consumption pattern was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Also, perceived susceptibility/severity and nutritional attitude as intrapersonal factors and social support as interpersonal factor were assessed. The relationship between food group consumption level and nutritional attitude and perceived treat (susceptibility/severity as intrapersonal factors and perceived social support as interpersonal factor were assessed by linear multiple regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Results showed that the level of sweetmeat food consumption was related to perceived social support (P = 0.03 and nutritional attitude (P = 0.01 negatively. In addition, an inverse and significant association was found between the level of junk food intake and informational perceived social support (P = 0.004. The association between the level of fast food intake and the perceived parental social support for preparation of healthy food was negatively significant (P = 0.03. Breakfast consumption was related to nutritional attitude (P = 0.03, social support (P = 0.03, and perceived severity (P = 0.045. Conclusions: Results revealed that perceived social support and nutritional attitude are the important and related factors in dietary intake among girls, and promotion of social support and modification of nutritional attitude may lead to healthy nutritional behaviors among them.

  9. The relation between intra- and interpersonal factors and food consumption level among Iranian adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Zahraei, Nafisehsadat Nekuei; Nazarian, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Poor nutrition habits in adolescent girls endanger their health and are followed by serious systemic diseases in adulthood and negative effects on their reproductive health. To design health promotion programs, understanding of the intra- and interpersonal associated factors with treatment is essential, and this was the aim of this study. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 193 adolescent girls of age 11-15 years. Random cluster selection was used for sample selection. Food group consumption pattern was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Also, perceived susceptibility/severity and nutritional attitude as intrapersonal factors and social support as interpersonal factor were assessed. The relationship between food group consumption level and nutritional attitude and perceived treat (susceptibility/severity) as intrapersonal factors and perceived social support as interpersonal factor were assessed by linear multiple regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed that the level of sweetmeat food consumption was related to perceived social support (P = 0.03) and nutritional attitude (P = 0.01) negatively. In addition, an inverse and significant association was found between the level of junk food intake and informational perceived social support (P = 0.004). The association between the level of fast food intake and the perceived parental social support for preparation of healthy food was negatively significant (P = 0.03). Breakfast consumption was related to nutritional attitude (P = 0.03), social support (P = 0.03), and perceived severity (P = 0.045). Results revealed that perceived social support and nutritional attitude are the important and related factors in dietary intake among girls, and promotion of social support and modification of nutritional attitude may lead to healthy nutritional behaviors among them.

  10. Relating ASD symptoms to well-being: moving across different construct levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno, M K; Borsboom, D; Begeer, S; Geurts, H M

    2018-05-01

    Little is known about the specific factors that contribute to the well-being (WB) of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A plausible hypothesis is that ASD symptomatology has a direct negative effect on WB. In the current study, the emerging tools of network analysis allow to explore the functional interdependencies between specific symptoms of ASD and domains of WB in a multivariate framework. We illustrate how studying both higher-order (total score) and lower-order (subscale) representations of ASD symptomatology can clarify the interrelations of factors relevant for domains of WB. We estimated network structures on three different construct levels for ASD symptomatology, as assessed with the Adult Social Behavior Questionnaire (item, subscale, total score), relating them to daily functioning (DF) and subjective WB in 323 adult individuals with clinically identified ASD (aged 17-70 years). For these networks, we assessed the importance of specific factors in the network structure. When focusing on the highest representation level of ASD symptomatology (i.e. a total score), we found a negative connection between ASD symptom severity and domains of WB. However, zooming in on lower representation levels of ASD symptomatology revealed that this connection was mainly funnelled by ASD symptoms related to insistence on sameness and experiencing reduced contact and that those symptom scales, in turn, impact different domains of WB. Zooming in across construct levels of ASD symptom severity into subscales of ASD symptoms can provide us with important insights into how specific domains of ASD symptoms relate to specific domains of DF and WB.

  11. Smoking,serum antioxidant vitamin levels and age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezen Akkaya Çakir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate associations between the grades of age related macular degeneration(AMDand serum levels of antioxidant vitamins(vitamin A, C and Eand smoking. METHODS: Fifty-three AMD patients and 31 individuals having ages matching with the patient group were enrolled the study. Colored fundus photographs of the macula were used to place participants(n=84into one of the five groups(Grade I-Vbased on the frequency and severity of the lesions associated with AMD. Serum antioxidant vitamin levels were measured using High Performance Liquid Chromatography(HPLC. Smoking status was classified as non-smoker, ex-smoker and current smoker. Total number of packs smoked per year, was defined.RESULTS: The distribution of vitamin A, E, and C levels were 0.874±0.326mg/L, 10.739±4.874mg/L, 1.737±0.447mg/L in control group and 0.880±0.305mg/L, 9.487±6.060mg/L, 1.870±2.191mg/L in AMD group, respectively. The difference between AMD and control group was not statistically significant for vitamin A, E and C levels(P>0.05. There were no significant differences between subgroups of AMD for vitamin A(P=0.881and vitamin E(P=0.293but there was a contradicting rise of vitamin C levels(P=0.044with increasing levels of the disease. There were no significant differences between AMD and control group regarding smoking status, but there was a significant difference for total number of packs smoked per year(P=0.02. An increase of number of total packs smoked per year was determined along with the rising grade of AMD(P=0.007. CONCLUSION: We found no relation between AMD and serum levels of vitamin A and E but vitamin C levels was increase with AMD grades unexpectedly. We found dose-response relationship between smoking and AMD.

  12. Estimated Prestroke Peak VO2 Is Related to Circulating IGF-1 Levels During Acute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattlage, Anna E; Rippee, Michael A; Abraham, Michael G; Sandt, Janice; Billinger, Sandra A

    2017-01-01

    Background Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is neuroprotective after stroke and is regulated by insulin-like binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). In healthy individuals, exercise and improved aerobic fitness (peak oxygen uptake; peak VO 2 ) increases IGF-1 in circulation. Understanding the relationship between estimated prestroke aerobic fitness and IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 after stroke may provide insight into the benefits of exercise and aerobic fitness on stroke recovery. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 to estimated prestroke peak VO 2 in individuals with acute stroke. We hypothesized that (1) estimated prestroke peak VO 2 would be related to IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and (2) individuals with higher than median IGF-1 levels will have higher estimated prestroke peak VO 2 compared to those with lower than median levels. Methods Fifteen individuals with acute stroke had blood sampled within 72 hours of hospital admission. Prestroke peak VO 2 was estimated using a nonexercise prediction equation. IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were quantified using enzyme-linked immunoassay. Results Estimated prestroke peak VO 2 was significantly related to circulating IGF-1 levels (r = .60; P = .02) but not IGFBP-3. Individuals with higher than median IGF-1 (117.9 ng/mL) had significantly better estimated aerobic fitness (32.4 ± 6.9 mL kg -1 min -1 ) than those with lower than median IGF-1 (20.7 ± 7.8 mL kg -1 min -1 ; P = .03). Conclusions Improving aerobic fitness prior to stroke may be beneficial by increasing baseline IGF-1 levels. These results set the groundwork for future clinical trials to determine whether high IGF-1 and aerobic fitness are beneficial to stroke recovery by providing neuroprotection and improving function. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Investigation of HOXA9 promoter methylation as a biomarker to distinguish oral cancer patients at low risk of neck metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Kenichiro; Veeramachaneni, Ratna; Huey, Bing; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Schmidt, Brian L; Albertson, Donna G

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis to the cervical (neck) lymph nodes is one of the most significant clinical factors responsible for death from oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Therefore, the lymph nodes are frequently removed when the tumor is excised (neck dissection), even though the majority of patients will not benefit from the extra surgery. Two subtypes of oral SCC distinguished by the presence of tumor genomic aberrations +3q, -8p, +8q and/or +20 differ in risk for metastasis – high for the 3q8pq20 subtype, harboring one or more of the aberrations and low for the non-3q8pq20 subtype, lacking these alterations. A prior analysis of the literature suggested genes differentially methylated in the two subtypes. Therefore, the goal of this study was to further investigate the methylation status of candidate biomarkers of the non-3q8pq20 subtype, and evaluate their utility for identifying patients at low risk for metastasis. Methylation status of genes in a cohort of 52 oral SCC patients with at least five year follow up was determined by pyrosequencing. Gene expression levels were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Growth following re-expression of HOXA9 in cultured oral SCC cells was assessed by proliferation and colony formation assays. A pilot study evaluating methylation levels of HOXA9, MT1A and HOXA11 promoters in DNA from 12 tumors (six each of the 3q8pq20 and non-3q8pq20 subtypes) revealed that only HOXA9 was differentially methylated. Significant differences in methylation levels of HOXA9 were observed amongst the 52 oral SCCs with respect to genomic subtype and nodal status (p = 0.014, and p = 0.024, respectively, Wilcoxon rank sum test). High levels of HOXA9 methylation and low levels of expression in oral SCC cell lines were observed compared to HaCaT, a non-tumorigenic keratinocyte cell line. Re-expression of HOXA9 in the SCC4 oral cancer cell line resulted in diminished proliferation and colony formation. HOXA9 methylation is frequent in oral cancers and levels are

  14. Body mass index was associated with upstaging and upgrading in patients with low-risk prostate cancer who met the inclusion criteria for active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cobelli, Ottavio; Terracciano, Daniela; Tagliabue, Elena; Raimondi, Sara; Galasso, Giacomo; Cioffi, Antonio; Cordima, Giovanni; Musi, Gennaro; Damiano, Rocco; Cantiello, Francesco; Detti, Serena; Victor Matei, Deliu; Bottero, Danilo; Renne, Giuseppe; Ferro, Matteo

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer (PCa). The effect of body mass index (BMI) as a predictor of progression in men with low-risk PCa has been only poorly assessed. In this study, we evaluated the association of BMI with progression in patients with low-risk PCa who met the inclusion criteria for the active surveillance (AS) protocol. We assessed 311 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy and were eligible for AS according to the following criteria: clinical stage T2a or less, prostate-specific antigen level pT2) and upgraded (Gleason score ≥ 7; primary Gleason pattern 4) disease. Seminal vesicle invasion, positive lymph nodes, and tumor volume ≥ 0.5 ml were also recorded. We found that high BMI was significantly associated with upgrading, upstaging, and seminal vesicle invasion, whereas it was not associated with positive lymph nodes or large tumor volume. At multivariate analysis, 1 unit increase of BMI significantly increased the risk of upgrading, upstaging, seminal vesicle invasion, and any outcome by 21%, 23%, 27%, and 20%, respectively. The differences between areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves comparing models with and without BMI were statistically significant for upgrading (P = 0.0002), upstaging (P = 0.0007), and any outcome (P = 0.0001). BMI should be a selection criterion for inclusion of patients with low-risk PCa in AS programs. Our results support the idea that obesity is associated with worse prognosis and suggest that a close AS program is an appropriate treatment option for obese subjects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Relations between the school physical environment and school social capital with student physical activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Brenton; Trites, Stephen; Janssen, Ian

    2013-12-17

    The physical and social environments at schools are related to students' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels. The purpose of this study was to explore the interactive effects of the school physical environment and school social capital on the MVPA of students while at school. Data from 18,875 grade 6-10 students from 331 schools who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey were analyzed using multi-level regression. Students answered questions on the amount of time they spend in MVPA at school and on their school's social capital. Administrator reports were used to create a physical activity related physical environment score. The school physical environment score was positively associated with student MVPA at school (β = 0.040, p < .005). The association between the school social capital and MVPA was also positive (β = 0.074, p < .001). The difference in physical environments equated to about 20 minutes/week of MVPA for students attending schools with the lowest number of physical environment features and about 40 minutes/week for students attending schools with the lowest school social capital scores by comparison to students attending schools with the highest scores. The findings suggest that school social capital may be a more important factor in increasing students MVPA than the school physical environment. The results of this study may help inform interventions aimed at increasing student physical activity levels.

  16. The Association between the Lipids Levels in Blood and Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipid metabolism may be involved in the pathogenic mechanism of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. However, conflicting results have been reported in the associations of AMD with blood lipids. We performed a meta-analysis including a total of 19 studies to evaluate associations between blood lipids and this disease. The result reported that the high level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C obtained with an increment of 1 mmol/L could result in a significantly increase in the AMD risk of approximately 18% (relative risk (RR, 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.01 to 1.35; I2 = 53.8%; p = 0.007. High levels of total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglycerides (TG were significantly associated with a decreased risk of AMD (RRs ranging from 0.92 to 0.95; all p < 0.05. The stratified analysis based on AMD subtypes showed that these blood lipids were only significantly associated with the risk of early AMD (all p < 0.05. The association between the blood lipids and AMD risk did not differ substantially based on the other characteristics of the participants. A high HDL-C level was associated with an increased AMD risk, whereas participants with high TC, LDL-C, and TG concentrations may show a decreased risk for this disease. Further well-designed large studies are warranted to confirm the conclusions.

  17. The global coastline dataset: the observed relation between erosion and sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchyts, G.; Baart, F.; Luijendijk, A.; Hagenaars, G.

    2017-12-01

    Erosion of sandy coasts is considered one of the key risks of sea-level rise. Because sandy coastlines of the world are often highly populated, erosive coastline trends result in risk to populations and infrastructure. Most of our understanding of the relation between sea-level rise and coastal erosion is based on local or regional observations and generalizations of numerical and physical experiments. Until recently there was no reliable global scale assessment of the location of sandy coasts and their rate of erosion and accretion. Here we present the global coastline dataset that covers erosion indicators on a local scale with global coverage. The dataset uses our global coastline transects grid defined with an alongshore spacing of 250 m and a cross shore length extending 1 km seaward and 1 km landward. This grid matches up with pre-existing local grids where available. We present the latest results on validation of coastal-erosion trends (based on optical satellites) and classification of sandy versus non-sandy coasts. We show the relation between sea-level rise (based both on tide-gauges and multi-mission satellite altimetry) and observed erosion trends over the last decades, taking into account broken-coastline trends (for example due to nourishments).An interactive web application presents the publicly-accessible results using a backend based on Google Earth Engine. It allows both researchers and stakeholders to use objective estimates of coastline trends, particularly when authoritative sources are not available.

  18. Survey of Anxiety Levels and Its Relation to Students Demographic of Alborz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Norouzinia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, changing lifestyles, social relations and the advancement of technology causes fear, threats and concerns of different groups in society, especially students. Adverse impact of Anxiety on the efficacy and talents, personality and social identity formation of students, threat to achieve the goals of academic achievement and mental health. The present study was conducted to determine level of anxiety and some of their demographic correlates in the Alborz University of Medical Sciences in 1390. Methods: This study is a descriptive cross sectional study. The study population included all students of the Alborz university. 305 students were selected by stratified random sampling method. The data collection instrument was a demographic questionnaire and standardized Spielberger Anxiety Inventory. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Results: Based on our results, 64 percent of students were anxious. Anxiety levels were significantly higher in men than women (p=0.049. The level of anxiety and interesting in medical course (p<0.001, non-academic study (p=0.007 and a major physical illness (p=0.009 had significant correlations with together. Conclusion: Results showed a high percentage of students anxious. Regarding the relation between anxiety and other problems such as depression and other disorders including failure in educational function, social relationships and lifestyle, Training courses on coping skills for anxiety and stress as well as consulting services and further guidance is recommended for them.

  19. Prostate MRI findings in patients treated for testosterone deficiency while on active surveillance for low-risk prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Rahul, Krishnan; Takeda, Toshikazu; Benfante, Nicole; Mulhall, John P.; Hricak, Hedvig; Eastham, James A.; Vargas, Hebert Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) findings in patients treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) while on active surveillance (AS) for low-risk prostate cancer. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 12 patients who underwent mpMRI before and after TRT while on AS. Changes in serum testosterone level, prostate specific antigen (PSA), prostate biopsy findings, prostate volume and Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 2 (PI-RADSv2) score before and after TRT were summarized. Results Following TRT, there was a significant increase in serum testosterone (516.5 ng/dl vs. 203.0 ng/dl), PSA (4.2 ng/ml vs. 3.3 ng/ml) and prostate volume (55.2 cm3 vs. 39.4 cm3). Two patients had biopsy progression during the study periods. The PI-RADSv2 scores before and after TRT were unchanged in 10/12 patients; none of these demonstrated biopsy progression on post TRT. The PI-RADSv2 scores increased after TRT in 2/12 patients; both showed Gleason score upgrade on follow-up biopsy. One of these two patients underwent radical treatment due to clinical progression. The area under the curve calculated from PI-RADSv2 score after TRT was 0.90, which was better than that calculated from post TRT PSA level (0.48). Conclusions After TRT, mpMRI findings remained stable in patients without biopsy progression, while PI-RADSv2 score increase was identified in patients with Gleason score upgrade on follow-up biopsy. PMID:27665357

  20. Serum Antioxidative Enzymes Levels and Oxidative Stress Products in Age-Related Cataract Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the activity of antioxidative enzymes and the products of oxidative stress in patients with age-related cataracts and compare the findings with those in healthy control subjects. Method. Sixty patients with age-related cataract and sixty healthy controls of matched age and gender were included in this study. Serum samples were obtained to detect the antioxidative enzymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and oxidation degradation products of malondialdehyde (MDA, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, conjugated diene (CD, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, protein carbonyl (PC, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG. Results. Serum SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT activities in cataract group were significantly decreased as compared to the control subjects (P<0.05. The levels of MDA, 4-HNE, and CD in cataract patients were significantly higher than those in the control subjects (P<0.05, P<0.01. Cataract patients had higher levels of 8-OHdG, AOPP, and PC with respect to the comparative group of normal subjects (P<0.01. And there was no statistical significance in concentration of antioxidative enzymes and oxidative stress products in patients with different subtype cataract. Conclusions. Oxidative stress is an important risk factor in the development of age-related cataract, and augmentation of the antioxidant defence systems may be of benefit to prevent or delay cataractogenesis.

  1. Oviductal morphology in relation to hormonal levels in the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkindi, A Y A; Mahmoud, I Y; Woller, M J; Plude, J L

    2006-02-01

    Microscopic and in situ visual observations were used to relate circulating hormone levels to morphological changes in the oviduct of the snapping turtle Chelydra serpentina throughout the ovarian cycle. Increase in levels of progesterone (P), estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) levels coincide with an increase in number and growth of endometrial glands, luminal epithelial cells and secretory droplets throughout the oviduct. Testosterone and estradiol levels rose significantly (P < 0.05) after the May-June period and remained high throughout the rest of the summer. Progesterone levels remained stable throughout the summer, with a brief decline in July due to luteolysis. Hormonal values declined significantly (P < 0.001) at the end of the ovarian cycle in the fall. In situ visual observation of fresh oviducts at different stages of gravidity in recently ovulated turtles revealed that proteinaceous like components from the endometrial glands were released into the lumen to form fibers. The morphological features of the oviduct remained active throughout the summer months even though the snapping turtle is a monoclutch species which deposits all the eggs in late-May to mid-June. The high steroid levels correlate with and may be responsible for the secretory activity present throughout the summer and their decline correlates with change to low secretory activity in the fall. Calcium deposition accompanied by morphological changes in luminal cells are suggestive of secretory activity. In the egg-bearing turtles, uterine Ca2+ concentrations measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry revealed significantly higher Ca2+ concentrations (P < 0.001) in eggs with soft shell than eggs without shell. There was a significant increase in calcium granules and proteinaceous fibers in luminal surface of the uterus during the period of eggshelling. This supports the fact that in the snapping turtle like in other reptiles, eggshelling process occurs in the uterus.

  2. Meeting Recommended Levels of Physical Activity and Health-Related Quality of Life in Rural Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Peter D

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among rural adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between meeting recommended levels of PA and HRQOL in a rural adult population. This study analyzed data from 6,103 rural adults 18 years of age and older participating in a 2013 survey. Respondents reporting at least 150 minutes a week of moderate-intensity (or moderate-vigorous combination) PA during the past month were categorized as meeting PA guidelines. Five health variables were used to assess HRQOL. A continuous HRQOL ability score was also created using item response theory (IRT). Rural adults who met recommended levels of PA were significantly more likely to report good HRQOL in adjusted models of physical health (OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.54-2.56), mental health (OR: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.46-2.64), inactivity health (OR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.54-2.97), general health (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.35-2.13), and healthy days (OR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.58-2.47), compared to those who did not meet recommended levels. Furthermore, rural adults meeting recommended levels of PA also had a significantly greater HRQOL ability score (51.7 ± 0.23, Mean ± SE), compared to those not meeting recommended levels (48.4 ± 0.33, p meeting recommended levels of PA increases the likelihood of reporting good HRQOL in rural adults. These results should be used to promote the current PA guidelines for improved HRQOL in rural populations.

  3. Increased serum ferritin levels are independently related to incidence of prediabetes in adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, G; Yang, H; Bao, X; Zhang, Q; Liu, L; Wu, H; Du, H; Xia, Y; Shi, H; Guo, X; Liu, X; Li, C; Su, Q; Gu, Y; Fang, L; Yu, F; Sun, S; Wang, X; Zhou, M; Jia, Q; Guo, Q; Song, K; Huang, G; Wang, G; Wu, Y; Niu, K

    2017-04-01

    To comprehensively and exhaustively assess the relationship between serum ferritin levels and incidence of prediabetes in a prospective study. This prospective cohort study (n=7380) with a mean follow-up of 3.07 years (range: 1-7, 95% CI: 3.03-3.12) was conducted in Tianjin, China. Blood fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, serum ferritin levels and other potentially confounding factors were measured at baseline and at each year of follow-up. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the gender-specific relationship between baseline and mean serum ferritin quintiles and prediabetes. The incidence of prediabetes was 85 per 1000 person-years among men and 44 per 1000 person-years among women during follow-up (from 2007 to 2014). After adjusting for potential confounders, hazard ratios (95% CI) for prediabetes across baseline ferritin quintiles were: for men, 1.00, 1.13 (0.90-1.40), 1.20 (0.97-1.48), 1.41 (1.14-1.73) and 1.73 (1.41-2.11); and for women, 1.00, 1.01 (0.74-1.38), 0.68 (0.48-0.96), 0.84 (0.61-1.15) and 1.07 (0.80-1.45), respectively. Similar results were also observed for mean ferritin levels. Both baseline and mean serum ferritin levels were significantly and linearly related to prediabetes in men, whereas U-shaped relationships were observed between baseline and mean serum ferritin and prediabetes in women. The relationship between prediabetes risk and mean serum ferritin levels may be more stable than one with baseline serum ferritin levels. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. [Th17 and Treg cell levels in patients with sarcoidosis and their relation to disease activation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yue-song; Wang, Hua-ying; Lv, Ding-feng; Fu, Zhong-ming; Yu, Wan-jun

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the Th17 cell and Treg cell levels in patients with sarcoidosis, and their relation to disease activation and glucocorticoids treatment. Twenty-three sarcoidosis patients admitted in Yinzhou People's Hospital from January 2009 to December 2013 and 25 healthy subjects (controls) were included in this study. The blood samples and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were collected in all patients before and after glucocorticoids treatment. The serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) levels were detected. The percentages of Th17 cells and Treg cells in peripheral blood and BALF were determined by flow cytometry, the concentrations of cytokines in serum and supernatants of BALF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The levels of ROR-γt and Foxp3 mRNA transcripts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were determined by real-time quantitative PCR. The potential correlation between the percentages of Th17 or Treg cells and SACE levels was evaluated. Compared with healthy controls, significantly higher frequencies of Th17 cells (4.34%±0.89% vs 1.60% ± 0.42%), lower frequencies of Treg cells (1.28% ± 0.37% vs 3.39% ± 0.50%) in peripheral blood were observed. Higher level of ROR-γt mRNA (21.31 ± 3.55 vs 3.63 ± 1.00) and lower level of Foxp3 mRNA (1.60 ± 0.24 vs 3.12 ± 0.76) in peripheral blood were detected in sarcoidosis patients in active stage (before glucocorticoids treatment) (all PSACE (r= 0.781). The imbalance of Th17 cells and Treg cells in peripheral blood and airway may be involved in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis, which was associated with the activity of disease, and the treatment of glucocorticoids may achieve a therapeutic effect by correcting the immune imbalance.

  5. Ethical challenges related to elder care. High level decision-makers' experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihlgren Mona

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few empirical studies have been found that explore ethical challenges among persons in high public positions that are responsible for elder care. The aim of this paper was to illuminate the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care as experienced by high level decision-makers. Methods A phenomenological-hermeneutic method was used to analyse the eighteen interviews conducted with political and civil servant high level decision-makers at the municipality and county council level from two counties in Sweden. The participants worked at a planning and control as well as executive level and had both budget and quality of elder care responsibilities. Results Both ethical dilemmas and the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care were revealed. No differences were seen between the politicians and the civil servants. The ethical dilemmas mostly concerned dealings with extensive care needs and working with a limited budget. The dilemmas were associated with a lack of good care and a lack of agreement concerning care such as vulnerable patients in inappropriate care settings, weaknesses in medical support, dissimilar focuses between the caring systems, justness in the distribution of care and deficient information. Being in ethically difficult situations was challenging. Associated with them were experiences of being exposed, having to be strategic and living with feelings such as aloneness and loneliness, uncertainty, lack of confirmation, the risk of being threatened or becoming a scapegoat and difficult decision avoidance. Conclusion Our paper provides further insight into the ethical dilemmas and ethical challenges met by high level decision-makers', which is important since the overall responsibility for elder care that is also ethically defensible rests with them. They have power and their decisions affect many stakeholders in elder care. Our results can be used to

  6. Ethical challenges related to elder care. High level decision-makers' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamhidir, Anna-Greta; Kihlgren, Mona; Sorlie, Venke

    2007-04-10

    Few empirical studies have been found that explore ethical challenges among persons in high public positions that are responsible for elder care. The aim of this paper was to illuminate the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care as experienced by high level decision-makers. A phenomenological-hermeneutic method was used to analyse the eighteen interviews conducted with political and civil servant high level decision-makers at the municipality and county council level from two counties in Sweden. The participants worked at a planning and control as well as executive level and had both budget and quality of elder care responsibilities. Both ethical dilemmas and the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care were revealed. No differences were seen between the politicians and the civil servants. The ethical dilemmas mostly concerned dealings with extensive care needs and working with a limited budget. The dilemmas were associated with a lack of good care and a lack of agreement concerning care such as vulnerable patients in inappropriate care settings, weaknesses in medical support, dissimilar focuses between the caring systems, justness in the distribution of care and deficient information. Being in ethically difficult situations was challenging. Associated with them were experiences of being exposed, having to be strategic and living with feelings such as aloneness and loneliness, uncertainty, lack of confirmation, the risk of being threatened or becoming a scapegoat and difficult decision avoidance. Our paper provides further insight into the ethical dilemmas and ethical challenges met by high level decision-makers', which is important since the overall responsibility for elder care that is also ethically defensible rests with them. They have power and their decisions affect many stakeholders in elder care. Our results can be used to stimulate discussions between high level decision-makers and health

  7. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation Between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennie, Elizabeth; Bonneau, Kara; Vandellen, Michelle; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to improve student achievement should increase graduation rates. However, work investigating the effects of student-level accountability has consistently demonstrated that increases in the standards for high school graduation are correlated with increases in dropout rates. The most favored explanation for this finding is that high-stakes testing policies that mandate grade repetition and high school exit exams may be the tipping point for students who are already struggling academically. These extra demands may, in fact, push students out of school. This article examines two hypotheses regarding the relation between school-level accountability and dropout rates. The first posits that improvements in school performance lead to improved success for everyone. If school-level accountability systems improve a school for all students, then the proportion of students performing at grade level increases, and the dropout rate decreases. The second hypothesis posits that schools facing pressure to improve their overall accountability score may pursue this increase at the cost of other student outcomes, including dropout rate. Our approach focuses on the dynamic relation between school-level academic achievement and dropout rates over time-that is, between one year's achievement and the subsequent year's dropout rate, and vice versa. This article employs longitudinal data of records on all students in North Carolina public schools over an 8-year period. Analyses employ fixed-effects models clustering schools and districts within years and controls each year for school size, percentage of students who were free/reduced-price lunch eligible, percentage of students who are ethnic minorities, and locale. This study finds partial evidence that improvements in school-level academic performance will lead to improvements (i.e., decreases) in school-level dropout rates. Schools with improved performance saw decreased dropout rates following these successes. However, we find

  8. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation Between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    GLENNIE, ELIZABETH; BONNEAU, KARA; VANDELLEN, MICHELLE; DODGE, KENNETH A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context Efforts to improve student achievement should increase graduation rates. However, work investigating the effects of student-level accountability has consistently demonstrated that increases in the standards for high school graduation are correlated with increases in dropout rates. The most favored explanation for this finding is that high-stakes testing policies that mandate grade repetition and high school exit exams may be the tipping point for students who are already struggling academically. These extra demands may, in fact, push students out of school. Purpose/Objective/Focus This article examines two hypotheses regarding the relation between school-level accountability and dropout rates. The first posits that improvements in school performance lead to improved success for everyone. If school-level accountability systems improve a school for all students, then the proportion of students performing at grade level increases, and the dropout rate decreases. The second hypothesis posits that schools facing pressure to improve their overall accountability score may pursue this increase at the cost of other student outcomes, including dropout rate. Research Design Our approach focuses on the dynamic relation between school-level academic achievement and dropout rates over time—that is, between one year’s achievement and the subsequent year’s dropout rate, and vice versa. This article employs longitudinal data of records on all students in North Carolina public schools over an 8-year period. Analyses employ fixed-effects models clustering schools and districts within years and controls each year for school size, percentage of students who were free/reduced-price lunch eligible, percentage of students who are ethnic minorities, and locale. Findings/Results This study finds partial evidence that improvements in school-level academic performance will lead to improvements (i.e., decreases) in school-level dropout rates. Schools with improved

  9. The Relative Age Effect on Soccer Players in Formative Stages with Different Sport Expertise Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Práxedes, Alba; Moreno, Alberto; García-González, Luis; Pizarro, David; Del Villar, Fernando

    2017-12-01

    The Relative Age Effect (RAE) in sport has been targeted by many research studies. The objective of this study was to analyze, in amateur clubs, the RAE of soccer players, according to the sport expertise level of the team (e.g., A, B, C and subsequent) that they belong to within the same game category. 1,098 soccer players in formative stages took part in the study, with ages varying between 6 and 18 years old (U8 to U19 categories). All of them were members of 4 Spanish federated clubs. The birth dates were classified into 4 quartiles (Q1 = Jan-Mar; Q2 = Apr-Jun; Q3 = Jul-Sept; Q4 = Oct-Dec)according to the team they belonged to. The results obtained in the chi-squared test and d value (effect size) revealed the existence of RAE in the teams with the highest expertise level, "A" (X2 = 15.342, p = .002, d = 0.4473) and "B" (X2 = 10.905, p = .012, d = 0.3657). However, in the lower level teams, "C and subsequent", this effect was not observed. Present findings show that players born during the first months of the year tend to be selected to play in teams with a higher sport expertise level of each category, due to their physical maturity. Consequently, this causes differences in terms of the experience they accumulate and the motivation that this creates in these players.

  10. The effect of a therapeutic lithium level on a stroke-related cerebellar tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orleans, Rachel A; Dubin, Marc J; Kast, Kristopher A

    2018-01-24

    Lithium is a mood stabiliser used in the treatment of acute mania, bipolar disorder and as augmentation for unipolar major depression. Tremor is a common adverse effect associated with lithium at both therapeutic and toxic serum levels. We present a case of dose-dependent changes in the quality and intensity of a stroke-related, chronic cerebellar tremor with lithium treatment at serum levels within the therapeutic range. On admission, the patient in this case had a baseline fine, postural tremor, which increased in frequency and evolved to include myoclonic jerks once lithium therapy was initiated. Although the patient's serum lithium level was never in the toxic range, his tremor returned to baseline on reduction of his serum lithium level. This case highlights that a pre-existing, baseline tremor may lower the threshold for developing myoclonus. It also suggests that caution may be warranted with lithium therapy in the setting of known cerebellar disease. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Superoxide Dismutase1 Levels in North Indian Population with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Anand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study was to estimate the levels of superoxide dismutase1 (SOD1 in patients of age-related macular degeneration (AMD and examine the role of oxidative stress, smoking, hypertension, and other factors involved in the pathogenesis of AMD. Methods. 115 AMD patients and 61 healthy controls were recruited for this study. Serum SOD1 levels were determined by ELISA and were correlated to various risk factors. Logistic regression model of authenticity, by considering SOD1 as independent variable, has been developed along with ROC curve. Results. The SOD1 levels were significantly higher in AMD patients as compared to those of the controls. The difference was not significant for wet and dry AMD. However, the difference was significant between wet AMD subtypes. Nonsignificance of the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit statistic (χ2=10.516, df=8, P=0.231 indicates the appropriateness of logistic regression model to predict AMD. Conclusion. Oxidative stress in AMD patients may mount compensatory response resulting in increased levels of SOD1 in AMD patients. To predict the risk of AMD on the basis of SOD1, a logistic regression model shows authenticity of 78%, and area under the ROC curve (0.827, P=.0001 with less standard error of 0.033 coupled with 95% confidence interval of 0.762–0.891 further validates the model.

  12. The relation between serum vitamin D levels and clinical findings of fibromyalgia syndrome

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    Nurcan Kılıç Baygutalp

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:This study was performed to identify serum 25-OH vitamin D levels and to investigate the relationship between 25-OH vitamin D and clinical findings on patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS. Methods:Nineteen premenopausal women with FMS who were diagnosed according to ACR 1990 fibromyalgia diagnostic criteria and 24 premenopausal healthy women as control group were included in the study. Serum 25-OH vitamin D levels were determined in both patient and control groups. Widespread body pain, headache, fatigue, morning stiffness, sleep disorder, the number of tender points, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ scores and Beck depression scores were evaluated as clinical findings in patients with FMS. Results:Serum 25-OH vitamin D levels were significantly lower in patients with FMS than those in control group (p=0.01. There were significantly negative correlations between 25-OH vitamin D levels and widespread body pain (r=-0.731, Beck depression scores (r=-0.777, headache (r=-0.629, and sleep disorder (r=-0.767 in the FMS group (p<0.01. Conclusion: It was concluded that 25-OH vitamin D deficiency may be related to the clinical findings such as widespread body pain, depression, headache and sleep disorder in patients with FMS.

  13. Human resource in tourism and hospitality industry: Relation between level of education and job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a concise summary of current problems including the impact of education on (dissatisfaction of human resources in tourism and hospitality industry. In recent years, many researches have been focused on the phenomena of the relation between level of education and job satisfaction of the employees in tourism organizations as it is well known that employee satisfaction enhance competitiveness and efficiency in business. A current issue was set as the fundamental goal in designing this paper, and the basic parameter of the research is employee satisfaction with business operations and working conditions, or to be more precise, examining the extent of (dissatisfaction with the given segments depending on the employees' educational level. This paper represents a synthesis of the electronic research, the analysis of available references, as well as the use of descriptive, analytical and synthetic methods, and it will result in a critical analysis and confirmation (denial of certain hypotheses.

  14. Absence of survival benefit of radioactive iodine (RAI) after thyroidectomy in low risk differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, C.; Fieffe, S.; Pochart, J.M.; Bonnetain, F.; Gauthier, M.; Cueff, A.; Crevisy, E.; Dygai-Cochet, I.; Toubeau, M.

    2012-01-01

    After thyroidectomy, the goal of the first dose of radioactive iodine (RAI) is remnant ablation to facilitate the initial staging with the post-therapy scan and to facilitate the early detection of recurrences. The purpose of this study is to the survival benefit of RAI in low-risk thyroid cancer patients. Using Cancer thyroid registry of Marne Ardennes (1041 patients) and hospital data base of centre Leclerc (257 patients), we included all differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients at low risk from 1975 to 2005. Median follow-up was 10.3 years, during which 19 recurrences, 61 other malignant diseases and 105 deaths were registered. 387 patients (30%) received no RAI and 911 had RAI (70%). If we confirmed that some clinical characteristics were associated with RAI intake, the study failed to demonstrate any survival benefit of RAI in low risk DTC patients

  15. Absence of survival benefit of radioactive iodine (RAI) after thyroidectomy in low risk differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, C.; Fieffe, S.; Pochart, J.M. [Endocrinology Nuclear Medicine, Institut Jean Godinot, Reims (France); Bonnetain, F.; Gauthier, M.; Cueff, A. [Statistics and Epidemiology, Centre Georges Francois Leclerc, Dijon (France); Crevisy, E.; Dygai-Cochet, I.; Toubeau, M. [Nuclear Medicine, Centre Georges Francois Leclerc, Dijon (France)

    2012-07-01

    After thyroidectomy, the goal of the first dose of radioactive iodine (RAI) is remnant ablation to facilitate the initial staging with the post-therapy scan and to facilitate the early detection of recurrences. The purpose of this study is to the survival benefit of RAI in low-risk thyroid cancer patients. Using Cancer thyroid registry of Marne Ardennes (1041 patients) and hospital data base of centre Leclerc (257 patients), we included all differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients at low risk from 1975 to 2005. Median follow-up was 10.3 years, during which 19 recurrences, 61 other malignant diseases and 105 deaths were registered. 387 patients (30%) received no RAI and 911 had RAI (70%). If we confirmed that some clinical characteristics were associated with RAI intake, the study failed to demonstrate any survival benefit of RAI in low risk DTC patients

  16. Outpatient thyroid remnant ablation using repeated low 131-iodine activities (740 MBq/20 mCix2) in patients with low-risk differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Jérôme; Bienvenu-Perrard, Marie; de Malleray, Caroline Pichard; Dagousset, Françoise; Delbot, Thierry; Dreyfuss, Marc; Groussin, Lionel; Marlowe, Robert J; Leger, Françoise Aubène; Chevalier, Alain

    2012-03-01

    In low-risk differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), postoperative (131)I remnant ablation should employ a minimum effective activity; reports increasingly suggest efficacy of low activities, e.g. 1110 MBq/30 mCi. OBJECTIVES, DESIGN, PATIENTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: We retrospectively studied the ablation capability and diagnostic utility of the Minidose protocol, two 740-MBq/20 mCi outpatient administrations, 6-18 months apart, plus related diagnostic procedures, in 160 consecutive (near-) totally thyroidectomized low-risk DTC (pT1/N0-Nx) patients. Successful ablation comprised negative 740-MBq whole-body scintigraphy with cervical uptake below 0.1%, negative stimulated thyroglobulin (STg) (<1 ng/ml, negative thyroglobulin antibodies), and negative Doppler ultrasonography (performed around Minidose 2). The study took place at a referral center. Minidose imaging found unsuspected nodal or distant metastases in nine of 160 patients (5.6%). Ablation success rates after one (two) 740-MBq activity (activites) were 75.9% (90.2%) in 145 (132) evaluable imaging-negative patients. Compared with thyroid hormone withdrawal, recombinant human TSH stimulation was associated with higher urinary iodine excretion/creatinine, lower cervical uptake, and more frequent ablation success after the first 740 MBq; success rates no longer differed significantly after both administrations. Patients with STg below 10 ng/ml at Minidose 1 were oftener ablated at Minidose 2 (odds ratio=13.9, 95% confidence interval=2.5-76.4, P<0.003), attaining 92.0% final ablation success after recombinant human TSH preparation, suggesting that one 740-MBq activity should suffice in this subgroup. All 81 evaluable patients with prolonged follow-up (mean 41.8±21.9 months after Minidose 1) had no evidence of disease at the last visit. The Minidose outpatient ablation protocol is effective and diagnostically useful in low-risk DTC.

  17. Predictive value of general movements' quality in low-risk infants for minor neurological dysfunction and behavioural problems at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennema, Anne N; Schendelaar, Pamela; Seggers, Jorien; Haadsma, Maaike L; Heineman, Maas Jan; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2016-03-01

    General movement (GM) assessment is a well-established tool to predict cerebral palsy in high-risk infants. Little is known on the predictive value of GM assessment in low-risk populations. To assess the predictive value of GM quality in early infancy for the development of the clinically relevant form of minor neurological dysfunction (complex MND) and behavioral problems at preschool age. Prospective cohort study. A total of 216 members of the prospective Groningen Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) cohort study were included in this study. ART did not affect neurodevelopmental outcome of these relatively low-risk infants born to subfertile parents. GM quality was determined at 2 weeks and 3 months. At 18 months and 4 years, the Hempel neurological examination was used to assess MND. At 4 years, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist; this resulted in the total problem score (TPS), internalizing problem score (IPS), and externalizing problem score (EPS). Predictive values of definitely (DA) and mildly (MA) abnormal GMs were calculated. DA GMs at 2 weeks were associated with complex MND at 18 months and atypical TPS and IPS at 4 years (all ppredictive value of DA GMs at 2 weeks were rather low (13%-60%); specificity and negative predictive value were excellent (92%-99%). DA GMs at 3 months occurred too infrequently to calculate prediction. MA GMs were not associated with outcome. GM quality as a single predictor for complex MND and behavioral problems at preschool age has limited clinical value in children at low risk for developmental disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of elevated endogenous GABA levels on movement-related network oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumaraswamy, S D; Myers, J F M; Wilson, S J; Nutt, D J; Lingford-Hughes, A; Singh, K D; Hamandi, K

    2013-02-01

    The EEG/MEG signal is generated primarily by the summation of the post-synaptic potentials of cortical principal cells. At a microcircuit level, these glutamatergic principal cells are reciprocally connected to GABAergic interneurons and cortical oscillations are thought to be dependent on the balance of excitation and inhibition between these cell types. To investigate the dependence of movement-related cortical oscillations on excitation-inhibition balance, we pharmacologically manipulated the GABA system using tiagabine, which blocks GABA Transporter 1(GAT-1), the GABA uptake transporter and increases endogenous GABA activity. In a blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design, in 15 healthy participants we administered either 15mg of tiagabine or a placebo. We recorded whole-head magnetoencephalograms, while the participants performed a movement task, prior to, one hour post, three hour post and five hour post tiagabine ingestion. Using time-frequency analysis of beamformer source reconstructions, we quantified the baseline level of beta activity (15-30Hz), the post-movement beta rebound (PMBR), beta event-related desynchronisation (beta-ERD) and movement-related gamma synchronisation (MRGS) (60-90Hz). Our results demonstrated that tiagabine, and hence elevated endogenous GABA levels causes, an elevation of baseline beta power, enhanced beta-ERD and reduced PMBR, but no modulation of MRGS. Comparing our results to recent literature (Hall et al., 2011) we suggest that beta-ERD may be a GABAA receptor mediated process while PMBR may be GABAB receptor mediated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Statin-related aminotransferase elevation according to baseline aminotransferases level in real practice in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-S; Lee, S H; Kim, H; Lee, S-H; Cho, J H; Lee, H; Yim, H W; Kim, S-H; Choi, I-Y; Yoon, K-H; Kim, J H

    2016-06-01

    Higher rate of statin-related hepatotoxicity has been reported for Koreans than for Westerners. Moreover, statin-related aminotransferase elevation for those who show borderline levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) (≤×3 of UNL) at baseline has not been fully investigated. Post-statin changes AST/ALT levels during the first year for 21 233 Korean outpatients at two large academic teaching hospitals from January 2009 to December 2013 were analysed using electronic health record data. The date of the first statin prescription was set as baseline. We also performed a comparative analysis of statin-related AST/ALT elevations according to the type of statin, followed by an analysis of clinical risk factors. The progression rate to abnormal AST/ALT values [>×3 the upper normal limit (UNL)] was significantly higher (2·4-16% vs. 0·3-1·7%, P ×1, but ≤×3 of UNL) compared with normal AST/ALT values at baseline. Those with normal baseline AST/ALT did not show significantly different progression rate between different statin medications (P = 0·801). However, patients taking pitavastatin (HR = 0·76, P = 0·657) were least likely to develop abnormal AST/ALT, whereas those taking fluvastatin (HR = 2·96, P = 0·029) were the most likely to develop abnormal AST/ALT compared with atorvastatin for patients who were with baseline borderline AST/ALT. However, given the small sample sizes and the observational nature of our study, these need further study. It is advisable to regularly monitor AST/ALT levels even in patients with AST/ALT increases >×1. Future studies should aim to determine the possible risk factors for each specific statin type by analysing various confounding variables. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The relations between the academic success levels of the boys playing basketball and certain variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut CANLI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between the academic success levels of the boys playing basketball and certain variables such as age, basketball playing times, the number of the weekly average trainings and motoric skills. Material and Methods: 93 students participated voluntarily in the study from three different sports clubs. The ages in which the participants started basketball varied between 10 and 13, and their durations of weekly trainings differed from each other. The end-of-the-year academic success average points of the participants were considered in determining the academic success levels; and the International Physical Performance Test Profile (IPPTP (Kamar, 2008 was used in measuring the motoric skills. The issue of whether there was a significant difference between the participants was determined by using the SPSS 21.0 Package Program together with the One-Way ANOVA Test. Results: According to the findings, it was determined that there were no relations between the academic success rates and the basketball playing durations, the number of weekly trainings, and their motoric skills (p>0.05. On the other hand, a statistically significant difference was determined between the age variable and the academic success levels (p<0.05. Conclusions: No significant differences were detected between the motoric skills, number of trainings, starting basketball dates and the academic success levels of the sportsmen who receive basic basketball training (which contribute to the development of motoric skills with different numbers of weekly training and with different basketball starting dates; while a negative significance was detected between the age variable and academic success.

  1. Antinuclear antibody levels in Polymorphic Light Eruption and their relation to the severity of disease

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    Iffat Hassan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: PLE is an idiopathic photodermatosis characterised by a polymorphic eruption ranging from papulo-vesicular lesions to large plaques, located predominantly in a photoexposed distribution. It is an acquired disease and is the most common idiopathic photodermatosis. It is characterised by recurrent abnormal delayed reaction to sunlight. PLE is the most common idiopathic photodermatosis, the prevalence of which has been estimated to be around 10-20% in USA, England and Ireland. Previous studies have shown elevated levels of ANA in 2.9-19% of patients with PLE. Aim: The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of ANA positivity in a cohort of patients of ethnic kashmiri origin with Polymorphic light eruption and to examine whether there is any relation of their levels with the severity of disease.Methods: Patients with Polymorphic light eruption clinically who attended the Outpatient Deptt. of Dermatology GMC Srinagar were referred to the Deptt. of Biochemistry GMC Srinagar where patients blood samples were analysed for ANA index by ELISA method (BRIO SEAC ITALY.Results: Our study consisted of 36 patients (with 23 males and 13 females with age group ranging between 15-65 years presenting with typical clinical features of PLE without associated autoimmune connected tissue diseases like discoid lupus erythematosus or systemic lupus erythematosus and 20 healthy age and sex matched controls. Two patients (1 male and 1female showed positive results and 1 patient (female showed equivocal results. Among the control group one patient showed ANA positivity. Thus total frequency of ANA positivity of of 5.55% was observed among the cases and 5% among the controls with frequency of 4.34% in males and 7.69% in females.Conclusion: ANA levels were found in 5.55% of patients with PLE, however there is no relation between the levels of ANA in PLE and with the severity of disease (p value >0.05.

  2. Knowledge levels of pre-school teachers related with basic first-aid practices, Isparta sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Yonca; Uskun, Ersin; Pehlivan, Azize

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of knowledge of pre-school teachers working in the province center of Isparta related with basic first-aid practices and some factors which affected these levels of knowledge. In this cross-sectional, analytic study, 110 pre-school teachers working in the province center of Isparta constituted the population. A questionnaire questioning sociodemographic properties and the level of knowledge related with first-aid practices was applied under supervision. The level of knowledge was evaluated on a 20-point scale. In the analyses, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearman's rank correlation were used. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee for Clinical Studies of Süleyman Demirel University School of Medicine (registration number: 105). The mean score of first-aid knowledge of the pre-school teachers was found to be 11.9±2.9. The least known issues included washing the wound by soap and water after a dog bite, information related with the necessity of immobilization of a child who has fallen from a high level and the phone number of National Poison Information Center (16.4%, 20.9% and 22.7%, respectively). The scores of the subjects whose knowledge of first-aid was evaluated to be well were higher compared to the subjects whose knowledge of first-aid was evaluated to be moderate (p=0.009) and poor (p=0.001). It was found that first-aid scores did not show significant difference in terms of age, working period, having received first-aid training and having faced with a condition requiring first-aid previously (p>0.05, for all comparisons). It was found that pre-school teachers had insufficient first-aid knowledge. Since the first-aid knowledge scores of the subjects who reported that they received first-aid training before did not show significant difference, it was thought that the quality of training was as important as receiving training.

  3. HTLV-I/II and blood donors: determinants associated with seropositivity in a low risk population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette Catalan Soares

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Blood donors in Brazil have been routinely screened for HTLV-I/II since 1993. A study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HTLV-I/II infection in a low risk population and to better understand determinants associated with seropositivity. METHODS: HTLV-I/II seropositive (n=135, indeterminate (n=167 and seronegative blood donors (n=116 were enrolled in an open prevalence prospective cohort study. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of positive, indeterminate and seronegative HTLV-I/II subjects was conducted to assess behavioral and environmental risk factors for seropositivity. HTLV-I/II serological status was confirmed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA and Western blot (WB. RESULTS: The three groups were not homogeneous. HTLV-I/II seropositivity was associated to past blood transfusion and years of schooling, a marker of socioeconomic status, and use of non-intravenous illegal drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The study results reinforce the importance of continuous monitoring and improvement of blood donor selection process.

  4. Early psychomotor development of low-risk preterm infants: Influence of gestational age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Domenico M; Brogna, Claudia; Sini, Francesca; Romeo, Mario G; Cota, Francesco; Ricci, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    The influence of gestational age and gender in the neurodevelopment of infants during the first year of age is not yet fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to identify the early occurrence of neurodevelopmental differences, between very preterm, late preterm and term born infants and the possible influence of the gender on the neurodevelopment in early infancy. A total of 188 low-risk infants, 69 very preterms, 71 late-preterms, and 48 term infants were assessed at 3, 6, 9, 12 months corrected age using the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE). At two years of age infants performed the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. The main results indicate that both very preterms and late-preterms showed significant lower global scores than term born infants at each evaluation (p development of infants assessed during the first 2 years of life. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Maternal and newborn morbidity by birth facility among selected United States 2006 low-risk births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, Joseph R; Pinette, Michael G; Cartin, Angelina; Blackstone, Jacquelyn

    2010-02-01

    We sought to evaluate perinatal morbidity by delivery location (hospital, freestanding birth center, and home). Selected 2006 US birth certificate data were accessed online from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Low-risk maternal and newborn outcomes were tabulated and compared by birth facility. A total of 745,690 deliveries were included, of which 733,143 (97.0%) occurred in hospital, 4661 (0.6%) at birth centers, and 7427 (0.9%) at home. Compared with hospital deliveries, home and birthing center deliveries were associated with more frequent prolonged and precipitous labors. Home births experienced more frequent 5-minute Apgar scores home and birthing center deliveries were associated with less frequent chorioamnionitis, fetal intolerance of labor, meconium staining, assisted ventilation, neonatal intensive care unit admission, and birthweight Home births are associated with a number of less frequent adverse perinatal outcomes at the expense of more frequent abnormal labors and low 5-minute Apgar scores. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Identifying Emergency Department Patients at Low Risk for a Variceal Source of Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Lauren R; Money, Joel; Maharaj, Kaveesh; Robinson, Aaron; Lai, Tarissa; Driver, Brian E

    2017-11-01

    Assessing the likelihood of a variceal versus nonvariceal source of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) guides therapy, but can be difficult to determine on clinical grounds. The objective of this study was to determine if there are easily ascertainable clinical and laboratory findings that can identify a patient as low risk for a variceal source of hemorrhage. This was a retrospective cohort study of adult ED patients with UGIB between January 2008 and December 2014 who had upper endoscopy performed during hospitalization. Clinical and laboratory data were abstracted from the medical record. The source of the UGIB was defined as variceal or nonvariceal based on endoscopic reports. Binary recursive partitioning was utilized to create a clinical decision rule. The rule was internally validated and test characteristics were calculated with 1,000 bootstrap replications. A total of 719 patients were identified; mean age was 55 years and 61% were male. There were 71 (10%) patients with a variceal UGIB identified on endoscopy. Binary recursive partitioning yielded a two-step decision rule (platelet count > 200 × 10 9 /L and an international normalized ratio [INR] study must be externally validated before widespread use, patients presenting to the ED with an acute UGIB with platelet count of >200 × 10 9 /L and an INR of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. © 2017 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  7. Serum drug level-related sodium valproate-induced hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnappa, Suresh K; Belhekar, Mahesh N

    2013-01-01

    Sodium valproate is a well-established treatment in epilepsy and mood disorders. Its utility is compromised by its adverse effects such as tremor, weight gain, hair loss, and liver dysfunction. Hair loss may occur when drug is used in higher dose. Drug-induced hair loss is diffused and non-scarring, which is reversible upon withdrawal. But there are no case reports showing relation between serum levels of valproate and occurrence of hair loss. So we took interest in reporting this case report.

  8. Hydrogenation of gold-related levels in silicon by electrolytic doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearton, S.J.; Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.; Kahn, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The deep gold-related donor and acceptor levels in silicon have been neutralized to several μm depth by introducing atomic hydrogen using an electrolytic method. Using phosphoric or sulfuric acid as the electrolyte, it is possible to dope the crystalline silicon with hydrogen at elevated temperatures (200--280 0 C) allowing direct comparison with other means of introduction, such as hydrogen plasma exposure. We find the electrolytic method is not as efficient as plasma treatment for the same conditions, possibly due to oxide formation during the immersion in the acid

  9. Serum levels of lipid metabolites in age-related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Orban, Tivadar; Johnson, William M.; Dong, Zhiqian; Maeda, Tadao; Maeda, Akiko; Sakai, Tsutomu; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi; Mieyal, John J.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes adult-onset blindness. There are 2 forms of this progressive disease: wet and dry. Currently there is no cure for AMD, but several treatment options have started to emerge making early detection critical for therapeutic success. Analysis of the eyes of Abca4−/−Rdh8−/− mice that display light-induced retinal degeneration indicates that 11-cis-retinal and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were significantly decrea...

  10. Comparing variation in hospital rates of cesarean delivery among low-risk women using 3 different measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Joanne C; Kozhimannil, Katy B; McDermott, Patricia; Saade, George R; Srinivas, Sindhu K

    2016-02-01

    This report describes the development of a measure of low-risk cesarean delivery by the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM). Safely lowering the cesarean delivery rate is a priority for maternity care clinicians and health care delivery systems. Therefore, hospital quality assurance programs are increasingly tracking cesarean delivery rates among low-risk pregnancies. Two commonly used definitions of "low risk" are available, the Joint Commission (JC) and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) measures, but these measures are not clinically comprehensive. We sought to refine the definition of the low-risk cesarean delivery rate to enhance the validity of the metric for quality measurement. We created this refined definition-called the SMFM definition-and compared it to the JC and AHRQ measures using claims-based data from the 2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample of >863,000 births in 612 hospitals. Using these definitions, we calculated means and interquartile ranges (25th-75th percentile range) for hospital low-risk cesarean delivery rates, stratified by hospital size, teaching status, urban/rural location, and payer mix. Across all hospitals, the mean low-risk cesarean delivery rate was lowest for the SMFM definition (12.65%), but not substantially different from the JC and AHRQ measures (13.12% and 13.29%, respectively). We empirically examined the SMFM definition to ensure its validity and utility. This refined definition performs similarly to existing measures and has the added advantage of clinical perspective, enhanced face validity, and ease of use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock related to high-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.D.; Rasmussen, T.C.

    1991-01-01

    Research results are summarized for a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission contract with the University of Arizona focusing on field and laboratory methods for characterizing unsaturated fluid flow and solute transport related to high-level radioactive waste repositories. Characterization activities are presented for the Apache Leap Tuff field site. The field site is located in unsaturated, fractured tuff in central Arizona. Hydraulic, pneumatic, and thermal characteristics of the tuff are summarized, along with methodologies employed to monitor and sample hydrologic and geochemical processes at the field site. Thermohydrologic experiments are reported which provide laboratory and field data related to the effects conditions and flow and transport in unsaturated, fractured rock. 29 refs., 17 figs., 21 tabs

  12. The relation between children's reading comprehension level and their comprehension of idioms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Kate; Oakhill, Jane; Lemmon, Kate

    2005-01-01

    We report an investigation of 9-year-olds' ability to interpret idioms in relation to their reading comprehension level. We manipulated whether the idioms were transparent or opaque, whether they were real or novel, whether they were presented in isolation or in a supportive narrative context. As predicted, children were better able to explain the meanings of idioms in context than in isolation. The good and poor comprehenders did not differ in their abilities to interpret transparent idioms in context, but the poor comprehenders were significantly worse at using context to work out the meanings of opaque idioms. The explanation task revealed the source of information used by the children to derive nontarget interpretations. We discuss these findings in relation to idiom processing strategies and Levorato and Cacciari's global elaboration model.

  13. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  14. Planned home compared with planned hospital births in the Netherlands: intrapartum and early neonatal death in low-risk pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooy, Jacoba; Poeran, Jashvant; de Graaf, Johanna P; Birnie, Erwin; Denktasş, Semiha; Steegers, Eric A P; Bonsel, Gouke J

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the intrapartum and early neonatal mortality rate of planned home birth with planned hospital birth in community midwife-led deliveries after case mix adjustment. The perinatal outcome of 679,952 low-risk women was obtained from the Netherlands Perinatal Registry (2000-2007). This group represents all women who had a choice between home and hospital birth. Two different analyses were performed: natural prospective approach (intention-to-treat-like analysis) and perfect guideline approach (per-protocol-like analysis). Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated. Case mix was based on the presence of at least one of the following: congenital abnormalities, small for gestational age, preterm birth, or low Apgar score. We also investigated the potential risk role of intended place of birth. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression was used to investigate the potential risk role of intended place of birth. Intrapartum and neonatal death at 0-7 days was observed in 0.15% of planned home compared with 0.18% in planned hospital births (crude relative risk 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71-0.91). After case mix adjustment, the relation is reversed, showing nonsignificant increased mortality risk of home birth (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.91-1.21). In certain subgroups, additional mortality may arise at home if risk conditions emerge at birth (up to 20% increase). Home birth, under routine conditions, is generally not associated with increased intrapartum and early neonatal death, yet in subgroups, additional risk cannot be excluded.

  15. Productive human immunodeficiency virus infection levels correlate with AIDS-related manifestations in the patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathez, D.; Paul, D.; de Belilovsky, C.; Sultan, Y.; Deleuze, J.; Gorin, I.; Saurin, W.; Decker, R.; Leibowitch, J.

    1990-01-01

    Mononuclear cells were obtained from 71 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seropositive subjects presenting and first visit either as asymptomatic or with minor symptoms and with CD4 lymphocytes greater than 550 per mm3 (group A, 35 patients) or as patients with AIDS, AIDS-related illnesses, or CD4 lymphocytes less than 400 per mm3 (group B, 36 patients). After 1-5 years of follow-up, 13 patients of group A had essentially retained their initial status (asymptomatics); the 22 others had suffered clinical or immunological deterioration (progressors). Frozen cells were thawed and submitted to lethal gamma-irradiation in vitro (4500 rads; 1 rad = 0.01 Gy) before they were cultured with normal phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes to determine radiation-resistant HIV expression ex vivo (R-HEV). HIV antigenemia correlated with R-HEV values in 142 samples (r = 0.92, P less than 0.001) but was a less sensitive predictor of disease than R-HEV. R-HEV was detected in all specimens from patients with major AIDS-related illnesses or HIV-associated CD4 lymphopenia. In 77% of the progressors from group A, R-HEV detection preceded the onset of AIDS-associated disease or CD4 lymphopenia by 1 year (average). Conversely, R-HEV was low or was not detected in 36 sequential specimens from the 13 patients who remained asymptomatic over the following 2-5 years. Thus, persistently low HIV expression in vivo predicted a nondiseased state, whereas higher HIV expression levels seemed necessary for disease to occur. These data indicate that R-HEV is related to productive HIV infection in vivo, the latter acting as a determinant of AIDS-related illnesses. In view of this, measurement of HIV expression levels in the patient should be useful in antiviral efficacy trials

  16. Urbanization Level and Vulnerability to Heat-Related Mortality in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Ma, Zongwei; Liu, Yang; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L

    2016-12-01

    Although adverse effects of high temperature on mortality have been studied extensively in urban areas, little is known of the heat-mortality associations outside of cities. We investigated whether heat-mortality associations differed between urban and nonurban areas and how urbanicity affected the vulnerability to heat-related mortality. We first analyzed heat-related mortality risk in each of 102 counties in Jiangsu Province, China, during 2009-2013 using a distributed-lag nonlinear model. The county-specific estimates were then pooled for more urban (percentage of urban population ≥ 57.11%) and less urban (percentage of urban population risk comparing the 99th vs. 75th percentiles of temperature was 1.43 [95% posterior intervals (PI): 1.36, 1.50] in less urban counties and 1.26 (95% PI: 1.23, 1.30) in more urban counties. The heat effects on cardiorespiratory mortality followed a similar pattern. Higher education level and prevalence of air conditioning were significantly associated with counties having lower risks, whereas percentage of elderly people was significantly associated with increased risks. Our findings reveal that nonurban areas have significant heat-related mortality risks in Jiangsu, China. These results suggest the need for enhanced adaptation planning in Chinese nonurban areas under a changing climate. Citation: Chen K, Zhou L, Chen X, Ma Z, Liu Y, Huang L, Bi J, Kinney PL. 2016. Urbanization level and vulnerability to heat-related mortality in Jiangsu Province, China. Environ Health Perspect 124:1863-1869; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP204.

  17. Risk indicators for dystocia in low-risk nulliparous women: a study on lifestyle and anthropometrical factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, H; Dykes, A K; Ottesen, B

    2010-01-01

    We examined background information and course of labour from a cohort of 2,810 low-risk nulliparas to identify possible lifestyle and anthropometrical risk indicators for dystocia. Criteria for dystocia: cervical dilatation or =4 h per week appeared protective for dystocia (OR 0.63, CI 0.45-0.89)......We examined background information and course of labour from a cohort of 2,810 low-risk nulliparas to identify possible lifestyle and anthropometrical risk indicators for dystocia. Criteria for dystocia: cervical dilatation or =4 h per week appeared protective for dystocia (OR 0.63, CI 0...

  18. Ability of university-level education to prevent age-related decline in emotional intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Rosario; Navarro Bravo, Beatriz; Latorre, José Miguel; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that educational history, as a proxy measure of active cognitive reserve, protects against age-related cognitive decline and risk of dementia. Whether educational history also protects against age-related decline in emotional intelligence (EI) is unclear. The present study examined ability EI in 310 healthy adults ranging in age from 18 to 76 years using the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). We found that older people had lower scores than younger people for total EI and for the EI branches of perceiving, facilitating, and understanding emotions, whereas age was not associated with the EI branch of managing emotions. We also found that educational history protects against this age-related EI decline by mediating the relationship between age and EI. In particular, the EI scores of older adults with a university education were higher than those of older adults with primary or secondary education, and similar to those of younger adults of any education level. These findings suggest that the cognitive reserve hypothesis, which states that individual differences in cognitive processes as a function of lifetime intellectual activities explain differential susceptibility to functional impairment in the presence of age-related changes and brain pathology, applies also to EI, and that education can help preserve cognitive-emotional structures during aging. PMID:24653697

  19. Spontaneous evolution in bilirubin levels predicts liver-related mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjong Lee

    Full Text Available The accurate prognostic stratification of alcoholic hepatitis (AH is essential for individualized therapeutic decisions. The aim of this study was to develop a new prognostic model to predict liver-related mortality in Asian AH patients. We conducted a hospital-based, retrospective cohort study using 308 patients with AH between 1999 and 2011 (a derivation cohort and 106 patients with AH between 2005 and 2012 (a validation cohort. The Cox proportional hazards model was constructed to select significant predictors of liver-related death from the derivation cohort. A new prognostic model was internally validated using a bootstrap sampling method. The discriminative performance of this new model was compared with those of other prognostic models using a concordance index in the validation cohort. Bilirubin, prothrombin time, creatinine, potassium at admission, and a spontaneous change in bilirubin levels from day 0 to day 7 (SCBL were incorporated into a model for AH to grade the severity in an Asian patient cohort (MAGIC. For risk stratification, four risk groups were identified with cutoff scores of 29, 37, and 46 based on the different survival probabilities (P<0.001. In addition, MAGIC showed better discriminative performance for liver-related mortality than any other scoring system in the validation cohort. MAGIC can accurately predict liver-related mortality in Asian patients hospitalized for AH. Therefore, SCBL may help us decide whether patients with AH urgently require corticosteroid treatment.

  20. Reconstructing Common Era relative sea-level change on the Gulf Coast of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Matthew J.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Kemp, Andrew C.; Moyer, Ryan P.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Cahill, Niamh

    2017-01-01

    To address a paucity of Common Era data in the Gulf of Mexico, we reconstructed ~ 1.1 m of relative sea-level (RSL) rise over the past ~ 2000 years at Little Manatee River (Gulf Coast of Florida, USA). We applied a regional-scale foraminiferal transfer function to fossil assemblages preserved in a core of salt-marsh peat and organic silt that was dated using radiocarbon and recognition of pollution, 137Cs and pollen chronohorizons. Our proxy reconstruction was combined with tide-gauge data from four nearby sites spanning 1913–2014 CE. Application of an Errors-in-Variables Integrated Gaussian Process (EIV-IGP) model to the combined proxy and instrumental dataset demonstrates that RSL fell from ~ 350 to 100 BCE, before rising continuously to present. This initial RSL fall was likely the result of local-scale processes (e.g., silting up of a tidal flat or shallow sub-tidal shoal) as salt-marsh development at the site began. Since ~ 0 CE, we consider the reconstruction to be representative of regional-scale RSL trends. We removed a linear rate of 0.3 mm/yr from the RSL record using the EIV-IGP model to estimate climate-driven sea-level trends and to facilitate comparison among sites. This analysis demonstrates that since ~ 0 CE sea level did not deviate significantly from zero until accelerating continuously from ~ 1500 CE to present. Sea level was rising at 1.33 mm/yr in 1900 CE and accelerated until 2014 CE when a rate of 2.02 mm/yr was attained, which is the fastest, century-scale trend in the ~ 2000-year record. Comparison to existing reconstructions from the Gulf coast of Louisiana and the Atlantic coast of northern Florida reveal similar sea-level histories at all three sites. We explored the influence of compaction and fluvial processes on our reconstruction and concluded that compaction was likely insignificant. Fluvial processes were also likely insignificant, but further proxy evidence is needed to fully test this hypothesis. Our results

  1. Randomized phase II trial of urethral sparing intensity modulated radiation therapy in low-risk prostate cancer: implications for focal therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainshtein, Jeffrey; Hamstra, Daniel A; Abu-Isa, Eyad; Olson, Karin B; Ray, Michael E; Sandler, Howard M; Normolle, Dan; Litzenberg, Dale W; Masi, Kathryn; Pan, Charlie

    2012-01-01

    Low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients have excellent outcomes, with treatment modality often selected by perceived effects on quality of life. Acute urinary symptoms are common during external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), while chronic symptoms have been linked to urethral dose. Since most low-risk PCa occurs in the peripheral zone (PZ), we hypothesized that EBRT using urethral sparing intensity modulated radiation therapy (US-IMRT) could improve urinary health-related quality of life (HRQOL) while maintaining high rates of PCa control. Patients with National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) defined low-risk PCa with no visible lesion within 5 mm of the prostatic urethra on MRI were randomized to US-IMRT or standard (S-) IMRT. Prescription dose was 75.6 Gy in 41 fractions to the PZ + 3–5 mm for US-IMRT and to the prostate + 3 mm for S-IMRT. For US-IMRT, mean proximal and distal urethral doses were limited to 65 Gy and 74 Gy, respectively. HRQOL was assessed using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index (EPIC) Quality of Life questionnaire. The primary endpoint was change in urinary HRQOL at 3 months. From June 2004 to November 2006, 16 patients were randomized, after which a futility analysis concluded that continued accrual was unlikely to demonstrate a difference in the primary endpoint. Mean change in EPIC urinary HRQOL at 3 months was −0.5 ± 11.2 in the US-IMRT arm and +3.9 ± 15.3 in the S-IMRT arm (p = 0.52). Median PSA nadir was higher in the US-IMRT arm (1.46 vs. 0.78, p = 0.05). At 4.7 years median follow-up, three US-IMRT and no S-IMRT patients experienced PSA failure (p = 0.06; HR 8.8, 95% CI 0.9–86). Two out of 3 patients with PSA failure had biopsy-proven local failure, both located contralateral to the original site of disease. Compared with S-IMRT, US-IMRT failed to improve urinary HRQOL and resulted in higher PSA nadir and inferior biochemical control. The high rate of PSA failure and contralateral local failures in US-IMRT patients, despite

  2. Randomized phase II trial of urethral sparing intensity modulated radiation therapy in low-risk prostate cancer: implications for focal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vainshtein Jeffrey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-risk prostate cancer (PCa patients have excellent outcomes, with treatment modality often selected by perceived effects on quality of life. Acute urinary symptoms are common during external beam radiotherapy (EBRT, while chronic symptoms have been linked to urethral dose. Since most low-risk PCa occurs in the peripheral zone (PZ, we hypothesized that EBRT using urethral sparing intensity modulated radiation therapy (US-IMRT could improve urinary health-related quality of life (HRQOL while maintaining high rates of PCa control. Methods Patients with National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN defined low-risk PCa with no visible lesion within 5 mm of the prostatic urethra on MRI were randomized to US-IMRT or standard (S- IMRT. Prescription dose was 75.6 Gy in 41 fractions to the PZ + 3–5 mm for US-IMRT and to the prostate + 3 mm for S-IMRT. For US-IMRT, mean proximal and distal urethral doses were limited to 65 Gy and 74 Gy, respectively. HRQOL was assessed using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index (EPIC Quality of Life questionnaire. The primary endpoint was change in urinary HRQOL at 3 months. Results From June 2004 to November 2006, 16 patients were randomized, after which a futility analysis concluded that continued accrual was unlikely to demonstrate a difference in the primary endpoint. Mean change in EPIC urinary HRQOL at 3 months was −0.5 ± 11.2 in the US-IMRT arm and +3.9 ± 15.3 in the S-IMRT arm (p = 0.52. Median PSA nadir was higher in the US-IMRT arm (1.46 vs. 0.78, p = 0.05. At 4.7 years median follow-up, three US-IMRT and no S-IMRT patients experienced PSA failure (p = 0.06; HR 8.8, 95% CI 0.9–86. Two out of 3 patients with PSA failure had biopsy-proven local failure, both located contralateral to the original site of disease. Conclusions Compared with S-IMRT, US-IMRT failed to improve urinary HRQOL and resulted in higher PSA nadir and inferior biochemical

  3. A High-Resolution Reconstruction of Late-Holocene Relative Sea Level in Rhode Island, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, R. B.; Engelhart, S. E.; Kemp, A.; Cahill, N.; Halavik, B. T.; Corbett, D. R.; Brain, M.; Hill, T. D.

    2017-12-01

    Studies on the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts have utilized salt-marsh peats and the macro- and microfossils preserved within them to reconstruct high-resolution records of relative sea level (RSL). We followed this approach to investigate spatial and temporal RSL variability in southern New England, USA, by reconstructing 3,300 years of RSL change in lower Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. After reconnaisance of lower Narragansett Bay salt marshes, we recovered a 3.4m core at Fox Hill Marsh on Conanicut Island. We enumerated foraminiferal assemblages at 3cm intervals throughout the length of the core and we assessed trends in δ13C at 5 cm resolution. We developed a composite chronology (average resolution of ±50 years for a 1 cm slice) using 30 AMS radiocarbon dates and historical chronological markers of known age (137Cs, heavy metals, Pb isotopes, pollen). We assessed core compaction (mechanical compression) by collecting compaction-free basal-peat samples and using a published decompaction model. We employed fossil foraminifera and bulk sediment δ13C to estimate paleomarsh elevation using a Bayesian transfer function trained by a previously-published regional modern foraminiferal dataset. We combined the proxy RSL reconstruction and local tide-gauge measurements from Newport, Rhode Island (1931 CE to present) and estimated past rates of RSL change using an Errors-in-Variables Integrated Gaussian Process (EIV-IGP) model. Both basal peats and the decompaction model suggest that our RSL record is not significantly compacted. RSL rose from -3.9 m at 1250 BCE reaching -0.4 m at 1850 CE (1 mm/yr). We removed a Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) contribution of 0.9 mm/yr based on a local GPS site to facilitate comparison to regional records. The detrended sea-level reconstruction shows multiple departures from stable sea level (0 mm/yr) over the last 3,300 years and agrees with prior reconstructions from the US Atlantic coast showing evidence for sea-level changes that

  4. PM1 levels are related to CO concentrations and health impacts in the city Athens Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoropoulos, Konstantinos; Polichetti, Giuliano; Ferentinos, George; Tselentis, Vasilios; Nastos, Panagiotis; Xatzioakeimidis, Konstantinos; Dimas, Konstantinos; Kalabokis, Vasilios; Gialouris, Athanasios

    2010-05-01

    Senekas, as early as 60 A.D., was the first to refer to air pollution and the possibility of imposing restrictions in Rome. In 1307, during the reign of Edward I, legislation was introduced to prevent the use of sea coal in kilns and limeburners in London. In the 19th century the first problems arising from elevated levels of smoke in cities appear. By 1930, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania suffered from heavy smoke pollution and the 1952 London smog episode stands out as one of the worst pollution disasters given the number of people who died as a result. Mega city pollution has become a serious problem to human health and in an effort to analyze and mitigate this threat, the European and worldwide scientific communities are, at present, placing considerable time, effort and resources in the field. It is well known that vehicle related NOx and CO emissions represent the main public health hazard (cardiovascular and respiratory syndromes) in the main industrialized cities of Europe with high traffic volumes. The objective of this study is to analyze the spatial distribution of PM1, CO and the related health impacts within the greater Athens area (GAA). Several portable and ground based detectors were employed for the PM and CO measurements, capable of detecting CO levels in the ambient environment, up to 1000 ppm. Sampling took place on road sidewalks at a specified hour every morning to coincide with the peak in vehicle traffic. Controls were performed with no traffic and compared to normal traffic days and days with extreme traffic congestion, which included PM and CO concentration measurements. In addition, in order to monitor potentially related health impacts, daily admissions to the Emergency Departments of the Social Security Institute and Regional Hospitals of Athens were recorded. Results demonstrate a significant correlation between both PM1 and CO and particulate matter symptomatology, such as dispnea, fatigue, headache, dacryrrea and dry cough. These findings

  5. Specifying the Concept of Future Generations for Addressing Issues Related to High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermisch, Celine

    2016-12-01

    The nuclear community frequently refers to the concept of "future generations" when discussing the management of high-level radioactive waste. However, this notion is generally not defined. In this context, we have to assume a wide definition of the concept of future generations, conceived as people who will live after the contemporary people are dead. This definition embraces thus each generation following ours, without any restriction in time. The aim of this paper is to show that, in the debate about nuclear waste, this broad notion should be further specified and to clarify the related implications for nuclear waste management policies. Therefore, we provide an ethical analysis of different management strategies for high-level waste in the light of two principles, protection of future generations-based on safety and security-and respect for their choice. This analysis shows that high-level waste management options have different ethical impacts across future generations, depending on whether the memory of the waste and its location is lost, or not. We suggest taking this distinction into account by introducing the notions of "close future generations" and "remote future generations", which has important implications on nuclear waste management policies insofar as it stresses that a retrievable disposal has fewer benefits than usually assumed.

  6. Are Men's Perceptions of Sexually Dimorphic Vocal Characteristics Related to Their Testosterone Levels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Kandrik

    Full Text Available Feminine physical characteristics in women are positively correlated with markers of their mate quality. Previous research on men's judgments of women's facial attractiveness suggests that men show stronger preferences for feminine characteristics in women's faces when their own testosterone levels are relatively high. Such results could reflect stronger preferences for high quality mates when mating motivation is strong and/or following success in male-male competition. Given these findings, the current study investigated whether a similar effect of testosterone occurs for men's preferences for feminine characteristics in women's voices. Men's preferences for feminized versus masculinized versions of women's and men's voices were assessed in five weekly test sessions and saliva samples were collected in each test session. Analyses showed no relationship between men's voice preferences and their testosterone levels. Men's tendency to perceive masculinized men's and women's voices as more dominant was also unrelated to their testosterone levels. Together, the results of the current study suggest that testosterone-linked changes in responses to sexually dimorphic characteristics previously reported for men's perceptions of faces do not occur for men's perceptions of voices.

  7. How do we love? Romantic love style in men is related to lower testosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babková Durdiaková, J; Celec, P; Koborová, I; Sedláčková, T; Minárik, G; Ostatníková, D

    2017-09-22

    Testosterone has been widely investigated in associations with many aspects of social interactions, emotions and behavior. No research has been conducted on its contribution to the variability of love styles in human. The aim of this paper was to uncover the possible relationship between not only the actual plasma testosterone levels, but also the prenatal testosterone level (expressed as 2D:4D ratio) and the sensitivity of androgen receptor and love typology in young healthy men. There are six love styles which are primary including Eros (passionate romantic love), Ludus (playful) and Storge (friendly) and secondary love consisting of Mania (obsessive), Pragma (practical realistic) and Agape (altruistic). Our results pointed out that low testosterone concentrations are associated with higher score for Eros, Ludus, Pragma, Mania love style. No significant association was proved for other tested parameters of androgenicity (2D:4D, sensitivity of androgen receptor) and love style after correction was applied. Different attitudes and behavior in relationships do have a biological foundation related to endogenous testosterone levels in plasma. Future studies should address questions about the family and social background of participants to differentiate here between moral rules or/and social-conventional rules.

  8. Exploring sequence characteristics related to high-level production of secreted proteins in Aspergillus niger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastiaan A van den Berg

    Full Text Available Protein sequence features are explored in relation to the production of over-expressed extracellular proteins by fungi. Knowledge on features influencing protein production and secretion could be employed to improve enzyme production levels in industrial bioprocesses via protein engineering. A large set, over 600 homologous and nearly 2,000 heterologous fungal genes, were overexpressed in Aspergillus niger using a standardized expression cassette and scored for high versus no production. Subsequently, sequence-based machine learning techniques were applied for identifying relevant DNA and protein sequence features. The amino-acid composition of the protein sequence was found to be most predictive and interpretation revealed that, for both homologous and heterologous gene expression, the same features are important: tyrosine and asparagine composition was found to have a positive correlation with high-level production, whereas for unsuccessful production, contributions were found for methionine and lysine composition. The predictor is available online at http://bioinformatics.tudelft.nl/hipsec. Subsequent work aims at validating these findings by protein engineering as a method for increasing expression levels per gene copy.

  9. Glycated albumin is set lower in relation to plasma glucose levels in patients with Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Tetsuhiro; Otsuki, Michio; Tamada, Daisuke; Tabuchi, Yukiko; Mukai, Kosuke; Morita, Shinya; Kasayama, Soji; Shimomura, Iichiro; Koga, Masafumi

    2013-09-23

    Glycated albumin (GA) is an indicator of glycemic control, which has some specific characters in comparison with HbA1c. Since glucocorticoids (GC) promote protein catabolism including serum albumin, GC excess state would influence GA levels. We therefore investigated GA levels in patients with Cushing's syndrome. We studied 16 patients with Cushing's syndrome (8 patients had diabetes mellitus and the remaining 8 patients were non-diabetic). Thirty-two patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 32 non-diabetic subjects matched for age, sex and BMI were used as controls. In the patients with Cushing's syndrome, GA was significantly correlated with HbA1c, but the regression line shifted downwards as compared with the controls. The GA/HbA1c ratio in the patients with Cushing's syndrome was also significantly lower than the controls. HbA1c in the non-diabetic patients with Cushing's syndrome was not different from the non-diabetic controls, whereas GA was significantly lower. In 7 patients with Cushing's syndrome who performed self-monitoring of blood glucose, the measured HbA1c was matched with HbA1c estimated from mean blood glucose, whereas the measured GA was significantly lower than the estimated GA. We clarified that GA is set lower in relation to plasma glucose levels in patients with Cushing's syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Brain Levels of Prostaglandins, Endocannabinoids, and Related Lipids Are Affected by Mating Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordyn M. Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs are involved in the development and regulation of reproductive behaviors. Likewise, prostaglandins (PGs drive sexual differentiation and initiation of ovulation. Here, we use lipidomics strategies to test the hypotheses that mating immediately activates the biosynthesis and/or metabolism of eCBs and PGs and that specific mating strategies differentially regulate these lipids in the brain. Methods. Lipid extractions and tandem mass spectrometric analysis were performed on brains from proestrous rats that had experienced one of two mating strategies (paced or standard mating and two nonmated groups (chamber exposed and home cage controls. Levels of PGs (PGE2 and PGF2alpha, eCBs (AEA and 2-AG, N-arachidonoyl glycine, and 4 related lipids (4 N-acylethanolamides were measured in olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, hippocampus, thalamus, striatum, midbrain, cerebellum, and brainstem. Results. Overall, levels of these lipids were significantly lower among paced compared to standard mated rats with the most dramatic decreases observed in brainstem, hippocampus, midbrain, and striatum. However, chamber exposed rats had significantly higher levels of these lipids compared to home cage controls and paced mated wherein the hippocampus showed the largest increases. Conclusions. These data demonstrate that mating strategies and exposure to mating arenas influence lipid signaling in the brain.

  11. Altered medial temporal activation related to local glutamate levels in subjects with prodromal signs of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, Isabel; Stone, James; Mechelli, Andrea; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Raffin, Marie; Allen, Paul; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Lythgoe, David; O'Gorman, Ruth; Seal, Marc; McGuire, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Both medial temporal cortical dysfunction and perturbed glutamatergic neurotransmission are regarded as fundamental pathophysiological features of psychosis. However, although animal models of psychosis suggest that these two abnormalities are interrelated, their relationship in humans has yet to be investigated. We used a combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate the relationship between medial temporal activation during an episodic memory task and local glutamate levels in 22 individuals with an at-risk mental state for psychosis and 14 healthy volunteers. We observed a significant between-group difference in the coupling of medial temporal activation with local glutamate levels. In control subjects, medial temporal activation during episodic encoding was positively associated with medial temporal glutamate. However, in the clinical population, medial temporal activation was reduced, and the relationship with glutamate was absent. In individuals at high risk of psychosis, medial temporal dysfunction seemed related to a loss of the normal relationship with local glutamate levels. This study provides the first evidence that links medial temporal dysfunction with the central glutamate system in humans and is consistent with evidence that drugs that modulate glutamatergic transmission might be useful in the treatment of psychosis. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Using low-risk factors to generate non-integrated human induced pluripotent stem cells from urine-derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linli; Chen, Yuehua; Guan, Chunyan; Zhao, Zhiju; Li, Qiang; Yang, Jianguo; Mo, Jian; Wang, Bin; Wu, Wei; Yang, Xiaohui; Song, Libing; Li, Jun

    2017-11-02

    Because the lack of an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) induction system with optimal safety and efficiency limits the application of these cells, development of such a system is important. To create such an induction system, we screened a variety of reprogrammed plasmid combinations and multiple compounds and then verified the system's feasibility using urine cells from different individuals. We also compared large-scale iPSC chromosomal variations and expression of genes associated with genomic stability between this system and the traditional episomal system using karyotype and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses. We developed a high-efficiency episomal system, the 6F/BM1-4C system, lacking tumorigenic factors for human urine-derived cell (hUC) reprogramming. This system includes six low-risk factors (6F), Oct4, Glis1, Klf4, Sox2, L-Myc, and the miR-302 cluster. Transfected hUCs were treated with four compounds (4C), inhibitor of lysine-demethylase1, methyl ethyl ketone, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, and histone deacetylase, within a short time period. Comparative analysis revealed significantly decreased chromosomal variation in iPSCs and significantly increased Sirt1 expression compared with iPSCs induced using the traditional episomal system. The 6F/BM1-4C system effectively induces reprogramming of urine cells in samples obtained from different individuals. iPSCs induced using the 6F/BM1-4C system are more stable at the cytogenetic level and have potential value for clinical application.

  13. Can Single Positive Core Prostate Cancer at biopsy be Considered a Low-Risk Disease after Radical Prostatectomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kupka da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Single positive core in a prostate biopsy is usually associated with indolent prostate cancer (PCa and is one of the active surveillance (AS inclusion criteria. We investigated whether single positive core PCa at biopsy could define an archetype of low-risk disease. Materials and Methods A total of 1320 consecutive patients were enrolled. Among them, 249 patients with single positive core PCa were followed up, and the clinical and pathological parameters influencing prognosis were analyzed. Results Out of the 249 patients, 172 (69.0% had pathological findings ≥ pT2c and 87 (34.9% had an undergraded Gleason Score (GS based on the biopsy. Positive surgical margins (PSMs, extraprostatic extension (EPE and seminal vesicle invasion (SVI were found in 20.8%, 10.0% and 6.0% of patients, respectively. In a comparative analysis, we found that the PSA level, prostate weight and number of cores at biopsy are essential to correctly predict an indolent PCa. A total of 125 patients (67.3% with nonpalpable tumors became high-risk tumors (pT2c-T3. Analyzing only nonpalpable tumors with a GS of 6 at biopsy (156 patients, we noted that 106 (67.9% of cT1 progressed from cT1c to pT2c-pT3. Conclusions Single core PCa have clinically significant disease in the Radical Prostatectomy specimens, with considerable rates of overgrading for the GS, pT2c-pT3, PSMs, EPE and SVI. The treatment plan must be evaluated individually for patients with single core PCa and must take into account other prognostic factors when determining whether a patient should be managed with AS.

  14. Relative levels of dietary EPA and DHA impact gastric oxidation and essential fatty acid uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasilva, Gabriel; Boller, Matthew; Medina, Isabel; Storch, Judith

    2018-05-01

    Previous research showed that increasing the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in marine lipid supplements significantly reduces associated health benefits compared with balanced eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA):DHA supplementation Dasilva et al., 2015 [1]. It was therefore hypothesized that the EPA and DHA molecules might have differential resistance to oxidation during gastric digestion and that the oxidation level achieved could be inversely correlated with intestinal absorption and, hence, with the resultant health benefits. Accordingly, we tested this proposed mechanism of action by investigating the degree of oxidation in the stomach, and the levels of bioaccessible lipids, of varying molar proportions of DHA and EPA (2:1, 1:1 and 1:2) using the dynamic gastrointestinal tract model TIM-1. In addition, small intestine enterocyte absorption and metabolism were simulated by Caco-2 cell monolayers that were incubated with these same varying proportions of DHA and EPA, and comparing oxidized and nonoxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The results show an inverse correlation between lipid oxidation products in the stomach and the levels of bioaccessible lipids. The balanced 1:1 EPA:DHA diet resulted in lower oxidation of PUFAs during stomach digestion relative to the other ratios tested. Finally, cell-based studies showed significantly lower assimilation of oxidized EPA and DHA substrates compared to nonoxidized PUFAs, as well as significant differences between the net uptake of EPA and DHA. Overall, the present work suggests that the correct design of diets and/or supplements containing marine lipids can strongly influence the stability and bioaccessibility of PUFAs during gastrointestinal digestion and subsequent absorption. This could modulate their health benefits related with inflammation, oxidative stress and metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cytogenetic damage related to low levels of methyl mercury contamination in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÚCIA I. M. AMORIM

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The mercury rejected in the water system, from mining operations and lixiviation of soils after deforestation, is considered to be the main contributors to the contamination of the ecosystem in the Amazon Basin. The objectives of the present study were to examine cytogenetic functions in peripheral lymphocytes within a population living on the banks of the Tapajós River with respect to methylmercury (MeHg contamination, using hair mercury as a biological indicator of exposure. Our investigation shows a clear relation between methylmercury contamination and cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes at levels well below 50 micrograms/gram, the level at which initial clinical signs and symptoms of mercury poisoning occur. The first apparent biological effect with increasing MeHg hair level was the impairment of lymphocyte proliferation measured as mitotic index (MI. The relation between mercury concentration in hair and MI suggests that this parameter, an indicator of changes in lymphocytes and their ability to respond to culture conditions, may be an early marker of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in humans and should be taken into account in the preliminary evaluation of the risks to populations exposed in vivo. This is the first report showing clear cytotoxic effects of long-term exposure to MeHg. Although the results strongly suggest that, under the conditions examined here, MeHg is both a spindle poison and a clastogen, the biological significance of these observations are as yet unknown. A long-term follow-up of these subjects should be undertaken.

  16. Brain activation in motor sequence learning is related to the level of native cortical excitability.

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    Silke Lissek

    Full Text Available Cortical excitability may be subject to changes through training and learning. Motor training can increase cortical excitability in motor cortex, and facilitation of motor cortical excitability has been shown to be positively correlated with improvements in performance in simple motor tasks. Thus cortical excitability may tentatively be considered as a marker of learning and use-dependent plasticity. Previous studies focused on changes in cortical excitability brought about by learning processes, however, the relation between native levels of cortical excitability on the one hand and brain activation and behavioral parameters on the other is as yet unknown. In the present study we investigated the role of differential native motor cortical excitability for learning a motor sequencing task with regard to post-training changes in excitability, behavioral performance and involvement of brain regions. Our motor task required our participants to reproduce and improvise over a pre-learned motor sequence. Over both task conditions, participants with low cortical excitability (CElo showed significantly higher BOLD activation in task-relevant brain regions than participants with high cortical excitability (CEhi. In contrast, CElo and CEhi groups did not exhibit differences in percentage of correct responses and improvisation level. Moreover, cortical excitability did not change significantly after learning and training in either group, with the exception of a significant decrease in facilitatory excitability in the CEhi group. The present data suggest that the native, unmanipulated level of cortical excitability is related to brain activation intensity, but not to performance quality. The higher BOLD mean signal intensity during the motor task might reflect a compensatory mechanism in CElo participants.

  17. Studies on the growth of penaeid prawns: 1. Length-weight relation and condition factor under different levels of feeding

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Iyer, H.K.; Devi, C.B.L.; Kutty, M.K.

    Length-weight relation and earthworm feeding conditions under different levels for @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ were estimated. Length-weight exponent in both species was unaffected by the feeding levels and the consequent...

  18. Acute low-level alcohol consumption reduces phase locking of event-related oscillations in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Leslie R; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2017-07-14

    Event-related oscillations (EROs) are rhythmic changes that are evoked by a sensory and/or cognitive stimulus that can influence the dynamics of the EEG. EROs are defined by the decomposition of the EEG signal into magnitude (energy) and phase information and can be elicited in both humans and animals. EROs have been linked to several relevant genes associated with ethanol dependence phenotypes in humans and are altered in selectively bred alcohol-preferring rats. However, pharmacological studies are only beginning to emerge investigating the impact low intoxicating doses of ethanol can have on event-related neural oscillations. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of low levels of voluntary consumption of ethanol, in rats, on phase locking of EROs in order to give further insight into the acute intoxicating effects of ethanol on the brain. To this end, we allow rats to self-administer unsweetened 20% ethanol over 15 intermittent sessions. This method results in a stable low-dose consumption of ethanol. Using an auditory event-related potential "oddball" paradigm, we investigated the effects of alcohol on the phase variability of EROs from electrodes implanted into the frontal cortex, dorsal hippocampus, and amygdala. We found that intermittent ethanol self-administration was sufficient to produce a significant reduction in overall intraregional synchrony across all targeted regions. These data suggest that phase locking of EROs within brain regions known to be impacted by alcohol may represent a sensitive biomarker of low levels of alcohol intoxication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Holocene relative sea-level changes from North America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Benjamin; Engelhart, Simon; Vacchi, Matteo; Khan, Nicole; Peltier, Dick; Roy, Keven

    2014-05-01

    Reconstructions of Holocene relative sea level (RSL) are important for identifying the ice equivalent meltwater contribution to sea-level change during deglaciation. Holocene RSL reconstructions from near, intermediate and far field regions enable the assessment of earth and ice parameters of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) models. RSL reconstructions provide data for estimating rates of spatially variable and ongoing vertical land motion; a requirement for understanding the variation in modern and late Holocene sea level as recorded by instrumental and proxy records. Here we explain the methodology employed to reconstruct former sea levels, which follows the practice of the International Geoscience Programme (IGCP). We produce sea level index points from the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of North America and the Caribbean. Index points are defined as the most reliable observations of former sea levels. They consist of an estimate of X (age) and Y (the position of former RSL). Where a suite of index points are developed for a locality or region, they describe changes in RSL through time and estimate rates of change. A valid index point must meet the following four criteria; (1) location of the sample is known; (2) the altitude of the sample (and the error associated with measuring that altitude) is known; (3) the indicative meaning (the relationship between the sample and a tide level) is estimated; and (4) the age of the sample, which is commonly radiocarbon dated is calibrated to sidereal years using the latest calibration curves. In total databases have over 2000 sea-level index points from formerly ice covered, uplifting regions of Canada, to the region of forebulge collapse along the subsiding mid-Atlantic and mid-Pacific coastlines of the United States, to the tropical regions of the Caribbean. Recent analyses of these new published databases have led to a further refinement of the most recent of the ICE-NG (VMX) series of global models of GIA. The records

  20. Limiting overdiagnosis of low-risk prostate cancer through an evaluation of the predictive value of transrectal and power Doppler ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvain, Jean Luc; Sauvain, Elise; Papavero, Roger; Louis, Didier; Rohmer, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Overdiagnosis induced by prostate cancer screening makes necessary a better selection of candidate patients for prostate biopsy. The objective of our study is to assess the probability of having a high- or low-risk lesion that could require active surveillance (AS) after biopsies and a normal or abnormal examination, including transrectal and power Doppler ultrasonography (TRUS-PDS). Four hundred and twenty-nine consecutive patients with a PSA level risk of a biological recurrence and Dall'Era's criteria to assess possible AS. The TRUS-PDS was considered positive if one biopsy was positive in the same sextant as the suspect image. One hundred and seventy-seven out of 429 (41 %) T1c cancers were diagnosed; 131 out of 177 (74 %) could be qualified as low risk, and 119 out of 177 (67 %) could require AS. The TRUS-PDS was normal in 285 of 429 patients (66 %). With a normal TRUS-PDS, the probability of not having cancer with a high or intermediate risk was 96 % (negative predictive value). With an abnormal TRUS-PDS, the probability of having a positive biopsy was 59 %, and the probability of having a significant cancer was 30 %, according to the Dall'Era criteria. When TRUS-PDS was normal, these probabilities significantly decreased to 32 and 5 %, respectively ( p  risk of high- or intermediate-risk cancer.

  1. The Relative Age Effect on Soccer Players in Formative Stages with Different Sport Expertise Levels

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    Práxedes Alba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Relative Age Effect (RAE in sport has been targeted by many research studies. The objective of this study was to analyze, in amateur clubs, the RAE of soccer players, according to the sport expertise level of the team (e.g., A, B, C and subsequent that they belong to within the same game category. 1,098 soccer players in formative stages took part in the study, with ages varying between 6 and 18 years old (U8 to U19 categories. All of them were members of 4 Spanish federated clubs. The birth dates were classified into 4 quartiles (Q1 = Jan-Mar; Q2 = Apr-Jun; Q3 = Jul-Sept; Q4 = Oct-Decaccording to the team they belonged to. The results obtained in the chi-squared test and d value (effect size revealed the existence of RAE in the teams with the highest expertise level, “A” (X2 = 15.342, p = .002, d = 0.4473 and “B” (X2 = 10.905, p = .012, d = 0.3657. However, in the lower level teams, “C and subsequent”, this effect was not observed. Present findings show that players born during the first months of the year tend to be selected to play in teams with a higher sport expertise level of each category, due to their physical maturity. Consequently, this causes differences in terms of the experience they accumulate and the motivation that this creates in these players.

  2. Appetite-related hormone levels in obese women with and without binge eating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Paraguassú Brandão

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of appetite-related hormones (peptide YY3-36, total ghrelin, leptin and insulin before and after consumption of a meal in obese women with and without binge eating episodes and normal weight women. METHODS: Twenty-five women aged 32-50 years were invited to participate in this study, including 9 normal weight women without binge eating episodes (20-25kg/m², group 1, 9 obese women with binge eating episodes (³30kg/m², group 2, and 7 obese women without binge eating episodes (group 3. Four blood samples were collected from each participant, one being 60 minutes before and three being 15, 45 and 90 minutes after a meal. The composition of the meal was 55% carbohydrates, 15% protein and 30% lipids. RESULTS: Group 3 presented increased HOMA-IR (M=2.5, SD=1.04 when compared with group 1 (M=1.5, SD=0.53 and group 2 (M=1.8, SD=0.58, p=0.04. Body mass index (p<0.0001, leptin (p<0.0001 and insulin (p=0.01 were higher in group 3 than in the other groups before and after the meal. Additionally, total ghrelin (p=0.003 and PYY3-36 (p=0.02 levels were lower in group 2 than in the other groups before and after the meal. After adjustment for body mass index, only the lower PYY3-36 level of group 2 remained statistically different from the other groups (p=0.01. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that lower levels of PYY 3-36 are associated with binge eating in obese women.

  3. Edge type affects leaf-level water relations and estimated transpiration of Eucalyptus arenacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Thomas E; Tausz, Michael; Kasel, Sabine; Volkova, Liubov; Merchant, Andrew; Bennett, Lauren T

    2012-03-01

    While edge effects on tree water relations are well described for closed forests, they remain under-examined in more open forest types. Similarly, there has been minimal evaluation of the effects of contrasting land uses on the water relations of open forest types in highly fragmented landscapes. We examined edge effects on the water relations and gas exchange of a dominant tree (Eucalyptus arenacea Marginson & Ladiges) in an open forest type (temperate woodland) of south-eastern Australia. Edge effects in replicate woodlands adjoined by cleared agricultural land (pasture edges) were compared with those adjoined by 7- to 9-year-old eucalypt plantation with a 25m fire break (plantation edges). Consistent with studies in closed forest types, edge effects were pronounced at pasture edges where photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance were greater for edge trees than interior trees (75m into woodlands), and were related to greater light availability and significantly higher branch water potentials at woodland edges than interiors. Nonetheless, gas exchange values were only ∼50% greater for edge than interior trees, compared with ∼200% previously found in closed forest types. In contrast to woodlands adjoined by pasture, gas exchange in winter was significantly lower for edge than interior trees in woodlands adjoined by plantations, consistent with shading and buffering effects of plantations on edge microclimate. Plantation edge effects were less pronounced in summer, although higher water use efficiency of edge than interior woodland trees indicated possible competition for water between plantation trees and woodland edge trees in the drier months (an effect that might have been more pronounced were there no firebreak between the two land uses). Scaling up of leaf-level water relations to stand transpiration using a Jarvis-type phenomenological model indicated similar differences between edge types. That is, transpiration was greater at pasture than

  4. School Effectiveness at Primary Level of Education in Relation to Classroom Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Ranjan Panigrahi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the relationship of School Effectiveness with regard to classroom teaching at primary level of education. The objectives of the study were to identify the more-effective and less-effective schools; to find out the differences between more-effective and less-effective schools in relation to physical facilities, Head Master and Teachers’ performance and Students’ performance; to find out the relationship between the school effectiveness and classroom teaching. The descriptive survey method was used to carry out this study. A Total number of 27 more-effective and 35 less-effective primary schools were included in the sample of the present study. And also all principals of selected schools and from each school 2 teachers were selected to know their classroom teaching in the classroom situation. The selection of teachers was based on their teaching the classes (III, IV and V, to investigate their participation in school activities. The findings of the present study on school effectiveness and classroom teaching find adequate support from similar or related studies. Thus, the above discussion reflects that there is no simple combination of factors, which can produce effective school. The study has, however, revealed that school effectiveness has emerged as related to classroom teaching.

  5. Foot length measurements of newborns of high and low risk pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salge, Ana Karina Marques; Rocha, Érika Lopes; Gaíva, Maria Aparecida Munhoz; Castral, Thaíla Correa; Guimarães, Janaína Valadares; Xavier, Raphaela Maioni

    2017-03-09

    Comparing foot length measurements of newborns in high and low risk pregnancies at a public hospital in Goiânia, GO, Brazil. A cross-sectional study carried out between April, 2013 and May, 2015, with a sample consisting of 180 newborns; 106 infants of women from high-risk pregnancies and 74 of women from low-risk pregnancies. Data were descriptively analyzed. Foot length measurement was performed using a stiff transparent plastic ruler, graduated in millimeters. The length of both feet was measured from the tip of the hallux (big toe) to the end of the heel. A statistically significant relationship was found between the foot length and newborn's weight, between the cephalic and thoracic perimeters in the high-risk group and between the cephalic perimeter in the control group. There is a need for creating cut-off points to identify newborns with intrauterine growth disorders using foot length. Comparar as medidas do comprimento hálux-calcâneo de recém-nascidos em gestações de alto e baixo risco em um hospital público de Goiânia, GO. Estudo transversal, realizado no período de abril de 2013 a maio de 2015, cuja amostra constituiu-se de 180 recém-nascidos, 106 filhos de mulheres com gestação de alto risco e 74 de mulheres com gestação de baixo risco. Os dados foram analisados descritivamente. A medida do comprimento hálux-calcâneo foi realizada utilizando-se de régua plástica transparente rígida, graduada em milímetros. Foram medidos ambos os pés, aferindo-se o comprimento da ponta do hálux até a extremidade do calcâneo. Foi encontrada relação estatisticamente significante entre o comprimento hálux-calcâneo e o peso do recém-nascido, entre os perímetros cefálico e torácico no grupo de alto risco e entre o perímetro cefálico no grupo controle. Existe necessidade da criação de pontos de corte para identificar recém-nascidos com desvios de crescimento intrauterino utilizando-se do comprimento hálux-calcâneo. Comparar las mediciones

  6. Understanding the Relative Contributions of Lower-Level Word Processes, Higher-Level Processes, and Working Memory to Reading Comprehension Performance in Proficient Adult Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Although a considerable amount of evidence has been amassed regarding the contributions of lower-level word processes, higher-level processes, and working memory to reading comprehension, little is known about the relationships among these sources of individual differences or their relative contributions to reading comprehension performance. This…

  7. Ultrasonographic study and Doppler flow velocimetry of maternal kidneys and liver in low-risk pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daher, Cibele Helena; Gomes, Andrea Cavalanti; Kobayashi, Sergio; Chammas, Maria Cristina, E-mail: cibeledaher@hotmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (In-Rad/HC-FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Inst. de Radiologia; Cerri, Giovanni Guido [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina

    2015-05-15

    Objective: longitudinal study with B-mode ultrasonography and Doppler ultrasonography of maternal kidneys and liver in low-risk pregnancy, to establish and quantify normality parameters, correlating them with physiological changes. Materials and methods: twenty-five pregnant women were assessed and selected to participate in the study, each of them undergoing four examinations at the first, second, third trimesters and postpartum. Results: findings during pregnancy were the following: increased renal volume, pyelocaliceal dilatation with incidence of 45.4% in the right kidney, and 9% in the left kidney; nephrolithiasis, 18.1% in the right kidney, 13.6% in the left kidney. With pyelocaliceal dilatation, mean values for resistivity index were: 0.68 for renal arteries; 0.66 for segmental arteries; 0.64 for interlobar arteries; 0.64 for arcuate arteries. Without pyelocaliceal dilatation, 0.67 for renal arteries; 0.64 for segmental arteries; 0.63 for interlobar arteries; and 0.61 for arcuate arteries. Portal vein flow velocities presented higher values in pregnancy, with mean value for maximum velocity of 28.9 cm/s, and 22.6 cm/s postpartum. The waveform pattern of the right hepatic vein presented changes persisting in the postpartum period in 31.8% of the patients. Cholelithiasis was observed in 18.1% of the patients. Conclusion: alterations in renal volume, pyelocaliceal dilatation, nephrolithiasis, cholelithiasis, changes in portal vein flow velocity, alterations in waveform pattern of the right hepatic vein, proved to be significant. (author)

  8. Thyroid nodules with minimal cystic changes have a low risk of malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Dong Gyu; Kim, Dae Sik; Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Ji Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the risk of malignancy of thyroid nodules with minimal cystic changes. A total of consecutive 1,000 thyroid nodules (≥1 cm) with final diagnoses from two institutions were included in this study. The risk of malignancy of thyroid nodules was analyzed according to the internal content, which was categorized as purely solid, minimally cystic (cystic changes ≤10%), and partially cystic (cystic changes >10%). We also assessed the risk of malignancy of nodules with minimal cystic changes depending on echogenicity and presence of any suspicious ultrasonografic (US) features. The overall frequency of purely solid, minimally cystic, and partially cystic nodules was 730/1,000 (73%), 61/1,000 (6.1%), and 209/1,000 (20.9%), respectively, with risks of malignancy of 14.8% (108/730), 3.3% (2/61), and 3.3% (7/209), respectively. The risk of malignancy of nodules with minimal cystic changes was significantly lower than that of purely solid nodules (P=0.013). The risk of malignancy of nodules with minimal cystic changes was also lower than that of purely solid nodules in the group of hypoechoic nodules (P=0.063) and in the group of nodules with suspicious US features (P=0.028), but was not significantly different from that of partially cystic nodules regardless of echogenicity or the presence of suspicious US features (P≥0.652). Thyroid nodules with minimal cystic changes have a low risk of malignancy, similar to that of partially cystic nodules regardless of echogenicity or the presence of suspicious US features. The US lexicon could define solid nodules as nodules with purely solid internal content in order to enhance the accuracy of estimated risks of malignancy

  9. Utilization of prostate brachytherapy for low risk prostate cancer: Is the decline overstated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdieh, Joseph; Wong, Andrew; Weiner, Joseph P; Schwartz, David; Schreiber, David

    2016-08-01

    Several prior studies have suggested that brachytherapy utilization has markedly decreased, coinciding with the recent increased utilization of intensity modulated radiation therapy, as well as an increase in urologist-owned centers. We sought to investigate the brachytherapy utilization in a large, hospital-based registry. Men with prostate cancer diagnosed between 2004-2012 and treated with either external beam radiation and/or prostate brachytherapy were abstracted from the National Cancer Database. In order to be included, men had to be clinically staged as T1c-T2aNx-0Mx-0, Gleason 6, PSA ≤ 10.0 ng/ml. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze brachytherapy utilization over time and were compared via χ(2). Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess for covariables associated with increased brachytherapy usage. There were 89,413 men included in this study, of which 37,054 (41.6%) received only external beam radiation, and 52,089 (58.4%) received prostate brachytherapy. The use of brachytherapy declined over time from 62.9% in 2004 to 51.3% in 2012 (p facilities (60.8% in 2004 to 47.0% in 2012, p facilities (63.7% in 2004 to 53.0% in 2012, p facilities than those who lived further. The use of intensity modulated radiation therapy increased during this same time period from 18.4% in 2004 to 38.2% in 2012 (p usage. In this hospital-based registry, prostate brachytherapy usage has declined for low risk prostate cancer as intensity modulated radiation therapy usage has increased. However, it still remains the treatment of choice for 51.3% of patients as of 2012.

  10. Association of Trichomonas vaginalis and cytological abnormalities of the cervix in low risk women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert G G Donders

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Is Trichomonas vaginalis (TV an inducing factor for the development of (pre-cancerous lesions of the cervix? DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Screening healthy Belgian women with low infection risk. SAMPLE: 63,251 consecutive liquid based cervical samples. METHODS: Real time quantitative PCR for presence of TV, 18 HPV types and Pap smear analysis of cytologic abnormalities. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Association of TV and HPV with cervix dysplasia. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of TV DNA was 0.37%, of low risk HPV 2%, of high risk HPV 13.2%, and 8.8 % had cytological abnormalities. Both LR-HPV and HR-HPV were significantly associated with all cytological abnormalities. Presence of TV was associated with LR- and HR-HPV, ASC-US and HSIL, but not with other abnormalities. All women with TV and HSIL also had HR-HPV, while the latter was present in only 59% of women with TV and ASC-US. Amongst HPV negative women, TV was found in 1.3% of women with ASC-US, but only in 0.03% of women with normal cytology (OR 4.2, CL95% 2.1-8.6. In HR-HPV positive women, presence of TV increased the likelihood of cytological abnormalities somewhat (P=0.05, mainly due to an increase in ASC-US and LSIL, but not HSIL. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that TV infection is associated with both LR and HR-HPV infection of the cervix, as well as with ASC-US and HSIL. TV is a concomitant STI, but is not thought to be a co-factor in the causation of HSIL and cervical cancer. However, TV may cause false positive diagnoses of ASC-US.

  11. Ultrasonographic study and Doppler flow velocimetry of maternal kidneys and liver in low-risk pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daher, Cibele Helena; Gomes, Andrea Cavalanti; Kobayashi, Sergio; Chammas, Maria Cristina; Cerri, Giovanni Guido

    2015-01-01

    Objective: longitudinal study with B-mode ultrasonography and Doppler ultrasonography of maternal kidneys and liver in low-risk pregnancy, to establish and quantify normality parameters, correlating them with physiological changes. Materials and methods: twenty-five pregnant women were assessed and selected to participate in the study, each of them undergoing four examinations at the first, second, third trimesters and postpartum. Results: findings during pregnancy were the following: increased renal volume, pyelocaliceal dilatation with incidence of 45.4% in the right kidney, and 9% in the left kidney; nephrolithiasis, 18.1% in the right kidney, 13.6% in the left kidney. With pyelocaliceal dilatation, mean values for resistivity index were: 0.68 for renal arteries; 0.66 for segmental arteries; 0.64 for interlobar arteries; 0.64 for arcuate arteries. Without pyelocaliceal dilatation, 0.67 for renal arteries; 0.64 for segmental arteries; 0.63 for interlobar arteries; and 0.61 for arcuate arteries. Portal vein flow velocities presented higher values in pregnancy, with mean value for maximum velocity of 28.9 cm/s, and 22.6 cm/s postpartum. The waveform pattern of the right hepatic vein presented changes persisting in the postpartum period in 31.8% of the patients. Cholelithiasis was observed in 18.1% of the patients. Conclusion: alterations in renal volume, pyelocaliceal dilatation, nephrolithiasis, cholelithiasis, changes in portal vein flow velocity, alterations in waveform pattern of the right hepatic vein, proved to be significant. (author)

  12. Association of Trichomonas vaginalis and cytological abnormalities of the cervix in low risk women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Depuydt, Christophe E; Bogers, John-Paul; Vereecken, Annie J

    2013-01-01

    Is Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) an inducing factor for the development of (pre-)cancerous lesions of the cervix? Cross sectional study. Screening healthy Belgian women with low infection risk. 63,251 consecutive liquid based cervical samples. Real time quantitative PCR for presence of TV, 18 HPV types and Pap smear analysis of cytologic abnormalities. Association of TV and HPV with cervix dysplasia. The overall prevalence of TV DNA was 0.37%, of low risk HPV 2%, of high risk HPV 13.2%, and 8.8 % had cytological abnormalities. Both LR-HPV and HR-HPV were significantly associated with all cytological abnormalities. Presence of TV was associated with LR- and HR-HPV, ASC-US and HSIL, but not with other abnormalities. All women with TV and HSIL also had HR-HPV, while the latter was present in only 59% of women with TV and ASC-US. Amongst HPV negative women, TV was found in 1.3% of women with ASC-US, but only in 0.03% of women with normal cytology (OR 4.2, CL95% 2.1-8.6). In HR-HPV positive women, presence of TV increased the likelihood of cytological abnormalities somewhat (P=0.05), mainly due to an increase in ASC-US and LSIL, but not HSIL. We conclude that TV infection is associated with both LR and HR-HPV infection of the cervix, as well as with ASC-US and HSIL. TV is a concomitant STI, but is not thought to be a co-factor in the causation of HSIL and cervical cancer. However, TV may cause false positive diagnoses of ASC-US.

  13. Acceptability of a novel vaginal microbicide during a safety trial among low-risk women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, M E; Morrow, K M; Fullem, A; Chesney, M A; Horton, S D; Rosenberg, Z; Mayer, K H

    2000-01-01

    The increasing recognition that women who are unable or unwilling to discuss or use condoms with their sexual partners need female-controlled methods for preventing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV, has led to considerable focus on the development of vaginal microbicides. While many such products are being tested for safety and effectiveness, clinical trials generally overlook another key factor in a product's impact on infection rates-its acceptability to users. A Phase I clinical trial of a microbicidal gel included an assessment of the product's acceptability among 27 low-risk participants. Information on acceptability was gathered from structured interviews, participants' daily diaries and unstructured exit interviews. Participants reported only minor side effects of product use, such as itching, burning and difficulty urinating; two women developed candida infections while participating in the study. None of the side effects could be conclusively linked to use of the gel. Some women noted product discharge and messiness as drawbacks of the method, but this experience varied according to how often the women applied the gel. For example, one-third of those who used it once daily said that at least some of the time, it was too "wet or drippy," compared with two-thirds of women who inserted the gel twice a day. However, participants considered these "nuisance factors" that could be outweighed by the potential protective characteristics of the product. The majority reported that they would use the product if it were available and proven efficacious, and if they perceived that they were at risk of STD infection. Additional testing of this product is urgently needed. Furthermore, as other products approach Phase I testing, acceptability assessments should be a key component of clinical trials.

  14. Benefit of early discharge among patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    Full Text Available Clinical guidelines recommend early discharge of patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism (LRPE. This study measured the overall impact of early discharge of LRPE patients on clinical outcomes and costs in the Veterans Health Administration population. Adult patients with ≥1 inpatient diagnosis for pulmonary embolism (PE (index date between 10/2011-06/2015, continuous enrollment for ≥12 months pre- and 3 months post-index date were included. PE risk stratification was performed using the simplified Pulmonary Embolism Stratification Index. Propensity score matching (PSM was used to compare 90-day adverse PE events (APEs [recurrent venous thromboembolism, major bleed and death], hospital-acquired complications (HACs, healthcare utilization, and costs among short (≤2 days versus long length of stay (LOS. Net clinical benefit was defined as 1 minus the combined rate of APE and HAC. Among 6,746 PE patients, 95.4% were men, 22.0% were African American, and 1,918 had LRPE. Among LRPE patients, only 688 had a short LOS. After 1:1 PSM, there were no differences in APE, but short LOS had fewer HAC (1.5% vs 13.3%, 95% CI: 3.77-19.94 and bacterial pneumonias (5.9% vs 11.7%, 95% CI: 1.24-3.23, resulting in better net clinical benefit (86.9% vs 78.3%, 95% CI: 0.84-0.96. Among long LOS patients, HACs (52 exceeded APEs (14 recurrent DVT, 5 bleeds. Short LOS incurred lower inpatient ($2,164 vs $5,100, 95% CI: $646.8-$5225.0 and total costs ($9,056 vs $12,544, 95% CI: $636.6-$6337.7. LRPE patients with short LOS had better net clinical outcomes at lower costs than matched LRPE patients with long LOS.

  15. Quantification of CT images for the classification of high- and low-risk pancreatic cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazit, Lior; Chakraborty, Jayasree; Attiyeh, Marc; Langdon-Embry, Liana; Allen, Peter J.; Do, Richard K. G.; Simpson, Amber L.

    2017-03-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal cancer with an overall 5-year survival rate of 7%1 due to the late stage at diagnosis and the ineffectiveness of current therapeutic strategies. Given the poor prognosis, early detection at a pre-cancerous stage is the best tool for preventing this disease. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN), cystic tumors of the pancreas, represent the only radiographically identifiable precursor lesion of pancreatic cancer and are known to evolve stepwise from low-to-high-grade dysplasia before progressing into an invasive carcinoma. Observation is usually recommended for low-risk (low- and intermediate-grade dysplasia) patients, while high-risk (high-grade dysplasia and invasive carcinoma) patients undergo resection; hence, patient selection is critically important in the management of pancreatic cysts.2 Radiologists use standard criteria such as main pancreatic duct size, cyst size, or presence of a solid enhancing component in the cyst to optimally select patients for surgery.3 However, these findings are subject to a radiologist's interpretation and have been shown to be inconsistent with regards to the presence of a mural nodule or solid component.4 We propose objective classification of risk groups based on quantitative imaging features extracted from CT scans. We apply new features that represent the solid component (i.e. areas of high intensity) within the cyst and extract standard texture features. An adaptive boost classifier5 achieves the best performance with area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.73 and accuracy of 77.3% for texture features. The random forest classifier achieves the best performance with AUC of 0.71 and accuracy of 70.8% with the solid component features.

  16. Low Risk of Cervical Cancer/Precancer Among Most Women Under Surveillance Postcolposcopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarco, Maria; Cheung, Li C; Kinney, Walter K; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Lorey, Thomas S; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Befano, Brian; Castle, Philip E; Schiffman, Mark

    2018-04-01

    To inform impending postcolposcopy guidelines, this analysis examined the subsequent risk of CIN 3+ among women with a grade lower than CIN 2 (< CIN 2) colposcopy results, taking into account the referring results that brought them to colposcopy and cotest results postcolposcopy. We analyzed 107,005 women from 25 to 65 years old, recommended for colposcopy at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. We estimated absolute risks of CIN 3+ among women: (1) recommended for colposcopy (precolposcopy), (2) following colposcopy and with histology results < CIN 2 (postcolposcopy), and (3) with cotest results 12 months after a < CIN 2 colposcopy (return cotest). After colposcopy showing < CIN 2 (n = 69,790; 87% of the women at colposcopy), the 1-year risk of CIN 3+ was 1.2%, compared with 6.3% at the time of colposcopy recommendation. Negative cotest results 1 year after colposcopy identified a large group (37.1%) of women whose risk of CIN 3+ (i.e., <0.2% at 3 years after postcolposcopy cotest) was comparable with women with normal cytology in the screening population. These risks are consistent with current guidelines recommending repeat cotesting 12 months after colposcopy < CIN 2 and a 3-year return for women with a negative postcolposcopy cotest. Most women are at low risk of subsequent CIN 3+ after a colposcopy showing < CIN 2, especially those who are human papillomavirus-negative postcolposcopy, consistent with current management guidelines for repeat testing intervals. Before the finalizing the upcoming guidelines, we will consider additional rounds of postcolposcopy cotesting.

  17. Anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients at low risk of recurrence compared with the general population: a valid comparison?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenvold, M.; Fayers, P. M.; Sprangers, M. A.; Bjorner, J. B.; Klee, M. C.; Aaronson, N. K.; Bech, P.; Mouridsen, H. T.

    1999-01-01

    Breast cancer and its treatment have been associated with psychological morbidity. In this study our aim was to quantify the excess anxiety and depression resulting from breast cancer. We compared 538 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients at low risk of recurrence (87.0% responded) to 872 women

  18. Severe adverse maternal outcomes among low risk women with planned home versus hospital births in the Netherlands: nationwide cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, J.; Mesman, J.A.J.M.; Manniën, J.; Zwart, J.J.; van Dillen, J.; van Roosmalen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To test the hypothesis that low risk women at the onset of labour with planned home birth have a higher rate of severe acute maternal morbidity than women with planned hospital birth, and to compare the rate of postpartum haemorrhage and manual removal of placenta. Design: Cohort study

  19. High incidence of pseudotumours after hip resurfacing even in low risk patients; results from an intensified MRI screening protocol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weegen, W. van der; Smolders, J.M.; Sijbesma, T.; Hoekstra, H.J.; Brakel, K.; Susante, J.L.C. van

    2013-01-01

    We intensified our screening protocol for the presence of pseudotumours in a consecutive series of patients with a hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA), to establish whether we should be alert to the presence of 'silent' pseudotumours. Patients categorised with high risk (11 hips) and low risk (10

  20. Identification of patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism suitable for outpatient treatment using the pulmonary embolism severity index (PESI).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCabe, A

    2013-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that outpatient treatment of patients with low-risk stable pulmonary embolism (PE) is safe, effective and potentially reduces costs. It is not clear how many patients presenting to an Irish Emergency Department (ED) are potentially suitable for outpatient management.

  1. Adverse outcomes in maternity care for women with a low risk profile in The Netherlands: a case series analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martijn, L.; Jacobs, A.; Amelink-Verburg, M.; Wentzel, R.; Buitendijk, S.; Wensing, M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to perform a structural analysis of determinants of risk of critical incidents in care for women with a low risk profile at the start of pregnancy with a view on improving patient safety. METHODS: We included 71 critical incidents in primary midwifery care and subsequent

  2. [Adverse outcomes in maternity care for women with a low risk profile in The Netherlands: a case series analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martijn, L.M.; Jacobs, A.; Amelink-Verburg, M.P.; Wentzel, R.; Buitendijk, S.E.; Wensing, M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to perform a structural analysis of determinants of risk of critical incidents in care for women with a low risk profile at the start of pregnancy with a view on improving patient safety. METHODS: We included 71 critical incidents in primary midwifery care and subsequent

  3. Plasma levels of hypoxia-regulated factors in patients with age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioanna, Zygoula; Christian, Schori; Christian, Grimm; Daniel, Barthelmes

    2018-02-01

    Various hypoxia-related proteins are differentially expressed in the retina and secreted to the vitreous and/or aqueous humor of patients affected by dry or neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). To determine whether these conditions alter concentrations of cytokines also in the systemic circulation, we measured plasma levels of six hypoxia-related proteins. Plasma was prepared from EDTA blood that was collected from patients affected by dry AMD (n = 5), nAMD (n = 11), proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR; n = 9), and patients with an epiretinal membrane (ERM; n = 11). ERM samples served as negative controls, PDR samples as positive controls. Protein concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), erythropoietin (EPO), angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), placental growth factor (PlGF), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The concentration of PlGF was significantly increased in plasma of patients affected by nAMD. Although no statistically significant differences were found for EPO, ANGPTL4, PlGF, TNF-α, and PEDF, the mean concentration of VEGF was lowest in the nAMD group. Plasma concentrations of the six factors did not correlate with gender or age of patients. nAMD may increase plasma concentrations of PlGF, making it a candidate as a biomarker for the neovascular form of AMD. Other factors, however, were not differentially regulated, suggesting that their systemic concentrations are not generally increased in hypoxia-related retinal diseases.

  4. Gender- and parity-specific reference charts for fetal size in low risk singleton pregnancies at the onset of the third trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Reu, Paul; Smits, Luc J; Oosterbaan, Herman P; Snijders, Rosalinde J; De Reu-Cuppens, Marga J; Nijhuis, Jan G

    2007-01-01

    To determine fetal growth in low risk pregnancies at the beginning of the third trimester and to assess the relative importance of fetal gender and maternal parity. Dutch primary care midwifery practice. Retrospective cohort study on 3641 singleton pregnancies seen at a primary care midwifery center in the Netherlands. Parameters used for analysis were fetal abdominal circumference (AC), fetal head circumference (HC), gestational age, fetal gender and maternal parity. Regression analysis was applied to describe variation in AC and HC with gestational age. Means and standard deviations in the present population were compared with commonly used reference charts. Multiple regression analysis was applied to examine whether gender and parity should be taken into account. The fetal AC and HC increased significantly between the 27th and the 33rd week of pregnancy (AC r2=0.3652, Pgender was a significant determinant for both AC (PParity contributed significantly to AC only but the difference was small (beta=0.00464). At the beginning of the third trimester, fetal size is associated with fetal gender and, to a lesser extent, with parity. Some fetal growth charts (e.g., Chitty et al.) are more suitable for the low-risk population in the Netherlands than others.

  5. Dietary supplementation and doping-related factors in high-level sailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodek Jelena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although dietary supplements (DSs in sports are considered a natural need resulting from athletes’ increased physical demands, and although they are often consumed by athletes, data on DS usage in Olympic sailing are scarce. The aim of this study was to study the use of and attitudes towards DSs and doping problems in high-level competitive sailing. Methods The sample consisted of 44 high-level sailing athletes (5 of whom were female; total mean age 24.13 ± 6.67 years and 34 coaches (1 of whom was female; total mean age 37.01 ± 11.70. An extensive, self-administered questionnaire of substance use was used, and the subjects were asked about sociodemographic data, sport-related factors, DS-related factors (i.e., usage of and knowledge about DSs, sources of information, and doping-related factors. The Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA was used to determine the differences in group characteristics, and Spearman’s rank order correlation and a logistic regression analysis were used to define the relationships between the studied variables. Results DS usage is relatively high. More than 77% of athletes consume DSs, and 38% do so on a regular basis (daily. The athletes place a high degree of trust in their coaches and/or physicians regarding DSs and doping. The most important reason for not consuming DSs is the opinion that DSs are useless and a lack of knowledge about DSs. The likelihood of doping is low, and one-third of the subjects believe that doping occurs in sailing (no significant differences between athletes and coaches. The logistic regression found crew number (i.e., single vs. double crew to be the single significant predictor of DS usage, with a higher probability of DS consumption among single crews. Conclusion Because of the high consumption of DSs future investigations should focus on real nutritional needs in sailing sport. Also, since athletes reported that their coaches are the primary source of information about

  6. Is there a relation between local bone quality as assessed on panoramic radiographs and alveolar bone level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackaerts, Olivia; Gijbels, Frieda; Sanna, Anna-Maria; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2008-03-01

    The aim was to explore the relation between radiographic bone quality on panoramic radiographs and relative alveolar bone level. Digital panoramic radiographs of 94 female patients were analysed (mean age, 44.5; range, 35-74). Radiographic density of the alveolar bone in the premolar region was determined using Agfa Musica software. Alveolar bone level and bone quality index (BQI) were also assessed. Relationships between bone density and BQI on one hand and the relative loss of alveolar bone level on the other were assessed. Mandibular bone density and loss of alveolar bone level were weakly but significantly negatively correlated for the lower premolar area (r = -.27). The BQI did not show a statistically significant relation to alveolar bone level. Radiographic mandibular bone density on panoramic radiographs shows a weak but significant relation to alveolar bone level, with more periodontal breakdown for less dense alveolar bone.

  7. The relation between salivary sIgA level and caries incidence in Down syndrome children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosdiana Rosdiana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Down syndrome or Trisomy 21 is a genetic disorder caused by extra chromosome on chromosome 21. Down syndrome child, however, has good resistance against caries, and some of them even are caries-free. It is because the level of salivary sIgA in Down syndrome children is equal or even higher than that in normal children. Purpose: This review was aimed to review the relation between salivary sIgA level and caries incidence in Down syndrome children. Reviews: Down syndrome is a collection of symptoms caused by chromosomal abnormality that has a number of physical and mental disorders. Down syndrome children, nevertheless, have significantly lower incidence of caries than normal children. These conditions are thought to relate to characteristics of oral cavity and the level of salivary sIgA in Down syndrome children. Caries is a disease of dental hard tissues caused by the fermentation of sucrose into glucans by glucosyltransferase enzymes (GTF of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. One of proteins in saliva that acts as a defense mechanism is imunoglubulin. Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA inhibits the activity of S. mutans as bacteria causing caries forming glucan. This immunoglobulin, sIgA, is the most abundant immunoglobulin in saliva. The level of salivary sIgA in Down syndrome children is significantly higher than that in normal children. Conclusion: Besides factors of tooth eruption delays, wide spaces among teeth, microdontia, pH, and high saliva contents (calcium, sodium, bicarbonate, the low incidence of caries in Down syndrome children is also related with the higher level of salivary sIgA in Down syndrome children than that in normal children.Latar belakang: Sindroma Down atau Trisomi 21 merupakan kelainan genetik yaitu adanya kromosom ekstra pada kromosom 21. Anak sindroma Down memiliki resistensi yang baik terhadap karies dan sebagian dari mereka bebas karies. Kadar sIgA saliva anak sindroma Down sama atau bahkan lebih tingi

  8. The dynamic nature of relative sea level in Southeast Asia: tectonic effects and human impacts (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.; Qiu, Q.; Feng, L.; Lubis, A.; Meltzner, A. J.; Tsang, L. L.; Daly, P.; McCaughey, J.; Banerjee, P.; Rubin, C. M.; Sieh, K.

    2013-12-01

    Tectonic changes can have significant effects on crustal deformation, the geoid, and relative sea level (RSL). Indeed, the tectonic impacts on RSL in some regions can be greater than those predicted as a result of climate change. In the case of earthquakes, these changes can occur suddenly, as coastlines uplift or subside by up to many meters. The changes can also occur over many decades as a result of interseismic or postseismic processes, or periodically in the form of transient slow-slip events. Although these effects are (mostly) recovered elastically over the course of the earthquake cycle, they are occurring in the context of ever-increasing populations living along affected coastlines, particularly the case in areas such as SE Asia. The societal effects of these tectonic-induced sea-level changes are therefore becoming increasingly significant, and important to consider in future projections for sea-level change. Additionally, tide-gauge and gravity measurements made in tectonically active areas cannot be interpreted without consideration and modeling of the tectonic setting. These facts highlight the need for accurate geodetic measurements of land-height change. Along the Sumatra subduction zone, a series of great earthquakes have occurred over the last decade, along with numerous moderate and smaller earthquakes. These, and their ensuing postseismic deformation, have reshaped regional coastlines. We will show visualization of land height changes using a decade of Sumatra GPS Array (SuGAr) data, and related tectonic models, that demonstrate dramatically the ups and downs of land elevation close to the earthquake sources. Vertical coseismic displacements as large as ~2.9 m have been recorded by the SuGAr (an uplift at Nias, during the 2005 Mw 8.6 earthquake), and vertical postseismic rates on the order of tens of mm/yr or greater (e.g., in northern Aceh, one station has been uplifting at a rate of ~34 mm/yr since the 2004 Mw 9.2 earthquake, while in southern

  9. Alcohol use and related consequences among students with varying levels of involvement in college athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichliter, J S; Meilman, P W; Presley, C A; Cashin, J R

    1998-05-01

    Alcohol use, binge drinking, and substance abuse-related consequences among students with varying levels of participation in intercollegiate athletics were examined. Between October 1994 and May 1996, 51,483 students at 125 institutions answered questions about their involvement in athletics, ranging from noninvolvement to participant to leadership positions, on the long form of the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey. In comparisons with nonathletes, both male and female athletes consumed significantly more alcohol per week, engaged in binge drinking more often, and suffered more adverse consequences from their substance use. No support was found for the hypothesis that athletic leaders were more responsible than other team participants in using alcohol. Male team leaders appeared to be at significantly greater risk than female team leaders; they also consumed more alcohol, binged more often, and suffered more consequences than other team members.

  10. Glutathione level and its relation to radiation therapy in patients with cancer of uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukundan, H.; Bahadur, A.K.; Kumar, A.; Sardana, S.; Naik, S.L.D.; Ray, A.; Sharma, B.K.

    1999-01-01

    Glutathione functions as an important antioxidant in the destruction of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxides by providing substrate for the glutathione peroxidase and also promotes the ascorbic acid. Glutathione plays a vital role in detoxification of xenobiotics, carcinogens, free radicals and maintenance of immune functions. The study was aimed to determine plasma glutathione as well as erythrocyte glutathione and glutathione peroxidase in patients with invasive cervical carcinoma (n=30) before initiation and after completion of radiotherapy and subsequently, at the time of first three monthly follow-up visit. The levels of plasma glutathione, erythrocyte glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity were found to be lower in all cervical cancer patients as compared to age matched normal control women. The study indicates a change in antioxidant status in relation with the glutathione system among patients with invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix. This study also demonstrates the effect of radiation therapy on this antioxidant system. (author)

  11. Relation among different parameters of damaged starch content, falling number and mechanical damage level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živančev Dragan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents examination of damaged starch content expressed by different parameters, which were obtained by iodometric method presented by the Chopin Company using their SD matic instrument on wheat flour samples. Two wheat samples were similar by protein level (14.6 and 14.2% on dry basis matter and different by Falling number values (409 and 121 s. Wheat flours were gained by single-stage and two-stage extraction in laboratory milling system. Eight independent measurements of every wheat flour sample were statistically analyzed by method of variance. It was found that Chopin iodometric method shows that damaged starch content expressed by different parameters is related to Falling number value and damage caused by the pressure and shear forces generated during roller milling.

  12. Suicide risk in relation to level of urbanicity - a population-based linkage study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ping

    2005-01-01

    from various Danish longitudinal registers. Data were analysed with conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: This study confirms that people living in more urbanized areas are at a higher risk of suicide than their counterparts in less urbanized areas. However, this excess risk is largely eliminated...... when adjusted for personal marital, income, and ethnic differences; it is even reversed when further adjusted for psychiatric status. Moreover, the impact of urbanicity on suicide risk differs significantly by sex and across age. Urban living reduces suicide risk significantly among men, especially......BACKGROUND: The extent to which the high suicide rate in urban areas is influenced by exposures to risk factors for suicide other than urbanicity remains unknown. This population-based study aims to investigate suicide risk in relation to the level of urbanicity in the context of other factors...

  13. Relation of bone mineral density with homocysteine and cathepsin K levels in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Mittal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homocysteine (HCY interferes with collagen cross-linking in bones and stimulates osteoclast activity. The activated osteoclasts secrete cathepsin K (CathK, a cysteine protease, in eminent quantity during bone resorption. Hyperhomocysteinemia may effect bone mineral density (BMD through CathK. We, therefore, examined the relation between HCY and BMD along with CathK, 25-hydroxyvit-D (25[OH]D, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH, and Vitamin B12. Materials and Methods: We recruited a total of 93 postmenopausal women between the age group of 45–60 years, attending the Endocrinology outpatient department at King George's Medical University, Lucknow. BMD was done by DXA scan using Hologic QDR1000 system. Based on the WHO criteria, patients were segregated into three groups as follows; normal bone mass, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. All women underwent routine biochemical laboratory parameters, HCY, Vitamin B12, and CathK levels. Results: Among 93 postmenopausal women, 56% (52 had osteoporosis. Nineteen percent (18 had normal BMD (mean age, 53.22 ± 8.5 years and 23 (25% had osteopenia (mean age 52.86 ± 6.67 years. The mean age in the osteoporetic group was 56.2 ± 6.9 years. The median (interquartile range levels of HCY in the three groups were 14.5 μmol/L (12.2–24.7, 15.05 μmol/L (12.1–19.9 and 13.2 μmol/L (10.3–17.0, respectively. CathK levels were similar in three groups 7.6 ng/ml (7.0–80.5, 8.3 ng/ml (7.3–8.5, and 8.6 ng/ml (7.2–8.9. Both HCY and CathK were found positively associated with serum phosphorus (r = 0.584, P < 2.01 and r = 0.249, P < 0.05, respectively. Levels of HCY positively correlate with PTH (r = 0.303, P < 0.01 and inversely with Vitamin B12 (r = −0.248, P < 0.05. No significant association was seen between CathK level and 25(OH D, iPTH, serum calcium. Conclusion: Low bone mass by DXA is a significant problem in postmenopausal females. HCY and CathK do not reliably correlate with bone loss in

  14. Global change and relative sea level rise at Venice: what impact in term of flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbognin, Laura; Tosi, Luigi [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Venice (Italy); Teatini, Pietro [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Venice (Italy); University of Padova, Department of Mathematical Methods and Models for Scientific Applications, Padua (Italy); Tomasin, Alberto [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Venice (Italy); University Ca' Foscari in Venice, Venice (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    Relative sea level rise (RSLR) due to climate change and geodynamics represents the main threat for the survival of Venice, emerging today only 90 cm above the Northern Adriatic mean sea level (msl). The 25 cm RSLR occurred over the 20th century, consisting of about 12 cm of land subsidence and 13 cm of sea level rise, has increased the flood frequency by more than seven times with severe damages to the urban heritage. Reasonable forecasts of the RSLR expected to the century end must be investigated to assess the suitability of the Mo.S.E. project planned for the city safeguarding, i.e., the closure of the lagoon inlets by mobile barriers. Here we consider three RSLR scenarios as resulting from the past sea level rise recorded in the Northern Adriatic Sea, the IPCC mid-range A1B scenario, and the expected land subsidence. Available sea level measurements show that more than 5 decades are required to compute a meaningful eustatic trend, due to pseudo-cyclic 7-8 year long fluctuations. The period from 1890 to 2007 is characterized by an average rate of 0.12 {+-} 0.01 cm/year. We demonstrate that linear regression is the most suitable model to represent the eustatic process over these 117 year. Concerning subsidence, at present Venice is sinking due to natural causes at 0.05 cm/year. The RSLR is expected to range between 17 and 53 cm by 2100, and its repercussions in terms of flooding frequency are associated here to each scenario. In particular, the frequency of tides higher than 110 cm, i.e., the value above which the gates would close the lagoon to the sea, will increase from the nowadays 4 times per year to a range between 20 and 250. These projections provide a large spread of possible conditions concerning the survival of Venice, from a moderate nuisance to an intolerable aggression. Hence, complementary solutions to Mo.S.E. may well be investigated. (orig.)

  15. Health-related quality of life outcomes and level of evidence in pediatric neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Daniel; Vedantam, Aditya; Briceño, Valentina; Lam, Sandi K; Luerssen, Thomas G; Jea, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE The emphasis on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes is increasing, along with an emphasis on evidence-based medicine. However, there is a notable paucity of validated HRQOL instruments for the pediatric population. Furthermore, no standardization or consensus currently exists concerning which HRQOL outcome measures ought to be used in pediatric neurosurgery. The authors wished to identify HRQOL outcomes used in pediatric neurosurgery research over the past 10 years, their frequency, and usage trends. METHODS Three top pediatric neurosurgical journals were reviewed for the decade from 2005 to 2014 for clinical studies of pediatric neurosurgical procedures that report HRQOL outcomes. Similar studies in the peer-reviewed journal Pediatrics were also used as a benchmark. Publication year, level of evidence, and HRQOL outcomes were collected for each article. RESULTS A total of 31 HRQOL studies were published in the pediatric neurosurgical literature over the study period. By comparison, there were 55 such articles in Pediatrics. The number of publications using HRQOL instruments showed a significant positive trend over time for Pediatrics (B = 0.62, p = 0.02) but did not increase significantly over time for the 3 neurosurgical journals (B = 0.12, p = 0.5). The authors identified a total of 46 different HRQOL instruments used across all journals. Within the neurosurgical journals, the Hydrocephalus Outcome Questionnaire (HOQ) (24%) was the most frequently used, followed by the Health Utilities Index (HUI) (16%), the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) (12%), and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) (12%). Of the 55 articles identified in Pediatrics, 22 (40%) used a version of the PedsQL. No neurosurgical study reached above Level 4 on the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM) system. However, multiple studies from Pediatrics achieved OCEBM Level 3, several were categorized as Level 2, and one reached Level 1

  16. Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants grown at various salinity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariadi, Yuda; Marandon, Karl; Tian, Yu; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Shabala, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were studied by exposing plants to six salinity levels (0-500 mM NaCl range) for 70 d. Salt stress was administered either by pre-mixing of the calculated amount of NaCl with the potting mix before seeds were planted or by the gradual increase of NaCl levels in the irrigation water. For both methods, the optimal plant growth and biomass was achieved between 100 mM and 200 mM NaCl, suggesting that quinoa possess a very efficient system to adjust osmotically for abrupt increases in NaCl stress. Up to 95% of osmotic adjustment in old leaves and between 80% and 85% of osmotic adjustment in young leaves was achieved by means of accumulation of inorganic ions (Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-)) at these NaCl levels, whilst the contribution of organic osmolytes was very limited. Consistently higher K(+) and lower Na(+) levels were found in young, as compared with old leaves, for all salinity treatments. The shoot sap K(+) progressively increased with increased salinity in old leaves; this is interpreted as evidence for the important role of free K(+) in leaf osmotic adjustment under saline conditions. A 5-fold increase in salinity level (from 100 mM to 500 mM) resulted in only a 50% increase in the sap Na(+) content, suggesting either a very strict control of xylem Na(+) loading or an efficient Na(+) removal from leaves. A very strong correlation between NaCl-induced K(+) and H(+) fluxes was observed in quinoa root, suggesting that a rapid NaCl-induced activation of H(+)-ATPase is needed to restore otherwise depolarized membrane potential and prevent further K(+) leak from the cytosol. Taken together, this work emphasizes the role of inorganic ions for osmotic adjustment in halophytes and calls for more in-depth studies of the mechanisms of vacuolar Na(+) sequestration, control of Na(+) and K(+) xylem loading, and their transport to the shoot.

  17. Relative Sea-Level Stability in Natuna Island, Indonesia, since 6400 yr BP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, J. X. W.; Meltzner, A. J.; Switzer, A.; Horton, B.; Ke, L.; Wang, X.; Bradley, S.; Natawidjaja, D.; Suwargadi, B. W.

    2017-12-01

    In order to understand the regional variability of relative sea level (RSL) due to glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) and other natural influences, high-precision records of Holocene RSL on the Sunda Shelf are required. Accurate estimates of past RSL at a variety of locations allow us to validate geophysical and climate models, and provide context for understanding modern RSL change in the face of global climate change. For the aforementioned purposes, we surveyed and dated coral microatoll colonies, which are precise RSL proxy archives, from Natuna Island in Indonesia. Our analysis of 11 coral microatoll elevations from a total of four sites on Natuna Island is constrained in time by a minimum of one radiocarbon date and one U-Th age on each microatoll. The distribution of ages and elevations indicates that RSL was relatively stable from 6400 to 1400 yr BP at 0.3-0.6 m higher than present, before a more recent fall to current levels. The radiocarbon and U-Th ages are consistent with one another, with preliminary estimates of ΔR ≈ 0 for our entire data set. Our data are roughly compatible with predictions of a recently developed GIA model for the Southeast Asia region (Bradley et al., 2016, Quat. Sci. Rev.). This new dataset is part of larger project with more than 25 sites in Malaysia and Indonesia. Our new constraints on past RSL on the Sunda Shelf will allow for validation and calibration of GIA models in the tropics, where RSL data are presently insufficient.

  18. Feedstock specific environmental risk levels related to biomass extraction for energy from boreal and temperate forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamers, Patrick; Thiffault, Evelyne; Paré, David; Junginger, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Past research on identifying potentially negative impacts of forest management activities has primarily focused on traditional forest operations. The increased use of forest biomass for energy in recent years, spurred predominantly by policy incentives for the reduction of fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions, and by efforts from the forestry sector to diversify products and increase value from the forests, has again brought much attention to this issue. The implications of such practices continue to be controversially debated; predominantly the adverse impacts on soil productivity and biodiversity, and the climate change mitigation potential of forest bioenergy. Current decision making processes require comprehensive, differentiated assessments of the known and unknown factors and risk levels of potentially adverse environmental effects. This paper provides such an analysis and differentiates between the feedstock of harvesting residues, roundwood, and salvage wood. It concludes that the risks related to biomass for energy outtake are feedstock specific and vary in terms of scientific certainty. Short-term soil productivity risks are higher for residue removal. There is however little field evidence of negative long-term impacts of biomass removal on productivity in the scale predicted by modeling. Risks regarding an alteration of biodiversity are relatively equally distributed across the feedstocks. The risk of limited or absent short-term carbon benefits is highest for roundwood, but negligible for residues and salvage wood. Salvage operation impacts on soil productivity and biodiversity are a key knowledge gap. Future research should also focus on deriving regionally specific, quantitative thresholds for sustainable biomass removal. -- Highlights: ► Synthesis of the scientific uncertainties regarding biomass for energy outtake. ► With specific focus on soil productivity, biodiversity, and carbon balance. ► Balanced determination of the risk levels

  19. Technical and tactical skills related to performance levels in tennis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolman, Nikki S; Kramer, Tamara; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Huijgen, Barbara C H; Visscher, Chris

    2018-06-11

    The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of outcome measures and instruments identified in the literature for examining technical and tactical skills in tennis related to performance levels. Such instruments can be used to identify talent or the specific skill development training needs of particular players. Searches for this review were conducted using the PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycInfo databases. Out of 733 publications identified through these searches, 40 articles were considered relevant and included in this study. They were divided into three categories: (1) technical skills, (2) tactical skills and (3) integrated technical and tactical skills. There was strong evidence that technical skills (ball velocity and to a lesser extent ball accuracy) and tactical skills (decision making, anticipation, tactical knowledge and visual search strategies) differed among players according to their performance levels. However, integrated measurement of these skills is required, because winning a point largely hinges on a tactical decision to perform a particular stroke (i.e., technical execution). Therefore, future research should focus on examining the relationship between these skills and tennis performance and on the development of integrated methods for measuring these skills.

  20. Health and environmental risk-related impacts of actinide burning on high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1992-05-01

    The potential health and environmental risk-related impacts of actinide burning for high-level waste disposal were evaluated. Actinide burning, also called waste partitioning-transmutation, is an advanced method for radioactive waste management based on the idea of destroying the most toxic components in the waste. It consists of two steps: (1) selective removal of the most toxic radionuclides from high-level/spent fuel waste and (2) conversion of those radionuclides into less toxic radioactive materials and/or stable elements. Risk, as used in this report, is defined as the probability of a failure times its consequence. Actinide burning has two potential health and environmental impacts on waste management. Risks and the magnitude of high-consequence repository failure scenarios are decreased by inventory reduction of the long-term radioactivity in the repository. (What does not exist cannot create risk or uncertainty.) Risk may also be reduced by the changes in the waste characteristics, resulting from selection of waste forms after processing, that are superior to spent fuel and which lower the potential of transport of radionuclides from waste form to accessible environment. There are no negative health or environmental impacts to the repository from actinide burning; however, there may be such impacts elsewhere in the fuel cycle

  1. Delirium and High Creatine Kinase and Myoglobin Levels Related to Synthetic Cannabinoid Withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bulent Yazici

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs are included in a group of drugs called new psychoactive substances. Effects of SCs on the central nervous system are similar to other cannabinoids, but 2–100 times more potent than marijuana. Thus, addiction and withdrawal symptoms are more severe than natural cannabinoids. Withdrawal symptoms of SCs were reported in the literature previously. But there is no report about SC withdrawal delirium and its treatment. Several studies reported that agonists of CB1 receptors play a role in GABA and glutamatergic neurotransmission, which is similar to the effects of alcohol on GABA and glutamatergic receptors. Previous studies on alcohol delirium cases suggested that elevated creatine kinase (CK can be a marker of progress. This study reports delirium and high serum CK levels related to SC withdrawal and offers a treatment with benzodiazepine for them. We described two cases treated in our inpatient clinic about SC withdrawal with increase of serum CK level and other laboratory parameters. One of them demonstrated delirium symptoms and the other did not with early rapid treatment.

  2. Test anxiety levels and related factors: students preparing for university exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Ayse Sonay; Balci, Serap; Kose, Dilek

    2014-11-01

    To assess test anxiety levels and related factors among students preparing for university exams. The descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at Istanbul University, Turkey, and comprised students preparing for exams in two private courses for the 2010-11 academic year. Data was collected via an original questionnaire and the Test Anxiety Inventory. SPSS 20 was used for statistical analyses. Of the 1250 students who qualified for the study, the final sample size was 376 (30%). Of them, 210 (55.9%) were females, and 154 (41%) were 18 years old. Students' mean Test Anxiety Inventory scores were 39.44±11.34. Female students' overall test anxiety scores and mean emotionality subscale score were significantly higher than those of their male counterparts. Students whose mothers had an educational attainment between primary school n=170 (45.2%) and a high school diploma n=184 (48.9%), as well as those with four or more siblings n=49 (15%), had significantly higher mean overall Test Anxiety Inventory scores. Among other things, test anxiety is influenced by maternal educational level, type of high school, number of exams, and number of siblings. Preparing a relaxed study environment for students, providing the family monetary or social support, and encouraging participation in social activities are recommendedto decreajb anxiety in students preparing for university exams.

  3. Quantifying the Transition from Active Surveillance to Watchful Waiting Among Men with Very Low-risk Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Garmo, Hans; Lindhagen, Lars; Bratt, Ola; Stattin, Pär; Adolfsson, Jan

    2017-10-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is commonly used for men with low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). When life expectancy becomes too short for curative treatment to be beneficial, a change from AS to watchful waiting (WW) follows. Little is known about this change since it is rarely documented in medical records. To model transition from AS to WW and how this is affected by age and comorbidity among men with very low-risk PCa. National population-based healthcare registers were used for analysis. Using data on PCa characteristics, age, and comorbidity, a state transition model was created to estimate the probability of changes between predefined treatments to estimate transition from AS to WW. Our estimates indicate that 48% of men with very low-risk PCa starting AS eventually changed to WW over a life course. This proportion increased with age at time of AS initiation. Within 10 yr from start of AS, 10% of men aged 55 yr and 50% of men aged 70 yr with no comorbidity at initiation changed to WW. Our prevalence simulation suggests that the number of men on WW who were previously on AS will eventually stabilise after 30 yr. A limitation is the limited information from clinical follow-up visits (eg, repeat biopsies). We estimated that changes from AS to WW become common among men with very low-risk PCa who are elderly. This potential change to WW should be discussed with men starting on AS. Moreover, our estimates may help in planning health care resources allocated to men on AS, as the transition to WW is associated with lower demands on outpatient resources. Changes from active surveillance to watchful waiting will become more common among men with very low-risk prostate cancer. These observations suggest that patients need to be informed about this potential change before they start on active surveillance. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Modulation of neurological related allergic reaction in mice exposed to low-level toluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin-Tin-Win-Shwe; Yamamoto, Shoji; Nakajima, Daisuke; Furuyama, Akiko; Fukushima, Atsushi; Ahmed, Sohel; Goto, Sumio; Fujimaki, Hidekazu

    2007-01-01

    The contributing role of indoor air pollution to the development of allergic disease has become increasingly evident in public health problems. It has been reported that extensive communication exists between neurons and immune cells, and neurotrophins are molecules potentially responsible for regulating and controlling this neuroimmune crosstalk. The adverse effects of volatile organic compounds which are main indoor pollutants on induction or augmentation of neuroimmune interaction have not been fully characterized yet. To investigate the effects of low-level toluene inhalation on the airway inflammatory responses, male C3H mice were exposed to filtered air (control), 9 ppm, and 90 ppm toluene for 30 min by nose-only inhalation on Days 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Some groups of mice were injected with ovalbumin intraperitoneally before starting exposure schedule and these mice were then challenged with aerosolized ovalbumin as booster dose. For analysis of airway inflammation, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were collected to determine inflammatory cell influx and lung tissue and blood samples were collected to determine cytokine and neurotrophin mRNA and protein expressions and plasma antibody titers using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA methods respectively. Exposure of the ovalbumin-immunized mice to low-level toluene resulted in (1) increased inflammatory cells infiltration in BAL fluid; (2) increased IL-5 mRNA, decreased nerve growth factor receptor tropomyosin-related kinase A and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNAs in lung; and (3) increased IgE and IgG 1 antibodies and nerve growth factor content in the plasma. These findings suggest that low-level toluene exposure aggravates the airway inflammatory responses in ovalbumin-immunized mice by modulating neuroimmune crosstalk

  5. Mapping Relative Sea Level Influences of the Cape Fear Arch in southern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, A.; Kemp, A.; Capar, P.

    2017-12-01

    Long-term relative sea-level (RSL) records are a necessary benchmark by which to gauge present accelerated rates of sea-level rise, future sea-level predictions, and their implications to the coastal zone. The east coast of the United States functions as a significant region of latitudinal RSL variability due to the continuous recovery of land from the deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet since the Last Glacial Maximum. Differential glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) along the coastline has caused higher rates of subsidence in areas around the former forbulge maxima near New Jersey and Delaware and lower rates to the north and south of this maxima. However, the coast between southern North Carolina and northern South Carolina is experiencing a slower rate of RSL rise then is seen in reconstructed GIA latitudinal trends along the U.S. east coast. It was thought that this could have been attributed to non-isostatic, long-term tectonic processes causing less GIA subsidence of the lithosphere within the region impacted by uplift from the Cape Fear Arch (CFA), an underlying crystalline basement high. A recent study suggests that RSL rise is slower around the CFA than areas to the north and south due to suggested CFA uplift rates of 0.24+0.15mm a-1. An absence of RSL records for 200km north of the CFA make mapping of its influence difficult. Additional RSL records to the north of the CFA allow for a better understanding of the asymmetrical distribution in the rate of RSL rise in this region. Because the distribution in the rate of RSLR between records is not linear it is important for these low-lying coastal communities to better understand their risk to future RSLR.

  6. Effects of nutritional level of concentrate-based diets on meat quality and expression levels of genes related to meat quality in Hainan black goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Shi, Liguang; Li, Mao; Huang, Xianzhou; Guan, Song

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the nutritional levels of diets on meat quality and related gene expression in Hainan black goat. Twenty-four goats were divided into six dietary treatments and were fed a concentrate-based diet with two levels of crude protein (CP) (15% or 17%) and three levels of digestive energy (DE) (11.72, 12.55 or 13.39 MJ/kg DM) for 90 days. Goats fed the concentrate-based diet with 17% CP had significantly (P meat quality and expression levels of genes associated with meat quality in Hainan black goats. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Low-level visual attention and its relation to joint attention in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Jessica L Bean; Eigsti, Inge-Marie

    2017-04-01

    Visual attention is integral to social interaction and is a critical building block for development in other domains (e.g., language). Furthermore, atypical attention (especially joint attention) is one of the earliest markers of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study assesses low-level visual attention and its relation to social attentional processing in youth with ASD and typically developing (TD) youth, aged 7 to 18 years. The findings indicate difficulty overriding incorrect attentional cues in ASD, particularly with non-social (arrow) cues relative to social (face) cues. The findings also show reduced competition in ASD from cues that remain on-screen. Furthermore, social attention, autism severity, and age were all predictors of competing cue processing. The results suggest that individuals with ASD may be biased towards speeded rather than accurate responding, and further, that reduced engagement with visual information may impede responses to visual attentional cues. Once attention is engaged, individuals with ASD appear to interpret directional cues as meaningful. These findings from a controlled, experimental paradigm were mirrored in results from an ecologically valid measure of social attention. Attentional difficulties may be exacerbated during the complex and dynamic experience of actual social interaction. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  8. Serum progranulin levels in relation to insulin resistance in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alissa, Eman M; Sutaih, Rima H; Kamfar, Hayat Z; Alagha, Abdulmoeen E; Marzouki, Zuhair M

    2017-11-27

    Progranulin is an adipokine that is involved in the inflammatory response, glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and may therefore be involved in chronic subclinical inflammation associated with the pathogenesis of childhood obesity. We aimed to investigate the association of circulating progranulin levels with metabolic parameters in children and to assess the importance of progranulin as a biomarker for metabolic diseases. A total of 150 children were consecutively recruited from the Pediatric Nutrition Clinics at King Abdulaziz University Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Children were classified into four groups based on quartile for serum progranulin. Anthropometric variables were measured in all study subjects. Fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of blood glucose, insulin and lipid profile. Children within the upper quartile for serum progranulin concentration were heavier, more insulin resistant and had higher concentrations of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin and high sensitivity C reactive protein compared to those in the lower quartile. On correlation analysis, serum progranulin concentrations were significantly related to general and central adiposity, metabolic parameters, markers of inflammation and insulin resistance. Stepwise multiple regression showed that 26.6% of the variability in serum progranulin could be explained by measures of adiposity. The increased serum progranulin concentrations were closely related to measures of adiposity, metabolic parameters, inflammatory marker and insulin resistance indices, suggesting that progranulin may be an excellent biomarker for obesity in childhood.

  9. Brain function during probabilistic learning in relation to IQ and level of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Wouter; Crone, Eveline A; Güroğlu, Berna

    2012-02-15

    Knowing how to adapt your behavior based on feedback lies at the core of successful learning. We investigated the relation between brain function, grey matter volume, educational level and IQ in a Dutch adolescent sample. In total 45 healthy volunteers between ages 13 and 16 were recruited from schools for pre-vocational and pre-university education. For each individual, IQ was estimated using two subtests from the WISC-III-R (similarities and block design). While in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, participants performed a probabilistic learning task. Behavioral comparisons showed that participants with higher IQ used a more adaptive learning strategy after receiving positive feedback. Analysis of neural activation revealed that higher IQ was associated with increased activation in DLPFC and dACC when receiving positive feedback, specifically for rules with low reward probability (i.e., unexpected positive feedback). Furthermore, VBM analyses revealed that IQ correlated positively with grey matter volume within these regions. These results provide support for IQ-related individual differences in the developmental time courses of neural circuitry supporting feedback-based learning. Current findings are interpreted in terms of a prolonged window of flexibility and opportunity for adolescents with higher IQ scores. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The levels of disclosure relating to mine closure obligations by platinum mining companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joline Sturdy

    2017-06-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to establish the extent to which platinum mines listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE comply with a recommended disclosure framework. Setting: South Africa is the largest producer of platinum in the world. The study covers all platinum mines listed on the JSE. Methods: Using a framework, a census of the annual financial statements, integrated annual reports and sustainability reports or websites was conducted to determine the level of compliance of disclosure relating to mine closure obligations to the recommended disclosure framework. Results: The results show disclosure relating to mine closure obligations of platinum mines listed on the JSE is inconsistent and not sufficient for stakeholders to understand the scope, key assumptions, parameters or reliability of the assessment and calculation of mine closure obligations. Conclusion: The assumptions used to determine mine closure obligations are specialised and multi-disciplinary. The accuracy and reliability of mine closure obligations will improve dramatically through greater transparency and access to information. It is recommended that the JSE listings for mining companies should require a competent person’s report to provide disclosure on assumptions, key values and processes applied to determine the mine closure obligations. Furthermore, it is recommended that the Department of Mineral Resources implements a mechanism of independent assessment of mine closure obligations by experts on an ongoing basis.

  11. Body composition variables and leptin levels in functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and amenorrhea related to eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Vincenzina; Dei, Metella; Morelli, Chiara; Schettino, M Teresa; Balzi, Daniela; Nuvolone, Daniela

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify diagnostic criteria that can distinguish between subjects with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea largely related to minimal energy deficiency and those in whom failure of adaptive response to stress prevails. We studied 59 young women with secondary amenorrhea related to modest eating disorders and 58 who complained of stressful events in their history. We assessed anthropometric measurements, body composition using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and basal endocrine profile. Subjects with disordered eating had lower body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM) measured with both techniques, lumbar mineral density and direct and indirect measures of lean mass. Leptin and free tri-iodothyronine(FT(3)) concentrations also proved lower in the group of subjects with eating disorders, although there was no significant difference in cortisol between the two groups. Leptin levels were positively associated not only with fat mass, but also with body cell mass indexed to height and phase angle, parameters studied with BIA as expression of active lean compartment. A multivariate model confirmed the utility of integrating endocrine data with the study of body composition. The use of bioelectrical impedance analysis proved to be, in clinical use, a valid diagnostic alternative to DEXA, especially considering body cell mass and phase angle. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Spatial distribution mapping of drinking water fluoride levels in Karnataka, India: fluoride-related health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Chitta R; Shahnawaz, Khijmatgar; Kumari, Divya; Chowdhury, Avidyuti; Bedi, Raman; Lynch, Edward; Harding, Stewart; Grootveld, Martin

    2016-11-01

    (1) To estimate the concentrations of fluoride in drinking water throughout different zones and districts of the state of Karnataka. (2) To investigate the variation of fluoride concentration in drinking water from different sources, and its relationships to daily temperature and rainfall status in the regional districts. (3) To develop an updated fluoride concentration intensity map of the state of Karnataka, and to evaluate these data in the context of fluoride-related health effects such as fluorosis and their prevalence. Aqueous standard solutions of 10, 100 and 1,000 ppm fluoride (F - ) were prepared with analytical grade Na + /F - and a buffer; TISAB II was incorporated in both calibration standard and analysis solutions in order to remove the potentially interfering effects of trace metal ions. This analysis was performed using an ion-selective electrode (ISE), and mean determination readings for n = 5 samples collected at each Karnataka water source were recorded. The F - concentration in drinking water in Karnataka state was found to vary substantially, with the highest mean values recorded being in the north-eastern zone (1.61 ppm), and the lowest in the south-western one (only 0.41 ppm). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that there were very highly significant 'between-zone' and 'between-districts-within-zones' sources of variation (p water source F - levels within this state. The southern part of Karnataka has low levels of F - in its drinking water, and may require fluoridation treatment in order to mitigate for dental caries and further ailments related to fluoride deficiency. However, districts within the north-eastern region have contrastingly high levels of fluoride, an observation which has been linked to dental and skeletal fluorosis. This highlights a major requirement for interventional actions in order to ensure maintenance of the recommended range of fluoride concentrations (0.8-1.5 ppm) in Karnataka's drinking water

  13. Intensity related changes of running economy in recreational level distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeroff, Tobias; Bernardi, Andreas; Niederer, Daniel; Wilke, Jan; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried

    2017-09-01

    Running economy (RE) is often described as a key demand of running performance. The variety of currently used assessment methods with different running intensities and outcomes restricts interindividual comparability of RE in recreational level runners. The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of RE, assessed as oxygen cost (OC) and caloric unit cost (CUC), on running speed at individual physiological thresholds. Eighteen recreational runners performed: 1) a graded exercise test to estimate first ventilatory threshold (VT1), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max); 2) discontinuous RE assessment to determine relative OC in milliliters per kilogram per kilometer (mL/kg/km) and CUC in kilocalories per kilogram per kilometer (kcal/kg/km) at three different running intensities: VT1, RCP and at a third standardized reference point (TP) in between. OC (mL/kg/km; at VT1: 235.4±26.2; at TP: 227.8±23.4; at RCP: 224.9±21.9) and CUC (kcal/kg/km at VT1: 1.18±0.13; at TP: 1.14±0.12; at RCP: 1.13±0.11) decreased with increasing intensities (P≤0.01). Controlling for the influence of sex OC and CUC linearly correlated with running speed at RCP and VO2max (P≤0.01). RE, even assessed at low intensity, is strongly related to running performance in recreational athletes. Both calculation methods used (OC and CUC) are sensitive for monitoring intensity related changes of substrate utilization. RE values decreased with higher running intensity indicating an increase of anaerobic and subsequent decrease of aerobic substrate utilization.

  14. Measurement of concentrations of whole blood levels of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine and their relations to plasma levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwad, Hussain Mohamad; Kirsch, Susanne H; Geisel, Juergen; Obeid, Rima

    2014-04-15

    We aimed at developing a method for the measurement of choline and its metabolites in whole blood (WB). After an extraction step, quantification of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine (DMG) was performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Plasma and WB metabolites were evaluated in a group of 61 elderly people. The calibration curves were linear (r(2)>0.997) for all compounds. The inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation for all analytes were 90% and the relative matrix effect were ≤4.0%. The median concentrations of choline, betaine, and DMG were 11.3, 27.8, and 5.9μmol/L in plasma and 66.6, 165, and 13.7μmol/L in WB, respectively. There were positive correlations between WB and plasma markers; for choline (r=0.42), betaine (r=0.61), and DMG (r=0.56) (all p≤0.001). The concentrations of betaine in WB and plasma were significantly higher in men than in women. The concentrations of WB choline and DMG did not differ significantly according to sex. In conclusion, we have established a reliable method for measuring choline metabolites in WB. The concentrations of WB choline, betaine, and DMG seem to reflect intracellular concentrations of these metabolites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Mid-Holocene Relative Sea-Level Stack, New Jersey, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, B.; Walker, J. S.; Kemp, A.; Shaw, T. J.; Kopp, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    Most high resolution (decimeter- and decadal-scale) relative sea-level (RSL) records using salt-marsh microfossils as a proxy only extend through the Common Era, limiting our understanding of driving mechanisms of RSL change and how sea-level is influenced by changing climate. Records beyond the Common Era are limited by the depth of continuous sequences of salt-marsh peat suitable for high resolution reconstructions, as well as contamination by local processes such as sediment compaction. In contrast, sequences of basal peats have produced compaction-free RSL records through the Holocene, but at a low resolution (meter- and centennial-scale). We devise a new Multi-Proxy Presence/Absence Method (MP2AM) to develop a mid-Holocene RSL stack. We stack a series of 1 m basal peat cores that overlap along a uniform elevational gradient above an incompressible basal sand. We analyzed three sea-level indicators from 14 cores: foraminifera, testate amoebae, and stable carbon isotope geochemistry. To reconstruct RSL, this multi-proxy approach uses the timesaving presence/absence of forams and testates to determine the elevation of the highest occurrence of forams and the lowest occurrence of testates in each basal core. We use stable carbon isotope geochemistry to determine the C3/C4 vegetation boundary in each core. We develop age-depth models for each core using a series of radiocarbon dates. The RSL records from each 1 m basal core are combined to create a stack or, in effect, one long core of salt-marsh material. This method removes the issue of compaction to create a continuous RSL record to address temporal changes and periods of climate and sea-level variability. We reconstruct a southern NJ mid-Holocene RSL record from Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge, where Kemp et al. (2013) completed a 2500 yr RSL record using a foraminifera-based transfer function approach. Preliminary radiocarbon dates suggest the basal sequence is at least 4246-4408 cal yrs BP

  16. Vision-Related Functional Burden of Diabetic Retinopathy Across Severity Levels in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jeffrey R; Doan, Quan V; Gleeson, Michelle; Haskova, Zdenka; Ramulu, Pradeep; Morse, Lawrence; Cantrell, Ronald A

    2017-09-01

    Among adults with diabetes in the United States, severe forms of diabetic retinopathy (DR) are significantly associated with a greater vision-related functional burden. To assess the functional burden of DR across severity levels in the United States. This cross-sectional study was based on 1004 participants 40 years or older with diabetes and valid ocular and sociodemographic outcomes in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) (2005-2006 and 2007-2008). Diabetic retinopathy was based on fundus photograph grading, using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study severity scale. The analysis was performed from October 15, 2016, to June 15, 2017. Functional difficulties secondary to vision were assessed during a household questionnaire in which participants self-reported difficulty with reading, visuospatial tasks (ie, close-up work or finding things on a crowded shelf), mobility (ie, walking down steps, stairs, or curbs), and driving. The main outcome measure was vision-related functional burden, which was defined as present for individuals reporting moderate or greater difficulty in any of the aforementioned tasks. Of the 1004 persons with diabetes analyzed for this study (mean age, 65.7 years [95% CI, 64.0-67.3 years]; 51.1% male [95% CI, 47.1-55.2] and 48.9% female [95% CI, 44.8-52.9]), the prevalence was 72.3% for no retinopathy, 25.4% for mild and moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), and 2.3% for severe NPDR or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The prevalence of vision-related functional burden was 20.2% (95% CI, 16.3%-24.1%) for those with no retinopathy, 20.4% (95% CI, 15.3%-27.8%) for those with mild and moderate NPDR, and 48.5% (95% CI, 25.6%-71.5%) for those with severe NPDR or PDR (P = .02). In multivariable analysis, the odds of vision-related functional burden were significantly greater among those with severe NPDR or PDR relative to those with no retinopathy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.59; 95

  17. Identification of Patients at Very Low Risk of Local Recurrence After Breast-Conserving Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sally L., E-mail: ssmith11@bccancer.bc.ca [Radiation Therapy Program and Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, University of British Columbia, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Truong, Pauline T. [Radiation Therapy Program and Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, University of British Columbia, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Lu, Linghong; Lesperance, Mary [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Olivotto, Ivo A. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To identify clinical and pathological factors that identify groups of women with stage I breast cancer with a 5-year risk of local recurrence (LR) ≤1.5% after breast-conserving therapy (BCS) plus whole-breast radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Study subjects were 5974 patients ≥50 years of age whose cancer was diagnosed between 1989 and 2006, and were referred with pT1 pN0 invasive breast cancer treated with BCS and RT. Cases of 5- and 10-year LR were examined using Kaplan-Meier methods. Recursive partitioning analysis was performed in patients treated with and without endocrine therapy to identify combinations of factors associated with a 5-year LR risk ≤1.5%. Results: The median follow-up was 8.61 years. Median age was 63 years of age (range, 50 to 91). Overall 5-year LR was 1.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2%-1.9%) and 10-year LR was 3.4% (95% CI, 2.8%-4.0%). Of 2830 patients treated with endocrine therapy, patient subsets identified with 5-year LR ≤1.5% included patients with grade 1 histology (n=1038; LR, 0.2%; 95% CI, 0%-0.5%) or grade 2 histology plus ≥60 years of age (n=843; LR, 0.5%; 95% CI, 0%-1.0%). Ten-year LR for these groups were 0.8% (95% CI, 0.1%-1.6%) and 0.9% (95% CI, 0.2%-1.6%), respectively. Of 3144 patients treated without endocrine therapy, patients with grade 1 histology plus clear margins had 5-year LR ≤1.5% (n=821; LR, 0.6%; 95% CI, 0.1%-1.2%). Ten-year LR for this group was 2.2% (95% CI, 1.0%-3.4%). Conclusions: Histologic grade, age, margin status, and use of endocrine therapy identified 45% of a population-based cohort of female patients over age 50 with stage I breast cancer with a 5-year LR risk ≤1.5% after BCS plus RT. Prospective study is needed to evaluate the safety of omitting RT in patients with such a low risk of LR.

  18. Utilization of prostate brachytherapy for low risk prostate cancer: Is the decline overstated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Safdieh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Several prior studies have suggested that brachytherapy utilization has markedly decreased, coinciding with the recent increased utilization of intensity modulated radiation therapy, as well as an increase in urologist-owned centers. We sought to investigate the brachytherapy utilization in a large, hospital-based registry. Material and methods: Men with prostate cancer diagnosed between 2004-2012 and treated with either external beam radiation and/or prostate brachytherapy were abstracted from the National Cancer Database. In order to be included, men had to be clinically staged as T1c-T2aNx-0Mx-0, Gleason 6, PSA ≤ 10.0 ng/ml. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze brachytherapy utilization over time and were compared via χ2. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess for covariables associated with increased brachytherapy usage. Results : There were 89,413 men included in this study, of which 37,054 (41.6% received only external beam radiation, and 52,089 (58.4% received prostate brachytherapy. The use of brachytherapy declined over time from 62.9% in 2004 to 51.3% in 2012 (p < 0.001. This decline was noted in both academic facilities (60.8% in 2004 to 47.0% in 2012, p < 0.001 as well as in non-academic facilities (63.7% in 2004 to 53.0% in 2012, p < 0.001. The decline was more pronounced in patients who lived closer to treatment facilities than those who lived further. The use of intensity modulated radiation therapy increased during this same time period from 18.4% in 2004 to 38.2% in 2012 (p < 0.001. On multivariate analysis, treatment at an academic center, increasing age, decreasing distance from the treatment center, and years of diagnosis from 2006-2012 were significantly associated with reduced brachytherapy usage. Conclusions : In this hospital-based registry, prostate brachytherapy usage has declined for low risk prostate cancer as intensity modulated radiation therapy usage has increased. However, it still

  19. The Design and Operation of Suborbital Low Cost and Low Risk Vehicle to the Edge of Space (SOLVES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridzuan Zakaria, Norul; Nasrun, Nasri; Rashidy Zulkifi, Mohd; Izmir Yamin, Mohd; Othman, Jamaludin; Rafidi Zakaria, Norul

    2013-09-01

    Inclusive in the planning of Spaceport Malaysia are 2 local suborbital vehicles development. One of the vehicles is called SOLVES or Suborbital Low Cost and Low Risk Vehicle to the Edge of Space. The emphasis on the design and operation of SOLVES is green and robotic technology, where both green technology and robotic technology are used to protect the environment and enhance safety. As SOLVES climbs, its center of gravity stabilizes and remains at the bottom as its propellant being used until it depletes, due to the position of the vehicle's passenger cabin and its engines at its lower end. It will reach 80km from sea level generally known as "the edge of space" due to its momentum although its propellant will be depleted at a lower altitude. As the suborbital vehicle descends tail first, its wings automatically extend and rotate at horizontal axes perpendicular to the fuselage. These naturally and passively rotating wings ensure controlled low velocity and stable descend of the vehicle. The passenger cabin also rotates automatically at a steady low speed at the centerline of its fuselage as it descends, caused naturally by the lift force, enabling its passengers a surrounding 360 degrees view. SOLVES is steered automatically to its landing point by an electrical propulsion system with a vectoring nozzle. The electrical propulsion minimizes space and weight and is free of pollution and noise. Its electrical power comes from a battery aided by power generated by the naturally rotating wings. When the vehicle lands, it is in the safest mode as its propellant is depleted and its center of gravity remains at the bottom of its cabin. The cabin, being located at the bottom of the fuselage, enables very convenient, rapid and safe entry and exit of its passengers. SOLVES will be a robotic suborbital vehicle with green technology. The vehicle will carry 4 passengers and each passenger will be trained to land the vehicle manually if the fully automated landing system fails

  20. Health-related quality of life is related to cytokine levels at 12 months in patients with chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Kupper, Nina; Schoormans, Dounya

    2010-01-01

    for the MLHFQ, the SF-36 mental component summary (MCS) and the physical component summary (PCS), controlling for age, sex, BMI, smoking, co morbidity, NYHA-class and 6min walk test. Baseline MLHFQ was associated with increased levels of baseline sTNFR2, and 12-month sTNFR1 12month sTNFR2. Baseline MCS...

  1. Levels of oxylipins, endocannabinoids and related lipids in plasma before and after low-level exposure to acrolein in healthy individuals and individuals with chemical intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeson, Anna-Sara; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Häggström, Jenny; Fowler, Christopher J; Nording, Malin L

    2017-06-01

    Oxylipins and endocannabinoids play important biological roles, including effects upon inflammation. It is not known whether the circulating levels of these lipids are affected by inhalation of the environmental pollutant acrolein. In the present study, we have investigated the consequences of low-level exposure to acrolein on oxylipin, endocannabinoid and related lipid levels in the plasma of healthy individuals and individuals with chemical intolerance (CI), an affliction with a suggested inflammatory origin. Participants were exposed twice (60min) to heptane and a mixture of heptane and acrolein. Blood samples were collected before exposure, after and 24h post-exposure. There were no overt effects of acrolein exposure on the oxylipin lipidome or endocannibinoids detectable in the bloodstream at the time points investigated. No relationship between basal levels or levels after exposure to acrolein and CI could be identified. This implicates a minor role of inflammatory mediators on the systemic level in CI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Carotid plaque age is a feature of plaque stability inversely related to levels of plasma insulin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hägg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The stability of atherosclerotic plaques determines the risk for rupture, which may lead to thrombus formation and potentially severe clinical complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Although the rate of plaque formation may be important for plaque stability, this process is not well understood. We took advantage of the atmospheric (14C-declination curve (a result of the atomic bomb tests in the 1950s and 1960s to determine the average biological age of carotid plaques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: The cores of carotid plaques were dissected from 29 well-characterized, symptomatic patients with carotid stenosis and analyzed for (14C content by accelerator mass spectrometry. The average plaque age (i.e. formation time was 9.6±3.3 years. All but two plaques had formed within 5-15 years before surgery. Plaque age was not associated with the chronological ages of the patients but was inversely related to plasma insulin levels (p = 0.0014. Most plaques were echo-lucent rather than echo-rich (2.24±0.97, range 1-5. However, plaques in the lowest tercile of plaque age (most recently formed were characterized by further instability with a higher content of lipids and macrophages (67.8±12.4 vs. 50.4±6.2, p = 0.00005; 57.6±26.1 vs. 39.8±25.7, p<0.0005, respectively, less collagen (45.3±6.1 vs. 51.1±9.8, p<0.05, and fewer smooth muscle cells (130±31 vs. 141±21, p<0.05 than plaques in the highest tercile. Microarray analysis of plaques in the lowest tercile also showed increased activity of genes involved in immune responses and oxidative phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show, for the first time, that plaque age, as judge by relative incorporation of (14C, can improve our understanding of carotid plaque stability and therefore risk for clinical complications. Our results also suggest that levels of plasma insulin might be involved in determining carotid plaque age.

  3. NEA Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme related to sea disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruegger, B.; Templeton, W.L.; Gurbutt, P.

    1983-05-01

    Sea dumping operations of certain types of packaged low and medium-level radioactive wastes have been carried out since 1967 in the North-East Atlantic under the auspices of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. On the occasion of the 1980 review of the continued suitability of the North-East Atlantic site used for the disposal of radioactive waste, it was recommended that an effort should be made to increase the scientific data base relating to the oceanographic and biological characteristics of the dumping area. In particular, it was suggested that a site specific model of the transfer of radionuclides in the marine environment be developed, which would permit a better assessment of the potential radiation doses to man from the dumping of radioactive waste. To fulfill these objectives a research and environmental surveillance programme related to sea disposal of radioactive waste was set up in 1981 with the participation of thirteen Member countries and the International Laboratory for Marine Radioactivity of the IAEA in Monaco. The research program is focused on five research areas which are directly relevant to the preparation of more site-specific assessments in the future. They are: model development; physical oceanography; geochemistry; biology; and radiological surveillance. Promising results have already been obtained and more are anticipated in the not too distant future. An interim description of the NEA dumping site has been prepared which provides an excellent data base for this area (NEA 1983).It includes data in bathymetry, isopycnal topography, local and larger scale currents, sediment distribution and sedimentary processes, hydrochemistry, deep ocean biology and results of radiochemical analyses of sea water, sediments and biological materials. The modelling work is also well advanced allowing comparison of results obtained from different codes. After integration of the models, sensitivity analyses will provide indications for future research needs

  4. The contribution of former work-related activity levels to predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement: moderating role of educational level and physical functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfien Van Dyck

    Full Text Available The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined.In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, <5 years completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models.More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal.Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during retirement, so this is an

  5. The contribution of former work-related activity levels to predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement: moderating role of educational level and physical functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined. In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models. More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal. Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during retirement, so this is an important subgroup to focus on during interventions

  6. Low level laser therapy (photobiomodulation) for the management of breast cancer-related lymphedema: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, G. David; Liu, Lizhou; Chapple, Cathy; Petrich, Simone; Anders, Juanita J.; Tumilty, Steve

    2018-04-01

    Breast cancer related lymphedema (BCRL) is prevalent among breast cancer survivors, and may be painful and disfiguring with associated psychological impact. Previous research shows increasing use of low level laser therapy (LLLT), now commonly referred to as photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy for managing BCRL, in countries including the United States and Australia. However, conclusions were limited by the paucity, heterogeneity, and poor quality of previous studies. LLLT (PBM) has been barely used in clinical practice in New Zealand, and no clinical studies on LLLT (PBM) for BCRL have been conducted in this country. In order to promote this potentially useful treatment modality for BCRL patients, the Laser Lymphedema Trial Team at the University of Otago conducted a program to assess the effectiveness of LLLT (PBM) in management of BCRL. The program comprises three phases including a systematic review (completed), a feasibility study (completed), and a full-scale randomized controlled trial (proposed). This current paper provides an update on the program. Based upon the systematic review, LLLT (PBM) is considered a potentially effective treatment approach for women with BCRL; the review also indicated the need for further research including exploration of the relevance of dosage and other LLLT (PBM) parameters. The feasibility study demonstrated that it is feasible to conduct a fully powered RCT to definitively test the effectiveness of the additional use of LLLT (PBM) in the management of BCRL, and 114 participants will be needed at baseline in the main study. Currently, the full-scale RCT is under preparation.

  7. Levels of perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in human blood from the general population of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae-Ho; Kim, Sun-Young; Shin, Im-Hee [Catholic Univ. of Daegu, School of Medicine, Dept. of Pharmacology/Toxicology, Daegu (Korea); Kannan, K. [Wardsworth Center, New York State Dept. of Health and Dept. of Env. Health and Tox., SUNY, Albany, NY (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was found to be widespread in human populations and wildlife Major applications of these POSF-based products have included surfactants in: specialty paper and packaging products, carpet, upholstery, and textile products and in certain insecticide formulation. Depending on the specific functional derivatization or the degree of polymerization, such POSF based products may degrade or metabolize to PFOS, a stable and persistent end product that has the potential to bioaccumulate in the food chain. The mechanisms and pathways leading to the presence of PFOS in human blood are not well characterized but likely involve environmental and dietary exposure to PFOS or to precursor molecules of PFOS. PFOS and related perfluorinated compounds have recently been detected at low parts per billion (nanogram per milliliter) concentrations in the general population from 10 different countries including Korea. In the present report, the levels of perfluoroalkylated compounds in the general population from Korea were analyzed with respect to occupation, smoking status, sex, age and socio-economic status. The degree of association between the four target fluorochemicals measured in this study (PFOS, PFHxS, PFOA, and PFOSA) were also analyzed by linear regression to determine the potential association between their sources of exposure.

  8. Relative level of occurrence of the principal heuristics in Nigeria property valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iroham C.O.,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The neglect of the other principal heuristics namely avaialability, representative and positivity in real estate behaviourial property research as against the exclusive focus on anchoring and adjustment heuristics invariably results to a lopsided research. This work studied the four principal heuristics in property behaviourial property valutaion in a bid to discovering its relative level of occurrence. The study adopted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey approach of 159 of the 270 Head Offices of Estate Surveying and Valuation firms in Lagos Metropolis, while 29 and 30 questionnaire were distributed to the Head Offices of the entire Estate Surveying and Valuation Firms in Abuja and Port-Harcourt respectively. The data gotten was analyzed with the aid of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences first using frequency distributions/means and the data so analyzed was further analyzed using maximum and minimum values, means/standard deviations and ultimately ranking of such means. The result revealed that respondents use the various principal heuristics in this decreasing order of magnitude: availability heuristics (26.77%, anchoring and adjustment heuristics (18.62%; representative heuristics (15.63% and least of all positivity heuristics (10.41%. The authors thereby opined that emphasis be placed more on availability heuristics research particularly as usage of heuristcis (anchoring and adjustment has been seen to influence valuation inconsistency/accuracy

  9. Extended late Holocene relative sea-level histories for North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Andrew C.; Kegel, Jessica J.; Culver, Stephen J.; Barber, Donald C.; Mallinson, David J.; Leorri, Eduardo; Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Cahill, Niamh; Riggs, Stanley R.; Woodson, Anna L.; Mulligan, Ryan P.; Horton, Benjamin P.

    2017-01-01

    We produced ∼3000-year long relative sea-level (RSL) histories for two sites in North Carolina (USA) using foraminifera preserved in new and existing cores of dated salt-marsh sediment. At Cedar Island, RSL rose by ∼2.4 m during the past ∼3000 years compared to ∼3.3 m at Roanoke Island. This spatial difference arises primarily from differential GIA that caused late Holocene RSL rise to be 0.1–0.2 mm/yr faster at Roanoke Island than at Cedar Island. However, a non-linear difference in RSL between the two study regions (particularly from ∼0 CE to ∼1250 CE) indicates that additional local- to regional-scale processes drove centennial-scale RSL change in North Carolina. Therefore, the Cedar Island and Roanoke Island records should be considered as independent of one another. Between-site differences on sub-millennial timescales cannot be adequately explained by non-stationary tides, sediment compaction, or local sediment dynamics. We propose that a period of accelerating RSL rise from ∼600 CE to 1100 CE that is present at Roanoke Island (and other sites north of Cape Hatteras at least as far as Connecticut), but absent at Cedar Island (and other sites south of Cape Hatteras at least as far as northeastern Florida) is a local-to regional-scale effect of dynamic ocean and/or atmospheric circulation.

  10. Serum chemerin level in women with PCOS and its relation with the risk of spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuezhou; Quan, Xiaozhen; Lan, Yanli; Wei, Qipeng; Ye, Jinhai; Yin, Xiaofang; Ji, Zhisong; Xing, Hui; Yang, Ying

    2018-04-16

    Insulin resistance (IR) was recognized as a risk factor for the occurrence of abortion in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Chemerin was an adipokine which could induce IR and associated with reproductive process closely. However, few studies have inquired the relativity between chemerin and the occurrence of abortion in patients with PCOS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum chemerin and the occurrence of abortion in women with PCOS. We recruited 198 women with PCOS to participate in our study. On the third day of menstrual cycle or a random day in women with amenorrhea, we obtained their venous blood and measured the fasting insulin, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, chemerin, and hormones including FSH, E2, P, PRL, LH, and T. Additionally, BMI, HOMA-IR and LH/FSH of each subject were calculated. Finally, 58 of them were included in the study, in which 30 of them had normal pregnancy and the other 28 had an early miscarriage. We compared the biochemical characteristics between the normal pregnancy group and abortion group by independent-samples t test. In our study, those with a normal pregnancy had a lower level of BMI, FINs, HOMA-IR, and chemerin compared to abortion patients (p PCOS patients (p PCOS. Thus, serum chemerin may serve as a biomarker to identify pregnant women with PCOS who are at particular risk for later abortion, and who may benefit from prevention strategies.

  11. Extended late Holocene relative sea-level histories for North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Andrew C.; Kegel, Jessica J.; Culver, Stephen J.; Barber, Donald C.; Mallinson, David J.; Leorri, Eduardo; Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Cahill, Niamh; Riggs, Stanley R.; Woodson, Anna L.; Mulligan, Ryan P.; Horton, Benjamin P.

    2017-03-01

    We produced ∼3000-year long relative sea-level (RSL) histories for two sites in North Carolina (USA) using foraminifera preserved in new and existing cores of dated salt-marsh sediment. At Cedar Island, RSL rose by ∼2.4 m during the past ∼3000 years compared to ∼3.3 m at Roanoke Island. This spatial difference arises primarily from differential GIA that caused late Holocene RSL rise to be 0.1-0.2 mm/yr faster at Roanoke Island than at Cedar Island. However, a non-linear difference in RSL between the two study regions (particularly from ∼0 CE to ∼1250 CE) indicates that additional local- to regional-scale processes drove centennial-scale RSL change in North Carolina. Therefore, the Cedar Island and Roanoke Island records should be considered as independent of one another. Between-site differences on sub-millennial timescales cannot be adequately explained by non-stationary tides, sediment compaction, or local sediment dynamics. We propose that a period of accelerating RSL rise from ∼600 CE to 1100 CE that is present at Roanoke Island (and other sites north of Cape Hatteras at least as far as Connecticut), but absent at Cedar Island (and other sites south of Cape Hatteras at least as far as northeastern Florida) is a local-to regional-scale effect of dynamic ocean and/or atmospheric circulation.

  12. Studies Related to Chemical Mechanisms of Gas Formation in Hanford High-Level Nuclear Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barefield, E. Kent; Liotta, Charles L.; Neumann, Henry M.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a more detailed mechanistic understanding of the thermal reactions that lead to gas production in certain high-level waste storage tanks at the Hanford, Washington site. Prediction of the combustion hazard for these wastes and engineering parameters for waste processing depend upon both a knowledge of the composition of stored wastes and the changes that they undergo as a result of thermal and radiolytic decomposition. Since 1980 when Delagard first demonstrated that gas production (H2and N2O initially, later N2 and NH3)in the affected tanks was related to oxidative degradation of metal complexants present in the waste, periodic attempts have been made to develop detailed mechanisms by which the gases were formed. These studies have resulted in the postulation of a series of reactions that account for many of the observed products, but which involve several reactions for which there is limited, or no, precedent. For example, Al(OH)4 has been postulated to function as a Lewis acid to catalyze the reaction of nitrite ion with the metal complexants, NO is proposed as an intermediate, and the ratios of gaseous products may be a result of the partitioning of NO between two or more reactions. These reactions and intermediates have been the focus of this project since its inception in 1996

  13. [Costs of appendicitis treatment by diagnosis-related groups in a third-level pediatric hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlacuilo-Parra, Alberto; Hernández-Hernández, Araceli; Venegas-Dávalos, Martha; Gutiérrez-Hermosillo, Violeta; Guevara-Gutiérrez, Elizabeth; Ambriz-González, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) are widely used in Europe. They allow performing comparisons in hospitals and incurrent hospital payment systems, defining the payment categories. We undertook this study to classify children who underwent appendectomy according to DRGs. Cross-sectional study. Comorbidities, length of hospitalization, histopathologic classification, and DRG classifications were analyzed. We included 313 patients, 62% males, with an average age of 8 ± 3 years; 91% were referred by another hospital and 67% were treated at night. Average length of hospitalization was 4 ± 3 days. There were comorbidities in 8% and surgical complications in 11%. According to histopathology, appendicitis was edematous (11%), suppurative (36%), gangrenous (22%), perforated (29%), and abscessed (2%). At discharge, 97% of the patients were healthy. Total cost for DRG 343 was $10,470,173.00 (Mexican pesos), DRG 342 was $1,227,592.00 and DRG 340 was $511,521.00. The global amount was $12,209,286.00 (Mexican pesos). The unitary cost f