WorldWideScience

Sample records for low-pressure uv sources

  1. Potential Repair of Escherichia coli DNA following Exposure to UV Radiation from Both Medium- and Low-Pressure UV Sources Used in Drinking Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, J. L.; Slawson, R. M.

    2002-01-01

    The increased use of UV radiation as a drinking water treatment technology has instigated studies of the repair potential of microorganisms following treatment. This study challenged the repair potential of an optimally grown nonpathogenic laboratory strain of Escherichia coli after UV radiation from low- and medium-pressure lamps. Samples were irradiated with doses of 5, 8, and 10 mJ/cm2 from a low-pressure lamp and 3, 5, 8, and 10 mJ/cm2 from a medium-pressure UV lamp housed in a bench-scale collimated beam apparatus. Following irradiation, samples were incubated at 37°C under photoreactivating light or in the dark. Sample aliquots were analyzed for up to 4 h following incubation using a standard plate count. Results of this study showed that E. coli underwent photorepair following exposure to the low-pressure UV source, but no repair was detectable following exposure to the medium-pressure UV source at the initial doses examined. Minimal repair was eventually observed upon medium-pressure UV lamp exposure when doses were lowered to 3 mJ/cm2. This study clearly indicates differences in repair potential under laboratory conditions between irradiation from low-pressure and medium-pressure UV sources of the type used in water treatment. PMID:12089006

  2. Inactivation differences of microorganisms by low pressure UV and pulsed xenon lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaki, M; Okuda, A; Tajima, K; Iwasaki, T; Kinoshita, S; Ohgaki, S

    2003-01-01

    UV disinfection has been applied to water treatment in recent years with low-pressure and medium-pressure UV lamps mainly used as the light source. In general, UV disinfection is considered to be inefficient with water of high turbidity because of inhibition of light penetration. Additionally, photoreactivation may be a problem that should be considered in case a disinfected water is discharged to the environment where sunlight causes reactivation. Recently, other types of lamps have been proposed including a flush-type lamp (such as a pulsed-xenon lamp) that emits high energy and wide wavelength intermittently. In this study, the difference between inactivation efficiencies by low-pressure UV (LPUV) and pulsed-xenon (PXe) lamps was investigated using two coliphage types and three strains of Escherichia coli. PXe had a suppressive effect on photoreactivation rate of the E. coli strains even though there was no significant effect on inactivation rate and maximum survival ratio after photoreactivation. PXe also had a benefit when applied to high turbidity waters as no tailing phenomena were observed in the low survival ratio area although it was observed in LPUV inactivation. This efficiency difference was considered to be due to the difference in irradiated wavelength of both lamps.

  3. Characteristics of Cylindrical Microwave Plasma Source at Low Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seungil; Youn, S.; Kim, S. B.; Yoo, S. J.

    2016-10-01

    A microwave plasma source with a cylindrical resonance cavity has been proposed to generate the plasma at low pressure. This plasma source consists of magnetron, waveguide, antenna, and cavity. The microwave generating device is a commercial magnetron with 1 kW output power at the frequency of 2.45 GHz. The microwave is transmitted through the rectangular waveguide with the whistle shape, and coupled to the cavity by the slot antenna. The resonant mode of the cylindrical cavity is the TE111 mode. The operating pressure is between 0.1 Torr and 0.3 Torr with the Argon and nitrogen gas. The electron temperature and electron number density of argon plasma were measured with the optical emission spectroscopy measurement. And Ar1s5 metastable density was measured using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). The plasma diagnostic results of a cylindrical microwave plasma source would be described in this study. This work was supported by R&D Program of ``Plasma Advanced Technology for Agriculture and Food (Plasma Farming)'' through the National Fusion Research Institute of Korea (NFRI) funded by the Government funds.

  4. Reactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts after exposure to low-pressure UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Gwy-Am; Linden, Karl G

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we determined the repair capabilities of Giardia lamblia cysts when they were exposed to low-pressure (LP) UV and then 4 different repair conditions. A UV collimated beam apparatus was used to expose shallow suspensions of G. lamblia cysts in buffered reagent water (PBS, pH 7.2) to various doses of LP UV irradiation. After UV irradiation, samples were exposed to 4 repair conditions (light and dark repair conditions with 2 temperatures (25 °C and 37 °C) for each condition). The inactivation of G. lamblia cysts by LP UV was very extensive (∼ 5 log10) even with a low dose of LP UV (1 mJ/cm(2)). More importantly, there was significant restoration of infectivity in G. lamblia cysts when they were exposed to a low dose of LP UV and then to all the repair conditions tested. Overall, the results of this study indicate that G. lamblia cysts do have the ability to repair their UV-damaged DNA when they are exposed to low doses of LP UV irradiation. This is the first study to report the presence of repair in UV-irradiated G. lamblia cysts.

  5. Wastewater disinfection by low-pressure UV and ozone: a design approach based on water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoye, P; Janex, M L; Lazarova, V

    2001-01-01

    Disinfection processes are known to be very sensitive to wastewater quality. This paper discusses the parameters that impact the UV light (UV) and ozone disinfection processes and the related mechanisms based on literature review. Low-pressure UV and ozone technologies were investigated on effluents that covered a wide range of water quality. The results are given in terms of design doses required to meet three major disinfection standards. Both processes were found eligible for the majority of effluents tested. Although cost-effectiveness is usually considered more favourable to UV, the ozone alternative should be examined in cases such as the disinfection of low-quality effluents or large treatment plants. Ozonation was also found capable of meeting the stringent Title 22 standard with no coagulation at a dose of 10 mg/l.

  6. Inactivation of single-celled Ascaris suum eggs by low-pressure UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sarah A; Nelson, Kara L

    2006-03-01

    Intact and decorticated single-celled Ascaris suum eggs were exposed to UV radiation from low-pressure, germicidal lamps at fluences (doses) ranging from 0 to 8,000 J/m2 for intact eggs and from 0 to 500 J/m2 for decorticated eggs. With a UV fluence of 500 J/m2, 0.44-+/-0.20-log inactivation (mean+/-95% confidence interval) (63.7%) of intact eggs was observed, while a fluence of 4,000 J/m2 resulted in 2.23-+/-0.49-log inactivation (99.4%). (The maximum quantifiable inactivation was 2.5 log units.) Thus, according to the methods used here, Ascaris eggs are the most UV-resistant water-related pathogen identified to date. For the range of fluences recommended for disinfecting drinking water and wastewater (200 to 2,000 J/m2), from 0- to 1.5-log inactivation can be expected, although at typical fluences (less than 1,000 J/m2), the inactivation may be less than 1 log. When the eggs were decorticated (the outer egg shell layers were removed with sodium hypochlorite, leaving only the lipoprotein ascaroside layer) before exposure to UV, 1.80-+/-0.32-log reduction (98.4%) was achieved with a fluence of 500 J/m2, suggesting that the outer eggshell layers protected A. suum eggs from inactivation by UV radiation. This protection may have been due to UV absorption by proteins in the outer layers of the 3- to 4-microm-thick eggshell. Stirring alone (without UV exposure) also inactivated some of the Ascaris eggs (approximately 20% after 75 min), which complicated determination of the inactivation caused by UV radiation alone.

  7. Electrodeless microwave source of UV radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhudarov, E. M.; Kozlov, Yu. N.; Kossyi, I. A.; Malykh, N. I.; Misakyan, M. A.; Taktakishvili, I. M.; Khomichenko, A. A.

    2012-06-01

    The parameters of an electrodeless microwave low-pressure discharge in an Ar + Hg vapor mixture are studied, the design of a UV radiation source for water disinfection is suggested, and its main characteristics are presented. The domestic microwave oven ( f = 2.45 GHz; N = kW) is used as a microwave radiation source. The maximal UV power at wavelength λ = 254 nm amounts to 120-130 W.

  8. Modeling of low pressure plasma sources for microelectronics fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ankur; Bera, Kallol; Kenney, Jason; Likhanskii, Alexandre; Rauf, Shahid

    2017-10-01

    Chemically reactive plasmas operating in the 1 mTorr–10 Torr pressure range are widely used for thin film processing in the semiconductor industry. Plasma modeling has come to play an important role in the design of these plasma processing systems. A number of 3-dimensional (3D) fluid and hybrid plasma modeling examples are used to illustrate the role of computational investigations in design of plasma processing hardware for applications such as ion implantation, deposition, and etching. A model for a rectangular inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source is described, which is employed as an ion source for ion implantation. It is shown that gas pressure strongly influences ion flux uniformity, which is determined by the balance between the location of plasma production and diffusion. The effect of chamber dimensions on plasma uniformity in a rectangular capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) is examined using an electromagnetic plasma model. Due to high pressure and small gap in this system, plasma uniformity is found to be primarily determined by the electric field profile in the sheath/pre-sheath region. A 3D model is utilized to investigate the confinement properties of a mesh in a cylindrical CCP. Results highlight the role of hole topology and size on the formation of localized hot-spots. A 3D electromagnetic plasma model for a cylindrical ICP is used to study inductive versus capacitive power coupling and how placement of ground return wires influences it. Finally, a 3D hybrid plasma model for an electron beam generated magnetized plasma is used to understand the role of reactor geometry on plasma uniformity in the presence of E  ×  B drift.

  9. A comparative study on the pulsed UV and the low-pressure UV inactivation of a range of microbial species in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Mary; Thokala, Nikhil; Rowan, Neil

    2014-12-01

    Research into alternative methods of disinfecting water and wastewater has proven necessary due to the emergence of chlorine-resistant organisms and the disinfection byproducts associated with chlorine use. The use of UV light to inactivate microbial species has proven effective, however; standard UV lamps have proven to be less effective in their ability to inactivate parasites and bacterial endospores in water treatment settings. Pulsed UV (PUV) light may potentially provide a novel alternative to water and wastewater disinfection. Research outlined in this study assesses the potential of a novel PUV system for the rapid and reproducible inactivation of a range of test species including Bacillus endospores. In comparison to standard low-pressure (LP) UV lamps, this PUV system provided significantly higher levels of inactivation for all test species. Furthermore, there was a remarkable decrease in time needed to obtain significant inactivation rates following treatment with PUV compared to LP-UV. With the PUV system, a 70-second treatment time (7.65 μJ/cm2) resulted in similar inactivation rates of Bacillus endospores to that of the LP-UV inactivation of their vegetative counterpart. Also, at PUV doses exceeding 4.32 J/cm2, there was not a significant difference in the PUV inactivation of Bacillus endospores in the absence or presence of 10 ppm organic matter. However, the presence of organic matter resulted in a significant reduction in microbial inactivation for all treatment doses using the LP-UV system. The findings of this study suggest that PUV technology may provide a rapid effective method for the disinfection of water and wastewater.

  10. Low pressure UV/H2O2 treatment for the degradation of the pesticides metaldehyde, clopyralid and mecoprop - Kinetics and reaction product formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semitsoglou-Tsiapou, Sofia; Templeton, Michael R; Graham, Nigel J D; Hernández Leal, Lucía; Martijn, Bram J; Royce, Alan; Kruithof, Joop C

    2016-03-15

    The degradation kinetics of three pesticides - metaldehyde, clopyralid and mecoprop - by ultraviolet photolysis and hydroxyl radical oxidation by low pressure ultraviolet hydrogen peroxide (LP-UV/H2O2) advanced oxidation was determined. Mecoprop was susceptible to both LP-UV photolysis and hydroxyl radical oxidation, and exhibited the fastest degradation kinetics, achieving 99.6% (2.4-log) degradation with a UV fluence of 800 mJ/cm(2) and 5 mg/L hydrogen peroxide. Metaldehyde was poorly degraded by LP-UV photolysis while 97.7% (1.6-log) degradation was achieved with LP-UV/H2O2 treatment at the maximum tested UV fluence of 1000 mJ/cm(2) and 15 mg/L hydrogen peroxide. Clopyralid was hardly susceptible to LP-UV photolysis and exhibited the lowest degradation by LP-UV/H2O2 among the three pesticides. The second-order reaction rate constants for the reactions between the pesticides and OH-radicals were calculated applying a kinetic model for LP-UV/H2O2 treatment to be 3.6 × 10(8), 2.0 × 10(8) and 1.1 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) for metaldehyde, clopyralid and mecoprop, respectively. The main LP-UV photolysis reaction product from mecoprop was 2-(4-hydroxy-2-methylphenoxy) propanoic acid, while photo-oxidation by LP-UV/H2O2 treatment formed several oxidation products. The photo-oxidation of clopyralid involved either hydroxylation or dechlorination of the ring, while metaldehyde underwent hydroxylation and produced acetic acid as a major end product. Based on the findings, degradation pathways for the three pesticides by LP-UV/H2O2 treatment were proposed.

  11. Low pressure water vapour discharge as a light source: I. Spectroscopic characteristics and efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artamonova, E; Artamonova, T; Beliaeva, A; Gorbov, D; Khodorkovskii, M; Melnikov, A; Milenin, V; Murashov, S; Rakcheeva, L; Timofeev, N [Saint-Petersburg State University, Ulyanovskaya 3, 198504 (Russian Federation); Michael, D [General Electric Global Research Center, One Research Circle (Bldg K1 Rm 4B31), Niskayuna, NY, 12309 (United States)], E-mail: timofeev@pobox.spbu.ru, E-mail: michael@crd.ge.com

    2008-08-07

    Spectral and electrical characteristics of a low pressure dc discharge formed from a mixture of one of the rare gases Ne, Ar or Kr plus water vapour are studied. Water vapour is only a minor additive to the rare gas. It has been shown that enhanced emission of the OH 306.4 nm band is registered from the discharge of Ar mixed with water vapour. Plasmas from the other investigated rare gases yielded considerably less OH 306.4 nm emission. Data about consumed electric power, spectra and relative efficiencies are presente000.

  12. In situ measurement of VUV/UV radiation from low-pressure microwave-produced plasma in Ar/O2 gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, E. J.; Mitschker, F.; Fiebrandt, M.; Bibinov, N.; Awakowicz, P.

    2017-08-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral irradiance is determined in low-pressure microwave-produced plasma, which is regularly used for polymer surface treatment. The re-emitted fluorescence in the UV/VIS spectral range from a sodium salicylate layer is measured. This fluorescence is related to VUV/UV radiation in different spectral bands based on cut-off filters. The background produced by direct emitted radiation in the fluorescence spectral region is quantified using a specific background filter, thus enabling the use of the whole fluorescence spectral range. A novel procedure is applied to determine the absolute value of the VUV/UV irradiance on a substrate. For that, an independent measurement of the absolute spectral emissivity of the plasma in the UV is performed. The measured irradiances on a substrate from a 25 Pa Ar/O2-produced plasma are in the range of 1015-1016 (photon~ s-1 cm-2). These values include the contribution from impurities present in the discharge.

  13. Effects of Solvent and Ion Source Pressure on the Analysis of Anabolic Steroids by Low Pressure Photoionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyuan; Zhu, Yanan; Yang, Jiuzhong; Zhao, Wan; Lu, Deen; Pan, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Solvent and ion source pressure were two important factors relating to the photon induced ion-molecule reactions in low pressure photoionization (LPPI). In this work, four anabolic steroids were analyzed by LPPI mass spectrometry. Both the ion species present and their relative abundances could be controlled by switching the solvent and adjusting the ion source pressure. Whereas M•+, MH+, [M - H2O]+, and solvent adducts were observed in positive LPPI, [M - H]- and various oxidation products were abundant in negative LPPI. Changing the solvent greatly affected formation of the ion species in both positive and negative ion modes. The ion intensities of the solvent adduct and oxygen adduct were selectively enhanced when the ion source pressure was elevated from 68 to 800 Pa. The limit of detection could be decreased by increasing the ion source pressure.

  14. Photoreactivation of bacteriophages after UV disinfection: role of genome structure and impacts of UV source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Roberto A; Bounty, Sarah; Beck, Sara; Chan, Connie; McGuire, Christian; Linden, Karl G

    2014-05-15

    The UV inactivation kinetics of bacteriophages MS2, PhiX174, T1 and PRD1 and the potential of bacterial UV repair mechanisms to reactivate these bacteriophages is described here. The selected bacteriophages represent a range of genome size, single and double stranded genomes, circular and linear organization and RNA and DNA. Bacteriophages were exposed to UV irradiation from two different collimated beam UV irradiation sources (medium-pressure (MP) mercury lamps and low-pressure (LP) mercury lamps) and assayed during which host-phage cultures were exposed to photoreactivating light for 6 h, then incubated overnight at 37 °C in the dark. Dark controls following UV exposure were performed in parallel. UV inactivation kinetics (using dark controls) showed that circular ssDNA phage (PhiX174) was the most sensitive and linear ssRNA phage (MS2) was the more resistant phage. No photoreactivation was observed for MS2 (RNA phage) and the highest photoreactivation was observed for PRD1. In the case of PRD1, the dose required for 4-log reduction (dark control) was around 35 mJ/cm(2), with a similar dose observed for both UV sources (MP and LP). When the photoreactivation step was added, the dose required for 4-log reduction using LP lamps was 103 mJ/cm(2) and for MP lamps was 60 mJ/cm(2). Genome organization differences between bacteriophages play an important role in resistance to UV inactivation and potential photoreactivation mediated by bacterial host mechanisms. The use of photoreactivation during the assay of PRD1 creates a more conservative surrogate for potential use in UV challenge testing.

  15. Applicability of UV resistant Bacillus pumilus endospores as a human adenovirus surrogate for evaluating the effectiveness of virus inactivation in low-pressure UV treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have demonstrated the potential to use Bacillus pumilus endospores as a surrogate of human adenovirus (HAdV) in UV disinfection studies. The use of endospores has been limited by observations of batch-to-batch variation in UV sensitivity. This study reports on a pr...

  16. Abatement of Perfluorinated Compounds Using Cylindrical Microwave Plasma Source at Low Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Bong; Park, S.; Park, Y.; Youn, S.; Yoo, S. J.

    2016-10-01

    Microwave plasma source with a cylindrical cavity has been proposed to abate the perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). This plasma source was designed to generate microwave plasma with the cylindrical shape and to be easily installed in existing exhaust line. The microwave frequency is 2.45 GHz and the operating pressure range is 0.1 Torr to 0.3 Torr. The plasma characteristic of the cylindrical microwave plasma source was measured using the optical spectrometer, and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). The destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of CF4 and CHF3 were measured by a quadrupole mass spectroscopy (QMS) with the various operation conditions. The effect of the addition of the oxygen gas were tested and also the correlation between the plasma parameters and the DRE are presented in this study. This work was supported by R&D Program of ``Plasma Advanced Technology for Agriculture and Food (Plasma Farming)'' through the National Fusion Research Institute of Korea (NFRI) funded by the Government funds.

  17. Applicability of UV resistant Bacillus pumilus spore as a human adenovirus surrogate for evaluating the effectiveness of virus inactivation in low-pressure UV treatment systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data set includes UV dose, and Bacillus pumilus spore plate counts in colony forming units. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Boczek , L.,...

  18. LOW PRESSURE ULTRAVIOLET STUDIES FOR INACTIVATION OF GIARDIA MURIS CYSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysts of Giardia muris were inactivated using a low pressure ultravolet (UV) light source. Cyst viability was detemined by both in vitro excystation and animal infectivity. Cyst doeses were counted using a flow cytometer for the animal infectivity experiments. Using in vitro excy...

  19. LOW PRESSURE ULTRAVEIOLET STUDIES FOR INACTIVATION OF GIARDIA MURIS CYSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysts of Giardia muris were inactivated using a low pressure ultravolet (UV) light source. Cyst viability was detemined by both in vitro excystation and animal infectivity. Cyst doeses were counted using a flow cytometer for the animal infectivity experiments. Using in vitro excy...

  20. Survival of prototype strains of somatic coliphage families in environmental waters and when exposed to UV low-pressure monochromatic radiation or heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Suk; Sobsey, Mark D

    2011-06-01

    The potential use of specific somatic coliphage taxonomic groups as viral indicators based on their persistence and prevalence in water was investigated. Representative type strains of the 4 major somatic coliphage taxonomic groups were seeded into reagent water and an ambient surface water source of drinking water and the survival of the added phages was measured over 90 days at temperatures of 23-25 and 4 °C. Microviridae (type strain PhiX174), Siphoviridae (type strain Lambda), and Myoviridae (type strain T4) viruses were the most persistent in water at the temperatures tested. The Microviridae (type strain PhiX174) and the Siphoviridae (type strain Lambda) were the most resistant viruses to UV radiation and the Myoviridae (type strain T4) and the Microviridae (type strain PhiX174) were the most resistant viruses to heat. Based on their greater persistence in water over time and their relative resistance to heat and/or UV radiation, the Myoviridae (type strain T4), the Microviridae (type strain PhiX174), and the Siphoviridae (type strain Lambda) were the preferred candidate somatic coliphages as fecal indicator viruses in water, with the Microviridae (type strain PhiX174) the most resistant to these conditions overall. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOW PRESSURE ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT FOR INACTIVATING HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three strains of Helicobacter pylori were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light from a low-pressure source to determine log inactivation versus applied fluence. Results indicate that H. pylori is readily inactivated at UV fluences typically used in water treatment r...

  2. ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOW PRESSURE ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT FOR INACTIVATING HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three strains of Helicobacter pylori were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light from a low-pressure source to determine log inactivation versus applied fluence. Results indicate that H. pylori is readily inactivated at UV fluences typically used in water treatment r...

  3. The impact of dose, irradiance and growth conditions on Aspergillus niger (renamed A. brasiliensis) spores low-pressure (LP) UV inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Edmonds, Lizbeth; Lichi, Tovit; Rotstein-Mayer, Adi; Mamane, Hadas

    2015-01-01

    The use of Aspergillus niger (A. niger) fungal spores as challenge organism for UV reactor validation studies is attractive due to their high UV-resistance and non-pathogenic nature. However A. niger spores UV dose-response was dependent upon sporulation conditions and did not follow the Bunsen-Roscoe Principle of time-dose reciprocity. Exposure to 8 h of natural sunlight for 10 consecutive days increased UV resistance when compared to spores grown solely in dark conditions. Application of 250 mJ cm(-2) at high irradiance (0.11 mW cm(-2)) resulted in a 2-log inactivation; however, at low irradiance (0.022 mW cm(-2)) a 1-log inactivation was achieved. In addition, surface electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed morphological changes between the control and UV exposed spores in contrast to other well accepted UV calibrated test organisms, which show no morphological difference with UV exposure.

  4. Spectroscopic Investigation of Indium Halides as Substitutes of Mercury in Low Pressure Discharges for Lighting Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Briefi, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Low pressure discharges with indium halides as radiator are discussed as substitutes for hazardous mercury in conventional fluorescent lamps. In this work, the applicability of InBr and InCl in a low pressure discharge light source is investigated. The aim is to identify and understand the physical processes which determine the discharge characteristics and the efficiency of the generated near-UV emission of the indium halide molecule and of the indium atom which is created due to dissociatio...

  5. A comparative study on the analytical utility of atmospheric and low-pressure MALDI sources for the mass spectrometric characterization of peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovets, Eugene; Misharin, Alexander; Laiko, Viktor; Doroshenko, Vladimir

    2016-07-15

    A comparative MS study was conducted on the analytical performance of two matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) sources that operated at either low pressure (∼1Torr) or at atmospheric pressure. In both cases, the MALDI sources were attached to a linear ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with a two-stage ion funnel. The obtained results indicate that the limits of detection, in the analysis of identical peptide samples, were much lower with the source that was operated slightly below the 1-Torr pressure. In the low-pressure (LP) MALDI source, ion signals were observed at a laser fluence that was considerably lower than the one determining the appearance of ion signals in the atmospheric pressure (AP) MALDI source. When the near-threshold laser fluences were used to record MALDI MS spectra at 1-Torr and 750-Torr pressures, the level of chemical noise at the 1-Torr pressure was much lower compared to that at AP. The dependency of the analyte ion signals on the accelerating field which dragged the ions from the MALDI plate to the MS analyzer are presented for the LP and AP MALDI sources. The study indicates that the laser fluence, background gas pressure, and field accelerating the ions away from a MALDI plate were the main parameters which determined the ion yield, signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios, the fragmentation of the analyte ions, and adduct formation in the LP and AP MALDI MS methods. The presented results can be helpful for a deeper insight into the mechanisms responsible for the ion formation in MALDI.

  6. Low pressure and high power rf sources for negative hydrogen ions for fusion applications (ITER neutral beam injection).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantz, U; Franzen, P; Kraus, W; Falter, H D; Berger, M; Christ-Koch, S; Fröschle, M; Gutser, R; Heinemann, B; Martens, C; McNeely, P; Riedl, R; Speth, E; Wünderlich, D

    2008-02-01

    The international fusion experiment ITER requires for the plasma heating and current drive a neutral beam injection system based on negative hydrogen ion sources at 0.3 Pa. The ion source must deliver a current of 40 A D(-) for up to 1 h with an accelerated current density of 200 Am/(2) and a ratio of coextracted electrons to ions below 1. The extraction area is 0.2 m(2) from an aperture array with an envelope of 1.5 x 0.6 m(2). A high power rf-driven negative ion source has been successfully developed at the Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) at three test facilities in parallel. Current densities of 330 and 230 Am/(2) have been achieved for hydrogen and deuterium, respectively, at a pressure of 0.3 Pa and an electron/ion ratio below 1 for a small extraction area (0.007 m(2)) and short pulses (ITER source but without extraction system, is intended to demonstrate the size scaling and plasma homogeneity of rf ion sources. The source operates routinely now. First results on plasma homogeneity obtained from optical emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probes are very promising. Based on the success of the IPP development program, the high power rf-driven negative ion source has been chosen recently for the ITER beam systems in the ITER design review process.

  7. The effect of the operation modes of a gas discharge low-pressure amalgam lamp on the intensity of generation of 185 nm UV vacuum radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilyak, L. M., E-mail: vasilyak@ihed.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute of High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Drozdov, L. A., E-mail: lit@npo.lit.ru; Kostyuchenko, S. V.; Sokolov, D. V. [ZAO LIT (Russian Federation); Kudryavtsev, N. N.; Sobur, D. A., E-mail: soburda@gmail.com [Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    The effect of the discharge current, mercury vapor pressure, and the inert gas pressure on the intensity and efficiency of the 185 nm line generation are considered. The spectra of the UV radiation (vacuum ultraviolet) transmission by protective coatings from the oxides of rare earth metals and aluminum are investigated.

  8. The effect of carrier gas flow rate and source cell temperature on low pressure organic vapor phase deposition simulation by direct simulation Monte Carlo method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takao; Ueda, Noriaki

    2013-04-21

    The process of low pressure organic vapor phase deposition (LP-OVPD) controls the growth of amorphous organic thin films, where the source gases (Alq3 molecule, etc.) are introduced into a hot wall reactor via an injection barrel using an inert carrier gas (N2 molecule). It is possible to control well the following substrate properties such as dopant concentration, deposition rate, and thickness uniformity of the thin film. In this paper, we present LP-OVPD simulation results using direct simulation Monte Carlo-Neutrals (Particle-PLUS neutral module) which is commercial software adopting direct simulation Monte Carlo method. By estimating properly the evaporation rate with experimental vaporization enthalpies, the calculated deposition rates on the substrate agree well with the experimental results that depend on carrier gas flow rate and source cell temperature.

  9. Development of a portable mass spectrometer characterized by discontinuous sample gas introduction, a low-pressure dielectric barrier discharge ionization source, and a vacuumed headspace technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumano, Shun; Sugiyama, Masuyuki; Yamada, Masuyoshi; Nishimura, Kazushige; Hasegawa, Hideki; Morokuma, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Yuichiro

    2013-05-21

    The present study has attempted to downscale a mass spectrometer in order to make it portable and enable onsite analysis with it. The development of a small mass spectrometer required the use of a compact pump whose displacement was small, decreasing the sensitivity of that spectrometer. To get high sensitivity with a small mass spectrometer, we have integrated novel techniques: a highly sensitive ionization source and efficient extraction of sample vapor. The low-pressure dielectric barrier discharge ionization (LP-DBDI) source made it possible to increase the conductance between the source and the mass analyzer, compared with ambient ionization sources, enhancing the efficiency of the ion transfer from the ionization source to the mass analyzer. We have also developed a vacuumed headspace method efficiently transporting the sample vapor to the ionization source. The sensitivity was further enhanced by also using a discontinuous sample gas introduction technique. A prototype portable mass spectrometer using those novel techniques was found to be sensitive enough to detect 0.1 ppm methamphetamine, 1 ppm amphetamine, 1 ppm 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and 10 ppm cocaine in liquid.

  10. Low pressure arc discharges with hollow cathodes and their using in plasma generators and charged particle sources

    CERN Document Server

    Vintizenko, L G; Koval, N N; Tolkachev, V S; Lopatin, I V; Shchanin, P M

    2001-01-01

    Paper presents the results of investigation into arc discharges with a hollow cathode generating 10 sup 1 sup 0 -10 sup 1 sup 2 concentration gas-discharge plasma in essential (approx 1 m sup 3) volumes at low (10 sup - sup 2 -1 Pa) pressures and up to 200 A discharge currents. One studied design of discharge systems with heated and cold cathodes their peculiar features, presented the parameters of plasma generators and of charged particle sources based on arc discharges and discussed, as well, the problems of more rational application of those systems in the processes for surface modification of solids

  11. Pre main sequence stars as UV sources for the World Space Observatory-UV mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez de Castro, Ana I.; Lamzin, Sergei A.

    2011-09-01

    Pre-main sequence stars are bright UV (UV) sources compared with their main sequence analogues. The source of this excess is the high energy processes associated with the physics of accretion/outflow during early stellar evolution. In this review, the main sources of UV excess are described as well as the most significant "unknowns" in the field. Special emphasis is made on the results from the last observations carried out with the Hubble Space Telescope and on the relevance of future dedicated monitoring programs with the World Space Observatory-UV.

  12. Low-pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Richard [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Kniep, Jay [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Hao, Pingjiao [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Chan, Chi Cheng [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Nguyen, Vincent [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Huang, Ivy [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Amo, Karl [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Freeman, Brice [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Fulton, Don [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Ly, Jennifer [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Lipscomb, Glenn [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Lou, Yuecun [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Gogar, Ravikumar [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States)

    2015-01-29

    This final technical progress report describes work conducted by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE NETL) on development of low-pressure membrane contactors for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from power plant flue gas (award number DE-FE0007553). The work was conducted from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2014. The overall goal of this three-year project was to build and operate a prototype 500 m2 low-pressure sweep membrane module specifically designed to separate CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. MTR was assisted in this project by a research group at the University of Toledo, which contributed to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of module design and process simulation. This report details the work conducted to develop a new type of membrane contactor specifically designed for the high-gas-flow, low-pressure, countercurrent sweep operation required for affordable membrane-based CO2 capture at coal power plants. Work for this project included module development and testing, design and assembly of a large membrane module test unit at MTR, CFD comparative analysis of cross-flow, countercurrent, and novel partial-countercurrent sweep membrane module designs, CFD analysis of membrane spacers, design and fabrication of a 500 m2 membrane module skid for field tests, a detailed performance and cost analysis of the MTR CO2 capture process with low-pressure sweep modules, and a process design analysis of a membrane-hybrid separation process for CO2 removal from coal-fired flue gas. Key results for each major task are discussed in the report.

  13. Investigation of the effects of a thin dielectric layer on low-pressure hydrogen capacitive discharges driven by combined radio frequency and pulse power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jizhong; Fan, Yu; Zou, Ying; Wang, Dezhen [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Stirner, Thomas [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Applied Sciences Deggendorf, Edlmairstr. 6-8, D-94469 Deggendorf (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Negative hydrogen ion sources, for instance for fusion devices, currently attract considerable attention. To generate the precursors—highly rovibrationally excited hydrogen molecules—for negative hydrogen ions effectively by electron excitation, a thin dielectric layer is introduced to cover the surface of the electrically grounded electrode of two parallel metal plates in a low-pressure hydrogen capacitive discharge driven by combined rf and pulse power sources. To understand the characteristics of such discharges, particle-in-cell simulations are conducted to study the effects that the single dielectric layer would bring onto the discharges. The simulation results show that the dielectric layer leads to a much higher plasma density and a much larger production rate of highly vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules compared to discharges without the dielectric layer on the electrode. Further investigation indicates that the nonlinear oscillation of the electrons induced by the nanosecond-pulse continues until it is finally damped down and does not show any dependence on the pulse plateau-time, which is in stark contrast to the case without the dielectric layer present. The physical reason for this phenomenon is explored and explained.

  14. Advanced UV Source for Biological Agent Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    G., “ Photocatalysis Under Periodic Illumination, Ph.D. Thesis, California Institute of Technology, September 24, 2001.) 6 Wavelength (nm) 175...phosphate MDCP Methyl salicylate Figure 2.4-1. UV absorption cross sections for various chemical agents and simulants. Titanium dioxide ( TiO2 ) is one

  15. VUV and UV Sources and Spectroscopic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    photosensitized decomposition of monosilane 480 J. G. EDEN (SiIHl) and germane (GeH 4), both amorphous hydrogenated and micro- crystalline Si films have been...deposition of Si from monosilane is the weak absorption of the precursor in the UV and at the 185 and 254 nm lines of the Hg resonance lamp, in... monosilane . 62 Although this enhancement was attributed to the quality of the epitaxial Ge film actually deteriorates the presence of the Si-Si bond in

  16. Low-pressure hydrogen discharge maintenance in a large-size plasma source with localized high radio-frequency power deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorov, D.; Shivarova, A., E-mail: ashiva@phys.uni-sofia.bg; Paunska, Ts. [Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Tarnev, Kh. [Department of Applied Physics, Technical University-Sofia, BG-1000 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2015-03-15

    The development of the two-dimensional fluid-plasma model of a low-pressure hydrogen discharge, presented in the study, is regarding description of the plasma maintenance in a discharge vessel with the configuration of the SPIDER source. The SPIDER source, planned for the neutral-beam-injection plasma-heating system of ITER, is with localized high RF power deposition to its eight drivers (cylindrical-coil inductive discharges) and a large-area second chamber, common for all the drivers. The continuity equations for the charged particles (electrons and the three types of positive ions) and for the neutral species (atoms and molecules), their momentum equations, the energy balance equations for electrons, atoms and molecules and the Poisson equations are involved in the discharge description. In addition to the local processes in the plasma volume, the surface processes of particle reflection and conversion on the walls as well as for a heat exchange with the walls are included in the model. The analysis of the results stresses on the role of the fluxes (particle and energy fluxes) in the formation of the discharge structure. The conclusion is that the discharge behavior is completely obeyed to non-locality. The latter is displayed by: (i) maximum values of plasma parameters (charged particle densities and temperatures of the neutral species) outside the region of the RF power deposition, (ii) shifted maxima of the electron density and temperature, of the plasma potential and of the electron production, (iii) an electron flux, with a vortex structure, strongly exceeding the total ion flux which gives evidence of a discharge regime of non-ambipolarity and (iv) a spatial distribution of the densities of the neutral species resulting from their fluxes.

  17. Deep UV Semiconductor Sources for Advanced Planetary Science Instruments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses the need for miniature, narrow-linewidth, deep UV optical sources that operate at very low ambient temperatures for use in advanced in situ...

  18. Edge radiation as IR-UV source

    CERN Document Server

    Shirasawa, K; Hiraya, A; Muneyoshi, T

    2003-01-01

    Edge radiation, generated by a high-energy electron beam in fringe fields of storage ring bending magnets, has good potentials to be used as a source of radiation in infrared-ultraviolet spectral range. Spatial distributions of horizontally and vertically polarized components of edge radiation in a near ultraviolet, visible and near infrared regions were experimentally measured at HiSOR storage ring (Hiroshima, Japan). It is shown experimentally that edge radiation intensity in this spectral range is higher than that of a standard synchrotron radiation. For theoretical analysis, the new package of computer codes was written. A good agreement with numerical simulations is found.

  19. Applicability of light sources and the inner filter effect in UV/acetylacetone and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Bingdang; Yang, Minghui [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023 (China); Yin, Ran [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Zhang, Shujuan, E-mail: sjzhang@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023 (China)

    2017-08-05

    Highlights: • Acetylacetone (AA) could directly use solar irradiation to decolorize dyes. • AA had a wider applicability than H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to a variety of light sources. • The photonic efficiency in the UV/AA process was target-dependent. • An accurate calculation approach for the inner filter effect was developed. - Abstract: Light source is a crucial factor in the application of a photochemical process, which determines the energy efficiency. The performances of acetylacetone (AA) in conversion of aqueous contaminants under irradiation with a low-pressure mercury lamp, a medium-pressure mercury lamp, a xenon lamp, and natural sunlight were investigated and compared with those of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as reference. In all cases, AA was superior to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the degradation of Acid Orange 7. Using combinations of the different light sources with various cut-off and band-pass filters, the spectra responses of the absorbed photons in the UV/AA and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} processes were determined for two colored and two colorless compounds. The photonic efficiency (φ) of the two photochemical processes was found to be target-dependent. A calculation approach for the inner filter effect was developed by taking the obtained φ into account, which provides a more accurate indication of the reaction mechanisms.

  20. UV testing of solar cells: Effects of antireflective coating, prior irradiation, and UV source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenberg, A.

    1993-01-01

    Short-circuit current degradation of electron irradiated double-layer antireflective-coated cells after 3000 hours ultraviolet (UV) exposure exceeds 3 percent; extrapolation of the data to 10(exp 5) hours (11.4 yrs.) gives a degradation that exceeds 10 percent. Significant qualitative and quantitative differences in degradation were observed in cells with double- and single-layer antireflective coatings. The effects of UV-source age were observed and corrections were made to the data. An additional degradation mechanism was identified that occurs only in previously electron-irradiated solar cells since identical unirradiated cells degrade to only 6 +/- 3 percent when extrapolated 10(exp 5) hours of UV illumination.

  1. UV testing of solar cells: Effects of antireflective coating, prior irradiation, and UV source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenberg, A.

    1993-05-01

    Short-circuit current degradation of electron irradiated double-layer antireflective-coated cells after 3000 hours ultraviolet (UV) exposure exceeds 3 percent; extrapolation of the data to 10(exp 5) hours (11.4 yrs.) gives a degradation that exceeds 10 percent. Significant qualitative and quantitative differences in degradation were observed in cells with double- and single-layer antireflective coatings. The effects of UV-source age were observed and corrections were made to the data. An additional degradation mechanism was identified that occurs only in previously electron-irradiated solar cells since identical unirradiated cells degrade to only 6 +/- 3 percent when extrapolated 10(exp 5) hours of UV illumination.

  2. The Effects of Low-Pressure Rapid Thermal Post-Annealing on the Properties of (Ba, Sr)TiO3 Thin Films Deposited by Liquid Source Misted Chemical Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Jui; Chien, Chao-Hsin; Leu, Ching-Chich; Zhang, Ren-Jian; Wu, Shich-Chuan; Huang, Tiao-Yuan; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2001-12-01

    The technique of low-pressure post-annealing process with additional second-step annealing for preparation of the Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin films deposited by liquid source misted chemical deposition (LSMCD) has been proposed. With employing this annealing procedure, the leakage current density can be significantly eliminated by approximately one order of magnitude at 2 V@. In particular, process temperature can be reduced from 650°C to 600°C without suffering deteriorated crystallinity issue, which is identified by both C-V measurement and X-ray diffraction spectrum. The extracted dielectric constant is 310 with extreamly low loss tangent of 0.005. The spectrum of atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows that this low-pressure process results in smoother surface topography. Moreover, thermal desorption spectrums assure that less residual organics and contaminations were left after low pressure post-annealing. This may be one of the reasons for lowering crystallization temperature and the improved electrical properties.

  3. Current schemes for National Synchrotron Light Source UV beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.P.; Howells, M.R.; McKinney, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    We describe in some detail four beamlines proposed for the National Synchrotron Light Source uv ring at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Three grazing-incidence instruments, one of the plane grating Mijake type and two with toroidal gratings at grazing angles of 2-1/2/sup 0/ and 15/sup 0/ are described. Two normal incidence instruments, one using the source as entrance slit and accepting 75 milliradians horizontally are also discussed. In each case we have estimated the output fluxes expected from such beamlines.

  4. Use of UV Sources for Detection and Identification of Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William; Reid, Ray; Bhartia, Rohit; Lane, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of Raman and native fluorescence emission using ultraviolet (UV) sources (explosive materials. When the UV emission data are analyzed using a combination of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis, chemicals and biological samples can be differentiated based on the geometric arrangement of molecules, the number of repeating aromatic rings, associated functional groups (nitrogen, sulfur, hydroxyl, and methyl), microbial life cycles (spores vs. vegetative cells), and the number of conjugated bonds. Explosive materials can be separated from one another as well as from a range of possible background materials, which includes microbes, car doors, motor oil, and fingerprints on car doors, etc. Many explosives are comprised of similar atomic constituents found in potential background samples such as fingerprint oils/skin, motor oil, and soil. This technique is sensitive to chemical bonds between the elements that lead to the discriminating separability between backgrounds and explosive materials.

  5. An Ultraviolet imager to study bright UV sources

    CERN Document Server

    Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Sreejith, A G; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    2016-01-01

    We have designed and developed a compact ultraviolet imaging payload to fly on a range of possible platforms such as high altitude balloon experiments, cubesats, space missions, etc. The primary science goals are to study the bright UV sources (mag < 10) and also to look for transients in the Near UV (200 - 300 nm) domain. Our first choice is to place this instrument on a spacecraft going to the Moon as part of the Indian entry into Google lunar X-Prize competition. The major constraints for the instrument are, it should be lightweight (< 2Kg), compact (length < 50cm) and cost effective. The instrument is an 80 mm diameter Cassegrain telescope with a field of view of around half a degree designated for UV imaging. In this paper we will discuss about the various science cases that can be performed by having observations with the instrument on different platforms. We will also describe the design, development and the current state of implementation of the instrument. This includes opto-mechanical and e...

  6. A new microporous carbon material synthesized via thermolysis of a porous aromatic framework embedded with an extra carbon source for low-pressure CO2 uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiming; Li, Baiyan; Williams, Kia; Gao, Wen-Yang; Ma, Shengqian

    2013-11-11

    Pre-introducing an extra carbon source into the porous aromatic framework of PAF-1 followed by thermolysis affords a new microporous carbon material, which demonstrates a CO2 uptake capacity of 93 cm(3) g(-1) (equivalent to 4.1 mmol g(-1) or 18.2 wt%) at 295 K and 1 bar.

  7. An ultraviolet imager to study bright UV sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Joice; Prakash, Ajin; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Sreejith, A. G.; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    2016-07-01

    We have designed and developed a compact ultraviolet imaging payload to y on a range of possible platforms such as high altitude balloon experiments, cubesats, space missions, etc. The primary science goals are to study the bright UV sources (mag < 10) and also to look for transients in the Near UV (200 - 300 nm) domain. Our first choice is to place this instrument on a spacecraft going to the Moon as part of the Indian entry into Google lunar X-Prize competition. The major constraints for the instrument are, it should be lightweight (< 2Kg), compact (length < 50cm) and cost effective. The instrument is an 80 mm diameter Cassegrain telescope with a field of view of around half a degree designated for UV imaging. In this paper we will discuss about the various science cases that can be performed by having observations with the instrument on different platforms. We will also describe the design, development and the current state of implementation of the instrument. This includes opto-mechanical and electrical design of the instrument. We have adopted an all spherical optical design which would make the system less complex to realize and a cost effective solution compared to other telescope configuration. The structural design has been chosen in such a way that it will ensure that the instrument could withstand all the launch load vibrations. An FPGA based electronics board is used for the data acquisition, processing and CCD control. We will also brie y discuss about the hardware implementation of the detector interface and algorithms for the detector readout and data processing.

  8. Correlation between Balmer {alpha} emission and hydrogen flux through a superpermeable niobium membrane in a low-pressure multicusp plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneteau, A.M.; Notkin, M.E.; Livshits, A.I.; Bacal, M. E-mail: bacal@lptp.polytechnique.fr

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to correlate hydrogen or deuterium flux through super permeable membranes with incident hydrogen or deuterium atom flux from the plasma. To this aim a hydrogen or deuterium plasma is created in a hybrid multicusp plasma source. We investigate Balmer {alpha} emission from the multicusp plasma and the output pressure behind a superpermeable niobium membrane immersed in the plasma.The output pressure is proportional to the flux of atoms and ions arriving on the membrane. We find that both output pressure and excited atoms emission satisfy plasma parameters relations. It is thus verified that plasma-driven superpermeation of hydrogen is due essentially to neutral atoms from the plasma incident to the membrane.

  9. Correlation between Balmer /α emission and hydrogen flux through a superpermeable niobium membrane in a low-pressure multicusp plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneteau, A. M.; Notkin, M. E.; Livshits, A. I.; Bacal, M.

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to correlate hydrogen or deuterium flux through superpermeable membranes with incident hydrogen or deuterium atom flux from the plasma. To this aim a hydrogen or deuterium plasma is created in a hybrid multicusp plasma source. We investigate Balmer α emission from the multicusp plasma and the output pressure behind a superpermeable niobium membrane immersed in the plasma.The output pressure is proportional to the flux of atoms and ions arriving on the membrane. We find that both output pressure and excited atoms emission satisfy plasma parameters relations. It is thus verified that plasma-driven superpermeation of hydrogen is due essentially to neutral atoms from the plasma incident to the membrane.

  10. Investigations on Cs-free alternatives for negative ion formation in a low pressure hydrogen discharge at ion source relevant parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurutz, U.; Friedl, R.; Fantz, U.

    2017-07-01

    Caesium (Cs) is applied in high power negative hydrogen ion sources to reduce a converter surface’s work function and thus enabling an efficient negative ion surface formation. Inherent drawbacks with the usage of this reactive alkali metal motivate the search for Cs-free alternative materials for neutral beam injection systems in fusion research. In view of a future DEMOnstration power plant, a suitable material should provide a high negative ion formation efficiency and comply with the RAMI issues of the system: reliability, availability, maintainability, inspectability. Promising candidates, like low work function materials (molybdenum doped with lanthanum (MoLa) and LaB6), as well as different non-doped and boron-doped diamond samples were investigated in this context at identical and ion source relevant parameters at the laboratory experiment HOMER. Negative ion densities were measured above the samples by means of laser photodetachment and compared with two reference cases: pure negative ion volume formation with negative ion densities of about 1× {10}15 {{{m}}}-3 and the effect of H- surface production using an in situ caesiated stainless steel sample which yields 2.5 times higher densities. Compared to pure volume production, none of the diamond samples did exhibit a measurable increase in H- densities, while showing clear indications of plasma-induced erosion. In contrast, both MoLa and LaB6 produced systematically higher densities (MoLa: ×1.60 LaB6: ×1.43). The difference to caesiation can be attributed to the higher work functions of MoLa and LaB6 which are expected to be about 3 eV for both compared to 2.1 eV of a caesiated surface.

  11. Ammonia Synthesis at Low Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussler, Edward; McCormick, Alon; Reese, Michael; Malmali, Mahdi

    2017-08-23

    Ammonia can be synthesized at low pressure by the use of an ammonia selective absorbent. The process can be driven with wind energy, available locally in areas requiring ammonia for synthetic fertilizer. Such wind energy is often called "stranded," because it is only available far from population centers where it can be directly used. In the proposed low pressure process, nitrogen is made from air using pressure swing absorption, and hydrogen is produced by electrolysis of water. While these gases can react at approximately 400 °C in the presence of a promoted conventional catalyst, the conversion is often limited by the reverse reaction, which makes this reaction only feasible at high pressures. This limitation can be removed by absorption on an ammine-like calcium or magnesium chloride. Such alkaline metal halides can effectively remove ammonia, thus suppressing the equilibrium constraints of the reaction. In the proposed absorption-enhanced ammonia synthesis process, the rate of reaction may then be controlled not by the chemical kinetics nor the absorption rates, but by the rate of the recycle of unreacted gases. The results compare favorably with ammonia made from a conventional small scale Haber-Bosch process.

  12. Reionization by UV or X-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Baek, S; Di Matteo, P; Revaz, Y; Combes, F

    2010-01-01

    We present simulations of the 21-cm signal during the Epoch of reionization. We focus on modeling properly the absorption regime in the presence of inhomogeneous Wouthuysen-Field effect and X-ray heating. We have run radiative transfer simulations for three bands in the source spectrum (Lyman, UV and X-ray) in order to fully account for these processes. We find that the brightness temperature fluctuation of the 21 cm signal has an amplitude larger than 100 mK during the early reionization, up to 10 times higher than the typical amplitude of a few 10 mK obtained during the later emission phase. More importantly, we find that even a rather high contribution from QSO-like sources only damps the absorption regime without erasing it. Heating the IGM with X-ray takes time. Our results show that observations of the early reionization will probably benefit from a higher signal-to-noise value than during later stages. Analyzing the statistical properties of the signal (power spectrum and PDF) we found three diagnostic...

  13. Low-pressure glow discharge in a Xenon/Chlorine mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Shimon, L. L.; Shevera, I. V.; Dashchenko, A. I.

    2002-12-01

    The spatial, electrical, and optical characteristics of a transverse glow discharge and a volume discharge with a spherical anode and plane cathode in low-pressure Xe/Cl2 mixtures are studied. It is shown that the transverse glow discharge in mixtures with a low chlorine content occupies most of the interelectrode gap and exists in the form of strata. As the total pressure ( P≥300 Pa) and the partial chlorine pressure ( P(Cl2)≥80 Pa) increase, a solitary plasma domain with a volume of 1-2 cm3 forms in the discharge gap. It acts as a selective source of UV radiation in the XeCl(D-X) 236-nm, Cl2 (D'-A') 257-nm, and XeCl(B-X) 308-nm bands. In certain Xe/Cl2 mixtures, plasma self-oscillations in the frequency range 1-100 kHz are observed. The current of a low-pressure volume discharge with a spherical anode and plane cathode and the emission from it have both a dc and an ac component. The pressure and composition of the working mixture, as well as the average current of the volume discharge are optimized to attain the maximum emission intensity of the XeCl(D,B-X) bands. Low-pressure volume discharges in xenon/chlorine mixtures can be used as active media in low-pressure large-aperture planar or cylindrical excimer-halogen lamps emitting modulated or repetitive pulsed UV radiation.

  14. UV radiation, vitamin D, and cancer: how to measure the vitamin D synthetic capacity of UV sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenetskaya, Irina; Orlova, Tatiana

    2005-09-01

    UV irradiation is widely used in phototherapy. Regardless of the fact that UV overexposure is liable to cause adverse health effect, in appropriate doses UV radiation initiates synthesis of vitamin D in skin that is absolutely essential for human health. As it proved, most people in northern industrial countries have a level of vitamin D in their bodies that is insufficient for optimum health, especially in winter. These low levels of vitamin D are now known to be associated with a wide spectrum of serious disease much of which leads on to premature death. The diseases associated with D deficiency involve more than a dozen types of cancer including colon, breast and prostate, as well as the classic bone diseases: rickets, osteoporosis and osteomalacia. Irradiation with artificial UV sources can prevent the vitamin D deficiency. However, in view of different irradiation spectra of UV lamps, their ability to initiate vitamin D synthesis is different. The reliable method based on an in vitro model of vitamin D synthesis has been developed for direct measurement in situ of the vitamin D synthetic capacity of artificial UV sources during a phototherapeutic procedure

  15. Statistical Properties of the GALEX/SDSS matched source catalogs, and classification of the UV sources

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, L; Viton, M; Laget, M; Efremova, B; Herald, J; Conti, A; Shiao, B; De Paz, A G; Salim, S; Thakar, A; Friedman, P G; Rey, S C; Thilker, D; Barlow, T A; Budavari, T; Donas, J; Forster, K; Heckman, T M; Lee, Y W; Madore, B F; Martin, D C; Milliard, B; Morrissey, P; Neff, S G; Rich, R M; Schiminovich, D; Seibert, M; Small, T; Szalay, A S; Wyder, T K; Welsh, B Y; Yi, S K; Bianchi, Luciana; Rodriguez-Merino, Lino; Viton, Maurice; Laget, Michel; Efremova, Boryana; Herald, James; Conti, Alberto; Shiao, Bernie; Paz, Armando Gil de; Salim, Samir; Friedman, Peter G.; Thilker, David; Barlow, Tom A.; Budavari, Tamas; Donas, Jose; Forster, Karl; Heckman, Timothy M.; Lee, Young-Wook; Madore, Barry F.; Milliard, Bruno; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan G.; Schiminovich, David; Seibert, Mark; Small, Todd; Szalay, Alex S.; Wyder, Ted K.; Welsh, Barry Y.; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2006-01-01

    We use the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) Medium and All-Sky-Imaging Survey (MIS & AIS) data from the first public data release (GR1), matched to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR3 catalog, to perform source classification. The GALEX surveys provide photometry in far- and near-UV bands and the SDSS in five optical bands (u,g,r,i,z). The GR1/DR3 overlapping areas are 363[83]deg^2 for the GALEX AIS[MIS], for sources within the 0.5deg central area of the GALEX fields. Our sample covers mostly |b|>30deg galactic latitudes. We present statistical properties of the GALEX/SDSS matched sources catalog, containing >2x10^6 objects detected in at least one UV band. We classify the matched sources by comparing the seven-band photometry to model colors constructed for different classes of astrophysical objects. For sources with photometric errors <0.3 mag, the corresponding typical AB-magnitude limits are m_FUV~21.5, m_NUV~22.5 for AIS, and m_FUV~24, m_NUV~24.5 for MIS. At AIS depth, the number of Galactic ...

  16. Deep-UV solid state light sources in the tactical biological sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabalo, Jerry; De Lucia, Marla; Narayanan, Fiona; Poldmae, Aime; Sickenberger, David

    2006-05-01

    A number of strategies to meet the need for a small and inexpensive biosensor that mitigates military and civilian vulnerabilities to biological weapons are currently being pursued. Among them is UV induced biological fluorescence. UV induced biofluorescence is a potentially successful strategy because it involves no chemical consumables and it is an "on-line" detection method where particles can be interrogated without impaction onto a substrate or into a liquid. Indeed, there are already existing fluorescence based sensors already in place, yet these are limited by the cost and power consumption of the laser based UV excitation sources. Fortunately, inexpensive and low power solid state UV sources arising from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA) Semiconductor UV Optical Sources (SUVOS) project have become commercially available in wavelengths capable of exciting aromatic amino acids (e.g. tryptophan) and metabolic products (e.g. NADH). The TAC-Bio Sensor is capable of exploiting either source wavelength and will ultimately include both source wavelengths within a single sensor. Initial work with the deep UV sources involves the correct optical filtering for the devices. The primary emission from both the 280 nm and 340 nm devices occurs at the design wavelength and is about 20 nm FWHM, however, there is a tail extending to the longer wavelengths that interferes with the fluorescence signal. A system of optical filters that sufficiently removes the long wavelength component from the UV source is designed and tested for the deep UV sources. Ongoing work with the sensor has confirmed that sensitivity to small biological particles is enhanced with the deeper wavelengths. When the 340 nm sources are placed in the TAC-Bio, it is capable of detecting 4 micron diameter Bacillus globigii (BG, Dugway, washed 4X) spore agglomerates. The deep UV sources show an improvement in signal to noise of 2, permitting the detection of 3 micron diameter BG

  17. Report from the NSLS workshop: Sources and applications of high intensity uv-vuv light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.D.; Hastings, J.B. [eds.

    1990-12-31

    A workshop was held to evaluate sources and applications of high intensity, ultra violet (UV) radiation for biological, chemical, and materials sciences. The proposed sources are a UV free electron laser (FEL) driven by a high brightness linac and undulators in long, straight sections of a specially designed low energy (400 MeV) storage ring. These two distinct types of sources will provide a broad range of scientific opportunities that were discussed in detail during the workshop.

  18. Report from the NSLS workshop: Sources and applications of high intensity uv-vuv light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.D.; Hastings, J.B. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    A workshop was held to evaluate sources and applications of high intensity, ultra violet (UV) radiation for biological, chemical, and materials sciences. The proposed sources are a UV free electron laser (FEL) driven by a high brightness linac and undulators in long, straight sections of a specially designed low energy (400 MeV) storage ring. These two distinct types of sources will provide a broad range of scientific opportunities that were discussed in detail during the workshop.

  19. The Ultraviolet Sky: final catalogs of unique UV sources from GALEX, and characterization of the UV-emitting sources across the sky, and of the Milky Way extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Luciana; Conti, A.; Shiao, B.; Keller, G. R.; Thilker, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    The legacy of the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), which imaged the sky at Ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths for about 9 years, is its unprecedented database with more than 200 million source measurements in far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV), as well as wide-field imaging of extended objects. GALEX's data, the first substantial sky surveys at UV wavelengths, offer an unprecedented view of the sky and a unique opportunity for an unbiased characterization of several classes of astrophysical objects, such as hot stars, QSOs at red-shift about 1, UV-peculiar QSOs, star-forming galaxies, among others. Bianchi et al. (2013, J. Adv. Space Res. (2013), DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2013.07.045) have constructed final catalogs of UV sources, with homogeneous quality, eliminating duplicate measurements of the same source ('unique' source catalogs), and excluding rim artifacts and bad photometry. The catalogs are constructed improving on the recipe of Bianchi et al. 2011 (MNRAS, 411, 2770, which presented the earlier version of these catalogs) and include all data for the major surveys, AIS and MIS. Considering the fields where both FUV and NUV detectors were exposed, the catalogs contain about 71 and 16.6 million unique sources respectively. We show several maps illustrating the content of UV sources across the sky, globally, and separately for bright/faint, hot, stellar/extragalactic objects. We matched the UV-source catalogs with optical-IR data from the SDSS, GSC2, 2MASS surveys. We are also in the process of matching the catalogs with preliminary PanSTARRS1 (PS1) 3pi survey photometry which already provides twice the sky coverage of SDSS, at slightly fainter magnitude limits. The sources' SED from FUV to optical wavelengths enables classification, derivation of the object physical parameters, and ultimately also a map of the Milky Way extinction. The catalogs will be available on MAST, Vizier (where the previous version already is), and in reduced form (for agile

  20. Development and calibration of UV/VUV radiometric sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    A program exists at NIST to calibrate radiometric sources for the spectral range from 118-350 nm. These include deuterium lamps, hollow-cathode lamps, RF-excited dimer lamps, and wall-stabilized argon arcs. Sources have been calibrated for and used by researchers in solar physics, astrophysics, atmospheric physics (ozone measurements), magnetically controlled fusion, and photobiology. The argon arcs were developed in our laboratory, and provide intense sources of both radiance and irradiance. Calibrations are performed relative to two primary sources, a wall-stabilized hydrogen arc and a 12,000 K black-body line arc, both developed in our laboratory. Also we recently have begun periodic calibrations on the NIST storage ring, SURF II, to insure consistency between our respective radiometric bases. Various sources have been calibrated for space' applications, including several which are flyable. Also, some development and testing of radiometers for semiconductor lithography were recently carried out with an intense argon arc source.

  1. POSSIBLE SOURCES OF UV RADIATION IN ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We have compiled a sample of 519 nearby (z < 0:13 elliptical galaxies, selected by matching the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX Medium Imaging Survey (MIS with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS Fourth Data Release (DR4. Our galaxies are bright, with r < 16:8 and have FUV (far ultraviolet an NUV (near ultraviolet emission. We build a UV Color Magnitude Relation (CMR using GALEX and SDSS photometric bands, and analyze the evolution of this CMR for these galaxies using stellar population synthesis models. We nd that these galaxies may have su ered a small amount of recent residual star formation (1{2% of the galaxy mass. Extreme Horizontal Branch (EHB stars can explain galaxies with 4 < NUV- r < 5:4.

  2. Evaluating UV/H₂O₂, UV/percarbonate, and UV/perborate for natural organic matter reduction from alternative water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelar, Hugo R; Brown, Mark T; Boyer, Treavor H

    2014-06-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) continues to increase in drinking water sources due to many factors, including changes in land use and global climate. Water treatment facilities will need to evaluate the best treatment options to account for these higher NOM levels. The UV/H₂O₂ advanced oxidation process (AOP) is one treatment option that has shown success at reducing high levels of NOM. As a result, this study evaluated the UV/H₂O₂ for the reduction of NOM in a high NOM water matrix, the Florida Everglades. In addition to liquid H₂O₂, sodium percarbonate and sodium perborate were used as oxidants to evaluate their performance as alternatives to liquid H₂O₂. Results showed that all three oxidants were able to reduce aromatic carbon (UV₂₅₄) by 46-66% and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by 11-19% at UV fluences of 2.6-2.7 J cm(-2) and an H₂O₂ dose of 100 mg L(-1). When the UV fluences were increased to 21.8-26.1 J cm(-2) at an H₂O₂ dose of 100 mg L(-1), UV₂₅₄ reduction increased to 79-97% and DOC to 42-82% for all three oxidants. All three oxidants performed statistically similar for UV₂₅₄ reduction. However, for DOC reduction, H₂O₂ performed statically better than both percarbonate and perborate, and perborate performed statistically better than percarbonate. While the UV/H₂O₂ AOP is effective for NOM reduction in high NOM waters, advances in electrical efficiency are needed to make it economically feasible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and low-pressure mercury-arc lamps for disinfection of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholtes, Kari A; Lowe, Kincaid; Walters, Glenn W; Sobsey, Mark D; Linden, Karl G; Casanova, Lisa M

    2016-09-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting at 260 nm were evaluated to determine the inactivation kinetics of bacteria, viruses, and spores compared to low-pressure (LP) UV irradiation. Test microbes were Escherichia coli B, a non-enveloped virus (MS-2), and a bacterial spore (Bacillus atrophaeus). For LP UV, 4-log10 reduction doses were: E. coli B, 6.5 mJ/cm(2); MS-2, 59.3 mJ/cm(2); and B. atrophaeus, 30.0 mJ/cm(2). For UV LEDs, the 4-log10 reduction doses were E. coli B, 6.2 mJ/cm(2); MS-2, 58 mJ/cm(2); and B. atrophaeus, 18.7 mJ/cm(2). Microbial inactivation kinetics of the two UV technologies were not significantly different for E. coli B and MS-2, but were different for B. atrophaeus spores. UV LEDs at 260 nm are at least as effective for inactivating microbes in water as conventional LP UV sources and should undergo further development in treatment systems to disinfect drinking water.

  4. Small doses from artificial UV sources elucidate the photo-production of vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Richard; Liley, Ben; Johnston, Paul; Scragg, Robert; Stewart, Alistair; Reeder, Anthony I; Allen, Martin W

    2013-09-01

    To clarify the relation between UV exposure and vitamin D status, 201 volunteers wore personal electronic UV dosimeters during daylight hours, to record their UV exposure over a 10 week period when ambient UV levels were significantly less than the summer maxima. Blood samples to determine serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] levels were taken at the end of week 4 and week 8. Participants were then given a single full-body exposure of approximately 2 SED from one of four artificial UV sources with different spectral outputs and a further blood sample taken at study completion, nominally week 10. The artificial UV exposure reversed the mean seasonal decline in 25(OH)D3. Increases in 25(OH)D3 from week 8 to week 10 were related to total UV exposure, including the ambient sun exposures. These exposures were weighted by the erythemal action spectrum and separately for three different action spectra for pre-vitamin D production. For the erythema weighting function, 25(OH)D3 increased 1.78 ± 0.25 nmol per litre per SED, a value consistent with other studies. Any differences due to age, BMI, gender, and skin reflectance were not statistically significant. Ethnicity differences were the only significant factor, with Asians producing the least vitamin D, and Maori the most. There was no statistically significant improvement in consistency between sources for any of the three pre-vitamin weightings compared with that for erythema. Further work is needed to verify which vitamin D action spectrum is most appropriate. Nevertheless, these small doses of UV from artificial sources were helpful in quantifying the relationship between UV exposure and vitamin D status among the New Zealand population.

  5. Combined corona discharge and UV photoionization source for ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Hamed; Tabrizchi, Mahmoud

    2012-08-15

    An ion mobility spectrometer is described which is equipped with two non-radioactive ion sources, namely an atmospheric pressure photoionization and a corona discharge ionization source. The two sources cannot only run individually but are additionally capable of operating simultaneously. For photoionization, a UV lamp was mounted parallel to the axis of the ion mobility cell. The corona discharge electrode was mounted perpendicular to the UV radiation. The total ion current from the photoionization source was verified as a function of lamp current, sample flow rate, and drift field. Simultaneous operation of the two ionization sources was investigated by recording ion mobility spectra of selected samples. The design allows one to observe peaks from either the corona discharge or photoionization individually or simultaneously. This makes it possible to accurately compare peaks in the ion mobility spectra from each individual source. Finally, the instrument's capability for discriminating two peaks appearing in approximately identical drift times using each individual ionization source is demonstrated.

  6. UV radiation sources operating in an abnormal microdischarge regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostin, S. A.; Mitko, S. V.; Peters, P. J. M.; Boller, K. J.; Udalov, Yu. B.

    2002-10-01

    Recently we proposed a new design approach for microdischarge plasma sources and microdischarge arrays [1]. The major improvement comes from the fact that the ceramic dielectric layer is sintered directly on the metal cathode. The discharge channels are drilled in the dielectric layer mechanically or by laser. This design approach excludes the undesirable cathode spot spread, which usually occurs if dielectric is mechanically pressed on the cathode surface. Another advantage is a possibility of efficient cooling. The electrical characteristics of a single microdischarge and microdischarge array operating in abnormal regime were investigated in different gas mixtures (He, Ar, Xe, He-Ar-Xe, He-Xe-HCl) at different gas pressures and configurations of the discharge set-up. The studied set-up allows to achieve discharge voltages up to 2kV in continuous wave DC mode at gas pressures of 100-200 mbar in He or He-Xe gas mixtures. The obtained results indicate that this kind of discharge can be considered as a low-energy electron-beam source. It can be used for efficient pumping of gas lasers (for instance atomic Xe) or for large area planar VUV light sources based on excimers with relatively high excitation threshold (for instance He2 or Ne2 dimers). 1. RU.Patent N^o 2172573

  7. Comparison of femtosecond laser and continuous wave UV sources for protein-nucleic acid crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecko, Christopher J; Munson, Katherine M; Saunders, Abbie; Sun, Guangxing; Begley, Tadhg P; Lis, John T; Webb, Watt W

    2007-01-01

    Crosslinking proteins to the nucleic acids they bind affords stable access to otherwise transient regulatory interactions. Photochemical crosslinking provides an attractive alternative to formaldehyde-based protocols, but irradiation with conventional UV sources typically yields inadequate product amounts. Crosslinking with pulsed UV lasers has been heralded as a revolutionary technique to increase photochemical yield, but this method had only been tested on a few protein-nucleic acid complexes. To test the generality of the yield enhancement, we have investigated the benefits of using approximately 150 fs UV pulses to crosslink TATA-binding protein, glucocorticoid receptor and heat shock factor to oligonucleotides in vitro. For these proteins, we find that the quantum yields (and saturating yields) for forming crosslinks using the high-peak intensity femtosecond laser do not improve on those obtained with low-intensity continuous wave (CW) UV sources. The photodamage to the oligonucleotides and proteins also has comparable quantum yields. Measurements of the photochemical reaction yields of several small molecules selected to model the crosslinking reactions also exhibit nearly linear dependences on UV intensity instead of the previously predicted quadratic dependence. Unfortunately, these results disprove earlier assertions that femtosecond pulsed laser sources provide significant advantages over CW radiation for protein-nucleic acid crosslinking.

  8. Low pressure microfluidic-based DNA fragmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shui, Lingling; Sparreboom, Wouter; Bomer, Johan G.; Jin, Mingliang; Carlen, Edwin; van den Berg, Albert

    2011-01-01

    We report a low-pressure microfluidic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation device based on a combination of me-chanical hydrodynamic shearing and low temperature sample heating. Conventional DNA fragmentation based on hydrody-namic shearing is capable of achieving fragment lengths (FL) < 10k bp

  9. New horizons for Supercontinuum light sources: from UV to mid-IR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Carsten L.; Nielsen, Frederik Donbæk; Johansen, Jeppe;

    2013-01-01

    Commercially available supercontinuum sources continue to experience a strong growth in a wide range of industrial and scientific applications. In addition, there is a significant research effort focused on extending the wavelength coverage both towards UV and Mid-IR. Broadband sources covering...... these wavelength regions have received significant attention from potential users, as there is a wide array of applications for which there are few suitable alternative light sources – if any. Our developments in the field of Mid-IR supercontinuum sources have been based on radical approaches; such as soft glasses...

  10. Photolytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim using UV-A, UV-C and vacuum-UV (VUV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Young; Kim, Tae-Hun; Yu, Seungho

    2015-01-01

    The photolytic degradation of the non-degradable pharmaceuticals sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and trimethoprim (TMP) in an aqueous solution was investigated using three kinds of low-pressure mercury lamp UV-A (352 nm), UV-C (254 nm), and vacuum-UV (VUV, 185 nm and 254 nm). The degradation rates were highly dependent on the target compounds as well as the UV sources. No degradation of the target compounds was observed using UV-A treatment, because there was no overlap between the UV-A emission spectrum and absorption spectrum of the target compounds. On the other hand, UVC and VUV revealed higher reactivity. The results also indicated that SMX had a greater potential to react photochemically than TMP. Among the UV sources, VUV was the most effective process for the degradation of target compounds. Furthermore, the addition of oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8) to the reaction system improved the overall degradation rate significantly.The experimental results for the VUV-irradiated samples with the addition of methanol as a hydroxyl radical scavenger revealed that hydroxyl radicals contribute significantly to the elimination of the target compound. Overall, the degradation rate of the target compounds was in the order: VUV = UV-C > UV-A for sulfamethoxazole and VUV/H2O2 > VUV/ Na2S2O8 > VUV >UV-C >UV-A for trimethoprim.

  11. Low Pressure Nuclear Thermal Rocket (LPNTR) concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsthaler, J. H.

    1991-01-01

    A background and a description of the low pressure nuclear thermal system are presented. Performance, mission analysis, development, critical issues, and some conclusions are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: LPNTR's inherent advantages in critical NTR requirement; reactor trade studies; reference LPNTR; internal configuration and flow of preliminary LPNTR; particle bed fuel assembly; preliminary LPNTR neutronic study results; multiple LPNTR engine concept; tank and engine configuration for mission analysis; LPNTR reliability potential; LPNTR development program; and LPNTR program costs.

  12. Low-Pressure-Drop Shutoff Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornborrow, John

    1994-01-01

    Flapper valve remains open under normal flow conditions but closes upon sudden increases to high rate of flow and remains closed until reset. Valve is fluid/mechanical analog of electrical fuse or circuit breaker. Low-pressure-drop shutoff valve contains flapper machined from cylindrical surface. During normal flow conditions, flapper presents small cross section to flow. (Useful in stopping loss of fluid through leaks in cooling systems.)

  13. Production of High Intracavity UV Power From a CW Laser Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, R. T.; Chyba, T. H.; Keppel, C. E.; Gaskell, D.; Ent, R.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to create a prototype high power CW source of ultraviolet (UV) photons for photon-electron scattering at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Hall B. The facility will use optical resonant cavities to produce a high photon flux. The technical approach will be to frequency-double the 514.5 mn light from an Argon-Ion Laser to create 0.1 to 1.0 watt in the UV. The produced UV power will be stored in a resonant cavity to generate an high intracavity UV power of 102 to 103 watts. The specific aim of this project is to first design and construct the low-Q doubling cavity and lock it to the Argon-Ion wavelength. Secondly, the existing 514.5 nm high-Q build-up cavity and its locking electronics will be modified to create high intracavity UV power. The entire system will then be characterized and evaluated for possible beam line use.

  14. Efficacy of hand held, inexpensive UV light sources on Acanthamoeba, causative organism in amoebic keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cometa

    2010-01-01

    /protocols might capitalize on this synergistic action.Keywords: UV light sources, amoebic keratitis, MPS

  15. Recent Developments in UV Optics for Ultra-Short, Ultra-Intense Coherent Light Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cocco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of Free Electron Lasers and general UV ultra-short, ultra-intense sources, optics needed to transport such radiation have evolved significantly to standard UV optics. Problems like surface damage, wavefront preservation, beam splitting, beam shaping, beam elongation (temporal stretching pose new challenges for the design of beam transport systems. These problems lead to a new way to specify optics, a new way to use diffraction gratings, a search for new optical coatings, to tighter and tighter polishing requirements for mirrors, and to an increased use of adaptive optics. All these topics will be described in this review article, to show how optics could really be the limiting factor for future development of these new light sources.

  16. Impulse powerful UV-radiation source pumped by the sublight ionization waves for the bacteriological disinfection of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiouguine, Igor V.; Kostiouchenko, S. V.; Koudryavtsev, N. N.; Vasilyak, Leonid M.; Yakimenko, A. V.

    1993-11-01

    The bacteriological disinfective action of UV-radiation is well known. The pioneer work on UV-radiation used for bacteriological disinfection of waste water was made in 1910. Because of the high cost and low living time of the UV-radiation sources, the alternative technique for waste water purification by chlorine introducing was spread out. During the second stage of the UV purification development, beginning in approximately 1970, the interest for bacteriological cleaning of water, increased again. Two reasons were responsible for this event: first, the significant improvement of technology and design of UV-bacteriological purificators, and second, recognition of the serious danger of chlorine compounds introduced into water under purification because of the toxicity of these compounds. Further investigations gave excellent results in the creation and industrial applications of UV- bacteriological purificators. Now we can see a rapid development of industrial technology in UV-purification of drinking and waste waters.

  17. Leaf surface wax is a source of plant methane formation under UV radiation and in the presence of oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Rolsted, M. M. M.

    2014-01-01

    The terrestrial vegetation is a source of UV radiation-induced aerobic methane (CH4) release to the atmosphere. Hitherto pectin, a plant structural component, has been considered as the most likely precursor for this CH4 release. However, most of the leaf pectin is situated below the surface wax...... layer, and UV transmittance of the cuticle differs among plant species. In some species, the cuticle effectively absorbs and/or reflects UV radiation. Thus, pectin may not necessarily contribute substantially to the UV radiation-induced CH4 emission measured at surface level in all species. Here, we...... investigated the potential of the leaf surface wax itself as a source of UV radiationinduced leaf aerobic CH4 formation. Isolated leaf surface wax emitted CH4 at substantial rates in response to UV radiation. This discovery has implications for how the phenomenon should be scaled to global levels. In relation...

  18. Oxygen isotope signature of UV degradation of glyphosate and phosphonoacetate: tracing sources and cycling of phosphonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandy, Edward H; Blake, Ruth E; Chang, Sae Jung; Jun, Yao; Yu, Chan

    2013-09-15

    The degradation of phosphonates in the natural environment constitutes a major route by which orthophosphate (Pi) is regenerated from organic phosphorus and recently implicated in marine methane production, with ramifications to environmental pollution issues and global climate change concerns. This work explores the application of stable oxygen isotope analysis in elucidating the CP bond cleavage mechanism(s) of phosphonates by UV photo-oxidation and for tracing their sources in the environment. The two model phosphonates used, glyphosate and phosphonoacetic acid were effectively degraded after exposure to UV irradiation. The isotope results indicate the involvement of both ambient water and atmospheric oxygen in the CP bond cleavage and generally consistent with previously posited mechanisms of UV-photon excitation reactions. A model developed to calculate the oxygen isotopic composition of the original phosphonate P-moiety, shows both synthetic phosphonates having distinctly lower values compared to naturally derived organophosphorus compounds. Such mechanistic models, based on O-isotope probing, are useful for tracing the sources and reactions of phosphonates in the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimation of nitrite in source-separated nitrified urine with UV spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašić, Alma; Santos, Ana T L; Etter, Bastian; Udert, Kai M; Villez, Kris

    2015-11-15

    Monitoring of nitrite is essential for an immediate response and prevention of irreversible failure of decentralized biological urine nitrification reactors. Although a few sensors are available for nitrite measurement, none of them are suitable for applications in which both nitrite and nitrate are present in very high concentrations. Such is the case in collected source-separated urine, stabilized by nitrification for long-term storage. Ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry in combination with chemometrics is a promising option for monitoring of nitrite. In this study, an immersible in situ UV sensor is investigated for the first time so to establish a relationship between UV absorbance spectra and nitrite concentrations in nitrified urine. The study focuses on the effects of suspended particles and saturation on the absorbance spectra and the chemometric model performance. Detailed analysis indicates that suspended particles in nitrified urine have a negligible effect on nitrite estimation, concluding that sample filtration is not necessary as pretreatment. In contrast, saturation due to very high concentrations affects the model performance severely, suggesting dilution as an essential sample preparation step. However, this can also be mitigated by simple removal of the saturated, lower end of the UV absorbance spectra, and extraction of information from the secondary, weaker nitrite absorbance peak. This approach allows for estimation of nitrite with a simple chemometric model and without sample dilution. These results are promising for a practical application of the UV sensor as an in situ nitrite measurement in a urine nitrification reactor given the exceptional quality of the nitrite estimates in comparison to previous studies.

  20. UV-VUV diagnostics for the Advanced Photon Source SASE FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Hartog, P D; Benson, C; Erdmann, M; Lumpkin, Alex H; Makarov, O; Petra, M; Tieman, B; Trakhtenberg, E; Wiemerslage, G

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) uses diagnostics between undulator sections to characterize the light and the electron beam. These diagnostics enable z-dependent measurements of the exponential growth of the radiation and of the microbunching. The original diagnostics were designed for visible light. To enable measurements down to 265 nm, UV-enhanced cameras and fused-silica lenses have been installed. We have now designed a diagnostics suite that will enable us to continue measurements down to 50 nm using reflective optics and back-illuminated CCD cameras operating in vacuum. We describe the enhancements to the diagnostics for operation in the UV and VUV.

  1. Investigations into low pressure methanol synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharafutdinov, Irek

    The central topic of this work has been synthesis, characterization and optimization of novel Ni-Ga based catalysts for hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol. The overall goal was to search for materials that could be used as a low temperature (and low pressure) methanol synthesis catalyst....... Among them, Ni-Ga has been chosen, primarily due to low price of constituent metals. After the preliminary optimization work, an optimal catalyst composition and preparation method has been suggested. Indeed, for an optimal catalyst, which is a SiO2 supported Ni-Ga prepared from a solution of nitrates...... due to carbon formation) and under accelerated ageing conditions (due to dealloying). However, the initial activity could always be restored after treatment in hydrogen flow at elevated temperatures. The work in the direction of suppression of deactivation and by-product formation is still in progress....

  2. Oxygen isotope signature of UV degradation of glyphosate and phosphonoacetate: Tracing sources and cycling of phosphonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandy, Edward H. [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208109, New Haven, CT 06520-8109 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Sierra Leone, Freetown (Sierra Leone); Blake, Ruth E., E-mail: ruth.blake@yale.edu [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208109, New Haven, CT 06520-8109 (United States); School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, and National “International Cooperation Base on Environment and Energy”, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100084 (China); Chang, Sae Jung [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208109, New Haven, CT 06520-8109 (United States); Jun, Yao, E-mail: yaojun@ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208109, New Haven, CT 06520-8109 (United States); School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, and National “International Cooperation Base on Environment and Energy”, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100084 (China); Yu, Chan [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208109, New Haven, CT 06520-8109 (United States); School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, and National “International Cooperation Base on Environment and Energy”, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Phosphonate (phon) hydrolysis by UVR (1.2 kW) attained ≥90% completion in 84 h. • Isotope study reveals both ambient H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} involvements in phon C-P bond cleavage. • Mechanistic models proposed for phon C-P bond cleavage based on O-isotope analysis. • Model equations used to calculate δ{sup 18}O{sub P-org} of original phon P-moiety-useful as a tracer. • Study shows relevance in tracing phon sources and cycling in the environment. -- Abstract: The degradation of phosphonates in the natural environment constitutes a major route by which orthophosphate (Pi) is regenerated from organic phosphorus and recently implicated in marine methane production, with ramifications to environmental pollution issues and global climate change concerns. This work explores the application of stable oxygen isotope analysis in elucidating the C-P bond cleavage mechanism(s) of phosphonates by UV photo-oxidation and for tracing their sources in the environment. The two model phosphonates used, glyphosate and phosphonoacetic acid were effectively degraded after exposure to UV irradiation. The isotope results indicate the involvement of both ambient water and atmospheric oxygen in the C-P bond cleavage and generally consistent with previously posited mechanisms of UV-photon excitation reactions. A model developed to calculate the oxygen isotopic composition of the original phosphonate P-moiety, shows both synthetic phosphonates having distinctly lower values compared to naturally derived organophosphorus compounds. Such mechanistic models, based on O-isotope probing, are useful for tracing the sources and reactions of phosphonates in the environment.

  3. The potential for optical beam shaping of UV laser sources for mass scale quarantine disinfection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd

    2010-08-01

    disinfection systems using high intensity UV laser sources instead of UV bulb techniques by using laser beam shaping optics in conjunction with traditional optical laser beam delivery techniques.

  4. Application of UV-LED surface light source in PCB solder mask exposure%UV-LED面光源在PCB阻焊曝光中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵秀红

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the development of the UV-LED, bring revolutionary changes in the field of PCB exposure. It is energy efficient and has constant light intensity, good temperature control, and almost zero maintenance cost. It promotes UV-LED surface light source replacing the traditional exposure lamp and becomes a trend.In accordance with the characteristics of the ultraviolet light source for PCB solder mask exposure process, this paper discusses not only the related technologies to overcome the difficulties in the promotion and application, but also provided solutions through experimental data, analysis of the factors of impact on the uniformity, the time and the resolution of UV-LED surface light source exposure. Using scanning mixed-wavelength UV-LED surface light source exposure mode, the practice shows that it is energy efficient, and the light intensity distribution is uniform and stable, is able to fully meet the requirements of the indicators of the anti-welds exposure process, and the maneuverability is strong, and it will play a catalytic role in the PCB exposure process for quality improvement and energy conservation.%  近年来随着UV-LED的问世,为印制电路板曝光领域带来革命性的变化。其高效节能、恒定的光照强度、优秀的温度控制、几乎为零的维护成本。促使UV-LED面光源替代传统曝光灯成为发展趋势。文章针对印制电路板阻焊曝光工艺紫外光源的特点,论述了推广应用中需要克服的相关技术及解决方法;并通过实验数据,分析出影响UV-LED面光源曝光均匀性、时间、解析度的因素。实践表明,采用扫描式、混合波长的UV-LED面光源曝光方式,高效节能、光强分布均匀稳定、能够完全满足阻焊曝光过程对光源的指标要求,可操作性强,对印制电路板曝光工艺的品质提升与节能降耗将起到推动作用。

  5. Protonation enhancement by dichloromethane doping in low-pressure photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jinian; Zou, Yao; Xu, Ce; Li, Zhen; Sun, Wanqi; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Haixu; Zhang, Peng; Ma, Pengkun

    2016-12-01

    Doping has been used to enhance the ionization efficiency of analytes in atmospheric pressure photoionization, which is based on charge exchange. Compounds with excellent ionization efficiencies are usually chosen as dopants. In this paper, we report a new phenomenon observed in low-pressure photoionization: Protonation enhancement by dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) doping. CH2Cl2 is not a common dopant due to its high ionization energy (11.33 eV). The low-pressure photoionization source was built using a krypton VUV lamp that emits photons with energies of 10.0 and 10.6 eV and was operated at ~500–1000 Pa. Protonation of water, methanol, ethanol, and acetaldehyde was respectively enhanced by 481.7 ± 122.4, 197.8 ± 18.8, 87.3 ± 7.8, and 93.5 ± 35.5 times after doping 291 ppmv CH2Cl2, meanwhile CH2Cl2 almost does not generate noticeable ions itself. This phenomenon has not been documented in the literature. A new protonation process involving in ion-pair and H-bond formations was proposed to expound the phenomenon. The observed phenomenon opens a new prospect for the improvement of the detection efficiency of VUV photoionization.

  6. Protonation enhancement by dichloromethane doping in low-pressure photoionization

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Jinian; Xu, Ce; Li, Zhen; Sun, Wanqi; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Haixu; Zhang, Peng; Ma, Pengkun

    2016-01-01

    Doping has been used to enhance the ionization efficiency of analytes in atmospheric pressure photoionization, which is based on charge exchange. Compounds with excellent ionization efficiencies are usually chosen as dopants. In this paper, we report a new phenomenon observed in low-pressure photoionization: Protonation enhancement by dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) doping. CH2Cl2 is not a common dopant due to its high ionization energy (11.33 eV). The low-pressure photoionization source was built using a krypton VUV lamp that emits photons with energies of 10.0 and 10.6 eV and was operated at 500-1000 Pa. Protonation of water, methanol, ethanol, and acetaldehyde was respectively enhanced by 481.7 +/- 122.4, 197.8 +/- 18.8, 87.3 +/- 7.8, and 93.5 +/- 35.5 times after doping 291 ppmv CH2Cl2, meanwhile CH2Cl2 almost does not generate noticeable ions itself. This phenomenon has not been documented in the literature. A new protonation process involving in ion-pair and H-bond formations was proposed to expound the phenom...

  7. Mechanical behavior of PDMS at low pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyan, J.; Tawfick, S.

    2017-07-01

    Polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS) are used in a wide range of soft devices including lab-on-chip, soft robots and flexible electronics. These technologies are currently considered for space exploration applications. We experimentally study the effects of vacuum pressure on the dynamics of PDMS resonator and demonstrate that, unlike hard materials, it exhibits an appreciable change in modulus manifested as a shift in resonance frequency with varying pressure. To reveal this dependence, we carefully probe the dissipation due to air pressure damping acting on the surface of the membrane. For a 1 µm thick membrane, the modulus of the PDMS decreases when the pressure is below P t  =  3.175 Torr, whereas at pressures above {{P}\\text{t}} the dynamics are dominated by gas damping in the free molecular flow and viscous regimes. We conjecture that the observed effect is a consequence of a change in shear modulus resulting in a logarithmic linear relationship between pressure and stiffness for a circular PDMS membrane. These results are important for the application of PDMS microdevices at low pressure.

  8. Very low pressure high power impulse triggered magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Andre; Andersson, Joakim

    2013-10-29

    A method and apparatus are described for very low pressure high powered magnetron sputtering of a coating onto a substrate. By the method of this invention, both substrate and coating target material are placed into an evacuable chamber, and the chamber pumped to vacuum. Thereafter a series of high impulse voltage pulses are applied to the target. Nearly simultaneously with each pulse, in one embodiment, a small cathodic arc source of the same material as the target is pulsed, triggering a plasma plume proximate to the surface of the target to thereby initiate the magnetron sputtering process. In another embodiment the plasma plume is generated using a pulsed laser aimed to strike an ablation target material positioned near the magnetron target surface.

  9. Longitudinal discharge pumped low-pressure XeCl laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A. I.

    2013-10-01

    We have studied output parameters of a XeCl and a N2 laser pumped by a longitudinal discharge with automatic spark UV preionisation. The output parameters of a low-pressure (30 Torr) XeCl laser operating with Ar, Ne and He as buffer gases or with no buffer gas have been optimised for the first time. The laser generated 5-ns FWHM pulses with an average power of 0.5 mW and output energy of 0.15 mJ. Under longitudinal discharge pumping, an output energy per unit volume of 1.8 J L-1 atm-1 was reached using helium as a buffer gas. With argon-containing and buffer-free mixtures, it was 1.5 J L-1 atm-1. The N2 laser generated 2.5-ns FWHM pulses with an average power of 0.35 mW and output energy of 0.05 mJ.

  10. DEEP GALEX UV SURVEY OF THE KEPLER FIELD. I. POINT SOURCE CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmedo, Manuel; Chávez, Miguel; Bertone, Emanuele [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Optica y Electrónica Luis Enrique Erro #1, CP 72840, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Lloyd, James [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Mamajek, Eric E. [University of Rochester, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States); Martin, D. Christopher; Neill, James D., E-mail: olmedo@inaoep.mx [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 278-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-11-10

    We report observations of a deep near-ultraviolet (NUV) survey of the Kepler field made in 2012 with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) Complete All-Sky UV Survey Extension (CAUSE). The GALEX-CAUSE Kepler survey (GCK) covers 104 square degrees of the Kepler field and reaches a limiting magnitude of NUV ≃ 22.6 at 3σ. Analysis of the GCK survey has yielded a catalog of 669,928 NUV sources, of which 475,164 are cross-matched with stars in the Kepler Input Catalog. Approximately 327 of 451 confirmed exoplanet host stars and 2614 of 4696 candidate exoplanet host stars identified by Kepler have NUV photometry in the GCK survey. The GCK catalog should enable the identification and characterization of UV-excess stars in the Kepler field (young solar-type and low-mass stars, chromospherically active binaries, white dwarfs, horizontal branch stars, etc.), and elucidation of various astrophysics problems related to the stars and planetary systems in the Kepler field.

  11. Development of a resin curing model for UV nanoimprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Woo; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2005-10-01

    UV nanoimprint lithography uses UV light as an energy source. It is performed at room temperature and low pressure, and has its own merits as compared to thermal nanoimprint. In this paper, a measurement system was developed to measure the degree of resin curing in UV nanoimprint to improve our understanding of the resin solidification phenomenon. A curing model was then established based on the measurement results. The measurement system measured the degree of cure in real time and was composed of a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy system, a UV light source, and an optical guide. Also, new UV-curable resins that had low viscosity values were developed for the UV nanoimprint process, and imprint tests using these resins were performed successfully. The curing model considered the UV irradiation time, power, and curing temperature, which are important parameters in the UV nanoimprint process. The degree of cure had an exponential relation to UV irradiation time, power, and temperature; thus, the curing model was expressed as an exponential function of the UV irradiation time, power, and temperature. The developed model was verified for various UV-curable resins.

  12. Ultrastable and Compact Deep UV Laser Source for Raman Spectroscopy Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deep-ultraviolet (UV) Raman spectroscopy is a powerful method to collect chemically specific information about complex samples because deep-UV (?? < 250 nm)...

  13. Assessing the effectiveness of low-pressure ultraviolet light for inactivating Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) micro-organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To assess low-pressure ultraviolet light (LP-UV) inactivation kinetics of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) strains in a water matrix using collimated beam apparatus. Methods and Results: Strains of M. avium (n = 3) and Mycobacterium intracellulare (n = 2) were exposed t...

  14. Assessing the effectiveness of low-pressure ultraviolet light for inactivating Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) micro-organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To assess low-pressure ultraviolet light (LP-UV) inactivation kinetics of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) strains in a water matrix using collimated beam apparatus. Methods and Results: Strains of M. avium (n = 3) and Mycobacterium intracellulare (n = 2) were exposed t...

  15. Gray water recycle: Effect of pretreatment technologies on low pressure reverse osmosis treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray water can be a valuable source of water when properly treated to reduce the risks associated with chemical and microbial contamination to acceptable levels for the intended reuse application. In this study, the treatment of gray water using low pressure reverse osmosis (RO) filtration after pre...

  16. Extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy of low pressure helium microwave driven discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinho, Susana; Felizardo, Edgar; Tatarova, Elena; Alves, Luis Lemos

    2016-09-01

    Surface wave driven discharges are reliable plasma sources that can produce high levels of vacuum and extreme ultraviolet radiation (VUV and EUV). The richness of the emission spectrum makes this type of discharge a possible alternative source in EUV/VUV radiation assisted applications. However, due to challenging experimental requirements, publications concerning EUV radiation emitted by microwave plasmas are scarce and a deeper understanding of the main mechanisms governing the emission of radiation in this spectral range is required. To this end, the EUV radiation emitted by helium microwave driven plasmas operating at 2.45 GHz has been studied for low pressure conditions. Spectral lines from excited helium atoms and ions were detected via emission spectroscopy in the EUV/VUV regions. Novel data concerning the spectral lines observed in the 23 - 33 nm wavelength range and their intensity behaviour with variation of the discharge operational conditions are presented. The intensity of all the spectral emissions strongly increases with the microwave power delivered to the plasma up to 400 W. Furthermore, the intensity of all the ion spectral emissions in the EUV range decreases by nearly one order of magnitude as the pressure was raised from 0.2 to 0.5 mbar. Work funded by FCT - Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia, under Project UID/FIS/50010/2013 and grant SFRH/BD/52412/2013 (PD-F APPLAuSE).

  17. Monitoring of low pressure plasma systems; Ueberwachung von Niederdruck-Plasmaanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaeli, W.; Hegenbart, A.; Binkowski, D.; Fragstein, F. v. [Inst. fuer Kunststoffverarbeitung (IKV) an der RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The optical emission spectroscopy (OES) is a very flexible and easy to use method to monitor industrial plasma processes. By directly monitoring the plasma itself many additional factors influencing low pressure plasma processes can be observed. First of all factors that can not be controlled directly play an important role in this context. Examples are contaminations and leaks in the plasma system. These can negatively influence the reproducibility of production processes. In this paper the effect of a leak on the coating and the plasma process is being shown. Additionally the detection of contaminations and sealing problems in a microwave plasma source is being demonstrated. By using the correlations being presented the OES can be used to continually monitor low pressure plasma systems and thus enhance reproducibility of industrial low pressure plasma processes. (orig.)

  18. Assessment of the Effects of Various UV Sources on Inactivation and Photoproduct Induction in Phage T7 Dosimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fekete, A.; Vink, A.A.; Gaspar, S.; Berces, A.; Modos, K.; Ronto, Gy.; Roza, L.

    1998-01-01

    The correlation between the biologically effective dose (BED) of a phage T7 biological dosimeter and the induction of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and (6-4) photoproducts ((6-4)PD) in the phage DNA was determined using seven various UV sources. The BED is the inactivation rate of phage T7 exp

  19. Another Faint UV Object Associated with a Globular Cluster X-Ray Source The Case of M92

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Rood, R T; Pecci, F F; Buonanno, R; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Paltrinieri, Barbara; Rood, Robert T.; Pecci, Flavio Fusi; Buonanno, Roberto

    2000-01-01

    The core of the metal poor Galactic Globular Cluster M92 (NGC 6341) has been observed with WFPC2 on the Hubble Space Telescope through visual, blue and mid-UV filters in a program devoted to study the evolved stellar population in a selected sample of Galactic Globular Clusters. In the UV $(m_{255}, m_{255}-U)$ color magnitude diagram we have discovered a faint `UV-dominant' object. This star lies within the error box of a Low Luminosity Globular Cluster X-ray source (LLGCX) recently found in the core of M92. The properties of the UV star discovered in M92 are very similar to those of other UV stars found in the core of some clusters (M13, 47 Tuc, M80, etc)---all of them are brighter in the UV than in the visible and are located in the vicinity of a LLGCX. We suggest that these stars are a new sub-class of cataclysmic variables.

  20. Surface energy-tunable iso decyl acrylate based molds for low pressure-nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Hyowon; Tahk, Dongha; Jeong, Chanho; Lee, Sori; Kim, Tae-il

    2017-10-01

    We presented surface energy-tunable nanoscale molds for unconventional lithography. The mold is highly robust, transparent, has a minimized haze, does not contain additives, and is a non-fluorinated isodecyl acrylate and trimethylolpropane triacrylate based polymer. By changing the mixing ratio of the polymer components, the cross-linking density, mechanical modulus, and surface energy (crucial factors in low pressure ((1–2) × 105 N m‑2) low pressure-nanoimprint lithography (LP-NIL)), can be controlled. To verify these properties of the molds, we also characterized the surface energy by measuring the contact angles and calculating the work of adhesion among the wafer, polymer film, and mold for successful demolding in nanoscale structures. Moreover, the molds showed high optical clarity and precisely tunable mechanical and surface properties, capable of replicating sub-100 nm patterns by thermal LP-NIL and UV-NIL.

  1. Optimized treatment conditions for textile wastewater reuse using photocatalytic processes under UV and visible light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Maria Clara V M; Castro, Luiz Augusto S; Marcelino, Rafaela B P; Leão, Mônica M D; Amorim, Camila C

    2017-03-01

    In this study, photo-Fenton systems using visible light sources with iron and ferrioxalate were tested for the DOC degradation and decolorization of textile wastewater. Textile wastewaters originated after the dyeing stage of dark-colored tissue in the textile industry, and the optimization of treatment processes was studied to produce water suitable for reuse. Dissolved organic carbon, absorbance, turbidity, anionic concentrations, carboxylic acids, and preliminary cost analysis were performed for the proposed treatments. Conventional photo-Fenton process achieved near 99 % DOC degradation rates and complete absorbance removal, and no carboxylic acids were found as products of degradation. Ferrioxalate photo-Fenton system achieved 82 % of DOC degradation and showed complete absorbance removal, and oxalic acid has been detected through HPLC analysis in the treated sample. In contrast, photo-peroxidation with UV light was proved effective only for absorbance removal, with DOC degradation efficiency near 50 %. Treated wastewater was compared with reclaimed water and had a similar quality, indicating that these processes can be effectively applied for textile wastewater reuse. The results of the preliminary cost analysis indicated costs of 0.91 to 1.07 US$ m(-3) for the conventional and ferrioxalate photo-Fenton systems, respectively. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  2. A Compact, Tunable Near-UV Source for Quantitative Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, K. A.; Oh, D. B.

    1999-01-01

    There is a need for improved optical diagnostic methods for use in microgravity combustion research. Spectroscopic methods with fast time response that can provide absolute concentrations and concentration profiles of important chemical species in flames are needed to facilitate the understanding of combustion kinetics in microgravity. Although a variety of sophisticated laser-based diagnostics (such as planar laser induced fluorescence, degenerate four wave mixing and coherent Raman methods) have been applied to the study of combustion in laboratory flames, the instrumentation associated with these methods is not well suited to microgravity drop tower or space station platforms. Important attributes of diagnostic systems for such applications include compact size, low power consumption, ruggedness, and reliability. We describe a diode laser-based near-UV source designed with the constraints of microgravity research in mind. Coherent light near 420 nm is generated by frequency doubling in a nonlinear crystal. This light source is single mode with a very narrow bandwidth suitable for gas phase diagnostics, can be tuned over several 1/cm and can be wavelength modulated at up to MHz frequencies. We demonstrate the usefulness of this source for combustion diagnostics by measuring CH radical concentration profiles in an atmospheric pressure laboratory flame. The radical concentrations are measured using wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) to obtain the line-of-sight integrated absorption for different paths through the flame. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements are also demonstrated with this instrument, showing the feasibility of simultaneous WMS absorption and LIF measurements with the same light source. LIF detection perpendicular to the laser beam can be used to map relative species densities along the line-of-sight while the integrated absorption available through WMS provides a mathematical constraint on the extraction of quantitative information

  3. Hybrid white light sources based on layer-by-layer assembly of nanocrystals on near-UV emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamoglu, Sedat; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2007-10-01

    We present the design, growth, fabrication, integration and characterization of alternative hybrid white light sources based on the controlled layer-by-layer assembly of nanocrystals on UV-emitting nitride diodes for adjustable white light parameters. We hybridize CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals of different sizes (1.9-3.2-5.2 nm) on InGaN/GaN LEDs as a near-UV excitation source at 383 nm for efficient pumping. The first device includes layer-by-layer assembly of dichromatic cyan- and red-emitting nanocrystals (λPL = 504-615 nm) leading to the tristimulus coordinates (x = 0.37,y = 0.46); the second device uses the trichromatic combination of layer-by-layer hybridized cyan-, yellow- and red-emitting nanocrystals (λPL = 504-580-615 nm), yielding (x = 0.38,y = 0.48). Such layer-by-layer hybridization offers the advantages of precisely controlling individual nanocrystal film thicknesses and order in addition to concentrations. By utilizing such multiple combinations of nanocrystals in the assembly, the light parameters are well controlled and adjusted. Leveraging rapidly advancing UV technology into efficient lighting with nanocrystal based color conversion, it is critical to develop and demonstrate hybrid light sources on UV pumping platforms.

  4. Low pressure cooling seal system for a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A low pressure cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids at low pressure, such as at ambient pressure, through at least one cooling fluid supply channel and into a cooling fluid mixing chamber positioned immediately downstream from a row of turbine blades extending radially outward from a rotor assembly to prevent ingestion of hot gases into internal aspects of the rotor assembly. The low pressure cooling system may also include at least one bleed channel that may extend through the rotor assembly and exhaust cooling fluids into the cooling fluid mixing chamber to seal a gap between rotational turbine blades and a downstream, stationary turbine component. Use of ambient pressure cooling fluids by the low pressure cooling system results in tremendous efficiencies by eliminating the need for pressurized cooling fluids for sealing this gap.

  5. Tunable vacuum-UV to visible ultrafast pulse source based on gas-filled Kagome-PCF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Ka Fai; Travers, John C; Hölzer, Philipp; Joly, Nicolas Y; Russell, Philip St J

    2013-05-06

    An efficient and tunable 176-550 nm source based on the emission of resonant dispersive radiation from ultrafast solitons at 800 nm is demonstrated in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF). By careful optimization and appropriate choice of gas, informed by detailed numerical simulations, we show that bright, high quality, localized bands of UV light (relative widths of a few percent) can be generated at all wavelengths across this range. Pulse energies of more than 75 nJ in the deep-UV, with relative bandwidths of ~3%, are generated from pump pulses of a few μJ. Excellent agreement is obtained between numerical and experimental results. The effects of positive and negative axial pressure gradients are also experimentally studied, and the coherence of the deep-UV dispersive wave radiation numerically investigated.

  6. The UV Scattering Halo of the Central Source Associated with Eta Carinae

    CERN Document Server

    Hillier, D J; Damineli, A; Gull, T R; Hamann, F W; Iping, R; Martin, J C; Nielsen, K; Smith, N; Sonneborn, G; Weis, K; Smith, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    We have made an extensive study of the UV spectrum of Eta Carinae, and find that we do not directly observe the star and its wind in the UV. Because of dust along our line of sight, the UV light that we observe arises from bound-bound scattering at large impact parameters. We obtain a reasonable fit to the UV spectrum by using only the flux that originates outside 0.033". This explains why we can still observe the primary star in the UV despite the large optical extinction -- it is due to the presence of an intrinsic coronagraph in the Eta Carinae system, and to the extension of the UV emitting region. It is not due to peculiar dust properties alone. We have computed the spectrum of the purported companion star, and show that it could only be directly detected in the UV spectrum preferentially in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectral region (912-1175 Ang.). However, we find no direct evidence for a companion star, with the properties indicated by X-ray studies and studies of the Weigelt b...

  7. High-intensity sources of incoherent UV and VUV excimer radiation for low-temperature materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogelschatz, U.; Esrom, H.; Zhang, J.-Y.; Boyd, I. W.

    2000-12-01

    The principles and properties of ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation generated by decaying excimer complexes are discussed. Excimer lamps offer high-intensity narrow-band radiation at various UV and VUV wavelengths and reach high efficiencies. They can provide high photon fluxes over extended areas. The use of excimers offers several advantages: excimers can be extremely efficient energy converters transforming electron kinetic energy into UV radiation. No self-absorption is observed in excimer systems. In most cases, excimer forming gas mixtures exhibit one dominant narrow emission band. Excimer systems can be pumped at extremely high power densities before saturation effects start to limit the spontaneous emission. Thus, extremely bright UV and VUV sources can be built. Different types of excimer lamps can be fabricated utilising, repetitively pulsed high power discharges, microwave discharges and dielectric-barrier discharges (silent discharges). For large-scale industrial applications dielectric-barrier discharges using fairly simple discharge configurations currently represent the most mature excimer lamp technology. Recent applications of excimer lamps include photo-deposition of large area or patterned thin metal films, of high- and low-dielectric constant insulating layers, photo-assisted low-temperature oxidation of Si, SiGe and Ge, UV curing, polymer etching and microstructuring of polymer surfaces. Applications investigated so far clearly demonstrate that low cost, high power excimer lamp systems can provide an interesting alternative to excimer lasers for industrial large-scale low-temperature materials processing.

  8. UV-excess sources with a red/IR-counterpart: low-mass companions, debris disks and QSO selection

    CERN Document Server

    Verbeek, Kars; Scaringi, Simone; Casares, Jorge; Corral-Santana, Jesus M; Deacon, Niall; Drew, Janet E; Gänsicke, Boris T; González-Solares, Eduardo; Greimel, Robert; Heber, Ulrich; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Østensen, Roy H; Steeghs, Danny; Wright, Nicholas J; Zijlstra, Albert

    2013-01-01

    We present the result of the cross-matching between UV-excess sources selected from the UV-excess survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (UVEX) and several infrared surveys (2MASS, UKIDSS and WISE). From the position in the (J-H) vs. (H-K) colour-colour diagram we select UV-excess candidate white dwarfs with an M-dwarf type companion, candidates that might have a lower mass, brown-dwarf type companion, and candidates showing an infrared-excess only in the K-band, which might be due to a debris disk. Grids of reddened DA+dM and sdO+MS/sdB+MS model spectra are fitted to the U,g,r,i,z,J,H,K photometry in order to determine spectral types and estimate temperatures and reddening. From a sample of 964 hot candidate white dwarfs with (g-r)<0.2, the spectral energy distribution fitting shows that ~2-4% of the white dwarfs have an M-dwarf companion, ~2% have a lower-mass companion, and no clear candidates for having a debris disk are found. Additionally, from WISE 6 UV-excess sources are selected as candidate Quasi-...

  9. Selective ablation of photovoltaic materials with UV laser sources for monolithic interconnection of devices based on a-Si:H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molpeceres, C. [Centro Laser UPM, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. de Valencia Km 7.3, 28031 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: carlos.molpeceres@upm.es; Lauzurica, S.; Garcia-Ballesteros, J.J.; Morales, M.; Guadano, G.; Ocana, J.L. [Centro Laser UPM, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. de Valencia Km 7.3, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez, S.; Gandia, J.J. [Dept. de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Villar, F.; Nos, O.; Bertomeu, J. [CeRMAE Dept. Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    Lasers are essential tools for cell isolation and monolithic interconnection in thin-film-silicon photovoltaic technologies. Laser ablation of transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), amorphous silicon structures and back contact removal are standard processes in industry for monolithic device interconnection. However, material ablation with minimum debris and small heat affected zone is one of the main difficulty is to achieve, to reduce costs and to improve device efficiency. In this paper we present recent results in laser ablation of photovoltaic materials using excimer and UV wavelengths of diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) laser sources. We discuss results concerning UV ablation of different TCO and thin-film silicon (a-Si:H and nc-Si:H), focussing our study on ablation threshold measurements and process-quality assessment using advanced optical microscopy techniques. In that way we show the advantages of using UV wavelengths for minimizing the characteristic material thermal affection of laser irradiation in the ns regime at higher wavelengths. Additionally we include preliminary results of selective ablation of film on film structures irradiating from the film side (direct writing configuration) including the problem of selective ablation of ZnO films on a-Si:H layers. In that way we demonstrate the potential use of UV wavelengths of fully commercial laser sources as an alternative to standard backscribing process in device fabrication.

  10. DETECTION OF INFECTIOUS ADENOVIRUS IN TERTIARY TREATED AND UV DISINFECTED WASTEWATER DURING A UV DISINFECTION PILOT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infectious enteric adenovirus was isolated from urban wastewater receiving tertiary treatment and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. A pilot study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of UV disinfection (low pressure, high intensity radiation) of total and fecal coliform bac...

  11. Luminance and efficacy improvement of low-pressure xenon pulsed fluorescent lamps by using an auxiliary external electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, Masafumi; Okamoto, Masahiro; Takeda, Masashi; Motomura, Hideki

    2007-07-01

    As the environmental awareness of people becomes stronger, the demand for mercury-free light sources also becomes stronger. The authors have been keeping their interest in developing mercury-free discharge lamps, especially in low-pressure xenon as the most promising UV sources to substitute mercury. In this paper the authors report the effect of auxiliary external electrode (AEE) on the pulsed xenon fluorescent lamps. In this research two types of structures are used. One is the standard type, which has one anode and one cathode inside the lamp. The other is the double anode type, which has two anodes and one cathode inside the lamp. By using the AEE the luminance and the efficacy are improved simultaneously. The luminance is improved by about 129% for the standard structure type and 20% for the double anode type. The efficacy is improved by 60% for the standard type and by 63% for the double anode type. We call this effect/method the Jinno Motomura effect/method (JM-effect/method). Regarding the result of the xenon metastable atom distribution, measured by LIF, this effect is attributed to the plasma potential control and enlargement of the positive column by AEE.

  12. UV annealing of low temperature photodeposited SiO 2 films with a new powerful lamp source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debauche, C.; Licoppe, C.; Meriadec, C.; Sartoris, F.; Flicstein, J.

    1992-01-01

    A decrease of processing temperature is essential for III-V semiconductors and in general for technology of opto-electronic devices. In this work, silicon dioxide films were deposited on Si and InP substrates using an UV-induced CVD process. SiO 2 was prepared using a SiH 4/O 2 mixture diluted in N 2, and deposition rates as high as 60 Å/min at a substrate temperature of 100°C have been obtained. The light source consists of a new xenon UV-VIS-IR lamp with wavelength ranging from 170 nm to 3 μm. This lamp offers a high luminance continous spectrum in the UV frequency range of interest (170-250 nm). With this powerful lamp coupled to a flowing all-optical reactor, the deposition temperature could be reduced to 100°C. Such a high photon fluence has also allowed for the first time to observe an effect we call "UV annealing". In fact, direct absorption of energetic UV photons by several localized chemical structures (Si-H, OH, adsorbed water) removes the photochemical by-products of the previous reaction, and finally leads to the production of Si-O-Si bonds. The evolution of the solid-state reactions was studied in situ, using a surface-sensitive multiple internal reflection technique coupled with infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Subsequent improvement by UV annealing of dielectric layers deposited on InP substrate was demonstrated from C( V) measurement of MIS capacitors, fabricated of these structures.

  13. Improved PNIPAAm-Hydrogel Photopatterning by Process Optimisation with Respect to UV Light Sources and Oxygen Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Haefner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAAm hydrogels, known for their sensor and actuator capabilities, can be photolithographically structured for microsystem applications. For usage in microsystems, the preparation, and hence the characteristics, of these hydrogels (e.g., degree of swelling, size, cooperative diffusion coefficient are key features, and have to be as reproducible as possible. A common method of hydrogel fabrication is free radical polymerisation using a thermally-initiated system or a photoinitiator system. Due to the reaction quenching by oxygen, the polymer solution has to be rinsed with protective inert gases like nitrogen or argon before the polymerisation process. In this paper, we focus on the preparation reproducibility of PNIPAAm hydrogels under different conditions, and investigate the influence of oxygen and the UV light source during the photopolymerisation process. The flushing of the polymer solution with inert gas is not sufficient for photostructuring approaches, so a glove box preparation resulting in better quality. Moreover, the usage of a wide-band UV light source yields higher reproducibility to the photostructuring process compared to a narrow-band UV source.

  14. Development of an ion mobility spectrometer with UV ionization source to detect ketones and BTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kai; Guo, Jingran; Ou, Guangli; Lei, Yu; Wang, Xiaohao

    2014-11-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is an attractive material analysis technology for developing a miniaturized volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on-site monitoring sensor. Having simple instrumentation, IMS is especially suitable when portability and sensitivity are required. In this work, we designed an ion mobility spectrometer with UV ionization. The geometric parameters of the UV-IMS were optimized based on a numerical simulation. The simulation results demonstrated that the drift electric field in the drift region was approximately homogenous and in the reaction region had an ion focusing effect, which could improve the sensitivity and resolving power of the IMS. The UV-IMS has been constructed and used to detect VOCs, such as acetone, benzene, toluene and m-xylene (BTX). The resolution of these substance measured from the UV-IMS in the atmospheric conditions are about 30 and the limit of detection (LOD) is low to ppmv. The ion mobility module and electric circuit are integrated in a main PCB, which can facilitate mass production and miniaturization. The present UV-IMS is expected to become a tool of choice for the on-site monitoring for VOCs.

  15. Absorptions UV dans le fonctionnement des sources lasers solides à ions de terres rares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncorgé, R.; Margerie, J.; Doualan, J. L.; Nagtegaele, P.; Guyot, Y.

    2006-12-01

    L'article donne une description et analyse les phénomènes d'absorption UV à l'origine des mécanismes de solarisation et de variation d'indice de réfraction observés dans certains matériaux dopés terres rares étudiés pour leurs propriétés laser UV ou infrarouge lorsqu'ils sont soumis à de fortes densités d'excitation optique.

  16. Bulk characterization of pharmaceutical powders by low-pressure compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A.H.; Sonnergaard, Jørn; Hovgaard, L.

    2005-01-01

    for characterization purposes. Significant correlation was demonstrated between several of the compression and tapping-derived parameters. The discriminative power of the low-pressure compression test was discussed using the compressed density at 0.2 MPa, correlated with the tapped density, and the relative Walker...... coefficient, correlated with the Compressibility Index, as examples. The compressed density at 0.2 MPa and the relative Walker coefficient demonstrated excellent discriminative power, superior to the discriminative power of the correlated tapping derived parameters. The low-pressure compression test......Low-pressure compression of pharmaceutical powders using small amounts of sample (50 mg) was evaluated as an alternative to traditional bulk powder characterization by tapping volumetry. Material parameters were extrapolated directly from the compression data and by fitting with the Walker...

  17. Development of a low pressure chromatographic flow system for monitoring the biodegradation of ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Inês C.; Mesquita, Raquel R. B.; Amorim, Catarina L.; Castro, Paula M. L.; Rangel,António O. S. S.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we propose a simple low pressure chromatography method with a high throughput for monitoring the biodegradation of fluoroquinolones. Fluoroquinolones are a class of antibiotics that have been accumulating in the environment as a consequence of their release from different sources, namely hospital waste. It has been found that wastewater treatment plants are not able to completely remove this type of micro-pollutants and so, alternative solutions are necessary. Some biodegradatio...

  18. Capabilities of UV Coronagraphic Spectroscopy for Studying the Source Regions of Solar Energetic Particles and the Solar Wind

    CERN Document Server

    Kohl, J L; Gardner, L D; Lin, J; Raymond, J C; Strachan, L; Kohl, John L.; Cranmer, Steven R.; Gardner, Larry D.; Lin, Jun; Raymond, John C.; Strachan, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    We summarize the unique capabilities of UV coronagraphic spectroscopy for determining the detailed plasma properties (e.g., density, temperature, outflow speed, composition) of the source regions of both transient phenomena such as CMEs, flares, and solar energetic particles (SEPs) and more time-steady solar wind streams. UVCS/SOHO observations have provided the first detailed diagnostics of the physical conditions of CME plasma in the extended corona. It provided new insights into the roles of shock waves, reconnection, and magnetic helicity in CME eruptions. We summarize past observations and discuss the diagnostic potential of UV coronagraphic spectroscopy for characterizing two possible sites of SEP production: CME shocks and reconnection current sheets. UVCS/SOHO has also led to fundamentally new views of the acceleration region of the solar wind. Understanding the physical processes in this region, which ranges from the low corona (1.1 to 1.5 Rsun) past the sonic points (greater than 5 Rsun), is key to ...

  19. The surface chemistry resulting from low-pressure plasma treatment of polystyrene: The effect of residual vessel bound oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhayal, Marshal; Alexander, Morgan R.; Bradley, James W.

    2006-09-01

    The surface chemistry of plasma treated polystyrene samples has been studied in a specially designed low-pressure argon discharge system incorporating in situ XPS analysis. By using an electrostatic grid biasing technique, the plasma source can also be used in a mode preventing ion interactions with the sample. The system, which utilizes a vacuum transfer chamber between plasma and XPS analysis has allowed us to differentiate between the level of oxygen incorporated at the polystyrene surface from residual gas during treatment and that from the exposure of the treated sample to the laboratory atmosphere. Using typical base pressures of about 5 × 10 -3 Pa (4 × 10 -5 Torr) the XPS results show that significant oxygen surface incorporation resulted from oxygen containing species in the plasma itself (i.e. water vapour with 2 × 10 -3 Pa partial pressure). The surface concentration of O was measured at 7.6 at.%. Subsequent atmospheric exposure of the treated samples resulted in only a small increase (of 0.6 at.%) in oxygen incorporation in the form of acid anhydride functionalities. XPS measurements of PS samples exposed to plasmas with no ion-surface component (i.e. exposure from VUV, UV and excited neutral species only) showed no appreciable change in oxygen incorporation compared to those with low-energy ion bombardment from the plasma (free radical sites in this discharge regime.

  20. A low pressure filter system for new containment concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillmann, H.G.; Pasler, H. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Laboratorium fuer Isotopentechnik, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1995-02-01

    It is demonstrated that after severe accidents the decay heat can be removed in a passive mode in a convective flow, i.e. without needing a fan. The filter components with sufficiently low pressure drop values which are required for this purpose will be described and the results indicated.

  1. Spontaneous low-pressure headache complicating bag-piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Alasdair; McAuley, David; Roxburgh, Richard

    2007-04-01

    We describe an interesting case of a 40-year-old lady who developed a spontaneous low-pressure headache whilst playing the bag-pipes. Playing wind instruments requires the generation of significant intra-thoracic pressure, which may have contributed to this musician's condition.

  2. Low-pressure valves in hydrocephalic children : a retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breimer, G. E.; Sival, Deborah; Hoving, E. W.

    2012-01-01

    A series of 100 children under 2 years of age treated for hydrocephalus is described. All patients received a standard differential low-pressure (SD low) valve as the first cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt treatment. The performance of this group during follow-up is analysed. A retrospective cohort s

  3. Low-pressure valves in hydrocephalic children : a retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breimer, G. E.; Sival, Deborah; Hoving, E. W.

    2012-01-01

    A series of 100 children under 2 years of age treated for hydrocephalus is described. All patients received a standard differential low-pressure (SD low) valve as the first cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt treatment. The performance of this group during follow-up is analysed. A retrospective cohort s

  4. Electric discharge in water as a source of UV radiation, ozone and hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anpilov, A. M.; Barkhudarov, E. M.; Bark, Yu B.; Zadiraka, Yu V.; Christofi, M.; Kozlov, Yu N.; Kossyi, I. A.; Kop'ev, V. A.; Silakov, V. P.; Taktakishvili, M. I.; Temchin, S. M.

    2001-03-01

    Results are presented from investigations of multispark electric discharge in water excited along multielectrode metal-dielectric systems with gas supply into the interelectrode gaps. The intensity distribution of discharge radiation in the region covering the biologically active soft UV (190≤λ≤430 nm) has been determined and the absolute number of quanta in this wavelength interval has been measured. The potentiality of the slipping surface discharge in water for its disinfection is analysed. The energy expenditure for water cleansing is estimated to be as low as ~10-4 kWh l-1.

  5. Kinetic analysis of negative power deposition in low pressure plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Trieschmann, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The negative power absorption in low pressure plasmas is investigated by means of an analyical model which couples Boltzmann's equation and the quasi-stationary Maxwell's equation. Exploiting standard Hilbert space methods an explicit solution for both, the electric field and the distribution function of the electrons for a bounded discharge configuration subject to an unsymmetrical excitation has been found for the first time. The model is applied to a low pressure inductively coupled plasma discharge. In this context particularly the anomalous skin effect and the effect of phase mixing is discussed. The analytical solution is compared with results from electromagnetic full wave particle in cell simulations. Excellent agreement between the analytical and the numerical results is found.

  6. Heat transfer by condensation of low pressure metal vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. S.; Lyman, F. A.; Lick, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The film condensation of low pressure metal vapors on isothermal vertical flat plates or tubes is considered. The liquid film is treated as a thin layer in which the acceleration and pressure forces are negligible and across which the temperature distribution is linear. The average behavior of the vapor is found from the linearized one-dimensional vapor flow equations. In order to calculate the rate of condensation, a consistent distribution function for the vapor particles at the liquid-vapor interface is necessary and is determined. The result of the analysis is a set of algebraic equations from which one can predict the condensation rate of low pressure metal vapors. A large but continuous temperature decrease in the vapor is predicted and calculated.

  7. LOW-PRESSURE MEMBRANE CONTACTORS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Richard; Kniep, Jay; Hao, Pingjiao; Chan, Chi Cheng; Nguyen, Vincent; Huang, Ivy; Amo, Karl; Freeman, Brice; Fulton, Don; Ly, Jennifer; Lipscomb, Glenn; Lou, Yuecun; Gogar, Ravikumar

    2014-09-30

    This final technical progress report describes work conducted by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE NETL) on development of low-pressure membrane contactors for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from power plant flue gas (award number DE-FE0007553). The work was conducted from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2014. The overall goal of this three-year project was to build and operate a prototype 500 m2 low-pressure sweep membrane module specifically designed to separate CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. MTR was assisted in this project by a research group at the University of Toledo, which contributed to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of module design and process simulation. This report details the work conducted to develop a new type of membrane contactor specifically designed for the high-gas-flow, low-pressure, countercurrent sweep operation required for affordable membrane-based CO2 capture at coal power plants. Work for this project included module development and testing, design and assembly of a large membrane module test unit at MTR, CFD comparative analysis of cross-flow, countercurrent, and novel partial-countercurrent sweep membrane module designs, CFD analysis of membrane spacers, design and fabrication of a 500 m2 membrane module skid for field tests, a detailed performance and cost analysis of the MTR CO2 capture process with low-pressure sweep modules, and a process design analysis of a membrane-hybrid separation process for CO2 removal from coal-fired flue gas. Key results for each major task are discussed in the report.

  8. APHRON-BASED DRILLING FLUIDS: SOLUTION FOR LOW PRESSURE RESERVOIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Drilling wells throughout depleted or low pressure reservoirs requires low density drilling fluids, often with density less than water. Methods to reduce the density of drilling fluids have included mixing-in air or nitrogen. However, problems with these approaches include instability of gas bubbles (bubbles collapse or expand and increased costs. Recently, the use of micro bubbles named aphrons in drilling, completion and workover fluids has proven success in solving many problems related to low pressure reservoirs such as fluid loss control, formation damage, stabilization of multipressure sequences with one fluid and possible differential sticking. Aphrons represent bubble with uniquely structure stabilized with surfactant. Against conventional micro bubbles, aphrons are more stable in downhole conditions and they are generated using standard mixing equipment. Owing to their properties and overpressure in wellbore aphrons penetrate into low pressure layers and set up inner bridging. Depleted wells which are very expensive to drill underbalanced or with other remediation techniques can now be drilled overbalanced. This paper presents description of aphron structure and stability, aphron bridging mechanism, aphron-based fluid composition and properties, and field experiences in applying aphron-based fluids.

  9. Bulk characterization of pharmaceutical powders by low-pressure compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Arne Hagsten; Sonnergaard, Jørn Møller; Hovgaard, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Low-pressure compression of pharmaceutical powders using small amounts of sample (50 mg) was evaluated as an alternative to traditional bulk powder characterization by tapping volumetry. Material parameters were extrapolated directly from the compression data and by fitting with the Walker, the Kawakita, and the Log-Exp compression models. The compression-derived material parameters were compared to the poured and tapped density and the Compressibility Index determined by tapping. The repeatability of the compression-derived parameters was generally high, supporting their potential for characterization purposes. Significant correlation was demonstrated between several of the compression and tapping-derived parameters. The discriminative power of the low-pressure compression test was discussed using the compressed density at 0.2 MPa, correlated with the tapped density, and the relative Walker coefficient, correlated with the Compressibility Index, as examples. The compressed density at 0.2 MPa and the relative Walker coefficient demonstrated excellent discriminative power, superior to the discriminative power of the correlated tapping derived parameters. The low-pressure compression test was concluded to provide a cost-effective and sensitive alternative to traditional tapping volumetry.

  10. Low pressure gas collection system : solving environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saputelli, L.A. [PDVSA Exploracion and Produccion (Venezuela)

    1998-09-01

    Alternative solutions to flaring for collecting low pressure gases in oil fields, were discussed. Many different solutions for boosting or collecting low pressure gases and mixing them into the oil stream were examined. A solution for collecting low pressure gases using existing field facilities was proposed. Main factors considered in designing this solution included: (1) the use of existing power facilities, (2) low up-scaling cost, (3) keeping harmony with the environment, and (4) maintaining well efficiencies. Field trials (conducted in 1982) consisted of the testing of 10 `Ecopres` compressors in the Bolivar coastal field, Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela, in order to maximize gas utilization. The tests showed that it was possible to recover up to 99 per cent of annular gas with no reduction in oil well productivity but there was a 21 per cent reduction in oil production when the annular flow was connected directly to the flow line. In the proposed alternative solution, annular spaces are open to atmospheric pressure. The proposed system consists of a single stage gas compressor attached to a heat exchanger and a single stage gas turbine. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Characterization of a UV VUV light source based on a gas-target ns-laser-produced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Palma, Tonia M.; Borghese, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    We report measurements of the temporal and spatial evolution of plasmas, produced on gaseous targets by focused ns-Nd:YAG laser. Characterization of the UV-VUV light source includes time-resolved visualization of the spatial growth and the spectroscopic signatures of plasmas produced on pulsed, supersonic jets of helium, argon, nitrogen and xenon gases into a vacuum chamber. Photon fluxes of up to 1012 photons cm-2 nm-1/pulse have been measured in the wavelength region 100-260 nm within the first 30 ns following the laser pulse. Also discussed for comparison are plasma signatures in helium, argon and nitrogen gases at standard temperature and pressure. The results indicate availability of photon fluxes, at typical laser repetition rates, that are at least one order of magnitude higher than those achieved from commercial c.w. lamp light sources.

  12. Exposure machine lfy eye type UV-LED surface light source of collimated light system%复眼式UV-LED面光源的曝光机平行光系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵秀红

    2014-01-01

    印制电路板生产设备紫外线曝光机的光源系统,其能耗大、使用维护成本高、含汞等缺陷,在倡导节能环保的当今,业界一直致力于改进。UV-LED面光源作为新一代绿色环保紫外线光源,为印制电路板曝光领域带来革命性的变化。文章通过分析传统平行光紫外曝光机光学系统特点,设计了一种平行光紫外线曝光机适用的UV-LED面光源系统,UV-LED灯珠光功率利用率大幅提高,光照均匀性优良,并且不改变曝光机结构的情况下,可直接安装使用。实验表明,采用了复眼式阵列光学透镜结构设计的UV-LED面光源系统,完全可替代传统平行光紫外曝光机光源。%The light source system of ultraviolet exposure machine which is the PCB production equipment, has high energy consumption, high using and maintenance costs, mercury and other defects. To promote energy-saving environmental protection industry today, the industry has been working to improve. UV-LED surface light source as a new generation of green ultraviolet light source, brings the revolutionary change for the PCB exposure ifeld. In this paper, through the analysis of features of the traditional collimated light ultraviolet exposure machine, it designed a kind of UV-LED surface light source system for the collimated light ultraviolet exposure machine, a substantial increase in UV-LED light pearl power efifciency, illumination uniformity is good, and does not change the exposure machine structure, can be directly installed. Experiments show that, the UV-LED surface light source system using the optical lens structure of lfy's eye array can completely replace the traditional collimated l light ultraviolet exposure machine light source.

  13. Plasma-chemical reactor based on a low-pressure pulsed arc discharge for synthesis of nanopowders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, I. V.; Ushakov, A. V.; Lepeshev, A. A.; Fedorov, L. Yu.

    2017-01-01

    A reactor for producing nanopowders in the plasma of a low-pressure arc discharge has been developed. As a plasma source, a pulsed cold-cathode arc evaporator has been applied. The design and operating principle of the reactor have been described. Experimental data on how the movement of a gaseous mixture in the reactor influences the properties of nanopowders have been presented.

  14. UV Observations of the Powering Source of the Supergiant Shell in IC2574

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, S G; Stewart, Susan G.; Walter, Fabian

    2000-01-01

    A multi-band analysis of the region containing the supergiant HI shell in the nearby dwarf irregular galaxy IC2574 presents evidence of a causal relationship between a central star cluster, the surrounding expanding HI shell, and secondary star formation sites on the rim of the HI shell. Comparisons of the far-UV (FUV, 1521 A), optical broad-band, H-alpha, X-ray, and HI morphologies suggest that the region is in an auspicious moment of star formation triggered by the central stellar cluster. The derived properties of the HI shell, the central stellar cluster, and the star forming regions on the rim support this scenario: The kinematic age of the HI shell is <14 Myr and in agreement with the age of the central stellar cluster derived from the FUV observations (sim 11 Myr). An estimate for the mechanical energy input from SN and stellar winds of the central stellar cluster made from FUV photometry and the derived cluster age is 4.1 x 10^52 erg, roughly a few times higher than the kinetic energy of the HI she...

  15. Studies of Collisional and Nonlinear Radiative Processes for Development of Coherent UV and XUV Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-04

    G. T. Schappert, "Kilovolt X-Ray Spectroscopy of a Subpicosecond- Laser-Excited Source," Phys. Rev. A 39, 454 (1989). 83. R. Fedosejevs, R. Ottmann ...16 OPTICS LETTERS 1263 The authors gratefully acknowledge discussions 4. R. Fedosejevs, R. Ottmann , R. Sigel, G. Kihnle, S. with G. Gibson and the

  16. A wireless and passive low-pressure sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolay, Pascal; Lenzhofer, Martin

    2014-02-17

    This paper will discuss the results obtained with a first prototype of a completely passive and wireless low pressure sensor. The device is a heat conductivity gauge, based on a wireless and passive SAW temperature sensor. The required heating energy is applied to the sensor using inductive coupling. The prototype was successfully tested in a vacuum chamber. Its equilibrium temperature changed drastically and in a reproducible way when pressure steps were applied. However, the response time was very long. A model is provided to account for the sensor's behavior. It is then used to show that the response time could be strongly improved using basic design improvements. Further possible improvements are discussed.

  17. Global Instability and Control of Low-Pressure Turbine Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-31

    Methodos Numericos in Ingenieria 2005, Granada Y 3 rd Symposium on Global Flow Instability and Control September 2005 Crete, Greece. * AIAA San...valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To...31-03-2006 Final 01-02-2003 To 31-12-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Global Instability and Control of Low Pressure Turbine Flows 5b

  18. Device for calibration of low pressure gauges development

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitović Ž.D.

    2002-01-01

    Vacuum system set-up is presented and used for calibration of pressure gauges in the region of rough vacuum, from 103 mbar to 10-1 mbar, with dry air. The capacitance manometer is used for the calibration of piezoresistant manometer, oil, mercury and mercury micrometers U manometers. The applicability of the experimental set-up and obtained results for the low pressure gauges calibration in the medium and high vacuum region is approved. It was shown how calibration of some cheaper pressure ga...

  19. Low pressure growth of cubic boron nitride films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Tiong P. (Inventor); Shing, Yuh-Han (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method for forming thin films of cubic boron nitride on substrates at low pressures and temperatures. A substrate is first coated with polycrystalline diamond to provide a uniform surface upon which cubic boron nitride can be deposited by chemical vapor deposition. The cubic boron nitride film is useful as a substitute for diamond coatings for a variety of applications in which diamond is not suitable. any tetragonal or hexagonal boron nitride. The cubic boron nitride produced in accordance with the preceding example is particularly well-suited for use as a coating for ultra hard tool bits and abrasives, especially those intended to use in cutting or otherwise fabricating iron.

  20. Predicted thermal superluminescence in low-pressure air

    CERN Document Server

    Aramyan, A R; Galechyan, G A; Mangasaryan, N R; Nersisyan, H B

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that due to the dissociation of the molecular oxygen it is possible to obtain inverted population in low pressure air by heating. As a result of the quenching of the corresponding levels of the atomic oxygen the thermal superluminescent radiation is generated. It has been found that the threshold of the overpopulation is exceeded at the air temperature 2300-3000 K. Using this effect a possible mechanism for the generation of the flashes of the radiation in air observed on the airframe of the space shuttle during its descent and reentry in the atmosphere is suggested.

  1. Low pressure storage of natural gas on activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzyn, J.; Wiesmann, H.; Lee, T.

    The introduction of natural gas to the transportation energy sector offers the possibility of displacing imported oil with an indigenous fuel. The barrier to the acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is the limited driving range due to the technical difficulties of on-board storage of a gaseous fuel. In spite of this barrier, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles are today being successfully introduced into the market place. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an adsorbent natural gas (ANG) storage system as a viable alternative to CNG storage. It can be argued that low pressure ANG has reached near parity with CNG, since the storage capacity of CNG (2400 psi) is rated at 190 V/V, while low pressure ANG (500 psi) has reached storage capacities of 180 V/V in the laboratory. A program, which extends laboratory results to a full-scale vehicle test, is necessary before ANG technology will receive widespread acceptance. The objective of this program is to field test a 150 V/V ANG vehicle in FY 1994. As a start towards this goal, carbon adsorbents have been screened by Brookhaven for their potential use in a natural gas storage system. This paper reports on one such carbon, trade name Maxsorb, manufactured by Kansai Coke under an Amoco license.

  2. Characterising and Testing Deep UV LEDs for Use in Space Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hollington, D; Sumner, T J; Wass, P J

    2015-01-01

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) light sources are used to neutralise isolated test masses in highly sensitive space-based gravitational experiments. An example is the LISA Pathfinder charge management system, which uses low-pressure mercury lamps. A future gravitational-wave observatory such as eLISA will use UV light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs), which offer numerous advantages over traditional discharge lamps. Such devices have limited space heritage but are are now available from a number of commercial suppliers. Here we report on a test campaign that was carried out to quantify the general properties of three types of commercially available UV LEDs and demonstrate their suitability for use in space. Testing included general electrical and UV output measurements, spectral stability, pulsed performance, temperature dependence as well as thermal vacuum, radiation and vibration survivability.

  3. Characterising and testing deep UV LEDs for use in space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollington, D.; Baird, J. T.; Sumner, T. J.; Wass, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) light sources are used to neutralise isolated test masses in highly sensitive space-based gravitational experiments. An example is the LISA Pathfinder charge management system, which uses low-pressure mercury lamps. A future gravitational-wave observatory such as eLISA will use UV light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs), which offer numerous advantages over traditional discharge lamps. Such devices have limited space heritage but are now available from a number of commercial suppliers. Here we report on a test campaign that was carried out to quantify the general properties of three types of commercially available UV LEDs and demonstrate their suitability for use in space. Testing included general electrical and UV output power measurements, spectral stability, pulsed performance and temperature dependence, as well as thermal vacuum, radiation and vibration survivability.

  4. Near-UV Sources in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: The Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Voyer, Elysse N; Siana, Brian; Gardner, Jonathan P; Quirk, Cori; Teplitz, Harry I

    2009-01-01

    The catalog from the first high resolution U-band image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 through the F300W filter, is presented. We detect 96 U-band objects and compare and combine this catalog with a Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) B-selected catalog that provides B, V, i, and z photometry, spectral types, and photometric redshifts. We have also obtained Far-Ultraviolet (FUV, 1614 \\AA) data with Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys Solar Blind Channel (ACS/SBC) and with Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). We detected 31 sources with ACS/SBC, 28 with GALEX/FUV, and 45 with GALEX/NUV. The methods of observations, image processing, object identification, catalog preparation, and catalog matching are presented.

  5. Near-UV Sources in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: The Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.; Voyrer, Elysse; de Mello, Duilia F.; Siana, Brian; Quirk, Cori; Teplitz, Harry I.

    2009-01-01

    The catalog from the first high resolution U-band image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, taken with Hubble s Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 through the F300W filter, is presented. We detect 96 U-band objects and compare and combine this catalog with a Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) B-selected catalog that provides B, V, i, and z photometry, spectral types, and photometric redshifts. We have also obtained Far-Ultraviolet (FUV, 1614 Angstroms) data with Hubble s Advanced Camera for Surveys Solar Blind Channel (ACS/SBC) and with Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). We detected 31 sources with ACS/SBC, 28 with GALEX/FUV, and 45 with GALEX/NUV. The methods of observations, image processing, object identification, catalog preparation, and catalog matching are presented.

  6. Mass and UV-visible spectral fingerprints of dissolved organic matter: sources and reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Erin Reader

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced analytical techniques have revealed a high degree of complexity in the chemical makeup of dissolved organic matter (DOM. This has opened the door for a deeper understanding of the role of DOM in the aquatic environment. However, the expense, analytical cost, and challenges related to interpretation of the large datasets generated by these methods limit their widespread application. Optical methods, such as absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy are relatively inexpensive and easy to implement, but lack the detailed information available in more advanced methods. We were able to directly link the analysis of absorption spectra to the mass spectra of DOM using an in-line detector system coupled to multivariate data analysis. Monthly samples were taken from three river mouths in Sweden for one year. One subset of samples was exposed to photochemical degradation and another subset was exposed to long-term (4 months biological degradation. A principle component analysis was performed on the coupled absorption-mass spectra data. Loading spectra for each principle component show distinct fingerprints for both reactivity (i.e. photochemical, biological degradation and source (i.e. catchment land cover, temperature, hydrology. The fingerprints reveal mass-to-charge values that contribute to optical signals and characteristics seen in past studies, and emphasise the difficulties in interpreting changes in bulk CDOM characteristics resulting from multiple catchment processes. The approach provides a potential simple method for using optical indicators as tracers for more complex chemical processes both with regards to source material for DOM and the past reactive processing of DOM.

  7. Performance assessment of low pressure nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harrold P., Jr.; Doughty, Glen E.

    1993-01-01

    An increase in Isp for nuclear thermal propulsion systems is desirable for reducing the propellant requirements and cost of future applications, such as the Mars Transfer Vehicle. Several previous design studies have suggested that the Isp could be increased substantially with hydrogen dissociation/recombination. Hydrogen molecules (H2), at high temperatures and low pressures, will dissociate to monatomic hydrogen (H). The reverse process (i.e., formation of H2 from H) is exothermic. The exothermic energy in a nozzle increases the kinetic energy and therefore, increases the Isp. The low pressure nuclear thermal propulsion system (LPNTP) system is expected to maximize the hydrogen dissociation/recombination and Isp by operating at high chamber temperatures and low chamber pressures. The process involves hydrogen flow through a high temperature, low pressure fission reactor, and out a nozzle. The high temperature (approximately 3000 K) of the hydrogen in the reactor is limited by the temperature limits of the reactor material. The minimum chamber pressure is about 1 atm because lower pressures decrease the engines thrust to weight ratio below acceptable limits. This study assumes that hydrogen leaves the reactor and enters the nozzle at the 3000 K equilibrium dissociation level. Hydrogen dissociation in the reactor does not affect LPNTP performance like dissociation in traditional chemical propulsion systems, because energy from the reactor resupplies energy lost due to hydrogen dissociation. Recombination takes place in the nozzle due primarily to a drop in temperature as the Mach number increases. However, as the Mach number increases beyond the nozzle throat, the static pressure and density of the flow decreases and minimizes the recombination. The ideal LPNTP Isp at 3000 K and 10 psia is 1160 seconds due to the added energy from fast recombination rates. The actual Isp depends on the finite kinetic reaction rates which affect the amount of monatomic hydrogen

  8. Effects of UV irradiation and UV/chlorine co-exposure on natural organic matter in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zaili; Yang, Xin; Xu, Yiyue; Liang, Yongmei, E-mail: liangym@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2012-01-01

    The effects of co-exposure to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (with either low- or medium-pressure UV lamps) and free chlorine (chloramine) at practical relevant conditions on changes in natural organic matter (NOM) properties were investigated using four waters. The changes were characterized using the specific disinfection by-product formation potential (SDBPFP), specific total organic halogen formation potential (STOXFP), differential UV absorbance ( Increment UVA), and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). The results for exposure to UV irradiation alone and for samples with no exposure were also obtained. The SDBPFPs in all UV-irradiated NOM waters observed were higher than those of non-irradiated samples. UV irradiation led to increases in STOXFPs as a result of chlorination, but no changes, or only small decreases, from chloramination. UV irradiation alone led to positive Increment UVA spectra of the four NOM waters; co-exposure to UV and chlorine gave larger negative Increment UVA spectra than those obtained by chlorine exposure alone. No obvious changes in SEC results were observed for samples only irradiated with UV light; co-exposure gave no detectable changes in the abundances of small fractions for exposure to chlorine only. Both UV photooxidation and photocatalytic oxidation appear to affect the reactivity of the NOM toward subsequent chlorination, and the magnitude of the changes is generally greater for medium-pressure lamps than for low-pressure lamps. These results suggest that applying UV disinfection technology to a particular source may not always be disinfection by-product-problem-free, and the interactions between UV light, chlorine, and NOM may need to be considered. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We discussed the effects of co-exposure to UV light and chlorine on properties of natural organic matters in waters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV irradiation led to increases in SDBPFP and STOXFP of NOM waters from chlorination. Black

  9. Electron heating in low pressure capacitive discharges revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The electrons in capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs) absorb energy via ohmic heating due to electron-neutral collisions and stochastic heating due to momentum transfer from high voltage moving sheaths. We use Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations to explore these heating mechanisms and to compare the PIC results with available theories on ohmic and stochastic heating. The PIC results for ohmic heating show good agreement with the ohmic heating calculation of Lafleur et al. [Phys. Plasmas 20, 124503 (2013)]. The PIC results for stochastic heating in low pressure CCPs with collisionless sheaths show good agreement with the stochastic heating model of Kaganovich et al. [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 696 (2006)], which revises the hard wall asymptotic model of Lieberman [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 638 (1988)] by taking current continuity and bulk oscillation into account.

  10. Low pressure powder injection moulding of stainless steel powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zampieron, J.V.; Soares, J.P.; Mathias, F.; Rossi, J.L. [Powder Processing Center CCP, Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Filho, F.A. [IPEN, Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Cidade Univ., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    Low-pressure powder injection moulding was used to obtain AISI 316L stainless steel parts. A rheological study was undertaken using gas-atomised powders and binders. The binders used were based on carnauba wax, paraffin, low density polyethylene and microcrystalline wax. The metal powders were characterised in terms of morphology, particle size distribution and specific surface area. These results were correlated to the rheological behaviour. The mixture was injected in the shape of square bar specimens to evaluate the performance of the injection process in the green state, and after sintering. The parameters such as injection pressure, viscosity and temperature were analysed for process optimisation. The binders were thermally removed in low vacuum with the assistance of alumina powders. Debinding and sintering were performed in a single step. This procedure shortened considerably the debinding and sintering time. (orig.)

  11. Numerical simulation of low pressure die-casting aluminum wheel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mi Guofa; Liu Xiangyu; Wang Kuangfei; Fu Hengzhi

    2009-01-01

    The FDM numerical simulation software, ViewCast system, was employed to simulate the low pressure die casting (LPDC) of an aluminum wheel. By analyzing the mold-filling and solidification stage of the LPDC process, the distribution of liquid fraction, temperature field and solidification pattern of castings were studied. The potential shrinkage defects were predicted to be formed at the rim/spoke junctions, which is in consistence with the X-ray detection result. The distribution pattern of the defects has also been studied. A solution towards reducing such defects has been presented. The cooling capacity of the mold was improved by installing water pipes both in the side mold and the top mold. Analysis on the shrinkage defects under forced cooling mode proved that adding the cooling system in the mold is an effective method for reduction of shrinkage defects.

  12. Low-Pressure Turbine Separation Control: Comparison With Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Vijay K.

    2002-01-01

    The present work details a computational study, using the Glenn HT code, that analyzes the use of vortex generator jets (VGJs) to control separation on a low-pressure turbine (LPT) blade at low Reynolds numbers. The computational results are also compared with the experimental data for steady VGJs. It is found that the code determines the proper location of the separation point on the suction surface of the baseline blade (without any VGJ) for Reynolds numbers of 50,000 or less. Also, the code finds that the separated region on the suction surface of the blade vanishes with the use of VGJs. However, the separated region and the wake characteristics are not well predicted. The wake width is generally over-predicted while the wake depth is under-predicted.

  13. A Wireless and Passive Low-Pressure Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Nicolay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the results obtained with a first prototype of a completely passive and wireless low pressure sensor. The device is a heat conductivity gauge, based on a wireless and passive SAW temperature sensor. The required heating energy is applied to the sensor using inductive coupling. The prototype was successfully tested in a vacuum chamber. Its equilibrium temperature changed drastically and in a reproducible way when pressure steps were applied. However, the response time was very long. A model is provided to account for the sensor’s behavior. It is then used to show that the response time could be strongly improved using basic design improvements. Further possible improvements are discussed.

  14. Low-pressure hydrogen plasmas explored using a global model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuell, Cameron M.; Corr, Cormac S.

    2016-02-01

    Low-pressure hydrogen plasmas have found applications in a variety of technology areas including fusion, neutral beam injection and material processing applications. To better understand these discharges, a global model is developed to predict the behaviour of electrons, ground-state atomic and molecular hydrogen, three positive ion species (H+, \\text{H}2+ , and \\text{H}3+ ), a single negative ion species (H-), and fourteen vibrationally excited states of molecular hydrogen ({{\\text{H}}2}≤ft(\\upsilon =1\\right. -14)). The model is validated by comparison with experimental results from a planar inductively coupled GEC reference cell and subsequently applied to the MAGPIE linear helicon reactor. The MAGPIE reactor is investigated for a range of pressures from 1 to 100 mTorr and powers up to 5 kW. With increasing power between 50 W and 5 kW at 10 mTorr the density of all charged species increases as well as the dissociative fraction while the electron temperature remains almost constant at around 3 eV. For gas pressures from 1-100 mTorr at an input power of 1 kW, the electron density remains almost constant, the electron temperature and dissociative fraction decreases, while \\text{H}3+ density increases in density and also dominates amongst ion species. Across these power and pressure scans, electronegativity remains approximately constant at around 2.5%. The power and pressure determines the dominant ion species in the plasma with \\text{H}3+ observed to dominate at high pressures and low powers whereas H+ tends to be dominant at low pressures and high powers. A sensitivity analysis is used to demonstrate how experimental parameters (power, pressure, reactor wall material, geometry etc) influence individual species’ density as well as the electron temperature. Physical reactor changes including the length, radius and wall recombination coefficient are found to have the largest influence on outputs obtained from the model.

  15. High-repetition-rate compact excimer laser: UV light source for metrology, inspection, direct writing, and material testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Heinz P.; Pflanz, Tobias; Goertler, Andreas; Schillinger, Helmut

    2003-06-01

    The discharge pumped excimer laser is a gas laser providing ultra violet (UV) radiation with well defined spectral, temporal and spatial properties. The fast development of excimer lasers in recent years has succeeded in designing very compact, table-top and turn-key systems delivering up to 20 W of radiation at 248 nm, 10 W at 193 nm and 2 W at 157 nm with repetition rates up to 2000 Hz (1, 5). Due to their short emission wavelength and compactness they are continuously replacing other light sources, like lamps and ion lasers, in applications as metrology, inspection, direct writing and material testing. Spatial and temporal beam properties of compact excimer lasers are very suitable to be utilized as illumination source in these applications. The compact excimer laser is combining the advantages of both, lamp and laser sources. It displays low temporal and spatial coherence, but has a narrow spectral emission range of a few hundred pm. The beam area is approximately 1/2 cm2, the divergence is in the order of 1 mrad. Variation of beam position and beam direction are negligible for most illumination applications. Compact excimer lasers are easy to integrate in measurement and inspection systems. Typically their footprint area is 0.25 m2. The power consumption is less than 1 kW, enabling single phase electrical supply and air cooling. State-of-the-art compact excimer lasers are compliant to all relevant SEMI regulations. The laser optics exceeds the life time of the laser tube, thus no optics cleaning and exchange is necessary in a whole life time of a laser tube of a few billion pulses (6).

  16. Repetitively pulsed UV radiation source based on a run-away electron preionised diffuse discharge in nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksht, E. Kh; Burachenko, A. G.; Lomaev, M. I.; Panchenko, A. N.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2015-04-01

    An extended repetitively pulsed source of spontaneous UV radiation is fabricated, which may also be used for producing laser radiation. Voltage pulses with an incident wave amplitude of up to 30 kV, a half-amplitude duration of ~4 ns and a rise time of ~2.5 ns are applied to a gap with a nonuniform electric field. For an excitation region length of 35 cm and a nitrogen pressure of 30 - 760 Torr, a diffusive discharge up to a pulse repetition rate of 2 kHz is produced without using an additional system for gap preionisation. An investigation is made of the plasma of the run-away electron preionised diffuse discharge. Using a CCD camera it is found that the dense diffused plasma fills the gap in a time shorter than 1 ns. X-ray radiation is recorded from behind the foil anode throughout the pressure range under study; a supershort avalanche electron beam is recorded by the collector electrode at pressures below 100 Torr.

  17. Repetitively pulsed UV radiation source based on a run-away electron preionised diffuse discharge in nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baksht, E Kh; Burachenko, A G; Lomaev, M I; Panchenko, A N; Tarasenko, V F [Institute of High Current Electronics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-30

    An extended repetitively pulsed source of spontaneous UV radiation is fabricated, which may also be used for producing laser radiation. Voltage pulses with an incident wave amplitude of up to 30 kV, a half-amplitude duration of ∼4 ns and a rise time of ∼2.5 ns are applied to a gap with a nonuniform electric field. For an excitation region length of 35 cm and a nitrogen pressure of 30 – 760 Torr, a diffusive discharge up to a pulse repetition rate of 2 kHz is produced without using an additional system for gap preionisation. An investigation is made of the plasma of the run-away electron preionised diffuse discharge. Using a CCD camera it is found that the dense diffused plasma fills the gap in a time shorter than 1 ns. X-ray radiation is recorded from behind the foil anode throughout the pressure range under study; a supershort avalanche electron beam is recorded by the collector electrode at pressures below 100 Torr. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  18. Run-away electron preionized diffuse discharge as a source of efficient laser emission in the IR, UV, VUV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, A. N.; Panchenko, N. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2017-05-01

    REP DD was suggested as an excitation source of various gas lasers. The efficient lasing was obtained in the IR, UV, and VUV spectral ranges. The ultimate intrinsic efficiency of non-chain chemical lasers on HF(DF) molecules was achieved. REP DD pumped N2 laser with an ultimate electrical efficiency of 0.2% was developed. Lasing on N2 molecules with 2 or 3 peaks in successive REP DD current oscillations was obtained for the first time. The laser action on F2* at 157 nm and rare gas fluorides (KrF*, XeF*) under REP DD pumping was obtained for the first time, as well. It has been shown that the volume stage of REP DD in mixtures with fluorine can last over 50 ns during several current half-cycles. Therewith, the efficiency and the pulse duration of lasers on rare gas fluorides and VUV F2* laser parameters under REP DD excitation are comparable with those obtained in suitable transverse discharges. The results allow the conclusion that the REP DD homogeneity in mixtures with F2 and SF6 is high enough for attaining high laser efficiency.

  19. Understanding of the importance of the spore coat structure and pigmentation in the Bacillus subtilis spore resistance to low-pressure plasma sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguse, Marina; Fiebrandt, Marcel; Denis, Benjamin; Stapelmann, Katharina; Eichenberger, Patrick; Driks, Adam; Eaton, Peter; Awakowicz, Peter; Moeller, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    Low-pressure plasmas have been evaluated for their potential in biomedical and defense purposes. The sterilizing effect of plasma can be attributed to several active agents, including (V)UV radiation, charged particles, radical species, neutral and excited atoms and molecules, and the electric field. Spores of Bacillus subtilis were used as a bioindicator and a genetic model system to study the sporicidal effects of low-pressure plasma decontamination. Wild-type spores, spores lacking the major protective coat layers (inner, outer, and crust), pigmentation-deficient spores or spore impaired in encasement (a late step in coat assembly) were systematically tested for their resistance to low-pressure argon, hydrogen, and oxygen plasmas with and without admixtures. We demonstrate that low-pressure plasma discharges of argon and oxygen discharges cause significant physical damage to spore surface structures as visualized by atomic force microscopy. Spore resistance to low-pressure plasma was primarily dependent on the presence of the inner, and outer spore coat layers as well as spore encasement, with minor or less importance of the crust and spore pigmentation, whereas spore inactivation itself was strongly influenced by the gas composition and operational settings.

  20. Comparison of UV photolysis, nanofiltration, and their combination to remove hormones from a drinking water source and reduce endocrine disrupting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Sandra; Rodrigues, Alexandre; Cardoso, Vitor V; Benoliel, Maria J; Crespo, João G; Pereira, Vanessa J

    2016-06-01

    A sequential water treatment combining low pressure ultraviolet direct photolysis with nanofiltration was evaluated to remove hormones from water, reduce endocrine disrupting activity, and overcome the drawbacks associated with the individual processes (production of a nanofiltration-concentrated retentate and formation of toxic by-products). 17β-Estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, estrone, estriol, and progesterone were spiked into a real water sample collected after the sedimentation process of a drinking water treatment plant. Even though the nanofiltration process alone showed similar results to the combined treatment in terms of the water quality produced, the combined treatment offered advantage in terms of the load of the retentate and decrease in the endocrine-disrupting activity of the samples. Moreover, the photolysis by-products produced, with higher endocrine disrupting activity than the parent compounds, were effectively retained by the membrane. The combination of direct LP/UV photolysis with nanofiltration is promising for a drinking water utility that needs to cope with sudden punctual discharges or deterioration of the water quality and wants to decrease the levels of chemicals in the nanofiltration retentate.

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of cascade microcryocoolers with low pressure ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radebaugh, Ray [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    The vapor-compression cycle for refrigeration near ambient temperature achieves high efficiency because the isenthalpic expansion of the condensed liquid is a rather efficient process. However, temperatures are limited to about 200 K with a single-stage system. Temperatures down to 77 K are possible with many stages. In the case of microcryocoolers using microcompressors, pressure ratios are usually limited to about 6 or less. As a result, even more stages are required to reach 77 K. If the microcompressors can be fabricated with low-cost wafer-level techniques, then the use of many stages with separate compressors may become a viable option for achieving temperatures of 77 K with high efficiency. We analyze the ideal thermodynamic efficiency of a cascade Joule-Thomson system for various temperatures down to 77 K and with low pressure ratios. About nine stages are required for 77 K, but fewer stages are also analyzed for operation at higher temperatures. For 77 K, an ideal second-law efficiency of 83 % of Carnot is possible with perfect recuperative heat exchangers and 65 % of Carnot is possible with no recuperative heat exchangers. The results are compared with calculated efficiencies in mixed-refrigerant cryocoolers over the range of 77 K to 200 K. Refrigeration at intermediate temperatures is also available. The use of single-component fluids in each of the stages is expected to eliminate the problem of pulsating flow and temperature oscillations experienced in microcryocoolers using mixed refrigerants.

  2. "Politically-Incorrect" Electron Behavior in Low Pressure RF Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godyak, Valery; Kolobov, Vladimir

    1996-10-01

    The main interaction of plasma electrons with electromagnetic fields for bounded plasma of an rf discharge occurs in the vicinity of its boundaries (in the rf sheath of a capacitive rf discharge and in the skin layer of an inductive one). On the other hand, due to plasma inhomogeneity, a dc ambipolar field is always present in the bounded plasma. in low pressure discharges the ambipolar potential well captures low energy electrons within the discharge center while high energy electrons freely overcome the ambipolar potential and reach the plasma boundaries where heating takes place. Being segregated in space, low energy electrons are discriminated from participation in the heating process. When Coulomb interaction between low and high energy electron groups is weak, their temperatures appear to be essentially different ( a low energy peak on the EEDF). In this presentation we present theoretical and experimental evidence of such an apartheid in the low and high energy electron populations of the EEDF in rf discharge and we outline discharge conditions where such abnormal EEDF behavior is possible.

  3. Absorption spectrum of very low pressure atomic hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Moret-Bailly, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Spectra of quasars result primarily from interactions of natural light with atomic hydrogen. A visible absorption of a sharp and saturated spectral line in a gas requires a low pressure, so a long path without blushing as a cosmological redshift. Burbidge and Karlsson observed that redshifts of quasars result from fundamental redshifts, written 3K and 4K, that cause a shift of absorbed beta and gamma lines of H to alpha gas line. Thus absorbed spectrum is shifted until an absorbed line overlaps with Lyman alpha line of gas: redshift only occurs if an alpha absorption pumps atoms to 2P state. Thus, space is divided into spherical shells centered on the quasar, containing or not 2P atoms. Neglecting collisional de-excitations in absorbing shells, more and more atoms are excited until amplification of a beam having a long path in a shell, thus perpendicular to the observed ray, is large enough for a superradiant flash at alpha frequency. Energy is provided by atoms and observed ray, absorbing a line at local Lym...

  4. Endoscopic PIV measurements in a low pressure turbine rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kegalj, Martin; Schiffer, Heinz-Peter [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany). Department of Gas Turbines and Aerospace Propulsion

    2009-10-15

    Particle-Image-Velocimetry (PIV) is a useful way to acquire information about the flow in turbomachinery. Several premises have to be fulfilled to achieve high-quality data, for example, optical access, low vibrations and low reflections. However, not all test facilities comply with these requirements. If there is no optical access to the test area, measurements cannot be performed. The use of borescopic optics is a possible solution to this issue, as the access required is very small. Several different techniques can be used to measure the three components of the velocity vector, one of which is Stereo-PIV. These techniques require either large optical access from several viewing angles or highly complex setups. Orthogonal light sheet orientations in combination with borescopic optics using Planar-PIV can deliver sufficient information about the flow. This study will show the feasibility of such an approach in an enclosed test area, such as the interblade space in a Low-Pressure-Turbine-Rig. The results from PIV will be compared with data collected with conventional techniques, such as the Five-Hole-Probe and the 2-component Hot-Wire-Anemometry. An analysis of time- and phase-averaged data will be performed. (orig.)

  5. Impurity incorporation in orientation patterned GaAs grown by low pressure HVPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snure, M.; Jiménez, J.; Hortelano, V.; Swider, S.; Mann, M.; Tassev, V.; Lynch, C.; Bliss, D.

    2012-08-01

    Orientation-patterned GaAs (OP-GaAs) has shown promise as an efficient frequency-shifted laser source over the range of 2-12 μm. In order to make OP-GaAs a viable source, efficiency and output power must be significantly increased, which requires minimizing major sources of loss. Low pressure HVPE has been adopted as the most suitable technique for regrowth of thick high quality GaAs layers on OP templates. We have explored process parameters in bulk and OP material to identify and control the sources of point defects, a key contributor to optical losses. Growth on OP templates with periodic [001] and [00-1] domains results in domain specific surface orientation, which should have inhomogeneous defect incorporation. Hall measurements, SIMS depth profiling, and cathodoluminescence (CL) were used to identify point defects in bulk and OP-GaAs. It was found that Si impurities are the primary source of donors, while VGa were identified as the primary source of acceptors. In order to study the incorporation of impurities in OP-GaAs samples, we intentionally doped samples with Si to increase CL and SIMS detectability. Spatially resolved CL and SIMS revealed regions with significant differences in the defect concentration, which can affect device output.

  6. Onset of Nucleate Boiling in Rectangular Channels under Low Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jung Hyun; Lee, Juhyung; Jeong, Yong Hoon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Heung [Handong University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, new methodology to define ONB point based on the heat transfer coefficient difference between single phase heat transfer and two phase heat transfer using single phase heat transfer correlation. In addition, several existing ONB prediction correlations based on the Hsu's model showed large error with experimental data. It can support that not only heat flux and wall superheat, but also the local parameters should be figured into ONB prediction. Nuclear reactors can be divided into two types; commercial reactor and research reactor. Radiation from research reactors is used for many industries. Due to that characteristic of research reactors, as many people work around research reactor, the design with conservative safety margin for research reactor is more sensitive issue. Some research reactors such as the Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) have three characteristics. First, they operate under atmospheric pressure. Second, they use the nuclear fuel plate. Third, they use downward flow to remove the heat of the fuel plate. However, one of the precautions of using downward flow under low pressure is that fluid behavior can change much faster than under high pressure. Bubble nucleation itself is not important for nuclear reactor safety at all, but it can be lead to critical thermal-hydraulic events such as onset of fluid instability (OFI) or critical heat flux (CHF) easily. Also, bubble nucleation would be avoided to maintain the steady normal operation. The IAEA also recommends for research reactors to have enough ONB margin to maintain a normal operation state in 'IAEA-TECDOC-233' (1980). It can support that the existing ONB prediction correlations are not suitable for predict ONB in rectangular channel and new correlation is needed to this condition.

  7. Studies of Methane Counterflow Flames at Low Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Robert Roe

    Methane is the smallest hydrocarbon molecule, the fuel most widely studied in fundamental flame structure studies, and a major component of natural gas. Despite many decades of research into the fundamental chemical kinetics involved in methane oxidation, ongoing advancements in research suggest that more progress can be made. Though practical combustors of industrial and commercial significance operate at high pressures and turbulent flow conditions, fundamental understanding of combustion chemistry in flames is more readily obtained for low pressure and laminar flow conditions. Measurements were performed from 1 to 0.1 atmospheres for premixed methane/air and non-premixed methane-nitrogen/oxygen flames in a counterflow. Comparative modeling with quasi-one-dimensional strained flame codes revealed bias-induced errors in measured velocities up to 8% at 0.1 atmospheres due to tracer particle phase velocity slip in the low density gas reacting flow. To address this, a numerically-assisted correction scheme consisting of direct simulation of the particle phase dynamics in counterflow was implemented. Addition of reactions describing the prompt dissociation of formyl radicals to an otherwise unmodified USC Mech II kinetic model was found to enhance computed flame reactivity and substantially improve the predictive capability of computed results for measurements at the lowest pressures studied. Yet, the same modifications lead to overprediction of flame data at 1 atmosphere where results from the unmodified USC Mech II kinetic mechanism agreed well with ambient pressure flame data. The apparent failure of a single kinetic model to capture pressure dependence in methane flames motivates continued skepticism regarding the current understanding of pressure dependence in kinetic models, even for the simplest fuels.

  8. Experimental testing of cooling by low pressure adsorption in a zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redman, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    A small scale facility was designed, constructed, and utilized to test the use of zeolite adsorption of water vapor to augment chill storage in ice for conventional space cooling. The facility uses solar-derived energy, for the heat source and evaporatively chilled water for the heat sump. The product cooling uses sublimation of ice instead of melting. The ZCAT facility utilizes a heat pumping technique in which a water vapor adsorbent functions as the compressor and condenser. The design was based on use of 13X zeolite as the adsorber because of its high adsorbence at low pressures. However, it has been determined that other materials such as silica gel should give superior performance. While zeolite 13X holds more water in the pressure and temperature ranges of interest, silica gel cycles more water and has less residue water. Both points are very important in the design of an efficient and cost effective system.

  9. Time-zero fission-fragment detector based on low-pressure multiwire proportional chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Assamagan, Ketevi A; Bayatyan, G L; Carlini, R; Danagulyan, S; Eden, T; Egiyan, K; Ent, R; Fenker, H; Gan, L; Gasparian, A; Grigoryan, N K; Greenwood, Z; Gueye, P; Hashimoto, O; Johnston, K; Keppel, C; Knyazyan, S; Majewski, S; Margaryan, A; Margaryan, Yu L; Marikian, G G; Martoff, J; Mkrtchyan, H G; Parlakyan, L; Sato, Y; Sawafta, R; Simicevic, N; Tadevosyan, V; Takahashi, T; Tang, L; Vartanian, G S; Vulcan, W; Wells, S; Wood, S

    1999-01-01

    A time-zero fission fragment (FF) detector, based on the technique of low-pressure multiwire proportional chambers (LPMWPC), has been designed and constructed for the heavy hypernuclear lifetime experiment (E95-002) at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Its characteristics and the method of time-zero reconstruction were investigated using fission fragments from a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf spontaneous fission source. The influence of the ionization energy loss was also studied. It is shown that Heptane, Hexane, and Isobutane gases at a pressure of 1-2 Torr are all suitable for such a FF detector. As desired by experiment, a timing resolution of about 200 ps (FWHM) for a chamber size of 21x21 cm sup 2 was achieved.

  10. Oxygen transport membrane based advanced power cycle with low pressure synthesis gas slip stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Kelly, Sean M.

    2016-09-27

    A method and system for generating electrical power in which a high pressure synthesis gas stream generated in a gasifier is partially oxidized in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor, expanded and thereafter, is combusted in an oxygen transport membrane based boiler. A low pressure synthesis gas slip stream is split off downstream of the expanders and used as the source of fuel in the oxygen transport membrane based partial oxidation reactors to allow the oxygen transport membrane to operate at low fuel pressures with high fuel utilization. The combustion within the boiler generates heat to raise steam to in turn generate electricity by a generator coupled to a steam turbine. The resultant flue gas can be purified to produce a carbon dioxide product.

  11. Oxygen transport membrane based advanced power cycle with low pressure synthesis gas slip stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Kelly, Sean M.

    2016-09-27

    A method and system for generating electrical power in which a high pressure synthesis gas stream generated in a gasifier is partially oxidized in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor, expanded and thereafter, is combusted in an oxygen transport membrane based boiler. A low pressure synthesis gas slip stream is split off downstream of the expanders and used as the source of fuel in the oxygen transport membrane based partial oxidation reactors to allow the oxygen transport membrane to operate at low fuel pressures with high fuel utilization. The combustion within the boiler generates heat to raise steam to in turn generate electricity by a generator coupled to a steam turbine. The resultant flue gas can be purified to produce a carbon dioxide product.

  12. 基于节能理念的LED光源快速成型系统%Energy-conserving Stereolithography System with UV-LED Light Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解瑞东; 李涤尘

    2012-01-01

    An inexpensive stereolithography (SL) system with high power UV-LED curing light source, the LED-SL, is developed. The working principle of the UV-LED light based SL system (LED-SL) and its characteristics are discussed. The divergent UV light emitted from the LED is focused on the resin surface by a set of focusing lens. Controlled by the computer, the workbench drives the scanner to move along X-Y plane, and polymerizes the liquid resin according to the current cross-section of a layered part. The advantages of UV-LED light source are analyzed. Because of the kinematic behavior of the mechanical scanning workbench, the exposure at the ends of a single cured line is much greater than that in the middle segment, and hence bone-shaped errors would occur, which means that the ends of a cured line have larger sizes than the middle segment. The power matching scanning method is used to improve the accuracy of a cured line, dynamically adjusting the beam power to ensure that the power is proportional to the scanning speed. The experimental results indicate that the power matching method can effectively improve the building accuracy. The SL energy consumption of UV-LED, laser and UV lamp sources are experimentally compared, and the results show that the energy consumption of UV-LED is merely 0.86% of laser and 0.1% of UV lamp, an outstanding energy conservation performance of the LED-SL%LED-SL是采用大功率UV-LED作为固化光源的新型快速成型系统.其基本原理是LED发出的紫外光通过聚焦镜汇聚到树脂液面,该聚焦镜在机械式x-y工作台的驱动下,在树脂液面进行扫描,使液态光敏树脂固化.通过与激光和汞灯光源的比较,阐述了UV-LED固化光源的优势.由于机械式工作台的运动学特性,在扫描固化线时,光束总是在其起始端从静止开始加速,在中段保持匀速运动,到达终点时又减速到静止状态.由于加速和减速段的曝光量大于中间段,使得固化单线两头

  13. UV-Visible Absorption Spectroscopy Enhanced X-ray Crystallography at Synchrotron and X-ray Free Electron Laser Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aina E; Doukov, Tzanko; Soltis, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    This review describes the use of single crystal UV-Visible Absorption micro-Spectrophotometry (UV-Vis AS) to enhance the design and execution of X-ray crystallography experiments for structural investigations of reaction intermediates of redox active and photosensitive proteins. Considerations for UV-Vis AS measurements at the synchrotron and associated instrumentation are described. UV-Vis AS is useful to verify the intermediate state of an enzyme and to monitor the progression of reactions within crystals. Radiation induced redox changes within protein crystals may be monitored to devise effective diffraction data collection strategies. An overview of the specific effects of radiation damage on macromolecular crystals is presented along with data collection strategies that minimize these effects by combining data from multiple crystals used at the synchrotron and with the X-ray free electron laser.

  14. Recycling of plastics from stockpiles performed by means of low-pressure injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gintowt

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A viability analysis of manufacturing goods out of plastics, from stockpiles and municipal residues, has been carried out. The analysispertains goods in the form of inserts manufactured in light molds of big-sizes, by means of low-pressure injection. The cost analysis of the investment and manufacturing suggests that those goods are not price-competitive, as compared to other ones used in similar situations. Exploitation analysis proves that the goods, used outdoors are easily damaged on the surface by UV exposure, temperature differences of 24-hour cycle, as well as by water and plants. Re-recycling, and especially, the grinding of the product poses another challenge in the future. An analysis of the environmental impact of energy acquisition during the manufacturing of those goods was also carried out. The analysis also pertains the method of identifying the type of raw-material, in the process of segregation that stems from the necessity of a complex content training of staff running waste segregation posts.

  15. Investigation of Low-Pressure Ultraviolet Radiation on Inactivation of Rhabitidae Nematode from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hadi Dehghani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rhabditidae is a family of free-living nematodes. Free living nematodes due to their active movement and resistance to chlorination, do not remove in conventional water treatment processes thus can be entered to distribution systems and cause adverse health effects. Ultraviolet radiation (UV can be used as a method of inactivating for these organisms. This cross sectional study was done to investigate the efficiency of ultraviolet lamp in the inactivation of free living nematode in water.Methods: The effects of radation time, turbidity, pH and temperature were invistigated in this study. Ultraviolet lamp used in this study was a 11 W lamp and intensity of this lamp was 24 µw / cm2.Results: Radiation time required to achieve 100% efficiency for larvae nematode and adults was 9 and 10 minutes respectively. There was a significant correlation between the increase in radiation time, temperature rise and turbidity reduction with inactivation efficiency of lamp (P<0.001. Increase of turbidity up 25 NTU decreased inactivation efficiency of larvae and adult nematodes from 100% to 66% and 100% to 64% respectively. Change in pH range from 6 to 9 did not affect the efficiency of inactivation. With increasing temperature inactivation rate increased. Also the effect of the lamp on inactivation of larvae nematod was mor than adults.Conclusions: It seems that with requiring the favorable conditions low-pressure ultraviolet radiation systems can be used for disinfection of water containing Rhabitidae nematode.

  16. Modeling of particle coagulation in low pressure PECVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandarkar, U.; Kortshagen, U.

    1998-10-01

    Contaminant particles generated in plasmas used to manufacture semiconductor devices can potentially destroy micro-electronic circuits. Particles of micrometer-size in a plasma are usually negatively charged due to the higher mobility of electrons. Like charges on the particles should inhibit growth by coagulation. However, the coagulation rates of nanometer-sized particles observed experimentally are even higher than the thermal coagulation rates of uncharged particles. This observation implies the presence of positively charged nano-particles along with the negative ones such that the mutual attraction enhances coagulation. We propose photo-detachment of electrons due to UV radiation as a potential path for the generation of positively charged particles. We have developed a self-consistent plasma-coagulation model based on the General Dynamic Equation which is well-known from aerosol research. Plasma properties are determined self-consistently using a global plasma model. The particle charge distribution is calculated using a charging module which also accounts for UV photo-detachment. Preliminary results of this model yield coagulation rates consistent with those observed experimentally.

  17. Inactivation of adenovirus using low-dose UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounty, Sarah; Rodriguez, Roberto A; Linden, Karl G

    2012-12-01

    Adenovirus has consistently been observed to be the most resistant known pathogen to disinfection by ultraviolet light. This has had an impact on regulations set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency regarding the use of UV disinfection for virus inactivation in groundwater and surface water. In this study, enhancement of UV inactivation of adenovirus was evaluated when hydrogen peroxide was added to create an advanced oxidation process (AOP). While 4 log reduction of adenovirus was determined to require a UV dose (UV fluence) of about 200 mJ/cm(2) from a low pressure (LP) UV source (emitting at 253.7 nm), addition of 10 mg/L H(2)O(2) achieved 4 log inactivation at a dose of 120 mJ/cm(2). DNA damage was assessed using a novel nested PCR approach, and similar levels of DNA damage between the two different treatments were noted, suggesting the AOP enhancement in inactivation was not due to additional DNA damage. Hydroxyl radicals produced in the advanced oxidation process are likely able to damage parts of the virus not targeted by LPUV, such as attachment proteins, enhancing the UV-induced inactivation. The AOP-enhanced inactivation potential was modeled in three natural waters. This research sheds light on the inactivation mechanisms of viruses with ultraviolet light and in the presence of hydroxyl radicals and provides a practical means to enhance inactivation of this UV-resistant virus.

  18. Efficacy of low-pressure foam cleaning compared to conventional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to provide safe, wholesome food processed in a clean environment by healthy workers ... could produce. 585. African Health Sciences Vol 14 Issue 3, September 2014 ... and environmental surfaces can also be sources of contamination.27.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UV/far-IR data of infrared excess sources (Georgakakis+, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakakis, A.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Nandra, K.; Digby-North, J.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Barro, G.

    2013-04-01

    The UV to far-IR data used in this study are from the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM) Cosmological Surveys Data base (http://guaix.fis.ucm.es/~pgperez) which combines all the photometric and spectroscopic observations available in prime cosmological survey fields. (4 data files).

  20. Surgical Space Conditions During Low-Pressure Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy with Deep Versus Moderate Neuromuscular Blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staehr-Rye, Anne K; Rasmussen, Lars S.; Rosenberg, Jacob;

    2014-01-01

    described, but deep neuromuscular blockade may be beneficial. We investigated if deep muscle relaxation would be associated with a higher proportion of procedures with "optimal" surgical space conditions compared with moderate relaxation during low-pressure (8 mm Hg) laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS...... with surgical space conditions that were marginally better than with moderate muscle relaxation during low-pressure laparoscopic cholecystectomy....

  1. Internal ballistics of recoilless high-low pressure guns using hepta-tubular powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Gupta

    1960-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the theory of recoilless high-low pressure guns has been discussed by taking the form function and the results have been applied to the case of hepta-tubular powders. The results for high-low pressure guns follow as a particular case.

  2. 49 CFR 192.623 - Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... distribution systems. (a) No person may operate a low-pressure distribution system at a pressure high enough to...) No person may operate a low pressure distribution system at a pressure lower than the minimum... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum and minimum allowable operating...

  3. A new on-axis micro-spectrophotometer for combining Raman, fluorescence and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy with macromolecular crystallography at the Swiss Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pompidor, Guillaume; Dworkowski, Florian S. N.; Thominet, Vincent [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Schulze-Briese, Clemens [DECTRIS Ltd, CH-5400 Baden (Switzerland); Fuchs, Martin R., E-mail: mfuchs@bnl.gov [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2013-09-01

    The new version MS2 of the in situ on-axis micro-spectrophotometer at the macromolecular crystallography beamline X10SA of the Swiss Light Source supports the concurrent acquisition of Raman, resonance Raman, fluorescence and UV/Vis absorption spectra along with diffraction data. The combination of X-ray diffraction experiments with optical methods such as Raman, UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy greatly enhances and complements the specificity of the obtained information. The upgraded version of the in situ on-axis micro-spectrophotometer, MS2, at the macromolecular crystallography beamline X10SA of the Swiss Light Source is presented. The instrument newly supports Raman and resonance Raman spectroscopy, in addition to the previously available UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence modes. With the recent upgrades of the spectral bandwidth, instrument stability, detection efficiency and control software, the application range of the instrument and its ease of operation were greatly improved. Its on-axis geometry with collinear X-ray and optical axes to ensure optimal control of the overlap of sample volumes probed by each technique is still unique amongst comparable facilities worldwide and the instrument has now been in general user operation for over two years.

  4. Seed disinfection effect of atmospheric pressure plasma and low pressure plasma on Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Terumi; Takai, Yuichiro; Kawaradani, Mitsuo; Okada, Kiyotsugu; Tanimoto, Hideo; Misawa, Tatsuya; Kusakari, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Gas plasma generated and applied under two different systems, atmospheric pressure plasma and low pressure plasma, was used to investigate the inactivation efficacy on the seedborne pathogenic fungus, Rhizoctonia solani, which had been artificially introduced to brassicaceous seeds. Treatment with atmospheric plasma for 10 min markedly reduced the R. solani survival rate from 100% to 3% but delayed seed germination. The low pressure plasma treatment reduced the fungal survival rate from 83% to 1.7% after 10 min and the inactivation effect was dependent on the treatment time. The seed germination rate after treatment with the low pressure plasma was not significantly different from that of untreated seeds. The air temperature around the seeds in the low pressure system was lower than that of the atmospheric system. These results suggested that gas plasma treatment under low pressure could be effective in disinfecting the seeds without damaging them.

  5. A new on-axis micro-spectrophotometer for combining Raman, fluorescence and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy with macromolecular crystallography at the Swiss Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompidor, Guillaume; Dworkowski, Florian S N; Thominet, Vincent; Schulze-Briese, Clemens; Fuchs, Martin R

    2013-09-01

    The combination of X-ray diffraction experiments with optical methods such as Raman, UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy greatly enhances and complements the specificity of the obtained information. The upgraded version of the in situ on-axis micro-spectrophotometer, MS2, at the macromolecular crystallography beamline X10SA of the Swiss Light Source is presented. The instrument newly supports Raman and resonance Raman spectroscopy, in addition to the previously available UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence modes. With the recent upgrades of the spectral bandwidth, instrument stability, detection efficiency and control software, the application range of the instrument and its ease of operation were greatly improved. Its on-axis geometry with collinear X-ray and optical axes to ensure optimal control of the overlap of sample volumes probed by each technique is still unique amongst comparable facilities worldwide and the instrument has now been in general user operation for over two years.

  6. Inactivation factors of spore-forming bacteria using low-pressure microwave plasmas in an N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} gas mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M K; Ogino, A; Nagatsu, M [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Johoku 3-5-1, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)], E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp

    2009-11-15

    In this study, we investigated the inactivation characteristics of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores under different plasma exposure conditions using low-pressure microwave plasma in nitrogen, oxygen and an air-simulated (N{sub 2}:O{sub 2}=4:1) gas mixture. The microwave-excited surface-wave plasma discharges were produced at low pressure by a large volume device. The directly plasma-exposed spores, up to 10{sup 6} populations, were successfully inactivated within 15, 10 and 5 min of surface-wave plasma treatment using nitrogen, oxygen and an air-simulated gas mixture, respectively, as working gases within the temperature of 75 deg. C. The contribution of different inactivation factors was evaluated by placing different filters (e.g. a LiF plate, a quartz plate and a Tyvek (registered) sheet) as indirect exposure of spores to the plasma. It was observed that optical emissions (including vacuum UV (VUV)/UV) play an important role in the inactivation process. To further evaluate the effect of VUV/UV photons, we placed an evacuated isolated chamber, inside which spores were set, into the main plasma chamber. The experimental results show that the inactivation time by VUV/UV photons alone, without working gas in the immediate vicinity of the spores, is longer than that with working gas. This suggests that the VUV/UV emission is responsible not only for direct UV inactivation of spores but also for generation of reactive neutral species by photoexcitation. The scanning electron microscopy images revealed significant changes in the morphology of directly plasma-exposed spores but no change in the spores irradiated by VUV/UV photons only.

  7. Inactivation factors of spore-forming bacteria using low-pressure microwave plasmas in an N2 and O2 gas mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M. K.; Ogino, A.; Nagatsu, M.

    2009-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the inactivation characteristics of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores under different plasma exposure conditions using low-pressure microwave plasma in nitrogen, oxygen and an air-simulated (N2:O2=4:1) gas mixture. The microwave-excited surface-wave plasma discharges were produced at low pressure by a large volume device. The directly plasma-exposed spores, up to 106 populations, were successfully inactivated within 15, 10 and 5 min of surface-wave plasma treatment using nitrogen, oxygen and an air-simulated gas mixture, respectively, as working gases within the temperature of 75 °C. The contribution of different inactivation factors was evaluated by placing different filters (e.g. a LiF plate, a quartz plate and a Tyvek® sheet) as indirect exposure of spores to the plasma. It was observed that optical emissions (including vacuum UV (VUV)/UV) play an important role in the inactivation process. To further evaluate the effect of VUV/UV photons, we placed an evacuated isolated chamber, inside which spores were set, into the main plasma chamber. The experimental results show that the inactivation time by VUV/UV photons alone, without working gas in the immediate vicinity of the spores, is longer than that with working gas. This suggests that the VUV/UV emission is responsible not only for direct UV inactivation of spores but also for generation of reactive neutral species by photoexcitation. The scanning electron microscopy images revealed significant changes in the morphology of directly plasma-exposed spores but no change in the spores irradiated by VUV/UV photons only.

  8. Low pressure spark gap triggered by an ion diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prono, Daniel S.

    1985-01-01

    Spark gap apparatus for use as an electric switch operating at high voltage, high current and high repetition rate. Mounted inside a housing are an anode, cathode and ion plate. An ionizable fluid is pumped through the chamber of the housing. A pulse of current to the ion plate causes ions to be emitted by the ion plate, which ions move into and ionize the fluid. Electric current supplied to the anode discharges through the ionized fluid and flows to the cathode. Current stops flowing when the current source has been drained. The ionized fluid recombines into its initial dielectric ionizable state. The switch is now open and ready for another cycle.

  9. Low-pressure spark gap triggered by an ion diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prono, D.S.

    1982-08-31

    Spark gap apparatus for use as an electric switch operating at high voltage, high current and high repetition rate. Mounted inside a housing are an anode, cathode and ion plate. An ionizable fluid is pumped through the chamber of the housing. A pulse of current to the ion plate causes ions to be emitted by the ion plate, which ions move into and ionize the fluid. Electric current supplied to the anode discharges through the ionized fluid and flows to the cathode. Current stops flowing when the current source has been drained. The ionized fluid recombines into its initial dielectric ionizable state. The switch is now open and ready for another cycle.

  10. Generation and healing behavior of radiation-induced optical absorption in fluoride phosphate glasses: The dependence on UV radiation sources and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natura, U.; Ehrt, D.

    2001-03-01

    High purity fluoride phosphate (FP) glasses have a large transmission range from the vacuum ultraviolet to the infrared. They are attractive candidates for lens systems in microlithography equipment and excimer laser optics. Fluoride single crystals and vitreous silica are well-known traditional materials for ultraviolet optics. Crystal sizes are limited and glass is better for fabricating optics. For lens systems, a variety of glasses with different refractive indices and dispersion are required. The UV resonance wavelengths of FP glasses with a low content of phosphate using a two-term Sellmeier dispersion formula are comparable with those of silica and fluoride single crystals. It is known, that UV radiation induces the generation of several defect centers leading to additional absorption bands. The investigation of the kinetics of defect generation is very important for the prediction of transmission losses in case of long-time irradiation. To predict the kinetics of defect generation, first the separation of absorption bands is necessary. Experiments were carried out using UV-lamps, the KrF excimer laser (ns- and fs-pulses) and the ArF excimer laser (ns-pulses). The healing behavior of radiation-induced absorption bands was investigated using thermal treatment (temperature-dependence) and bleaching experiments (radiation-dependence). The results of these experiments enable the separation of absorption bands and the prediction of the defect generation depending on the used radiation source. The healing of strong defects at room temperature is postulated to be a diffusion-controlled process.

  11. Systematic comparison of saturation effects and afterglow properties of Sr4Al14O25:Eu, Dy phosphor excited by alpha and beta ionizing sources and UV light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havasi, Viktor; Tátrai, Dávid; Szabó, Gábor; Sipos, György; Kónya, Zoltán; Kukovecz, Ákos

    2017-07-01

    This study reports on the radioactive- and photo-charging effects related afterglow properties of the long-afterglow Sr4Al14O25:Eu, Dy phosphor (SAED). Saturation and oversaturation behavior, trapping and de-trapping sequences, decay profiles and resistivity of SAED to alpha, beta and UV excitations are detailed. Thermoluminescence and afterglow measurements were performed on SAED subjected to different irradiation dose/time. In order to determine the saturation point of SAED, phosphors were charged by 0.5-800 Gy dose using radioactive alpha and beta sources and for 0.02-900 min by near UV light. By radioactive excitations only a saturation tendency was observed, whereas clear indication of oversaturation was found for photo-charging. Different saturation tendencies were also observed as a function of average SAED particle size due to the different penetration depth and efficiency of the excitation radiations. A uniform de-trapping sequence, but an opposite trapping sequence was found for ionizing radiation and for UV charging due to secondary excitation effects of high-energy irradiation. After the saturation point, a slight reduction of charge carrier concentration and PL intensity were observed. This was evidenced by the shifting dominant components of the modeled afterglow and TL curves. Repeated charging by ionizing radiation does not effected the afterglow properties of SAED adversely. On the other hand, thermal exposure up to 350 °C reduced photoluminescence intensity even in inert atmosphere.

  12. Self-consistent Kinetic Description of the Low-Pressure Solenoidal Inductively Coupled Argon Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛明; 王友年

    2005-01-01

    Using an one-dimensional slab model, we have studied the electron energy distribution, the anomalous skin effect, and power absorption in the solenoidal-inductively-coupled argon discharge under low pressures (≤1.33 Pa). The electron energy distribution function and rf electromagnetic field in the plasma are determined self-consistently by the linearized Bolztmann equation incorporating with the Maxwell equations. The numerical results show that, at low pressures, the electron energy distribution function exhibits a non-Maxwellian distribution with a long high-energy tail. The anomalous skin effect is greatly enhanced under low pressures and the negative power absorption is also obtained.

  13. QCL seeded, ns-pulse, multi-line, CO2 laser oscillator for laser-produced-plasma extreme-UV source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Krzysztof Michał; Suganuma, Takashi; Kurosawa, Yoshiaki; Ohta, Takeshi; Kawasuji, Yasufumi; Nakarai, Hiroaki; Saitou, Takashi; Fujimoto, Junichi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru; Sumitani, Akira; Endo, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Successful merger of state-of-the-art, semiconductor quantum-cascade lasers (QCL), with the mature CO2 laser technology, resulted in a delivery of highly-desired qualities of CO2 laser output that were not available previously without much effort. These qualities, such as multi-line operation, excellent spectro-temporal stability and pulse waveform control, became available from a single device of moderate complexity. This paper describes the operation principle and the unique properties of the solid{state seeded CO2 laser, invented for an application in laser-produced-plasma (LPP), extreme-UV (EUV) light source.

  14. Degradation of 40 selected pharmaceuticals by UV/H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wols, B A; Hofman-Caris, C H M; Harmsen, D J H; Beerendonk, E F

    2013-10-01

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in source waters is increasing. Although UV advanced oxidation is known to be an effective barrier against micropollutants, degradation rates are only available for limited amounts of pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the degradation of a large group of pharmaceuticals has been studied in this research for the UV/H2O2 process under different conditions, including pharmaceuticals of which the degradation by UV/H2O2 was never reported before (e.g., metformin, paroxetine, pindolol, sotalol, venlafaxine, etc.). Monochromatic low pressure (LP) and polychromatic medium pressure (MP) lamps were used for three different water matrices. In order to have well defined hydraulic conditions, all experiments were conducted in a collimated beam apparatus. Degradation rates for the pharmaceuticals were determined. For those compounds used in this research that are also reported in literature, measured degradation results are in good agreement with literature data. Pharmaceutical degradation for only photolysis with LP lamps is small, which is increased by using a MP lamp. Most of the pharmaceuticals are well removed when applying both UV (either LP or MP) and H2O2. However, differences in degradation rates between pharmaceuticals can be large. For example, ketoprofen, prednisolone, pindolol are very well removed by UV/H2O2, whereas metformin, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide are very little removed by UV/H2O2.

  15. Simulating the UV Environment For the Synthesis of Prebiotic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, S.; Sasselov, D.

    2014-03-01

    UV radiation plays a key role in the era of biogenesis. The young Sun was more UV-active than the modern Sun (Ribas et al. 2010), and the Earth lacked an ozone layer, implying a larger UV flux both on Earth, as well as on asteroids/comets. Ultraviolet radiation can help drive prebiotic molecule synthesis (e.g., Chyba et al. 1992; Powner et al. 2009) or destroy biologically important molecules (e.g., Johns et al. 1967). These effects are wavelength dependent: they are sensitive to ionzation, bond, and ro-vibrational transition energies of biologically relevant molecules and their precursors. When simulating the environment at biogenesis it is therefore important to ensure realistic levels of UV input, in both magnitude and spectral shape. Many laboratory simulations of biomolecule synthesis under prebiotic conditions to date have been done with atomic lamps (e.g., Powner et al. 2007). These lamps are safe, stable, and affordable UV sources, well-suited for initial studies. However, their emission spectra are a poor match to prebiotic conditions: low-pressure lamps are characterized by line emission, while higher-pressure lamps do not well-reproduce the spectrum of the young Sun. In this paper, we present spectra that are more realistic approximations to prebiotic conditions. Using published opacity lists and atmospheric models, we compute the attenuation of the flux from a young Sunanalog due to water, and from the present-day Sun due to a planetary atmosphere. We compare these spectra to those emitted by lamps used in studies today, and explore the potential biological implications of the differences. We conclude by discussing possibilities for better simulating the prebiotic UV environment in lab setups.

  16. Performance of the low pressure MWPCs for fission fragments under a high background%Performance of the low pressure MWPCs for fission fragments under a high background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玉收; Margaryan A.; 胡碧涛; 唐力光

    2011-01-01

    Two couples of low pressure multi-wire proportional chambers (MWPC) were located in the target chamber to detect fission fragments in a hypernuclei producing experiment at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (Jlab). In the experiment, a continuous wave (

  17. Reconsideration of basic concepts for the low-pressure discharge maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivarova, Antonia

    2016-09-01

    The Schottky condition and the concept for the ambipolar field known as bases of the low-pressure discharge maintenance are reconsidered. Whereas the Schottky condition results in a value of the electron temperature independent of the plasma density, the discussed generalized form of the Schottky condition relates - due to the nonlinear processes in the charged particle balance - the electron temperature to the plasma density, thus, ensuring self-consistency of the plasma description. The concept for equality of the electron and ion fluxes resulting into the ambipolar field is the second issue discussed. Localization of the power input outside the high plasma-density region, a common case in many rf plasma sources, breaks it down by transforming the ambipolar field into a vortex, non-conservative, field. Since the dc field in the discharge should be a potential (conservative) field, it appears to be composed by two vortex field: the ambipolar field and a field related to a vortex dc current, the latter driven by a deviation from the Boltzmann distribution of the electron density. In addition, due to the steady-state magnetic field self-induced by the vortex current in the discharge, the plasma appears magnetized without having an external magnetic field applied.

  18. Numerical Simulations of Low Pressure Inductively Coupled Plasmas in Geometrically Complex Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ben; Wu, Hanming; Krishnan, Anantha

    1996-10-01

    A two-dimensional fluid model has been developed for simulation of low pressure inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactors. The model obtains solutions for the plasma density, electron temperature, and electric field for the given operating conditions. The physical phenomena and processes such as ambipolar diffusion, thermal diffusion, quasi-neutrality, ionization, inductive Joule heating, and excitations are considered in the model. A significant feature of the model is its capability of handling complex geometries that are often encountered in industrial reactors. Complex reactor geometries are modeled by a body-fitted-coordinate (BFC) formulation. A series of numerical experiments have been conducted using the model to study effects of various parameters such as chamber pressure, size of the wafer, position of the inductive coil, and the power input into the plasma. Different reactor geometries such as the GEC ICP reference cell and the belljar reactor have been simulated. The results of the parametric experiments are presented to show certain systematic trends in performance parameters such as uniformity and processing rates. The ICP model has been coupled to a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code (capable of 3D simulations) that obtains the flow and pressure distribution inside the chamber. The ICP model will use pressure predictions (from the CFD model) to compute the local ionization rates. Chemical source/sink terms from the plasma dissociation model will be used by the CFD code to account for local reactant depletion effects.

  19. Experimental Investigation on Electromagnetic Attenuation by Low Pressure Radio-Frequency Plasma for Cavity Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiang; Zhang, Yachun; Chen, Jianping; Chen, Yudong; Zeng, Xiaojun; Yao, Hong; Tang, Chunmei

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment designed to test electromagnetic (EM) attenuation by radio-frequency (RF) plasma for cavity structures. A plasma reactor, in the shape of a hollow cylinder, filled with argon gas at low pressure, driven by a RF power source, was produced by wave-transmitting material. The detailed attenuations of EM waves were investigated under different conditions: the incident frequency is 1-4 GHz, the RF power supply is 13.56 MHz and 1.6-3 kW, and the argon pressure is 75-200 Pa. The experimental results indicate that 5-15 dB return loss can be obtained. From a first estimation, the electron density in the experiment is approximately (1.5-2.2) × 1016 m-3 and the collision frequency is about 11-30 GHz. The return loss of EM waves was calculated using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and it was found that it has a similar development with measurement. It can be confirmed that RF plasma is useful in the stealth of cavity structures such as jet-engine inlet. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51107033) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No. 2013B33614)

  20. Isolated calcification of tricuspid valve with severe low pressure tricuspid regurgitation in an infant

    OpenAIRE

    Mittal, S.R.

    2013-01-01

    A three-month-old asymptomatic male infant was evaluated for a systolic murmur. Echocardiography revealed calcification of tricuspid leaflets with severe low pressure tricuspid regurgitation. Pulmonary artery flow was normal. There was no other congenital anomaly.

  1. Isolated calcification of tricuspid valve with severe low pressure tricuspid regurgitation in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, S R

    2013-12-01

    A three-month-old asymptomatic male infant was evaluated for a systolic murmur. Echocardiography revealed calcification of tricuspid leaflets with severe low pressure tricuspid regurgitation. Pulmonary artery flow was normal. There was no other congenital anomaly.

  2. Low-Pressure, Field-Ionizing Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Frank; Smith, Steven

    2009-01-01

    A small mass spectrometer utilizing a miniature field ionization source is now undergoing development. It is designed for use in a variety of applications in which there are requirements for a lightweight, low-power-consumption instrument that can analyze the masses of a wide variety of molecules and ions. The device can operate without need for a high-vacuum, carrier-gas feed radioactive ionizing source, or thermal ionizer. This mass spectrometer can operate either in the natural vacuum of outer space or on Earth at any ambient pressure below 50 torr (below about 6.7 kPa) - a partial vacuum that can easily be reached by use of a small sampling pump. This mass spectrometer also has a large dynamic range - from singly charged small gas ions to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragments larger than 104 atomic mass units - with sensitivity adequate for detecting some molecules and ions at relative abundances of less than one part per billion. This instrument (see figure) includes a field ionizer integrated with a rotating-field mass spectrometer (RFMS). The field ionizer effects ionization of a type characterized as "soft" in the art because it does not fragment molecules or initiate avalanche arcing. What makes the "soft" ionization mode possible is that the distance between the ionizing electrodes is less than mean free path for ions at the maximum anticipated operating pressure, so that the ionizer always operates on the non-breakdown side of the applicable Paschen curve (a standard plot of breakdown potential on the ordinate and pressure electrode separation on the abscissa). The field ionizer in this instrument is fabricated by micromachining a submicron-thick membrane out of an electrically nonconductive substrate, coating the membrane on both sides to form electrodes, then micromachining small holes through the electrodes and membrane. Because of the submicron electrode separation, even a potential of only 1 V applied between the electrodes gives rise to an electric

  3. Transformation of 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether under UV irradiation: Potential sources of the secondary pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ji-Zhong [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, AL: 0800C, EHC, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Hou, Yuqing [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Southern Illinois University, Mail Code 4405, 1245 Lincoln Drive, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Zhang, Jianshun [Building Energy and Environmental Systems Laboratory, Syracuse University (United States); Zhu, Jiping [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, AL: 0800C, EHC, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Feng, Yong-Lai, E-mail: yong-lai.feng@hc-sc.gc.ca [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, AL: 0800C, EHC, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • 2,2′,4,4′-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) was found transformed to six less brominated BDE analogs under UV irradiation. • BDE-47 was found degraded faster in liquid phase than in gas phase. • Two brominated phenols were formed in the transformation of BDE-47 in gas phase. • The bromine on the ortho positions of the phenyl rings was found lost first to form 2,4,4′-tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE-28). • The more volatile less brominated BDEs are a source of secondary pollutants in the environment. -- Abstract: A commercial brominated flame retardant 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) was used as the model chemical to investigate the degradation and transformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in gas and liquid phases, respectively, under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The results showed that BDE-47 can be transformed to less-brominated BDE analogs. A total of six compounds that are less-brominated BDEs and two brominated phenols were observed as transformation products in the reaction mixtures. Different degradation rates of BDE-47 in n-nonane and in isooctane in the same chamber system were observed. Degradation rate of BDE-47 in n-nonane was faster than in isooctane. Under UV irradiation, the bromine on the ortho positions of the phenyl rings was lost first to form 2,4,4′-tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE-28), which then progressively lead to 4,4′-dibromodiphenyl ether (BDE-15) or 2,4′-dibromodiphenyl ether (BDE-8). An airborne transformation pathway has been proposed according to observed transformation products. The more volatile less-brominated BDEs from transformation of BDE-47 are easily evaporated into air to be a source of secondary pollutants in the environment.

  4. Stochastic Theory of Dust-Grain Charging in Low-Pressure Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Abolmasov, S N; Cabarrocas, P Roca i

    2013-01-01

    Charging of dust grains in low-pressure plasmas is reviewed critically. A theory based on the Fokker-Planck equation and orbital motion limited approximation is proposed. The theory predicts that dust grains can acquire a positive charge in low-pressure electropositive plasmas having a sufficiently high plasma potential, in agreement with experimental observations. It is also shown that variations in the plasma potential (electron temperature) can lead to spatial regions in which grains have opposite charges.

  5. The effect of inorganic precursors on disinfection byproduct formation during UV-chlorine/chloramine drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Bonnie A; Dotson, Aaron D; Linden, Karl G; Weinberg, Howard S

    2012-10-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection is being increasingly used in drinking water treatment. It is important to understand how its application to different types of water may influence finished water quality, particularly as anthropogenic activity continues to impact the quality of source waters. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of inorganic precursors on the formation of regulated and unregulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during UV irradiation of surface waters when combined with chlorination or chloramination. Samples were collected from three drinking water utilities supplied by source waters with varying organic and inorganic precursor content. The filtered samples were treated in the laboratory with a range of UV doses delivered from low pressure (LP, UV output at 253.7 nm) and medium pressure (MP, polychromatic UV output 200-400 nm) mercury lamps followed by chlorination or chloramination, in the presence and absence of additional bromide and nitrate. The regulated trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids were not affected by UV pretreatment at disinfection doses (40-186 mJ/cm²). With higher doses (1000 mJ/cm²), trihalomethane formation was increased 30-40%. While most effects on DBPs were only observed with doses much higher than typically used for UV disinfection, there were some effects on unregulated DBPs at lower doses. In nitrate-spiked samples (1-10 mg N/L), chloropicrin formation doubled and increased three- to six-fold with 40 mJ/cm² MP UV followed by chloramination and chlorination, respectively. Bromopicrin formation was increased in samples containing bromide (0.5-1 mg/L) and nitrate (1-10 mg N/L) when pretreated with LP or MP UV (30-60% with 40 mJ/cm² LP UV and four- to ten-fold increase with 40 mJ/cm² MP UV, after subsequent chlorination). The formation of cyanogen chloride doubled and increased three-fold with MP UV doses of 186 and 1000 mJ/cm², respectively, when followed by chloramination in nitrate-spiked samples but

  6. Role of VEGF receptors in normal and psoriatic human keratinocytes: evidence from irradiation with different UV sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Wei Zhu

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF promotes angiogenesis and plays important roles both in physiological and pathological conditions. VEGF receptors (VEGFRs are high-affinity receptors for VEGF and are originally considered specific to endothelial cells. We previously reported that VEGFRs were also constitutively expressed in normal human keratinocytes and overexpressed in psoriatic epidermis. In addition, UVB can activate VEGFRs in normal keratinocytes, and the activated VEGFR-2 signaling is involved in the pro-survival mechanism. Here, we show that VEGFRs were also upregulated and activated by UVA in normal human keratinocytes via PKC, and interestingly, both the activated VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 protected against UVA-induced cell death. As VEGFRs were over-expressed in psoriatic epidermis, we further investigated whether narrowband UVB (NB-UVB phototherapy or topical halomethasone monohydrate 0.05% cream could affect their expression. Surprisingly, the over-expressed VEGFRs in psoriatic epidermis were significantly attenuated by both treatments. During NB-UVB therapy, VEGFRs declined first in the basal, and then gradually in the upper psoriatic epidermis. VEGFRs were activated in psoriatic epidermis, their activation was enhanced by NB-UVB, but turned undetectable after whole therapy. This process was quite different from that by halomethasone, in which VEGFRs and phospho-VEGFRs decreased in a gradual, homogeneous manner. Our findings further suggest that UV-induced activation of VEGFRs serves as a pro-survival signal for keratinocytes. In addition, VEGFRs may be involved in the pathological process of psoriasis, and UV phototherapy is effective for psoriasis by directly modulating the expression of VEGFRs.

  7. Ultra high efficiency/low pressure supercritical fluid chromatography with superficially porous particles for triglyceride separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesellier, E; Latos, A; de Oliveira, A Lopes

    2014-01-31

    This paper reports the development of the separation of vegetable oil triglycerides (TG) in supercritical chromatography (SFC), using superficially porous particles (SPPs). The SPP, having a small diameter (2-3μm), provide a higher theoretical plate number (N), which allows to improve separation of critical pairs of compounds. However, compared to fully porous particles of larger diameter (5μm), the pressure drop is also increased. Fortunately, supercritical fluids have a low viscosity, which allows coupling several columns to achieve high N values, while maintaining flow rate above 1ml/min, ensuring a ultra high efficiency (UHE) at low pressure (LP) (below 40MPa), with regards to the one reached with liquid and sub-two micron particles (around 100MPa). The use of two detector systems (UV and ELSD) connected in series to the UHE-LP-SFC system provides complementary responses, due to their specific detection principles. Working in a first part with three coupled Kinetex C18 columns (45cm total length), the effect of modifier nature and percentage were studied with two reference oils, argan and rapeseed, chosen for their different and well-known TG composition. The analytical method was developed from previous studies performed with fully porous particles (FPP). Optimized conditions with three Kinetex were as follows: 17°C, 12% of ACN/MeOH (90/10; v/v). With these conditions, and by using an increased length of Kinetex C18 column (60cm), another additional column was selected from ten different commercial SPP C18 bonded phases, by applying a Derringer function on varied parameters: theoretical plate number (TPN), separation index (SI) for critical pairs of peaks (the peaks of compounds difficult to separate due to subtle structural differences), the analysis duration, and the total peak number. This function normalizes the values of any parameters, between 0 and 1, from the worst value to the better, allowing to take account of various parameters in the final

  8. Low pressure water vapour discharge as a light source: II. Electrical characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artamonova, E; Artamonova, T; Beliaeva, A; Khodorkovskii, M; Melnikov, A; Milenin, V; Murashov, S; Rakcheeva, L; Timofeev, N [Saint Petersburg State University, Ulyanovskaya 3, Petrodvoretz, Saint Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Michael, D [General Electric Global Research Center, One Research Circle (Bldg K1 Rm 4B31A), Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States); Zissis, G, E-mail: timofeev@pobox.spbu.r, E-mail: michael@crd.ge.co, E-mail: georges.zissis@laplace.univ-tlse.f [Universite Toulouse 3-Paul Sabatier, LAPLACE Building 3R2, 118 rte de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)

    2009-09-07

    The electric field strength, electrode fall voltage, light emission characteristics and efficiency of a (Ar + H{sub 2}O) dc discharge as functions of water vapour content, argon pressure and electric current are presented. The data show that the main processes of 306.4 nm OH band generation are (1) a collision between an excited argon atom and a water molecule with simultaneous excitation of OH into the A {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +} state and (2) electron excitation of a ground state hydroxyl molecule produced by a quenching process from a water molecule. Electric field strength measurements make it possible to conclude that the light production efficiency of the plasma under study can reach 35 lm W{sup -1}. It is possible, with these data, to propose a model of the plasma in question having reasonable accordance with the experiment and show the way to further increase the efficiency.

  9. Addressing reverse osmosis fouling within water reclamation--a side-by-side comparison of low-pressure membrane pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Fraser C; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2011-06-01

    A tertiary membrane filtration (TMF) pilot operating on secondary effluent and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) were setup in a side-by-side study as pretreatments for two identical reverse osmosis pilot systems. The water quality of the permeate from both low-pressure membrane pretreatment systems and the fouling rate of the reverse osmosis systems were compared to assess the capabilities of the two low-pressure membrane pretreatments to prevent organic fouling of the reverse osmosis systems. Both pretreatment pilots were setup using typical operating conditions (i.e., solids retention time and mixed-liquor suspended solids). A consistent difference in water quality and reverse osmosis performance was demonstrated during the 12-month study. The MBR permeate consistently had significantly lower total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand concentrations, but higher color and specific UV absorbance compared with the permeate from the TMF pretreatment. The pretreatment with the MBR gave an average reverse osmosis fouling rate over the entire study (0.27 Lmh/bar.month) that was less than half of the value found for the reverse osmosis with TMF pretreatment (0.60 Lmh/bar.month). A correlation of reverse osmosis feed TOC concentration with average reverse osmosis fouling rate also was established, independent of the pretreatment method used. Results from a cleaning analysis, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and fourier transformed infrared reflectometry confirmed that the foulants were primarily organic in nature. It is concluded that, for this type of application and setup, MBR systems present an advantage over tertiary membrane polishing of secondary effluent for reverse osmosis pretreatment.

  10. Low Pressure Tolerance by Methanogens in an Aqueous Environment: Implications for Subsurface Life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickol, R. L.; Kral, T. A.

    2016-09-01

    The low pressure at the surface of Mars (average: 6 mbar) is one potentially biocidal factor that any extant life on the planet would need to endure. Near subsurface life, while shielded from ultraviolet radiation, would also be exposed to this low pressure environment, as the atmospheric gas-phase pressure increases very gradually with depth. Few studies have focused on low pressure as inhibitory to the growth or survival of organisms. However, recent work has uncovered a potential constraint to bacterial growth below 25 mbar. The study reported here tested the survivability of four methanogen species (Methanothermobacter wolfeii, Methanosarcina barkeri, Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanococcus maripaludis) under low pressure conditions approaching average martian surface pressure (6 mbar - 143 mbar) in an aqueous environment. Each of the four species survived exposure of varying length (3 days - 21 days) at pressures down to 6 mbar. This research is an important stepping-stone to determining if methanogens can actively metabolize/grow under these low pressures. Additionally, the recently discovered recurring slope lineae suggest that liquid water columns may connect the surface to deeper levels in the subsurface. If that is the case, any organism being transported in the water column would encounter the changing pressures during the transport.

  11. Growth and mitochondrial respiration of mungbeans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) germinated at low pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Gerth, W. A.; Scheld, H. W.; Strain, B. R.

    1988-01-01

    Mungbean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) seedlings were grown hypobarically to assess the effects of low pressure (21-24 kilopascals) on growth and mitochondrial respiration. Control seedlings grown at ambient pressure (101 kilopascals) were provided amounts of O2 equivalent to those provided experimental seedlings at reduced pressure to factor out responses to O2 concentration and to total pressure. Respiration was assayed using washed mitochondria, and was found to respond only to O2 concentration. Regardless of total pressure, seedlings grown at 2 millimoles O2 per liter had higher state 3 respiration rates and decreased percentages of alternative respiration compared to ambient (8.4 millimoles O2 per liter) controls. In contrast, seedling growth responded to total pressure but not to O2 concentration. Seedlings were significantly larger when grown under low pressure. While low O2 (2 millimoles O2 per liter) diminished growth at ambient pressure, growth at low pressure in the same oxygen concentration was enhanced. Respiratory development and growth of mungbean seedlings under low pressure is unimpaired whether oxygen or air is used as the chamber gas, and further, low pressure can improve growth under conditions of poor aeration.

  12. Bulk characterization of pharmaceutical powders by low-pressure compression II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagsten Sørensen, A.; Sonnergaard, Jørn; Hovgaard, L.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of punch and die diameter, sample size, compression speed, and particle size on two low-pressure compression-derived parameters; the compressed density and the Walker w parameter. The excellent repeatability of the low-pressure compression...... method allowed small effects of variations in punch and die diameter and sample size to be demonstrated on a high significance level. Changing the compression speed, however, did not cause a significant effect in the compressed density, whereas a decrease in w was seen. The effect of particle size...... was studied by compressing and tapping different grades of calcium carbonate, lactose, and microcrystalline cellulose. The low-pressure compression-derived parameters were compared to tapped densities and to Compressibility Indexes obtained by tapping volumetry. Even though the relationship between particle...

  13. Treatment of refractory low-pressure hydrocephalus with an active pumping negative-pressure shunt system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalani, M Yashar S; Turner, Jay D; Nakaji, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Low-pressure hydrocephalus is a rare type of hydrocephalus characterized by negative intracranial pressure (ICP) and ventriculomegaly. Given the shortcomings of available methods to treat refractory low-pressure hydrocephalus, we set out to develop a new system for evacuation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the ventricular system where existing shunt systems do not produce the necessary gradient for CSF drainage. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of two patients with the diagnosis of negative-pressure hydrocephalus refractory to traditional treatments. We combined a traditional low-pressure, non-siphoning valve with a pumping chamber placed distal to the valve to create a system that could be actively pumped to remove excess CSF. Treatment of negative-pressure hydrocephalus requires the establishment of a lower ventricular drainage pressure than the drainage pressure in the subarachnoid space. In refractory cases, we propose the use of this active negative-pressure pumping system.

  14. Biodegradability of iopromide products after UV/H₂O₂ advanced oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Olya S; Love, Nancy G; Aga, Diana S; Linden, Karl G

    2016-02-01

    Iopromide is an X-ray and MRI contrast agent that is virtually non-biodegradable and persistent through typical wastewater treatment processes. This study determined whether molecular transformation of iopromide in a UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process (AOP) can result in biodegradable products. The experiments used iopromide labeled with carbon-14 on the aromatic ring to trace degradation of iopromide through UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation and subsequent biodegradation. The biotransformation assay tracked the formation of radiolabeled (14)CO2 which indicated full mineralization of the molecule. The results indicated that AOP formed biodegradable iopromide products. There was no (14)C released from the pre-AOP samples, but up to 20% of all radiolabeled carbon transformed into (14)CO2 over the course of 42 days of biodegradation after iopromide was exposed to advanced oxidation (compared to 10% transformation in inactivated post-AOP controls). In addition, the quantum yield of photolysis of iopromide was determined using low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) mercury lamps as 0.069 ± 0.005 and 0.080 ± 0.007 respectively. The difference in the quantum yields for the two UV sources was not statistically significant at the 95% confidence interval (p = 0.08), which indicates the equivalency of using LP or MP UV sources for iopromide treatment. The reaction rate between iopromide and hydroxyl radicals was measured to be (2.5 ± 0.2) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). These results indicate that direct photolysis is a dominant degradation pathway in UV/H2O2 AOP treatment of iopromide. Other iodinated contrast media may also become biodegradable after exposure to UV or UV/H2O2.

  15. Low-pressure airlift fermenter for single cell protein production: II. Continuous culture of Pichia yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, N.Y.; Srinivasan, S.; Leavitt, R.I.; Coty, V.F.; Kondis, E.F.

    1987-03-01

    Experiments using Pichia yeast grown on n-paraffins have been conducted in laboratory 10-l airlift fermenters and in a 640-l module of commercial scale. Results confirmed the design concept with low-pressure air. However, in the absence of mass transport constraints, the build up of toxic factors in the fermenter appeared to a major variable limiting cell productivity. Foaming in the large fermenter also presented a serious problem, which must be solved before low-pressure airlift fermenters become practical. 14 references.

  16. Over recovery in low pressure sparkgaps - confirmation of pressure reduction in over recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Nagesh, KV; Ron, PH; Nagabhushana, GR; Nema, RS

    1999-01-01

    The over recovery in sparkgaps [1], [2] operating along the left-hand side of Paschens characteristics is due to pressure reduction in the gap after the first pulse discharge. This pressure reduction leading to over recovery in low pressure sparkgaps has been verified using a low pressure sparkgap with two sparkgaps placed one above the other in the same chamber. The breakdown voltage strength characteristics of the second gap has been determined for gap spacings of 3.5 mm to 10 mm, diffusion...

  17. Germination of white radish, buckwheat and qing-geng-cai under low pressure in closed environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinokuchi, Tsutomu; Oshima, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi

    2004-11-01

    In order to cultivate plants under low pressure in closed environment, the germination rate of seeds of white radish was investigated under low pressure, low oxygen partial pressure and condition of pure oxygen. The result of these experiments showed that the germination rate was affected by the oxygen partial pressure. From this fact, it is possible to lower the total pressure by using only the pure oxygen in germination. Furthermore, the germination rates of seeds of buckwheat and qing-geng-cai were also investigated in pure oxygen for the comparison. Consequently, though tendency in germination rate of white radish was similar to qing-geng-cai, it was different from buckwheat.

  18. On the mechanism of low-pressure imprint lithography: capillarity vs viscous flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khang, Dahl-Young; Lee, Hong H

    2008-05-20

    Dominant mechanisms in low-pressure imprint lithography processes have been identified for the regimes that are definable in terms of applied pressure, temperature, and mold material characteristics. Capillarity is found to be the dominant mechanism at high temperature and low pressure when stiff, hard molds are used. In the case of flexible thin-film ( approximately 20 microm) molds, both the capillarity and the viscous flow are involved. Both mechanisms are operative in the initial stage of the imprinting, but the capillarity takes over as time progresses.

  19. Spatially Extended 21 cm Signal from Strongly Clustered Uv and X-Ray Sources in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kyungjin; Xu, Hao; Norman, Michael L.; Alvarez, Marcelo A.; Wise, John H.

    2015-03-01

    We present our prediction for the local 21 cm differential brightness temperature (δTb) from a set of strongly clustered sources of Population III (Pop III) and II (Pop II) objects in the early universe, by a numerical simulation of their formation and radiative feedback. These objects are located inside a highly biased environment, which is a rare, high-density peak (“Rarepeak”) extending to ∼7 comoving Mpc. We study the impact of ultraviolet and X-ray photons on the intergalactic medium (IGM) and the resulting δTb, when Pop III stars are assumed to emit X-ray photons by forming X-ray binaries very efficiently. We parameterize the rest-frame spectral energy distribution of X-ray photons, which regulates X-ray photon-trapping, IGM-heating, secondary Lyα pumping and the resulting morphology of δTb. A combination of emission (δTb > 0) and absorption (δTb Frequency Array, Murchison Widefield Array, Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization) of such rare peaks is found to be difficult due to the rarity of these peaks, and the contribution only by these rare peaks to the total power spectrum remains subdominant compared to that by all astrophysical sources.

  20. SPATIALLY EXTENDED 21 cm SIGNAL FROM STRONGLY CLUSTERED UV AND X-RAY SOURCES IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Kyungjin [Department of Earth Sciences, Chosun University, Gwangju, 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Xu, Hao; Norman, Michael L. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Alvarez, Marcelo A. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Wise, John H., E-mail: kjahn@chosun.ac.kr [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2015-03-20

    We present our prediction for the local 21 cm differential brightness temperature (δT{sub b}) from a set of strongly clustered sources of Population III (Pop III) and II (Pop II) objects in the early universe, by a numerical simulation of their formation and radiative feedback. These objects are located inside a highly biased environment, which is a rare, high-density peak (“Rarepeak”) extending to ∼7 comoving Mpc. We study the impact of ultraviolet and X-ray photons on the intergalactic medium (IGM) and the resulting δT{sub b}, when Pop III stars are assumed to emit X-ray photons by forming X-ray binaries very efficiently. We parameterize the rest-frame spectral energy distribution of X-ray photons, which regulates X-ray photon-trapping, IGM-heating, secondary Lyα pumping and the resulting morphology of δT{sub b}. A combination of emission (δT{sub b} > 0) and absorption (δT{sub b} < 0) regions appears in varying amplitudes and angular scales. The boost of the signal by the high-density environment (δ ∼ 0.64) and on a relatively large scale combines to make Rarepeak a discernible, spatially extended (θ ∼ 10′) object for 21 cm observation at 13 ≲ z ≲ 17, which is found to be detectable as a single object by SKA with integration time of ∼1000 hr. Power spectrum analysis by some of the SKA precursors (Low Frequency Array, Murchison Widefield Array, Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization) of such rare peaks is found to be difficult due to the rarity of these peaks, and the contribution only by these rare peaks to the total power spectrum remains subdominant compared to that by all astrophysical sources.

  1. UV and EUV Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, K

    2010-01-01

    We describe telescopes and instruments that were developed and used for astronomical research in the ultraviolet (UV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The wavelength ranges covered by these bands are not uniquely defined. We use the following convention here: The EUV and UV span the regions ~100-912 and 912-3000 Angstroem respectively. The limitation between both ranges is a natural choice, because the hydrogen Lyman absorption edge is located at 912 Angstroem. At smaller wavelengths, astronomical sources are strongly absorbed by the interstellar medium. It also marks a technical limit, because telescopes and instruments are of different design. In the EUV range, the technology is strongly related to that utilized in X-ray astronomy, while in the UV range the instruments in many cases have their roots in optical astronomy. We will, therefore, describe the UV and EUV instruments in appropriate conciseness and refer to the respective chapters of this volume for more technic...

  2. INFLUENCE OF UV-B RADIATION ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND NITROGEN UTILIZATION OF MUSA PARADISIACA GROWN IN DIFFERENT NITROGEN SOURCES%UV-B辐射对香蕉光合作用和不同氮源利用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙谷畴; 赵平; 曾小平; 彭少麟

    2001-01-01

    生长在NO-3-N、NH+4-N和NH4NO3-N的香蕉叶片有相近似的最大光合速率,UV- B辐射引起生长在不同氮源的香蕉叶片光合速率、表观量子产率和光能利用效率的降低。UV -B辐射使生长在不同氮源的植株叶面积干重和叶氮含量降低。生长在NH+4-N的植株 Vcmax和Jmax均较生长在其它氮源的高。UV-B辐射引起生长在NH+4-N的植株V cmax和Jmax降低较相同处理的NO-3-N和NH4NO3-N植株明显。表明生长在NH 4+-N的香蕉对UV-B辐射更加敏感。UV-B辐射改变植株的叶片的碳氢比和碳氮比。经过UV-B辐射处理的NH4+-N生长植株的碳氮比较生长在NO3--N和NH4NO3-N的低。UV-B辐射可能改变植株对不同氮源的吸收利用,从而引起碳氮代谢和酸碱调节的变化。UV-B辐射降低叶氮在Rubisco和生物力能学组分的分配系数,可能使这些组分合成减少,使叶片光合速率下降。结果表明,生长在不同氮源的香蕉植株对UV-B辐射有不同响应,NH 4+-N有利于主要光合参数增高,但其对UV-B辐射亦最为敏感。氮供应受限制或植株生长在中性盐如NH4NO3-N则对UV-B辐射不甚敏感。

  3. Development of Adaptive Feedback Control System of Both Spatial and Temporal Beam Shaping for UV-Laser Light Source for RF Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Tomizawa, H; Dewa, H; Hanaki, H; Kobayashi, T; Mizuno, A; Suzuki, S; Taniuchi, T; Yanagida, K

    2004-01-01

    The ideal spatial and temporal profiles of a shot-by-shot single laser pulse are essential to suppress the emittance growth of the electron beam from a photo-cathode rf gun. We have been developing highly qualified UV-laser pulse as a light source of the rf gun for an injector candidate of future light sources. The gun cavity is a single-cell pillbox, and the copper inner wall is used as a photo cathode. The electron beam was accelerated up to 4.1 MeV at the maximum electric field on the cathode surface of 175 MV/m. For emittance compensation, two solenoid coils were used. As the first test run, with a microlens array as a simple spatial shaper, we obtained a minimum emittance value of 2 π·mm·mrad with a beam energy of 3.1 MeV, holding its charge to 0.1 nC/bunch. In the next test run, we prepared a deformable mirror for spatial shaping, and a spatial light modulator based on fused-silica plates for temporal shaping. We applied the both adaptive optics to automatically shape the bot...

  4. The beauty of frost: nano-sulfur assembly via low pressure vapour deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Chen, Lu; Scudiero, Louis; Zhong, Wei-Hong

    2015-11-14

    A low pressure vapour deposition (LPVD) technique is proposed as an environmentally friendly, cost-effective and versatile strategy for fabrication of sulfur nanomaterials. By controlling the characteristics of the deposit substrate for the LPVD, various sulfur-based nanomaterials have been obtained through a substrate-induced self-assembly process.

  5. Numerical Study of Active Flow Control for a Transitional Highly-Loaded Low-Pressure Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Count Using Vortex Generator Jet Separation Control,” ASME Paper GT-2002-30602, Jun. 2002. [16] Eulitz, F. and Engel , K., “Numerical Investigation of...Around a Low Pressure Turbine Blade,” Direct and Large-Eddy Simulation IV, ERCOFTAC Series Vol. 8 , edited by B. J. Guerts, R. Friedrich , and O

  6. Low-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm presenting with pulmonary embolism: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papoulidis Pavlos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pulmonary artery aneurysm is an uncommon disorder with severe complications. The diagnosis is often difficult, since the clinical manifestations are non-specific and the treatment is controversial, as the natural history of the disease is not completely understood. Case presentation We describe the cases of two patients with pulmonary artery aneurysms. The first patient was a 68-year-old Caucasian man with an idiopathic low-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm together with a pulmonary embolism. The patient preferred a conservative approach and was stable at the 10-month follow-up visit after being placed on anti-coagulant treatment. The second patient was a 66-year-old Caucasian woman with a low-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm also presented together with a pulmonary embolism. The aneurysm was secondary to pulmonary valve stenosis. She received anti-coagulants and, after stabilization, underwent percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty. Conclusion Pulmonary embolism may be the initial presentation of a low-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm. No underlying cause for pulmonary embolism was found in either of our patients, suggesting a causal association with low-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm.

  7. An Engine Research Program Focused on Low Pressure Turbine Aerodynamic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond; Wyzykowski, John; Chiapetta, Santo; Adamczyk, John

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive test program was performed in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland Ohio using a highly instrumented Pratt and Whitney Canada PW 545 turbofan engine. A key objective of this program was the development of a high-altitude database on small, high-bypass ratio engine performance and operability. In particular, the program documents the impact of altitude (Reynolds Number) on the aero-performance of the low-pressure turbine (fan turbine). A second objective was to assess the ability of a state-of-the-art CFD code to predict the effect of Reynolds number on the efficiency of the low-pressure turbine. CFD simulation performed prior and after the engine tests will be presented and discussed. Key findings are the ability of a state-of-the art CFD code to accurately predict the impact of Reynolds Number on the efficiency and flow capacity of the low-pressure turbine. In addition the CFD simulations showed the turbulent intensity exiting the low-pressure turbine to be high (9%). The level is consistent with measurements taken within an engine.

  8. Low-pressure pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy to optimize live donors' comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warle, M.C.; Berkers, A.W.; Langenhuijsen, J.F.; Jagt, M.F.P. van der; Dooper, P.M.M.; Kloke, H.J.; Pilzecker, D.; Renes, S.H.; Wever, K.E.; Hoitsma, A.J.; Vliet, J.A. van der; D'Ancona, F.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) has become the gold standard to procure live donor kidneys. As the relationship between donor and recipient loosens, it becomes of even greater importance to optimize safety and comfort of the surgical procedure. Low-pressure pneumoperitoneum has been s

  9. An improved process for high nutrition of germinated brown rice production: Low-pressure plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua Han; Chang, Hung Chia; Chen, Yu Kuo; Hung, Chien Lun; Lin, Su Yi; Chen, Yi Sheng

    2016-01-15

    Brown rice was exposed to low-pressure plasma ranging from 1 to 3kV for 10min. Treatment of brown rice in low-pressure plasma increases the germination percentage, seedling length, and water uptake in laboratory germination tests. Of the various treatments, 3-kV plasma exposure for 10min yielded the best results. In germinating brown rice, α-amylase activity was significantly higher in treated groups than in controls. The higher enzyme activity in plasma-treated brown rice likely triggers the rapid germination and earlier vigor of the seedlings. Low-pressure plasma also increased gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels from ∼19 to ∼28mg/100g. In addition, a marked increase in the antioxidant activity of brown rice was observed with plasma treatments compared to controls. The main finding of this study indicates that low-pressure plasma is effective at enhancing the growth and GABA accumulation of germinated brown rice, which can supply high nutrition to consumer.

  10. Heat transport in cold-wall single-wafer low pressure chemical-vapor-deposition reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasper, A.; Schmitz, J.E.J.; Holleman, J.; Verweij, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    A model is formulated to understand and predict wafer temperatures in a tungsten low pressure chemical‐vapor‐deposition (LPCVD) single‐wafer cold‐wall reactor equipped with hot plate heating. The temperature control is usually carried out on the hot plate temperature. Large differences can occur

  11. Using the EMD method to determine fault criterion for medium-low pressure gas regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xuejun; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Guobin; Du, Yi

    2015-11-01

    By extracting the outlet pressure data of gas regulators, this paper uses the EMD toolbox of the MATLAB software, which can perform data decomposition and the Hilbert-Huang Transform to find the rules with fault data. Eventually, the medium-low pressure gas regulator fault criterion can be established.

  12. Numerical approach to a low pressure gas-injection scroll compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Guang-Hui; Li Hai-Jun; Liu Lei; Zhao Deng-Ke; Wei Pan-Pan; Chen Tong

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve problems arising in ordinary heat pump system for pure electric vehicles at ultra-low temperature, a low pressure gas-injection scroll compressor is designed, and a mathematical model is established. Comparison with the experimental results shows good accuracy of the theoretical prediction.

  13. Optimized surgical space during low-pressure laparoscopy with deep neuromuscular blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staehr-Rye, Anne K; Rasmussen, Lars S; Rosenberg, Jacob;

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) can be performed using low intra-abdominal pressure (space conditions using either deep, continuous muscle relaxation or moderate blockade during low-pressure (8 mm......Hg) LC. We hypothesized that a deep neuromuscular block would be associated with a higher proportion of optimal surgical space conditions....

  14. Highly Loaded Low-Pressure Turbine: Design, Numerical and Experimental Analysis (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    the transition models of Praisner and Clark [19] to determine airfoil performance. Graphical User In- terfaces (GUI) were employed to alter the...Turbomachinery Flows, NASA/CP- 2001-210888, NASA. [5] Hourmouziadis, J., 1984. “Aerodynamic design of low pressure turbines”. In AGARD-LS-167 Blading Desing

  15. Operation of gas electron multiplier (GEM) with propane gas at low pressure and comparison with tissue-equivalent gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nardo, L., E-mail: laura.denardo@unipd.it [University of Padova, Physics and Astronomy Department and PD-INFN, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Farahmand, M., E-mail: majid.farahmand@rivm.nl [Centre for Environmental Safety and Security, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, NL-3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2016-05-21

    A Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC), based on a single GEM foil of standard geometry, has been tested with pure propane gas at low pressure, in order to simulate a tissue site of about 1 µm equivalent size. In this work, the performance of GEM with propane gas at a pressure of 21 and 28 kPa will be presented. The effective gas gain was measured in various conditions using a {sup 244}Cm alpha source. The dependence of effective gain on the electric field strength along the GEM channel and in the drift and induction region was investigated. A maximum effective gain of about 5×10{sup 3} has been reached. Results obtained in pure propane gas are compared with gas gain measurements in gas mixtures commonly employed in microdosimetry, that is propane and methane based Tissue-Equivalent gas mixtures.

  16. HOx radical chemistry in oxidation flow reactors with low-pressure mercury lamps systematically examined by modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z.; Day, D. A.; Stark, H.; Li, R.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Palm, B. B.; Brune, W. H.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-11-01

    Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) using OH produced from low-pressure Hg lamps at 254 nm (OFR254) or both 185 and 254 nm (OFR185) are commonly used in atmospheric chemistry and other fields. OFR254 requires the addition of externally formed O3 since OH is formed from O3 photolysis, while OFR185 does not since O2 can be photolyzed to produce O3, and OH can also be formed from H2O photolysis. In this study, we use a plug-flow kinetic model to investigate OFR properties under a very wide range of conditions applicable to both field and laboratory studies. We show that the radical chemistry in OFRs can be characterized as a function of UV light intensity, H2O concentration, and total external OH reactivity (OHRext, e.g., from volatile organic compounds (VOCs), NOx, and SO2). OH exposure is decreased by added external OH reactivity. OFR185 is especially sensitive to this effect at low UV intensity due to low primary OH production. OFR254 can be more resilient against OH suppression at high injected O3 (e.g., 70 ppm), as a larger primary OH source from O3, as well as enhanced recycling of HO2 to OH, make external perturbations to the radical chemistry less significant. However if the external OH reactivity in OFR254 is much larger than OH reactivity from injected O3, OH suppression can reach 2 orders of magnitude. For a typical input of 7 ppm O3 (OHRO3 = 10 s-1), 10-fold OH suppression is observed at OHRext ~ 100 s-1, which is similar or lower than used in many laboratory studies. The range of modeled OH suppression for literature experiments is consistent with the measured values except for those with isoprene. The finding on OH suppression may have important implications for the interpretation of past laboratory studies, as applying OHexp measurements acquired under different conditions could lead to over a 1-order-of-magnitude error in the estimated OHexp. The uncertainties of key model outputs due to uncertainty in all rate constants and absorption cross-sections in the

  17. Inactivation of Gram-Negative Bacteria by Low-Pressure RF Remote Plasma Excited in N2-O2 Mixture and SF6 Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Al-Mariri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of low-pressure RF plasma in the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Enterobacter sakazakii using N2-O2 and SF6 gases was assessed. 1×109 colony-forming units (CFUs of each bacterial isolate were placed on three polymer foils. The effects of pressure, power, distance from the source, and exposure time to plasma gases were optimized. The best conditions to inactivate the four bacteria were a 91%N2-9%O2 mixture and a 30-minute exposure time. SF6 gas was more efficient for all the tested isolates in as much as the treatment time was reduced to only three minutes. Therefore, low-pressure plasma could be used to sterilize heat and/or moisture-sensitive medical instruments.

  18. Effect of UV and gamma radiation on Rn222 permeation through polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Application to the packaging of radium sources for the purpose of storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasella, E.; Labed, V.; Klein, D.; Robé, M. C.; Cetier, Ph.; Chambaudet, A.

    1995-11-01

    Mining of uranium and thorium, as well as the use of radioactive sources in radiotherapy, have caused, during the 20th century, the production of waste with a varying concentration in long-lived radionucleides (particularly radium). This waste cannot be stored in traditional storage sites which will return to the public domain after 300 years, due to, on the one hand, the radium period (1620 years) and, on the other hand, the build-up of radon, its gaseous daughter. One solution, in order to optimize the packaging and storage of such products, could be to use successive barriers, made of polymer membranes, intended to limit radon emission. Laboratory tests have shown that polyvinyl chloride (PVC) greatly reduces radon emission from a radium source. However one should take into account the damage of the polymer in time, due to radioactive waste storage itself over long periods of time. Therefore, in order to check the durability of such barriers, PVC samples have been subjected to different accelerated ageing processes by exposure to ultra-violet (UV) radiations or gamma rays. We have determined the effect of such radiation of the samples using two approaches: — demonstration of structural changes using analytical method (Infra-red with Fourier Transform or IRTF), — study of variations in the radon permeation factor. In the first analysis, it seems that the UV irradiation, causes structural changes in the PVC as a function of the irradiation length of time. This leads first to an increase in the efficiency of the polymer as a "radon barrier", i.e. a reduction in its permeation factor (2.41 × 10 -12m 2s -1 for a non exposed membrane, against 3.30 × 10 -13m 2.s -1 for a membrane exposed during 284 hours, with an exposure rate of 62.5 W.m -2, thus a reduction by a factor 10 of the radon emission) then to a long-term weakness. The gamma irradiation (dose rate: 1.05 kGy.h -1, dose: 0.71 MGy) also causes a reduction in the permeation factor of PVC, but only by a

  19. An experimental and kinetic modeling study of premixed nitroethane flames at low pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Kuiwen; Zhang, Lidong; Xie, Mingfeng

    2013-01-01

    An experimental and kinetic modeling study is reported on three premixed nitroethane/oxygen/argon flames at low pressure (4.655kPa) with the equivalence ratios (Φ) of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0. Over 30 flame species were identified with tunable synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrome......An experimental and kinetic modeling study is reported on three premixed nitroethane/oxygen/argon flames at low pressure (4.655kPa) with the equivalence ratios (Φ) of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0. Over 30 flame species were identified with tunable synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass...... predictions have shown satisfactory agreement with the experimental results. Basing on the rate-of-production analysis, the reaction pathways that feature the combustion of nitroethane were revealed, including the primary decomposition of C–N bond fission, the oxidation of C2 and C1 hydrocarbons...

  20. A comparison among optical emission spectroscopic methods of determining electron temperature in low pressure argon plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Tian-Ye; Cao Jin-Xiang; Liu Lei; Liu Jin-Ying; Wang Yan; Wang Liang

    2007-01-01

    In this article, four kinds of optical emission spectroscopic methods of determining electron temperature are used to investigate the relationship between electron temperature and pressure in the cylindrical plasmas of dc glow discharges at low pressures in laboratory by measuring the relative intensities of ArI lines at various pressures. These methods are developed respectively on the basis of the Fermi-Dirac model, corona model, and two kinds of electron collision cross section models according to the kinetic analysis. Their theoretical bases and the conditions to which they are applicable are reviewed, and their calculation results and fitting errors are compared with each other. The investigation has indicated that the electron temperatures obtained by the four methods become consistent with each other when the pressure increases in the low pressure argon plasmas.

  1. Finite Element Modeling and Analysis of Powder Stream in Low Pressure Cold Spray Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Tarun; Walia, Ravinderjit Singh; Sharma, Prince; Sidhu, Tejinder Singh

    2016-07-01

    Low pressure cold gas dynamic spray (LPCGDS) is a coating process that utilize low pressure gas (5-10 bars instead of 25-30 bars) and the radial injection of powder instead of axial injection with the particle range (1-50 μm). In the LPCGDS process, pressurized compressed gas is accelerated to the critical velocity, which depends on length of the divergent section of nozzle, the propellant gas and particle characteristics, and the diameters ratio of the inlet and outer diameters. This paper presents finite element modeling (FEM) of powder stream in supersonic nozzle wherein adiabatic gas flow and expansion of gas occurs in uniform manner and the same is used to evaluate the resultant temperature and velocity contours during coating process. FEM analyses were performed using commercial finite volume package, ANSYS CFD FLUENT. The results are helpful to predict the characteristics of powder stream at the exit of the supersonic nozzle.

  2. Shock tube study of n-decane ignition at low pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Fei Nie; Ping Li; Chang-Hua Zhang; Wei Xie; Cong-Shan Li; Xiang-Yuan Li

    2012-01-01

    Ignition delay times for n-decane/O2/Ar mixtures were measured behind reflected shock waves using endwall pressure and CH* emission measurements in a heated shock tube.The initial postshock conditions cover pressures of 0.09-0.26 MPa,temperatures of 1 227-1 536 K,and oxygen mole fractions of 3.9%-20.7% with an equivalence ratio of 1.0.The correlation formula of ignition delay dependence on pressure,temperature,and oxygen mole fraction was obtained.The current data are in good agreement with available low-pressure experimental data,and they are then compared with the prediction of a kinetic mechanism.The current measurements extend the kinetic modeling targets for the n-decane combustion at low pressures.

  3. Kinetic analysis of negative power deposition in inductive low pressure plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieschmann, Jan; Mussenbrock, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Negative power deposition in low pressure inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs) is investigated by means of an analytical model which couples Boltzmann’s equation and the quasi-stationary Maxwell’s equations. Exploiting standard Hilbert space methods an explicit solution for both, the electric field and the distribution function of the electrons for a bounded discharge configuration subject to an unsymmetrical excitation is found for the first time. The model is applied to a low pressure ICP discharge. In this context particularly the anomalous skin effect and the effect of phase mixing is discussed. The analytical solution is compared with results from electromagnetic full wave particle in cell simulations. Excellent agreement between the analytical and the numerical results is found.

  4. Interplay between lattice dynamics and the low-pressure phase of simple cubic polonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaoui, A.; Belabbes, A.; Ahuja, R.; Ferhat, M.

    2011-04-01

    Low-pressure structural properties of simple cubic polonium are explored through first-principles density-functional theory based relativistic total energy calculations using pseudopotentials and plane-wave basis set, as well as linear-response theory. We have found that Po undergoes structural phase transition at low pressure near 2 GPa, where the element transforms from simple cubic to a mixture of two trigonal phases namely, hR1 (α=86°) and hR2 (α=97.9°) structures. The lattice dynamics calculations provide strong support for the observed phase transition, and show the dynamical stability (instability) of the hR2 (hR1) phase.

  5. Mesoscopic simulation of diffusive contaminant spreading in gas flows at low pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Schmieschek, S; Keller, F; Nieken, U; Harting, J

    2015-01-01

    Many modern production and measurement facilities incorporate multiphase systems at low pressures. In this region of flows at small, non-zero Knudsen- and low Mach numbers the classical mesoscopic Monte Carlo methods become increasingly numerically costly. To increase the numerical efficiency of simulations hybrid models are promising. In this contribution, we propose a novel efficient simulation approach for the simulation of two phase flows with a large concentration imbalance in a low pressure environment in the low intermediate Knudsen regime. Our hybrid model comprises a lattice-Boltzmann method corrected for the lower intermediate Kn regime proposed by Zhang et al. for the simulation of an ambient flow field. A coupled event-driven Monte-Carlo-style Boltzmann solver is employed to describe particles of a second species of low concentration. In order to evaluate the model, standard diffusivity and diffusion advection systems are considered.

  6. Experimental Studies of Low-Pressure Plasma Jet by Means of Langmuir Probes and Emission Spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lei; CAO Jinxiang; NIU Tianye; WANG Liang; MENG Gang; LIU Xin; YUAN Lei; WU Runhui; ZHANG Shengjun; REN Aimin

    2009-01-01

    An investigation was made into the argon plasma jet that expanded in a low-pressure vacuum chamber. The spatial distributions of the parameters of the plasma jet with different supplied powers were measured using a ten-channel Langmuir probe array. The chemical species in the plasma jet were identified by emission spectroscopy. The electron excitation temperatures at two positions, 10 cm and 50 cm downstream from the nozzle exit were calculated, respectively, by the Boltzmann plot method.

  7. Observation of Quartz Cathode-Luminescence in a Low Pressure Plasma Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Intense, steady-state cathode-luminescence has been observed from exposure of quartz powder to a low pressure rf-excited argon plasma discharge. The emission spectra (400 to 850 nm) associated with the powder luminescence were documented as a function of bias voltage using a spectrometer. The emission was broad-band, essentially washing out the line spectra features of the argon plasma discharge.

  8. Low-pressure pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy to optimize live donors' comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlé, M C; Berkers, A W; Langenhuijsen, J F; van der Jagt, M F; Dooper, Ph M; Kloke, H J; Pilzecker, D; Renes, S H; Wever, K E; Hoitsma, A J; van der Vliet, J A; D'Ancona, F C H

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) has become the gold standard to procure live donor kidneys. As the relationship between donor and recipient loosens, it becomes of even greater importance to optimize safety and comfort of the surgical procedure. Low-pressure pneumoperitoneum has been shown to reduce pain scores after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Live kidney donors may also benefit from the use of low pressure during LDN. To evaluate feasibility and efficacy to reduce post-operative pain, we performed a randomized blinded study. Twenty donors were randomly assigned to standard (14 mmHg) or low (7 mmHg) pressure during LDN. One conversion from low to standard pressure was indicated by protocol due to lack of progression. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that low pressure resulted in a significantly longer skin-to-skin time (149 ± 86 vs. 111 ± 19 min), higher urine output during pneumoperitoneum (23 ± 35 vs. 11 ± 20 mL/h), lower cumulative overall pain score after 72 h (9.4 ± 3.2 vs. 13.5 ± 4.5), lower deep intra-abdominal pain score (11 ± 3.3 vs. 7.5 ± 3.1), and a lower cumulative overall referred pain score (1.8 ± 1.9 vs. 4.2 ± 3). Donor serum creatinine levels, complications, and quality of life dimensions were not significantly different. Our data show that low-pressure pneumoperitoneum during LDN is feasible and may contribute to increase live donors' comfort during the early post-operative phase.

  9. Low pressure arc discharge lamp apparatus with magnetic field generating means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Maya, J.

    1987-10-06

    A low-pressure arc discharge apparatus having a magnetic field generating means for increasing the output of a discharge lamp is disclosed. The magnetic field generating means, which in one embodiment includes a plurality of permanent magnets, is disposed along the lamp for applying a constant transverse magnetic field over at least a portion of the positive discharge column produced in the arc discharge lamp operating at an ambient temperature greater than about 25 C. 3 figs.

  10. Solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes produced via very low pressure suspension plasma spray and electrophoretic deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Fleetwood, James D

    2014-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are a promising element of comprehensive energy policies due to their direct mechanism for converting the oxidization of fuel, such as hydrogen, into electrical energy. Both very low pressure plasma spray and electrophoretic deposition allow working with high melting temperature SOFC suspension based feedstock on complex surfaces, such as in non-planar SOFC designs. Dense, thin electrolytes of ideal composition for SOFCs can be fabricated with each of these proc...

  11. Growth Enhancement of Radish Sprouts Induced by Low Pressure O2 Radio Frequency Discharge Plasma Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazaki, Satoshi; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2012-01-01

    We studied growth enhancement of radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.) induced by low pressure O2 radio frequency (RF) discharge plasma irradiation. The average length of radish sprouts cultivated for 7 days after O2 plasma irradiation is 30-60% greater than that without irradiation. O2 plasma irradiation does not affect seed germination. The experimental results reveal that oxygen related radicals strongly enhance growth, whereas ions and photons do not.

  12. Optimization Design and Experimental Study of Low-Pressure Axial Fan with Forward-Skewed Blades

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the optimization of blade skew in low pressure axial fan. Using back propagation (BP) neural network and genetic algorithm (GA), the optimization was performed for a radial blade. An optimized blade is obtained through blade forward skew. Measurement of the two blades was carried out in aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance. Compared to the radial blade, the optimized blade demonstrated improvements in efficiency, total pres...

  13. Study of the low-pressure plasma effect on polypropylene nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R.; Boronat, T.; Pascual, M.; Calvo, O.; Balart, R.

    2010-06-01

    In this work we have used low-pressure plasma with a gas based on methane and oxygen mixture to improve wettability and durability of a PP nonwoven fabrics. The obtained results show good durability with the use of methane-oxygen plasma mixture gas. The effects of the plasma are similar to a plasmapolymerization process but in this case we obtain hydrophilic properties with high durability. The surface does not suffer important changes and the roughness of the material remains constant.

  14. Degradation and antibiotic activity reduction of chloramphenicol in aqueous solution by UV/H2O2 process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuorro, Antonio; Fidaleo, Marco; Fidaleo, Marcello; Lavecchia, Roberto

    2014-01-15

    The efficacy of the UV/H2O2 process to degrade the antibiotic chloramphenicol (CHL) was investigated at 20 °C using a low-pressure mercury lamp as UV source. A preliminary analysis of CHL degradation showed that the process followed apparent first-order kinetics and that an optimum H2O2 concentration existed for the degradation rate. The first-order rate constant was used as the response variable and its dependence on initial CHL and H2O2 concentrations, UV light intensity and reaction time was investigated by a central composite design based on the response surface methodology. Analysis of response surface plots revealed a large positive effect of radiation intensity, a negative effect of CHL concentration and that there was a region of H2O2 concentration leading to maximum CHL degradation. CHL solutions submitted to the UV/H2O2 process were characterized by TOC and their activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was assessed. No residual antibiotic activity was detected, even at CHL concentrations higher than those used in the designed experiments. Overall, the obtained results strongly support the possibility of reducing the risks associated with the release of CHL into the environment, including the spread of antibiotic resistance, by the UV/H2O2 process.

  15. Effect of balanced low pressure drying of curcuma longa leaf on skin immune activation activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wooseok; Lim, Hye Won; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2014-01-01

    The effect of balanced low pressure drying pretreatment associated with ultrasonication extraction (BU) on the enhancement of skin immune modulatory activities of Curcuma longa leaf was studied by comparing with conventional hot air drying (HE), freeze drying (FE) and balanced low pressure drying (BE) pretreatment processes. In considering skin immune activation activities such as the inhibition of hyaluronidase activity, the BU extract showed ca. 10% higher than those of HE, and even higher than that of the FE extract. Nitric oxide production from macrophage of the BU extract in adding 1.0 mg/mL was increased up to 16.5 μM. When measuring inhibition of IL-6 and TNF-a production from the human T lymphocytes (T cell), the BU extract also showed 53% and 78% of inhibition effect, respectively. It is found that the BU extract could effectively suppress the expression levels of skin inflammation related genes such as Cox-2 and iNOS, down to 80% and 85% compared to the control, respectively. Balanced low pressure drying process was especially active on dehydration of the leaves with minimizing the destruction and making easier elution of the bioactive substances, which resulted in higher extraction yield and better biological activities.

  16. Characteristics of long-gap AC streamer discharges under low pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaqi; Li, Weiguo; Xia, Yu; Yuan, Chuangye

    2017-10-01

    The generation and propagation of a streamer is a significant physical process of air gap discharge. Research on the mechanism of streamers under low-pressure conditions is helpful for understanding the process of long-gap discharge in a high-altitude area. This paper describes laboratory investigations of streamer discharge under alternating current (AC) voltage in a low pressure test platform for a 60 cm rod-plane gap at 30 kPa, and analyzes the characteristics of streamer generation and propagation. The results show that the partial streamer and breakdown streamer all occur in the positive half-cycle of AC voltage near the peak voltage at 30 kPa. The partial streamer could cause the distortion of current and voltage waveform, and it appears as the branching characteristic at the initial stage. With the extension of the streamer, the branching and tortuosity phenomena become gradually obvious, but the branching is suppressed when the streamer crosses the gap. The low-pressure condition has little influence on the tortuosity length and the tortuosity number of the streamer, but affect the diameter of streamer obviously.

  17. Efficacy of epidural blood patches for spontaneous low-pressure headaches: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansel, S; Rae, A; Tyagi, A

    2016-12-01

    Patients with a spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak, normally at a spinal level, typically present with low-pressure headache. In refractory cases, an epidural blood patch may be attempted. We aimed to assess the efficacy of lumbar epidural blood patching in spontaneous, low-pressure headaches. Methods We retrospectively analysed notes of patients who had an epidural blood patch performed for spontaneous low-pressure headaches in a single centre. Information regarding demographics, radiology and clinic follow-up was extracted from an electronic patient record system. Questionnaires regarding outcome were sent to patients a minimum of 6 months post-procedure. All patients received an epidural blood patch in the lumbar region irrespective of the site of cerebrospinal fluid leak. Results Sixteen patients who underwent lumbar epidural blood patching were analysed (11 female; mean age 43 years). The site of cerebrospinal fluid leak was evident in only 3/16 patients. Thirteen patients attended clinic follow-up; three reported complete headache resolution, four reported improvement in intensity or frequency and six described no change. Five of eight questionnaire respondents reported reduction in pain, and in these responders, mean headache severity improved from 9/10 to 3/10. Five of eight patients returning follow-up questionnaires reported sustained improvement in headache symptoms. Conclusion Epidural blood patch procedures can provide sustained improvement in headache symptoms in selected patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension, but an untargeted approach has a lower success rate than reported in other case series.

  18. Fluorescent minerals - A potential source of UV protection and visible light for the growth of green algae and cyanobacteria in extreme cosmic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omairi, Tareq; Wainwright, Milton

    2015-07-01

    We propose that green algae (Chlorella variabilis and Dunaliella tertiolecta) and cyanobacteria (Synechococcus elongatus and Nostoc commune) can grow inside fluorescent rock minerals which convert damaging UV light to visible light, thereby allowing these organisms to survive and thrive in UV-rich environments without (or with limited) visible light, which would otherwise be inimical to them. The four microorganisms were incubated inside fluorescent rocks composed of fluorite, calcite and pyrite. The resultant growth was then measured following exposure to UV radiation, with the use of optical density and measurement of chlorophyll concentration. Results show that the microorganisms were shielded from harmful UV in these semi-transparent rocks, while at the same time benefiting from the fact that the minerals converted UV to visible light; this have been shown by a statistically significant increase in their growth, which although lower than when the cells were incubated in sunlight, was significantly higher than in controls incubated in the dark.

  19. Low-pressure cardiac tamponade masquerading as severe sepsis diagnosed with a bedside ultrasound and as the initial presentation of malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Ricardo Augusto Slaibi; Oppenheim, Ian Mandeville

    2014-01-01

    We report a patient with low-pressure cardiac tamponade masquerading as sepsis and as the initial presentation of malignancy. A quick diagnosis was done by the intensivist performing a bedside ultrasound. The diagnosis of low-pressure cardiac tamponade is a challenge because the classic physical signs of cardiac tamponade can be absent. It is made even more challenging when the vital sign changes and physical examination findings mimic severe sepsis. One of the benefits of a bedside ultrasound in the assessment of a patient with an initial diagnosis of severe sepsis or septic shock is the rapid diagnosis of cardiac tamponade if it is present. A 55-year-old male presented to the emergency department with weakness, cough, and syncope. His examination was notable only for dusky mottling of his cheeks, chest, and neck. Specifically, there was no jugular venous distension or pulsus paradoxus. A chest radiograph showed a right upper lobe infiltrate, whereas his electrocardiogram showed only sinus tachycardia. His white blood cell count and lactic acid were elevated. The sepsis protocol was started and a bedside ultrasound revealed signs of cardiac tamponade. The patient immediately improved after a pericardiocentesis. Analysis of the pericardial biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma, later determined to be from a pulmonary primary source. Because low-pressure cardiac tamponade is life-threatening and difficult to diagnose, evaluation of the pericardium with a bedside ultrasound should be considered in patients with syncope, severe sepsis, or shock.

  20. Molecular-level Insight into Unusual Low Pressure CO2 Affinity in Pillared Metal-Organic Frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burtch, N.C.; Jasuja, H.; Dubbeldam, D.; Walton, K.S.

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental insight into how low pressure adsorption properties are affected by chemical functionalization is critical to the development of next-generation porous materials for postcombustion CO2 capture. In this work, we present a systematic approach to understanding low pressure CO2 affinity in i

  1. Molecular-level Insight into Unusual Low Pressure CO2 Affinity in Pillared Metal-Organic Frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burtch, N.C.; Jasuja, H.; Dubbeldam, D.; Walton, K.S.

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental insight into how low pressure adsorption properties are affected by chemical functionalization is critical to the development of next-generation porous materials for postcombustion CO2 capture. In this work, we present a systematic approach to understanding low pressure CO2 affinity in i

  2. Synthesis of ZnSe and ZnSe:Cu quantum dots by a room temperature photochemical (UV-assisted) approach using Na2 SeO3 as Se source and investigating optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafajeh, R; Molaei, M; Karimipour, M

    2017-06-01

    In this study, ZnSe and ZnSe:Cu quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized using Na2 SeO3 as the Se source by a rapid and room temperature photochemical (UV-assisted) approach. Thioglycolic acid (TGA) was employed as the capping agent and UV illumination activated the chemical reactions. Synthesized QDs were successfully characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) and UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). XRD analysis demonstrated the cubic zinc blend phase QDs. TEM images indicated that round-shaped particles were formed, most of which had a diameter of about 4 nm. The band gap of the ZnSe QDs was higher than that for ZnSe in bulk. PL spectra indicated an emission with three peaks related to the excitonic, surface trap states and deep level (DL) states. The band gap and QD emission were tunable only by UV illumination time during synthesis. ZnSe:Cu showed green emission due to transition of electrons from the Conduction band (CB) or surface trap states to the (2) T2 acceptor levels of Cu(2)(+) . The emission was increased by increasing the Cu(2)(+) ion concentration, such that the optimal value of PL intensity was obtained for the nominal mole ratio of Cu:Zn 1.5%. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. On the spectroscopic detection of neutral species in a low-pressure plasma containing boron and hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrov, B P [Faculty of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, 198504 (Russian Federation); Osiac, M [Institut fuer Niedertemperatur-Plasmaphysik, 17489 Greifswald, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Str. 19 (Germany); Pipa, A V [Faculty of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, 198504 (Russian Federation); Roepcke, J [Institut fuer Niedertemperatur-Plasmaphysik, 17489 Greifswald, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Str. 19 (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    Spectroscopic studies of microwave discharges in H{sub 2}-Ar-B{sub 2}H{sub 6} gas mixtures (f = 2.45 GHz, P = 1.2-3.5 kW, p = 1-8 mbar) have been performed to improve the possibilities of diagnostics of non-equilibrium, low-pressure plasmas containing boron and hydrogen. For this purpose, UV-VIS optical emission spectroscopy and infrared absorption spectroscopy with tunable diode lasers (TDLAS) have been applied. It is shown that information about neutral species and the gas temperature may be obtained by means of new and modified spectroscopic methods. A method for the determination of the absolute number density of boron atoms from measured relative intensities of the components of the boron resonance doublet (distorted by reabsorption) is proposed and tested for validity. The maximum of the density was found to be 3.8x10{sup 11} atoms cm{sup -3} at an admixture of diborane of about 2%. The gas temperature was determined from the intensity distributions in the rotational structure of the emission bands of BH and H{sub 2} and from Doppler broadening of the absorption line profiles of the BH molecule. It was observed that values of the gas temperature obtained from the rotational intensity distributions are in good agreement with those obtained from Doppler widths (T{sub g} = 700-1070 K). Based on measurements of the relative line intensities of atomic and molecular hydrogen and the gas temperature, and using a simple excitation-deactivation model, the density of molecular hydrogen was found to be about 40 times higher than the density of atomic hydrogen. It is shown that some absorption lines of boron hydrides (B{sub 2}H{sub 6}, BH{sub 3} and BH) detected by TDLAS may be used for plasma diagnostics.

  4. Vacuum-UV radiation at 185 nm in water treatment--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoschke, Kristin; Börnick, Hilmar; Worch, Eckhard

    2014-04-01

    The vacuum-UV radiation of water results in the in situ generation of hydroxyl radicals. Low-pressure mercury vapor lamps which emit at 185 nm are potential sources of VUV radiation. The scope of this article is to give an overview of the application of VUV radiation at 185 nm for water treatment including the transformation of inorganic and organic water constituents, and the disinfection efficiency. Another focus is on the generation of ozone by VUV radiation from oxygen or air and the application of the produced ozone in combination with VUV irradiation of water in the VUV/O3 process. The advantages and limitation of the VUV process at 185 nm as well as possible applications in water treatment are outlined.

  5. Study of low-pressure premixed laminar n-heptane+ propane/oxygen/nitrogen flames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Wu; WEI LiXia; MA ZhiHao; HUANG ZuoHua; YUAN Tao; TIAN ZhenYu; LI YuYang

    2009-01-01

    Low-pressure premixed laminar n-heptane+propane/oxygen/nitrogen flames were investigated with tunable synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization and molecular-beam sampling mass spectrometry. Three flames with different mass percentage of propane in the fuel blends of 0%, 10%, and 20% were studied. The combustion intermediates were identified by comparing the measured IEs with those values in literatures. Mole fraction profiles of the main species were compared among the three flames. The experimental results provide detailed data in understanding the combustion of n-heptane and n-heptane/propane blends in engine. They are also helpful in establishing and verifying the kinetic models.

  6. An experimental and kinetic modeling study of premixed nitromethane flames at low pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Kuiwen; Li, Yuyang; Yuan, Tao

    2011-01-01

    An experimental and modeling study is reported on three premixed nitromethane/oxygen/argon flames at low pressure (4.655kPa) with equivalence ratios (ϕ) of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0. Flame species were identified with tunable synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization. The mole fraction profiles of more...... against experimental results of all three flames. The computed predictions showed satisfactory agreement with the experimental results. Based on a rate-of-production analysis, reaction pathway diagrams were obtained to describe the hydrocarbon oxidation process and nitrogenous species chemistry...

  7. Unsteady effects at the interface between impeller-vaned diffuser in a low pressure centrifugal compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Leonida NICULESCU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD is applied to the analysis of the unsteady rotor-stator interaction in a low-pressure centrifugal compressor. Numerical simulations are carried out through finite volumes method using the Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations (URANS model. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition allows an accurate reconstruction of flow field using only a small number of modes; therefore, this method is one of the best tools for data storage. The POD results and the data obtained by the Adamczyk decomposition are compared. Both decompositions show the behavior of unsteady rotor-stator interaction, but the POD modes allow quantifying better the numerical errors.

  8. Investigation of Low-Pressure Turbine Endwall Flows: Simulations and Experiments (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Endwall Losses of High Lift Low Pressure Turbine Vanes ,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Air Force Institute of Technology, 2012 13Sauer, H., Muller, R., and...2001, pp. 207-213 14Zess, G., and Thole, K., “Computational Design and Experimental Evaluation of Using a Leading Edge Fillet on a Gas Turbine Vane ,” J...Turbine,” ASME Paper 94-GT-249, 1994 19Harvey, N., Rose, M., Taylor, M., Shahpar, S., Hartland, J., and Gregory- Smith , D., “Nonaxisymmetric turbine

  9. Low pressure water vapour plasma treatment of surfaces for biomolecules decontamination.

    OpenAIRE

    Fumagalli, F; Kylian, O; Amato, Letizia; Hanus, J; Rossi, F.

    2012-01-01

    Decontamination treatments of surfaces are performed on bacterial spores, albumin and brain homogenate used as models of biological contaminations in a low-pressure, inductively coupled plasma reactor operated with water-vapour-based gas mixtures. It is shown that removal of contamination can be achieved using pure H2O or Ar/H2O mixtures at low temperatures with removal rates comparable to oxygen-based mixtures. Particle fluxes (Ar+ ions, O and H atomic radicals and OH molecular radicals) fro...

  10. Cure Reaction Kinetics of Low Pressure Sheet Molding Compound System Thickened by Crystalline Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Yan; LIU Haihua; HUANG Zhixiong; MEI Qilin

    2007-01-01

    Several kinetic models for unsaturated polyester cure reaction and some existing parameter estimation techniques of these models were introduced. Correlated kinetic parameters and kinetic equations of the autocatalytic empirical kinetic model of LPSMC system were determined by using isothermal DSC to scan the system which was thickened by crystalline polymer (PEG-MAH). Through using a serial curing degree of the system to validate the model, the experimental results were basically identical with the predictions of the autocatalytic empirical kinetic model. This model could provide a theoretical reference to the determination of molding techniques of low pressure SMC.

  11. Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy detection of formyl (HCO) radical in a low pressure flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, J. J.; Rakestraw, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    The formyl radical has been detected via the ÖX˜ system in a low pressure CH 4/N 2/O 2 flame using cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy. The direct absorption data obtained in these initial studies allows determination of the absolute HCO concentration in the flame of ca. 2.1(±0.9) × 10 13 mol cm -3, which is in excellent agreement with flame chemistry simulations. The extrapolated detection limit at 300 K of ≈ 1.4(±0.6) × 10 11 mol cm -3 is comparable to that of other methods, including intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy.

  12. Remote sensing of a low pressure plasma in the radio near field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Seán; McNally, Patrick J.

    2017-09-01

    A novel approach to remotely monitor low pressure non-equilibrium plasmas is reported. A magnetic field antenna is positioned in the near field of a capacitively coupled plasma. Magnetic flux from plasma currents, present near the viewport, is intercepted by a calibrated loop antenna placed outside the chamber. The induced signal current is correlated to bulk plasma currents. The comparison of relative harmonic amplitudes shows resonance features for lower operating pressures. The geometric resonance and electron-neutral collision frequencies are evaluated from resonant harmonic features. This approach advances remote, noninvasive, and installation-free plasma monitoring, which is of particular interest to industrial scenarios.

  13. Ion time-of-flight study of laser ablation of silver in low pressure gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T.N.; Schou, Jørgen; Lunney, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of ions from a laser-ablated silver target in low pressure background atmospheres have been investigated in a simple geometry using an electrical probe. A simple scattering picture for the first transmitted peak of the observed plume splitting has been used to calculate cross section...... of the ablated silver ions in oxygen (sigma{O(2)} = 4.8 x 10(-16) cm(2)) and in argon (sigma{Ar} = 6.7 x 10(-16) cm(2)). The dynamics of the blast wave is well described by blast wave theory. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  14. Electron energy probability function and L-p similarity in low pressure inductively coupled bounded plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Sanghamitro; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod

    2015-01-01

    Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations are carried out to investigate the effect of discharge length (L) and pressure (p) on Electron Energy Probability Function (EEPF) in a low pressure radio frequency (rf) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) at 13.56 MHz. It is found that for both cases of varying L (0.1–0.5 m) and p (1–10 mTorr), the EEPF is a bi-Maxwellian with a step in the bounded direction (x) and non-Maxwellian with a hot tail in the symmetric unbounded directions (y, z). The plasma space po...

  15. Low pressure water vapour plasma treatment of surfaces for biomolecules decontamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fumagalli, F; Kylian, O; Amato, Letizia

    2012-01-01

    be achieved using pure H2O or Ar/H2O mixtures at low temperatures with removal rates comparable to oxygen-based mixtures. Particle fluxes (Ar+ ions, O and H atomic radicals and OH molecular radicals) from water vapour discharge are measured by optical emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probe under several......Decontamination treatments of surfaces are performed on bacterial spores, albumin and brain homogenate used as models of biological contaminations in a low-pressure, inductively coupled plasma reactor operated with water-vapour-based gas mixtures. It is shown that removal of contamination can...

  16. Experimental measurement of the thermal stability criteria for low pressure methanol synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berty, J.M.; Lenczyk, J.P.; Shah, S.M.

    1982-11-01

    The mathematical basis was derived for the experimental measurement of the ''Slope Condition'' and of the ''Dynamic Condition'' of the thermal stability criteria in a laboratory-scale internal recycle reactor. This work also resulted in clearer interpretations and simpler expressions for the two stability criteria. The method was experimentally demonstrated on the example of the low pressure methanol synthesis. Only seven experiments were needed to evaluate the stability criteria of this reaction for which the kinetics is unknown.

  17. Is the use of low-pressure pulsatile lavage for pressure ulcer management associated with environmental contamination with Acinetobacter baumannii?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chester H; Johnson, Tova; Miklacic, Joan; Donskey, Curtis J

    2009-10-01

    Ho CH, Johnson T, Miklacic J, Donskey CJ. Is the use of low-pressure pulsatile lavage for pressure ulcer management associated with environmental contamination with Acinetobacter baumannii? To determine the extent of environmental contamination associated with low-pressure pulsatile lavage of stage III or IV pressure ulcers in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) when routine infection control precautions are used for wounds colonized or infected with Acinetobacter baumannii. Prospective investigation in which pressure ulcer cultures and environmental cultures were obtained before and after low-pressure pulsatile lavage treatment, and before and after regular dressing changes. Environmental cultures included the patient's bedrail and settle plates placed 0.6, 1.5, and 2.4m from the wound to assess airborne spread of A. baumannii. SCI inpatient unit in a Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Inpatients (N=15) with SCI receiving daily low-pressure pulsatile lavage treatment for stage III or IV pressure ulcers with standard dressing change, as well as regular dressing changes without low-pressure pulsatile lavage at other times of the day. Standard, regular dressing changes and dressing changes with low-pressure pulsatile lavage. Comparison of frequency of environmental contamination with A. baumannii associated with low-pressure pulsatile lavage versus regular dressing changes. Of the 15 SCI inpatients meeting inclusion criteria, 9 (60%) grew A. baumannii from their wounds. Of the 9 patients with wound cultures positive for A. baumannii, only 1 (11%) had environmental contamination with this organism after performance of low-pressure pulsatile lavage, and the same patient had environmental contamination after a standard dressing change. The antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the wound and environmental A. baumannii isolates were identical. Low-pressure pulsatile lavage using the infection control methods described is not associated with an increased

  18. Direct photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking water sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanches, S. [Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnologica (IBET), Av. Republica, Qta. do Marques (EAN), 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica (ITQB) - Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Av. da Republica, Estacao Agronomica Nacional, 2780-157 Oeiras (Portugal); Leitao, C. [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica (ITQB) - Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Av. da Republica, Estacao Agronomica Nacional, 2780-157 Oeiras (Portugal); Penetra, A.; Cardoso, V.V.; Ferreira, E.; Benoliel, M.J. [Empresa Portuguesa das Aguas Livres, S.A., Avenida de Berlim, 15, 1800-031 Lisboa (Portugal); Crespo, M.T. Barreto [Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnologica (IBET), Av. Republica, Qta. do Marques (EAN), 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica (ITQB) - Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Av. da Republica, Estacao Agronomica Nacional, 2780-157 Oeiras (Portugal); Pereira, V.J., E-mail: vanessap@itqb.unl.pt [Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnologica (IBET), Av. Republica, Qta. do Marques (EAN), 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica (ITQB) - Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Av. da Republica, Estacao Agronomica Nacional, 2780-157 Oeiras (Portugal)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Low pressure UV photolysis can be used by drinking water utilities to degrade PAHs. {yields} Real water matrices with different compositions were tested. {yields} Photolysis kinetic parameters and by-product formation are described. {yields} The formation of photolysis by-products is highly dependent on the source waters. - Abstract: The widely used low pressure lamps were tested in terms of their efficiency to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons listed as priority pollutants by the European Water Framework Directive and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in water matrices with very different compositions (laboratory grade water, groundwater, and surface water). Using a UV fluence of 1500 mJ/cm{sup 2}, anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene were efficiently degraded, with much higher percent removals obtained when present in groundwater (83-93%) compared to surface water (36-48%). The removal percentages obtained for fluoranthene were lower and ranged from 13 to 54% in the different water matrices tested. Several parameters that influence the direct photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined and their photolysis by-products were identified by mass spectrometry. The formation of photolysis by-products was found to be highly dependent on the source waters tested.

  19. Fluorescent minerals--A potential source of UV protection and visible light for the growth of green algae and cyanobacteria in extreme cosmic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omairi, Tareq; Wainwright, Milton

    2015-07-01

    We propose that green algae (Chlorella variabilis and Dunaliella tertiolecta) and cyanobacteria (Synechococcus elongatus and Nostoc commune) can grow inside fluorescent rock minerals which convert damaging UV light to visible light, thereby allowing these organisms to survive and thrive in UV-rich environments without (or with limited) visible light, which would otherwise be inimical to them. The four microorganisms were incubated inside fluorescent rocks composed of fluorite, calcite and pyrite. The resultant growth was then measured following exposure to UV radiation, with the use of optical density and measurement of chlorophyll concentration. Results show that the microorganisms were shielded from harmful UV in these semi-transparent rocks, while at the same time benefiting from the fact that the minerals converted UV to visible light; this have been shown by a statistically significant increase in their growth, which although lower than when the cells were incubated in sunlight, was significantly higher than in controls incubated in the dark. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Low Pressure End Conditions on Steam Power Plant Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Syed Haider

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Most of the electricity produced throughout the world today is from steam power plants and improving the performance of power plants is crucial to minimize the greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption. Energy efficiency of a thermal power plant strongly depends on its boiler-condenser operating conditions. The low pressure end conditions of a condenser have influence on the power output, steam consumption and efficiency of a plant. Hence, the objective this paper is to study the effect of the low pressure end conditions on a steam power plant performance. For the study each component was modelled thermodynamically. Simulation was done and the results showed that performance of the condenser is highly a function of its pressure which in turn depends on the flow rate and temperature of the cooling water. Furthermore, when the condenser pressure increases both net power output and plant efficiency decrease whereas the steam consumption increases. The results can be used to run a steam power cycle at optimum conditions.

  1. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Under Spinal Anesthesia with Low-Pressure Pneumoperitoneum - Prospective Study of 150 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunder Goyal

    2012-08-01

    Materials and Methods: In a private rural medical college, 150 patients were selected prospectively for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, under low-pressure (8mmHg pneumoperitoneum and under spinal anesthesia over a span of one and a half years. Injection bupivacaine (0.5% was used for spinal anesthesia. All ports were made in a head-down position to avoid hypotension. Shoulder pain was managed by reassurance as well as by diverting the attention and sedation in a few cases. Results: We successfully performed the operations in 145 patients without major complications. Spinal anesthesia was converted to general anesthesia in five patients due to severe shoulder pain. Age varied between 21 and 75 years. Duration of operation time (skin to skin was between 40 and 80 minutes. Twenty-nine patients complained of right shoulder pain. Most of them were managed by reassurance from the anesthetist and a few needed an injection of fentanyl along with midazolam. Conclusion: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy with low-pressure CO2 pneumoperitoneum is feasible and safe under spinal anesthesia. Incidence of postoperative shoulder pain and complications are comparable with laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(4.000: 224-228

  2. Kinetic mechanism for low-pressure oxygen/methane ignition and combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavinskaya, N. A.; Wiegand, M.; Starcke, J. H.; Riedel, U.; Haidn, O. J.; Suslov, D.

    2013-03-01

    It is known that during a launch of a rocket, the interaction of the exhaust gases of rocket engines with the atmosphere causes a local depletion of the ozone layer. In order to study these chemical processes in detail, a chemical reaction mechanism of the methane oxidation appropriate for high- and low-pressure conditions and a chemical reactor network to reproduce operating conditions in rocket engines and in the environment have been developed. An earlier developed detailed chemical kinetic model for the high-pressure CH4/O2 combustion has been improved for the low pressure and low temperature methane combustion and augmented with a submodel for NOx formation. The main model improvements are related to the pressure depending reactions. The model has been validated for operating conditions of 0.02 jet. Simulations performed have shown that the exhaust gases of a methane/oxygen propelled liquid rocket engine contain high amounts of active radicals, which can influence the formation of nitrogen compounds and consume ozone in the atmosphere.

  3. An expression for the h l factor in low-pressure electronegative plasma discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabert, P.

    2016-04-01

    The positive ion flux exiting a low-pressure plasma discharge is a crucial quantity in global (volume-averaged) models. In discharges containing only electrons and positive ions (electropositive discharges), it is common to write this flux {Γ\\text{wall}}={{h}\\text{l}}{{n}\\text{i0}}{{u}\\text{B}} , where {{n}\\text{i0}} is the central positive ion density, {{u}\\text{B}} is the positive ion fluid speed at the sheath edge (the Bohm speed), and {{h}\\text{l}} is the positive ion edge-to-centre density ratio. There are well established formulae for {{h}\\text{l}} in electropositive discharges, but for discharges containing negative ions (electronegative discharges), the analysis is more complicated. The purpose of this paper is to propose a formula for the {{h}\\text{l}} factor in low-pressure electronegative discharges. We use the numerical solution of fluid equations with Boltzmann negative ions, including Poisson’s equation, as a guide to derive an analytical expression that can easily be incorporated in global models. The parameter space in which the derived expression is valid is discussed at the end of the paper.

  4. Evacuation of coal from hoppers/silos with low pressure pneumatic blasting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The need for an efficient, economical, effective and quiet device for moving coal and other difficult bulk solids was recognized. Thus came the advent of the low pressure pneumatic blasting system - a very efficient means of using a small amount of plant air (up to 125 PSI) to eliminate the most troublesome material hang-ups in storage containers. This simple device has one moving part and uses approximately 3% of the air consumed by a pneumatic vibrator on the same job. The principle of operation is very simple: air stored in the unit's reservoir is expelled directly into the material via a patented quick release valve. The number, size, and placement of the blaster units on the storage vessel is determined by a series of tests to ascertain flowability of the problem material. These tests in conjunction with the hopper or silo configuration determine specification of a low pressure pneumatic blasting system. This concept has often proven effective in solving flow problems when all other means have failed.

  5. Weak interactions between water and clathrate-forming gases at low pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurmer, Konrad; Yuan, Chunqing; Kimmel, Gregory A.; Kay, Bruce D.; Smith, R. Scott

    2015-11-01

    Using scanning probe microscopy and temperature programed desorption we examined the interaction between water and two common clathrate-forming gases, methane and isobutane, at low temperature and low pressure. Water co-deposited with up to 10-1 mbar methane or 10-5 mbar isobutane at 140 K onto a Pt(111) substrate yielded pure crystalline ice, i.e., the exposure to up to ~107 gas molecules for each deposited water molecule did not have any detectable effect on the growing films. Exposing metastable, less than 2 molecular layers thick, water films to 10-5 mbar methane does not alter their morphology, suggesting that the presence of the Pt(111) surface is not a strong driver for hydrate formation. This weak water-gas interaction at low pressures is supported by our thermal desorption measurements from amorphous solid water and crystalline ice where 1 ML of methane desorbs near ~43 K and isobutane desorbs near ~100 K. Similar desorption temperatures were observed for desorption from amorphous solid water.

  6. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge with a hybrid process of low pressure wet oxidation and nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöcher, Christoph; Niewersch, Claudia; Melin, Thomas

    2012-04-15

    Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge will become increasingly important within the next decades due to depletion of mineral phosphorus resources. In this work a new process concept was investigated, which aims at realising phosphorus recovery in a synergistic way with the overall sewage sludge treatment scheme. This process combines a low pressure wet oxidation for sewage sludge decomposition as well as phosphorus dissolution and a nanofiltration process to separate phosphorus from heavy metals and obtain a clean diluted phosphoric acid, from which phosphorus can be recovered as clean fertiliser. It was shown that this process concept is feasible for sewage sludge for wastewater treatment plants that apply enhanced biological removal or precipitation with alumina salts for phosphorus removal. The critical parameter for phosphorus dissolution in the low pressure wet oxidation process is the iron concentration, while in the nanofiltration multi-valent cations play a predominant role. In total, a phosphorus recovery of 54% was obtained for an exemplary wastewater treatment plant. Costs of the entire process are in the same range as conventional sewage sludge disposal, with the benefit being phosphorus recovery and reduced emission of greenhouse gases due to avoidance of sludge incineration.

  7. Annularly grooved membrane combined with rood beam piezoresistive pressure sensor for low pressure applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuang; Cordovilla, Francisco; Ocaña, José L

    2017-03-01

    A novel structural piezoresistive pressure sensor with annularly grooved membrane combined with rood beam has been proposed for low pressure measurements based on silicon substrate. In this study, a design method, including the model design, dimensions optimization, and performance prediction of the novel structure sensor, is presented. The finite element method has been used to analyze the stress distribution of sensitive elements and the deflection of membrane. On the basis of simulation results, the relationships between structural dimension variables and mechanical performance are deduced, which make the fabrication processes more efficient. According to statistics theory, the coefficient of determination R(2) and residual sum of squares are introduced to indicate whether the fitting equations and curves match well with the simulation results. After that, a series of the optimal membrane dimensions are determined. Compared with other structural sensors, the optimized sensor achieves the best overall properties as it mitigates the contradiction between sensitivity and linearity. The reasons why the proposed sensor can maximize sensitivity and minimize nonlinearity are also discussed. By localizing more strain energy in the high concentrated stress profile and creating partially stiffened membrane, the proposed sensor has achieved a high sensitivity of 34.5 (mV/V)/psi and a low nonlinearity of 0.25% FSS. Thus, the proposed structure sensor will be a proper choice for low pressure applications less than 1 psi.

  8. Annularly grooved membrane combined with rood beam piezoresistive pressure sensor for low pressure applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuang; Cordovilla, Francisco; Ocaña, José L.

    2017-03-01

    A novel structural piezoresistive pressure sensor with annularly grooved membrane combined with rood beam has been proposed for low pressure measurements based on silicon substrate. In this study, a design method, including the model design, dimensions optimization, and performance prediction of the novel structure sensor, is presented. The finite element method has been used to analyze the stress distribution of sensitive elements and the deflection of membrane. On the basis of simulation results, the relationships between structural dimension variables and mechanical performance are deduced, which make the fabrication processes more efficient. According to statistics theory, the coefficient of determination R2 and residual sum of squares are introduced to indicate whether the fitting equations and curves match well with the simulation results. After that, a series of the optimal membrane dimensions are determined. Compared with other structural sensors, the optimized sensor achieves the best overall properties as it mitigates the contradiction between sensitivity and linearity. The reasons why the proposed sensor can maximize sensitivity and minimize nonlinearity are also discussed. By localizing more strain energy in the high concentrated stress profile and creating partially stiffened membrane, the proposed sensor has achieved a high sensitivity of 34.5 (mV/V)/psi and a low nonlinearity of 0.25% FSS. Thus, the proposed structure sensor will be a proper choice for low pressure applications less than 1 psi.

  9. Quantitative and sensitive analysis of CN molecules using laser induced low pressure He plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardede, Marincan [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Pelita Harapan, 1100 M.H. Thamrin Boulevard, Lippo Village, Tangerang 15811 (Indonesia); Hedwig, Rinda [Department of Computer Engineering, Bina Nusantara University, 9 K.H. Syahdan, Jakarta 14810 (Indonesia); Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur; Lahna, Kurnia; Idris, Nasrullah; Ramli, Muliadi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, NAD (Indonesia); Jobiliong, Eric [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Pelita Harapan, 1100 M.H. Thamrin Boulevard, Lippo Village, Tangerang 15811 (Indonesia); Suyanto, Hery [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University, Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Denpasar 80361, Bali (Indonesia); Marpaung, Alion Mangasi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Jakarta State University, 10 Rawamangun, Jakarta 13220 (Indonesia); Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha [Research Center for Physics, Indonesia Institute of Sciences, Kawasan Puspiptek, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan, 15314 Banten (Indonesia); Tjia, May On [Physics of Magnetism and Photonics Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, 10 Ganesha, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40/80 Srengseng Raya, Jakarta 11630 (Indonesia); Lie, Tjung Jie; Lie, Zener Sukra; Kurniawan, Davy Putra; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik, E-mail: kurnia18@cbn.net.id [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40/80 Srengseng Raya, Jakarta 11630 (Indonesia); Kagawa, Kiichiro [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40/80 Srengseng Raya, Jakarta 11630 (Indonesia); Fukui Science Education Academy, Takagi Chuou 2 choume, Fukui 910-0804 (Japan)

    2015-03-21

    We report the results of experimental study on CN 388.3 nm and C I 247.8 nm emission characteristics using 40 mJ laser irradiation with He and N{sub 2} ambient gases. The results obtained with N{sub 2} ambient gas show undesirable interference effect between the native CN emission and the emission of CN molecules arising from the recombination of native C ablated from the sample with the N dissociated from the ambient gas. This problem is overcome by the use of He ambient gas at low pressure of 2 kPa, which also offers the additional advantages of cleaner and stronger emission lines. The result of applying this favorable experimental condition to emission spectrochemical measurement of milk sample having various protein concentrations is shown to yield a close to linear calibration curve with near zero extrapolated intercept. Additionally, a low detection limit of 5 μg/g is found in this experiment, making it potentially applicable for quantitative and sensitive CN analysis. The visibility of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with low pressure He gas is also demonstrated by the result of its application to spectrochemical analysis of fossil samples. Furthermore, with the use of CO{sub 2} ambient gas at 600 Pa mimicking the Mars atmosphere, this technique also shows promising applications to exploration in Mars.

  10. A 10-GHz Bandwidth Electroabsorption Modulated Laser by Ultra-Low-Pressure Selective Area Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qian; PAN Jiao-Qing; ZHOU Fan; WANG Bao-Jun; WANG Lu-Feng; WANG Wei

    2005-01-01

    @@ A novel integration technique has been developed using band-gap energy control of InGaAsP/InGaAsP multi quantum-well (MQW) structures during simultaneous ultra-low-pressure (22 mbar) selective-area-growth (SAG)process in metal-organic chemical vapour deposition. A fundamental study of the controllability of band gap energy by the SAG method is performed. A large band-gap photoluminescence wavelength shift of 83nm is obtained with a small mask width variation (0-30μm). The method is then applied to fabricate an MQW distributed-feedback laser monolithically integrated with an electroabsorption modulator. The experimental results exhibit superior device characteristics with low threshold of 19 mA, over 24 dB extinction ratio when coupled into a single mode fibre. More than 10 GHz modulation bandwidth is also achieved, which demonstrates that the ultra-low-pressure SAG technique is a promising approach for high-speed transmission photonic integrated circuits.

  11. The role of thermal energy accommodation and atomic recombination probabilities in low pressure oxygen plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Andrew Robert; Foucher, Mickaël; Marinov, Daniil; Chabert, Pascal; Gans, Timo; Kushner, Mark J.; Booth, Jean-Paul

    2017-02-01

    Surface interaction probabilities are critical parameters that determine the behaviour of low pressure plasmas and so are crucial input parameters for plasma simulations that play a key role in determining their accuracy. However, these parameters are difficult to estimate without in situ measurements. In this work, the role of two prominent surface interaction probabilities, the atomic oxygen recombination coefficient γ O and the thermal energy accommodation coefficient α E in determining the plasma properties of low pressure inductively coupled oxygen plasmas are investigated using two-dimensional fluid-kinetic simulations. These plasmas are the type used for semiconductor processing. It was found that α E plays a crucial role in determining the neutral gas temperature and neutral gas density. Through this dependency, the value of α E also determines a range of other plasma properties such as the atomic oxygen density, the plasma potential, the electron temperature, and ion bombardment energy and neutral-to-ion flux ratio at the wafer holder. The main role of γ O is in determining the atomic oxygen density and flux to the wafer holder along with the neutral-to-ion flux ratio. It was found that the plasma properties are most sensitive to each coefficient when the value of the coefficient is small causing the losses of atomic oxygen and thermal energy to be surface interaction limited rather than transport limited.

  12. Combination of Low-pressure Steam Explosion and Alkaline Peroxide Pretreatment for Separation of Hemicellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xing

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Low-pressure steam explosion (LPSE combined with alkaline peroxide (AP pretreatment was first employed to separate hemicellulose from Lespedeza stalks. The monosaccharide composition and molecular weight distribution of the obtained hemicellulose fractions were characterized in this study. The results show that the hemicellulose extracted from Lespedeza stalks consisted of xylose, glucose, galactose, and mannose, which was a mixture of arabinoxylans and xyloglucans or β-glucans. The yield of hemicellulose fractions after AP pretreatment ranged from 11.2% (2.5% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, w/v for 12 h to 12.2% (3.3% H2O2, w/v for 72 h. The molecular weight of hemicellulose decreased from 2,458 g/mol to 1,984 g/mol after AP pretreatment, indicating its degradation reaction. The structure of hemicellulose was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and heteronuclear single quantum coherence. The AP pretreatment partially cleaved the backbone and the ether linkage between lignin and hemicelluloses. Also, branched-chain α-D-arabinofuranosyl in which β-D-xylose substituted at the C-3 position (monosubstituted was removed, illustrating a partial debranching reaction. Therefore, the combination of low-pressure steam explosion and alkaline peroxide pretreatment (LPSE-AP is an effective pretreatment method to separate hemicellulose from Lespedeza stalk.

  13. Electrical Properties for Capacitively Coupled Radio Frequency Discharges of Helium and Neon at Low Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanisli, Murat; Sahin, Neslihan; Demir, Suleyman

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the symmetric radio frequency (RF) electrode discharge is formed between the two electrodes placing symmetric parallel. The electrical properties of symmetric capacitive RF discharge of pure neon and pure helium have been obtained from current and voltage waveforms. Calculations are done according to the homogeneous discharge model of capacitively coupled radio frequency (CCRF) using with the data in detail. Electrical properties of bulk plasma and sheath capacitance are also investigated at low pressure with this model. This study compares the electrical characteristics and sheath capacitance changes with RF power and pressure for helium and neon discharges. Also, the aim of the study is to see the differences between helium and neon discharges' current and voltage values. Their root-mean-square voltages and currents are obtained from Tektronix 3052C oscilloscope. Modified homogeneous discharge model of CCRF is used for low pressure discharges and the calculations are done using experimental results. It is seen that homogeneous discharge model of CCRF is usable with modification and then helium and neon discharge's electrical properties are investigated and presented with a comparison. Helium discharge's voltage and current characteristic have smaller values than neon's. It may be said that neon discharge is a better conductor than helium discharge. It is seen that the sheath capacitance is inversely correlation with sheath resistance.

  14. Determination of the cathode and anode voltage drops in high power low-pressure amalgam lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilyak, L. M., E-mail: vasilyak@ihed.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, A. I., E-mail: vasiliev@npo.lit.ru; Kostyuchenko, S. V.; Sokolov, D. V.; Startsev, A. Yu. [Joint Stock Company NPO LIT (Russian Federation); Kudryavtsev, N. N. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University) (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    For the first time, cathode and anode drops of powerful low-pressure amalgam lamps were measured. The lamp discharge current is 3.2 A, discharge current frequency is 43 kHz, linear electric power is 2.4 W/cm. The method of determination of a cathode drop is based on the change of a lamp operating voltage at variation of the electrode filament current at constant discharge current. The total (cathode plus anode) drop of voltage was measured by other, independent ways. The maximum cathode fall is 10.8 V; the anode fall corresponding to the maximal cathode fall is 2.4 V. It is shown that in powerful low pressure amalgam lamps the anode fall makes a considerable contribution (in certain cases, the basic one) to heating of electrodes. Therefore, the anode fall cannot be neglected, at design an electrode and ballast of amalgam lamps with operating discharge current frequency of tens of kHz.

  15. A 10-GHz Bandwidth Electroabsorption Modulated Laser by Ultra-Low-Pressure Selective Area Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Pan, Jiao-Qing; Zhou, Fan; Wang, Bao-Jun; Wang, Lu-Feng; Wang, Wei

    2005-08-01

    A novel integration technique has been developed using band-gap energy control of InGaAsP/InGaAsP multi-quantum-well (MQW) structures during simultaneous ultra-low-pressure (22 mbar) selective-area-growth (SAG) process in metal-organic chemical vapour deposition. A fundamental study of the controllability of band gap energy by the SAG method is performed. A large band-gap photoluminescence wavelength shift of 83 nm is obtained with a small mask width variation (0-30 μm). The method is then applied to fabricate an MQW distributed-feedback laser monolithically integrated with an electroabsorption modulator. The experimental results exhibit superior device characteristics with low threshold of 19 mA, over 24 dB extinction ratio when coupled into a single mode fibre. More than 10 GHz modulation bandwidth is also achieved, which demonstrates that the ultra-low-pressure SAG technique is a promising approach for high-speed transmission photonic integrated circuits.

  16. Analisis Numerikal Frekuensi Natural Pada Poros Low Pressure Boiler Feed Pump PT.PJB UP Gresik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Taufik Akbar Ofrial

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Low pressure boiler feed pump (LPBFP merupakan salah satu komponen penting dalam sistem Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG, pada pengoperasiannya sering terjadi permasalahan yaitu patahnya poros yang dapat terjadi 8-10 kali dalam setahun yang mungkin disebabkan oleh faktor getaran. Untuk itu pada penelitian ini dilakukan perhitungan dengan pemodelan metode elemen hingga menggunakan software ANSYS untuk menghitung frekuensi natural dan modus getaran untuk 10 frekuensi natural pertama pada komponen LPBFP. Dari hasil simulasi didapatkan nilai yaitu untuk orde pertama sebesar 583,03 Hz, orde kedua sebesar 583,39 Hz, orde ketiga sebesar 2820,8 Hz, orde keempat sebesar 2849 Hz, orde kelima sebesar 3943,9 Hz, orde keenam sebesar 4079,6 Hz, orde ketujuh sebesar 5428,3 Hz, orde kedelapan sebesar 6111 Hz, orde kesembilan sebesar 6594 Hz, orde kesepuluh sebesar 6715 Hz. Sepuluh frekuensi natural menghasilkan lima jenis modus getaran yaitu lateral bending vibration, shear bending vibration, torsional bending vibration, axial bending vibration, torsional shear bending vibration. Dari kesepuluh frekuensi natural yang diperoleh semuanya menyebabkan kegagalan poros low pressure boiler feed pump.

  17. Development of a low-pressure materials pre-treatment process for improved energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwanghee; You, Byung Don

    2017-09-01

    Low pressure materials pre-treatment process has been developed as an alternative to the existing high-temperature sludge drying, limestone calcination, and limonite dehydroxylation. Using the thermodynamic equilibrium relationship between temperature and pressure represented by the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, the operational temperature of these reactions could be lowered at reduced pressure for increased energy efficiency. For industrial sludge drying, the evaporation rate was controlled by interfacial kinetics showing a constant rate with time and significant acceleration in the reaction could be observed with reduced pressure. At this modified reaction rate under low pressure, the rate was also partially controlled by mass transfer. Temperature of limestone calcination was lowered, but the reaction was limited at the calculated equilibrium temperature of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and slightly higher temperatures were required. The energy consumption during limestone calcination and limonite dehydroxylation were evaluated, where lower processing pressures could enhance the energy efficiency for limestone calcination, but limonite dehydroxylation could not achieve energy-savings due to the greater power consumption of the vacuum pump under lower pressure and reduced temperatures.

  18. Low-Pressure Pericardial Tamponade: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Brooks M; Tobias, Lauren A

    2017-04-01

    Focused cardiac ultrasound (FoCUS) is accurate for determining the presence of a pericardial effusion. Using FoCUS to evaluate for pericardial tamponade, however, is more involved. Many experts teach that tamponade is unlikely if the inferior vena cava (IVC) shows respiratory variation and is not distended. A 53-year-old woman presented to the emergency department (ED) with severe orthostatic hypotension, exertional dyspnea, and hypoxia. The evaluation did not reveal an acute cardiopulmonary etiology, but FoCUS demonstrated a pericardial effusion, with several signs consistent with tamponade. The IVC, however, was not distended. She was believed to be hypovolemic, but fluid therapy provided minimal benefit. The patient's condition improved only after aspiration of the effusion. The patient's presentation was likely a "low-pressure" pericardial tamponade. Patients with this subset of tamponade often do not have significant venous congestion, but urgent pericardial aspiration is still indicated. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Pericardial tamponade may not manifest with IVC plethora on ultrasound. Patients with low-pressure tamponade do not present with the most florid signs of tamponade, but they nonetheless fulfill diagnostic criteria for tamponade. If a non-plethoric IVC is used to rule out tamponade, the clinician risks delaying comprehensive echocardiography or other tests. Furthermore, the potential for deterioration to frank shock could be discounted, with inappropriate disposition and monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Filter-based measurements of UV-vis mass absorption cross sections of organic carbon aerosol from residential biomass combustion: Preliminary findings and sources of uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Apoorva; Pervez, Shamsh; Chakrabarty, Rajan K.

    2016-10-01

    Combustion of solid biomass fuels is a major source of household energy in developing nations. Black (BC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols are the major PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm) pollutants co-emitted during burning of these fuels. While the optical nature of BC is well characterized, very little is known about the properties of light-absorbing OC (LAOC). Here, we report our preliminary findings on the mass-based optical properties of LAOC emitted from the combustion of four commonly used solid biomass fuels - fuel-wood, agricultural residue, dung-cake, and mixed - in traditional Indian cookstoves. As part of a pilot field study conducted in central India, PM2.5 samples were collected on Teflon filters and analyzed for their absorbance spectra in the 300-900 nm wavelengths at 1 nm resolution using a UV-Visible spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere. The mean mass absorption cross-sections (MAC) of the emitted PM2.5 and OC, at 550 nm, were 0.8 and 0.2 m2 g-1, respectively, each with a factor of ~2.3 uncertainty. The mean absorption Ångström exponent (AǺE) values for PM2.5 were 3±1 between 350 and 550 nm, and 1.2±0.1 between 550 and 880 nm. In the 350-550 nm range, OC had an AǺE of 6.3±1.8. The emitted OC mass, which was on average 25 times of the BC mass, contributed over 50% of the aerosol absorbance at wavelengths smaller than 450 nm. The overall OC contribution to visible solar light (300-900 nm) absorption by the emitted particles was 26-45%. Our results highlight the need to comprehensively and accurately address: (i) the climatic impacts of light absorption by OC from cookstove emissions, and (ii) the uncertainties and biases associated with variability in biomass fuel types and combustion conditions, and filter-based measurement artifacts during determination of MAC values.

  20. Indirect desalination of Red Sea water with forward osmosis and low pressure reverse osmosis for water reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor

    2011-10-01

    The use of energy still remains the main component of the costs of desalting water. Forward osmosis (FO) can help to reduce the costs of desalination, and extracting water from impaired sources can be beneficial in this regard. Experiments with FO membranes using a secondary wastewater effluent as a feed water and Red Sea water as a draw solution demonstrated that the technology is promising. FO coupled with low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO) was implemented for indirect desalination. The system consumes only 50% (~1.5 kWh/m3) of the energy used for high pressure seawater RO (SWRO) desalination (2.5-4 kWh/m3), and produces a good quality water extracted from the impaired feed water. Fouling of the FO membranes was not a major issue during long-term experiments over 14 days. After 10 days of continuous FO operation, the initial flux declined by 28%. Cleaning the FO membranes with air scouring and clean water recovered the initial flux by 98.8%. A cost analysis revealed FO per se as viable technology. However, a minimum average FO flux of 10.5 L/m2-h is needed to compete with water reuse using UF-LPRO, and 5.5 L/m2-h is needed to recover and desalinate water at less cost than SWRO. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  1. 2D fluid-analytical simulation of electromagnetic effects in low pressure, high frequency electronegative capacitive discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, E.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Lieberman, M. A.; Marakhtanov, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    A fast 2D axisymmetric fluid-analytical multifrequency capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) reactor code is used to study center high nonuniformity in a low pressure electronegative chlorine discharge. In the code, a time-independent Helmholtz wave equation is used to solve for the capacitive fields in the linearized frequency domain. This eliminates the time dependence from the electromagnetic (EM) solve, greatly speeding up the simulations at the cost of neglecting higher harmonics. However, since the code allows up to three driving frequencies, we can add the two most important harmonics to the CCP simulations as the second and third input frequencies. The amplitude and phase of these harmonics are estimated by using a recently developed 1D radial nonlinear transmission line (TL) model of a highly asymmetric cylindrical discharge (Lieberman et al 2015 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 24 055011). We find that at higher applied frequencies, the higher harmonics contribute significantly to the center high nonuniformity due to their shorter plasma wavelengths.

  2. Pressure estimation for diamond anvils cell under very-low pressures, hydrostatic conditions -evaluation for quartz Raman peak shifts-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, K.; Okamoto, K.

    2016-12-01

    Pressure shift of the ruby R1 luminescent shift has been used as primary pressure gauge in diamond-anvils experiments. However, the pressure calibration under low-pressure conditions (Ruby pressure gauge at 1 GPa.

  3. Gating system optimization of low pressure casting A356 aluminum alloy intake manifold based on numerical simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jiang Wenming Fan Zitian

    2014-01-01

    To eliminate the shrinkage porosity in low pressure casting of an A356 aluminum alloy intake manifold casting, numerical simulation on filling and solidification processes of the casting was carried...

  4. Ethylene Decomposition Initiated by Ultraviolet Radiation from Low Pressure Mercury Lamps: Kinetics Model Prediction and Experimental Verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwiak, Zbigniew Boguslaw

    1995-01-01

    Ethylene is an important auto-catalytic plant growth hormone. Removal of ethylene from the atmosphere surrounding ethylene-sensitive horticultural products may be very beneficial, allowing an extended period of storage and preventing or delaying the induction of disorders. Various ethylene removal techniques have been studied and put into practice. One technique is based on using low pressure mercury ultraviolet lamps as a source of photochemical energy to initiate chemical reactions that destroy ethylene. Although previous research showed that ethylene disappeared in experiments with mercury ultraviolet lamps, the reactions were not described and the actual cause of ethylene disappearance remained unknown. Proposed causes for this disappearance were the direct action of ultraviolet rays on ethylene, reaction of ethylene with ozone (which is formed when air or gas containing molecular oxygen is exposed to radiation emitted by this type of lamp), or reactions with atomic oxygen leading to formation of ozone. The objective of the present study was to determine the set of physical and chemical actions leading to the disappearance of ethylene from artificial storage atmosphere under conditions of ultraviolet irradiation. The goal was achieved by developing a static chemical model based on the physical properties of a commercially available ultraviolet lamp, the photochemistry of gases, and the kinetics of chemical reactions. The model was used to perform computer simulations predicting time dependent concentrations of chemical species included in the model. Development of the model was accompanied by the design of a reaction chamber used for experimental verification. The model provided a good prediction of the general behavior of the species involved in the chemistry under consideration; however the model predicted lower than measured rate of ethylene disappearance. Some reasons for the model -experiment disagreement are radiation intensity averaging, the experimental

  5. Vacuum ultraviolet light source utilizing rare gas scintillation amplification sustained by photon positive feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, Elena (Inventor); Chen, Danli (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A source of light in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region includes a reflective UV-sensitive photocathode supported in spaced parallel relationship with a mesh electrode within a rare gas at low pressure. A high positive potential applied to the mesh electrode creates an electric field which causes drifting of free electrons occurring between the electrodes and producing continuous VUV light output by electric field-driven scintillation amplification sustained by positive photon feedback mediated by photoemission from the photocathode. In one embodiment the lamp emits a narrow-band continuum peaked at 175 nm.

  6. Inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts using medium- and low-pressure ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craik, S A; Weldon, D; Finch, G R; Bolton, J R; Belosevic, M

    2001-04-01

    The effect of ultraviolet radiation from low- and medium-pressure mercury arc lamps on Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts was studied using a collimated beam apparatus. Experiments were conducted using parasites suspended in both filtered surface water and phosphate buffered laboratory water. Inactivation of oocysts was measured as reduction in infectivity using a CD-1 neonatal mouse model and was found to be a non-linear function of UV dose over the range of germicidal doses tested (0.8-119 mJ/cm2). Oocyst inactivation increased rapidly with UV dose at doses less than 25 mJ/cm2 with two and three log-units inactivation at approximately 10 and 25 mJ/cm2, respectively. The cause of significant leveling-off and tailing in the UV inactivation curve at higher doses was not determined. Maximum measured oocyst inactivation ranged from 3.4 to greater than 4.9 log-units and was dependent on different batches of parasites. Water type and temperature, the concentration of oocysts in the suspension, and the UV irradiance did not have significant impacts on oocyst inactivation. When compared on the basis of germicidal UV dose, the oocysts were equally sensitive to low- and medium-pressure UV radiation. With respect to Cryptosporidium, both low- and medium-pressure ultraviolet radiation are attractive alternatives to conventional chemical disinfection methods in drinking water treatment.

  7. Engineering of a highly efficient Xe₂*-excilamp (xenon excimer lamp, λmax=172 nm, η=40%) and qualitative comparison to a low-pressure mercury lamp (LP-Hg, λ=185/254 nm) for water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gharabli, Samer; Engeßer, Patrick; Gera, Diana; Klein, Sandra; Oppenländer, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Excilamps are mercury-free gas-discharge sources of non-coherent VUV or UV radiation with high radiant power and a long lifetime. The most efficient excilamp that is currently available on the market is a VUV xenon excilamp system (Xe2(*)-excimer lamp, λ(max) = 172 nm) with a stated radiant efficiency η of 40% at an electrical input power P(el) of 20 W, 50 W or 100 W. In this paper, the use of this highly efficient Xe2(*)-excilamp (P(el) = 20 W) for water treatment is demonstrated using a recirculating laboratory photoreactor system with negative radiation geometry. The efficiency in the 172 nm initiated bleaching of aqueous solutions of Rhodamine B is compared to that initiated by a common low-pressure mercury (LP-Hg) lamp (185 nm, TNN 15/32). The dependence of the pseudo zero order rate constant k´ of decolorization of RhB on the flow rate and on the initial concentration of RhB was investigated. Both lamps exhibited dependences of k´ on the initial concentration of RhB, which represents a typical saturation kinetical behavior. The saturation kinetics was very prominent in the case of the Xe2(*)-excilamp. Also, the Xe2(*)-excilamp treatment exhibited a significant influence on the flow rate of the RhB aqueous solution, which was not the case during the LP-Hg lamp initiated bleaching of RhB. The results of this paper demonstrate that Xe2(*)-excilamps can be used for VUV-initiated water purification. However, to reach the maximum efficacy of the Xe2(*)-excilamp for photo-initiated water purification further engineering optimization of the photoreactor concept is necessary.

  8. Skin Cancer and UV Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarbuk Anita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of skin cancer is increasing by epidemic proportions. Basal cell cancer remains the most common skin neoplasm, and simple excision is generally curative. On the other hand, aggressive local growth and metastasis are common features of malignant melanoma, which accounts for 75% of all deaths associated with skin cancer. The primary cause of skin cancer is long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-R crossed with the amount of skin pigmentation and family genetics. It is believed that in childhood and adolescence, 80% of UV-R gets absorbed while in the remaining, 20 % gets absorbed later in the lifetime. This suggests that proper and early photoprotection may reduce the risk of subsequent occurrence of skin cancer. Reducing the exposure time to sunlight, using sunscreens and protective textiles are the three ways of UV protection. Most people think that all the clothing will protect them, but it does not provide full sun screening properties. Literature sources claim that only 1/3 of the spring and summer collections tested give off proper UV protection. This is very important during the summer months, when UV index is the highest. Fabric UV protection ability highly depends on large number of factors such as type of fiber, fabric surface, construction, porosity, density, moisture content, type and concentration of dyestuff, fluorescent whitening agents, UV-B protective agents (UV absorbers, as well as nanoparticles, if applied. For all of these reasons, in the present paper, the results of UV protecting ability according to AS/NZS 4399:1996 will be discussed to show that standard clothing materials are not always adequate to prevent effect of UV-R to the human skin; and to suggest the possibilities for its improvement for this purpose enhancing light conversion and scattering. Additionally, the discrepancy in UV protection was investigated in distilled water as well as Adriatic Sea water.

  9. CORONA-INDUCED PHOTOXIDATION OF ALCOHOLS AND HYDROCARBONS OVER TIO2 IN THE ABSENCE OF A UV LIGHT SOURCE - A NOVEL AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY METHOD FOR OXIDATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-induced photooxidation is a novel oxidation methodology for the efficient oxidation of alcohols and hydrocarbons utilizing the advantage of both the high oxidizing power of ozone formed in the reactor as well as the photooxidation capability of the UV light generated durin...

  10. Development and Commercial Application of Ultra-Low Pressure Naphtha Reforming Technology with Continuous Catalyst Regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Aizeng; Xu Youchun; Yang Dong; Zhang Xinkuan; Wang Jieguang

    2013-01-01

    The development history and major technological innovations of the ultra-low pressure naphtha reforming tech-nology with continuous catalyst regeneration in China were introduced. This technology had been adopted by the 1.0 Mt/a CCR unit at the Guangzhou Company. The appropriate catalyst was selected to meet the demand of the unit capacity, the feedstock, and the product slate. The design parameters, including the reaction pressure, the octane number of C5+ liquid product, the reaction temperature, the space velocity, the hydrogen/oil molar ratio, and the catalyst circulating rate, were chosen based on the study of process conditions and parameters. The commercial test results showed that the research oc-tane number of C5+ product reached 104 when the capacity of the CCR unit was 100% and 115% of the design value. The other technical targets attained or exceeded the expected value.

  11. Calibration of Relative Humidity Devices in Low-pressure, Low-temperature CO2 Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzer, Maria; Polkko, Jouni; Nikkanen, Timo; Hieta, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti

    2017-04-01

    Calibration of relative humidity devices requires in minimum two humidity points - dry (0%RH) and (near)saturation (95-100%RH) - over the expected operational temperature and pressure range of the device. In terrestrial applications these are relatively easy to achieve using for example N2 gas as dry medium, and water vapor saturation chambers for producing saturation and intermediate humidity points. But for example in applications intended for meteorological measurements on Mars there is a need to achieve at least dry and saturation points in low-temperature, low-pressure CO2 environment. We have developed a custom-made, small, relatively low-cost calibration chamber able to produce both dry points and saturation points in Martian range pressure CO2, in temperatures down to -70°C. The system utilizes a commercially available temperature chamber for temperature control, vacuum vessels and pumps. The main pressure vessel with the devices under test inside is placed inside the temperature chamber, and the pressure inside is controlled by pumps and manual valves and monitored with a commercial pressure reference with calibration traceable to national standards. Air, CO2, or if needed another gas like N2, is used for filling the vessel until the desired pressure is achieved. Another pressure vessel with a dedicated pressure pump is used as the saturation chamber. This vessel is placed in the room outside the temperature chamber, partly filled with water and used for achieving saturated water vapor in room-temperature low-pressure environment. The saturation chamber is connected to the main pressure vessel via valves. In this system dry point, low-pressure CO2 environment is achieved by filling the main pressure vessel with dry CO2 gas until the desired pressure is achieved. A constant flow of gas is maintained with the pump and valves and monitored with the pressure reference. The saturation point is then achieved by adding some water vapor from the saturation

  12. Discrete element simulation of powder compaction in cold uniaxial pressing with low pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojek, Jerzy; Nosewicz, Szymon; Jurczak, Kamila; Chmielewski, Marcin; Bochenek, Kamil; Pietrzak, Katarzyna

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents numerical studies of powder compaction in cold uniaxial pressing. The powder compaction in this work is considered as an initial stage of a hot pressing process so it is realized with relatively low pressure (up to 50 MPa). Hence the attention has been focused on the densification mechanisms at this range of pressure and models suitable for these conditions. The discrete element method employing spherical particles has been used in the numerical studies. Numerical simulations have been performed for two different contact models—the elastic Hertz-Mindlin-Deresiewicz model and the plastic Storåkers model. Numerical results have been compared with the results of laboratory tests of the die compaction of the NiAl powder. Comparisons have shown that the discrete element method is capable to represent properly the densification mechanisms by the particle rearrangement and particle deformation.

  13. Transient evolution of solitary electron holes in low pressure laboratory plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhary, Mangilal; Mukherjee, Subroto

    2015-01-01

    Solitary electrons holes (SEHs) are localized electrostatic positive potential structures in collisionless plasmas. These are vortex-like structures in the electron phase space. Its existence is cause of distortion of the electron distribution in the resonant region. These are explained theoretically first time by Schamel et.al [Phys. Scr. 20, 336 (1979) and Phys. Plasmas 19, 020501 (2012)]. Propagating solitary electron holes can also be formed in a laboratory plasma when a fast rising high positive voltage pulse is applied to a metallic electrode [Kar et. al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 102113 (2010)] immersed in a low pressure plasma. The temporal evolution of these structures can be studied by measuring the transient electron distribution function (EDF). In the present work, transient EDF is measured after formation of a solitary electron hole in nearly uniform, unmagnetized, and collisionless plasma for applied pulse width and, where and are applied pulse width and inverse of ion plasma frequency respectively. Fo...

  14. Fabrication of Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells by Controlled Low-Pressure Vapor Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanbo; Cooper, Jason K; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Giannini, Cinzia; Liu, Yi; Toma, Francesca M; Sharp, Ian D

    2015-02-05

    A new method for achieving high efficiency planar CH3NH3I3-xClx perovskite photovoltaics, based on a low pressure, reduced temperature vapor annealing is demonstrated. Heterojunction devices based on this hybrid halide perovskite exhibit a top PCE of 16.8%, reduced J-V hysteresis, and highly repeatable performance without need for a mesoporous or nanocrystalline metal oxide layer. Our findings demonstrate that large hysteresis is not an inherent feature of planar heterojunctions, and that efficient charge extraction can be achieved with uniform halide perovskite materials with desired composition. X-ray diffraction, valence band spectroscopy, and transient absorption measurements of these thin films reveal that structural modifications induced by chlorine clearly dominate over chemical and electronic doping effects, without affecting the Fermi level or photocarrier lifetime in the material.

  15. Natural Circulation Characteristics at Low-Pressure Conditions through PANDA Experiments and ATHLET Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Paladino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural circulation characteristics at low pressure/low power have been studied by performing experimental investigations and numerical simulations. The PANDA large-scale facility was used to provide valuable, high quality data on natural circulation characteristics as a function of several parameters and for a wide range of operating conditions. The new experimental data allow for testing and improving the capabilities of the thermal-hydraulic computer codes to be used for treating natural circulation loops in a range with increased attention. This paper presents a synthesis of a part of the results obtained within the EU-Project NACUSP “natural circulation and stability performance of boiling water reactors.” It does so by using the experimental results produced in PANDA and by showing some examples of numerical simulations performed with the thermal-hydraulic code ATHLET.

  16. Numerical simulation and optimization of Al alloy cylinder body by low pressure die casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Guofa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Shrinkage defects can be formed easily at Critical location during low pressure die casting (LPDC of aluminum alloy cylinder body. It has harmful effect on the products. Mold fi lling and solidifi cation process of a cylinder body was simulated by using of Z-CAST software. The casting method was improved based on the simulation results. In order to create effective feeding passage, the structure of casting was modifi ed by changing the location of strengthening ribs at the bottom, without causing any adverse effect on the part’s performance. Inserting copper billet at suitable location of the die is a valid way to create suitable solidifi cation sequence that is benefi cial to the feeding. Using these methods, the shrinkage defect was completely eliminated at the critical location.

  17. Low-pressure phase diagram of crystalline benzene from quantum Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Sam; Cohen, R. E.

    2016-08-01

    We studied the low-pressure (0-10 GPa) phase diagram of crystalline benzene using quantum Monte Carlo and density functional theory (DFT) methods. We performed diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (DMC) calculations to obtain accurate static phase diagrams as benchmarks for modern van der Waals density functionals. Using density functional perturbation theory, we computed the phonon contributions to the free energies. Our DFT enthalpy-pressure phase diagrams indicate that the Pbca and P21/c structures are the most stable phases within the studied pressure range. The DMC Gibbs free-energy calculations predict that the room temperature Pbca to P21/c phase transition occurs at 2.1(1) GPa. This prediction is consistent with available experimental results at room temperature. Our DMC calculations give 50.6 ± 0.5 kJ/mol for crystalline benzene lattice energy.

  18. Low pressure mediated enhancement of nanoparticle and macromolecule loading into porous silicon structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Fransisca; Margulis-Goshen, Katrin; Liu, Xuewu; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Magdassi, Shlomo; Godin, Biana

    2014-01-01

    Ensuring drug loading efficiency and consistency is one of the most critical stages in engineering drug delivery vectors based on porous materials. Here we propose a technique to significantly enhance the efficiency of loading by employing simple and widely available methods: applying low pressure with and without centrifugation. Our results point toward the advantages the proposed method over the passive loading, especially where the size difference of loaded materials and the pore size of the porous silicon particles is smaller, an increase up to 20-fold can be observed. The technique described in the study can be used for efficient and reproducible loading of porous materials with therapeutic molecules, nanoparticles and contrast imaging agents for biomedical application.

  19. Qualitative model of the operating mechanism of the protective coating for low pressure Hg lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnochub, A V [DECO Ltd, PO Box 40, 141701 Dolgoprudnyi (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, A I [LIT Technology Ltd, Krasnobogatyrskaya 44, 107076 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-04-07

    Interaction between the plasma and protective coating on the inner side of low pressure mercury lamp bulbs is considered. Under the assumption that the main way of decreasing the transmission of the bulb wall is the implantation of Hg ions within the fused quartz and formation of complexes [HgO] therein, a qualitative model of the attenuation mechanism is offered. The influence of the characteristics of a coating (thickness, close-packed structures, the lattice parameter, mass of atoms) on the transmission of the bulb walls is analysed. On the basis of the suggested model, estimates of the change in minimum transmission of bulb walls were made for lamps with and without protective coating. It is shown that in spite of approximations, the proposed model is in good agreement with experimental data.

  20. CATS, a low pressure multiwire proportional chamber for secondary beam tracking at GANIL

    CERN Document Server

    Ottini-Hustache, S; Auger, F; Musumarra, A; Alamanos, N; Cahan, B; Gillibert, A; Lagoyannis, A; Maillard, O; Pollacco, E; Sida, J L; Riallot, M

    1999-01-01

    A beam detector system, CATS (Chambre A Trajectoires de Saclay), was designed to provide event-by-event particle tracking in experiments with radioactive beams at GANIL. It consists of two low pressure multiwire proportional chambers with one plane of anode wires placed between two cathode planes (active area: 70x70 mm sup 2), respectively segmented into 28 vertical or horizontal strips (2.54 mm wide). The anode wires deliver a time signal allowing a time of flight measurement with an accuracy between 440 ps and 1.2 ns, depending on the energy loss of incident particles in the detector. The cathode strips are individually read out and the position of incoming particles is reconstructed using a charge centroid finding algorithm. A spatial resolution of 400 mu m (700 mu m) was achieved during in beam experiment, with a counting rate of 1.5x10 sup 5 (10 sup 6) particles per second. (author)

  1. Optimization of process parameter for synthesis of silicon quantum dots using low pressure chemical vapour deposition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dipika Barbadikar; Rashmi Gautam; Sanjay Sahare; Rajendra Patrikar; Jatin Bhatt

    2013-06-01

    Si quantum dots-based structures are studied recently for performance enhancement in electronic devices. This paper presents an attempt to get high density quantum dots (QDs) by low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) on SiO2 substrate. Surface treatment, annealing and rapid thermal processing (RTP) are performed to study their effect on size and density of QDs. The samples are also studied using Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence study (PL). The influence of Si–OH bonds formed due to surface treatment on the density of QDs is discussed. Present study also discusses the influence of surface treatment and annealing on QD formation.

  2. Stress corrosion cracking in low-pressure turbine discs in an NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitomi, Itoh [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Takasago Research and Development Center (Japan); Takashi, Momoo [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Takasago Machinery Works (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    From past research, it is known that stress corrosion cracking in low-pressure turbine discs occurs in an environment near that of deaerated pure water. Nevertheless, in units with molar ratio control, there is a possibility of NaCl concentrating as an impurity in the dry/wet boundary region. Long-term immersion tests were conducted at 373 K to 473 K with the NaCl concentration predicted to become 5%. It was found that, when FeCl{sub 3} or other oxidizer was added, corrosion increased remarkably and SCC was initiated. When cracks were initiated, they were primarily transgranular; as the test temperature was decreased, initiation was accelerated but conversely crack propagation was reduced. (author)

  3. On designing low pressure loss working spaces for a planar Stirling micromachine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachey, M.-A.; Léveillé, É.; Fréchette, L. G.; Formosa, F.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, research was undertaken with the objective to design low pressure loss working spaces for a Stirling cycle micro heat engine operating from low temperature waste heat. This planar free-piston heat engine is anticipated to operate at the kHz level with mm3 displacement. Given the resonant nature of the free-piston configuration, the complexity of its working gas’ flow geometry and its projected high operating frequency, flow analysis is relatively complex. Design considerations were thus based on fast prototyping and experimentation. Results show that geometrical features, such as a sharp 90° corner between the regenerator and working spaces, are strong contributors to pressure losses. This research culminated into a promising revised working space configuration for engine start-up, as it considerably reduced total pressure losses, more than 80% at Re = 700, from the original design.

  4. Plasma-photocatalyst interaction: Production of oxygen atoms in a low pressure discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaitella, O.; Gatilova, L.; Rousseau, A.

    2005-04-01

    A pulsed dc low pressure discharge in air (210 Pa) is used to study the mechanisms of activation of a photocatalytic material (TiO2) under plasma exposure. It is first shown that the presence of TiO2 inside the plasma region leads to a strong increase of the reduced electric field. Time resolved measurement of the atomic oxygen density is performed by actinometry during a 10 ms pulse at a low repetition rate (1 Hz) with and without TiO2 pellets inside the plasma region. The presence of TiO2 pellets strongly increases the O atom density during the first millisecond, but this effect saturates for longer exposure times.

  5. Dynamics of cathode spots in low-pressure arc plasma removing oxide layer on steel surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Z. L.; Yang, K.; Liu, H. X.; Zhang, Y. C.; Li, H.; Zhu, X. D.

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of cathode spots has been investigated in low-pressure arc plasma for removing oxide layer on low carbon steel surfaces. The motion of cathode spots was observed with a high speed camera, and the arc voltage was analyzed by fast Fourier transform. The spots move on clean steel surface as a random walk, and the low-frequency components dominated the voltage waveform. However, the spots on steel surfaces with oxide layer tend to burn on the rim of the eroded area formed in the previous arcing, and the low-frequency components decrease correspondingly. The "color" of the colored random noise for arc voltage varies from the approximate brown noise for clean steel surface to pink noise for thick oxide layer, where the edge effect of boundary is considered to play a significant role.

  6. Comparison measurements of low-pressure between a laser refractometer and ultrasonic manometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Patrick F.; Stone, Jack A.; Ricker, Jacob E.; Hendricks, Jay H.

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a new low-pressure sensor which is based on the measurement of (nitrogen) gas refractivity inside a Fabry-Perot cavity. We compare pressure determinations via this laser refractometer to that of well-established ultrasonic manometers throughout the range 100 Pa to 180 000 Pa. The refractometer demonstrates 10-6 ṡ p reproducibility for p > 100 Pa, and this precision outperforms a manometer. We also claim the refractometer has an expanded uncertainty of U(pFP) = [(2.0 mPa)2 + (8.8 × 10-6 ṡ p)2]1/2, as realized through the properties of nitrogen gas; we argue that a transfer of the pascal to p < 1 kPa using a laser refractometer is more accurate than the current primary realization.

  7. Carbon foam derived from pitches modified with mineral acids by a low pressure foaming process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsyntsarski, B.; Petrova, B.; Budinova, T.; Petrov, N.; Krzesinska, M.; Pusz, S.; Majewska, J.; Tzvetkov, P. [Bulgarian Academy of Science, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of Organic Chemistry

    2010-10-15

    Carbon foams with an anisotropic texture and high mechanical strength were produced using precursors obtained after thermo-oxidation treatment of commercial coal-tar pitch with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and HNO{sub 3}. The investigations of the relation between the properties of the precursor and the structure of obtained foam indicate, that the composition and softening point of the pitch precursor significantly affect the foaming process, foam structure and foam mechanical strength. The composition and properties of the modified pitches allow foam formation at relatively low pressure and fast heating rate during the foaming process without a stabilization treatment. The foaming process of pitch-based carbon foams, pretreatment of the precursors, and the properties of resultant foams are discussed in this paper.

  8. Low-pressure water vapour plasma treatment of surfaces for biomolecules decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, F.; Kylián, O.; Amato, L.; Hanuš, J.; Rossi, F.

    2012-04-01

    Decontamination treatments of surfaces are performed on bacterial spores, albumin and brain homogenate used as models of biological contaminations in a low-pressure, inductively coupled plasma reactor operated with water-vapour-based gas mixtures. It is shown that removal of contamination can be achieved using pure H2O or Ar/H2O mixtures at low temperatures with removal rates comparable to oxygen-based mixtures. Particle fluxes (Ar+ ions, O and H atomic radicals and OH molecular radicals) from water vapour discharge are measured by optical emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probe under several operating conditions. Analysis of particle fluxes and removal rates measurements illustrates the role of ion bombardment associated with O radicals, governing the removal rates of organic matter. Auxiliary role of hydroxyl radicals is discussed on the basis of experimental data. The advantages of a water vapour plasma process are discussed for practical applications in medical devices decontamination.

  9. Monte Carlo Simulation of Laser-Ablated Particle Splitting Dynamic in a Low Pressure Inert Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xuecheng; Zhang, Zicai; Liang, Weihua; Chu, Lizhi; Deng, Zechao; Wang, Yinglong

    2016-06-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation method with an instantaneous density dependent mean-free-path of the ablated particles and the Ar gas is developed for investigating the transport dynamics of the laser-ablated particles in a low pressure inert gas. The ablated-particle density and velocity distributions are analyzed. The force distributions acting on the ablated particles are investigated. The influence of the substrate on the ablated-particle velocity distribution and the force distribution acting on the ablated particles are discussed. The Monte Carlo simulation results approximately agree with the experimental data at the pressure of 8 Pa to 17 Pa. This is helpful to investigate the gas phase nucleation and growth mechanism of nanoparticles. supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (No. A2015201166) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei University, China (No. 2013-252)

  10. Pyrene measurements in sooting low pressure methane flames by jet-cooled laser-induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartel, M; Pauwels, J-F; Desgroux, P; Mercier, X

    2011-12-15

    This paper presents in detail the study we carried out concerning the pyrene measurement by jet-cooled laser-induced fluorescence (JCLIF) in different sooting low pressure methane flames. The aim of this paper is both to demonstrate the potentialities of this technique for the measurement of such moderately sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under sooting flame conditions and to provide new experimental data for the understanding and the development of chemical models of the soot formation processes. Several concentration profiles of pyrene measured in different sooting flame (various pressure and equivalence ratio) are presented. The validation of the JCLIF method for pyrene measurements is explained in detail as well as the calibration procedure, based on the standard addition method, which has been implemented for the quantification of the concentration profiles. Sensitivity lower than 1 ppb was obtained for the measurement of this species under sooting flame conditions.

  11. Erosion study of final stage blading of low pressure steam turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehouve, J.; Nardin, P.; Zeghmati, M.

    1999-04-01

    In order to increase our knowledge of erosion phenomena, the Steam Turbine Groupe (STG) of ALSTOM has been using an erosion test facility in the C.R.T.V. (Centre de Recherche Turbines à Vapeur). This test facility simulates erosion in low pressure steam turbine cylinders in order to compare the erosion resistance of various blade materials (12% chromium steel, titanium alloys, etc.) and their protection (superficial hardening, coatings, etc.). This test facility also allows us to understand the mechanism causing damage at a macroscopic level (impact energy of the droplets and the loss of eroded volume) and at a microscopic level (residual stress and metallurgic analysis) and therefore to determine an evolution law of material surface damage. In this paper, the behaviour of the materials (12% chromium steel and titanium alloys), which has been analysed by image production measurement methods, will be presented according to different impact velocities.

  12. Performance and control study of a low-pressure-ratio turbojet engine for a drone aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldner, K.; Geyser, L. C.; Gold, H.; Walker, D.; Burgner, G.

    1972-01-01

    The results of analog and digital computer studies of a low-pressure-ratio turbojet engine system for use in a drone vehicle are presented. The turbojet engine consists of a four-stage axial compressor, single-stage turbine, and a fixed area exhaust nozzle. Three simplified fuel schedules and a generalized parameter fuel control for the engine system are presented and evaluated. The evaluation is based on the performance of each schedule or control during engine acceleration from a windmill start at Mach 0.8 and 6100 meters to 100 percent corrected speed. It was found that, because of the higher acceleration margin permitted by the control, the generalized parameter control exhibited the best dynamic performance.

  13. The advantages of Low Pressure Carburizing in the Heat Treatment Subcontracting Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guy PRUNEL; Bruno STAUDER

    2004-01-01

    Low Pressure Carburizing (LPC) was introduced in the 90's in the western Europe Heat Treatment business,mainly for in-house applications where it was especially appreciated for carburizing of transmission parts. However the success of the LPC units installed for gears carburizing in the automotive industry has hindered the development of the process in other fields - like subcontracting business -, where its advantages deserve to be enlightened.After a brief review of the principle of the process, the interest of its classical application to transmission parts is described,underlining peculiarly the reduction of the distortion observed when LPC is associated with high pressure gas quenching.Then the less-known advantages of the LPC process, like the high accuracy and reproducibility of the results, the modeling possibility and the simulation easiness, the case-depth uniformity and the full flexibility of the units are considered,showing how they can be beneficial to subcontracting business.

  14. Optimization Design and Experimental Study of Low-Pressure Axial Fan with Forward-Skewed Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of the optimization of blade skew in low pressure axial fan. Using back propagation (BP neural network and genetic algorithm (GA, the optimization was performed for a radial blade. An optimized blade is obtained through blade forward skew. Measurement of the two blades was carried out in aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance. Compared to the radial blade, the optimized blade demonstrated improvements in efficiency, total pressure ratio, stable operating range, and aerodynamic noise. Detailed flow measurement was performed in outlet flow field for investigating the responsible flow mechanisms. The optimized blade can cause a spanwise redistribution of flow toward the blade midspan and reduce tip loading. This results in reduced significantly total pressure loss near hub and shroud endwall region, despite the slight increase of total pressure loss at midspan. In addition, the measured spectrums show that the broadband noise of the impeller is dominant.

  15. INTERNAL FLOW MECHANISM AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF LOW PRESSURE AXIAL FAN WITH FORWARD-SKEWED BLADES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yang; LIU Jie; OUYANG Hua; DU Zhao-Hui

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the flow mechanism analysis and experimental study of a forward-skewed impeller and a radial impeller in low pressure axial fan. The forward-skewed blade was obtained by the optimization design of the radial blade and CFD technique. Measurement of the two blades was carried out in aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance. Compared to the radial blade, the forward-skewed blade has demonstrated the improvements in efficiency, total pressure ratio, Stable Operating Range (SOR) and less aerodynamic noise. Detailed flow measurement and computation were performed for outlet flow field for investigating the responsible flow mechanisms. The results show the forward-skewed blade can cause a spanwise redistribution of flow toward the blade mid-span and reduce tip loading. This results in reduced significantly total pressure loss near hub and shroud endwall region, despite the slight increase of total pressure loss at mid-span.

  16. Low pressure phase diagram of CeCoGe{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizoo, Masakazu; Nishioka, Takashi; Kato, Harukazu; Matsumura, Masahiro, E-mail: nisioka@kochi-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan)

    2011-01-01

    We have performed measurements of the Hall magnetization and electrical resistivity on a pressure-induced antiferromagnetic heavy fermion superconductor CeCoGe{sub 3} at pressures up to {approx}1.7 GPa, which crystallizes in the tetragonal BaNiSn{sub 3}-type structure without inversion symmetry. We have clarified that five successive phase transitions appear at ambient pressure. As pressure is applied, these transitions approach one another until {approx}1.2 GPa, and then separate again. We have also found another phase transition emerges above {approx}0.5 GPa, which is consistent with a recent Co-NQR study. From these results, we propose a low pressure P-T phase diagram, which contains at least eight ordered phases below {approx}2 GPa. This phase diagram is consistent with a recent reported high pressure phase diagram.

  17. Turbulent kinetic energy balance measurements in the wake of a low-pressure turbine blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sideridis, A. [Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics and Turbomachinery, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Yakinthos, K., E-mail: kyros@eng.auth.g [Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics and Turbomachinery, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Goulas, A. [Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics and Turbomachinery, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2011-02-15

    The turbulent kinetic energy budget in the wake generated by a high lift, low-pressure two-dimensional blade cascade of the T106 profile was investigated experimentally using hot-wire anemometry. The purpose of this study is to examine the transport mechanism of the turbulent kinetic energy and provide validation data for turbulence modeling. Point measurements were conducted on a high spatial resolution, two-dimensional grid that allowed precise derivative calculations. Positioning of the probe was achieved using a high accuracy traversing mechanism. The turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) convection, production, viscous diffusion and turbulent diffusion were all obtained directly from experimental measurements. Dissipation and pressure diffusion were calculated indirectly using techniques presented and validated by previous investigators. Results for all terms of the turbulent kinetic energy budget are presented and discussed in detail in the present work.

  18. Propagation of light in low pressure ionised and atomic hydrogen. Application to astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Moret-Bailly, J

    2003-01-01

    The "Impulsive Stimulated Raman Scattering" (ISRS) performed using ultrashort laser pulses shifts the light frequencies. Tried using ordinary incoherent light, it keeps its qualitative properties except the nonlinearity due to the power of the laser pulses. The relative frequency shifts of the "Coherent Raman Effect on Incoherent Light" (CREIL) which is obtained do not depend on the intensity and, in a first approximation, on the frequency of the light. As CREIL does not blur the images and the spectra, its shifts may be confused with Doppler shifts. ISRS and CREIL are parametric effects which do not excite the matter, transferring energy from hot beams to cold beams; for CREIL, the cold light is thermal radiation which is heated. CREIL requires low pressure gases acting as catalysts. These gases must have Raman transitions in the radiofrequencies range: for instance H2+ or excited atomic hydrogen in a magnetic field. The spectral lines resulting from a simultaneous absorption (or emission) and CREIL have a w...

  19. Research and Evaluation for Passive Safety System in Low Pressure Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chuanxin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low pressure reactor is a small size advanced reactor with power of 180 MWt, which is under development at Nuclear Power Institute of China. In order to assess the ability and feasibility of passive safety system, several tests have been implemented on the passive safety system (PSS test facility. During the LOCA and SBO accident, the adequate core cooling is provided by the performance of passive safety system. In addition the best-estimate thermal hydraulic code, CATHARE V2.1, has been assessed against cold leg LOCA test. The calculation results show that CATHARE is in a satisfactory agreement with the test for the steady state and transient test.

  20. Research program: The investigation of heat transfer and fluid flow at low pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, M. S.; Philbin, J. S.; Foushee, F. C.

    1986-04-01

    This paper gives an overview of a multiyear joint research program being conducted at the University of New Mexico (UNM) with support from Sandia National Laboratories and GA Technologies. This research focuses on heat removal and fluid dynamics in flow regimes characterized by low pressure and low Reynolds number. The program was motivated by a desire to characterize and analyze cooling in a broad class of TRIGA-type reactors under: (1) typical operating conditions, (2) anticipated, new operating regimes, and (3) postulated accident conditions. It has also provided experimental verification of analytical tools used in design analysis. The paper includes descriptions of the UNM thermal-hydraulics test facility and the experimental test sections. During the first two years experiments were conducted using single, electrically heated rod in water and air annuli. This configuration provides an observable and serviceable simulation of a fuel rod and its coolant channel.

  1. Principles and practice of low pressure-expendable pattern casting process for magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ji-qiang; FAN Zi-tian; WU He-bao; DONG Xuan-pu; ZHANG Da-fu; HUANG Nai-yu

    2006-01-01

    A newly developed low-pressure expendable pattern casting (LP-EPC) process was introduced and its basic pnnciples or effect factors were further analyzed. According to theoretical calculation and experimental results, the major casting parameters that are of great and critical importance on the process include pressure and flux of filling gas, decomposition characteristic and density of foam pattern,thickness and permeability of coating, pouring temperature, vacuum degree and their combination. Most of casting defects can be effectively avoided by choosing the suitable parameters. The success achieved in pouring motor housing and exhaust manifold castings demonstrates the advantages of LP-EPC process in the production of high-complicated castings with high dimension accuracy.

  2. Numerical simulation and optimization of Al alloy cylinder body by low pressure die casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mi Guofa; Liu Yanlei; Zhao Hengtao; Fu Hengzhi

    2008-01-01

    Shrinkage defects can be formed easily at critical location during low pressure die casting(LPDC)of aluminum alloy cylinder body.It has harmful effect on the products.Mold filling and solidification process of a cylinder body was simulated by using of Z-CAST software.The casting method was Improved based on the simulation results.In order to create eriective feeding passage,the structure of casting was modified by changing the location of strengthening ribs at the bottom,without causing any adverse effect on the part's performance.Inserting copper billet at suitable Iocation of the die is a valid way to create suitable solidification sequence that is beneficial to the feeding.Using these methods.the shrinkage defect was completely eliminated at the critical location.

  3. The effects of plasma inhomogeneity on the nanoparticle coating in a low pressure plasma reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourali, N.; Foroutan, G.

    2015-10-01

    A self-consistent model is used to study the surface coating of a collection of charged nanoparticles trapped in the sheath region of a low pressure plasma reactor. The model consists of multi-fluid plasma sheath module, including nanoparticle dynamics, as well as the surface deposition and particle heating modules. The simulation results show that the mean particle radius increases with time and the nanoparticle size distribution is broadened. The mean radius is a linear function of time, while the variance exhibits a quadratic dependence. The broadening in size distribution is attributed to the spatial inhomogeneity of the deposition rate which in turn depends on the plasma inhomogeneity. The spatial inhomogeneity of the ions has strong impact on the broadening of the size distribution, as the ions contribute both in the nanoparticle charging and in direct film deposition. The distribution width also increases with increasing of the pressure, gas temperature, and the ambient temperature gradient.

  4. Development of water soluble binder systems for low pressure injection molding of alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakan, H.I.; Gunes, M. [TUBITAK-MRC Materials and Chemical Technologies Research Inst., Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2004-07-01

    Low pressure injection molding of alumina powder using a water-soluble binder system has been carried out successfully. The water-soluble based binder system consisted of poly (2-ethyl-2-oxaline), low density polyethylene and stearic acid. The critical powder loading of the binder-powder mixture was determined based on torque rheometry experiments. The rheological properties of the powder-binder mixture were investigated systematically. The binder system used provides satisfactory mixture stability, excellent mouldability and reasonably fast water leaching and thermal debinding rates. The water-soluble constituent, poly (2-ethyl-2-oxaline), was removed by leaching in convecting water at 60 C within 6 hour. The remaining binder constituents were thermally removed during heating to 450 C. Sintering of the parts was conducted at 1550 C for an hour in air. (orig.)

  5. Characterization of the large area plane-symmetric low-pressure DC glow discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtaeva, S.; Gorokhovsky, V.; Myers, S.; Robertson, S.; Shunko, E.; Zembower, Z.

    2016-10-01

    Electron density and temperature as well as nitrogen dissociation degree in the low-pressure (10-50 mTorr) large area plane-symmetric DC glow discharge in Ar-N2 mixtures are studied by probes and spectral methods. Electron density measured by a hairpin probe is in good agreement with that derived from the intensity ratio of the N2 2nd positive system bands IC , 1 - 3/IC , 0 - 2 and from the intensity ratio of argon ions and atom lines IArII/IArI, while Langmuir probe data provides slightly higher values of electron density. Electron density in the low-pressure DC glow discharge varies with the discharge conditions in the limits of 108-1010 cm- 3. The concept of electron temperature can be used in low-pressure glow discharges with reservations. The intensity ratio of (0-0) vibrational bands of N2 1st negative and 2nd positive systems I391.4/I337.1 exhibits the electron temperature of 1.5-2.5 eV when argon fraction in the mixture is higher than nitrogen fraction and this ratio quickly increases with nitrogen fraction up to 10 eV in pure nitrogen. The electron temperature calculated from Langmuir probe I-V characteristics assuming a Maxwellian EEDF, gives Te 0.3-0.4 eV. In-depth analysis of the EEDF using the second derivative of Langmuir probe I-V characteristics shows that in a low-pressure glow discharge the EEDF is non-Maxwellian. The EEDF has two populations of electrons: the main background non-Maxwellian population of ;cold; electrons with the mean electron energy of 0.3-0.4 eV and the small Maxwellian population of ;hot; electrons with the mean electron energy of 1.0-2.5 eV. Estimations show that with electron temperature lower than 1 eV the rate of the direct electron impact ionization of N2 is low and the main mechanism of N2 ionization becomes most likely Penning and associative ionization. In this case, assumptions of the intensity ratio IN2+ , 391/IN2 , 337 method are violated. In the glow discharge, N2 dissociation degree reaches about 7% with the argon

  6. Simulation of rarefied low pressure RF plasma flow around the sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheltukhin, V. S.; Shemakhin, A. Yu

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes a mathematical model of the flow of radio frequency plasma at low pressure. The hybrid mathematical model includes the Boltzmann equation for the neutral component of the RF plasma, the continuity and the thermal equations for the charged component. Initial and boundary conditions for the corresponding equations are described. The electron temperature in the calculations is 1-4 eV, atoms temperature in the plasma clot is (3-4) • 103 K, in the plasma jet is (3.2-10) • 102 K, the degree of ionization is 10-7-10-5, electron density is 1015-1019 m-3. For calculations plasma parameters is developed soft package on C++ program language, that uses the OpenFOAM library package. Simulations for the vacuum chamber in the presence of a sample and the free jet flow were carried out.

  7. Effects of feed solution chemistry on low pressure reverse osmosis filtration of cesium and strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Shiyuan, E-mail: dingshiyuan@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No. 19, Xinjiekouwai Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100875 (China); Yang, Yu, E-mail: yangyu@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No. 19, Xinjiekouwai Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100875 (China); Huang, Haiou, E-mail: huanghaiou@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No. 19, Xinjiekouwai Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100875 (China); Liu, Hengchen, E-mail: 799599501@qq.com [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No. 19, Xinjiekouwai Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100875 (China); Hou, Li-an, E-mail: houlian678@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No. 19, Xinjiekouwai Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100875 (China); Xi’an High-Tech Institute, No. 2, Tongxin Street, Baqiao District, Xi’an 710025 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • A low pressure spiral wound RO membrane can reject Cs and Sr efficiently. • The rejection of Cs and Sr is dependent on feed pH and co-existing ions. • Donnan exclusion and electrostatic interaction govern the rejection of Cs and Sr. • The differences of filtration mechanism were influenced by the size of ions. • Sr could strengthen the irreversible membrane fouling resistance with HA. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to identify the removal mechanisms of radionuclides by reverse osmosis (RO) membranes under conditions relevant to full-scale water treatment. For this purpose, the effects of feed solution chemistry on the removal of Cs and Sr by a low pressure RO system was investigated by systematically varying membrane surface charge, ionic composition, and organic matter concentrations. The results showed that the effects of solution chemistry on the filtration of Cs and Sr were related to their hydrated ionic radius, resulting in the predominance of the Donnan’s effect and electrostatic interactions, respectively. Consequently, the rejection of Cs increased more pronouncedly than Sr with the increases of feed concentration. Due to the Donnan’s effect, different anions decreased the rejection of Cs to different extents in accordance to the order of anions’ radii as SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} > Cl{sup −} > NO{sub 3}{sup −} > F{sup −}. The variations in Sr rejection were influenced by the electrostatic interactions between Sr{sup 2+} and the membrane. In addition, humic acid (HA) lowered the rejection of Cs and caused significant membrane flux decline, but did not change the rejection of Sr. Sr also aggravated HA fouling of the membrane.

  8. Effects of Alternate Leading Edge Cutback on the Space Shuttle Main Engine Low Pressure Fuel Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Andrew; Skelley, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    A higher order cavitation oscillation observed in the SSME low pressure fuel pump has been eliminated in water flow testing of a modified subscale replica of the inducer. The low pressure pump was modified by removing the outboard sections of two opposing blades of the four-bladed inducer, blending the "cutback" regions into the blades at the leading edge and tip, and removing material on the suction sides to decrease the exposed leading edge thickness. The leading edge tips of the cutback blades were moved approximately 25 degrees from their previous locations, thereby increasing one blade to blade spacing, decreasing the second, while simultaneously moving the cutback tips downstream. The test was conducted in MSFC's inducer test loop at scaled operating conditions in degassed and filtered water. In addition to eliminating HOC across the entire scaled operating regime, rotating cavitation was suppressed while the range of both alternate blade and asymmetric cavitation were increased. These latter phenomena, and more significantly, the shifts between these cavitation modes also resulted in significant changes to the head coefficient at low cavitation numbers. Reverse flow was detected at a slightly larger flow coefficient with the cutback inducer and suction capability was reduced by approximately 1 velocity head at and above approximately 90% of the reference flow coefficient. These performance changes along with more intense reverse flow are consistent with poor flow area management and increased incidence in the cutback region. Although the test demonstrated that the inducer modification was successful at eliminating the higher order cavitation across the entire scaled operating regime, different, previously unobserved, cavitation oscillations were introduced and significant performance penalties were imposed.

  9. Control of the nucleation and quality of graphene grown by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition with acetylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Meng, E-mail: youmou@rift.mech.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Nanomechanics, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Sasaki, Shinichirou [Department of Nanomechanics, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Suzuki, Ken; Miura, Hideo [Fracture and Reliability Research Institute, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • For the first time, we succeeded in the LPCVD growth of monolayer graphene using acetylene as the precursor gas. • The growth rate is very high when acetylene is used as the source gas. Our process has exhibited the potential to shorten the growth time of CVD graphene. • We found that the domain size, defects density, layer number and the sheet resistance of graphene can be changed by changing the acetylene flow rates. • We found that it is also possible to form bilayer graphene using acetylene. However, further study are necessary to reduce the defects density. - Abstract: Although many studies have reported the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of large-area monolayer graphene from methane, synthesis of graphene using acetylene as the source gas has not been fully explored. In this study, the low-pressure CVD (LPCVD) growth of graphene from acetylene was systematically investigated. We succeeded in regulating the domain size, defects density, layer number and the sheet resistance of graphene by changing the acetylene flow rates. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were employed to confirm the layer number, uniformity and quality of the graphene films. It is found that a low flow rate of acetylene (0.28 sccm) is required to form high-quality monolayer graphene in our system. On the other hand, the high acetylene flow rate (7 sccm) will induce the growth of the bilayer graphene domains with high defects density. On the basis of selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, the as-grown monolayer graphene domains were analyzed to be polycrystal. We also discussed the relation between the sheet resistacne and defects density in graphene. Our results provide great insights into the understanding of the CVD growth of monolayer and bilayer graphene from acetylene.

  10. Development and Implementation of an Ultrafast Vacuum-UV (8eV) Light Source for use in UV-VUV Pump Probe Experiments of Neutral Excited State Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yusong; Horton, Spencer; Matsika, Spiridoula; Weinacht, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Probing neutral excited state dynamics in polyatomic molecules with ultrafast laser systems enables us to study phenomena such as internal conversion, isomerization, intersystem crossing, and dissociation. Using the third harmonic (260 nm) and the fifth harmonic (156 nm) of our laser system we have developed an apparatus to perform pump-probe experiments for the study neutral excited state dynamics in various polyatomic molecules. The fifth harmonic of our laser system is generated through the four-wave-mixing process of k5 ω = 2k3 ω -kω performed with a non-collinear geometry in an argon gas cell. In several polyatomic molecular systems of interest a photon with 8 eV of energy gives us the unique ability to ionize from essentially anywhere along the excited state potential, but does not produce any ionization yield from the ground state. This enables us to measure excited state lifetimes without the photon energy becoming too low to ionize while the nuclear wave-packet is traveling on the excited state potential. We also have the advantage of working in the perturbative weak-field ionization regime. These experiments can also be directly compare to strong-field ionization experiments conducted with a UV-pump and an IR-probe conducted on the same molecules.

  11. Photodegradation of Trace Trichloronitromethane in Water under UV Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study’s objective was to study the photodegradation of TCNM (trichloronitromethane in water under UV light. The effects of light intensity, nitrate ions, chloride ions, humic acid, and pH on the photochemical degradation of TCNM were investigated under the irradiation of low pressure mercury lamp (λ = 254 nm, 12 W. The photodegradation rate of TCNM was found to increase with increasing the concentration of nitrate ions, chloride ions, humic acid, pH, and light intensity. The photodegradation of TCNM was examined at pH 6.0 with initial concentrations (C0 of TCNM at 10.0–200.0 µg/L. The overall rate of degradation of TCNM was modeled using a pseudofirst-order rate law. Finally, the proposed mechanism involved in the photodegradation of TCNM was also discussed by analysis. Results of this study can contribute to the development of new source control strategies for minimization of TCNM risk at drinking water and wastewater utilities.

  12. Modelling of Disinfection by-products formation via UV irradiation of the water from Tajan River (source water for Sari drinking water, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahbakhsh Javid

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study Irradiation with ultraviolet light (UV is used for the disinfection of bacterial contaminants in the production of potable water. The main objective of the study was to investigate and model Disinfection By-Products (DBPs formation due to the UV Irradiation of the Tajan River water under different Irradiation conditions. Materials & Methods:  Water samples were collected throughout September 2011 to August 2013. Transportation of the sample to the laboratory was done on ice in a cooler, and physiochemical analysis was conducted immediately within one day. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC was determined by a TOC analyzer. Irradiation experiments were conducted in a series of 25 mL glass serum bottles with Teflon septa. The present study adopts an orthogonal design. The design involved irradiation with UV at a UV/DOC ratio of 0.5–3.0 and incubating (headspace-free storage for 5–25 sec. A 1 mM phosphate buffer maintained the pH at 6, 7, or 8 respectively, and an incubator maintained the temperature (Temp at 15, 20, or 25 °C respectively. The development of empirical models for DBPs formation used a multivariate regression procedure (stepwise which applied the SPSS System for Windows (Version 16.0. Results:  The results showed that the total DBPs formation ranged between 12.3 and 67.4 mg/l and that control of the levels was primarily due to the reaction time and the dissolved organic carbon level (DOC in the water. Conclusions:  Reaction time and level of DOC concentrations in water exerted a dominant influence on the formation of DBPs during the UV irradiation of water from the Tajan River. The relationships between the measured and predicted values were satisfactory with R 2 values ranging from 0.89 (for Octanal–0.92 (for Formaldehydes. The DOC level in water is the key factor in controlling DBPs formation.

  13. Effect of Surface Treatment by Cathode Spot of Low Pressure Arc on Bonding Strength of Spraying Film by APPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Masayuki; Ogura, Hirosi; Maezono, Satoru; Kubo, Yuya; Iwao, Toru; Tobe, Shogo; Inaba, Tsuginori

    Cathode spots of a low pressure arc can remove the oxide layer and evaporate impurities on the metal surface. The removal of the oxide layer by using the cathode spots in the low pressure is expected to solve the serious problems of the chemical and mechanical cleaning methods. The phenomena of the cathode spots in the low pressure for pre-treatment of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Spray (APPS) have been investigated. In this paper, the surface shape of oxide work pieces was treated by using the cathode spots in the low pressure arc then compared with the grit-blasted surface. As a result, it is possible to improve the bonding strength of the spray deposit by making arithmetical mean height Ra large and average length of outline curve element Rsm small. Cathode spots of a low-pressure arc can be used for pre-treatment of APPS as the alternative technology of the blast. it is possible to obtain Ra larger an Rsm smaller than the blast only by cathode spots after the blast. But the treatment must be restricted not to destroy projection ones which were formed with melting.

  14. Effects of temperature and exposure time on mortality of stored-product insects exposed to low pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbata, G N; Phillips, T W

    2001-10-01

    The prospects of using low pressure that creates a low-oxygen atmosphere to control stored-product insects were investigated in the laboratory. Eggs, larvae, and pupae of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) were exposed to 32.5 mmHg in glass chambers at 25, 33, 37, and 40 degrees C for times ranging from 30 min to 144 h. Time-mortality data were subjected to probit analyses and lethal dose ratios were computed to determine differences in lethal time (LT) values among all species-life stage combinations across the four temperatures. Eggs of each species were the life stage most tolerant to low pressure. Pupae of T. castaneum and R. dominica were more tolerant to low pressure than larvae. In all life stages, mortality increased with increasing exposure time to low pressure and also with increasing temperature. Immature stages of R. dominica were more tolerant to low pressure than immature stages of the other two species. The LT99 for R. dominica eggs was 176.32 h at 25 degrees C and that for P. interpunctella eggs was 28.35 h at the same temperature. An increase in temperature to 33 degrees C resulted in a LT99 phosphine for controlling pests of stored-products or other commodities.

  15. Bulk characterization of pharmaceutical powders by low-pressure compression II: effect of method settings and particle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Arne Hagsten; Sonnergaard, Jørn Møller; Hovgaard, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of punch and die diameter, sample size, compression speed, and particle size on two low-pressure compression-derived parameters; the compressed density and the Walker w parameter. The excellent repeatability of the low-pressure compression method allowed small effects of variations in punch and die diameter and sample size to be demonstrated on a high significance level. Changing the compression speed, however, did not cause a significant effect in the compressed density, whereas a decrease in w was seen. The effect of particle size was studied by compressing and tapping different grades of calcium carbonate, lactose, and microcrystalline cellulose. The low-pressure compression-derived parameters were compared to tapped densities and to Compressibility Indexes obtained by tapping volumetry. Even though the relationship between particle size and the low-pressure compression-derived parameters appeared to be more complicated, a similar trend was observed. It was concluded that the low-pressure compression method provides a useful alternative to the more sample-consuming methods providing flow-related information.

  16. A comparison of low-pressure and supercharged operation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell systems for aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, C.; Preiß, G.; Gores, F.; Griebenow, M.; Heitmann, S.

    2016-08-01

    Multifunctional fuel cell systems are competitive solutions aboard future generations of civil aircraft concerning energy consumption, environmental issues, and safety reasons. The present study compares low-pressure and supercharged operation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells with respect to performance and efficiency criteria. This is motivated by the challenge of pressure-dependent fuel cell operation aboard aircraft with cabin pressure varying with operating altitude. Experimental investigations of low-pressure fuel cell operation use model-based design of experiments and are complemented by numerical investigations concerning supercharged fuel cell operation. It is demonstrated that a low-pressure operation is feasible with the fuel cell device under test, but that its range of stable operation changes between both operating modes. Including an external compressor, it can be shown that the power demand for supercharging the fuel cell is about the same as the loss in power output of the fuel cell due to low-pressure operation. Furthermore, the supercharged fuel cell operation appears to be more sensitive with respect to variations in the considered independent operating parameters load requirement, cathode stoichiometric ratio, and cooling temperature. The results indicate that a pressure-dependent self-humidification control might be able to exploit the potential of low-pressure fuel cell operation for aircraft applications to the best advantage.

  17. Deactivation of lipopolysaccharide by Ar and H2 inductively coupled low-pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartis, E. A. J.; Barrett, C.; Chung, T.-Y.; Ning, N.; Chu, J.-W.; Graves, D. B.; Seog, J.; Oehrlein, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    Using an inductively coupled plasma system, we study the effects of direct plasma, plasma-generated high-energy photons in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet (UV/VUV), and radical treatments on lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS is a biomolecule found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and a potent stimulator of the immune system composed of polysaccharide and lipid A, which contains six aliphatic chains. LPS film thickness spun on silicon was monitored by ellipsometry while the surface chemistry was characterized before and after treatments by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Additionally, biological activity was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay under (a) a sensitive regime (sub-µM concentrations of LPS) and (b) a bulk regime (above µM concentrations of LPS) after plasma treatments. Direct plasma treatment causes rapid etching and deactivation of LPS in both Ar and H2 feed gases. To examine the effect of UV/VUV photons, a long-pass filter with a cut-off wavelength of 112 nm was placed over the sample. H2 UV/VUV treatment causes material removal and deactivation due to atomic and molecular UV/VUV emission while Ar UV/VUV treatment shows minimal effects as Ar plasma does not emit UV/VUV photons in the transmitted wavelength range explored. Interestingly, radical treatments remove negligible material but cause deactivation. Based on the amphiphilic structure of LPS, we expect a lipid A rich surface layer to form at the air-water interface during sample preparation with polysaccharide layers underneath. XPS shows that H2 plasma treatment under direct and UV/VUV conditions causes oxygen depletion through removal of C-O and O-C = O bonds in the films, which does not occur in Ar treatments. Damage to these groups can remove aliphatic chains that contribute to the pyrogenicity of LPS. Radical treatments from both Ar and H2 plasmas remove aliphatic carbon from the near-surface, demonstrating the important role of neutral species.

  18. Low pressure corium dispersion experiments in the DISCO test facility with cold simulant fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, L.; Gargallo, M.; Kirstahler, M.; Schwall, M.; Wachter, E.; Woerner, G.

    2006-08-15

    In a severe accident special pressure relief valves in the primary circuit of German Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) will transfer a high pressure accident into a low pressure scenario. However, there may be a time window during late in-vessel reflooding scenarios where the pressure is in the order of 1 or 2 MPa at the moment of the reactor vessel rupture. A failure in the bottom head of the reactor pressure vessel, followed by melt expulsion and blowdown of the reactor cooling system, might disperse molten core debris out of the reactor pit, even at such low pressures. The mechanisms of efficient debris-to-gas heat transfer, exothermic metal/oxygen reactions, and hydrogen combustion may cause a rapid increase in pressure and temperature in the reactor containment. Integral experiments are necessary to furnish data for modeling these processes in computer codes, that will be used to apply these result to the reactor case. The acquired knowledge can lead to realize additional safety margins for existing or future plants. The test facility DISCO-C (DIspersion of Simulant COrium - Cold) models the annular reactor cavity and the subcompartments of a large European reactor in a scale 1:18. The fluid dynamics of the dispersion process was studied using model fluids, water or bismuth alloy instead of corium, and nitrogen or helium instead of steam. The effects of different breach sizes and locations, and different failure pressures on the dispersion were studied, specifically by testing central holes, lateral holes, horizontal rips, and complete ripping of the bottom head. 22 experiments were performed in a basic cavity geometry with holes at the bottom of the lower head to study the similarity relations. Variables were the hole diameter, the initial pressure in the RPV and the fluids used. The only flow path out of the reactor pit was the annular gap between the inner wall of the reactor pit and the RPV, and then along the main coolant lines into the subcompartments

  19. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert

    2012-05-14

    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  20. 低压洗涤塔在尿素装置低压尾气回收中的应用%Application of low-pressure scrubber in low-pressure exhaust gas recycling of urea plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯立志

    2014-01-01

    简要介绍二氧化碳汽提尿素装置低压回收工序采用低压洗涤塔工艺,有效降低了尾气中氨、二氧化碳的排放,大大降低了生产成本。%The paper briefly introduces low-pressure scrubber process in low-pressure exhaust gas recycling of CO2 stripping urea plant,reducing ammonia and carbon dioxide emissions effectively in tail gas,and reducing the cost of production greatly.

  1. Microwave air plasmas in capillaries at low pressure II. Experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancu, G. D.; Leroy, O.; Coche, P.; Gadonna, K.; Guerra, V.; Minea, T.; Alves, L. L.

    2016-11-01

    This work presents an experimental study of microwave (2.45 GHz excitation frequency) micro-plasmas, generated in dry air (N2 80%: O2 20%) within a small radius silica capillary (345 µm inner radius) at low pressure (300 Pa) and low powers (80-130 W). Experimental diagnostics are performed using optical emission spectroscopy calibrated in absolute intensity. Axial-resolved measurements (50 µm spatial resolution) of atomic transitions N(3p4S)  →  N(3s4P) O(3p5P)  →  O(3s5S) and molecular transitions N2(C,v‧)  →  N2(B,v″) \\text{N}2+ (B,v‧)  →  \\text{N}2+ (X,v″) allow us to obtain, as a function of the coupled power, the absolute densities of N(3p4S), O(3p5P), N2(C), N2(B) and \\text{N}2+ (B), as well as the gas (rotational) temperature (700-1000 K), the vibrational temperature of N2(C,v) (7000-10 000 K) and the excitation temperatures of N2(C) and N2(B) (11 000 K). The analysis of the H β line-width gives an upper limiting value of 1013 cm-3 for the electron density; its axial variation (4  ×  1011-6  ×  1012 cm-3) being estimated by solving the wave electrodynamics equations for the present geometry, plasma length and electron-neutral collision frequency. The experimental results were compared with the results from a 0D model, presented in companion paper I [1], which couples the system of rate balance equations for the dominant neutral and charged plasma species to the homogeneous two-term electron Boltzmann equation, taking the measured gas temperature and the estimated electron density as input parameters. Good qualitative agreement is found between the measurements and calculations of the local species densities for various powers and axial positions. The dissociation degree of oxygen is found above 10%. Moreover, both the measurements and calculations show evidence of the non-equilibrium behavior of low-temperature plasmas, with vibrational and excitation temperatures at least

  2. Solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes produced via very low pressure suspension plasma spray and electrophoretic deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleetwood, James D.

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are a promising element of comprehensive energy policies due to their direct mechanism for converting the oxidization of fuel, such as hydrogen, into electrical energy. Both very low pressure plasma spray and electrophoretic deposition allow working with high melting temperature SOFC suspension based feedstock on complex surfaces, such as in non-planar SOFC designs. Dense, thin electrolytes of ideal composition for SOFCs can be fabricated with each of these processes, while compositional control is achieved with dissolved dopant compounds that are incorporated into the coating during deposition. In the work reported, sub-micron 8 mole % Y2O3-ZrO2 (YSZ) and gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC), powders, including those in suspension with scandium-nitrate dopants, were deposited on NiO-YSZ anodes, via very low pressure suspension plasma spray (VLPSPS) at Sandia National Laboratories' Thermal Spray Research Laboratory and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) at Purdue University. Plasma spray was carried out in a chamber held at 320 - 1300 Pa, with the plasma composed of argon, hydrogen, and helium. EPD was characterized utilizing constant current deposition at 10 mm electrode separation, with deposits sintered from 1300 -- 1500 °C for 2 hours. The role of suspension constituents in EPD was analyzed based on a parametric study of powder loading, powder specific surface area, polyvinyl butyral (PVB) content, polyethyleneimine (PEI) content, and acetic acid content. Increasing PVB content and reduction of particle specific surface area were found to eliminate the formation of cracks when drying. PEI and acetic acid content were used to control suspension stability and the adhesion of deposits. Additionally, EPD was used to fabricate YSZ/GDC bilayer electrolyte systems. The resultant YSZ electrolytes were 2-27 microns thick and up to 97% dense. Electrolyte performance as part of a SOFC system with screen printed LSCF cathodes was evaluated with peak

  3. Physical Insights, Steady Aerodynamic Effects, and a Design Tool for Low-Pressure Turbine Flutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Joshua Joseph

    The successful, efficient, and safe turbine design requires a thorough understanding of the underlying physical phenomena. This research investigates the physical understanding and parameters highly correlated to flutter, an aeroelastic instability prevalent among low pressure turbine (LPT) blades in both aircraft engines and power turbines. The modern way of determining whether a certain cascade of LPT blades is susceptible to flutter is through time-expensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. These codes converge to solution satisfying the Eulerian conservation equations subject to the boundary conditions of a nodal domain consisting fluid and solid wall particles. Most detailed CFD codes are accompanied by cryptic turbulence models, meticulous grid constructions, and elegant boundary condition enforcements all with one goal in mind: determine the sign (and therefore stability) of the aerodynamic damping. The main question being asked by the aeroelastician, "is it positive or negative?'' This type of thought-process eventually gives rise to a black-box effect, leaving physical understanding behind. Therefore, the first part of this research aims to understand and reveal the physics behind LPT flutter in addition to several related topics including acoustic resonance effects. A percentage of this initial numerical investigation is completed using an influence coefficient approach to study the variation the work-per-cycle contributions of neighboring cascade blades to a reference airfoil. The second part of this research introduces new discoveries regarding the relationship between steady aerodynamic loading and negative aerodynamic damping. Using validated CFD codes as computational wind tunnels, a multitude of low-pressure turbine flutter parameters, such as reduced frequency, mode shape, and interblade phase angle, will be scrutinized across various airfoil geometries and steady operating conditions to reach new design guidelines regarding the influence

  4. InP/InGaAlAs distributed Bragg reflectors grown by low-pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, T. C.; Tsai, J. Y.; Chu, J. T.; Chang, Y. S.; Wang, S. C.

    2003-04-01

    Long-wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are considered the best candidate for the future low-cost reliable light sources in fiber communications. However, the absence of high refractive index contrast in InP-lattice-matched materials impeded the development of 1.3-1.5 μm VCSELs. Although wafer fusions provided the alternative approaches to integrate the InP-based gain materials with the GaAs/AlAs materials for their inherent high refractive index contrast, the monolithic InP-based lattice-matched distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) are still highly attractive and desirable. In this report, we demonstrate InP/InGaAlAs DBRs with larger refractive index contrast than InP/InGaAsP and InAlAs/InGaAlAs DBRs. The switching between InP and InGaAlAs layers and growth rate control have been done by careful growth interruption technique and accurate in situ optical monitoring in low-pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition. A 35 pairs 1.55 μm centered InP/InGaAlAs DBRs has the stopband of more than 100 nm and the highest reflectivity of more than 99%. A VCSEL structure incorporating 35 pairs InP/InGaAlAs DBR as the bottom mirror combined with a 2 λ thick periodic gain cavity and 10 pairs SiO 2/TiO 2 top dielectric mirrors was fabricated. The VCSELs lased at 1.56 μm by optical pumping at room temperature with the threshold pumping power of 30 mW.

  5. Vacuum isostatic micro/macro molding of PTFE materials for laser beam shaping in environmental applications: large scale UV laser water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd; Ohar, Orest

    2009-08-01

    Accessibility to fresh clean water has determined the location and survival of civilizations throughout the ages [1]. The tangible economic value of water is demonstrated by industry's need for water in fields such as semiconductor, food and pharmaceutical manufacturing. Economic stability for all sectors of industry depends on access to reliable volumes of good quality water. As can be seen on television a nation's economy is seriously affected by water shortages through drought or mismanagement and as such those water resources must therefore be managed both for the public interest and the economic future. For over 50 years ultraviolet water purification has been the mainstay technology for water treatment, killing potential microbiological agents in water for leisure activities such as swimming pools to large scale waste water treatment facilities where the UV light photo-oxidizes various pollutants and contaminants. Well tailored to the task, UV provides a cost effective way to reduce the use of chemicals in sanitization and anti-biological applications. Predominantly based on low pressure Hg UV discharge lamps, the system is plagued with lifetime issues (~1 year normal operation), the last ten years has shown that the technology continues to advance and larger scale systems are turning to more advanced lamp designs and evaluating solidstate UV light sources and more powerful laser sources. One of the issues facing the treatment of water with UV lasers is an appropriate means of delivering laser light efficiently over larger volumes or cross sections of water. This paper examines the potential advantages of laser beam shaping components made from isostatically micro molding microstructured PTFE materials for integration into large scale water purification and sterilization systems, for both lamps and laser sources. Applying a unique patented fabrication method engineers can form micro and macro scale diffractive, holographic and faceted reflective structures

  6. Improving the conversion efficiency of Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cell by low pressure sulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Su, Zhenghua; Zhao, Lianbo; Yan, Chang; Liu, Fangyang; Cui, Hongtao; Hao, Xiaojing; Liu, Yexiang

    2014-04-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films have been prepared by the sol-gel sulfurization method on Mo-coated substrates, and the comparative studies between the atmospheric pressure sulfurization and low pressure sulfurization was carried out. The Cu2ZnSnS4 film sulfurized at low pressure exhibits larger grain size, thinner MoS2 layer, and free of SnS secondary phase, but more ZnS on surface. The device efficiency of 4.1% using Cu2ZnSnS4 absorber from atmospheric pressure sulfurization is improved to 5.7% using that from low pressure sulfurization via the boost of open-circuit and fill factor.

  7. Numerical simulation of turbulent flow in the throttle of the MBIR reactor's low-pressure chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarunichev, V. A.; Orlova, E. E.; Lemekhov, Yu. V.; Shpanskii, V. A.

    2015-08-01

    This work in devoted to numerical calculation of turbulent flow in a labyrinth-type throttle. A system of such throttles is installed at the inlet to the MBIR reactor's low-pressure chamber and serves for setting up the required pressure difference and coolant flow rate. MBIR is a multipurpose fourthgeneration fast-neutron research reactor intended for investigating new kinds of nuclear fuel, structural materials, and coolants. The aim of this work is to develop a verified procedure for carrying out 3D calculation of the throttle using CFD modeling techniques. The investigations on determining the throttle hydraulic friction coefficient were carried out in the range of Reynolds numbers Re = 52000-136000. The reactor coolant (liquid sodium) was modeled by tap water. The calculations were carried out using high-Reynolds-number turbulence models with the near-wall functions k-ɛ and RNG k-ɛ, where k is the turbulent pulsation kinetic energy and ɛ is the turbulence kinetic energy dissipation rate. The obtained results have shown that the calculated value of hydraulic friction coefficient differs from its experimental value by no more than 10%. The developed procedure can be applied in determining the hydraulic friction coefficient of a modified labyrinth throttle design. The use of such calculation will make it possible to predict an experiment with the preset accuracy.

  8. Review of recent developments and applications in low-pressure (vacuum outlet) gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Lehotay, Steven J

    2015-10-29

    The concept of low pressure (LP) vacuum outlet gas chromatography (GC) was introduced more than 50 years ago, but it was not until the 2000s that its theoretical applicability to fast analysis of GC-amenable chemicals was realized. In practice, LPGC is implemented by placing the outlet of a short, wide (typically 10-15 m, 0.53 mm inner diameter) analytical column under vacuum conditions, which speeds the separation by reducing viscosity of the carrier gas, thereby leading to a higher optimal flow rate for the most separation efficiency. To keep the inlet at normal operating pressures, the analytical column is commonly coupled to a short, narrow uncoated restriction capillary that also acts as a guard column. The faster separations in LPGC usually result in worse separation efficiency relative to conventional GC, but selective detection usually overcomes this drawback. Mass spectrometry (MS) provides highly selective and sensitive universal detection, and nearly all GC-MS instruments provide vacuum outlet conditions for implementation of LPGC-MS(/MS) without need for adaptations. In addition to higher sample throughput, LPGC provides other benefits, including lower detection limits, less chance of analyte degradation, reduced peak tailing, increased sample loadability, and more ruggedness without overly narrow peaks that would necessitate excessively fast data acquisition rates. This critical review summarizes recent developments in the application of LPGC with MS and other detectors in the analysis of pesticides, environmental contaminants, explosives, phytosterols, and other semi-volatile compounds.

  9. NMR Study of Laser-polarized 129Xe in Low Pressure Natural Xenon Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xianping; WANG Shenglie; ZENG Xizhi

    2001-01-01

    The NMR signal from the laser-polarized t29 Xe in low-pressure natural xenon gas has been observed with a Bruker WP-80SY NMR spectrometer. The laser-polarized 129 Xe was produced by the method of laser pumping and spin exchange in a magnetic field of 1.87 Tesla. It is obtained experimentally that the nuclear spin relaxation rate 1/T1 of laser-polarized 129Xe are (4.03±1.97)×10-3/see~(2.21±0.78)×10-3/see in the range of the 3.33×103 Pa~8.29×104 Pa Xe gas pressures, the apparent wall relaxation rate 1/Tw* =(1.98±0.18)×10-3/see, and the relaxation rate coefficient C of 133Cs-129Xe spin exchange is (2.81±0.74)×10-16 em3/sec.

  10. Low-pressure phase diagram of crystalline benzene from quantum Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Azadi, Sam

    2016-01-01

    We study the low-pressure (0 to 10 GPa) phase diagram of crystalline benzene using quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) and density functional theory (DFT) methods. We consider the $Pbca$, $P4_32_12$, and $P2_1/c$ structures as the best candidates for phase I and phase II. We perform diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (DMC) calculations to obtain accurate static phase diagrams as benchmarks for modern van der Waals density functionals. We use density functional perturbation theory to compute phonon contribution in the free-energy calculations. Our DFT enthalpy-pressure phase diagram indicates that the $Pbca$ and $P2_1/c$ structures are the most stable phases within the studied pressure range. The DMC Gibbs free-energy calculations predict that the room temperature $Pbca$ to $P2_1/c$ phase transition occurs at 2.1(1) GPa. This prediction is consistent with available experimental results at room temperature. Our DMC calculations show an estimate of 50.6$\\pm$0.5 kJ/mol for crystalline benzene lattice energy.

  11. Low-pressure systems and extreme precipitation in central India: sensitivity to temperature changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørland, Silje Lund; Sorteberg, Asgeir

    2016-07-01

    Extreme rainfall events in the central Indian region are often related to the passage of synoptic scale monsoon low-pressure systems (LPS). This study uses the surrogate climate change method on ten monsoon LPS cases connected to observed extreme rainfall events, to investigate how sensitive the precipitation and runoff are to an idealized warmer and moister atmosphere. The ten cases are simulated with three different initial and lateral boundary conditions: the unperturbed control run, and two sets of perturbed runs where the atmospheric temperature is increased uniformly throughout the atmosphere, the specific humidity increased according to Clausius Clapeyron's relation, but the large-scale flow is unchanged. The difference between the control and perturbed simulations are mainly due to the imposed warming and feedback influencing the synoptic flow. The mean precipitation change with warming in the central Indian region is 18-20 %/K, with largest changes at the end of the LPS tracks. The LPS in the warmer runs are bringing more moisture further inland that is released as precipitation. In the perturbed runs the precipitation rate is increasing at all percentiles, and there is more frequent rainfall with very heavy intensities. This leads to a shift in which category that contributes most to the total precipitation: more of the precipitation is coming from the category with very heavy intensities. The runoff changes are similar to the precipitation changes, except the response in intensity of very heavy runoff, which is around twice the change in intensity of very heavy precipitation.

  12. High-voltage nanosecond pulses in a low-pressure radiofrequency discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Pustylnik, Mikhail; Ivlev, Alexei; Vasilyak, Leonid; Couëdel, Lenaic; Thomas, Hubertus; Morfill, Gregor; Fortov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    An influence of a high-voltage (3-17 kV) 20 ns pulse on a weakly-ionized low-pressure (0.1-10 Pa) capacitively-coupled radiofrequency (RF) argon plasma is studied experimentally. The plasma evolution after pulse exhibits two characteristic regimes: a bright flash, occurring within 100 ns after the pulse (when the discharge emission increases by 2-3 orders of magnitude over the steady-state level), and a dark phase, lasting a few hundreds \\mu s (when the intensity of the discharge emission drops significantly below the steady-state level). The electron density increases during the flash and remains very large at the dark phase. 1D3V particle-in-cell simulations qualitatively reproduce both regimes and allow for detailed analysis of the underlying mechanisms. It is found that the high-voltage nanosecond pulse is capable of removing a significant fraction of plasma electrons out of the discharge gap, and that the flash is the result of the excitation of gas atoms, triggered by residual electrons accelerated in t...

  13. Evaluation of Low-Pressure Cold Plasma for Disinfection of ISS Grown Produce and Metallic Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.; Franco, Carolina; Hummerick, Mary E.; Maloney, Phil R.; Spencer, Lashelle E.

    2017-01-01

    Cold plasma (CP) cleaning is a dry, non-thermal process, which can provide broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity yet reportedly causes little to no damage to the object being sanitized. Since cold plasma uses no liquids, it has the distinct advantage when used in microgravity of not having to separate liquids from the item being cleaned. This paper will present results on an effort to use low pressure CP to disinfect or sterilize materials for in space applications. Exposure times from 0 to 60 minutes and pressures ranging from 0.10 to 1.0 mbar were used to optimize plasma parameters. Tests were done on produce and metal coupons to simulate medical equipment. Escherichia coli was used as the challenge organism on produce and Bacillus pumilus SAFR-32 was used on metal surfaces. Produce testing was not successful, with unacceptable kill rates and the produce being negatively impacted by exposure to the plasma. The plasma caused a 5 log reduction in the number of viable bacteria on metal coupon tests, which placed the number of viable bacteria below the detection limit. This is a very promising result showing that sterilization of medical equipment with cold plasma is feasible. Scanning Electron Microscope images were taken before and after exposure. The images after plasma exposure show that the bacteria spores have been physically affected, as their size has gotten smaller and their appearance has changed.

  14. Evaluation of Low-Pressure Cold Plasma for Disinfection for ISS Grown Produce and Metallic Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.; Franco, Carolina; Hummerick, Mary E.; Maloney, Phillip R.; Spencer, Lashelle E.

    2017-01-01

    Cold plasma (CP) cleaning is a dry, non-thermal process, which can provide broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity yet reportedly causes little to no damage to the object being sanitized. Since cold plasma uses no liquids, it has the distinct advantage when used in microgravity of not having to separate liquids from the item being cleaned. This paper will present results on an effort to use low pressure CP to disinfect or sterilize materials for in space applications. Exposure times from 0 to 60 minutes and pressures ranging from 10 to 100 Pa were used to optimize plasma parameters to achieve acceptable kill rates for 3 bacteria, Bacillus cereus, E. coli and Bacillus pumulis SAFR-32 and one fungi, Aspergillus niger. These tests were done on produce and metal coupons to simulate medical equipment. Produce testing was not successful, with unacceptable kill rates and the produce being negatively impacted by exposure to the plasma. The plasma caused a 5 log reduction in the number of viable bacteria on metal coupon tests, which placed the number of viable bacteria below the detection limit. This is a very promising result showing that sterilization of medical equipment with cold plasma is feasible. Scanning Electron Microscope images were taken before and after exposure. The images after plasma exposure shows that the bacteria spores have been physically affected, as their size has gotten smaller and the appearance has changed.

  15. A collisional-radiative model for low-pressure weakly magnetized Ar plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xi-Ming; Tsankov, Tsanko; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Marchuk, Oleksandr

    2016-09-01

    Collisional-radiative (CR) models are widely investigated in plasma physics for describing the kinetics of reactive species and for optical emission spectroscopy. This work reports a new Ar CR model used in low-pressure (0.01-10 Pa) weakly magnetized (<0.1 Tesla) plasmas, including ECR, helicon, and NLD discharges. In this model 108 realistic levels are individually studied, i.e. 51 lowest levels of the Ar atom and 57 lowest levels of the Ar ion. We abandon the concept of an ``effective level'' usually adopted in previous models for glow discharges. Only in this way the model can correctly predict the non-equilibrium population distribution of close energy levels. In addition to studying atomic metastable and radiative levels, this model describes the kinetic processes of ionic metastable and radiative levels in detail for the first time. This is important for investigation of plasma-surface interaction and for optical diagnostics using atomic and ionic line-ratios. This model could also be used for studying Ar impurities in tokamaks and astrophysical plasmas.

  16. Aluminum oxide films deposited in low pressure conditions by reactive pulsed dc magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Seino, T

    2002-01-01

    The reactive pulsed dc sputtering technique is widely used for the deposition of oxide films. The operating pressure for sputtering is commonly above 0.13 Pa. In this study, however, aluminum oxide (alumina) films were deposited at operating pressures from 0.06 to 0.4 Pa using a sputtering system equipped with a scanning magnetron cathode and a pulsed dc power supply. The pulsed dc power was found to be useful not only to reduce arcing, but also to sustain the discharge at low pressure. The electrical breakdown field, intrinsic stress, O/Al ratio, refractive index, and surface roughness were investigated. Both a low intrinsic stress and an O/Al ratio around the stoichiometry were required to get the film having a high breakdown field. A low operating pressure of 0.1 Pa was found to provide the necessary stress and O/Al ratio targets. A 50-nm-thick alumina film having a maximum breakdown field of 7.4 MV/cm was obtained.

  17. Two-Phase Instability Characteristics of Printed Circuit Steam Generator for the Low Pressure Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Han-Ok; Han, Hun Sik; Kim, Young-In; Kim, Keung Koo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Reduction of installation space for steam generators can lead to much smaller reactor vessel with resultant decrease of overall manufacturing cost for the components. A PCHE(Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger) is one of the compact types of heat exchangers available as an alternative to conventional shell and tube heat exchangers. Its name is derived from the procedure used to manufacture the flat metal plates that form the core of the heat exchanger, which is done by chemical milling. These plates are then stacked and diffusion bonded, converting the plates into a solid metal block containing precisely engineered fluid flow passages. PCSG(Printed Circuit Steam Generator) is a potential candidate to be applied to the integral reactor with its compactness and mechanical robustness. For the introduction of new steam generator, design requirement for the two-phase flow instability should be considered. This paper describes two-phase flow instability characteristics of PCSG for the low pressure condition. PCSG is a potential candidate to be applied to the integral reactor with its compactness and mechanical robustness. Interconnecting flow path was developed to mitigate the two-phase flow instability in the cold side. The flow characteristics of two-phase flow instability at the PCSG is examined experimentally in this study.

  18. Performances of nanofiltration and low pressure reverse osmosis membranes for desalination: characterization and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussouga, Y. A.; Lhassani, A.

    2017-03-01

    The nanofiltration and the reverse osmosis processes are the most common techniques for the desalination of water contaminated by an excess of salts. In this present study, we were interested in the characterization of commercial, composite and asymmetric membranes of nanofiltration (NF90, NF270) and low pressure reverse osmosis (BW30LE). The two types of characterization that we opted for our study: (i) characterization of electrical proprieties, in terms of the surface charge of various membranes studied by the measurement of the streaming potential, (ii) hydrodynamic characterization in terms of hydraulic permeability with pure water, mass transfer and phenomenological parameters for each system membrane/salt using hydrodynamic approaches. The irreversible thermodynamics allowed us to model the observed retention Robs of salts (NaCl and Na2SO4) for the different membranes studied, to understand and to predict a good filtration with a membrane. A study was conducted on the type of mass transfer for each system membrane/salt: convection and diffusion. The results showed that all tested membranes are negatively charged for the solutions at neutral pH, this is explained by their material composition. The results also showed competitiveness between the different types of membranes. In view of that the NF remains effective in terms of selective retention with less energy consumption than LPRO.

  19. Effects of feed solution chemistry on low pressure reverse osmosis filtration of cesium and strontium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shiyuan; Yang, Yu; Huang, Haiou; Liu, Hengchen; Hou, Li-an

    2015-08-30

    The objective of this study was to identify the removal mechanisms of radionuclides by reverse osmosis (RO) membranes under conditions relevant to full-scale water treatment. For this purpose, the effects of feed solution chemistry on the removal of Cs and Sr by a low pressure RO system was investigated by systematically varying membrane surface charge, ionic composition, and organic matter concentrations. The results showed that the effects of solution chemistry on the filtration of Cs and Sr were related to their hydrated ionic radius, resulting in the predominance of the Donnan's effect and electrostatic interactions, respectively. Consequently, the rejection of Cs increased more pronouncedly than Sr with the increases of feed concentration. Due to the Donnan's effect, different anions decreased the rejection of Cs to different extents in accordance to the order of anions' radii as SO4(2-)>Cl(-)>NO3(-)>F(-). The variations in Sr rejection were influenced by the electrostatic interactions between Sr(2+) and the membrane. In addition, humic acid (HA) lowered the rejection of Cs and caused significant membrane flux decline, but did not change the rejection of Sr. Sr also aggravated HA fouling of the membrane. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Microwave air plasmas in capillaries at low pressure I. Self-consistent modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coche, P.; Guerra, V.; Alves, L. L.

    2016-06-01

    This work presents the self-consistent modeling of micro-plasmas generated in dry air using microwaves (2.45 GHz excitation frequency), within capillaries (model couples the system of rate balance equations for the most relevant neutral and charged species of the plasma to the homogeneous electron Boltzmann equation. The maintenance electric field is self-consistently calculated adopting a transport theory for low to intermediate pressures, taking into account the presence of O- ions in addition to several positive ions, the dominant species being O{}2+ , NO+ and O+ . The low-pressure small-radius conditions considered yield very-intense reduced electric fields (˜600-1500 Td), coherent with species losses controlled by transport and wall recombination, and kinetic mechanisms strongly dependent on electron-impact collisions. The charged-particle transport losses are strongly influenced by the presence of the negative ion, despite its low-density (˜10% of the electron density). For electron densities in the range (1-≤ft. 4\\right)× {{10}12} cm-3, the system exhibits high dissociation degrees for O2 (˜20-70%, depending on the working conditions, in contrast with the  ˜0.1% dissociation obtained for N2), a high concentration of O2(a) (˜1014 cm-3) and NO(X) (5× {{10}14} cm-3) and low ozone production (<{{10}-3}% ).

  1. Pulsed Discharge Effects on Bacteria Inactivation in Low-Pressure Radio-Frequency Oxygen Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicoveanu, Dragos; Ohtsu, Yasunori; Fujita, Hiroharu

    2008-02-01

    The sporicidal effects of low-pressure radio frequency (RF) discharges in oxygen, produced by the application of continuous and pulsed RF power, were evaluated. For all cases, the survival curves showed a biphasic evolution. The maximum efficiency for bacteria sterilization was obtained when the RF power was injected in the continuous wave mode, while in the pulsed mode the lowest treatment temperature was ensured. The inactivation rates were calculated from the microorganism survival curves and their dependencies on the pulse characteristics (i.e., pulse frequency and duty cycle) were compared with those of the plasma parameters. The results indicated that the inactivation rate corresponding to the first phase of the survival curves is related to the time-averaged intensity of the light emission by the excited neutral atoms in the pulsed plasma, whereas the inactivation rate calculated from the second slope of the survival curves and the time-averaged plasma density have similar behaviors, when the pulse parameters were modified.

  2. Impact of effluent organic matter on low-pressure membrane fouling in tertiary treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Ayache, C.

    2013-05-01

    This study aims at comparing low-pressure membrane fouling obtained with two different secondary effluents at bench and pilot-scale based on the determination of two fouling indices: the total fouling index (TFI) and the hydraulically irreversible fouling index (HIFI). The main objective was to investigate if simpler and less costly bench-scale experimentation can substitute for pilot-scale trials when assessing the fouling potential of secondary effluent in large scale membrane filtration plants producing recycled water. Absolute values for specific flux and total fouling index for the bench-scale system were higher than those determined from pilot-scale, nevertheless a statistically significant correlation (r2 = 0.63, α = 0.1) was obtained for the total fouling index at both scales. On the contrary no such correlation was found for the hydraulically irreversible fouling index. Advanced water characterization tools such as excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (EEM) and liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) were used for the characterization of foulants. On the basis of statistical analysis, biopolymers and humic substances were found to be the major contribution to total fouling (r2 = 0.95 and r2 = 0.88, respectively). Adsorption of the low molecular weight neutral compounds to the membrane was attributed to hydraulically irreversible fouling (r2 = 0.67). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Low-Pressure Vapor-Assisted Solution Process for Thiocyanate-Based Pseudohalide Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yu-Hsien; Cheng, Hsin-Min; Li, Ming-Hsien; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Chen, Peter

    2016-09-22

    In this report, we fabricated thiocyanate-based perovskite solar cells with low-pressure vapor-assisted solution process (LP-VASP) method. Photovoltaic performances are evaluated with detailed materials characterizations. Scanning electron microscopy images show that SCN-based perovskite films fabricated using LP-VASP have long-range uniform morphology and large grain sizes up to 1 μm. The XRD and Raman spectra were employed to observe the characteristic peaks for both SCN-based and pure CH3 NH3 PbI3 perovskite. We observed that the Pb(SCN)2 film transformed to PbI2 before the formation of perovskite film. X-ray photoemission spectra (XPS) show that only a small amount of S remained in the film. Using LP-VASP method, we fabricated SCN-based perovskite solar cells and achieved a power conversion efficiency of 12.72 %. It is worth noting that the price of Pb(SCN)2 is only 4 % of PbI2 . These results demonstrate that pseudo-halide perovskites are promising materials for fabricating low-cost perovskite solar cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Spectrochemical analysis of Cs in water and soil using low pressure laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Muliadi; Khumaeni, Ali; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik; Tjia, May On; Kagawa, Kiichiro

    2017-06-01

    An experimental study has been conducted for the practical and in situ application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the detection of Cs pollutant in water and soil in the nearby area of Fukushima Nuclear Power Station. The spectrochemical measurements were carried out by means of 355 nm Nd-YAG laser with N2 and He ambient gases at atmospheric and low pressures. The soil samples were prepared by pelletizing the mixtures of 80% soil and 20% KBr while the aqueous samples were prepared as thin films electro deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass. The resulted emission spectra using 0.5 kPa N2 ambient gas shows the minimum detectable Cs concentration of 0.2 ppm and 0.3 ppm in the water and soil samples, respectively. The result of this experiment has thus demonstrated the viability of the LIBS equipment employed here as a more practical, in-situ and even mobile alternative to the standard use of gamma-ray spectroscopy using germanium detector.

  5. A modified setup for measuring the first ionization coefficient of tissue equivalent gases at low pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petri, Anna R.; Goncalves, Josemary A.C.; Bueno, Carmen C., E-mail: arpetri@ipen.br, E-mail: josemary@ipen.br, E-mail: ccbueno@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mangiarotti, Alessio, E-mail: alessio@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2015-07-01

    In our previous works, measurements of the first Townsend ionization coefficient, α, for pure nitrogen and isobutane at atmospheric pressure as a function of the reduced electric field were carried out in the range of 145 to 194 Td to prevent the chamber from electrical discharges. In order to increase this upper limit, the setup was modified for operating at low pressure. The detector has a Resistive Plate Chamber-like configuration where the primary ionization is produced by the incidence of nitrogen pulsed laser beam on an aluminum electrode. To validate the technique, measurements of the first Townsend ionization coefficient in nitrogen as a function of the reduced electric field were carried out at atmospheric pressure and at 100hPa, as this is an extensively studied gas with well-established data. Good agreement among our results, data from the literature and Magboltz simulations, leading to extend our method to Tissue Equivalent (TE) gases whose α is unknown. Preliminary measurements of α in a methane-based TE gas (CH{sub 4} - 64.4%, CO{sub 2} - 32.4% and N{sub 2} - 3.2%) are also presented. (author)

  6. Production of metallic nanopowders (Mg, Al by solar carbothermal reduction of their oxides at low pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Puig

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The carbothermal reduction of MgO and Al2O3 in argon flow at low pressure allows to lower the onset temperature of metal vapor formation. Thermodynamic calculations indicate that metal formation begins at 1400 and 1700 K for a primary vacuum (1000 Pa, respectively, for Mg and Al. In the experimental section, concentrated solar energy was used for the process heating in order to favor energy savings. The products of the reaction between MgO or Al2O3 and 2 varieties of carbon (graphite, carbon black in flowing argon atmosphere at a total pressure of around 1000 to 1600 Pa were studied using X-ray diffraction, and microstructure observations revealed the formation of metallic nanopowders with some by-products. Metallic conversions close to 45 wt% and 52 wt%, respectively, for Mg and Al, were obtained. The low conversion yield of the carbothermal reduction of MgO can be attributed to a backward reaction reforming MgO powder and to a sintering process between oxide particles at high temperature. Aluminum production challenge is to avoid formation of undesired by-products: Al2O, Al4C3 and Al-oxycarbides. Advantages and weaknesses of the used process are described and some improvements are proposed to increase metallic yields.

  7. TOPICAL REVIEW: Formation and behaviour of nano/micro-particles in low pressure plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Y.

    2006-10-01

    Systematic studies on formation and behaviour of particles in low-pressure plasmas have been carried out in silane capacitive high-frequency-discharges developing various in situ particle growth observation methods in the range of their size above sub-nanometres. Studies on charging characteristics of the particles and forces acting on them in the plasmas have greatly contributed to progress in particle growth. All the time evolutions of particle size and density observed until now have a common feature that the particles grow to large ones of micrometres in size through three phases: the initial growth phase up to a nanometre size, the rapid growth phase and the growth saturation phase. The growth in the rapid growth and growth saturation phases can be explained fairly well by the model of coagulation between the negatively charged particles and the positively charged ones of nanometre size. While some issues are still left to be solved, the growth processes in the initial growth phase can be understood by taking into account the relationship between the gas residence time and the growth time for the particles to grow up to nanometre size.

  8. Uniformly Distributed Graphene Domain Grows on Standing Copper via Low-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hao Chan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniformly distributed graphene domains were synthesized on standing copper foil by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition system. This method improved the distribution of the graphene domains at different positions on the same piece of copper foil along the forward direction of the gas flow. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed the average size of the graphene domains to be about ~20 m. This results show that the sheet resistance of monolayer graphene on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate is about ~359 /□ whereas that of the four-layer graphene films is about ~178 /□, with a transmittance value of 88.86% at the 550 nm wavelength. Furthermore, the sheet resistance can be reduced with the addition of HNO3 resulting in a value of 84 /□. These values meet the absolute standard for touch sensor applications, so we believe that this method can be a candidate for some transparent conductive electrode applications.

  9. Corrosion fatigue of bladed disk attachments of low-pressure turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, K. [Material Research Lab., Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi (Japan); Sakurai, S.; Nomura, K. [Thermal Power and Hydroelectric Systems Div., Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi (Japan); Saito, E.; Namura, K. [Power and Industrial Systems R and D Lab., Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The mechanism of a disk cracking in a low-pressure steam turbine was investigated by finite-element and fracture mechanics analysis and, based on the results of the investigation, a life assessment method was derived. The disk cracking was found to be caused by growth of corrosion pits, superposition of multiple vibration modes, and an increase in the standard deviation of the natural frequency of grouped blades after long-term operation. Taking these findings into consideration, the authors then developed a life-assessment method for disk cracking composed of evaluations (1) maximum corrosion pit size at the current situation, (2) corrosion pit growth after a certain term, and (3) failure-occurrence ratio for the estimated corrosion pit depth. Maximum corrosion-pit size is evaluated by extreme value statistical analysis using the data obtained by replica inspection. The failure-occurrence ratio is evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation considering two uncertainties, namely, the standard deviation of the natural frequency of grouped blades and the stimulus ratio. The values of both uncertainties were determined by the inverse problem analysis of the disk cracking. In light of these results, the authors found that replacing conventional tenon-shroud grouped blades with continuous-cover blades is effective from the view point of vibratory behavior. (orig.)

  10. Two dimensional analysis of low pressure flows in the annulus region between two concentric cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kouz, Wael; Alshare, Aiman; Alkhalidi, Ammar; Kiwan, Suhil

    2016-01-01

    A numerical simulation of the steady two-dimensional laminar natural convection heat transfer for the gaseous low-pressure flows in the annulus region between two concentric horizontal cylinders is carried out. This type of flow occurs in "evacuated" solar collectors and in the receivers of the solar parabolic trough collectors. A finite volume code is used to solve the coupled set of governing equations. Boussinesq approximation is utilized to model the buoyancy effect. A correlation for the thermal conductivity ratio (k r = k eff/k) in terms of Knudsen number and the modified Rayleigh number is proposed for Prandtl number (Pr = 0.701). It is found that as Knudsen number increases then the thermal conductivity ratio decreases for a given Rayleigh number. Also, it is shown that the thermal conductivity ratio k r increases as Rayleigh number increases. It appears that there is no consistent trend for varying the dimensionless gap spacing between the inner and the outer cylinder ([Formula: see text]) on the thermal conductivity ratio (k r) for the considered spacing range.

  11. The isolation of soyasaponins by fractional precipitation, solid phase extraction, and low pressure liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, D M; Reynolds, W F; Rao, A V

    2005-11-01

    Bioactive soyasaponins are present in soybean (Glycine max). In this study, the isolation of soyasaponins in relatively pure form (>80%) using precipitation, solid phase extraction and reverse phase low pressure liquid chromatography (RP-LPLC) is described. Soy flour soyasaponins were separated from non-saponins by methanol extraction and precipitation with ammonium sulphate. Acetylated group A soyasaponins were isolated first by solid phase extraction followed by RP-LPLC (solvent: ethanol-water). Soyasaponins, from a commercial preparation, were saponified and fractionated into deacetylated group A and group B soyasaponins by solid phase extraction (methanol-water). Partial hydrolysis of group B soyasaponins produced a mixture of soyasaponin III and soyasapogenol B monoglucuronide. RP-LPLC of deacetylated group A soyasaponins separated soyasaponin A1 and A2 (38% methanol); of group B soyasaponins isolated soyasaponin I (50% ethanol); and of the partial hydrolysate separated soyasaponin III from soyasapogenol B monoglucuronide (50% ethanol). This methodology provides soyasaponin fractions that are suitable for biological evaluation.

  12. Amine Enrichment of Thin-Film Composite Membranes via Low Pressure Plasma Polymerization for Antimicrobial Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rackel; Dumée, Ludovic F; He, Li; She, Fenghua; Orbell, John D; Winther-Jensen, Bjorn; Duke, Mikel C

    2015-07-15

    Thin-film composite membranes, primarily based on poly(amide) (PA) semipermeable materials, are nowadays the dominant technology used in pressure driven water desalination systems. Despite offering superior water permeation and salt selectivity, their surface properties, such as their charge and roughness, cannot be extensively tuned due to the intrinsic fabrication process of the membranes by interfacial polymerization. The alteration of these properties would lead to a better control of the materials surface zeta potential, which is critical to finely tune selectivity and enhance the membrane materials stability when exposed to complex industrial waste streams. Low pressure plasma was employed to introduce amine functionalities onto the PA surface of commercially available thin-film composite (TFC) membranes. Morphological changes after plasma polymerization were analyzed by SEM and AFM, and average surface roughness decreased by 29%. Amine enrichment provided isoelectric point changes from pH 3.7 to 5.2 for 5 to 15 min of plasma polymerization time. Synchrotron FTIR mappings of the amine-modified surface indicated the addition of a discrete 60 nm film to the PA layer. Furthermore, metal affinity was confirmed by the enhanced binding of silver to the modified surface, supported by an increased antimicrobial functionality with demonstrable elimination of E. coli growth. Essential salt rejection was shown minimally compromised for faster polymerization processes. Plasma polymerization is therefore a viable route to producing functional amine enriched thin-film composite PA membrane surfaces.

  13. Ignition and combustion of pyrotechnics at low pressures and at temperature extremes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Woodley

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and effective ignition of pyrotechnic countermeasure decoy flares is vitally important to the safety of expensive military platforms such as aircraft. QinetiQ is conducting experimental and theoretical research into pyrotechnic countermeasure decoy flares. A key part of this work is the development and application of improved models to increase the understanding of the ignition processes occurring for these flares. These models have been implemented in a two-dimensional computational model and details are described in this paper. Previous work has conducted experiments and validated the computational model at ambient temperature and pressure. More recently the computational model has been validated at pressures down to that equivalent to 40,000 feet but at ambient temperature (∼290 K. This paper describes further experimental work in which the ignition delays of the priming material in inert countermeasure decoy flares were determined for pressures down to 40,000 feet and at temperature extremes of −40 °C and 100 °C. Also included in this paper is a comparison of the measured and predicted ignition delays at low pressures and temperature extremes. The agreement between the predicted and measured ignition delays is acceptable.

  14. Glow discharge in low pressure plasma PVD: mathematical model and numerical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Speranza, A; Meacci, L; Fanfani, S; Borsi, I; Monti, A; 10.1007/s11012-010-9330-z

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the problem of glow discharge in low pressure plasma in industrial plant, for chambers of different shapes and various working parameters, like pressure and electric potential. The model described is based upon a static approximation of the AC configuration with two electrodes and a drift diffusion approximation for the current density of positive ions and electrons. A detailed discussion of the boundary conditions imposed is given, as well as the full description of the mathematical model. Numerical simulations were performed for a simple 1D model and two different 2D models, corresponding to two different settings of the industrial plant. The simpler case consists of a radially symmetric chamber, with one central electrode (cathode), based upon a DC generator. In this case, the steel chamber acts as the anode. The second model concerns a two dimensional horizontal cut of the most common plant configuration, with two electrodes connected to an AC generator. The case is treated in a "...

  15. Design and Application of a High Sensitivity Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor for Low Pressure Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huiyang; Huang, Jianqiu

    2015-09-08

    In this paper, a pressure sensor for low pressure detection (0.5 kPa-40 kPa) is proposed. In one structure (No. 1), the silicon membrane is partly etched to form a crossed beam on its top for stress concentration. An aluminum layer is also deposited as part of the beam. Four piezoresistors are fabricated. Two are located at the two ends of the beam. The other two are located at the membrane periphery. Four piezoresistors connect into a Wheatstone bridge. To demonstrate the stress concentrate effect of this structure, two other structures were designed and fabricated. One is a flat membrane structure (No. 2), the other is a structure with the aluminum beam, but without etched silicon (No. 3). The measurement results of these three structures show that the No.1 structure has the highest sensitivity, which is about 3.8 times that of the No. 2 structure and 2.7 times that of the No. 3 structure. They also show that the residual stress in the beam has some backside effect on the sensor performance.

  16. Determination of Stress Intensity Factors in Low Pressure Turbine Rotor Discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Vasovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An attention in this paper is focused on the stress analysis and the determination of fracture mechanics parameters in low pressure (LP turbine rotor discs and on developing analytic expressions for stress intensity factors at the critical location of LP steam turbine disc. Critical locations such as keyway and dovetail area experienced stress concentration leading to crack initiation. Major concerns for the power industry are determining the critical locations with one side and fracture mechanics parameters with the other side. For determination of the critical locations in LP turbine rotor disc conventional finite elements are used here. For this initial crack length and during crack growth it is necessary to determine SIFs. In fatigue crack growth process it is necessary to have analytic formulas for the stress intensity factor. To determine analytic formula for stress intensity factor (SIF of cracked turbine rotor disc special singular finite elements are used. Using discrete values of SIFs which correspond to various crack lengths analytic formula of SIF in polynomial forms is derived here. For determination of SIF in this paper, combined J-integral approach and singular finite elements are used. The interaction of mechanical and thermal effects was correlated in terms of the fracture toughness.

  17. Thermodynamics of Methane Adsorption on Copper HKUST-1 at Low Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Hui; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-07-02

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can be engineered as natural gas storage materials by tuning the pore structures and surface properties. Here we report the direct measurement of CH4 adsorption enthalpy on a paddlewheel MOF (Cu HKUST-1) using gas adsorption calorimetry at 25 °C at low pressures (below 1 bar). In this pressure region, the CH4-CH4 intermolecular interactions are minimized and the energetics solely reflects the CH4-MOF interactions. Our results suggest moderately exothermic physisorption with an enthalpy of -21.1 ± 1.1 kJ/mol CH4 independent of coverage. This calorimetric investigation complements previous computational and crystallographic studies by providing zero coverage enthalpies of CH4 adsorption. The analysis of the new and literature data suggests that in initial stages of adsorption the CH4-HKUST-1 interaction tends to be more sensitive to the pore dimension than to the guest polarizability, suggesting a less specific chemical binding role for the open Cu site.

  18. Unilateral bicep curl hemodynamics: Low-pressure continuous vs high-pressure intermittent blood flow restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandner, C R; Kidgell, D J; Warmington, S A

    2015-12-01

    Light-load exercise training with blood flow restriction (BFR) increases muscle strength and size. However, the hemodynamics of BFR exercise appear elevated compared with non-BFR exercise. This questions the suitability of BFR in special/clinical populations. Nevertheless, hemodynamics of standard prescription protocols for BFR and traditional heavy-load exercise have not been compared. We investigated the hemodynamics of two common BFR exercise methods and two traditional resistance exercises. Twelve young males completed four unilateral elbow flexion exercise trials in a balanced, randomized crossover design: (a) heavy load [HL; 80% one-repetition maximum (1-RM)]; (b) light load (LL; 20% 1-RM); and two other light-load trials with BFR applied (c) continuously at 80% resting systolic blood pressure (BFR-C) or (d) intermittently at 130% resting systolic blood pressure (BFR-I). Hemodynamics were measured at baseline, during exercise, and for 60-min post-exercise. Exercising heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, and rate-pressure product were significantly greater for HL and BFR-I compared with LL. The magnitude of hemodynamic stress for BFR-C was between that of HL and LL. These data show reduced hemodynamics for continuous low-pressure BFR exercise compared with intermittent high-pressure BFR in young healthy populations. BFR remains a potentially viable method to improve muscle mass and strength in special/clinical populations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Molding Properties of Inconel 718 Feedstocks Used in Low-Pressure Powder Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Fareh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of binders and temperature on the rheological properties of feedstocks used in low-pressure powder injection molding was investigated. Experiments were conducted on different feedstock formulations obtained by mixing Inconel 718 powder with wax-based binder systems. The shear rate sensitivity index and the activation energy were used to study the degree of dependence of shear rate and temperature on the viscosity of the feedstocks. The injection performance of feedstocks was then evaluated using an analytical moldability model. The results indicated that the viscosity profiles of feedstocks depend significantly on the binder constituents, and the secondary binder constituents play an important role in the rheological behavior (pseudoplastic or near-Newtonian exhibited by the feedstock formulations. Viscosity values as low as 0.06 to 2.9 Pa·s were measured at high shear rates and high temperatures. The results indicate that a feedstock containing a surfactant agent exhibits the best moldability characteristics.

  20. Epitaxial film growth of chromium dioxide by low pressure chemical vapor deposition using chromium carbonyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jinwen [MINT Center, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Pathak, Manjit [MINT Center, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Zhong Xing [MINT Center, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); LeClair, Patrick [MINT Center, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Klein, Tonya M. [MINT Center, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Gupta, Arunava, E-mail: agupta@mint.ua.ed [MINT Center, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2010-09-30

    Epitaxial chromium dioxide (CrO{sub 2}) thin films have been deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) on (100) TiO{sub 2} substrates using the precursor chromium hexacarbonyl (Cr(CO){sub 6}) within a narrow temperature window of 380-400 {sup o}C. Normal {theta}-2{theta} Bragg x-ray diffraction results show that the predominant phase is CrO{sub 2} with only a small amount of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} present, mostly at the film surface. The LPCVD films have a reasonably smooth surface morphology with a root mean square roughness of 4 nm on a scale of 5 {mu}m. Raman spectroscopy confirms the existence of rutile CrO{sub 2} in the deposited films, while transmission electron microscopy confirms the single-crystalline nature of the films. The LPCVD films showing a dominant CrO{sub 2} phase exhibit clear uniaxial magnetic anisotropy with the easy axis oriented along the c direction.

  1. The deterministic prediction of damage functions to low pressure steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chun; Macdonald, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Localized corrosion phenomena, including pitting corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue, are the principal causes of corrosion-induced damage in electric power generating facilities and typically result in more than 50% of the unscheduled outages. Prediction of damage, so that repairs and inspections can be made during scheduled outages, could have an enormous impact on the economics of electric power generation. To date, prediction of corrosion damage has been made on the basis of empirical/statistical methods that have proven to be insufficiently robust and accurate to form the basis for the desired inspection/repair protocol. In this paper, we describe a deterministic method for predicting localized corrosion damage. We have used the method to illustrate how pitting corrosion initiates stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for low pressure steam turbine disks downstream of the Wilson line, where a thin condensed liquid layer exists on the steel disk surfaces. Our calculations show that the SCC initiation and propagation are sensitive to the oxygen content of the steam, the environment in the thin liquid condensed layer, and the stresses that the disk experiences in service.

  2. The deterministic prediction of damage functions to low pressure steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chun; Macdonald, D.D.

    1993-06-01

    Localized corrosion phenomena, including pitting corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue, are the principal causes of corrosion-induced damage in electric power generating facilities and typically result in more than 50% of the unscheduled outages. Prediction of damage, so that repairs and inspections can be made during scheduled outages, could have an enormous impact on the economics of electric power generation. To date, prediction of corrosion damage has been made on the basis of empirical/statistical methods that have proven to be insufficiently robust and accurate to form the basis for the desired inspection/repair protocol. In this paper, we describe a deterministic method for predicting localized corrosion damage. We have used the method to illustrate how pitting corrosion initiates stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for low pressure steam turbine disks downstream of the Wilson line, where a thin condensed liquid layer exists on the steel disk surfaces. Our calculations show that the SCC initiation and propagation are sensitive to the oxygen content of the steam, the environment in the thin liquid condensed layer, and the stresses that the disk experiences in service.

  3. The deterministic prediction of failure of low pressure steam turbine disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chun; Macdonald, D.D.

    1993-05-01

    Localized corrosion phenomena, including pitting corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue, are the principal causes of corrosion-induced damage in electric power generating facilities and typically result in more than 50% of the unscheduled outages. Prediction of damage, so that repairs and inspections can be made during scheduled outages, could have an enormous impact on the economics of electric power generation. To date, prediction of corrosion damage has been made on the basis of empirical/statistical methods that have proven to be insufficiently robust and accurate to form the basis for the desired inspection/repair protocol. In this paper, we describe a deterministic method for predicting localized corrosion damage. We have used the method to illustrate how pitting corrosion initiates stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for low pressure steam turbine disks downstream of the Wilson line, where a thin condensed liquid layer exists on the steel disk surfaces. Our calculations show that the SCC initiation and propagation are sensitive to the oxygen content of the steam, the environment in the thin liquid condensed layer, and the stresses that the disk experiences in service.

  4. Little pump that could : hydraulic submersible pump tackles low pressure, low fluid volume gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, E.

    2008-03-15

    A new pump designed by Global Energy Services was described. The pump was designed to address problems associated with downhole pumps in coalbed methane (CBM) wells. The hydraulic submersible pump (HSP) was designed to address issues related to artificial lift gas lock and solids. The pump has been installed at 35 CBM wells in western Canada as well as at natural gas wells with low pressures and low rates of water. The HSP technology was designed for use with wells between 0.01 cubic metres and 24 cubic metres per day of water. A single joystick in the surface unit is used to determine the amount of hydraulic oil delivered to the bottomhole pump when then determines the amounts of fluid produced. A 10-slot self-flushing sand screen is used to filter out particles of sand, coal, and cement. The pump also includes a hydraulic flow control valve to control water volumes. The HSP's positive displacement design makes it suitable for use in horizontal and deviated wells. The pump technology is currently being re-designed to handle larger volumes at deeper depths. 2 figs.

  5. Microwave techniques for electron density measurements in low pressure RF plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheltukhin, Viktor; Gafarov, Ildar; Shemakhin, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Results of the experimental studying of RF plasma jet at low pressure in the range of 10 - 300 Pa is presented. The electron density distribution both in inductive and in capacitive coupled RF discharges was measured at 1.76 MHz and 13.56 MHz consequently. We used three independent microwave diagnostic techniques such as free space (the ``two-frequency'' and ``on the cut-off signal'') and a resonator. It is found that the electron density in the RF plasma jets is by 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than in the decaying plasma jet, and by 1-2 orders of magnitude less than in the RF plasma torch. Thus the RF plasma jet is similar to the additional discharge between the electrodes or the coil and the vacuum chamber walls. As a consequence, the formation of the positive charge sheath near the specimen placed in plasma stream is observed. It is found that the maximum of ionization degree as well as more uniform electron density distribution across the stream is observed in the range of the gas flow rate Gg = 0 . 06 - 0 . 12 g/s and the discharge power Pd = 0 . 5 - 2 . 5 kW. The work was funded by RFBR, according to the research projects No. 16-31-60081 mol_a_dk.

  6. Experimental Verification of Statistically Optimized Parameters for Low-Pressure Cold Spray Coating of Titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damilola Isaac Adebiyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The cold spray coating process involves many process parameters which make the process very complex, and highly dependent and sensitive to small changes in these parameters. This results in a small operational window of the parameters. Consequently, mathematical optimization of the process parameters is key, not only to achieving deposition but also improving the coating quality. This study focuses on the mathematical identification and experimental justification of the optimum process parameters for cold spray coating of titanium alloy with silicon carbide (SiC. The continuity, momentum and the energy equations governing the flow through the low-pressure cold spray nozzle were solved by introducing a constitutive equation to close the system. This was used to calculate the critical velocity for the deposition of SiC. In order to determine the input temperature that yields the calculated velocity, the distribution of velocity, temperature, and pressure in the cold spray nozzle were analyzed, and the exit values were predicted using the meshing tool of Solidworks. Coatings fabricated using the optimized parameters and some non-optimized parameters are compared. The coating of the CFD-optimized parameters yielded lower porosity and higher hardness.

  7. Facile preparation of N-doped TiO2 at ambient temperature and pressure under UV light with 4-nitrophenol as the nitrogen source and its photocatalytic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Shirasaka, Yutaro; Uchida, Hiroshi; Horikoshi, Natsuko; Serpone, Nick

    2016-08-04

    To date syntheses of nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalysts (TiO2-xNx) have been carried out under high temperatures and high pressures with either NH3 or urea as the nitrogen sources. This article reports for the first time the facile preparation of N-doped TiO2 (P25 titania) in aqueous media at ambient temperature and pressure under inert conditions (Ar- and N2-purged dispersions) with 4-nitrophenol (or 4-nitrobenzaldehyde) as the nitrogen source. The resulting N-doped P25 TiO2 materials were characterized by UV/Vis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS) that confirmed the presence of nitrogen within the photocatalyst; X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques confirmed the crystalline phases of the doped material. The photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2 was assessed through examining the photodegradation of 4-chlorophenol in aqueous media and iso-propanol as a volatile pollutant under UV/Vis and visible-light irradiation. Under visible light irradiation, undoped P25 was inactive contrary to N-doped P25 that successfully degraded 95% of the 4-chlorophenol (after 10 h) and 23% of iso-propanol (after 2.5 h).

  8. Study of dust re-suspension at low pressure in a dedicated wind-tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau, Anthony; Sabroux, Jean-Christophe; Chassefière, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The atmosphere of several telluric planets or satellites are dusty. Such is the case of Earth, Venus, Mars and Titan, each bearing different aeolian processes linked principally to the kinematic viscosity of the near-surface atmosphere. Studies of the Martian atmosphere are particularly relevant for the understanding of the dust re-suspension phenomena at low pressure (7 mbar). It turns out that operation of fusion reactors of the tokamak design produces significant amount of dust through the erosion of plasma-facing components. Such dust is a key issue, both regarding the performance and the safety of a fusion reactor such as ITER, under construction in Cadarache, France. Indeed, to evaluate the explosion risk in the ITER fusion reactor, it is essential to quantify the re-suspended dust fraction as a function of the dust inventory that can be potentially mobilized during a loss of vacuum accident (LOVA), with air or water vapour ingress. A complete accident sequence will encompass dust re-suspension from near-vacuum up to atmospheric pressure. Here, we present experimental results of particles re-suspension fractions measured at 1000, 600 and 300 mbar in the IRSN BISE (BlowIng facility for airborne releaSE) wind tunnel. Both dust monolayer deposits and multilayer deposits were investigated. In order to obtain experimental re-suspension data of dust monolayer deposits, we used an optical microscope allowing to measure the re-suspended particles fraction by size intervals of 1 µm. The deposits were made up of tungsten particles on a tungsten surface (an ubiquitous plasma facing component) and alumina particles on a glass plate, as a surrogate. A comparison of the results with the so-called Rock'nRoll dust re-suspension model (Reeks and Hall, 2001) is presented and discussed. The multilayer deposits were made in a vacuum sedimentation chamber allowing to obtain uniform deposits in terms of thickness. The re-suspension experimental data of such deposits were obtained

  9. RF power transfer efficiency of inductively coupled low pressure H2 and D2 discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauner, D.; Briefi, S.; Fantz, U.

    2017-09-01

    The RF power transfer efficiency and the relevant power absorption mechanisms of inductively heated hydrogen and deuterium plasmas are investigated in the low-pressure region between 0.25 and 10 Pa. The discharges are generated in a cylindrical vessel via a helical coil applying a frequency of 1 MHz and delivered RF powers up to 800 W. The power transfer efficiency η is quantified by a subtractive method that relies on the measurement of the delivered RF power and of the RF current through the plasma coil both with and without discharge operation. By means of optical emission spectroscopy and electrical probe measurements, the key plasma parameters are obtained. For both H2 and D2, the relative behavior of the power transfer efficiency is well comparable, which increases with increasing delivered RF power and describes a maximum at pressures between 1 and 3 Pa where more than 90 % of the provided power are absorbed by the plasma. The observed relative dependencies of η on the operational parameters are found to be well explained by an analytical approach that considers the power absorption by the plasma via evaluating the RF plasma conductivity based on the measured plasma parameters. At the parameters present, non-collisional stochastic heating of electrons has to be considered for pressures p≤slant 1 {Pa}, while collisional heating dominates at higher pressure. Molecular dissociation is found to have a significant influence on the power transfer efficiency of light molecular discharges. The direct comparison of H2 and D2 identifies the higher atomic density in deuterium to cause a systematically increased power transfer efficiency due to an increased ionization rate in the present electron temperature region.

  10. Identification of effluent organic matter fractions responsible for low-pressure membrane fouling

    KAUST Repository

    Filloux, Emmanuelle

    2012-11-01

    Anion exchange resin (AER), powder activated carbon (PAC) adsorption and ozonation treatments were applied on biologically treated wastewater effluent with the objective to modify the effluent organic matter (EfOM) matrix. Both AER and PAC led to significant total organic carbon (TOC) removal, while the TOC remained nearly constant after ozonation. Liquid Chromatography-Organic Carbon Detection (LC-OCD) analysis showed that the AER treatment preferentially removed high and intermediate molecular weight (MW) humic-like structures while PAC removed low MW compounds. Only a small reduction of the high MW colloids (i.e. biopolymers) was observed for AER and PAC treatments. Ozonation induced a large reduction of the biopolymers and an important increase of the low MW humic substances (i.e. building blocks).Single-cycle microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) tests were conducted using commercially available hollow fibres at a constant flux. After reconcentration to their original organic carbon content, the EfOM matrix modified by AER and PAC treatments exhibited higher UF membrane fouling compared to untreated effluent; result that correlated with the higher concentration of biopolymers. On the contrary, ozonation which induced a significant degradation of the biopolymers led to a minor flux reduction for both UF and MF filtration tests. Based on a single filtration, results indicate that biopolymers play a major role in low pressure membrane fouling and that intermediate and low MW compounds have minor impact. Thus, this approach has shown to be a valid methodology to identify the foulant fractions of EfOM. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Final Report: Comparison of the primary (national) standards of low-pressure gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benková, Miroslava; Makovnik, Stefan; Mickan, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    The EURAMET.M.FF-K6 comparison was organized for the purpose of determination of the degree of equivalence of the primary (national) standards for low-pressure gas flow measurement over the range (2 to 100) m3/h and was performed simultaneously with CCM.FF-K6.2011 with the same transfer standard. A rotary gas meter G65 was used as a transfer standard. The measurements were provided by prescribed reference conditions. Fifteen laboratories from EURAMET participated in this key comparison - SMU, Slovakia; PTB, Germany; CEM, Spain; LNE-LADG, France; VSL, Netherlands; CMI, Czech Republic; BEV, Austria; MKEH, Hungary; GUM Poland; SP, Sweden; METAS, Switzerland; DMDM, Serbia; TUBITAK-UME, Turkey; EIM, Greece; IMBiH, Bosnia-Herzegovina. The EURAMET.M.FF-K6 is linked to the CCM.FF-K6.2011 by correcting the results of three linking laboratories (Slovakia SMU, Germany PTB and France LNE LADG). This correction provides an estimate of what would have been the result from the EURAMET.M-FF-K6 participants, if they had actually participated in CCM.FF-K6.2011. According to the evaluation 93.7 % of the results were consistent with KCRV, 3.4 % of the results were in the warning level and 2.9 % of the results were inconsistent. The results of this comparison can be used for review of the CMC tables. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  12. Ice-melt rates during volcanic eruptions within water-drained, low-pressure subglacial cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, D. C.; Lane, S. J.; Gilbert, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    Subglacial volcanism generates proximal and distal hazards including large-scale flooding and increased levels of explosivity. Direct observation of subglacial volcanic processes is infeasible; therefore, we model heat transfer mechanisms during subglacial eruptions under conditions where cavities have become depressurized by connection to the atmosphere. We consider basaltic eruptions in a water-drained, low-pressure subglacial cavity, including the case when an eruption jet develops. Such drained cavities may develop on sloping terrain, where ice may be relatively shallow and where gravity drainage of meltwater will be promoted. We quantify, for the first time, the heat fluxes to the ice cavity surface that result from steam condensation during free convection at atmospheric pressure and from direct and indirect radiative heat transfer from an eruption jet. Our calculations indicate that the direct radiative heat flux from a lava fountain (a "dry" end-member eruption jet) to ice is c. 25 kW m-2 and is a minor component. The dominant heat transfer mechanism involves free convection of steam within the cavity; we estimate the resulting condensation heat flux to be c. 250 kW m-2. Absorption of radiation from a lava fountain by steam enhances convection, but the increase in condensing heat flux is modest at c. 25 kW m-2. Overall, heat fluxes to the ice cavity surface are likely to be no greater than c. 300 kW m-2. These are comparable with heat fluxes obtained by single phase convection of water in a subglacial cavity but much less than those obtained by two-phase convection.

  13. Removal of aqueous nC60 fullerene from water by low pressure membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, R; Nijmeijer, K; Cornelissen, E R

    2016-03-15

    The potential environmental and health risks of engineered nanoparticles such as buckminsterfullerene C60 in water require their removal during the production of drinking water. We present a study focusing on (i) the removal mechanism and (ii) the elucidation of the role of the membrane pore size during removal of nC60 fullerene nanoparticle suspensions in dead-end microfiltration and ultrafiltration mimicking separation in real industrial water treatment plants. Membranes were selected with pore sizes ranging from 18 nm to 500 nm to determine the significance of the nC60 to membrane pore size ratio and the adsorption affinity between nC60 and membrane material during filtration. Experiments were carried out with a dead-end bench-scale system operated at constant flux conditions including a hydraulic backwash cleaning procedure. nC60 nanoparticles can be efficiently removed by low pressure membrane technology with smaller and, unexpectedly, also by mostly similar or larger pores than the particle size, although the nC60 filtration behaviour appeared to be different. The nC60 size to membrane pore size ratio and the ratio of the cake-layer deposition resistance to the clean membrane resistance, both play an important role on the nC60 filtration behaviour and on the efficiency of the backwash procedure recovering the initial membrane filtration conditions. These results become specifically significant in the context of drinking water production, for which they provide relevant information for an accurate selection between membrane processes and operational parameters for the removal of nC60 in the drinking water treatment.

  14. A Shock Tube Study of the CO + OH Reaction Near the Low-Pressure Limit

    KAUST Repository

    Nasir, Ehson Fawad

    2016-05-16

    Rate coefficients for the reaction between carbon monoxide and hydroxyl radical were measured behind reflected shock waves over 700 – 1230 K and 1.2 – 9.8 bar. The temperature/pressure conditions correspond to the predicted low-pressure limit of this reaction, where the channel leading to carbon dioxide formation is dominant. The reaction rate coefficients were inferred by measuring the formation of carbon dioxide using quantum cascade laser absorption near 4.2 µm. Experiments were performed under pseudo-first order conditions with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as the OH precursor. Using ultraviolet laser absorption by OH radicals, the TBHP decomposition rate was measured to quantify potential facility effects under extremely dilute conditions used here. The measured CO + OH rate coefficients are provided in Arrhenius form for three different pressure ranges: kCO+OH (1.2 – 1.6 bar) = 9.14 x 10-13 exp(-1265/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 kCO+OH (4.3 – 5.1 bar) = 8.70 x 10-13 exp(-1156/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 kCO+OH (9.6 – 9.8 bar) = 7.48 x 10-13 exp(-929/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 The measured rate coefficients are found to be lower than the master equation modeling results by Weston et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A, 117 (2013) 821] at 819 K and in closer agreement with the expression provided by Joshi and Wang [Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 38 (2006) 57].

  15. A Shock-Tube Study of the CO + OH Reaction Near the Low-Pressure Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Ehson F; Farooq, Aamir

    2016-06-09

    Rate coefficients for the reaction between carbon monoxide and hydroxyl radical were measured behind reflected shock waves over 700-1230 K and 1.2-9.8 bar. The temperature/pressure conditions correspond to the predicted low-pressure limit of this reaction, where the channel leading to carbon dioxide formation is dominant. The reaction rate coefficients were inferred by measuring the formation of carbon dioxide using quantum cascade laser absorption near 4.2 μm. Experiments were performed under pseudo-first-order conditions with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as the OH precursor. Using ultraviolet laser absorption by OH radicals, the TBHP decomposition rate was measured to quantify potential facility effects under extremely dilute conditions used here. The measured CO + OH rate coefficients are provided in Arrhenius form for three different pressure ranges: kCO+OH(1.2-1.6 bar) = (9.14 ± 2.17) × 10(-13) exp(-(1265 ± 190)/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1); kCO+OH(4.3-5.1 bar) = (8.70 ± 0.84) × 10(-13) exp(-(1156 ± 83)/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1); and kCO+OH(9.6-9.8 bar) = (7.48 ± 1.92) × 10(-13) exp(-(929 ± 192)/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The measured rate coefficients are found to be lower than the master equation modeling results by Weston et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A, 2013, 117, 821] at 819 K and in closer agreement with the expression provided by Joshi and Wang [Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 2006, 38, 57].

  16. Compressible DNS of transitional and turbulent flow in a low pressure turbine cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Rajesh; Deshpande, Suresh; Narasimha, Roddam

    2015-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of flow in a low pressure turbine cascade at high incidence is performed using a new in-house code ANUROOP. This code solves compressible Navier-Stokes equations in conservative form using finite volume technique and uses kinetic-energy consistent scheme for the flux calculations. ANUROOP is capable of handling flow past complex geometries using hybrid grid approach (separate grid topologies for the boundary layer and rest of the blade passage). This approach offers much more control in mesh spacing and distribution compared to elliptic grid technique, which is used in many previous studies. Also, in contrast to previous studies, focus of the current work is mainly on the boundary layer flow. The flow remains laminar on the pressure side of the blade, but separates in the aft region of the suction side leading to transition. Separation bubbles formed at this region are transient in nature and we notice multiple bubbles merging and breaking in time. In the mean flow however, only one bubble is seen. Velocity profiles very near to the leading edge of the suction side suggest strong curvature effect. Higher-order boundary layer theory that includes effect of curvature is found to be necessary to characterize the flow in this region. Also, the grid convergence study reveals interesting aspects of numerics vital for accurate simulation of this kind of complex flows. We would like to thank the Gas Turbine Enabling Technology (GATET) Program for funding this project. We also thank C-DAC, Pune and CSIR-4PI, Bangalore for providing computational resources.

  17. Consideraciones sobre el hidrocefalo de baja presion Considerations on low pressure hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Herskovits

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan las condiciones fisiopatológicas del sindrome de hidrocéfalo de presión normal. De un grupo de 21 pacientes con sintomatologia clínica correspondiente a esta entidad, se seleccionan 10 que presentan un diagnóstico clínico, radiológico y cisternográfico indudable de la entidad en estudio. Se observó que, a pesar de esta selección solamente un 50% de ellos se vió beneficiado con la colocación de una válvula de baja presión. Surge entonces la hipotésis de que este cuadro es un sindrome multicausal; que por un proceso fisiopatogenico común produce un cuadro clínico, radiológico y cisternográfico similar y que serían beneficiados únicamente aquellos enfermos en los que se soluciona el problema mecánico.The physiopathological conditions of the normal pressure hydrocephalus syndrome are analysed. Within a group of 21 patients with clinical sinto- mathology pertaining this entity, only were 10 selected with a clinical, radiological and cisternografic indubitable diagnosis. It has been noticed that in spite of the stricked selection only a 50% of them have been beneficed by the application of a low pressure valve. Then, the hypothesis that the disease is a multicausal syndrome appears, which by an identical physiopathologic process produces or exhibits a similar clinical, radiological and cisternographic picture. Only those patients on whom the mechanical problem is solved would be beneficed by neurosurgery.

  18. Performance evaluation of the UV/H2O2 process on selected nitrogenous organic compounds: reductions of organic contents vs. corresponding C-, N-DBPs formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huei-Wen; Chen, Chia-Yang; Wang, Gen-Shuh

    2011-10-01

    The presence of various organic contaminants in water sources is of concern due to their direct threats to human health and potential to react with disinfectants to form carcinogenic byproducts including trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids and nitrosamines in finished water. This study applied both medium-pressure and low-pressure ultraviolet light coupled with hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) to evaluate its efficacy for degradation of selected nitrogenous organic compounds and corresponding disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation. Six organic compounds were chosen as target precursors based on their nitrogen contents and molecular structures. The results showed that higher oxidation capacity resulted in better reduction of organic matters and DBP formation potentials (DBPFPs). However, insufficient contact time and oxidant doses could lead to a rise of DBPFPs in the early stages of UV/H2O2 reactions. A greater percentage removal was achieved for organic carbon than organic nitrogen after UV/H2O2 treatment, especially for compounds with complicated structure such as diltiazem. During the UV/H2O2 treatment, the intermediate products include tertiary amine, dimethyl amine (DMA) or DMA-like structures, which are N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors after chlorination or chloramination. Furthermore, it was observed that using dissolved organic nitrogen and DMA to predict NDMAFP could lead to biased conclusions because of the complex nature of nitrogenous matters in aqueous environments.

  19. The effect of thermal annealing on the properties of thin alumina films prepared by low pressure MOCVD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanappel, V.A.C.; Vendel, van de D.; Corbach, van H.D.; Fransen, T.; Gellings, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Thin amorphous alumina films were prepared on stainless steel, type AISI 304, by low pressure metal-organic chemical vapour deposition. The effect of thermal annealing in nitrogen (for 2, 4 and 17 h at 600, 700 and 800 °C) on the film properties, including the protection of the underlying substrate

  20. Test beam results of a low-pressure micro-strip gas chamber with a secondary-electron emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, S.; Anderson, D.F.; Zimmerman, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Sbarra, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Salomon, M. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1994-10-01

    We present recent results, from a beam test, on the angular dependence of the efficiency and the distribution of the signals on the anode strips of a low-pressure microstrip gas chamber with a thick CsI layer as a secondary-electron emitter. New results of CVD diamond films as secondary-electron emitters are discussed.

  1. Randomized Trial of Low-pressure Carbon Dioxide-elicited Pneumoperitoneum Versus Abdominal Wall Lifting for Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih-Huei Uen

    2007-08-01

    Conclusion: Both alternative methods for this type of surgery appeared feasible and safe for LC. Low-pressure CO2 pneumoperitoneum had a shorter surgical duration and less postoperative shoulder pain compared to the GLC technique, but did not feature any other advantage over the AWL technique with regard to impact on cardiopulmonary function.

  2. Characteristics of mold filling and entrainment of oxide film in low pressure casting of A356 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shan-Guang; Cao, Fu-Yang; Zhao, Xin-Yi; Jia, Yan-Dong; Ning, Zhi-Liang; Sun, Jian-Fei, E-mail: jfsun_hit@263.net

    2015-02-25

    The effect of pressurizing speed of low pressure casting on mold filling and mechanical properties of A356 alloy was studied. The mold filling behavior was calculated by two phase flow model using VOF (Volume of Fluid) method. In order to evaluate the accuracy of simulated results, the real mold filling process observed by X-ray radiography was compared. The results show that during mold filling the gate velocity first increased dramatically, then kept unchanged under relatively low pressurizing speed, or increased slowly under relatively high pressurizing speed. High gate velocity causes melt falling back under gravity with high speed. The falling velocity and the resultant relative rotating vortex are the main causes of oxide film entrainment in low pressure casting. The mechanical properties of the as-cast A356 alloy were measured by four-point bend test. Weibull probability plots were used to assess the fracture mechanisms under different pressurizing speeds. The results obtained in this paper illuminate on designing suitable pressurizing speed for mold filling in low pressure casting.

  3. The effect of thermal annealing on the properties of thin alumina films prepared by low pressure MOCVD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanappel, V.A.C.; Haanappel, V.A.C.; van de Vendel, D.; van Corbach, H.D.; Fransen, T.; Gellings, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Thin amorphous alumina films were prepared on stainless steel, type AISI 304, by low pressure metal-organic chemical vapour deposition. The effect of thermal annealing in nitrogen (for 2, 4 and 17 h at 600, 700 and 800 °C) on the film properties, including the protection of the underlying substrate

  4. Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Nitroethane Pyrolysis at a Low Pressure: Competition Reactions in the Primary Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Kuiwen; Glarborg, Peter; Zhou, Xueyao

    2016-01-01

    The pyrolysis of nitroethane has been investigated over the temperature range of 682-1423 K in a plug flow reactor at a low pressure. The major species in the pyrolysis process have been identified and quantified using tunable synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry and m...

  5. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  6. Detection of tropospheric OH and HO2 by laser-induced fluorescence at low pressure using the 308nm excitation of OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank

    1994-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy is a highly sensitive method for the direct in situ measurement of hydroxyl concentrations in the atmosphere. Its sensitivity and selectivity relies on the intense discrete UV-absorption lines of OH which are strongest around 282nm and 308nm. We have developed a LIF-instrument based on the low-pressure experiment (FAGE). However, we use 308nm instead of 282nm as excitation wavelength for OH, a concept that is also pursued by other groups. One advantage of the longer excitation wavelength is the higher detection sensitivity due to the about 6 times larger effective OH-fluorescence cross-section. Moreover, the O3/H2O-interference (OH self-generation by the laser) is about a factor of 200 smaller at 308nm than at 282nm. This keeps the interference level well below the projected detection limit of 10(exp 5) OH/cm(exp 3). Atmospheric HO2-radicals are detected by chemical conversion of HO2 into OH with NO.

  7. Inter-pulse delay optimization in dual-pulse laser induced breakdown vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of a steel sample in ambient gases at low pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X.; Hayden, P.; Laasch, R.; Costello, J. T.; Kennedy, E. T.

    2013-08-01

    Time-integrated spatially-resolved Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to investigate spectral emissions from laser-induced plasmas generated on steel targets. Instead of detecting spectral lines in the visible/near ultraviolet (UV), as investigated in conventional LIBS, this work explored the use of spectral lines emitted by ions in the shorter wavelength vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region. Single-pulse (SP) and dual-pulse LIBS (DP-LIBS) experiments were performed on standardized steel samples. In the case of the double-pulse scheme, two synchronized lasers were used, an ablation laser (200 mJ/15 ns), and a reheating laser (665 mJ/6 ns) in a collinear beam geometry. Spatially resolved and temporally integrated laser induced plasma VUV emission in the DP scheme and its dependence on inter-pulse delay time were studied. The VUV spectral line intensities were found to be enhanced in the DP mode and were significantly affected by the inter-pulse delay time. Additionally, the influence of ambient conditions was investigated by employing low pressure nitrogen, argon or helium as buffer gases in the ablation chamber. The results clearly demonstrate the existence of a sharp ubiquitous emission intensity peak at 100 ns and a wider peak, in the multi-microsecond range of inter-pulse time delay, dependent on the ambient gas conditions.

  8. Photodegradation and toxicity changes of antibiotics in UV and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Fang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Hu Chun, E-mail: huchun@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Hu Xuexiang; Wei Dongbin; Chen Yong; Qu Jiuhui [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China)

    2011-01-30

    The photodegradation of three antibiotics, oxytetracycline (OTC), doxycycline (DTC), and ciprofloxacin (CIP) in UV and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process was investigated with a low-pressure UV lamp system. Experiments were performed in buffered ultrapure water (UW), local surface water (SW), and treated water from local municipal drinking water treatment plant (DW) and wastewater treatment plant (WW). The efficiency of UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process was affected by water quality. For all of the three selected antibiotics, the fastest degradation was observed in DW, and the slowest degradation occurred in WW. This phenomenon can be explained by R{sub OH,UV}, defined as the experimentally determined {center_dot}OH radical exposure per UV fluence. The R{sub OH,UV} values represent the background {center_dot}OH radical scavenging in water matrix, obtained by the degradation of para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA), a probe compound. In natural water, the indirect degradation of CIP did not significantly increase with the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} due to its effective degradation by UV direct photolysis. Moreover, the formation of several photoproducts and oxidation products of antibiotics in UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process was identified using GC-MS. Toxicity assessed by Vibrio fischer (V. fischer), was increased in UV photolysis, for the photoproducts still preserving the characteristic structure of the parent compounds. While in UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process, toxicity increased first, and then decreased; nontoxic products were formed by the oxidation of {center_dot}OH radical. In this process, detoxification was much easier than mineralization for the tested antibiotics, and the optimal time for the degradation of pollutants in UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process would be determined by parent compound degradation and toxicity changes.

  9. Simulation of polyatomic discharges for thin film deposition processes in low-pressure plasma reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Kallol

    Comprehensive multi-dimensional self-consistent numerical fluid models for radio-frequency capacitively and inductively coupled methane discharges were developed to predict diamond-like-carbon thin film deposition/etching rate on the wafer. A numerical model of glow discharge provides insight on the physical phenomena in the discharge leading to better understanding and design of the reactor. The developed discharge models included detailed discharge physics, gas-phase chemistry and surface chemistry modeling. To understand the basic discharge phenomena, one- dimensional radio frequency capacitively coupled Ar plasma was simulated using a fluid model. The model was modified for methane plasma to predict the profiles of the plasma variables. The model was then extended to two- dimensional cylindrical coordinates to capture the effects of asymmetry of the reactor on the plasma variables. The necessary dc bias for the discharge was predicted such that the cycle-averaged current to the powered electrode was zero. A discharge chemistry model was also developed to predict various radical and neutral densities in the plasma, and their fluxes to the cathode. The species fluxes are used to predict film deposition rate and the properties of the deposited film. The model predictions of plasma density, self-generated de bias, cathode current and plasma potential compared well with the experimental results. A high density plasma with inductive coupling at low pressure was also considered. Separate rf bias and dc bias are applied to the substrate holder to modulate the ion energy. The present model simulates electron, ion and neutral transport, including detailed discharge and surface chemistry. The model has been implemented for methane discharge to obtain deposition/etching of thin carbon film on the wafer. To the author's knowledge, this is the first attempt to simulate capacitively and inductively coupled plasmas self-consistently for a depositing gas under the operating

  10. "Virtual IED sensor" at an rf-biased electrode in low-pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova, M. A.; Lopaev, D. V.; Zyryanov, S. M.; Rakhimov, A. T.

    2016-07-01

    Energy distribution and the flux of the ions coming on a surface are considered as the key-parameters in anisotropic plasma etching. Since direct ion energy distribution (IED) measurements at the treated surface during plasma processing are often hardly possible, there is an opportunity for virtual ones. This work is devoted to the possibility of such indirect IED and ion flux measurements at an rf-biased electrode in low-pressure rf plasma by using a "virtual IED sensor" which represents "in-situ" IED calculations on the absolute scale in accordance with a plasma sheath model containing a set of measurable external parameters. The "virtual IED sensor" should also involve some external calibration procedure. Applicability and accuracy of the "virtual IED sensor" are validated for a dual-frequency reactive ion etching (RIE) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactor with a capacitively coupled rf-biased electrode. The validation is carried out for heavy (Ar) and light (H2) gases under different discharge conditions (different ICP powers, rf-bias frequencies, and voltages). An EQP mass-spectrometer and an rf-compensated Langmuir probe (LP) are used to characterize plasma, while an rf-compensated retarded field energy analyzer (RFEA) is applied to measure IED and ion flux at the rf-biased electrode. Besides, the pulsed selfbias method is used as an external calibration procedure for ion flux estimating at the rf-biased electrode. It is shown that pulsed selfbias method allows calibrating the IED absolute scale quite accurately. It is also shown that the "virtual IED sensor" based on the simplest collisionless sheath model allows reproducing well enough the experimental IEDs at the pressures when the sheath thickness s is less than the ion mean free path λi (s λi), the difference between calculated and experimental IEDs due to ion collisions in the sheath is observed in the low energy range. The effect of electron impact ionization in the sheath on the origin and

  11. Spatio-temporal variability of summer monsoon rainfall over Orissa in relation to low pressure systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Mohapatra; U C Mohanty

    2006-04-01

    The summer monsoon rainfall over Orissa occurs mostly due to low pressure systems (LPS)developing over the Bay of Bengal and moving along the monsoon trough.A study is hence undertaken to find out characteristic features of the relationship between LPS over different regions and rainfall over Orissa during the summer monsoon season (June-September).For this purpose,rainfall and rainy days over 31 selected stations in Orissa and LPS days over Orissa and adjoining land and sea regions during different monsoon months and the season as a whole over a period of 20 years (1980-1999)are analysed.The principal objective of this study is to find out the role of LPS on spatial and temporal variability of summer monsoon rainfall over Orissa. The rainfall has been significantly less than normal over most parts of Orissa except the eastern side of Eastern Ghats during July and hence during the season as a whole due to a significantly less number of LPS days over northwest Bay in July over the period of 1980-1999.The seasonal rainfall shows higher interannual variation (increase in coefficient of variation by about 5%)during 1980-1999 than that during 1901-1990 over most parts of Orissa except northeast Orissa.Most parts of Orissa,especially the region extending from central part of coastal Orissa to western Orissa (central zone)and western side of the Eastern Ghats get more seasonal monsoon rainfall with the development and persistence of LPS over northwest Bay and their subsequent movement and persistence over Orissa.The north Orissa adjoining central zone also gets more seasonal rainfall with development and persistence of LPS over northwest Bay.While the seasonal rainfall over the western side of the Eastern Ghats is adversely affected due to increase in LPS days over west central Bay,Jharkhand and Bangladesh,that over the eastern side of the Eastern Ghats is adversely affected due to increase in LPS days over all the regions to the north of Orissa.There are signi

  12. Separation control in low pressure turbines using plasma actuators with passing wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Debashish

    A Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuator is operated in flow over the suction surface of a Pack-B Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) airfoil at a Reynolds number of 50,000 (based on exit velocity and suction surface length) and inlet free-stream turbulence intensity of 2.5%. Preliminary characterization studies were made of the effect of varying actuator pulsing frequency and duty cycle, actuator edge effects, and orientation of the actuator with the flow. Flow control was demonstrated with the actuator imparting momentum opposite to the stream-wise flow direction, showing that it is possible to use disturbances alone to destabilize the flow and effect transition. No frequencies of strong influence were found over the range tested, indicating that a broad band of effective frequencies exists. Edge effects were found to considerably enhance separation control. Total pressure measurements of the flow without passing wakes were taken using a glass total-pressure tube. Corrections for streamline displacement due to shear and wall effects were made, and comparisons with previous hot-wire measurements were used to validate data. Performance features of conventional two-electrode and a novel three-electrode actuator configuration were compared. Hot-wire anemometry was used to take time-varying ensemble-averaged near-wall velocity measurements of the flow with periodic passing wakes. Corrections were made for near-wall effects, temperature effects, and interference of the electric field. The wakes were generated by a wake generator mechanism located upstream of the airfoil passage. The near-suction-surface total pressure field (flow without wakes) and velocity field (flow with wakes) in the trailing part of the airfoil passage, and the wall-normal gradient of these quantities, were used to demonstrate effective prevention of flow separation using the plasma actuator. Both flows (with and without passing wakes) showed fully attached flow (or very thin separation zones

  13. Low-pressure foaming: a novel method for the fabrication of porous scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eun Ji; Sugimoto, Matthew; Koh, Jason L; Ameer, Guillermo A

    2012-02-01

    Scaffolds for tissue engineering applications must incorporate porosity for optimal cell seeding, tissue ingrowth, and vascularization, but common fabrication methods for achieving porosity are incompatible with a variety of polymers, limiting widespread use. In this study, porous scaffolds consisting of poly(1,8-octanediol-co-citrate) (POC) containing hydroxyapatite nanocrystals (HA) were fabricated using low-pressure foaming (LPF). LPF is a novel method of fabricating an interconnected, porous scaffold with relative ease. LPF takes advantage of air bubbles that act as pore nucleation sites during a polymer mixing step. Vacuum is applied to expand the nucleation sites into interconnected pores that are stabilized through cross-linking. POC was combined with 20%, 40%, and 60% by weight HA, and the effect of increasing HA particle content on porosity, mechanical properties, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) was evaluated. The effect of the prepolymer viscosity on porosity and the mechanical properties of POC with 40% by weight HA (POC-40HA) were also assessed. POC-40HA scaffolds were also implanted in an osteochondral defect of a rabbit model, and the explants were assessed at 6 weeks using histology. With increasing HA content, the pore size of POC-HA scaffolds can be varied (85 to 1,003 μm) and controlled to mimic the pore size of native trabecular bone. The compression modulus increased with greater HA content under dry conditions and were retained to a greater extent than with porous scaffolds fabricated using salt-leaching under wet conditions. Furthermore, all POC-HA scaffolds prepared using LPF supported hMSC attachment, and an increase in ALP activity correlated with an increase in HA content. An increase in the prepolymer viscosity resulted in increased compression modulus, greater distance between pores, and less porosity. After 6 weeks in vivo, cell and tissue infiltration was present throughout the scaffold

  14. SO2 Spectroscopy with A Tunable UV Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, W. W.; Penney, C. M.; Lapp, M.

    1973-01-01

    A portion of the fluorescence spectrum of SO2 has been studied using a narrow wavelength doubled dye laser as the exciting source. One purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of SO2 resonance re-emission as a probe of SO2 in the atmosphere. When the SO2 is excited by light at 300.2 nm, for example, a strong reemission peak is observed which is Stokes-shifted from the incident light wavelength by the usual Raman shift (the VI symmetric vibration frequency 1150.5/cm ). The intensity of this peak is sensitive to small changes (.01 nm) in the incident wavelength. Measurements of the N2 quenching and self quenching of this re-emission have been obtained. Preliminary analysis of this data indicates that the quenching is weak but not negligible. The dye laser in our system is pumped by a pulsed N2 laser. Tuning 'and spectral narrowing are accomplished using a telescope-echelle grating combination. In a high power configuration the resulting pulses have a spectral width of about 5 x 10(exp -3) nm and a time duration of about 6 nsec. The echelle grating is rotated by a digital stepping motor, such that each step shifts the wavelength by 6 x 10(exp -4) nm. In addition to the tunable, narrow wavelength uv source and spectral analysis of the consequent re-emission, the system also provides time resolution of the re-emitted light to 6 nsec resolution. This capability is being used to study the lifetime of low pressure S02 fluorescence at different wavelengths and pressures.

  15. Generation of low-temperature plasma by low-pressure arcs for synthesis of nitride coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysina, O. V.; Koval, N. N.; Lopatin, I. V.; Shugurov, V. V.; Kovalsky, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Experiments were performed to study gas, metal, and mixed metal-gas plasmas. The plasmas were generated with the use of an arc evaporator and a gas-plasma source with a hot filament and hollow cathode that were operated independently or simultaneously. It has been revealed that the arc current of gas-plasma source affects the parameters of the metal-gas plasma and the element concentrations in the coatings. It has been demonstrated that the characteristics of the nitride coatings produced by plasma-assisted vacuum-arc deposition can be controlled by varying the parameters of the arc in the gas-plasma source.

  16. All solid-state 191.7 nm deep-UV light source by seventh harmonic generation of an 888 nm pumped, Q-switched 1342 nm Nd:YVO₄ laser with excellent beam quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Peter; Bartschke, Juergen; L'huillier, Johannes A

    2014-06-02

    In this paper we report on the realization of a deep-UV light source using the 1.3 μm transition of neodymium as pumping wavelength. The 191.7 nm radiation was obtained by generating the seventh harmonic of a high-power Q-switched 1342 nm Nd:YVO4 laser. A cesium lithium borate crystal was used for sum frequency mixing of the sixth harmonic and the fundamental. With a total of four conversion stages, up to 240 mW were achieved, with excellent beam quality at 155 mW (M2 < 1.7) and 190 mW (M2 < 1.9).

  17. Research on UV radiation measurements and correction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Dai, Cai-hong; Yu, Jai-lin; Wu, Zhi-feng; Ouyang, Hui-quan

    2011-06-01

    The widely use of UV radiation led to the demand for improved understanding of the properties of instrumentation used to measure this radiation. The UV radiometers are mainly influenced by the factors as operating conditions, environmental conditions and the UV sources to be calibrated and measured. In addition, large errors can occur due to out-of-band, non-linear, and non-ideal cosine or spatial response of the UV meters. Through a new designed measurement system for cosine response property, we do some measuring experiments to 21 kinds of UV radiometers and calculate the relative deviation of each UV meters. The cosine errors are existed universally. It is recommended that keeping the UV source closing to a point source and perpendicular to UV detector when it is measured is very important. We also design and fulfill an experimental system to reflect the measuring errors of UV radiometers when measuring sources and calibrated sources are mismatched. The results show that if the measurement is of a broadband source, it is wise to unify the measuring and calibrated source or the two sources have similar spectral distribution. If that is not possible, we can calculate the spectral mismatch correction factor and spectral matching characteristic factor to correct the measuring data. All the works above are to let the users in appropriate usage of UV Radiometers in a standardized and comparable way and make the measurement quantities more accurate.

  18. Modeling the Rapid Boil-Off of a Cryogenic Liquid When Injected into a Low Pressure Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Many launch vehicle cryogenic applications require the modeling of injecting a cryogenic liquid into a low pressure cavity. The difficulty of such analyses lies in accurately predicting the heat transfer coefficient between the cold liquid and a warm wall in a low pressure environment. The heat transfer coefficient and the behavior of the liquid is highly dependent on the mass flow rate into the cavity, the cavity wall temperature and the cavity volume. Testing was performed to correlate the modeling performed using Thermal Desktop and Sinda Fluint Thermal and Fluids Analysis Software. This presentation shall describe a methodology to model the cryogenic process using Sinda Fluint, a description of the cryogenic test set up, a description of the test procedure and how the model was correlated to match the test results.

  19. Studies of THGEM-based detector at low-pressure Hydrogen/Deuterium, for AT-TPC applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cortesi, Marco; Mittig, Wolfgang; Bazin, Daniel; Beceiro-Novo, Saul; Stolz, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We study the performance of single- and double- THick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM) detectors in pure Hydrogen and Deuterium at low pressures, in the range of 100-450 Torr. The effect of the pressure on the maximum achievable gain, ion-back flow and long-term gain stability are investigated for single and double cascade detectors. In particular, it was found that maximum achievable gains above 10^4, from single-photoelectrons avalanche, can be achieved for pressures of 200 Torr and above; for lower pressure the gains are limited by avalanche-induced secondary effects to a values of around 103. The results of this work are relevant in the field of avalanche mechanism in low-pressure, low-mass noble gases, in particular for applications of THGEM end-cap readout for active-target Time Projection Chambers (TPC) in the field of nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics.

  20. Development and field application of a novel emulsion system O/W for well drilling of low pressure reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano, J.; Ojeda, A.; Blanco, J.; Medina, N.; Gutierrez, X.; Carrasquero, M.; Briceno, H. [PDVSA (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In Venezuela, there are important reserves of hydrocarbons in low pressure reservoirs but accessing to these reserves is a major challenge. This paper presents a new oil in water emulsion (O/W) system, using fatty acids and their salts as surfactant additives for use in such reservoirs, and the results obtained in field applications. Emulsions were prepared using two oil types and multiple salt (KCl) concentrations. Tests were then conducted to determine their thermal stability and return permeability percentage. Results showed good tolerance of high concentrations of KCl, as well as good stability under high temperatures and a good rheological behavior. The field test showed that the O/W emulsion system presents technological and cost advantages over other commercial technologies. This paper presented a new oil in water emulsion system which is a good alternative to water based fluids for well drilling in low pressure reservoirs.

  1. [Change in the properties of titanium alloys exposed to a stream of high-frequency, low-pressure radiating plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matukhnov, V M; Abdullin, I Sh; Altareva, G I; Zheltukhin, V S; Gerasev, G P

    1985-01-01

    The Nitrogen-Argon plasma of a high-frequency low-pressure discharge is proven to be very effective in machining pieces made of titanium alloys. The optimum operating modes are found that improve surface microhardness, reduce surface roughness, increase durability and endurance limits, and do not produce the effect on the residual stress. The operating modes have been tested with great success in machining microsurgical and ultrasonic surgical instruments.

  2. Evaluation of shallow-placed low pressure distribution systems in soils marginally suited for on-site waste treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ijzerman, M. Marian

    1990-01-01

    Two shallow-placed low pressure distribution (LPD) systems were evaluated in soils that were marginally suited for a conventional on-site wastewater disposal system (OSWDS) because of low hydraulic conductivity and shallow depth of soil to bedrock. The soils used for this study were Edom (fine, illitic, mesic, Typic Hapludult) and Penn-Bucks soil (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic, ultic Hapludult). In the Edam soil, the LPD system was installed with four subsystem designs operating: a ...

  3. An experimental study of amphibole stability in low-pressure granitic magmas and a revised Al-in-hornblende geobarometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutch, E. J. F.; Blundy, J. D.; Tattitch, B. C.; Cooper, F. J.; Brooker, R. A.

    2016-10-01

    We report new experimental data on the composition of magmatic amphiboles synthesised from a variety of granite (sensu lato) bulk compositions at near-solidus temperatures and pressures of 0.8-10 kbar. The total aluminium content (Altot) of the synthetic calcic amphiboles varies systematically with pressure ( P), although the relationship is nonlinear at low pressures (barometer expression is comparable to the precision with which near-solidus amphibole rim composition can be characterised.

  4. Detection, fate and inactivation of pathogenic norovirus employing settlement and UV treatment in wastewater treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, M; Fitzhenry, K; O'Flaherty, V; Dore, W; Keaveney, S; Cormican, M; Rowan, N; Clifford, E

    2016-10-15

    It is accepted that discharged wastewaters can be a significant source of pathogenic viruses in receiving water bodies contributing to pollution and may in turn enter the human food chain and pose a risk to human health, thus norovirus (NoV) is often a predominant cause of gastroenteritis globally. Working with NoV poses particular challenges as it cannot be readily identified and detection by molecular methods does not assess infectivity. It has been proposed that the infectivity of NoV may be modelled through the use of an alternative virus; F-specific RNA (FRNA) bacteriophages; GA genotype and other FRNA bacteriophages have been used as a surrogate in studies of NoV inactivation. This study investigated the efficiency of novel pulsed ultraviolet irradiation and low pressure ultraviolet irradiation as a potential pathogen inactivation system for NoV and FRNA bacteriophage (GA) in secondary treated wastewaters. The role of UV dose and the impact of suspended solids concentration on removal efficiency were also examined. The study also investigated the role of settlement processes in wastewater treatment plants in removing NoV. While NoV inactivation could not be determined it was found that at a maximum UV dose of 6.9J/cm(2) (6900mJ/cm(2)) an average 2.4 log removal of FRNA bacteriophage (GA) was observed; indicating the potential need for high UV doses to remove NoV if FRNA bacteriophage prove a suitable indicator for NoV. The study found that increasing concentrations of suspended solids impacted on PUV efficiency however, it appears the extent of the impact may be site specific. Furthermore, the study found that settlement processes can play a significant role in the removal of FRNA bacteriophage, thus potentially NoV.

  5. Characteristics and plasma parameters of a short-wavelength low-pressure discharge lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Shevera, I. V.; Malinina, A. A.

    2008-10-01

    We have studied the working optical characteristics and electron kinetic coefficients of a short-wavelength, electric discharge exciplex-halogen UV-VUV lamp employing a mixture of argon and chlorine with a total pressure of P = 0.5 10 kPa. The lamp operates on a system of broadened electron-vibrational bands of ArCl (175 nm) and chlorine (200, 258 nm) molecules, which overlap to form a continuum in the spectral range of 160 260 nm. It is established that the optimum mixtures are those with p(Ar) - p(Cl2) = (2 4)-(0.15 0.30) kPa. The average output power of the short-wavelength radiation is 1 2 W at an efficiency of ˜5%. The electron energy distribution functions (EDFs) and the discharge plasma parameters have been calculated by solving the Boltzmann equation for a gas mixture with the experimentally determined optimum composition in the range of E/ P values from 1 to 200 V/(cm Torr), where E is the electric field strength and P is the total gas pressure. Using the obtained EDFs, the electron transport characteristics, specific discharge power losses for the main elementary processes, and rate constants of electron processes are determined.

  6. The efficacy of low-pressure lavage with different irrigating solutions to remove adherent bacteria from bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, M; Adili, A; Schemitsch, E H

    2001-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that high-pressure irrigation may have adverse effects on bone. However, the use of low-pressure irrigation may not remove all adherent bacteria from bone. The type of irrigating solution may be an important factor in the removal of adherent bacteria with pulsatile lavage. In this study, we compared the effects of various irrigating solutions on the number and function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts and we examined the effectiveness of these solutions in removing adherent bacteria from bone. To examine the effect of irrigating solutions on the number and activity of osteoblasts, we isolated calvarial cells from newborn C57BI/6 mice and exposed the cells to equivalent concentrations of ethanol, povidoneiodine, liquid soap, antimicrobial wash (50 U/L of bacitracin), or chlorhexidine gluconate, for two, ten, or twenty minutes. The cells were then cultured in the presence of bone-nodule-enhancing medium (beta-glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid) for twenty-one days. The medium was changed every three or four days. Mineralized nodules were stained with alizarin red S, and osteoblasts were stained with a histochemical stain for alkaline phosphatase. Osteoclasts were identified with tartrate-resistant acid-phosphatase staining. In a second experiment, canine cortical tibiae were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus for six hours and subjected to different irrigating solutions with or without low-pressure lavage. Bacterial colony-forming units were quantitated under each set of conditions. Each solution resulted in a time-dependent decrease in the number of calvarial osteoblasts and osteoclasts compared with that in the controls. The 1% soap solution resulted in greater preservation of both alkaline-phosphatase activity and bone-nodule formation than did the other solutions. Moreover, the soap solution preserved the number of osteoclasts to the greatest extent. The povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine-gluconate solutions resulted in the largest

  7. Índice UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Información general sobre el Índice UV que proporciona un pronóstico del riesgo esperado de sobreexposición a la radiación ultravioleta (UV) del sol. El índice UV va acompañado de recomendaciones para protegerse del sol.

  8. A pulsed, mono-energetic and angular-selective UV photo-electron source for the commissioning of the KATRIN experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, WWU Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IEKP, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Ranitzsch, P.C.O.; Hannen, V.; Ortjohann, H.W.; Rest, O.; Winzen, D.; Zacher, M.; Weinheimer, C. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, WWU Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Beck, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, WWU Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik, Mainz (Germany); Beglarian, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IPE, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Erhard, M.; Groh, S.; Kraus, M. [IEKP, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Schloesser, K.; Thuemmler, T. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IKP, Karlsruhe (Germany); Valerius, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, WWU Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IKP, Karlsruhe (Germany); Wierman, K.; Wilkerson, J.F. [University of North Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The KATRIN experiment aims to determine the neutrino mass scale with a sensitivity of 200 meV/c{sup 2} (90% C.L.) by a precision measurement of the shape of the tritium β-spectrum in the endpoint region. The energy analysis of the decay electrons is achieved by a MAC-E filter spectrometer. To determine the transmission properties of the KATRIN main spectrometer, a mono-energetic and angular-selective electron source has been developed. In preparation for the second commissioning phase of the main spectrometer, a measurement phase was carried out at the KATRIN monitor spectrometer where the device was operated in a MAC-E filter setup for testing. The results of these measurements are compared with simulations using the particle-tracking software ''Kassiopeia'', which was developed in the KATRIN collaboration over recent years. (orig.)

  9. Optical and Electronic Properties of InGaN/GaN Multi-Quantum-Wells Near-Ultraviolet Lighting-Emitting-Diodes Grown by Low-Pressure Metalorganic Vapour Phase Epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠辉; 杨志坚; 秦志新; 童玉珍; 于彤军; 陆曙; 杨华; 张国义

    2003-01-01

    The near-ultraviolet lighting-emitting-diodes (UV-LEDs) with the InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well (MQW)structure were grown by low-pressure metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy. The double crystal x-ray diffraction revealed a distinct second-order satellite peak. The near-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs have been successfully fabricated to emit at 401.2nm with narrow FWHM of 14.3nm and the forward voltage of 3.6 V at 20mA injection current at room temperature. With increasing forward current from 10mA to 50mA, the redshift of the peak wavelength was observed due to the band-gap narrowing caused by heat generation.

  10. Sources

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    SOURCES MANUSCRITES Archives nationales Rôles de taille 1768/71 Z1G-344/18 Aulnay Z1G-343a/02 Gennevilliers Z1G-340/01 Ivry Z1G-340/05 Orly Z1G-334c/09 Saint-Remy-lès-Chevreuse Z1G-344/18 Sevran Z1G-340/05 Thiais 1779/80 Z1G-391a/18 Aulnay Z1G-380/02 Gennevilliers Z1G-385/01 Ivry Z1G-387b/05 Orly Z1G-388a/09 Saint-Remy-lès-Chevreuse Z1G-391a/18 Sevran Z1G-387b/05 Thiais 1788/89 Z1G-451/18 Aulnay Z1G-452/21 Chennevières Z1G-443b/02 Gennevilliers Z1G-440a/01 Ivry Z1G-452/17 Noiseau Z1G-445b/05 ...

  11. Inter-pulse delay optimization in dual-pulse laser induced breakdown vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of a steel sample in ambient gases at low pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, X., E-mail: xi.jiang2@mail.dcu.ie [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); Hayden, P. [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); Laasch, R. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitat Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Costello, J.T.; Kennedy, E.T. [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland)

    2013-08-01

    Time-integrated spatially-resolved Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to investigate spectral emissions from laser-induced plasmas generated on steel targets. Instead of detecting spectral lines in the visible/near ultraviolet (UV), as investigated in conventional LIBS, this work explored the use of spectral lines emitted by ions in the shorter wavelength vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region. Single-pulse (SP) and dual-pulse LIBS (DP-LIBS) experiments were performed on standardized steel samples. In the case of the double-pulse scheme, two synchronized lasers were used, an ablation laser (200 mJ/15 ns), and a reheating laser (665 mJ/6 ns) in a collinear beam geometry. Spatially resolved and temporally integrated laser induced plasma VUV emission in the DP scheme and its dependence on inter-pulse delay time were studied. The VUV spectral line intensities were found to be enhanced in the DP mode and were significantly affected by the inter-pulse delay time. Additionally, the influence of ambient conditions was investigated by employing low pressure nitrogen, argon or helium as buffer gases in the ablation chamber. The results clearly demonstrate the existence of a sharp ubiquitous emission intensity peak at 100 ns and a wider peak, in the multi-microsecond range of inter-pulse time delay, dependent on the ambient gas conditions. - Highlights: • First dual-pulse and ambient gas deep VUV LIBS plasma emission study • Optimization of inter-pulse delay time for vacuum and ambient gas environments • A sharp intensity peak implies optimal inter-pulse delay of 100 ns for all conditions. • A broad peak appears in the microsecond delay range, but only in ambient gases. • Pressure dependence implies a different enhancement process.

  12. Calibration and characterization of UV sensors for water disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larason, T.; Ohno, Y.

    2006-04-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), USA is participating in a project with the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AwwaRF) to develop new guidelines for ultraviolet (UV) sensor characteristics to monitor the performance of UV water disinfection plants. The current UV water disinfection standards, ÖNORM M5873-1 and M5873-2 (Austria) and DVGW W294 3 (Germany), on the requirements for UV sensors for low-pressure mercury (LPM) and medium-pressure mercury (MPM) lamp systems have been studied. Additionally, the characteristics of various types of UV sensors from several different commercial vendors have been measured and analysed. This information will aid in the development of new guidelines to address issues such as sensor requirements, calibration methods, uncertainty and traceability. Practical problems were found in the calibration methods and evaluation of spectral responsivity requirements for sensors designed for MPM lamp systems. To solve the problems, NIST is proposing an alternative sensor calibration method for MPM lamp systems. A future calibration service is described for UV sensors intended for low- and medium-pressure mercury lamp systems used in water disinfection applications.

  13. A study of photoemission using CW and pulsed UV light sources to probe surface slip band structure evolution of single crystal aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mingdong; Langford, Stephen; Dickinson, J. Thomas

    2008-03-01

    We report measurements of photoelectron emission from high-purity single crystal aluminum during uniaxial tensile deformation. A 248 nm pulsed excimer laser was used as a light source and the generated photoemission data was compared with that using a filtered mercury lamp. Time-of-flight curves of photoelectrons generated by pulsed excimer laser irradiation were observed showing a two peaked structure. These two peaks correspond to photoelectrons of two energy levels. It was also found that real time total photoelectron charge increases linearly with strain; and the increment is heterogeneous. Photoemission using low-energy photons is sensitive to changes in surface morphology accompanying deformation, including slip line and band formation. The discontinuity in photoelectron intensity and the heterogeneous surface slip band structure prove the production of fresh surface area is not continuous, which is predicted by a recent dislocation dynamics theory based on percolation process. Except for differences in instrumentation and data analysis, the photoemission data from a filtered mercury lamp and from the excimer laser are comparable. Current studies extend the application of the excimer laser into surface dynamics analysis.

  14. Selective surface functionalization of polystyrene induced by synchrotron or UV radiation in the presence of oxygen or acrylic acid vapors; Funcionalizacao superficial seletiva de poliestireno induzida por radiacao sincrotron ou ultravioleta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, Felipe; Kuhn, Sidiney; Weibel, Daniel E., E-mail: felipekessler@gmail.co [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (IQ/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil) Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Fisico-Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Efficient surface functionalization of Polystyrene (PS) thin films by electromagnetic radiation in combination with a reactive gaseous atmosphere was obtained. Monochromatic synchrotron (SR) or polychromatic UV radiation were used as excitation sources. When SR was used, O{sub 2} was introduced after irradiation into the UHV chamber. UV irradiation was carried out keeping a constant flow of O{sub 2} or acrylic acid (AA) vapors during the photolysis. FTIR-ATR and XPS-NEXAFS spectra were obtained at the UFRGS and the LNLS, Campinas respectively. PS films were functionalized by monochromatic SR and then expose to O{sub 2} at specific transitions such us C 1s {yields}{sigma}{sup *}{sub C-C} excitation. It was found a high rate of COO, C=O and C-O groups at the surface (> 70%). UV-assisted treatment in the presence of AA vapors showed that an efficient polymerization process took place, such as, it was observed in previous AA low pressure RF plasma treatments. UV-assisted functionalization has the advantage of lower costs and simple set-up compared to plasma treatments. (author)

  15. Start-up phase of the HELOKA-LP low pressure helium test facility for IFMIF irradiation modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlindwein, Georg, E-mail: georg.schlindwein@kit.edu [Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Arbeiter, Frederik; Freund, Jana [Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Helium Loop Karlsruhe-Low Pressure (HELOKA-LP) succesfully taken to operation at the end of 2009. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Verified that HELOKA-LP fulfils all requirements to test the High Flux Test Module (HFTM). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some improvements could be done (e.g. reduction of power consumption, enhancement of control path parameters). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtained a chronological sequence of the helium gas impurity which is important for the International Fusion Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). - Abstract: As part of the Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) , it is foreseen to design and test a 1:1 scale prototype of the IFMIF High Flux Test Module (HFTM) . The module has been designed to be cooled by a low pressure helium gas flowing through minichannels to remove the nuclear heat. The Helium Loop Karlsruhe-Low Pressure (HELOKA-LP) has been designed to provide coolant at 1:1 HFTM operational conditions: massflow 12-120 g/s, inlet pressure 0.3-0.6 MPa, inlet temperature RT - 250 Degree-Sign C. A secondary objective is to use the experience gained with HELOKA-LP for the planning of the IFMIF helium cooling system. The facility has been put into operation in 2009, and has since then been in a test and optimization phase. It was proven, that the above mentioned requirements for the facility are achieved. The paper describes the process layout and components of the facility. The performance is characterized by the results of several steady state and transient benchmark tests. Typical start-up and transition times relevant for the operation mode in the IFMIF irradiation campaigns are obtained. Additionally first results on the impurity ingress and the cooling gas chemistry are described.

  16. Standard values of fugacity for sulfur which are self-consistent with the low-pressure phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, Robert A., E-mail: rob.marriott@ucalgary.ca [Alberta Sulphur Research Ltd., University of Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Wan, Herman H. [Alberta Sulphur Research Ltd., University of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > We have provided a method for calculating the fugacity for elemental sulfur. > Calculated sulfur fugacities can be used in sulfur equilibrium models. > The sulfur fugacities also can be used to locate the phase changes in the low-pressure phase diagram. > We have measured the 'natural' melting point of sulfur, and found it to be T = 388.5 {+-} 0.2 K. - Abstract: A method for calculating the fugacity of pure sulfur in the {alpha}-solid, {beta}-solid and liquid phase regions has been reported for application to industrial equilibrium conditions, e.g., high-pressure solubility of sulfur in sour gas. The fugacity calculations are self-consistent with the low-pressure phase diagram. As recently discussed by Ferreira and Lobo , empirical fitting of the experimental data does not yield consistent behaviour for the low-pressure phase diagram of elemental sulfur. In particular, there is a discrepancy between the vapour pressure of {beta}-solid (monoclinic) and liquid sulfur at the fusion temperature. We have provided an alternative semi-empirical approach which allows one to calculate values of the fugacity at conditions removed from the conditions of the pure sulfur phase transitions. For our approach, we have forced the liquid vapour pressure to equal the {beta}-solid vapour pressure at the {beta}-l-g triple point corresponding to the 'natural' fusion temperature for {beta}-solid. Many studies show a higher 'observed' fusion temperature for elemental sulfur. The non-reversible conditions for 'observed' fusion conditions for elemental sulfur result from a kinetically hindered melt which causes some thermodynamic measurements to be related to a metastable S{sub 8} liquid. We have measured the 'natural' fusion temperature, T{sub fus}{sup {beta}}(exp.)=(388.5{+-}0.2)K at p = 89.9 kPa, which is consistent with literature fusion data at higher-pressures. Using our semi-empirical approach, we have used or found the

  17. Combustion processes for a low pressure gasoline direct injection; Brennverfahrenskonzepte fuer eine Niederdruck-Direkteinspritzung bei Ottomotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Stephan; Trattner, Alexander; Eichlseder, Helmut; Kirchberger, Roland [Technische Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen und Thermodynamik

    2011-07-15

    The gasoline direct injection becomes more and more important for small engines used in passenger cars. Lowering injection pressure and thus costs could enable the introduction of this technology in the small engine segment offering an alternative to today's MPFI engines. The results of these investigations made at TU Graz show the potential of low pressure direct injection in terms of improvement over standard MPFI engines (fuel economy, emissions, and engine operation stability) and reduced costs compared to high pressure GDI systems. (orig.)

  18. Low Pressure Radio-Frequency Oxygen Plasma Induced Oxidation of Titanium – Surface Characteristics and Biological Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Wan-Yu Tseng; Sheng-Hao Hsu; Chieh-Hsiun Huang; Yu-Chieh Tu; Shao-Chin Tseng; Hsuen-Li Chen; Min-Huey Chen; Wei-Fang Su; Li-Deh Lin

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This research was designed to investigate the effects of low pressure radio-frequency (RF) oxygen plasma treatment (OPT) on the surface of commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) and Ti6Al4V. Surface topography, elemental composition, water contact angle, cell viability, and cell morphology were surveyed to evaluate the biocompatibility of titanium samples with different lengths of OP treating time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CP-Ti and Ti6Al4V discs were both classified into 4 groups: untre...

  19. Kinetics of low pressure CVD growth of SiO2 on InP and Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, R.; Lile, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    The kinetics of low pressure CVD growth of SiO2 from SiH4 and O2 has been investigated for the case of an indirect (remote) plasma process. Homogeneous (gas phase) and heterogeneous operating ranges have been experimentally identified. The process was shown to be consistent within the heterogeneous surface-reaction dominated range of operation. A kinetic rate equation is given for growth at 14 W RF power input and 400 mtorr total pressure on both InP and Si substrates. The process exhibits an activation energy of 8.4 + or - 0.6 kcal/mol.

  20. Natural Organic Matter Removal and Fouling in a Low Pressure Hybrid Membrane Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Uyak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate powdered activated carbon (PAC contribution to natural organic matter (NOM removal by a submerged MF and UF hybrid systems. It was found that filtration of surface waters by a bare MF and UF membranes removed negligible TOC; by contrast, significant amounts of TOC were removed when daily added PAC particles were predeposited on the membrane surfaces. These results support the assumption that the membranes surface properties and PAC layer structure might have considerably influential factor on NOM removal. Moreover, it was concluded that the dominant removal mechanism of hybrid membrane system is adsorption of NOM within PAC layer rather than size exclusion of NOM by both of membrane pores. Transmembrane pressure (TMP increases with PAC membrane systems support the view that PAC adsorption pretreatment will not prevent the development of membrane pressure; on the contrary, PAC particles themselves caused membrane fouling by blocking the entrance of pores of MF and UF membranes. Although all three source waters have similar HPI content, it appears that the PAC interaction with the entrance of membrane pores was responsible for offsetting the NOM fractional effects on membrane fouling for these source waters.

  1. The influence of additional electrons on memory effect in nitrogen at low pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesic, Nikola T; Pejovic, Momcilo M; Pejovic, Milic M; Zivanovic, Emilija N, E-mail: nikola.nesic@elfak.ni.ac.rs [University of Nis, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Aleksandra Medvedeva 14, 18000 Nis (Serbia)

    2011-03-09

    Memory effect in nitrogen based on experimental data of electrical breakdown time delay as a function of afterglow period in the presence of additional electrons has been investigated. The additional electrons were supplied as a result of extraction from the auxiliary electrode pair or nitrogen irradiation with the radioactive source {sub 88}{sup 226}Ra of low activity. The results show that these electrons have an important role in the recombination of positive ions formed in mutual metastable molecules' collisions and collisions between metastable and highly vibrationally excited molecules in the early afterglow. As a consequence of the ion-electron recombination N({sup 4}S) atoms are formed which, as well as N({sup 4}S) atoms formed in previous discharge, have a significant influence on the memory effect in late afterglow. The presence of N({sup 4}S) atoms in the late afterglow is tracked by monitoring the secondary emission which they induce via catalytic recombination on the cathode of a nitrogen-filled tube. Also, it has been shown that the contribution of secondary electrons which originate from N({sup 4}S) atoms and Compton electrons when the radioactive source is and isn't present can be distinguished.

  2. Personal UV biodosimeter for healthy indoor tanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenetskaya, I. P.; Orlova, T. N.

    2008-04-01

    The practice of indoor tanning has led to the development of a large artificial tanning industry. In addition to psychological benefits, exposure to UVB light helps the body produce the activated form of vitamin D, which is necessary for many cellular functions. But uncontrolled tanning and UV overexposure can increase the risk of skin cancer. For direct checkout of the vitamin D synthetic capacity of a UV source the bio-equivalent UV dosimeter has been developed that is based on the same molecular photochemistry from which vitamin D is photosynthesized in human skin and makes possible both instrumental and visual indication of vitamin D synthesis.

  3. Low pressure traumatic epidural hematoma in a child with a prior hemispherectomy: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fassil B Mesfin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2½-year-old male child with a prior history of a left anatomic hemispherectomy to treat refractory epilepsy fell down two steps, striking his head on the ipsilateral side of the hemispherectomy. He presented with non-consolable crying and emesis. CT scan of the head demonstrated a left frontal epidural hematoma beneath the site of his prior craniectomy. The patient was initially treated by close observation. However, due to an increase in the hematoma from 29.5 to 49.3 ml over a 12-hour period along with the patient′s lack of clinical improvement, surgical evacuation was performed. Intraoperatively, the source of the hemorrhage was found to be the skull fracture. Postoperatively, he returned to his neurologic baseline and was discharged home on postoperative day 3.

  4. Hybrid simulations of solenoidal radio-frequency inductively coupled hydrogen discharges at low pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Li, Hong; Gao, Fei; Wang, You-Nian

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we have described a radio-frequency (RF) inductively coupled H2 plasma using a hybrid computational model, incorporating the Maxwell equations and the linear part of the electron Boltzmann equation into global model equations. This report focuses on the effects of RF frequency, gas pressure, and coil current on the spatial profiles of the induced electric field and plasma absorption power density. The plasma parameters, i.e., plasma density, electron temperature, density of negative ion, electronegativity, densities of neutral species, and dissociation degree of H2, as a function of absorption power, are evaluated at different gas pressures. The simulation results show that the utilization efficiency of the RF source characterized by the coupling efficiency of the RF electric field and power to the plasma can be significantly improved at the low RF frequency, gas pressure, and coil current, due to a low plasma density in these cases. The densities of vibrational states of H2 first rapidly increase with increasing absorption power and then tend to saturate. This is because the rapidly increased dissociation degree of H2 with increasing absorption power somewhat suppresses the increase of the vibrational states of H2, thus inhibiting the increase of the H-. The effects of absorption power on the utilization efficiency of the RF source and the production of the vibrational states of H2 should be considered when setting a value of the coil current. To validate the model simulations, the calculated electron density and temperature are compared with experimental measurements, and a reasonable agreement is achieved.

  5. DNA repair. [UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setlow, R.

    1978-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: difficulty in extrapolating data from E. coli to mammalian systems; mutations caused by UV-induced changes in DNA; mutants deficient in excision repair; other postreplication mechanisms; kinds of excision repair systems; detection of repair by biochemical or biophysical means; human mutants deficient in repair; mutagenic effects of UV on XP cells; and detection of UV-repair defects among XP individuals. (HLW)

  6. Design and development of low pressure evaporator/condenser unit for water-based adsorption type climate control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramanan, Arjun; Rios Perez, Carlos A.; Hidrovo, Carlos H.

    2016-11-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are the future of clean transportation and driving range is one of the important parameters which dictates its marketability. In order to increase driving range, electrical battery energy consumption should be minimized. Vapor-compression refrigeration systems currently employed in EVs for climate control consume a significant fraction of the battery charge. Thus, by replacing this traditional heating ventilation and air-conditioning system with an adsorption based climate control system one can have the capability of increasing the drive range of EVs.The Advanced Thermo-adsorptive Battery (ATB) for climate control is a water-based adsorption type refrigeration cycle. An essential component of the ATB is a low pressure evaporator/condenser unit (ECU) which facilitates both the evaporation and condensation processes. The thermal design of the ECU relies predominantly on the accurate prediction of evaporation/boiling heat transfer coefficients since the standard correlations for predicting boiling heat transfer coefficients have large uncertainty at the low operating pressures of the ATB. This work describes the design and development of a low pressure ECU as well as the thermal performance of the actual ECU prototype.

  7. Simultaneous removal of phosphorus and EfOM using MIEX, coagulation, and low-pressure membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Timmes, Thomas C; Dempsey, Brian A

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using magnetic ion exchange (MIEX) treatment, in-line alum coagulation, and low-pressure membrane filtration was investigated for the simultaneous removal of total phosphorus (TP) and effluent organic matter (EfOM) from biologically treated wastewater. The focus was also placed on minimizing fouling of polyvinylidene fluoride and polyethersulfone membranes, which are the most commonly used low-pressure membranes in new and retrofit wastewater treatment plants. MIEX alone was effective for the removal of EfOM, and MIEX plus a small alum dose was very effective in removing both EfOM and TP. MIEX removed phosphorus, but organic acids in EfOM were preferentially removed, and the effects of competing anions on the removal of EfOM were insignificant. All the pretreatment strategies decreased the resistance to filtration. The greatest decrease in fouling was achieved by using MIEX (15 mL L⁻¹) plus a very low dose of alum (∼0.5 mg Al L⁻¹). Sweep floc coagulation using alum and without MIEX also significantly decreased fouling but did not effectively remove EfOM and produced high floc volume that could be problematic for inside-out hollow-fibre modules. The addition of these reagents into rapid mix followed by membrane filtration would provide operational simplicity and could be easily retrofitted at existing membrane filtration facilities.

  8. Online spectrophotometric determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) by flow injection combined with low pressure ion chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shujuan; Li, Nan; Zhang, Xinshen; Yang, Dongjing; Jiang, Heimei

    2015-03-01

    A simple and new low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometric procedure for determining Fe(II) and Fe(III) was established. It is based on the selective adsorption of low pressure ion chromatography column to Fe(II) and Fe(III), the online reduction reaction of Fe(III) and the reaction of Fe(II) in sodium acetate with phenanthroline, resulting in an intense orange complex with a suitable absorption at 515 nm. Various chemical (such as the concentration of colour reagent, eluant and reductive agent) and instrumental parameters (reaction coil length, reductive coil length and wavelength) were studied and were optimized. Under the optimum conditions calibration graph of Fe(II)/Fe(III) was linear in the Fe(II)/Fe(III) range of 0.040-1.0 mg/L. The detection limit of Fe(III) and Fe(II) was respectively 3.09 and 1.55 μg/L, the relative standard deviation (n = 10) of Fe(II) and Fe(III) 1.89% and 1.90% for 0.5 mg/L of Fe(II) and Fe(III) respectively. About 2.5 samples in 1 h can be analyzed. The interfering effects of various chemical species were studied. The method was successfully applied in the determination of water samples.

  9. Low-pressure plasma enhanced immobilization of chitosan on low-density polyethylene for bio-medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandiyaraj, K. Navaneetha; Ferraria, Ana Maria; Rego, Ana Maria Botelho do; Deshmukh, Rajendra. R.; Su, Pi-Guey; Halleluyah Mercy, Jr.; Halim, Ahmad Sukari

    2015-02-01

    With the aim of improving blood compatibility of low density polyethylene (LDPE) films, an effective low-pressure plasma technology was employed to functionalize the LDPE film surfaces through in-situ grafting of acrylic acid (AAc). Subsequently, the molecules of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and chitosan (CHI) were immobilized on the surface of grafted LDPE films. The unmodified and modified LDPE films were analyzed using various characterization techniques such as contact angle, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) to understand the changes in surface properties such as hydrophilicity, surface topography and chemical composition, respectively. Furthermore, LDPE films have been subjected to an ageing process to determine the durability of the plasma assisted surface modification. The blood compatibility of the surface modified LDPE films was confirmed by in vitro tests. It was found that surface modified LDPE films show better hydrophilic behavior compared with the unmodified one. FTIR and XPS results confirm the successful immobilization of CHI on the surface of LDPE films. LDPE films showed marked morphological changes after grafting of AAc, PEG and CHI which were confirmed through AFM imaging. The in vitro blood compatibility tests have clearly demonstrated that CHI immobilized LDPE films exhibit remarkable anti thrombogenic nature compared with other modified films. Surface modified LDPE films through low-pressure plasma technique could be adequate for biomedical implants such as artificial skin substrates, urethral catheters or cardiac stents, among others.

  10. Impact of fouling on UV effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykstra, T.S. [Dalhouse Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Chauret, C. [Indiana Univ. Kokomo, Kokomo, Biological and Physical Sciences, Indiana (United States)

    2002-06-15

    In recent years ultraviolet light has gained in popularity as an attractive disinfection alternative due to its ability to inactivate bacteria and viruses. UV light has the potential to inactivate Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia with a very low potential for the formation of harmful disinfection by-products. Previous studies have reported that particulate material present in the water can act to reduce the exposure of UV light to the receiving waters and that the interference of organic particles can serve to protect bacteria and viruses from intended disinfection. Disinfection capacity can also be reduced by organics in the source water that can accumulate on the surface of quartz sleeves. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of a medium pressure UV light, at drinking water treatment levels, to inactivate MS 2 bacteriophage after a quartz tube has been fouled with organic rich source water for a 12- week period. To this end the inactivation of MS 2 was determined under clean and fouled conditions, in the presence and absence of humic rich water. The effect of lamp age on inactivation was also investigated. The results suggest that organic fouling of a quartz tube has a significant impact on the disinfection capacity of a medium pressure UV lamp. The presence of organics in the source water also plays a significant role in reducing the capacity of UV for bacterial and viral disinfection. Lamp age also seems to have some effect on the efficiency of UV disinfection. (author)

  11. Inactivation of human adenovirus by sequential disinfection with an alternative UV technology and free chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Keun; Shin, Gwy-Am

    2011-03-01

    There has been growing concern over human exposure to adenoviruses through drinking water due to the extreme resistance of human adenoviruses to the traditional UV technology (low-pressure (LP) UV). As an effort to develop an effective treatment strategy against human adenoviruses in drinking water, we determined the effectiveness of sequential disinfection with an alternative UV technology (medium-pressure (MP) UV) and free chlorine. Human adenovirus 2 (Ad2) was irradiated with a low dose of MP UV irradiation (10 mJ/cm(2)) through UV collimated apparatus and then exposed to a low dose of free chlorine (0.17 mg/L) at pH 8 and 5°C using a bench-scale chemical disinfection system. A significant inactivation (e.g. 4 log(10)) of Ad2 was achieved with the low doses of MP UV and free chlorine within a very short contact time (∼1.5 min) although there was no apparent synergistic effect on Ad2 between MP UV and free chlorine. Overall, it is likely that the sequential disinfection with UV irradiation and free chlorine should control the contamination of drinking water by human adenoviruses within practical doses of UV and free chlorine typically used in drinking water treatment processes.

  12. Linear electromagnetic excitation of an asymmetric low pressure capacitive discharge with unequal sheath widths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieberman, M. A., E-mail: lieber@eecs.berkeley.edu; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Kawamura, E. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-1770 (United States); Chabert, P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, UPMC, Paris XI, Observatoire de Paris, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2016-01-15

    It is well-known that standing waves having radially center-high radio frequency (rf) voltage profiles exist in high frequency capacitive discharges. In this work, we determine the symmetric and antisymmetric radially propagating waves in a cylindrical capacitive discharge that is asymmetrically driven at the lower electrode by an rf voltage source. The discharge is modeled as a uniform bulk plasma which at lower frequencies has a thicker sheath at the smaller area powered electrode and a thinner sheath at the larger area grounded electrode. These are self-consistently determined at a specified density using the Child law to calculate sheath widths and the electron power balance to calculate the rf voltage. The fields and the system resonant frequencies are determined. The center-to-edge voltage ratio on the powered electrode is calculated versus frequency, and central highs are found near the resonances. The results are compared with simulations in a similar geometry using a two-dimensional hybrid fluid-analytical code, giving mainly a reasonable agreement. The analytic model may be useful for finding good operating frequencies for a given discharge geometry and power.

  13. Calibrating cosmological radiative transfer simulations with Lyman alpha forest data: Evidence for large spatial UV background fluctuations at z ~ 5.6 - 5.8 due to rare bright sources

    CERN Document Server

    Chardin, Jonathan; Aubert, Dominique; Puchwein, Ewald

    2015-01-01

    We calibrate here cosmological radiative transfer simulation with ATON/RAMSES with a range of measurements of the Lyman alpha opacity from QSO absorption spectra. We find the Lyman alpha opacity to be very sensitive to the exact timing of hydrogen reionisation. Models reproducing the measured evolution of the mean photoionisation rate and average mean free path reach overlap at z ~ 7 and predict an accelerated evolution of the Lyman alpha opacity at z > 6 consistent with the rapidly evolving luminosity function of Lyman alpha emitters in this redshift range. Similar to "optically thin" simulations our full radiative transfer simulations fail, however, to reproduce the high-opacity tail of the Lyman alpha opacity PDF at z > 5. We argue that this is due to spatial UV fluctuations in the post-overlap phase of reionisation on substantially larger scales than predicted by our source model, where the ionising emissivity is dominated by large numbers of sub-L* galaxies. We further argue that this suggests a signific...

  14. Development of a novel low-pressure detector with high position and time-of-flight resolution for thermal neutron detection

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, C

    2000-01-01

    The pulsed high-flux neutron source ESS, in synergy with advanced neutron optics and spectrometers, will require imaging detectors with better resolution and faster response than presently available. Thus in this work, which is part of a project of the Hahn-Meitner-Institut (HMI), a novel neutron detector has been developed. In the central detector plane a composite foil converter ( sup 1 sup 5 sup 7 Gd/CsI) is located, emitting, after neutron capture and subsequent emission of conversion electrons, a detectable cluster of low-energy electrons. In two adjacent low-pressure gas gaps, sandwiched between fourfold segmented micro-strip gas chamber (MSGC) plates on each side, the clusters are pre-amplified in parallel-plate mode and further in the strong alternating fields between the micro-strips. The advanced micro-strip design is made in multilayer technology on a robust glass substrate. Two closely spaced electrode planes are used for two-dimensional position readout. The expected position resolution is 0.1 - ...

  15. Modelling UV sky for future UV missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, A. G.; Safanova, M.; Mohan, R.; Murthy, Jayant

    Software simulators are now widely used in all areas of science, especially in application to astronomical missions: from instrument design to mission planning, and to data interpretation. We present a simulator to model the diffuse ultraviolet sky, where the different contributors are separately calculated and added together to produce a sky image of the size specified by the instrument requirements. Each of the contributors to the background, instrumental dark current, airglow, zodiacal light and diffuse galactic light, is dependent on various factors. Airglow is dependent on the time of day, zodiacal light on the time of year, angle from the Sun and from the ecliptic, and diffuse UV emission depends on the look direction. To provide a full description of any line of sight, we have also added stars. The diffuse UV background light can dominate in many areas of the sky and severely impact space telescopes viewing directions due to over brightness. The simulator, available as a downloadable package and as a simple web-based tool, can be applied to separate missions and instruments. For demonstration, we present the example used for two UV missions: the UVIT instrument on the Indian ASTROSAT mission to be launched in the next year and a prospective wide-field mission to search for transients in the UV.

  16. UV-induced effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebsch, M.; Spielmann, H.; Pape, W.; Krul, C.; Deguercy, A.; Eskes, C.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Regulatory requirements: According to the current Notes for Guidance of the Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products (SCCNFP), cosmetic ingredients and mixtures of ingredients absorbing UV light (in particular UV filter chemicals used, for example, to ensure the light stabilit

  17. UV-induced effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebsch, M.; Spielmann, H.; Pape, W.; Krul, C.; Deguercy, A.; Eskes, C.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Regulatory requirements: According to the current Notes for Guidance of the Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products (SCCNFP), cosmetic ingredients and mixtures of ingredients absorbing UV light (in particular UV filter chemicals used, for example, to ensure the light

  18. Advanced Middle-UV Coherent Optical Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Achievements: RBS measurements performed on InAlN layers determined the existence of unwanted gallium atoms ( contaminants ). We found that gallium was...doping. Specifically, the high activation energy of Mg acceptors in wide-bandgap III- Nitride alloys places constraints on the electrical...effects of inefficient p-type doping of wide bandgap III- Nitride ternary material is the emergence of an unintentional “hole blocking layer” between the

  19. A study of interfacial heat transfer and process parameters in squeeze casting and low pressure permanent mold casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Prasad

    2001-08-01

    With the emerging demand for energy efficient and environment-friendly automobiles, cast aluminum alloys are increasingly being used in their manufacture. In this context, two permanent mold casting processes, namely, Squeeze Cast Permanent Mold and Low Pressure Permanent Mold (LPPM) have become very popular in the production of high integrity shape-cast aluminum components. However, many industries are yet to benefit from the full potential of these processes due to limited understanding of the effect of process parameters on casting quality and the necessary boundary conditions for computer modeling and simulation so as to minimize costly field trials. This dissertation attempts to address some of these concerns facing today's foundry industry. An experimental investigation of the Indirect Squeeze Casting Process was conducted by pouring molten Al-7Si-0.3Mg (A356) alloy into a specially designed and instrumented mold, mounted on a horizontal clamped-vertical shot squeeze caster (HVSC). Temperature measurements close to the metal/mold interface were made and compared with the results of the numerical simulation of heat flow during solidification and cooling of castings. The Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC), a critical parameter essential for any solidification simulation, was estimated based on the simulation that gave the best fit to the experimental temperature data. During the solidification process, the HTC is relatively uniform over the entire casting and on reaching a critical solidification pressure, the HTC is close to 4500 W/m2 K. The work has also provided a correlation of Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing (SDAS) with cooling rate for a modified A356 alloy. Low Pressure Permanent Mold Casting experiments were conducted by pouring a nearly identical aluminum alloy into an instrumented, coated mold mounted on a low pressure casting machine. The pressure levels, along with the time required to achieve complete filling, were microprocessor controlled in the

  20. Pressure dependence of X-rays produced by an LiTaO{sub 3} single crystal at low pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanamoto, Katsumi, E-mail: hana@md.okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Health Sciences, Okayama University, 5-1 Shikata-cho, 2-chome, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Kawabe, Atsushi; Sakoda, Akihiro; Kataoka, Takahiro; Okada, Mari; Yamaoka, Kiyonori [Graduate School of Health Sciences, Okayama University, 5-1 Shikata-cho, 2-chome, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

    2012-03-21

    The energy spectra of X-rays produced by an LiTaO{sub 3} single crystal have been measured at pressures of 5-50 Pa. The energy spectra showed that the amount of X-rays increased exponentially and the endpoint energy of the spectra increased linearly with the decrease of pressure at pressures of 10-25 Pa. A maximum endpoint energy of about 22 keV was obtained using an LiTaO{sub 3} single crystal with 0.5 mm thickness at the pressure of 10 Pa. The maximum energy produced by the present experimental setup was estimated assuming that the LiTaO{sub 3} single crystal forms a parallel-plate capacitor. The estimated energy reasonably agreed with the energy obtained. The pressure dependence of the endpoint energy was discussed in relation to the breakdown potential at low pressures.

  1. An Assessment of the Residual Stresses in Low Pressure Plasma Sprayed Coatings on an Advanced Copper Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S. V.; Ghosn, L. J.; Agarwal, A.; Lachtrupp, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Modeling studies were conducted on low pressure plasma sprayed (LPPS) NiAl top coat applied to an advanced Cu-8(at.%)Cr-4%Nb alloy (GRCop-84) substrate using Ni as a bond coat. A thermal analysis suggested that the NiAl and Ni top and bond coats, respectively, would provide adequate thermal protection to the GRCop-84 substrate in a rocket engine operating under high heat flux conditions. Residual stress measurements were conducted at different depths from the free surface on coated and uncoated GRCop-84 specimens by x-ray diffraction. These data are compared with theoretically estimated values assessed by a finite element analysis simulating the development of these stresses as the coated substrate cools down from the plasma spraying temperature to room temperature.

  2. On the Origin of Light Emission in Silicon Rich Oxide Obtained by Low-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aceves-Mijares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon Rich Oxide (SRO has been considered as a material to overcome the drawbacks of silicon to achieve optical functions. Various techniques can be used to produce it, including Low-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD. In this paper, a brief description of the studies carried out and discussions of the results obtained on electro-, cathode-, and photoluminescence properties of SRO prepared by LPCVD and annealed at 1,100°C are presented. The experimental results lead us to accept that SRO emission properties are due to oxidation state nanoagglomerates rather than to nanocrystals. The emission mechanism is similar to Donor-Acceptor decay in semiconductors, and a wide emission spectrum, from 450 to 850 nm, has been observed. The results show that emission is a function of both silicon excess in the film and excitation energy. As a result different color emissions can be obtained by selecting the suitable excitation energy.

  3. Ion energy distributions for the identification of active species and processes in low pressure hollow cathode discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanarro, I; Herrero, V J [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: itanarro@iem.cfmac.csic.es

    2009-08-15

    Energy distributions of ions generated in hollow cathode low pressures dc discharges of different gases and gas mixtures containing Ar, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2} or CH{sub 4} are studied by quadrupole mass spectrometry. The ions are sampled through a small diaphragm in the grounded cathode. The measured distributions are mostly determined by the acceleration of ions in the sheath region between the negative glow and the cathode, displaying in general a narrow peak centred at energies close to the anode potential, but with specific features for the distinct ions. It is shown that information about ion production and sheath collision processes can be derived from the shapes of the different energy distributions. In some cases these distributions are used for the estimation of the relative abundance of ions with the same mass/charge ratio but different compositions in complex gas mixtures.

  4. Development of a chromatographic low pressure flow injection system using amperometric detection: Application to the analysis of niacin in coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, João Rodrigo; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-11-15

    In this work, an analytical flow system able to perform low pressure chromatography with amperometric detection is presented. As case study, the determination of niacin (vitamin B3) in coffee brewed samples was selected. The manifold comprised a 1.0 cm length monolithic column coated with didecyldimethylammonium bromide, a laboratory-made boron doped diamond electrode, and featured in-line ionic strength adjustment of the mobile phase. The figures of merit concerning the selected case study namely, detection limit, 7.90 × 10(-7) M, determination rate, ca. 10 samplesh(-1), mobile phase and ISA solution consumption, ca. 2.6 mL per analysis, and CV, below 5% for retention time and peak height, showed the competitiveness of this analytical strategy comparing to the described HPLC methods for niacin determination. The strategy displays a simple configuration, low cost, fast and easy assembling, foreseeing its use to general purpose applications.

  5. Hot-wall low pressure chemical vapor deposition growth and characterization of AlN thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinselman, Karen N.; Brown, Richard J.; Shealy, James R.

    2017-10-01

    Hot-wall low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) of highly crystalline epitaxial thin-film AlN grown on silicon (1 1 1) substrates is reported for the first time. Deposition was carried out in a modified commercial LPCVD at 1000 °C and 2 torr. Preflow time for the aluminum precursor, trimethylaluminum, was varied to nucleate Al, and the resulting variation in X-ray diffraction (XRD) crystalline AlN peaks is presented. With a 30 s dichlorosilane (SiH2Cl2) pretreatment at 700 °C and the optimal TMAl preflow time, the FWHM of the resulting film was 1116 arcsec for the AlN (0 0 2) 2 θ - ω peak, and the AlN (0 0 2) peak had an omega rocking curve FWHM of 1.6°. This AlN film was shown to be epitaxially aligned to the Si (1 1 1) substrate.

  6. A static pressure reset control system with a new type of flow damper for use in low pressure ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkildsen, Søren; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    The control strategy for mechanical ventilation systems has significant impact on the performance of the system, in terms of energy consumption and correct air distribution. This paper presents a static pressure reset control system employing a new type of flow damper with lower pressure loss...... for use in low pressure ventilation systems. The flow damper has a droplet shape that minimizes turbulence generation and the resulting pressure loss. The performance of the damper was examined by making measurements of pressure loss and airflow. These were used to determine the required pressure loss...... for operation and the airflow accuracy. Results were compared to similar tests carried out with conventional flat plate dampers. A static pressure reset control algorithm was programmed and analyzed on a test system consisting of three dampers, representing three office rooms. The comparison of the dampers...

  7. Room-Temperature Ferromagnetism of Ga1-xMnxN Grown by Low-Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapour Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhi-Tao; ZHANG Guo-Yi; SU Yue-Yong; YANG Zhi-Jian; ZHANG Yan; ZHANG Bin; GUO Li-Ping; XU Ke; PAN Yao-Bao; ZHANG Han

    2006-01-01

    @@ Epitaxial films of Ga1-xMnxN have been grown on c-sapphire substrates by low-pressure metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy. The samples show ferromagnetic behaviour up to a temperature of T = 380 K with hysteresis curves showing a coercivity of 50-100Oe. No ferromagnetic second phases and no significant deterioration in crystal quality with the incorporation of Mn can be detected by high-resolution x-ray diffraction. The result of x-ray absorption near-edge structures indicates that Mn atoms substitute for Ga atoms. The Mn concentrations of the layers are determined to reach x = 0.038 by proton-induced x-ray emission.

  8. Active metasomatism in the Cerro Prieto geothermal system, Baja California, Mexico: a telescoped low pressure/temperature metamorphic facies series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, P.; Elders, W.A.; Williams, A.E.; McDowell, S.D.; Bird, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    In the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, carbonate-cemented, quartzofeldspathic sediments of the Colorado River delta are being actively metasomatized into calc-silicate metamorphic rocks by reaction with alkali chloride brines between 200/sup 0/ and 370/sup 0/C, low fluid and lithostatic pressures, and low oxygen fugacities. Petrologic investigations of drill cores and cutting from over 50 wells in this field identified a prograde series of calc-silicate mineral zones which include as index minerals: wairakite, epidote, prehnite, and clinopyroxene. Associated divariant mineral assemblages are indicative of a very low pressure/temperature metamorphic facies series which encompasses the clay-carbonate, zeolite, greenschist, and amphibolite facies. This hydrothermal metamorphic facies series, which is becoming increasingly recognized in other active geothermal systems, is characterized by temperature-telescoped dehydration and decarbonation mineral equilibria. Its equivalent should now be sought in fossil hydrothermal systems.

  9. Design criteria for semi-central sanitation with low pressure network and membrane bioreactor-the ENREM project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnirss, Regina; Luedicke, Carsten; Vocks, Martin; Lesjean, Boris

    2008-01-01

    MBR-technology is able to fulfil similar or even higher standard for nutrients removal than conventional activated sludge processes. This paper presents the optimisation of the membrane bioreactor technology, together with a low pressure sewer, to equip a remote and yet unsewered area of Berlin requiring high quality wastewater treatment. The hydraulic flow pattern of the entire system has to be studied carefully due to the small collection system (no time delay between wastewater discharge and treatment to minimise the daily profile). The pollutant concentrations in the wastewater exhibit also stronger variations. In order to flatten out the hydraulic and load profile, and therefore to reduce the size of the biological reactor and the membrane surface, a buffer tank was installed before the MBR-plant. A full analysis of the influent hydraulic flow and wastewater characterisation is provided for the demonstration MBR-plant.

  10. Growth of a Novel Periodic Structure of SiC/AlN Multilayers by Low Pressure Chemical Vapour Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yong-Mei; SUN Guo-Sheng; LI Jia-Ye; LIU Xing-Fang; WANG Lei; ZHAO Wan-Shun; LI Jin-Min

    2007-01-01

    A novel 10-period SiC/AlN multilayered structure with a SiC cap layer is prepared by low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD). The structure with total Sim thickness of about 1.45μm is deposited on a Si (111) substrate and shows good surface morphology with a smaller rms surface roughness of 5.3 nm. According to the secondary ion mass spectroscopy results, good interface of the 10 period SiC/AlN structure and periodic changes of depth profiles of C, Si, Al, N components are obtained by controlling the growth procedure. The structure exhibits the peak reflectivity close to 30% near the wavelength of 322 nm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of growth of the SiC/AlN periodic structure using the home-made LPCVD system.

  11. Growth of selective tungsten films on self-aligned CoSi/sub 2/ by low pressure chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Putte, P.; Sadana, D.K.; Broadbent, E.K.; Morgan, A.E.

    1986-12-22

    The selective deposition of tungsten films onto CoSi/sub 2/ and onto Co by low pressure chemical vapor deposition and their material properties have been investigated with Auger electron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Rutherford backscattering. When using WF/sub 6/ and H/sub 2/, uniformly thick tungsten films can be deposited onto CoSi/sub 2/ without substrate alteration. In patterned structures, however, void formation was found at the perimeters of CoSi/sub 2/ contacts to silicon, indicating encroachment of WF/sub 6/ down the edge of the silicide-Si interface. In WF/sub 6/ and Ar, the film thickness was limited to 10 nm and some Si was locally consumed from the upper part of the CoSi/sub 2/ film. Transmission electron diffraction showed evidence of Co/sub 2/Si formation in these areas.

  12. High versus low-pressure balloon inflation during multilinktrade mark stent implantation: acute and long-term angiographic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caixeta, A M; Brito, F S; Rati, M; Perin, M A; da Luz, P L; Ramires, J A; Ambrose, J A; Martinez, E E

    2000-08-01

    We compared the impact of low and high-pressure balloon inflation on acute and late angiographic results of Multilink stent. Low-pressure balloon inflation (9.5 +/- 1.9 atm) was used in 43 stents and high pressure (17.1 +/- 1.5 atm) in 44. A larger immediate luminal gain was achieved in stents with high-pressure balloon inflation (1.80 +/- 0.26 vs. 1.47 +/- 0.62; P = 0.002), resulting in a larger mean diameter in this group (2.71 +/- 0.37 vs. 2.48 +/- 0.47; P = 0.017). At follow-up, a larger luminal diameter was achieved in the high pressure group (1.93 +/- 0.72 vs. 1.45 +/- 0.66; P = 0.002) and a trend to a lower rate of angiographic restenosis (15% vs. 38%, P = 0.08).

  13. Physisorption of Ar, Kr, CH4, and N2 on 304 stainless steel at very low pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, M.; Wightman, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Determination of physisorption isotherms of these gases on stainless steel by pressure change measurements in very low pressure cryogenic baths where a steel nipple was brought in contact with the test gas at 77 to 90 K in a sealed constant-volume system. The position of the nipple in the gas was changed in such a manner that gas adsorption on a 47.5 sq cm area of the steel surface could be measured. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) equation (1947) was used for an empirical description of isotherms at different temperatures. The mean adsorption energies calculated from the DR plots were 1290, 1545, 1490 and 1903 cal/mol for Ar, Kr, CH4 and N2, respectively, being about 10% higher than the corresponding values on Pyrex.

  14. In situ observation of UF5 nanoparticle growth in a low-pressure mixed-flow reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuga, Y.; Hirasawa, M.; Seto, T.; Okuyama, K.; Takeuchi, K.

    A mixed-flow reactor for the generation of UF5 nanoparticles equipped with an in situ size-monitoring system, a LPDMA (low-pressure differential mobility analyzer), was developed to experimentally investigate the nanoparticle growth mechanism. The concentration of photoproduced UF5 molecules was controlled by changing three factors: (I) the concentration of the feed UF6 gas, (II) the laser pulse energy of the irradiation, and (III) the repetition rate of the laser pulses. The dependence of the volumetric average diameter of the photoproduced particles on the UF5 nascent concentration in all three cases was found to be very similar. The result strongly suggests that the reactor functions as a mixed-flow reactor under a complete mixing condition. The particle size measured by the LPDMA was found to be in the range of 6 to 11 nm, and it was approximately proportional to the power 0.3 of the initial concentration of photoproduced UF5 molecules.

  15. A Concept for a Low Pressure Noble Gas Fill Intervention in the IFE Fusion Test Facility (FTF) Target Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentile, C. A.; Blanchard, W. R.; Kozub, T. A.; Aristova, M.; McGahan, C.; Natta, S.; Pagdon, K.; Zelenty, J.

    2010-01-14

    An engineering evaluation has been initiated to investigate conceptual engineering methods for implementing a viable gas shield strategy in the Fusion Test Facility (FTF) target chamber. The employment of a low pressure noble gas in the target chamber to thermalize energetic helium ions prior to interaction with the wall could dramatically increase the useful life of the first wall in the FTF reactor1. For the purpose of providing flexibility, two target chamber configurations are addressed: a five meter radius sphere and a ten meter radius sphere. Experimental studies at Nike have indicated that a low pressure, ambient gas resident in the target chamber during laser pulsing does not appear to impair the ability of laser light from illuminating targets2. In addition, current investigations into delivering, maintaining, and processing low pressure gas appear to be viable with slight modification to current pumping and plasma exhaust processing technologies3,4. Employment of a gas fill solution for protecting the dry wall target chamber in the FTF may reduce, or possibly eliminate the need for other attenuating technologies designed for keeping He ions from implanting in first wall structures and components. The gas fill concept appears to provide an effective means of extending the life of the first wall while employing mostly commercial off the shelf (COTS) technologies. Although a gas fill configuration may provide a methodology for attenuating damage inflicted on chamber surfaces, issues associated with target injection need to be further analyzed to ensure that the gas fill concept is viable in the integrated FTF design5. In the proposed system, the ambient noble gas is heated via the energetic helium ions produced by target detonation. The gas is subsequently cooled by the chamber wall to approximately 800oC, removed from the chamber, and processed by the chamber gas processing system (CGPS). In an optimized scenario of the above stated concept, the chamber

  16. Characterization of magnetically confined low-pressure plasmas produced by an electromagnetic field in argon-acetylene mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makdessi, G. Al; Margot, J.; Clergereaux, R.

    2016-10-01

    Dust particles formation was investigated in magnetically confined low-pressure plasma produced in argon-acetylene mixtures. The plasma characteristics were measured in order to identify the species involved in the dust particles formation. Their dependence on the operating conditions including magnetic field intensity, acetylene fraction in the gas mixture and operating pressure was examined. In contrast with noble gases, in the presence of acetylene, the electron temperature increases with the magnetic field intensity, indicating additional charged particles losses in the plasma. Indeed, in these conditions, larger hydrocarbon ions are produced leading to the formation of dust particles in the plasma volume. The observed dependence of positive ion mass distribution and density and relative negative ion density on the operating parameters suggests that the dust particles are formed through different pathways, where negative and positive ions are both involved in the nucleation.

  17. DNS of Flow in a Low-Pressure Turbine Cascade Using a Discontinuous-Galerkin Spectral-Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Anirban; Diosady, Laslo Tibor; Murman, Scott; Madavan, Nateri

    2015-01-01

    A new computational capability under development for accurate and efficient high-fidelity direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) of turbomachinery is described. This capability is based on an entropy-stable Discontinuous-Galerkin spectral-element approach that extends to arbitrarily high orders of spatial and temporal accuracy and is implemented in a computationally efficient manner on a modern high performance computer architecture. A validation study using this method to perform DNS of flow in a low-pressure turbine airfoil cascade are presented. Preliminary results indicate that the method captures the main features of the flow. Discrepancies between the predicted results and the experiments are likely due to the effects of freestream turbulence not being included in the simulation and will be addressed in the final paper.

  18. Spectral irradiance measurement and actinic radiometer calibration for UV water disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperfeld, Peter; Barton, Bettina; Pape, Sven; Towara, Anna-Lena; Eggers, Jutta; Hopfenmüller, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    In a joint project, sglux and PTB investigated and developed methods and equipment to measure the spectral and weighted irradiance of high-efficiency UV-C emitters used in water disinfection plants. A calibration facility was set up to calibrate the microbicidal irradiance responsivity of actinic radiometers with respect to the weighted spectral irradiance of specially selected low-pressure mercury and medium-pressure mercury UV lamps. To verify the calibration method and to perform on-site tests, spectral measurements were carried out directly at water disinfection plants in operation. The weighted microbicidal irradiance of the plants was calculated and compared to the measurements of various actinic radiometers.

  19. CFD Study of the Hydrocarbon Boost Low-Pressure Inducer and Kicker in the Presence of a Circumferential Groove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Results are presented of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study done in support of Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) sub-scale water flow experiments of the Hydrocarbon Boost (HCB) Oxidizer Turbopump (OTP) being developed by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and Aerojet. A circumferential groove may be added to the pump to reduce synchronous cavitation and subsequent bearing loads at a minimal performance cost. However, the energy may reappear as high order cavitation (HOC) that spans a relatively large frequency range. Thus, HOC may have implications for the full-scale OTP inducer in terms of reduced structural margin at higher mode frequencies. Simulations using the LOCI/Stream CFD program were conducted in order to explore the fluid dynamical impact of the groove on the low-pressure inducer and kicker. It was found that the circumferential groove has minimal head performance impact, but causes back-flowing high-swirl fluid to interact with the nearly-axial incoming fluid just above the inducer blades. The high-shear interface between the fluids is Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable, resulting in trains of low pressure regions or 'pearls' forming near the upstream edge of the groove. When the static pressure in these regions becomes low enough and they get cut by the blade leading edge, HOC is thought to occur. Although further work is required, the numerical models indicate that HOC will occur in the runbox of the AFRL/Aerojet HCB OTP. Comparisons to the ongoing water flow experiments will be discussed, as well as possible designs that may mitigate HOC while continuing to reduce synchronous cavitation. December 2011 MSS/LPS/SPS Joint Subcommittee Meeting ABSTRACT SUBMITTAL FORM

  20. Numerical Investigation of the Interaction between Mainstream and Tip Shroud Leakage Flow in a 2-Stage Low Pressure Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Liu, Huoxing

    2014-06-01

    The pressing demand for future advanced gas turbine requires to identify the losses in a turbine and to understand the physical mechanisms producing them. In low pressure turbines with shrouded blades, a large portion of these losses is generated by tip shroud leakage flow and associated interaction. For this reason, shroud leakage losses are generally grouped into the losses of leakage flow itself and the losses caused by the interaction between leakage flow and mainstream. In order to evaluate the influence of shroud leakage flow and related losses on turbine performance, computational investigations for a 2-stage low pressure turbine is presented and discussed in this paper. Three dimensional steady multistage calculations using mixing plane approach were performed including detailed tip shroud geometry. Results showed that turbines with shrouded blades have an obvious advantage over unshrouded ones in terms of aerodynamic performance. A loss mechanism breakdown analysis demonstrated that the leakage loss is the main contributor in the first stage while mixing loss dominates in the second stage. Due to the blade-to-blade pressure gradient, both inlet and exit cavity present non-uniform leakage injection and extraction. The flow in the exit cavity is filled with cavity vortex, leakage jet attached to the cavity wall and recirculation zone induced by main flow ingestion. Furthermore, radial gap and exit cavity size of tip shroud have a major effect on the yaw angle near the tip region in the main flow. Therefore, a full calculation of shroud leakage flow is necessary in turbine performance analysis and the shroud geometric features need to be considered during turbine design process.