WorldWideScience

Sample records for low-pressure steam turbines

  1. Erosion study of final stage blading of low pressure steam turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehouve, J.; Nardin, P.; Zeghmati, M.

    1999-04-01

    In order to increase our knowledge of erosion phenomena, the Steam Turbine Groupe (STG) of ALSTOM has been using an erosion test facility in the C.R.T.V. (Centre de Recherche Turbines à Vapeur). This test facility simulates erosion in low pressure steam turbine cylinders in order to compare the erosion resistance of various blade materials (12% chromium steel, titanium alloys, etc.) and their protection (superficial hardening, coatings, etc.). This test facility also allows us to understand the mechanism causing damage at a macroscopic level (impact energy of the droplets and the loss of eroded volume) and at a microscopic level (residual stress and metallurgic analysis) and therefore to determine an evolution law of material surface damage. In this paper, the behaviour of the materials (12% chromium steel and titanium alloys), which has been analysed by image production measurement methods, will be presented according to different impact velocities.

  2. The deterministic prediction of damage functions to low pressure steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chun; Macdonald, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Localized corrosion phenomena, including pitting corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue, are the principal causes of corrosion-induced damage in electric power generating facilities and typically result in more than 50% of the unscheduled outages. Prediction of damage, so that repairs and inspections can be made during scheduled outages, could have an enormous impact on the economics of electric power generation. To date, prediction of corrosion damage has been made on the basis of empirical/statistical methods that have proven to be insufficiently robust and accurate to form the basis for the desired inspection/repair protocol. In this paper, we describe a deterministic method for predicting localized corrosion damage. We have used the method to illustrate how pitting corrosion initiates stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for low pressure steam turbine disks downstream of the Wilson line, where a thin condensed liquid layer exists on the steel disk surfaces. Our calculations show that the SCC initiation and propagation are sensitive to the oxygen content of the steam, the environment in the thin liquid condensed layer, and the stresses that the disk experiences in service.

  3. The deterministic prediction of damage functions to low pressure steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chun; Macdonald, D.D.

    1993-06-01

    Localized corrosion phenomena, including pitting corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue, are the principal causes of corrosion-induced damage in electric power generating facilities and typically result in more than 50% of the unscheduled outages. Prediction of damage, so that repairs and inspections can be made during scheduled outages, could have an enormous impact on the economics of electric power generation. To date, prediction of corrosion damage has been made on the basis of empirical/statistical methods that have proven to be insufficiently robust and accurate to form the basis for the desired inspection/repair protocol. In this paper, we describe a deterministic method for predicting localized corrosion damage. We have used the method to illustrate how pitting corrosion initiates stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for low pressure steam turbine disks downstream of the Wilson line, where a thin condensed liquid layer exists on the steel disk surfaces. Our calculations show that the SCC initiation and propagation are sensitive to the oxygen content of the steam, the environment in the thin liquid condensed layer, and the stresses that the disk experiences in service.

  4. The deterministic prediction of failure of low pressure steam turbine disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chun; Macdonald, D.D.

    1993-05-01

    Localized corrosion phenomena, including pitting corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue, are the principal causes of corrosion-induced damage in electric power generating facilities and typically result in more than 50% of the unscheduled outages. Prediction of damage, so that repairs and inspections can be made during scheduled outages, could have an enormous impact on the economics of electric power generation. To date, prediction of corrosion damage has been made on the basis of empirical/statistical methods that have proven to be insufficiently robust and accurate to form the basis for the desired inspection/repair protocol. In this paper, we describe a deterministic method for predicting localized corrosion damage. We have used the method to illustrate how pitting corrosion initiates stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for low pressure steam turbine disks downstream of the Wilson line, where a thin condensed liquid layer exists on the steel disk surfaces. Our calculations show that the SCC initiation and propagation are sensitive to the oxygen content of the steam, the environment in the thin liquid condensed layer, and the stresses that the disk experiences in service.

  5. Corrosion Analysis of Low Pressure Steam Turbine%某汽轮机低压缸腐蚀分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洪; 张建国; 杨贤彪

    2011-01-01

    The case of erosion/corrosion damage occurring in a low pressure steam turbine was evaluated. This fossil power unit had been put into operation for nearly twenty years, and the used ion exchange resins for water treatment had never been scrapped. The leaked organism of aged ion exchange resins was decomposed into corrosive irons in the water-steam cycle. The action of enriched corrosion irons in the primary condensate water with the water steam made a severe erosion/corrosion of the low pressure turbine. It is important to detect the contents of corrosion irons and displace aged ion exchange resins in time.%对某汽轮机低压缸的腐蚀一磨蚀案例进行了研究.该火电机组投运近20年,从未对补给水处理系统的离子交换树脂进行过报废处理.老化的树脂产生大量有机溶出物,随补给水进入热力系统,受热分解为乙酸根、硫酸根等腐蚀性离子.这些腐蚀性离子在初凝水中富集使其呈酸性,与湿蒸汽共同冲刷腐蚀低压缸内壁,导致严重腐蚀.采用离子色谱仪监测水汽中腐蚀性离子含量,及时报废老化的离子交换树脂,对预防低压缸腐蚀十分必要.

  6. Shaft seals with an easily removable cylinder holder for low-pressure steam turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, A. E.; Rodionov, D. A.; Pimenov, E. V.; Sobolev, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problems that occur at the operation of LPC shaft seals (SS) of turbines, particularly, their bearings. The problems arising from the deterioration of oil-protecting rings of SS and bearings and also the consequences in which they can result are considered. The existing SS housing construction types are considered. Their operational features are specified. A new SS construction type with an easily removable holder is presented. The construction of its main elements is described. The sequence of operations of the repair personnel at the restoration of the new SS type spacings is proposed. The comparative analysis of the new and the existing SS construction types is carried out. The assessment results of the efficiency, the operational convenience, and the economic effect after the installation of the new type seals are given. The conclusions about the offered construction prospects are made by results of the comparative analysis and the carried-out assessment. The main advantage of this design is the possibility of spacings restoration both in SS and in oil-protecting rings during a short-term stop of a turbine, even without its cooling. This construction was successfully tested on the working K-300-23.5 LMP turbine. However, its adaptation for other turbines is quite possible.

  7. Steam Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Turbonetics Energy, Inc.'s steam turbines are used as power generating systems in the oil and gas, chemical, pharmaceuticals, metals and mining, and pulp and paper industries. The Turbonetics line benefited from use of NASA research data on radial inflow steam turbines and from company contact with personnel of Lewis Research Center, also use of Lewis-developed computer programs to determine performance characteristics of turbines.

  8. Descaling cleaning summary of turbine using low-pressure steam%汽轮机组用低压饱和蒸汽除垢清洗总结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛春野; 沈良锋; 张黎明

    2014-01-01

    中化吉林长山化工有限公司空分车间蒸汽透平空压机汽轮机为16000Nm3/h空分装置配套汽轮机。由于高压蒸汽品质问题,在运行过程中汽轮机转子叶轮、上下持环等部件结垢,影响正常运行。2014年1月28日利用低压饱和蒸汽对汽轮机进行清洗,从清洗后机组运行状态来看,此次清洗效果良好,达到了预期目标。%The steam turbine compressor turbine is 16 000 Nm3/h in Sinochem Jilin Changshan Chemical Co., Ltd. for air separation plant. Because of quality of high pressure steam, rotor wheel and ring up and down of steam turbine scaling while in operation which effects normal operation. By using low pressure saturated steam on January 28, 2014, the result of cleaning effect is good, which achieves desired goals.

  9. Influence of Laser Power on the Hardening of Ti6Al4V Low-Pressure Steam Turbine Blade Material for Enhancing Water Droplet Erosion Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, B. S.; Arya, Vivek; Pant, B. K.

    2011-03-01

    To overcome water droplet erosion of Ti6Al4V alloy blade material used in low-pressure steam turbine (LPST) of high-rating nuclear and super critical thermal power plants, high-power diode laser (HPDL) surface treatment at two temperatures corresponding to two different power levels was carried out. During incubation as well as under prolonged erosion testing, the HPDL surface treatment of this alloy has enhanced its resistance significantly. This is due to the formation of fine-grained martensitic (ά) phase due to rapid heating and cooling associated with laser treatment. The droplet erosion test results after HPDL surface treatment on this alloy, SEM, XRD analysis, and residual stresses developed due to HPDL surface treatment are given in this paper.

  10. 300MW及以上汽轮机低压转子冶炼工艺研究%Smelting Process of Steam Turbine Low Pressure Rotor of 300 MW & Above

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏雪晴; 李奇; 管仲毅

    2014-01-01

    介绍了300 MW及以上汽轮机低压转子的冶炼工艺控制要点。对耐火材料和辅具进行了改进和优化,最终生产出合格的转子锻件。%This paper presents the smelting process control key points of 300 MV and above steam turbine low pressure rotor .Refractory materials and auxiliary tools have been improved and optimized , eventually acceptable rotor has been produced .

  11. 汽轮机低压调节级动叶片水蚀分析%Analysis on Water - Erosion of Moving Blade in Low - pressure Control Stage of a Steam Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文远; 朱正写; 王鹏; 纪绣涛

    2012-01-01

    烯烃装置裂解气压缩机组大检修期间发现汽轮机低压调节级动叶片“蜂窝状点蚀”现象比较严重,对应的静叶片及后2级静叶片也有点蚀现象。分析发现利用湿蒸汽对汽轮机吹扫的方法存在缺陷,在主蒸汽降温的过程中只考虑了高压缸防水蚀的影响,忽略了抽汽背压不可控,导致低压缸进汽压力相对该处的进汽温度过高,部分蒸汽产生冷凝液,蒸汽中夹带的水滴撞击在动叶片出汽边背弧上,致使材料疲劳破坏形成水蚀。根据操作经验和理论分析确定:吹扫工况时,低压调节级的进汽压力应低于170℃时的蒸汽饱和压力,抽汽压力应低于0.8MPa,并利用蒸汽管网改造,控制抽汽压力在0.4~1.6MPa。通过优化操作参数完全可以避免低压调节级动叶片水蚀。%Serious "honeycomb pitting corrosions" were found in the moving blades of the steam turbine's low -pressure control stage in the overhaul of the cracked gas compressor train, corresponding stationary blades and after the two - stage stationary blades also had "pitting corrosion". The analysis concluded that there was negligence in the flushing of steam turbine with wet steam. In the process of lowering the steam temperature, only the impact of water erosion of HP cylinder was considered and uncontrollable extracted steam pressure was ignored. These led to excessive higher temperature of inlet steam as compared with the pressure. Condensate was formed from some steam, water droplets entrained in the steam impinged on the back arc of the moving blades, the material was fatigued and water erosion was formed. Based upon the operating experience and theoretical analysis, in flushing operation, the pressure of inlet steam of LP control stage should be lower than steam saturation steam at 170℃, and the pressure of extracted steam should be lower than 0.8 MPa. The pressure of extracted steam was controlled within 0. 4 1

  12. Fatigue life and damage evolution of martensitic steels for low-pressure steam turbine blades in the VHCF regime; Lebensdauer und Schaedigungsentwicklung martensitischer Staehle fuer Niederdruck-Dampfturbinenschaufeln bei Ermuedungsbeanspruchung im VHCF-Bereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, Stephan

    2014-07-01

    Low-pressure steam turbine blades are usually made of martensitic steels with Cr contents between 9 and 12%, which combine good corrosion resistance, high mechanical strength and sufficient ductility. The inhomogeneous flow field behind the vanes generates high-frequency oscillations above 1 kHz. In addition, the blades with lengths up to 1.5 m are operated at rotational speeds up to 3000 rpm, resulting in large centrifugal forces leading to the superposition of extremely high mean stresses. Also resonance oscillations during start-up and shutdown cannot be completely excluded. Currently, the components are designed using high safety factors against S-N curves with an assumed asymptotic fatigue limit above 107 load cycles. Nevertheless, fatigue cracks are observed even at high number of cycles, starting from the blade root without pre-damage by erosion or steam droplet impingement. While fatigue failure usually occurs at the surface, fatigue cracks at very high number of cycles (> 108) initiate at oxides or intermetallic inclusions below the surface. This transition between both failure mechanisms in the Very High-Cycle Fatigue (VHCF) regime is in the focus of numerous current research activities, because numbers of cycles above 108 can be attained in a viable period of time using the recently developed high-frequency testing techniques operated at 20 kHz. Also for wind turbines, gas turbines, bearings, springs, etc. VHCF issues become increasingly important. Within this work, the fatigue life and damage behavior of a martensitic Cr-steel during fatigue loading with and without high mean stresses at number of cycles to failure above 108 was analyzed. On the one hand, the studies gave insights into the relation between fatigue life and fatigue damage evolution of the investigated group of high-strength steels in the very high cycle fatigue regime (up to 2·109). In particular, the influence of high mean stresses on the VHCF behavior (fracture origin, crack growth

  13. Experimental investigation on rotating flow instabilities in the operation range of ventilation of a low pressure steam turbine; Experimentelle Untersuchung von rotierenden Stroemungsinstabilitaeten im Betriebsbereich der Ventilation einer Niederdruck-Dampfturbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerschuetz, W.

    2006-07-01

    Experimental investigations at two different three-stage low-pressure (LP) model turbines operated at a very low or even zero flow rate will be presented. Experience shows that in this operating range, also called windage, the running blades of the last stage undergo the highest alternating stresses. The high stress caused by centrifugal and gas forces is superposed with these extreme dynamic stresses and thus form the critical load mechanism of the long and slender blades. Experimental investigations on the first of the turbines considered here showed high forced vibrations at resonant frequency in the 2{sup nd} mode. This excitation only occurs in a narrow band of the operating range at low volumetric flow numbers. To comprehend the aerodynamic stimulus the unsteady part of the flow-field in the last stage was determined with high-response pitot tubes. The analysis of the experimental data shows distinct disturbances in the flow field at a critical volumetric flow number, especially in the axial spacing between the guide vanes and the rotor at the outer casing. Frequency spectra gained in the axial gap especially in the area of blade tips of the rotor show a significant broadband level rise between 500 and 2000 Hz with several discrete, evenly spaced peaks superimposed. Detailed analysis shows some disturbances with particular high amplitudes occur in the flow field at distinct frequencies. These pressure fluctuations rotate in circumferential direction at a fraction of the rotor speed. In the second turbine with more recent blading, no vibrations at resonant frequency could be detected in the foremost four modes in this operating range. However, rotating flow instabilities comparable with the phenomenon discovered in the first turbine can also be found in the axial gap of the last stage. Comparing the pressure signals measured at two circumferential locations a so called 'rotating instability' can be observed. This unsteady phenomenon has previously

  14. New low pressure exhaust modules for the MAN steam turbine product line. High performance bladings for highest efficiency levels; Neue Niederdruck-Module fuer die MAN-Dampfturbinenproduktlinie. Hochentwickelte Beschaufelungen fuer hoechste Leistungsdichten und Wirkungsgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, M.A.; Behnke, K.; Klemm, H. [MAN TURBO AG, Oberhausen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Currently it can be observed that in the case of generator drives as well as 'mechanical drives' smaller units are demanded with a steam turbine capacity of up to 150 MW and clearly higher efficiencies. MAN TURBO is meeting the challenge through realisation of a comprehensive development project aiming at the extension of the application range of the current steam turbine series.

  15. Low pressure cooling seal system for a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A low pressure cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids at low pressure, such as at ambient pressure, through at least one cooling fluid supply channel and into a cooling fluid mixing chamber positioned immediately downstream from a row of turbine blades extending radially outward from a rotor assembly to prevent ingestion of hot gases into internal aspects of the rotor assembly. The low pressure cooling system may also include at least one bleed channel that may extend through the rotor assembly and exhaust cooling fluids into the cooling fluid mixing chamber to seal a gap between rotational turbine blades and a downstream, stationary turbine component. Use of ambient pressure cooling fluids by the low pressure cooling system results in tremendous efficiencies by eliminating the need for pressurized cooling fluids for sealing this gap.

  16. Regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, L. C.; Stovall, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    PRESTO computer program was developed to analyze performance of wide range of steam turbine cycles with special attention given to regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles. It can be used to model standard turbine cycles, including such features as process steam extraction, induction and feedwater heating by external sources, peaking, and high back pressure. Expansion line efficiencies, exhaust loss, leakages, mechanical losses, and generator losses are used to calculate cycle heat rate and generator output. Program provides power engineer with flexible aid for design and analysis of steam turbine systems.

  17. A detection of the coarse water droplets in steam turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoš Ondřej

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce a novel method for the detection of coarse water droplets in a low pressure part of steam turbines. The photogrammetry method has been applied for the measurement of coarse droplets in the low-pressure part of a steam turbine. A new probe based on this measurement technique was developed and tested in the laboratory and in a steam turbine in the Počerady power-plant. The probe was equipped with state-of-the-art instrumentation. The paper contains results from laboratory tests and the first preliminary measurements in a steam turbine. Possible applications of this method have been examined.

  18. Modelling and simulation of the steam line, the high and low pressure turbines and the pressure regulator for the SUN-RAH nucleo electric university simulator; Modelado y simulacion de la linea de vapor, las turbinas de alta y de baja presion y el regulador de presion para el simulador universitario de nucleo electricas SUN RAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, A. [DEPFI, Campus Morelos, en IMTA Jiutepec, Morelos, UNAM (Mexico)]. e-mail: andyskamx@yahoo.com.mx

    2003-07-01

    In the following article the development of a simulator that allows to represent the dynamics of the following systems: steam line, nozzle, vapor separator, reheater, high pressure turbine, low pressure turbine, power generator and the pressure regulator of a nucleo electric power station. We start from the supposition that this plant will be modeled from a nuclear reactor type BWR (Boiling Water Reactor), using models of reduced order that represent the more important dynamic variables of the physical processes that happen along the steam line until the one generator. To be able to carry out the simulation in real time the Mat lab mathematical modeling software is used, as well as the specific simulation tool Simulink. It is necessary to point out that the platform on which the one is executed the simulator is the Windows operating system, to allow the intuitive use that only this operating system offers. The above-mentioned obeys to that the objective of the simulator it is to help the user to understand some of the dynamic phenomena that are present in the systems of a nuclear plant, and to provide a tool of analysis and measurement of variables to predict the desirable behavior of the same ones. The model of a pressure controller for the steam lines, the high pressure turbine and the low pressure turbine is also presented that it will be the one in charge of regulating the demand of the system according to the characteristics and critic restrictions of safety and control, assigned according to those wanted parameters of performance of this system inside the nucleo electric plant. This simulator is totally well defined and it is part of the University student nucleo electric simulator with Boiling Water Reactor (SUN-RAH), an integral project and of greater capacity. (Author)

  19. Global Instability and Control of Low-Pressure Turbine Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-31

    Methodos Numericos in Ingenieria 2005, Granada Y 3 rd Symposium on Global Flow Instability and Control September 2005 Crete, Greece. * AIAA San...valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To...31-03-2006 Final 01-02-2003 To 31-12-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Global Instability and Control of Low Pressure Turbine Flows 5b

  20. Dynamic computer simulation of the Fort St. Vrain steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conklin, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    A computer simulation is described for the dynamic response of the Fort St. Vrain nuclear reactor regenerative intermediate- and low-pressure steam turbines. The fundamental computer-modeling assumptions for the turbines and feedwater heaters are developed. A turbine heat balance specifying steam and feedwater conditions at a given generator load and the volumes of the feedwater heaters are all that are necessary as descriptive input parameters. Actual plant data for a generator load reduction from 100 to 50% power (which occurred as part of a plant transient on November 9, 1981) are compared with computer-generated predictions, with reasonably good agreement.

  1. Low-Pressure Turbine Separation Control: Comparison With Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Vijay K.

    2002-01-01

    The present work details a computational study, using the Glenn HT code, that analyzes the use of vortex generator jets (VGJs) to control separation on a low-pressure turbine (LPT) blade at low Reynolds numbers. The computational results are also compared with the experimental data for steady VGJs. It is found that the code determines the proper location of the separation point on the suction surface of the baseline blade (without any VGJ) for Reynolds numbers of 50,000 or less. Also, the code finds that the separated region on the suction surface of the blade vanishes with the use of VGJs. However, the separated region and the wake characteristics are not well predicted. The wake width is generally over-predicted while the wake depth is under-predicted.

  2. Maintenance of Power Steam Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Kapelovich, Boris; Khmelnik, Solomon; Kapelovich, David; Benenson, Evgeny

    2008-01-01

    The diagnostics system of the power steam turbine is offered. It can be executed also in the form of telediagnostic system. The system is presented on a site http://turbo.mic34.com/ System engineering can is ordered to authors.

  3. Cogeneration steam turbines from Siemens: New solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Kholodkov, S. V.

    2017-03-01

    The Enhanced Platform system intended for the design and manufacture of Siemens AG turbines is presented. It combines organizational and production measures allowing the production of various types of steam-turbine units with a power of up to 250 MWel from standard components. The Enhanced Platform designs feature higher efficiency, improved reliability, better flexibility, longer overhaul intervals, and lower production costs. The design features of SST-700 and SST-900 steam turbines are outlined. The SST-700 turbine is used in backpressure steam-turbine units (STU) or as a high-pressure cylinder in a two-cylinder condensing turbine with steam reheat. The design of an SST-700 single-cylinder turbine with a casing without horizontal split featuring better flexibility of the turbine unit is presented. An SST-900 turbine can be used as a combined IP and LP cylinder (IPLPC) in steam-turbine or combined-cycle power units with steam reheat. The arrangements of a turbine unit based on a combination of SST-700 and SST-900 turbines or SST-500 and SST-800 turbines are presented. Examples of this combination include, respectively, PGU-410 combinedcycle units (CCU) with a condensing turbine and PGU-420 CCUs with a cogeneration turbine. The main equipment items of a PGU-410 CCU comprise an SGT5-4000F gas-turbine unit (GTU) and STU consisting of SST-700 and SST-900RH steam turbines. The steam-turbine section of a PGU-420 cogeneration power unit has a single-shaft turbine unit with two SST-800 turbines and one SST-500 turbine giving a power output of N el. STU = 150 MW under condensing conditions.

  4. 低压蒸汽节能回收改造总结%Sum-Up of Renovation of Energy Saving and Recovery of Low-Pressure Steam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马飞跃; 陈隆

    2015-01-01

    Due to design flaws,there is an unbalanced byproduct low-pressure steam from waste heat boiler,and the surplus low-pressure steam has to vent directly.In order to reduce energy consumption and save production cost,the surplus low-pressure steam is used to drive steam turbine, and steam turbine drives circulating water pump,and the excess energy is used to generate electricity. The implementation of technological renovation measures,not only has recovered and utilized surplus low-pressure steam,but also has significant economic benefit.%由于设计上的缺陷,导致废热锅炉副产的低压蒸汽不平衡,富余的低压蒸汽只能直接放空。为了降低能耗、节约生产成本,采用富余的低压蒸汽作为汽轮机的动能,由汽轮机拖动循环水泵,多余的能量用于发电。改造措施实施后,不仅回收利用了富余的低压蒸汽,而且具有明显的经济效益。

  5. Determination of Stress Intensity Factors in Low Pressure Turbine Rotor Discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Vasovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An attention in this paper is focused on the stress analysis and the determination of fracture mechanics parameters in low pressure (LP turbine rotor discs and on developing analytic expressions for stress intensity factors at the critical location of LP steam turbine disc. Critical locations such as keyway and dovetail area experienced stress concentration leading to crack initiation. Major concerns for the power industry are determining the critical locations with one side and fracture mechanics parameters with the other side. For determination of the critical locations in LP turbine rotor disc conventional finite elements are used here. For this initial crack length and during crack growth it is necessary to determine SIFs. In fatigue crack growth process it is necessary to have analytic formulas for the stress intensity factor. To determine analytic formula for stress intensity factor (SIF of cracked turbine rotor disc special singular finite elements are used. Using discrete values of SIFs which correspond to various crack lengths analytic formula of SIF in polynomial forms is derived here. For determination of SIF in this paper, combined J-integral approach and singular finite elements are used. The interaction of mechanical and thermal effects was correlated in terms of the fracture toughness.

  6. Methods and Effect of Changing Steam Extraction & Condensation to Low Pressure Stearn Turbine by Replenishing Heating Water%用供热补水改抽凝为背压机组的节能方法与效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 常先江

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces using heating power cycle of power plant itself to realize remaking extraction low non - condensing generator set from 12 MW extraction condensing generator set. The main methods are: spraying salt solution on the entrance and throat of low - pressure casing exhaust in order to decrease the vacuum of condenser properly then increase the temperature of condensing water, changing condenser circulating water cooling transporting to cooling tower into using demineralization water cooling, then using part of demineralization to cool residue machine Condensing water and demineralization water are all used as replenishing water of boiler and sent to deoxidization machine, absorb all the loss of cool fountain then transform it to useful energy. Meanwhile the electricity used in the sub - machine will be decreased, saving the source extremely. The proposal does not need to change any main body of steam -electric set, bringing less investment and more efficiency.%本文介绍了利用电厂自身热力循环,实现了将12 MW抽凝发电机组改造成低背压发电机组.主要方法是:通过在低压缸排汽喉口部喷除盐水以适当降低凝汽器真空以提高凝结水温度,改凝汽器循环水冷却至冷却塔散热为用除盐水冷却,再用部分除盐水冷却冷渣器,凝结水和除盐冷却水全部作为锅炉补水送至除氧器,吸收了全部冷源损失为有用能.同时所属辅机用电有所降低,极大的节约了能源.其特点是不用改任何汽轮机本体,投资少,效果好.

  7. Endoscopic PIV measurements in a low pressure turbine rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kegalj, Martin; Schiffer, Heinz-Peter [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany). Department of Gas Turbines and Aerospace Propulsion

    2009-10-15

    Particle-Image-Velocimetry (PIV) is a useful way to acquire information about the flow in turbomachinery. Several premises have to be fulfilled to achieve high-quality data, for example, optical access, low vibrations and low reflections. However, not all test facilities comply with these requirements. If there is no optical access to the test area, measurements cannot be performed. The use of borescopic optics is a possible solution to this issue, as the access required is very small. Several different techniques can be used to measure the three components of the velocity vector, one of which is Stereo-PIV. These techniques require either large optical access from several viewing angles or highly complex setups. Orthogonal light sheet orientations in combination with borescopic optics using Planar-PIV can deliver sufficient information about the flow. This study will show the feasibility of such an approach in an enclosed test area, such as the interblade space in a Low-Pressure-Turbine-Rig. The results from PIV will be compared with data collected with conventional techniques, such as the Five-Hole-Probe and the 2-component Hot-Wire-Anemometry. An analysis of time- and phase-averaged data will be performed. (orig.)

  8. Wet steam wetness measurement in a 10 MW steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolovratník Michal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce a new design of the extinction probes developed for wet steam wetness measurement in steam turbines. This new generation of small sized extinction probes was developed at CTU in Prague. A data processing technique is presented together with yielded examples of the wetness distribution along the last blade of a 10MW steam turbine. The experimental measurement was done in cooperation with Doosan Škoda Power s.r.o.

  9. Wet steam wetness measurement in a 10 MW steam turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Kolovratník Michal; Bartoš Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a new design of the extinction probes developed for wet steam wetness measurement in steam turbines. This new generation of small sized extinction probes was developed at CTU in Prague. A data processing technique is presented together with yielded examples of the wetness distribution along the last blade of a 10MW steam turbine. The experimental measurement was done in cooperation with Doosan Škoda Power s.r.o.

  10. Brush Seals for Improved Steam Turbine Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnquist, Norman; Chupp, Ray; Baily, Fred; Burnett, Mark; Rivas, Flor; Bowsher, Aaron; Crudgington, Peter

    2006-01-01

    GE Energy has retrofitted brush seals into more than 19 operating steam turbines. Brush seals offer superior leakage control compared to labyrinth seals, owing to their compliant nature and ability to maintain very tight clearances to the rotating shaft. Seal designs have been established for steam turbines ranging in size from 12 MW to over 1200 MW, including fossil, nuclear, combined-cycle and industrial applications. Steam turbines present unique design challenges that must be addressed to ensure that the potential performance benefits of brush seals are realized. Brush seals can have important effects on the overall turbine system that must be taken into account to assure reliable operation. Subscale rig tests are instrumental to understanding seal behavior under simulated steam-turbine operating conditions, prior to installing brush seals in the field. This presentation discusses the technical challenges of designing brush seals for steam turbines; subscale testing; performance benefits of brush seals; overall system effects; and field applications.

  11. Steam Turbine Materials and Corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, G.H.; Hsu, D.H.

    2008-07-01

    Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760 °C. In prior years this project examined the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in high- and intermediate-pressure USC turbines. This steamside oxidation research is continuing and progress is presented, with emphasis on chromia evaporation.

  12. Efficient, Low Pressure Ratio Propulsor for Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Edward J. (Inventor); Monzon, Byron R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas turbine engine includes a spool, a turbine coupled to drive the spool, and a propulsor that is coupled to be driven by the turbine through the spool. A gear assembly is coupled between the propulsor and the spool such that rotation of the turbine drives the propulsor at a different speed than the spool. The propulsor includes a hub and a row of propulsor blades that extends from the hub. The row includes no more than 20 of the propulsor blades.

  13. Efficient, Low Pressure Ratio Propulsor for Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Edward J. (Inventor); Monzon, Byron R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A gas turbine engine includes a spool, a turbine coupled to drive the spool, and a propulsor that is coupled to be driven by the turbine through the spool. A gear assembly is coupled between the propulsor and the spool such that rotation of the turbine drives the propulsor at a different speed than the spool. The propulsor includes a hub and a row of propulsor blades that extends from the hub. The row includes no more than 20 of the propulsor blades.

  14. Dynamic analysis method for prevention of failure in the first-stage low-pressure turbine blade with two-finger root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Yong; Jung, Yong-Keun; Park, Jong-Jin; Kang, Yong-Ho

    2002-05-01

    Failures of turbine blades are identified as the leading causes of unplanned outages for steam turbine. Accidents of low-pressure turbine blade occupied more than 70 percent in turbine components. Therefore, the prevention of failures for low pressure turbine blades is certainly needed. The procedure is illustrated by the case study. This procedure is used to guide, and support the plant manager's decisions to avoid a costly, unplanned outage. In this study, we are trying to find factors of failures in LP turbine blade and to make three steps to approach the solution of blade failure. First step is to measure natural frequency in mockup test and to compare it with nozzle passing frequency. Second step is to use FEM and to calculate the natural frequencies of 7 blades and 10 blades per group in BLADE code. Third step is to find natural frequencies of grouped blade off the nozzle passing frequency.

  15. Water droplet erosion of stainless steel steam turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirols, H. S.; Kevorkov, D.; Uihlein, A.; Medraj, M.

    2017-08-01

    Steam turbine blades are highly subjected to water droplet erosion (WDE) caused by high energy impingement of liquid water droplets. However, most of the published research on this wear phenomenon is performed on laboratory test rigs, instead of addressing WDE of actual steam turbine blades. In this work, the progression of erosion on the surface of ex-service low pressure steam turbine blades was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The erosion appearance and mechanisms are compared with laboratory test rig results that are carried out using a rotating disk rig according to ASTM G73 standard. Initial and advanced erosion stages could be observed on the steam turbine blades. Similar to the WDE rig coupons, initial pits and cracks were preceded by blade surface roughening through the formation of asperities and depressions. In addition, it was also observed that the twist angle of the turbine blade around its diagonal, is an important parameter that influences its WDE. Twist angle has an effect on: impact angle, erosion appearance, impact speed, and the affected area. Furthermore, according to the current experimental results, multi-ray rig erosion test results are considered the closest simulation to the actual ex-service blade in terms of damage appearance.

  16. Experimental investigation on flow in diffuser of 1090 MW steam turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoznedl, Michal; Sedlák, Kamil; Mrózek, Lukáš; Bednář, Lukáš; Kalista, Robert

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with flow of wet water steam in diffuser of turbine engine 1090 MW on saturated water steam. Experimental measurements were done while the turbine was in operation for a wide range of outputs. Defining the outlet velocity from the last stage and with knowledge of static pressures on the diffuser outlet, it is possible to define the contribution of the diffuser to the whole low pressure part efficiency.

  17. New type steam turbine for cogeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Jianren; Yang Qiguo; Xu Damao

    2010-01-01

    A concept of energy saving & efficiency improving from cold source for cogeneration steam turbine was discussed herein.A new type"NCB"cogeneration steam turbine was proposed,which could considerably increase heat supply capacity,thermal efficiency and electric power.Taking 300 MW cogeneration steam turbine as an example,the results show that heat supply capacity reaches the maximum,i.e.increases by 30%,thermal efficiency is improved by12%,and electric power is enhanced by 15 MW during peak heat load.

  18. Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

  19. Effect of Low Pressure End Conditions on Steam Power Plant Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Syed Haider

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Most of the electricity produced throughout the world today is from steam power plants and improving the performance of power plants is crucial to minimize the greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption. Energy efficiency of a thermal power plant strongly depends on its boiler-condenser operating conditions. The low pressure end conditions of a condenser have influence on the power output, steam consumption and efficiency of a plant. Hence, the objective this paper is to study the effect of the low pressure end conditions on a steam power plant performance. For the study each component was modelled thermodynamically. Simulation was done and the results showed that performance of the condenser is highly a function of its pressure which in turn depends on the flow rate and temperature of the cooling water. Furthermore, when the condenser pressure increases both net power output and plant efficiency decrease whereas the steam consumption increases. The results can be used to run a steam power cycle at optimum conditions.

  20. Corrosion fatigue of bladed disk attachments of low-pressure turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, K. [Material Research Lab., Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi (Japan); Sakurai, S.; Nomura, K. [Thermal Power and Hydroelectric Systems Div., Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi (Japan); Saito, E.; Namura, K. [Power and Industrial Systems R and D Lab., Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The mechanism of a disk cracking in a low-pressure steam turbine was investigated by finite-element and fracture mechanics analysis and, based on the results of the investigation, a life assessment method was derived. The disk cracking was found to be caused by growth of corrosion pits, superposition of multiple vibration modes, and an increase in the standard deviation of the natural frequency of grouped blades after long-term operation. Taking these findings into consideration, the authors then developed a life-assessment method for disk cracking composed of evaluations (1) maximum corrosion pit size at the current situation, (2) corrosion pit growth after a certain term, and (3) failure-occurrence ratio for the estimated corrosion pit depth. Maximum corrosion-pit size is evaluated by extreme value statistical analysis using the data obtained by replica inspection. The failure-occurrence ratio is evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation considering two uncertainties, namely, the standard deviation of the natural frequency of grouped blades and the stimulus ratio. The values of both uncertainties were determined by the inverse problem analysis of the disk cracking. In light of these results, the authors found that replacing conventional tenon-shroud grouped blades with continuous-cover blades is effective from the view point of vibratory behavior. (orig.)

  1. Investigation of Low-Pressure Turbine Endwall Flows: Simulations and Experiments (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Endwall Losses of High Lift Low Pressure Turbine Vanes ,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Air Force Institute of Technology, 2012 13Sauer, H., Muller, R., and...2001, pp. 207-213 14Zess, G., and Thole, K., “Computational Design and Experimental Evaluation of Using a Leading Edge Fillet on a Gas Turbine Vane ,” J...Turbine,” ASME Paper 94-GT-249, 1994 19Harvey, N., Rose, M., Taylor, M., Shahpar, S., Hartland, J., and Gregory- Smith , D., “Nonaxisymmetric turbine

  2. A new approach in CHP steam turbines thermodynamic cycles computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grković Vojin R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach in mathematical modeling of thermodynamic cycles and electric power of utility district-heating and cogeneration steam turbines. The approach is based on the application of the dimensionless mass flows, which describe the thermodynamic cycle of a combined heat and power steam turbine. The mass flows are calculated relative to the mass flow to low pressure turbine. The procedure introduces the extraction mass flow load parameter νh which clearly indicates the energy transformation process, as well as the cogeneration turbine design features, but also its fitness for the electrical energy system requirements. The presented approach allows fast computations, as well as direct calculation of the selected energy efficiency indicators. The approach is exemplified with the calculation results of the district heat power to electric power ratio, as well as the cycle efficiency, versus νh. The influence of νh on the conformity of a combined heat and power turbine to the grid requirements is also analyzed and discussed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 33049: Development of CHP demonstration plant with gasification of biomass

  3. An Engine Research Program Focused on Low Pressure Turbine Aerodynamic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond; Wyzykowski, John; Chiapetta, Santo; Adamczyk, John

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive test program was performed in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland Ohio using a highly instrumented Pratt and Whitney Canada PW 545 turbofan engine. A key objective of this program was the development of a high-altitude database on small, high-bypass ratio engine performance and operability. In particular, the program documents the impact of altitude (Reynolds Number) on the aero-performance of the low-pressure turbine (fan turbine). A second objective was to assess the ability of a state-of-the-art CFD code to predict the effect of Reynolds number on the efficiency of the low-pressure turbine. CFD simulation performed prior and after the engine tests will be presented and discussed. Key findings are the ability of a state-of-the art CFD code to accurately predict the impact of Reynolds Number on the efficiency and flow capacity of the low-pressure turbine. In addition the CFD simulations showed the turbulent intensity exiting the low-pressure turbine to be high (9%). The level is consistent with measurements taken within an engine.

  4. Effects of shot peening on short crack growth rate and resulting low cycle fatigue behaviour in low pressure turbine blade material

    OpenAIRE

    He, B.; Soady, K.A.; Mellor, B.G.; Morris, A; Reed, P.A.S

    2013-01-01

    The effect of shot peening on subsequent low cycle fatigue behaviour of a representative low pressure steam turbine blade material has been investigated in bend test samples. An analysis of the short fatigue crack growth behaviour has been conducted. For samples with no stress concentration feature, shot peening was found to have a more evident beneficial effect at lower strain levels than at higher strain levels, whereas for samples with a stress concentration feature, the beneficial effect ...

  5. Numerical Study of Active Flow Control for a Transitional Highly-Loaded Low-Pressure Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Count Using Vortex Generator Jet Separation Control,” ASME Paper GT-2002-30602, Jun. 2002. [16] Eulitz, F. and Engel , K., “Numerical Investigation of...Around a Low Pressure Turbine Blade,” Direct and Large-Eddy Simulation IV, ERCOFTAC Series Vol. 8 , edited by B. J. Guerts, R. Friedrich , and O

  6. A small pelton turbine for steam turbocharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautenberg, M.; Abdelkader, M.; Malobabic, M.; Mobarak, A.

    1984-08-01

    The use of exhaust gas turbocharger for internal combustion engines is usually accompanied by mechanical loss. This loss is due to the raise of exhaust gas back pressure with the increase of engine speed. This back pressure prevents the discharge of the exhaust gas from the engine and causes mechanical loss. To avoid this undesirable phenomenon, a Clausius-Rankine cycle is used. In this case the thermal energy in the exhaust gas is used to vaporise water in a steam generator. The generated steam expands in a steam turbocharger which supercharges the engine. A small Pelton steam turbine has been designed and fabricated. The expected output for this small turbine is 10 kW. A computer program has been prepared to estimate the values of optimum cycle parameters.

  7. Combination of Low-pressure Steam Explosion and Alkaline Peroxide Pretreatment for Separation of Hemicellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xing

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Low-pressure steam explosion (LPSE combined with alkaline peroxide (AP pretreatment was first employed to separate hemicellulose from Lespedeza stalks. The monosaccharide composition and molecular weight distribution of the obtained hemicellulose fractions were characterized in this study. The results show that the hemicellulose extracted from Lespedeza stalks consisted of xylose, glucose, galactose, and mannose, which was a mixture of arabinoxylans and xyloglucans or β-glucans. The yield of hemicellulose fractions after AP pretreatment ranged from 11.2% (2.5% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, w/v for 12 h to 12.2% (3.3% H2O2, w/v for 72 h. The molecular weight of hemicellulose decreased from 2,458 g/mol to 1,984 g/mol after AP pretreatment, indicating its degradation reaction. The structure of hemicellulose was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and heteronuclear single quantum coherence. The AP pretreatment partially cleaved the backbone and the ether linkage between lignin and hemicelluloses. Also, branched-chain α-D-arabinofuranosyl in which β-D-xylose substituted at the C-3 position (monosubstituted was removed, illustrating a partial debranching reaction. Therefore, the combination of low-pressure steam explosion and alkaline peroxide pretreatment (LPSE-AP is an effective pretreatment method to separate hemicellulose from Lespedeza stalk.

  8. Two-Phase Instability Characteristics of Printed Circuit Steam Generator for the Low Pressure Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Han-Ok; Han, Hun Sik; Kim, Young-In; Kim, Keung Koo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Reduction of installation space for steam generators can lead to much smaller reactor vessel with resultant decrease of overall manufacturing cost for the components. A PCHE(Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger) is one of the compact types of heat exchangers available as an alternative to conventional shell and tube heat exchangers. Its name is derived from the procedure used to manufacture the flat metal plates that form the core of the heat exchanger, which is done by chemical milling. These plates are then stacked and diffusion bonded, converting the plates into a solid metal block containing precisely engineered fluid flow passages. PCSG(Printed Circuit Steam Generator) is a potential candidate to be applied to the integral reactor with its compactness and mechanical robustness. For the introduction of new steam generator, design requirement for the two-phase flow instability should be considered. This paper describes two-phase flow instability characteristics of PCSG for the low pressure condition. PCSG is a potential candidate to be applied to the integral reactor with its compactness and mechanical robustness. Interconnecting flow path was developed to mitigate the two-phase flow instability in the cold side. The flow characteristics of two-phase flow instability at the PCSG is examined experimentally in this study.

  9. Criteria for the provision and assembly of the rotor blades of a 300 MW low pressure steam turbine for electrical generation; Criterios para el suministro y ensambles de la alabes de rotor de turbina de vapor de 300 MW baja presion para generacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertin, Galo; Felix, Jorge A.; Quijano, Octavio [Especialistas en Turbopartes, S.A. de C.V., Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    This paper presents some of the main criteria to consider from the inspection, disassembling and assembly of blades with different root types of a turbine rotor of steam turbines for power generation, having as an aim to count on a reliable rotor, fulfilling with the equipment original design and norms and international standards. [Spanish] Este trabajo presenta algunos de los criterios principales a considerar desde la inspeccion, desmontaje y montaje de alabes de diferentes tipos de raiz de un rotor de turbinas de vapor de generacion electrica, teniendo como finalidad contar con un rotor confiable, cumpliendo con el diseno original del equipo y con normas y estandares internacionales.

  10. Optimum sizing of steam turbines for concentrated solar power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Poullikkas, Constantinos Rouvas, Ioannis Hadjipaschalis, George Kourtis

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a selection of the optimum steam turbine type and size for integration in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants is carried out. In particular, the optimum steam turbine input and output interfaces for a range of CSP plant capacity sizes are identified. Also, efficiency and electricity unit cost curves for various steam turbine capacities are estimated by using a combination of the Steam Pro software module of the Thermoflow Suite 18 package and the IPP v2.1 optimization software...

  11. Steam turbines and operation of steam turbines 2010. Proceedings; Dampfturbinen und Dampfturbinenbetrieb 2010. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the VGB conference an 30th June to 1st July, 2010 in Luebeck (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Application of rifled tubes in power plant heat exchangers (Andreas Grahl); (2) Improved efficiency and potential savings at the 'cool end' through tube cleaning and cooling water filtration (Wolfgang Czolkoss); (3) Material and process improvements in condenser tubing (Pascal Gerard); (4) Automatic eddy current testing of longitudinally welded austentic and titanium tubes for condensers and other heat exchanger (Werner Hannig); (5) Major steam turbine losses: causes, repair measures, recommissioning (Stefan Thumm); (6) Damage on industrial steam turbines (Hans-Guenter Busch); (7) Proper design of turbine draining systems (Ralph Semme); (8) VDMA - Contribution to functional safety of turbomachinery - Required risk reduction by safety functions for steam turbines (Bernhard Wuest); (9) Functional safety by MAN turbo on the example of SIL3 safety loop overspeed detection (Holger Buschmann); (10) Boiler feed pump monitoring, diagnostic and controlling loop (Sohail Ahmed); (11) Experimental investigation to the radial adjustment of brush seals for steam turbines (Heiko Schwarz); (12) The revised VGB guidelines for condenser tubes from copper alloys, stainless steels and titanium (Frank-Udo Leidich); (13) Modernization of HP and LP turbines in coal-fired power plant Bergkamen (Roland Sommer); (14) Mega-components made of cast steel for power plant technology (Reinhold Hanus); (15) Quality monitoring of steam turbine sets for new construction projects of the Vattenfall Europe Generation AG (Marco Rediess); (16) Weld repair of a cracked LP rotor (Andreas Nowi); (17) Steam turbines and CO{sub 2} sequestration (Juergen Klebes); (18) Advanced filter element construction for alleviating electrostatic discharge effects in turbine lubricating systems (John K. Duchowski).

  12. COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF INTERMEDIATE PRESSURE STEAM TURBINE

    OpenAIRE

    C RAJESH BABU

    2013-01-01

    a steam prime mover with rotary motion of the driving element, or rotor, and continuous operation. It converts the thermal energy of steam into mechanical work. The steam flow proceeds through directing devices and impinges on curved blades mounted along the periphery of the rotor. By exerting a force on the blades, the steam flow causes the rotor to rotate. Unlike the reciprocating steam engine, the steam turbine makes use of the kinetic rather than the potential energy of steam. The perform...

  13. Reliability design method for steam turbine blades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinyuan SHI

    2008-01-01

    Based on theories of probability and statistics, and taking static stresses, dynamic stresses, endurance strength, safety ratios, vibration frequencies and exciting force frequencies of blades as random variables, a reliabil-ity design method for steam turbine blades is presented. The purport and calculation method for blade reliability are expounded. The distribution parameters of random variables are determined after analysis and numerical cal-culation of test data. The fatigue strength and the vibra-tion design reliability of turbine blades are determined with the aid of a probabilistic design method and by inter-ference models for stress distribution and strength distri-bution. Some blade reliability design calculation formulas for a dynamic stress design method, a safety ratio design method for fatigue strength, and a vibration reliability design method for the first and second types of tuned blades and a packet of blades on a disk connected closely, are given together with some practical examples. With these methods, the design reliability of steam turbine blades can be guaranteed in the design stage. This research may provide some scientific basis for reliability design of steam turbine blades.

  14. Rotor thermal stress monitoring in steam turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonín, Bouberle; Jan, Jakl; Jindřich, Liška

    2015-11-01

    One of the issues of steam turbines diagnostics is monitoring of rotor thermal stress that arises from nonuniform temperature field. The effort of steam turbine operator is to operate steam turbine in such conditions, that rotor thermal stress doesn't exceed the specified limits. If rotor thermal stress limits are exceeded for a long time during machine operation, the rotor fatigue life is shortened and this may lead to unexpected machine failure. Thermal stress plays important role during turbine cold startup, when occur the most significant differences of temperatures through rotor cross section. The temperature field can't be measured directly in the entire rotor cross section and standardly the temperature is measured by thermocouple mounted in stator part. From this reason method for numerical solution of partial differential equation of heat propagation through rotor cross section must be combined with method for calculation of temperature on rotor surface. In the first part of this article, the application of finite volume method for calculation of rotor thermal stress is described. The second part of article deals with optimal trend generation of thermal flux, that could be used for optimal machine loading.

  15. Materials for advanced ultrasupercritical steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purgert, Robert [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Shingledecker, John [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Saha, Deepak [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Thangirala, Mani [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Booras, George [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Powers, John [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Riley, Colin [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Hendrix, Howard [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have sponsored a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired power plants capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than the current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction for boilers and for steam turbines. The overall project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760°C (1400°F)/35MPa (5000 psi). This final technical report covers the research completed by the General Electric Company (GE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), with support from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) – Albany Research Center, to develop the A-USC steam turbine materials technology to meet the overall project goals. Specifically, this report summarizes the industrial scale-up and materials property database development for non-welded rotors (disc forgings), buckets (blades), bolting, castings (needed for casing and valve bodies), casting weld repair, and casting to pipe welding. Additionally, the report provides an engineering and economic assessment of an A-USC power plant without and with partial carbon capture and storage. This research project successfully demonstrated the materials technology at a sufficient scale and with corresponding materials property data to enable the design of an A-USC steam turbine. The key accomplishments included the development of a triple-melt and forged Haynes 282 disc for bolted rotor construction, long-term property development for Nimonic 105 for blading and bolting, successful scale-up of Haynes 282 and Nimonic 263 castings using

  16. Thermoelastic steam turbine rotor control based on neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzadkowski, Romuald; Dominiczak, Krzysztof; Radulski, Wojciech; Szczepanik, R.

    2015-12-01

    Considered here are Nonlinear Auto-Regressive neural networks with eXogenous inputs (NARX) as a mathematical model of a steam turbine rotor for controlling steam turbine stress on-line. In order to obtain neural networks that locate critical stress and temperature points in the steam turbine during transient states, an FE rotor model was built. This model was used to train the neural networks on the basis of steam turbine transient operating data. The training included nonlinearity related to steam turbine expansion, heat exchange and rotor material properties during transients. Simultaneous neural networks are algorithms which can be implemented on PLC controllers. This allows for the application neural networks to control steam turbine stress in industrial power plants.

  17. Crack Orientation and Depth Estimation in a Low-Pressure Turbine Disc Using a Phased Array Ultrasonic Transducer and an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshuang Chang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Stress corrosion cracks (SCC in low-pressure steam turbine discs are serious hidden dangers to production safety in the power plants, and knowing the orientation and depth of the initial cracks is essential for the evaluation of the crack growth rate, propagation direction and working life of the turbine disc. In this paper, a method based on phased array ultrasonic transducer and artificial neural network (ANN, is proposed to estimate both the depth and orientation of initial cracks in the turbine discs. Echo signals from cracks with different depths and orientations were collected by a phased array ultrasonic transducer, and the feature vectors were extracted by wavelet packet, fractal technology and peak amplitude methods. The radial basis function (RBF neural network was investigated and used in this application. The final results demonstrated that the method presented was efficient in crack estimation tasks.

  18. Crack orientation and depth estimation in a low-pressure turbine disc using a phased array ultrasonic transducer and an artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Chen, Shili; Jin, Shijiu; Chang, Wenshuang

    2013-09-13

    Stress corrosion cracks (SCC) in low-pressure steam turbine discs are serious hidden dangers to production safety in the power plants, and knowing the orientation and depth of the initial cracks is essential for the evaluation of the crack growth rate, propagation direction and working life of the turbine disc. In this paper, a method based on phased array ultrasonic transducer and artificial neural network (ANN), is proposed to estimate both the depth and orientation of initial cracks in the turbine discs. Echo signals from cracks with different depths and orientations were collected by a phased array ultrasonic transducer, and the feature vectors were extracted by wavelet packet, fractal technology and peak amplitude methods. The radial basis function (RBF) neural network was investigated and used in this application. The final results demonstrated that the method presented was efficient in crack estimation tasks.

  19. Thermodynamic evaluation of the possibility to increase cogeneration turbine efficiency by using a heat pump operating with steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batenin, V. M.; Datsenko, V. V.; Zeigarnik, Yu. A.; Kosoi, A. S.; Sinkevich, M. V.

    2016-01-01

    Cogeneration turbines operate in different operation modes that considerably differ as to the working process conditions. In summer time, when heat demand is minimal, almost all steam flow passes through all turbine stages and enters into the condenser (condensing mode of operation). When heat supply is needed, the steam bleed-offs are used. The several last stages of the turbine (low-pressure part—LPP) have a control diaphragm at the inlet. When the heat supply is large, the diaphragm is maximally closed, and the entire steam flow, with an exception for a minimal ventilation flow is delivered to the steam bleed-offs (cogeneration mode). LPP flow path is designed for the optimal operation in the condensing mode. While running in cogeneration mode, the LPP operating conditions are far from optimal. Depending on the ventilation steam flow rate and outlet pressure, the LPP power can drop to zero or even become negative (ventilation mode). It is proposed to control an outlet steam pressure by using the heat pump that operates with steam. The heat pump energy consumption can be compensated and even exceeded by optimizing the steam expansion process in LPP. In this respect, operating conditions of cogeneration turbine LPPs during the cold season are analyzed. A brief description of a heat pump operating with steam is made. The possibility of increasing cogeneration turbine efficiency by using a steam heat pump is shown.

  20. 2D-simulation of wet steam flow in a steam turbine with spontaneous condensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Lan-xin; ZHENG Qun; LIU Shun-long

    2007-01-01

    Removal of condensates from wet steam flow in the last stages of steam turbines significantly promotes stage efficiency and prevents erosion of rotors. In this paper, homogeneous spontaneous condensation in transonic steam flow in the 2-D rotor-tip section of a stage turbine is investigated.Calculated results agree with experimental data reasonably well. On the basis of the above work, a 2-D numerical simulation of wet steam flow in adjacent root sections of a complex steam turbine stage was carried out. Computational results were analyzed and provide insights into effective removal of humidity.

  1. Flow studies in a wet steam turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D. H.; Pouchot, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    The design and test results of a four stage wet vapor turbine operating with slightly superheated inlet steam and expanding to 10% exit moisture are presented. High speed movies at 3000 frames per second of liquid movement on the pressure side and along the trailing edge of the last stator blade are discussed along with back lighted photographs of moisture drops as they were torn from the stator blade trailing edge. Movies at lower framing rates were also taken of the exit of the last rotating blade and the casing moisture removal slot located in line with the rotor blade shroud. Also moisture removal data are presented of casing slot removal at the exit of the third and fourth rotor blades and for slots located in the trailing edge of the last stator blade. Finally, the degradation of turbine thermodynamic performance due to condensation formation and movement is discussed.

  2. Flow investigations in the final stage of the low-pressure steam turbine of Schkopau power station - flow and moisture measurements carried out by the Institute of Turbo-Engines; Stroemungsuntersuchungen an der Endstufe der Niederdruckdampfturbine im Kraftwerk Schkopau - Stroemungs- und Naessemessungen des Instituts fuer Thermische Stroemungsmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, M.; Seibold, A.; Stetter, H. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Stroemungsmaschinen und Maschinenlaboratorium; Cai, X.S. [University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, SH (China)

    1998-12-31

    Measurements of steam wetness are necessary for the determination of the thermodynamic state in a two-phase steam flow, which is for example the case of efficiency measurements in LP steam turbines. Since wetness measurements are always related to flow measurements, a combined pneumatic-optical probe for contemporary flow and wetness measurement has been developed at Institut fuer Thermische Stroemungsmaschinen of the University of Stuttgart (ITSM) in collaboration with an institute of the University of Shanghai Science and Technology (USST). The pneumatic part consists of a four-hole wedge probe. The optical part is based on multiwavelength-light extinction. During measurement in power plant Schkopau this measuring system has been introduced for the first time in a real steam turbine. The results of these flow and wetness measurements, that have been conducted both for nominal and partial load will be presented and discussed in this publication. Since institutes of RWTH Aachen and University of Hannover, even though with different type of probes, have also conducted measurements in the power plant in Schkopau, a comparison between the results obtained by the combined probe and these other ones can be made. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Bestimmung des thermodynamischen Zustandspunktes in einer Zweiphasen-Wasserdampfstroemung, wie es z.B. bei Wirkungsgradmessungen in der ND-Teilturbine von Kondensationsdampfturbinen notwendig ist, ist die Messung der Dampfnaesse erforderlich. Da Naessemessungen mit optischen Messverfahren immer auch mit Stroemungsmessungen verbunden sind, wurde am Institut fuer Thermische Stroemungsmaschinen der Universitaet Stuttgart (ITSM) in Zusammenarbeit mit einen Institut der University of Shanghai Science and Technology (USST) eine kombinierte optisch-pneumatische Sonde fuer gleichzeitige Stroemungs- und Naessemessungen in Zwei-Phasen Wasserdampfstroemungen entwickelt. Der pneumatische Teil der Sonde besteht aus einer 4-Loch Keilsonde. Das

  3. Experimental research of flow parameters on the last stage of the steam turbine 1090 MW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlák, Kamil; Hoznedl, Michal; Bednář, Lukáš; Mrózek, Lukáš; Kalista, Robert

    2016-06-01

    This article deals with a brief description of measurement and evaluation of flow parameters at the output from the last stage of the low pressure steam turbine casing for the saturated steam with the nominal power 1090 MW. Measurement was carried out using a seven-hole pneumatic probe traversing along the length of the blade in several peripheral positions under nominal and selected partial modes. The result is knowledge of distribution of the static, dynamic and total pressure along the length of the blade and velocity distribution including their components. This information is the input data for determination of efficiency of the last stage, the loss coefficient of the diffuser and other significant parameters describing efficiency of selected parts of the steam turbine.

  4. Recent trends in repair and refurbishing of steam turbine components

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Bhaduri; S K Albert; S K Ray; P Rodriguez

    2003-06-01

    The repair and refurbishing of steam generator components is discussed from the perspective of repair welding philosophy including applicable codes and regulations. Some case histories of repair welding of steam generator components are discussed with special emphasis on details of repair welding of cracked steam turbine blades and shrouds in some of the commercial nuclear power plants using procedures developed.

  5. K-65-12.8 condensing steam turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Gol'dberg, A. A.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Bilan, V. N.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Polyaeva, E. N.; Shekhter, M. V.; Shibaev, T. L.

    2016-11-01

    A new condensing steam turbine K-65-12.8 is considered, which is the continuation of the development of the steam turbine family of 50-70 MW and the fresh steam pressure of 12.8 MPa, such as twocylinder T-50-12.8 and T-60/65-12.8 turbines. The turbine was developed using the modular design. The design and the main distinctive features of the turbine are described, such as a single two-housing cylinder with the steam flow loop; the extraction from the blading section for the regeneration, the inner needs, and heating; and the unification of some assemblies of serial turbines with shorter time of manufacture. The turbine uses the throttling steam distribution; steam from a boiler is supplied to a turbine through a separate valve block consisting of a central shut-off valve and two side control valves. The blading section of a turbine consists of 23 stages: the left flow contains ten stages installed in the inner housing and the right flow contains 13 stages with diaphragm placed in holders installed in the outer housing. The disks of the first 16 stages are forged together with a rotor, and the disks of the rest stages are mounted. Before the two last stages, the uncontrolled steam extraction is performed for the heating of a plant with the heat output of 38-75 GJ/h. Also, a turbine has five regenerative extraction points for feed water heating and the additional steam extraction to a collector for the inner needs with the consumption of up to 10 t/h. The feasibility parameters of a turbine plant are given. The main solutions for the heat flow diagram and the layout of a turbine plant are presented. The main principles and features of the microprocessor electro hydraulic control and protection system are formulated.

  6. Features of steam turbine cooling by the example of an SKR-100 turbine for supercritical steam parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkadyev, B. A.

    2015-10-01

    Basic principles of cooling of high-temperature steam turbines and constructive solutions used for development of the world's first cooled steam turbine SKR-100 (R-100-300) are described. Principal differences between the thermodynamic properties of cooling medium in the steam and gas turbines and the preference of making flow passes of cooled cylinders of steam turbines as reactive are shown. Some of its operation results and their conclusions are given. This turbine with a power of 100 MW, initial steam parameters approximately 30 MPa and 650°C, and back pressure 3 MPa was made by a Kharkov turbine plant in 1961 and ran successfully at a Kashira GRES (state district power plant) up to 1979, when it was taken out of use in a still fully operating condition. For comparison, some data on construction features and operation results of the super-high pressure cylinder of steam turbines of American Philo 6 (made by General Electric Co.) and Eddystone 1 (made by Westinghouse Co.) power generating units, which are close to the SKR-100 turbine by design initial steam parameters and the implementation time, are given. The high operational reliability and effectiveness of the cooling system that was used in the super-high pressure cylinder of the SKR-100 turbine of the power-generating unit, which were demonstrated in operation, confirms rightfulness and expediency of principles and constructive solutions laid at its development. As process steam temperatures are increased, the realization of the proposed approach to cooling of multistage turbines makes it possible to limit for large turbine parts the application of new, more expensive high-temperature materials, which are required for making steam boilers, and, in some cases, to do completely away with their utilization.

  7. Physical Insights, Steady Aerodynamic Effects, and a Design Tool for Low-Pressure Turbine Flutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Joshua Joseph

    The successful, efficient, and safe turbine design requires a thorough understanding of the underlying physical phenomena. This research investigates the physical understanding and parameters highly correlated to flutter, an aeroelastic instability prevalent among low pressure turbine (LPT) blades in both aircraft engines and power turbines. The modern way of determining whether a certain cascade of LPT blades is susceptible to flutter is through time-expensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. These codes converge to solution satisfying the Eulerian conservation equations subject to the boundary conditions of a nodal domain consisting fluid and solid wall particles. Most detailed CFD codes are accompanied by cryptic turbulence models, meticulous grid constructions, and elegant boundary condition enforcements all with one goal in mind: determine the sign (and therefore stability) of the aerodynamic damping. The main question being asked by the aeroelastician, "is it positive or negative?'' This type of thought-process eventually gives rise to a black-box effect, leaving physical understanding behind. Therefore, the first part of this research aims to understand and reveal the physics behind LPT flutter in addition to several related topics including acoustic resonance effects. A percentage of this initial numerical investigation is completed using an influence coefficient approach to study the variation the work-per-cycle contributions of neighboring cascade blades to a reference airfoil. The second part of this research introduces new discoveries regarding the relationship between steady aerodynamic loading and negative aerodynamic damping. Using validated CFD codes as computational wind tunnels, a multitude of low-pressure turbine flutter parameters, such as reduced frequency, mode shape, and interblade phase angle, will be scrutinized across various airfoil geometries and steady operating conditions to reach new design guidelines regarding the influence

  8. Stress corrosion cracking in low-pressure turbine discs in an NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitomi, Itoh [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Takasago Research and Development Center (Japan); Takashi, Momoo [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Takasago Machinery Works (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    From past research, it is known that stress corrosion cracking in low-pressure turbine discs occurs in an environment near that of deaerated pure water. Nevertheless, in units with molar ratio control, there is a possibility of NaCl concentrating as an impurity in the dry/wet boundary region. Long-term immersion tests were conducted at 373 K to 473 K with the NaCl concentration predicted to become 5%. It was found that, when FeCl{sub 3} or other oxidizer was added, corrosion increased remarkably and SCC was initiated. When cracks were initiated, they were primarily transgranular; as the test temperature was decreased, initiation was accelerated but conversely crack propagation was reduced. (author)

  9. Application of Low-pressure Saturated Steam Power Generating Technology in Steel Enterprises%低压饱和蒸汽发电技术在钢铁企业的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖; 马永锋

    2016-01-01

    介绍了钢铁企业饱和蒸汽发电主要的应用技术,并通过某钢厂的低压饱和蒸汽利用方案,对比了饱和蒸汽汽轮机和饱和蒸汽螺杆发电机应用的优缺点.%The main application technology of saturated steam power generating in steel enterprises is introduced. Taking the utilization program of low-pressure saturated steam pow-er generating of some steelmaker as an example, the advantages and disadvantages of saturat-ed steam turbine generator and saturated steam screw generator are compared.

  10. Modelling 3D Steam Turbine Flow Using Thermodynamic Properties of Steam Iapws-95

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusanow A.V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to approximate equations of state for water and steam (IAPWS-95 for the calculation of three-dimensional flows of steam in turbomachinery in a range of operation of the present and future steam turbines is described. Test calculations of three-dimensional viscous flow in an LP steam turbine using various equations of state (perfect gas, Van der Waals equation, equation of state for water and steam IAPWS-95 are made. The comparison of numerical results with experimental data is also presented.

  11. Optimum sizing of steam turbines for concentrated solar power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Poullikkas, Constantinos Rouvas, Ioannis Hadjipaschalis, George Kourtis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a selection of the optimum steam turbine type and size for integration in concentrated solar power (CSP plants is carried out. In particular, the optimum steam turbine input and output interfaces for a range of CSP plant capacity sizes are identified. Also, efficiency and electricity unit cost curves for various steam turbine capacities are estimated by using a combination of the Steam Pro software module of the Thermoflow Suite 18 package and the IPP v2.1 optimization software tool. The results indicate that the estimated efficiency and the expected specific capital cost of the power block are very important criteria in choosing the best steam turbine size of a CSP plant. For capacity sizes of 10kWe up to 50MWe, the steam turbine efficiency increases and the steam turbine expected specific capital cost of the power block decreases at a high rate, whereas for larger sizes they remain almost constant. Thus, there is significant efficiency gains to be realized and large cost savings in increasing the turbine size up to 50MWe. Finally, although the cost of electricity of a CSP plant with capacities greater than 1MWe is significantly reduced to less than 1US$/kWh, currently such technology can only become economically viable through supporting schemes.

  12. Optimum sizing of steam turbines for concentrated solar power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poullikkas, Andreas; Rouvas, Constantinos; Hadjipaschalis, Ioannis; Kourtis, Gorge [Electricity Authority of Cyprus, P.O. Box 24506, 1399 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2012-07-01

    In this work, a selection of the optimum steam turbine type and size for integration in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants is carried out. In particular, the optimum steam turbine input and output interfaces for a range of CSP plant capacity sizes are identified. Also, efficiency and electricity unit cost curves for various steam turbine capacities are estimated by using a combination of the Steam Pro software module of the Thermoflow Suite 18 package and the IPP v2.1 optimization software tool. The results indicate that the estimated efficiency and the expected specific capital cost of the power block are very important criteria in choosing the best steam turbine size of a CSP plant. For capacity sizes of 10kWe up to 50MWe, the steam turbine efficiency increases and the steam turbine expected specific capital cost of the power block decreases at a high rate, whereas for larger sizes they remain almost constant. Thus, there is significant efficiency gains to be realized and large cost savings in increasing the turbine size up to 50MWe. Finally, although the cost of electricity of a CSP plant with capacities greater than 1MWe is significantly reduced to less than 1US$/kWh, currently such technology can only become economically viable through supporting schemes.

  13. How to compute the power of a steam turbine with condensation, knowing the steam quality of saturated steam in the turbine discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Albarran, Manuel Jaime; Krever, Marcos Paulo Souza [Braskem, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    To compute the power and the thermodynamic performance in a steam turbine with condensation, it is necessary to know the quality of the steam in the turbine discharge and, information of process variables that permit to identifying with high precision the enthalpy of saturated steam. This paper proposes to install an operational device that will expand the steam from high pressure point on the shell turbine to atmosphere, both points with measures of pressure and temperature. Arranging these values on the Mollier chart, it can be know the steam quality value and with this data one can compute the enthalpy value of saturated steam. With the support of this small instrument and using the ASME correlations to determine the equilibrium temperature and knowing the discharge pressure in the inlet of surface condenser, the absolute enthalpy of the steam discharge can be computed with high precision and used to determine the power and thermodynamic efficiency of the turbine. (author)

  14. Gas--steam turbine combined cycle power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1978-10-01

    The purpose of this technology evaluation is to provide performance and cost characteristics of the combined gas and steam turbine, cycle system applied to an Integrated Community Energy System (ICES). To date, most of the applications of combined cycles have been for electric power generation only. The basic gas--steam turbine combined cycle consists of: (1) a gas turbine-generator set, (2) a waste-heat recovery boiler in the gas turbine exhaust stream designed to produce steam, and (3) a steam turbine acting as a bottoming cycle. Because modification of the standard steam portion of the combined cycle would be necessary to recover waste heat at a useful temperature (> 212/sup 0/F), some sacrifice in the potential conversion efficiency is necessary at this temperature. The total energy efficiency ((electric power + recovered waste heat) divided by input fuel energy) varies from about 65 to 73% at full load to 34 to 49% at 20% rated electric power output. Two major factors that must be considered when installing a gas--steam turbine combines cycle are: the realiability of the gas turbine portion of the cycle, and the availability of liquid and gas fuels or the feasibility of hooking up with a coal gasification/liquefaction process.

  15. Fatigue damage of steam turbine shaft at asynchronous connections of turbine generator to electrical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovsunovsky, A. P.

    2015-07-01

    The investigations of cracks growth in the fractured turbine rotors point out at theirs fatigue nature. The main reason of turbine shafts fatigue damage is theirs periodical startups which are typical for steam turbines. Each startup of a turbine is accompanied by the connection of turbine generator to electrical network. During the connection because of the phase shift between the vector of electromotive force of turbine generator and the vector of supply-line voltage the short-term but powerful reactive shaft torque arises. This torque causes torsional vibrations and fatigue damage of turbine shafts of different intensity. Based on the 3D finite element model of turbine shaft of the steam turbine K-200-130 and the mechanical properties of rotor steel there was estimated the fatigue damage of the shaft at its torsional vibrations arising as a result of connection of turbine generator to electric network.

  16. Compressible DNS of transitional and turbulent flow in a low pressure turbine cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Rajesh; Deshpande, Suresh; Narasimha, Roddam

    2015-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of flow in a low pressure turbine cascade at high incidence is performed using a new in-house code ANUROOP. This code solves compressible Navier-Stokes equations in conservative form using finite volume technique and uses kinetic-energy consistent scheme for the flux calculations. ANUROOP is capable of handling flow past complex geometries using hybrid grid approach (separate grid topologies for the boundary layer and rest of the blade passage). This approach offers much more control in mesh spacing and distribution compared to elliptic grid technique, which is used in many previous studies. Also, in contrast to previous studies, focus of the current work is mainly on the boundary layer flow. The flow remains laminar on the pressure side of the blade, but separates in the aft region of the suction side leading to transition. Separation bubbles formed at this region are transient in nature and we notice multiple bubbles merging and breaking in time. In the mean flow however, only one bubble is seen. Velocity profiles very near to the leading edge of the suction side suggest strong curvature effect. Higher-order boundary layer theory that includes effect of curvature is found to be necessary to characterize the flow in this region. Also, the grid convergence study reveals interesting aspects of numerics vital for accurate simulation of this kind of complex flows. We would like to thank the Gas Turbine Enabling Technology (GATET) Program for funding this project. We also thank C-DAC, Pune and CSIR-4PI, Bangalore for providing computational resources.

  17. Steam turbine stress control using NARX neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiczak, Krzysztof; Rzadkowski, Romuald; Radulski, Wojciech

    2015-11-01

    Considered here is concept of steam turbine stress control, which is based on Nonlinear AutoRegressive neural networks with eXogenous inputs. Using NARX neural networks,whichwere trained based on experimentally validated FE model allows to control stresses in protected thickwalled steam turbine element with FE model quality. Additionally NARX neural network, which were trained base on FE model, includes: nonlinearity of steam expansion in turbine steam path during transients, nonlinearity of heat exchange inside the turbine during transients and nonlinearity of material properties during transients. In this article NARX neural networks stress controls is shown as an example of HP rotor of 18K390 turbine. HP part thermodynamic model as well as heat exchange model in vicinity of HP rotor,whichwere used in FE model of the HP rotor and the HP rotor FE model itself were validated based on experimental data for real turbine transient events. In such a way it is ensured that NARX neural network behave as real HP rotor during steam turbine transient events.

  18. CTU Optical probes for liquid phase detection in the 1000 MW steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolovratník Michal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the measurement capacity of a new generation of CTU’s optical probes to determine the liquid phase distribution in steam turbines and other energy systems. At the same time the paper presents the first part of the results concerning output wetness achieved through the use of experimental research performed with the probes in a new low pressure (LP part of the steam turbine 1000MW in the Temelin nuclear power plant (ETE. Two different probes were used. A small size extinction probe with a diameter of 25mm which was developed for measuring in a wider range of turbines in comparison with the previous generation with a diameter of 50mm. The second probe used was a photogrammetric probe developed to observe the coarse droplets. This probe is still under development and this measurement was focused on verifying the capabilities of the probe. The data processing technique is presented together with yielded examples of the wetness distribution along the last blade of the 1000MW steam turbine. The experimental measurement was done in cooperation with Doosan Škoda Power s.r.o. (DSP.

  19. Experimental investigation of the steam wetness in a 1000 MW steam turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovratník, Michal; Bartoš, Ondřej

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the experimental data of the wetness distribution obtained in the year 2015 in front of and behind the last stage of the 1000MW steam turbine in the power plant Temelín. Two different optical probes developed at Czech Technical University were used. For the first time in the Czech Republic pneumatic and optical measurement of the wet steam flow field in front of the last stage of a nuclear power-station steam turbine was provided. This unique measurement opportunity provided lots of new information for the manufacturer and operator of the steam turbine and valuable experimental data for the phase transition modelling in the wet steam flow. The experimental measurement was done in cooperation with Doosan Škoda Power s.r.o.

  20. Experimental investigation of the steam wetness in a 1000 MW steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolovratník Michal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the experimental data of the wetness distribution obtained in the year 2015 in front of and behind the last stage of the 1000MW steam turbine in the power plant Temelín. Two different optical probes developed at Czech Technical University were used. For the first time in the Czech Republic pneumatic and optical measurement of the wet steam flow field in front of the last stage of a nuclear power-station steam turbine was provided. This unique measurement opportunity provided lots of new information for the manufacturer and operator of the steam turbine and valuable experimental data for the phase transition modelling in the wet steam flow. The experimental measurement was done in cooperation with Doosan Škoda Power s.r.o.

  1. The Recovery and Power Generation Technology for Low Pressure Exhaust Steam%低压放散蒸汽回收发电技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴海波

    2015-01-01

    对钢铁企业低压饱和蒸汽管网运行情况进行研究,分析总结低压低温饱和的间断性放散蒸汽放散规律,通过放散蒸汽的有效回收,并利用螺杆膨胀机发电技术,形成低压饱和蒸汽资源化和再利用的项目方案。%The operation state of low pressure saturated steam pipeline networks of steel enterprises was investigated and the pattern of intermittent exhausting of low-pressure low-temperature saturated steam was analyzed. Through effective recovery of the exhaust steam and adopting of the power generation technology of screw expander, a project plan for recy-cling and utilization of low pressure saturated steam was drawn up.

  2. Compatibility of gas turbine materials with steam cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, V.; Tamboli, D.; Patel, Y. [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Objective is to investigate performance of gas turbine materials in steam environment and evaluate remedial measures for alleviating the severity of the problem. Three superalloys commonly used in gas turbines were exposed to 3 steam environments containing different impurity levels for 2 to 6 months. Results: Cr2O3-forming alloys containing 1-4% Al such as IN 738 are susceptible to heavy internal oxidation of Al. High Al (>5%) alloys in which continuous Al2O3 scale can be formed, may not be susceptible to such attack. Deposition of salts from steam will accentuate hot corrosion problems. Alloys with higher Cr content such as X-45 are generally less prone to hot corrosion. The greater damage observed in IN 617 make this alloy less attractive for gas turbines with steam cooling. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is a good nondestructive method to evaluate microstructural damage.

  3. Integrating a SOFC Plant with a Steam Turbine Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Scappin, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is integrated with a Steam Turbine (ST) cycle. Different hybrid configurations are studied. The fuel for the plants is assumed to be natural gas (NG). Since the NG cannot be sent to the anode side of the SOFC directly, a desulfurization reactor is used to remove....... The off-gases after the burner are now used to generate steam in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). The generated steam is expanded in a ST to produce additional power. Different systems layouts are considered. Cyclic efficiencies up to 67% are achieved which is considerably higher than...

  4. Numerical Investigation of the Interaction between Mainstream and Tip Shroud Leakage Flow in a 2-Stage Low Pressure Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Liu, Huoxing

    2014-06-01

    The pressing demand for future advanced gas turbine requires to identify the losses in a turbine and to understand the physical mechanisms producing them. In low pressure turbines with shrouded blades, a large portion of these losses is generated by tip shroud leakage flow and associated interaction. For this reason, shroud leakage losses are generally grouped into the losses of leakage flow itself and the losses caused by the interaction between leakage flow and mainstream. In order to evaluate the influence of shroud leakage flow and related losses on turbine performance, computational investigations for a 2-stage low pressure turbine is presented and discussed in this paper. Three dimensional steady multistage calculations using mixing plane approach were performed including detailed tip shroud geometry. Results showed that turbines with shrouded blades have an obvious advantage over unshrouded ones in terms of aerodynamic performance. A loss mechanism breakdown analysis demonstrated that the leakage loss is the main contributor in the first stage while mixing loss dominates in the second stage. Due to the blade-to-blade pressure gradient, both inlet and exit cavity present non-uniform leakage injection and extraction. The flow in the exit cavity is filled with cavity vortex, leakage jet attached to the cavity wall and recirculation zone induced by main flow ingestion. Furthermore, radial gap and exit cavity size of tip shroud have a major effect on the yaw angle near the tip region in the main flow. Therefore, a full calculation of shroud leakage flow is necessary in turbine performance analysis and the shroud geometric features need to be considered during turbine design process.

  5. Experimental investigation of the steam wetness in a 1000 MW steam turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Kolovratník Michal; Bartoš Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the experimental data of the wetness distribution obtained in the year 2015 in front of and behind the last stage of the 1000MW steam turbine in the power plant Temelín. Two different optical probes developed at Czech Technical University were used. For the first time in the Czech Republic pneumatic and optical measurement of the wet steam flow field in front of the last stage of a nuclear power-station steam turbine was provided. This unique measurement ...

  6. Modern geothermal power: GeoPP with geothermal steam turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The first part of the review presents information on the scale and specific features of geothermal energy development in various countries. The classification of geothermal power plant (GeoPP) process flow diagrams by a phase state of the primary heat source (a geothermal fluid), thermodynamic cycle, and applicable turbines is proposed. Features of geothermal plants using methods of flashing and steam separation in the process loop and a flowsheet and thermodynamic process of a geothermal fluid heat-to-power conversion in a GeoPP of the most widespread type using a double-flash separation are considered. It is shown that, for combined cycle power units, the specific power-to-consumption geothermal fluid ratio is 20-25% higher than that for traditional single-loop GeoPP. Information about basic chemical components and their concentration range for geothermal fluids of various formations around the world is presented. Three historic stages of improving geothermal energy technologies are determined, such as development of high-temperature geothermal resources (dry, superheated steam) and application of a two-phase wet-steam geothermal fluid in GeoPP power units with one or two expansion pressures and development of binary cycle GeoPPs. A current trend of more active use of binary power plants in GeoPP technological processes is noted. Design features of GeoPP's steam turbines and steam separating devices, determined by the use of low-potential geothermal saturated steam as a working medium, which is characterized by corrosion aggressiveness and a tendency to form deposits, are considered. Most promising Russian geothermal energy projects are determined. A list of today's most advanced geothermal turbine performance technologies is presented. By an example of a 25 MW steam turbine design, made by JSC Kaluga Turbine Works, advantages of the internal moisture separation with a special turbine-separator stage are shown.

  7. Combined gas/steam turbine power plants with coal fired steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, H.J.; Weirich, P.H. [ABB Kraftwerke AG, Mannheim (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The combination of coal fired steam power plants with natural gas fired gas turbines results in an essential efficiency increase, up to 50%, requiring a portion of around one third of the fuel heat input in form of natural gas. There are two basic types of circuit arrangements in this category: in a topping process the gas turbine is connected to the steam generator on the gas side, and in a compound cycle power plant gas turbine and steam circuit are connected to each other on the water/steam side via a heat recovery steam generator. If comparable design parameters are applied slightly higher plant efficiencies can be obtained with the topping process. With respect to a higher power plant availability it is possible to operate both types of circuit arrangement without gas turbine. The specific investment cost of such combined cycle power plants is lower than that of corresponding steam power plants. Hence, they can represent economical solutions as far as the price ratio between natural gas and coal is not extremely high. In ecological respects, the advantage of this combination is a reduction of the specific CO{sub 2} emission by around 20-25%, compared with pure steam power plants. 1 ref., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Advanced HP/IP Blading Technologies for the Design of Highly Efficient Steam Turbines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mathias Deckers; Ernst Wilhelm Pfitzinger; Wilfried Ulm

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents Siemens' latest improvements in steam turbine blading and blading design tools. The technology offers improved performance and highest efficiencies for a wide range of steam turbine applications.

  9. Advanced HP/IP Blading Technologies for the Design of Highly Efficient Steam Turbines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MathiasDeckers; ErnstWilhelmPfitzinger; WilfriedUlm

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents Siemens’ latest improvements in steam turbine blading and blading design tools. The technology offers improved performance and highest efficiencies for a wide range of steam turbine applications.

  10. Separation control in low pressure turbines using plasma actuators with passing wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Debashish

    A Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuator is operated in flow over the suction surface of a Pack-B Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) airfoil at a Reynolds number of 50,000 (based on exit velocity and suction surface length) and inlet free-stream turbulence intensity of 2.5%. Preliminary characterization studies were made of the effect of varying actuator pulsing frequency and duty cycle, actuator edge effects, and orientation of the actuator with the flow. Flow control was demonstrated with the actuator imparting momentum opposite to the stream-wise flow direction, showing that it is possible to use disturbances alone to destabilize the flow and effect transition. No frequencies of strong influence were found over the range tested, indicating that a broad band of effective frequencies exists. Edge effects were found to considerably enhance separation control. Total pressure measurements of the flow without passing wakes were taken using a glass total-pressure tube. Corrections for streamline displacement due to shear and wall effects were made, and comparisons with previous hot-wire measurements were used to validate data. Performance features of conventional two-electrode and a novel three-electrode actuator configuration were compared. Hot-wire anemometry was used to take time-varying ensemble-averaged near-wall velocity measurements of the flow with periodic passing wakes. Corrections were made for near-wall effects, temperature effects, and interference of the electric field. The wakes were generated by a wake generator mechanism located upstream of the airfoil passage. The near-suction-surface total pressure field (flow without wakes) and velocity field (flow with wakes) in the trailing part of the airfoil passage, and the wall-normal gradient of these quantities, were used to demonstrate effective prevention of flow separation using the plasma actuator. Both flows (with and without passing wakes) showed fully attached flow (or very thin separation zones

  11. Steam as turbine blade coolant: Experimental data generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmsen, B.; Engeda, A.; Lloyd, J.R. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Steam as a coolant is a possible option to cool blades in high temperature gas turbines; however there is practically no experimental data. This work deals with an attempt to generate such data and with the design of an experimental setup used for the purpose. Initially, in order to guide the direction of experiments, a preliminary theoretical and empirical prediction of the expected experimental data is performed and is presented here. This initial analysis also compares the coolant properties of steam and air.

  12. Boxberg - a new benchmark for high efficiency steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffstadt, U.; Klauke, U.; Hinz, H. [Siemens Power Generation (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    One of the primary tasks associated with the development of modern power plant facilities is to improve the economy of operation, while at the same time reducing environmental pollution. In addition to investigations focused on supercritical steam conditions, Siemens Power generation has made enormous efforts to improve the overall efficiency by decreasing the steam flow energy losses of each steam turbine component: optimization of the admission and exhaust geometries; fully three-dimensional blading profiles; reduction of the seal-steam losses; high reliability, availability and safety of operation; optimization of the efficiency/cost-relations. As a result of these efforts the 907 MW power plant Boxberg was handed over to the customer Vereinigte Energiewerke AG recently. With a thermal gross-efficiency of 48,65% the steam turbine represents a milestone for lignite-fired cogeneration units in the history of modern turbine technology. In conjunction with the presentation of the special turbine features and its optimised fluid dynamic components, the results of assembly, commissioning and acceptance testing will be a key issue in the proposed paper. 14 overheads/slides.

  13. Grey Theory Based Vibration Prediction for Steam Turbines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Lei; SU Leitao; FENG Yongxin; JIANG Dongxiang

    2012-01-01

    The Mechanism of grey prediction method and its application advantages in safety prediction were described.This method was used to predict the vibration amplitude within the coming 6 hours for a steam turbine.Moreover,the prediction results were examined using correlation degree and posterior error.Results indicated that,this grey prediction method had small posterior error and got a grade Ⅰ accuracy.We can foreknow the variation trend of vibration amplitude of the steam turbine through this method,so as to take timely countermeasures.Therefore,the operation safety of the power unit was improved.

  14. Comparative Exergoeconomic Analyses of Gas Turbine Steam Injection Cycles with and without Fogging Inlet Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Athari; Saeed Soltani; Marc A. Rosen; Seyed Mohammad Seyed Mahmoudi; Tatiana Morosuk

    2015-01-01

    The results are reported of exergoeconomic analyses of a simple gas turbine cycle without a fogging system (SGT), a simple steam injection gas turbine cycle (STIG), and a steam injection gas turbine cycle with inlet fogging cooler (FSTIG). The results show that (1) a gas-turbine cycle with steam injection and simultaneous cooling has a higher power output than the other considered cycle; (2) at maximum energy efficiency conditions the gas turbine has the highest exergy efficiency of the cycle...

  15. A model for liquid film in steam turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Amelie; Marcelet, Meryem; Herard, Jean-Marc; Dorey, Jean-Marc; Lance, Michel

    2015-11-01

    Wetness in steam turbines induces losses and erosion. Drops are created due to the fast expansion of the steam (homogeneous nucleation) and the impurities in the steam (heterogeneous nucleation). The droplets grow and some among them settle on the blade leading to a thin liquid film. This film may then be atomized into coarse water drops which crash on the following blades. The liquid film configuration is a thin film on a curved surface, created by the drop deposit and under high steam friction. In steam turbines, the liquid film is subject to high rotational effect (rotor) and/or to negative gravity. Moreover, due to interfacial instabilities, some drops are torn off from the film. The retained approach is an integral formulation of the Navier-Stokes equation (or shallow water equation) with specific terms. The derivation of these equations requires some closure laws for the convection contributions, the Coriolis terms and for terms related to the additional mass coming from the drops deposit. Once chosen, mathematical and mechanical analyses are performed (hyperbolicity, entropy, galilean and rotational invariance). A two-dimensional code has been developed based on finite volume method to simulate numerically this liquid film model for steam turbines.

  16. Application of Power Generation Technology with Low-pressure Saturated Steam in Xuanhua Steel%低压饱和蒸汽发电技术在宣钢的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫新明

    2014-01-01

    利用低压饱和蒸汽发电已成为钢铁企业的共识,就2013年宣钢新建一台14 MW级间再热补凝汽式汽轮发电机的成功典例,说明余热蒸汽发电的节能效益和推广价值。%The technology of power generation with low-pressure saturated steam has been generally accepted in domestic steel industry. The energy saving effect and promotion value of power generation with vapour from waste heat are demonstrated with the successful example of the 14 MW reheat condensing steam turbine newly built in Xuanhua Steel.

  17. Carbon steel corrosion in the low-pressure turbine exhaust environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Andrew G. [Xcel Energy, Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Corrosion of carbon steel on the steam side of condensers has long been observed by power plant operators, but the mechanism has not been well understood. Characteristics of the corrosion are areas of bare metal resulting from intergranular attack intermixed with black or red iron oxide, condensing high-purity steam with high local velocities, the lowest temperature in the steam cycle, and relative constancy over time in the macroscopic corrosion pattern. Effective mitigation would reduce iron transport into the steam cycle from the condenser, and might also reduce the likelihood of through-wall leaks in the cooling tubes of air-cooled condensers. (orig.)

  18. Modeling and Optimization of the Steam Turbine Network of an Ethylene Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zeqiu; ZHAO Liang; DU Wenli; QIAN Feng

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we developed a hybrid model for the steam turbines of a utility system,which combines an improved neural network model with the thermodynamic model.Then,a nonlinear programming (NLP) model of the steam turbine network is formulated by utilizing the developed steam turbine models to minimize the total steam cost for the whole steam turbine network.Finally,this model is applied to optimize the steam turbine network of an ethylene plant.The obtained results demonstrate that this hybrid model can accurately estimate and evaluate the performance of steam turbines,and the significant cost savings can be made by optimizing the steam turbine network operation at no capital cost.

  19. Development of Steam Turbine Inlet Control Valve for Supercritical Pressure at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB

    OpenAIRE

    Sors, Felix; Holm, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    The development in the steam turbine business is heading for applications with much higher steam parameters since this enables a raised efficiency. Steam parameters refer to the pressure and the temperature of the steam. The aim of this study was to generate concepts for steam turbine inlet control valves designed for higher pressure and temperature in comparison with the present design. Future steam power plants using solar energy, based on tower technology, request this kind of performance ...

  20. Steam as turbine blade coolant: Experimental data generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmsen, B.; Engeda, A.; Lloyd, J.R. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Steam as a coolant is a possible option to cool blades in high temperature gas turbines. However, to quantify steam as a coolant, there exists practically no experimental data. This work deals with an attempt to generate such data and with the design of an experimental setup used for the purpose. Initially, in order to guide the direction of experiments, a preliminary theoretical and empirical prediction of the expected experimental data is performed and is presented here. This initial analysis also compares the coolant properties of steam and air.

  1. A Novel Method for Measuring the Coarse Water Droplets in Wet Steam Flow in Steam Turbines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoshu Cai; Lili Wang; Yongzhi Pan; Xin Ouyan; Jianqi Shen

    2001-01-01

    Some optical probes based on light extinction have been developed to measure wemess dominated with fine droplets in steam turbine. However, coarse water droplets (hereafter referred to as CWD) that are the main cause of erosion of blade and of wetness loss of steam turbine can't be detected by the extinction probes because of its large size. In this paper, a new method - the light fluctuation method is presented that is capable of measuring the size of CWD. A new probe based on this method was developed for measuring the size of CWD as well as its velocity and concentration.

  2. Power Plants, Steam and Gas Turbines WebQuest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Carlos; Rey, Guillermo D.; Sánchez, Ángel; Cancela, Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    A WebQuest is an Internet-based and inquiry-oriented learning activity. The aim of this work is to outline the creation of a WebQuest entitled "Power Generation Plants: Steam and Gas Turbines." This is one of the topics covered in the course "Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer," which is offered in the second year of Mechanical…

  3. Recent Life Assessment Technology for Existing Steam Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kiyoshi; Sakuma, Akira; Fukuda, Masataka

    A large and growing portion of electricity is produced by aging thermal power plants. Although excellent, high quality materials such as CrMoV steel and 12% Cr steel, etc. are used for the steam turbines, various forms of metallurgical degradation, due to creep and fatigue, etc. affect the parts and components during long-term operation at high temperature. Extending the life of steam turbines and ensuring high reliability requires life assessment technology, scheduled repairing, conversion, modification and upgrading of components in order to provide a stable power supply. As the high temperature parts and components of aged steam turbines are mainly metallurgically damaged by creep, fatigue and the interaction of both, life assessment combined with analytical and nondestructive methods is essential for realizing strategic plant life extension. We have developed a life assessment technology that takes material degradation into consideration, and have applied the procedure to more than 650 units and 2500 components since 1983. A rotor bore replication device was developed in 1989 for the purpose of nondestructive observation of creep voids and supporting the validity of life prediction results. This paper describes the technical features and applied experience of recent life assessment technology for existing high temperature steam turbines.

  4. 1000 MW ultra-supercritical turbine steam parameter optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The 2 ×1000 MW ultra-supercritical steam turbine of Shanghai Waigaoqiao Phase Ⅲ project,which uses grid frequency regulation and overload control through an overload valve,is manufactured by Shanghai Turbine Company using Siemens technology.Through optimization,the steam pressure is regarded as the criterion between constant pressure and sliding pressure operation.At high circulating water temperature,the turbine overload valve is kept closed when the unit load is lower than 1000 MW while at other circulating water temperatures the turbine can run in sliding pressure operation when the unit load is higher than 1000 MW and the pressure is lower than 27 MPa This increases the unit operation efficiency.The 3D bending technology in the critical piping helps to reduce the project investment and minimize the reheat system pressure drop which improves the unit operation efficiency and safety.By choosing lower circulating water design temperature and by setting the individual Boiler Feedwater Turbine condenser to reduce the exhaust steam flow and the heat load to the main condenser,the unit average back pressure and the terminal temperature difference are minimized.Therefore,the unit heat efficiency is increased.

  5. Analysis of experimental characteristics of multistage steam-jet electors of steam turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, K. E.; Ryabchikov, A. Yu.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Brezgin, D. V.; Zhelonkin, N. V.; Murmanskii, I. B.

    2017-02-01

    A series of questions for specification of physical gas dynamics model in flow range of steam-jet unit and ejector computation methodology, as well as functioning peculiarities of intercoolers, was formulated based on analysis of experimental characteristics of multistage team-jet steam turbines. It was established that coefficient defining position of critical cross-section of injected flow depends on characteristics of the "sound tube" zone. Speed of injected flow within this tube may exceed that of sound, and pressure jumps in work-steam decrease at the same time. Characteristics of the "sound tube" define optimal axial sizes of the ejector. According to measurement results, the part of steam condensing in the first-stage coolant constitutes 70-80% of steam amount supplied into coolant and is almost independent of air content in steam. Coolant efficiency depends on steam pressure defined by operation of steam-jet unit of ejector of the next stage after coolant of steam-jet stage, temperature, and condensing water flow. As a rule, steam entering content of steam-air mixture supplied to coolant is overheated with respect to saturation temperature of steam in the mixture. This should be taken into account during coolant computation. Long-term operation causes changes in roughness of walls of the ejector's mixing chamber. The influence of change of wall roughness on ejector characteristic is similar to the influence of reverse pressure of the steam-jet stage. Until some roughness value, injection coefficient of the ejector stage operating in superlimiting regime hardly changed. After reaching critical roughness, the ejector switches to prelimiting operating regime.

  6. Highly Loaded Low-Pressure Turbine: Design, Numerical and Experimental Analysis (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    the transition models of Praisner and Clark [19] to determine airfoil performance. Graphical User In- terfaces (GUI) were employed to alter the...Turbomachinery Flows, NASA/CP- 2001-210888, NASA. [5] Hourmouziadis, J., 1984. “Aerodynamic design of low pressure turbines”. In AGARD-LS-167 Blading Desing

  7. Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

  8. Field test of low-pressure turbine blading with improved resistance against corrosion fatigue; Faeltprovning av laagtrycksturbinskovlar med foerbaettrad haerdighet mot korrosionsutmattning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavast, Jueri [Alstom Power Sweden AB, Finspong (Sweden)

    2003-07-01

    Corrosion fatigue of turbine blades in low-pressure turbines is one of the most common reasons for reduced availability and reliability in fossil fueled as well as in nuclear steam turbine plants. The problem is almost exclusively localized to the area where the first condensation takes place. There is therefore a need for materials with improved resistance towards corrosion fatigue for blades in stages in the transition zone between dry and wet steam. The phase hardening stainless steel 15/5 PH is such an alternative material. This material has shown a significantly better resistance towards corrosion and corrosion fatigue in laboratory tests. The lack of field experience of this material in real plants has, however, made it difficult to introduce this relatively new and untried material. Corrosion fatigue has caused problems in the some of the nuclear units in Forsmark. Forsmark 2 was therefore regarded as a suitable plant for a field test. The result of the field test is applicable to conventional as well as to nuclear units. A total of 10 blades of 15/5 PH were installed to replace blades of conventional blade material in a stage with a ar and 40 previous history of corrosion fatigue. The field test was interrupted after 5 years and 40,000 hours of operation. The main objective of the field test was to demonstrate that blades of 15/5 PH could be successfully machined, tested, installed and of course also used in a real plant. The field test also enabled a comparison of the corrosion resistance of the two alloys. It should be underlined that demonstration of the improved resistance towards corrosion fatigue has not been an objective during this field test as this has already been evidenced by various laboratory investigations. The properties of the parent material as well as of the finished blades were controlled and documented as carefully as possible before the field test to enable evaluation of the field test. The condition of the 10 blades of 15/5 PH

  9. Thermodynamic wetness loss calculation in a steam turbine rotor tip section: nucleating steam flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Joby; Sathyanarayanan, S.; K, Vigney; Prasad, B. V. S. SS; Biswas, D.; Jimbo, T.

    2016-09-01

    Rapid expansion of steam in the last stages of a steam turbine causes condensation. The formation of liquid droplets due to condensation results in wetness losses, which include aerodynamic losses (due to friction between liquid droplets and the vapour), thermodynamic losses (due to irreversible heat addition), and braking losses (due to the impact of liquid droplets on the blade). The thermodynamic loss contributes up to 80% to the wetness losses when the diameter of the droplets formed is less than 1 μm. In this study, the thermodynamic loss in a two-dimensional steam turbine rotor tip section is numerically investigated for various operating and off-design conditions. A pressure based, Eulerian-Eulerian approach is used to model the non-equilibrium condensation process. The entropy change due to condensation is used to compute the thermodynamic losses.

  10. Steam oxidation resistant coatings for steam turbine components: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agueero, A.; Garcia de Blas, J.; Muelas, R.; Sanchez, A.; Tsipas, S. [Instituto de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Madrid (Spain). Area de Materiales

    2001-07-01

    The principal objective of the COST Action 522 is to raise the operating temperatures of both gas and steam turbines in order to increase their efficiency to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. Concerning steam turbines, the operating temperature is expected to rise from 550 C to 650 C, and the use of oxidation resistant coatings is being considered for the first time in Europe. In this preliminary work, two deposition techniques have so far been explored: slurry paints and atmospheric plasma spray (APS). Commercially available materials, known to have good oxidation resistance, were selected for both deposition techniques: one aluminium slurry and three alloyed materials for thermal spray: AlFe, FeCrAl and NiAl. The coatings were characterised by SEM-EDS and steam oxidation testing was carried out at 650 C. The preliminary findings show that some of the studied coatings may offer adequate protection. (orig.)

  11. Diagnostics based on thermodynamic analysis of performance of steam turbines: case histories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirone, G.; Arrighi, L.; Bonifacino, L.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to describe some types of failures which have occurred with the ENEL stock of fossil-fuel steam turbines over the last 5--7 years. This paper also presents the corresponding thermodynamic analysis of turbine parameters which permitted failure diagnosis and pre-scheduled opening of the turbine. The examined failures concern: in-service rupture of the bell seal retainer nut between the SH steam inlet sleeves and the inner HP/IP cylinder, on turbines with a main steam inlet system with bell seals; incorrect assembly of pressure seal rings between steam inlet sleeves and the inner cylinder on turbines with a main steam inlet system with pressure seal rings during a scheduled outage; and steam flow path restriction in IP turbine inlet. Thermodynamic failure analysis and the subsequent analysis of turbine damage (mechanical and financial) enabled condition-based maintenance operations to be carried out.

  12. SELECTION OF RUSSIAN STEAM TURBINES FOR THE VIETNAMESE COMBINED GASSTEAM PLANT. THE INFLUENCE OF THE EFFICIENCY OF HIGH-PRESSURE CYLINDER OF STEAM TURBINE K-300-240-2 ON THE POWER OF A GAS-STEAM PLANT IN VIETNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham A. H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at the current state of energy in Vietnam and the selection of new Russian steam turbines for operation in combined gas-steam plant in Vietnam. The calculated results of thermal performance scheme 3x1 with combined gas-steam plant 1090 MW based on the Russian steam turbines K-330-240-2 and on the steam turbines TS2A40 Mitsubishi (station PhuMy-1, Vietnam. It also looks at the influence of the efficiency of high-pressure cylinders of Russian steam turbine K-330-240-2 on the efficiency and power of a gas-steam plant 3x1 with 1090 MW, increasing the efficiency of high-pressure cylinder of steam turbine through the use of honeycomb seals in flow part

  13. Open-Cycle Gas Turbine/Steam Turbine Combined Cycles with synthetic fuels from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R. P.; Corman, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The Open-Cycle Gas Turbine/Steam Turbine Combined Cycle can be an effective energy conversion system for converting coal to electricity. The intermediate step in this energy conversion process is to convert the coal into a fuel acceptable to a gas turbine. This can be accomplished by producing a synthetic gas or liquid, and by removing, in the fuel conversion step, the elements in the fuel that would be harmful to the environment if combusted. In this paper, two open-cycle gas turbine combined systems are evaluated: one employing an integrated low-Btu gasifier, and one utilizing a semi-clean liquid fuel. A consistent technical/economic information base is developed for these two systems, and is compared with a reference steam plant burning coal directly in a conventional furnace.

  14. Cogeneration turbine unit with a new T-295/335-23.5 steam turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Shibaev, T. L.; Gol'dberg, A. A.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Shekhter, M. V.; Bilan, V. N.; Polyaeva, E. N.

    2016-11-01

    The design, schematics, and arrangement of a T-295/335-23.5 turbine and the basic features of a steam-turbine unit (STU) intended for replacement of STUs with a T-250/300-23.5 turbine with the expired service life and installed in large cities, such as Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kiev, Minsk, and Kharkov, for heat and power generation are considered. The basic solutions for an automatic electrohydraulic control and protection system using high-pressure (HP) technology are described. As the turbine operates in a power unit together with a supercritical boiler and the design turbine service life of 250000 hours must be attained, turbine component construction materials complying with these requirements are listed.

  15. Fever of undetermined etiology after cleaning of steam turbine condensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deubner, D C; Gilliam, D K

    1977-01-01

    Two outbreaks of a febrile syndrome marked by chills, headaches, myalgia, nausea, and malaise occurred in workers who had cleaned the steam condensers of electric power turbines. Mean incubation period was 38 hours. Twenty-two of twenty-three exposed men became ill. Clinical and environmental investigation failed to reveal the etiology of the outbreaks. The circumstances and clinical syndrome have points of similarity to fever following inhalation of metal fumes and low-grade, stained cotton dust, and to Pontiac fever.

  16. Fuzzy Reliability Analysis of the Shaft of a Steam Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Field surveying shows that the failure of the steam turbine's coupling is due to fatigue that is caused by compound stress. Fuzzy mathematics was applied to get the membership function of the fatigue strength rule. A formula of fuzzy reliability of the coupling was derived and a theory of coupling's fuzzy reliability is set up. The calculating method of the fuzzy reliability is explained by an illustrative example.

  17. Generalised pole-placement control of steam turbine speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-del-Busto, R. [ITESM, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Div. de Ingenieria y Ciencias; Munoz, J. [ITESM, Xochimilco (Mexico). Div. de Ingenieria y Ciencias

    1996-12-31

    An application of a pole-placement self-tuning predictive control algorithm is developed to regulate speed of a power plant steam turbine model. Two types of system representation (CARMA and CARIMA) are used to test the control algorithm. Simulation results show that when using a CARMA model better results are produced. Two further comparisons are made when using a PI controller and a generalised predictive controller. (author)

  18. The 700{sup o}C steam turbine power plant status of development and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelmann, Heiner; Effert, Martin; Wieghardt, Kai; Kirchner, Holger

    2007-08-15

    This paper appraises the current development status of the 700{sup o}C steam power plant under consideration of process optimisation as well as design aspects of the steam turbine and steam generator. The results for a compact arrangement of the steam turbine and steam generator are also presented. Based on a cycle analysis, a net efficiency between 49.3% and 51.4% can be achieved with the 700{sup o}C steam power plant depending on the implementation and based on an inland plant site. No competing development activities for the 700{sup o}C steam power plant are known from the USA or Japan.

  19. FUNDAMENTALS OF THE THEORY OF VENTILLATION PROCESSES IN THE STEAM TURBINES TPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Neuimin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available  The article proposes the theoretical framework of ventilation processes emerging and going on in the stages of TPP steam turbines during the operating regimes with small-quantity volumetric flow rates in the low-pressure cylinder. The basic theory includes new physicomathematical models for estimating the ventilating capacity losses and ventilation heatings-up of the steam and the air-gas channel of the turbine; search and investigation of the factors causing the increased momental loads on the blade wheels of the finale stages which are likely to lead to destruction of the rotating blades. The paper renders the practical results of utilizing the theoretical framework of ventilation processes.The author obtains a new mathematical relation for high-accuracy assessment of the ventilating capacity losses accounting for all the diversification of parameters defining the level of these losses (it is established that the Coriolis force contributes twice as much to the ventilating capacity losses as the centrifugal force. Seven ordinary formulae obtained on its basis provide a separate stage ventilation-losses immediate evaluation (with rotation blades of the finale stage not unwinding from the turning, with rotation blades of the finale and intermediate stages unwinding from the turning, in the turbine altogether-vapor-evacuated including by readings of the regular instruments located at the connecters of the exhaust part of the lowpressure cylinder.As the cornerstone of the new ventilation heating-up evaluation system the author lays two experimentally established facts: the ventilating capacity losses are practically constant at working steam negligible volumetric flow rates; symmetrical ventilating flows in the blade channel mingle entirely to the moment of their split up at the periphery. This renders possible estimating the complete enthalpy increment of the steam being discharged from a stage in relation to the enthalpy of the steam being

  20. Investigation of the steam-cooled blade in a steam turbine cascade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dieter Bohn; Jing Ren; Karsten Kusterer

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing demand for electricity,an efficiency improvement and thereby reduced CO2 emissions of the coal-fired plants are expected in order to reach the goals set in the Kyoto protocol.It can be achieved by a rise of the process parameters.Currently,live steam pressures and temperatures up to 300 bars and 923 K are planned as the next step.Closed circuit steam cooling of blades and vanes in modern steam turbines is a promising technology in order to establish elevated live steam temperatures in future steam turbine cycles.In this paper,a steam-cooled test vane in a cascade with external hot steam flow is analyzed numerically with the in-house code CHTflow.A parametric analysis aiming to improve the cooling effectiveness is carried out by varying the cooling mass flow ratio.The results from two investigated cases show that the steam cooling technique has a good application potential in the steam turbine.The internal part of the vane is cooled homogeneously in both cases.With the increased cooling mass flow rate,there is a significant improvement of cooling efficiency at the leading edge.The results show that the increased cooling mass flow ratio can enhance the cooling effectiveness at the leading edge.With respect to trailing edge,there is no observable improvement of cooling effectiveness with the increased cooling mass flow.This implies that due to the limited dimension at the trailing edge,the thermal stress cannot be decreased by increasing the cooling mass flow rate.Therefore,impingement-cooling configuration at the trailing edge might be a solution to overcome the critical thermal stress there.It is also observed that the performance of the cooling effective differs on pressure side and suction side.It implicates that the equilibrium of the cooling effectiveness on two sides are influenced by a coupled relationship between cooling mass flow ratio and hole geometry.In future work,optimizing the hole geometry and cooling steam supply conditions might

  1. Economic efficiency of a gas-turbine topping for steam reheating at heating turbo-installations

    OpenAIRE

    Romashova Olga; Belyaev Leonid; Tubolev Aleksandr; Skrebatun Egor

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the ways to improve the operating efficiency of conventional combined heat power plants using gas-turbine topping scheme allowing heat utilization of flue gases for steam reheating in the waste-heat steam boiler. The calculating analysis was performed for a steam-turbine power generating unit with a turbine of the Т-110/120-130 brand name intended for various modes of operation.

  2. Economic efficiency of a gas-turbine topping for steam reheating at heating turbo-installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romashova Olga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the ways to improve the operating efficiency of conventional combined heat power plants using gas-turbine topping scheme allowing heat utilization of flue gases for steam reheating in the waste-heat steam boiler. The calculating analysis was performed for a steam-turbine power generating unit with a turbine of the Т-110/120-130 brand name intended for various modes of operation.

  3. Turbulent kinetic energy balance measurements in the wake of a low-pressure turbine blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sideridis, A. [Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics and Turbomachinery, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Yakinthos, K., E-mail: kyros@eng.auth.g [Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics and Turbomachinery, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Goulas, A. [Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics and Turbomachinery, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2011-02-15

    The turbulent kinetic energy budget in the wake generated by a high lift, low-pressure two-dimensional blade cascade of the T106 profile was investigated experimentally using hot-wire anemometry. The purpose of this study is to examine the transport mechanism of the turbulent kinetic energy and provide validation data for turbulence modeling. Point measurements were conducted on a high spatial resolution, two-dimensional grid that allowed precise derivative calculations. Positioning of the probe was achieved using a high accuracy traversing mechanism. The turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) convection, production, viscous diffusion and turbulent diffusion were all obtained directly from experimental measurements. Dissipation and pressure diffusion were calculated indirectly using techniques presented and validated by previous investigators. Results for all terms of the turbulent kinetic energy budget are presented and discussed in detail in the present work.

  4. Analysis of Fretting Fatigue Strength of Integral Shroud Blade for Steam Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Yasutomo; Tomii, Masayuki; Ohyama, Hiroharu; Kurimura, Takayuki

    To improve the reliability and the thermal efficiency of LP (Low Pressure) end blades of steam turbine, new standard series of LP end blades have been developed. The new LP end blades are characterized by the ISB (Integral Shroud Blade) structure. In the ISB structure, blades are continuously coupled by blade untwist due to centrifugal force when the blades rotate at high speed. One of the probable failure modes of the ISB structure seems to be fretting fatigue, because the ISB utilizes friction damping between adjacent shrouds and stubs. Therefore, in order to design a blade with high reliability, the design procedure for evaluating the fretting fatigue strength was established by the model test and the nonlinear contact analysis. This paper presents the practical design method for predicting the fretting fatigue strength of the ISB structure, and the some applications are explained.

  5. Compatibility of gas turbine materials with steam cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, V.; Tamboli, D.; Patel, Y. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Gas turbines had been traditionally used for peak load plants and remote locations as they offer advantage of low installation costs and quick start up time. Their use as a base load generator had not been feasible owing to their poor efficiency. However, with the advent of gas turbines based combined cycle plants (CCPs), continued advances in efficiency are being made. Coupled with ultra low NO{sub x} emissions, coal compatibility and higher unit output, gas turbines are now competing with conventional power plants for base load power generation. Currently, the turbines are designed with TIT of 2300{degrees}F and metal temperatures are maintained around 1700{degrees}F by using air cooling. New higher efficiency ATS turbines will have TIT as high as 2700{degrees}F. To withstand this high temperature improved materials, coatings, and advances in cooling system and design are warranted. Development of advanced materials with better capabilities specifically for land base applications are time consuming and may not be available by ATS time frame or may prove costly for the first generation ATS gas turbines. Therefore improvement in the cooling system of hot components, which can take place in a relatively shorter time frame, is important. One way to improve cooling efficiency is to use better cooling agent. Steam as an alternate cooling agent offers attractive advantages because of its higher specific heat (almost twice that of air) and lower viscosity.

  6. Heat flow diagrams with and without a deaerator for steam turbine plants with T-250/300-23.5 turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Shibaev, T. L.; Gol'dberg, A. A.; Stepanov, M. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    A T-250/300-240 turbine (currently known as T-250/300-23.5), which is operated at 31 steam turbine plants, is the largest in the world extraction turbine (by the heating extraction load) and one of the largest by the nominal capacity. All steam turbine plants equipped with T-250/300-23.5 turbines of different modifications are operated in large cities of Russia and the neighboring countries covering a significant part of the needs of cities for the electric power and almost fully supplying them with heat power. The design life of a significant part of the operated steam turbine plants of this family is either expired or almost expired. It refers to both the turbine unit (including a turbine and a generator) and the turbine plant equipment. For steam turbine plants equipped with T-250/300-23.5 turbines, which were initially designed and mounted for work with deaerators at electric power stations, the heat flow diagrams with and without a deaerator were compared. The main advantages and disadvantages of each scheme were shown. It was concluded that, for the newly constructed power units with supercritical steam parameters, it is preferable to use the heat flow diagram without a deaerator; for the upgraded blocks, if there are no objective reasons for the removal of a deaerator, it is recommended to keep the existing heat flow diagram of a turbine plant.

  7. DNS of Flow in a Low-Pressure Turbine Cascade Using a Discontinuous-Galerkin Spectral-Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Anirban; Diosady, Laslo Tibor; Murman, Scott; Madavan, Nateri

    2015-01-01

    A new computational capability under development for accurate and efficient high-fidelity direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) of turbomachinery is described. This capability is based on an entropy-stable Discontinuous-Galerkin spectral-element approach that extends to arbitrarily high orders of spatial and temporal accuracy and is implemented in a computationally efficient manner on a modern high performance computer architecture. A validation study using this method to perform DNS of flow in a low-pressure turbine airfoil cascade are presented. Preliminary results indicate that the method captures the main features of the flow. Discrepancies between the predicted results and the experiments are likely due to the effects of freestream turbulence not being included in the simulation and will be addressed in the final paper.

  8. Low-pressure hydro turbines and control equipment for wave energy converters (Wave Dragon). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, H.C.; Hansen, R.

    2001-06-01

    The Wave Dragon is a 4 MW floating offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. Through performing tests on a scale 1:50 model of the Wave Dragon, real-time overtopping time series were provided. These allowed the development of a feasible turbine and regulation strategy for handling the varying heads and flows occurring in the reservoir. A model turbine with a runner diameter of 340 mm was designed, and tested in a conventional turbine test stand. The results revealed very high efficiencies (91.3% peak efficiency), and more importantly a very flat performance curve yielding high turbine efficiency for the complete range of heads available at the Wave Dragon. A suitable power take-off and grid connection system was developed, addressing power quality issues, as well as more practical issues of flexible cabling solutions. It was concluded that feasible solutions to the technical barriers envisioned prior to the project had been found. Also means for improving the overtopping characteristics of the device were put forward. The feasibility of the Wave Dragon at original 1st generation design was investigated and key performance figures were given as net annual power production of 5.1-3.1 GWh/year, 2,775-3,150 Euro/kW in construction costs and a power production price of 0.19-0.27 Euro/kWh. The figures includes availability losses, all losses in the power train, and losses from restricted freedom of movement for two of the scenarios, with a wave energy potential of 16 and 24 kW/m wave front respectively. Significant scope for improvement, especially from enhanced overtopping from improved design, mass production and learning effects were also identified. Through implementing the known technical improvements to the Wave Dragon design identified through the project an annual net power production of 8.9 GWh/year and a production price of 0.12 Euro/kWh is foreseen for a 24 kW/m wave potential. With additional technical improvements, mass production benefits and

  9. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 5: Combined gas-steam turbine cycles. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.; Foster-Pegg, R. W.; Lee, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    The energy conversion efficiency of gas-steam turbine cycles was investigated for selected combined cycle power plants. Results indicate that it is possible for combined cycle gas-steam turbine power plants to have efficiencies several point higher than conventional steam plants. Induction of low pressure steam into the steam turbine is shown to improve the plant efficiency. Post firing of the boiler of a high temperature combined cycle plant is found to increase net power but to worsen efficiency. A gas turbine pressure ratio of 12 to 1 was found to be close to optimum at all gas turbine inlet temperatures that were studied. The coal using combined cycle plant with an integrated low-Btu gasifier was calculated to have a plant efficiency of 43.6%, a capitalization of $497/kW, and a cost of electricity of 6.75 mills/MJ (24.3 mills/kwh). This combined cycle plant should be considered for base load power generation.

  10. Steam sterilization of air turbine dental handpieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwardsson, S; Svensäter, G; Birkhed, D

    1983-12-01

    The efficacy of autoclaving high-speed dental handpieces was tested in two types of downward displacement steam sterilizers (instrument autoclaves), commonly used in the dentist's office. Eight series of experiments were performed with various sterilization schedules. Lubrication oils with or without antimicrobial agent were used in four of the series. Each handpiece was inoculated with 1 ml of a suspension containing equal amounts of saliva and spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus (approx. 10(6) spores/ml). Neither sterilization at 120-124 degrees C for 20 min nor at 134-136 degrees C for 10 min resulted in complete inactivation of the spores in series in which the instruments were tested without oil or with oil containing no antimicrobial agent. However, when the handpieces were lubricated with oil containing isopropanol and formaldehyde and the schedule 134-136 degrees C/10 min was used, no growth was observed. The results indicate that instrument autoclaves with built-in programs of 120-124 degrees C/20 min and 134-136 degrees C/10 min could have insufficient capacity to sterilize lubricated or unlubricated dental handpieces. The use of oils containing an antimicrobial agent can overcome this problem.

  11. Exhaust hood for steam turbines-single-flow arrangement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michal HOZNEDL; Ladislav TAJC; Jaroslav KREJCIK; Lukas BEDNAR; Kamil SEDLAK; Jiri LINHART

    2009-01-01

    In the past, increased attention was given to the development of an optimal shape for the inlet part of LP turbine casings in SKODA POWER. A double-flow design is typically used for high power output turbines. An optimized shape for the internal diffuser has been found,which transforms the kinetic energy of steam into increased pressure, thus effectively increasing the thermo-dynamic efficiency of the stage. Some conclusions have been drawn from laboratory experiments, others derived directly from on-site measurements at power plants. The conclusions from the development of double-flow turbines form the basis for the design of the single-flow turbine arrangement. Single-flow design is typically used for lower output turbines. There are still some limitations in applying this arrangement. The designer needs to resolve the bearing position and how to ensure access to them. Reinforcing the ribs and supports are used, therefore, to ensure the rigidity of the entire casing. The optimization of the single-flow diffuser shape is therefore the subject of the study presented below.

  12. Diagnostics based on thermodynamic analysis of performance of steam turbines: Case histories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirone, G.; Arrighi, L.; Bonifacino, L.

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe some types of failures which have occurred with the ENEL stock of fossil-fuel steam turbines over the last 5--7 years. This paper also presents the corresponding thermodynamic analysis of turbine parameters which permitted failure diagnosis and pre-scheduled opening of the turbine. The examined failures concern: (1) in-service rupture of the bell seal retainer nut between a SH steam inlet sleeve and the inner HP/IP cylinder, on turbines with a main steam inlet system with bell seals; (2) incorrect assembly of pressure seal rings between steam inlet sleeves and the inner cylinder on turbines with a main steam inlet system with pressure seal rings during a scheduled outage; (3) steam flow path restriction in IP turbine inlet; (4) steam flow path restriction in 1st HP turbine stage nozzles; and (5) steam flow path restriction in 2nd HP turbine stage vanes. Thermodynamic failure analysis and the subsequent analysis of turbine damage (mechanical and financial) enabled condition-based maintenance operations to be carried out.

  13. Arabelle, the most powerful steam turbines in the world; Arabelle, la plus puissante des turbines a vapeur au monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-09-15

    The Arabelle-1 turbine is in the heart of the Alstom nuclear technology. This great power (1000 to 1800 MW) turbine uses the Alstom Power Systems technology of welded rotors (applied to all its gas and steam turbines). (O.M.)

  14. Optimization of Design of Steam Turbine Exhaust Conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Goldin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving effectiveness turbine was and remains a key issue for today. In order to improve the efficiency of the turbine is necessary to reduce losses in the steam turbine exhaust conduit.This paper presents the design optimization exhaust conduit steam turbine K-27-2.9 produced by JSC «KTW» at the design stage. The aims of optimizing the design were: decreasing hydraulic resistance of the conduit, reduction of non-uniformity of the flow at the outlet of the conduit, equalizing steam flow ahead of the condenser tube bundle.The conduit models were made and flows in it were simulated in environment of the Solid Works and its application COSMOS Flo Works.As the initial conduit model was selected exhaust conduit of turbine PT-25/34-3.4 produced by JSC «KTW». Was obtained by the calculated velocity field at the outlet of the conduit. The analysis of the calculation results revealed the necessity of changes to the initial design of the conduit. The changes were accompanied by calculating currents flow in the conduit, and assessed the impact of design changes on the nature of the course. Further transformation of the construction of the conduit was held on the results of these calculations. Construction changes are not touched by the outer geometry of the conduit, and were introduced to meet technological.According to calculation results, conclusions were drawn and selected three versions of the conduit.Given are the research results for the initial conduit model and modified design versions. In order to evaluate the flow degree of irregularity the momentum factor (Bussinesku factor for outlet crosssection of the selected conduit design version. Analysis of the research results made it possible to determine optimum design of the exhaust conduit.Introducing the suggested alterations in the conduit design will result in improvement of heat exchange in the condenser, an increase in reliability of the tube bundle operation, a decrease in noise and

  15. A Numerical Study on the Supersonic Steam Ejector Use in Steam Turbine System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Cai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Supersonic steam ejector is widely used in steam energy systems such as refrigeration, wood drying equipment, papermaking machine, and steam turbine. In this paper the Computational Fluids Dynamics (CFD method was employed to simulate a supersonic steam ejector, SST k-w turbulence model was adopted, and both real gas model and ideal gas model for fluid property were considered and compared. The mixing chamber angle, throat length, and nozzle exit position (NXP primary pressure and temperature effects on entrainment ratio were investigated. The results show that performance of the ejector is underestimated using ideal gas model, and the entrainment ratio is 20%–40% lower than that when using real gas model. There is an optimum mixing chamber angel and NXP makes the entrainment ratio achieve its maximum; as throat length is decreased within a range, the entrainment ratio remains unchanged. Primary fluid pressure has a critical value, and the entrainment ratio reaches its peak at working critical pressure; when working steam superheat degree increases, the entrainment ratio is increased.

  16. Optimization of cold end system of steam turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin ZHAO; Ling LIU; Wenbing ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    An optimization of the movement character-istic of the cold end system of the steam turbine was con-ducted from an overall consideration of the condenser and the circulation water pump. An analysis method based on thermodynamics theory that fixes coupling characteristic between the best vacuum and the best circulation dis-charge of water was proposed. The proposed method was applied to the optimized analysis of the operating mode of the cold end system of a 300 MW unit in a power plant.

  17. 利用低压饱和蒸汽发电的实例%Examples of Power Generation by Use of Low-pressure Saturated Steam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫宾; 蔡鸣; 蒋洁

    2011-01-01

    Use of the low-pressure saturated steam which is the byproduct of the patent technology of "thermal phosphoric acid production of heat recovery",for power generation,the problem of excess low-pressure saturated steam in the thermal phosphoric acid production enterprises is solved.Via examples,the performance characteristics of generating units,power generation process and connection considerations with the external network are explained.With this technology,the electricity load in thermal phosphoric acid can be met,product energy consumption and cost can be reduced.It provides a new way for the comprehensive utilization of low-pressure saturated steam in thermal phosphoric acid production for the domestic enterprises.%利用"热法磷酸生产热能回收"专利技术副产的低压饱和蒸汽发电,解决了热法磷酸生产企业低压饱和蒸汽过剩的问题。通过实例,讲述了发电机组的性能特点、发电的工艺流程及与外网联接的注意事项。通过此技术的应用,基本能满足热法磷酸装置用电负荷,可降低产品的能耗和成本,达到节能减排的效果,为国内热法磷酸生产企业和其它行业低压饱和蒸汽的综合利用提供了一条新途径。

  18. Study on 300MW Unit Steam Turbine Shift Seal Renovation in Shanghai Steam Turbine Factory%上汽300 MW机组汽封改造初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海荣; 葛圣杰

    2015-01-01

    Through introduction of steam turbine shift seal renovation in No.9 unit high and middle pressure cylinder at shanghai wujing thermal power plant, the article analyzes working principle, technical characteristics, installation process and renovation implementation of steam turbine shift seal renovation. It shows that steam turbine shift seal renovation could improve steam turbine thermal economy and improve steam turbine operation safety, which could be widely used in same type 300MW units in shanghai steam turbine factory.%通过上海9号机组高中压缸进行的汽轴封改造的介绍,对改造汽封的工作原理、技术特性、安装工艺及改造实施情况进行了比较详尽的分析。指出了汽封改造对提高汽轮机的热经济性和提高汽轮机运行的安全性都有较好的效果,可以广泛的推广到尚在运行的同类型上汽300MW机组的技术改造过程中去。

  19. Thermosyphon Method for Cooling the Rotor Blades of High-Temperature Steam Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomolov Alexander R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The design scheme of closed two-phase thermosyphon were suggested that can provide standard thermal operation of blades of high-temperature steam turbine. The method for thermosyphon calculation is developed. The example of thermal calculation was implemented, it showed that to cool the steam turbine blades at their heating by high-temperature steam, the heat can be removed in the rear part of the blades by air with the temperature of about 440°C.

  20. Thermosyphon Method for Cooling the Rotor Blades of High-Temperature Steam Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, Alexander R.; Temnikova, Elena Yu.

    2016-02-01

    The design scheme of closed two-phase thermosyphon were suggested that can provide standard thermal operation of blades of high-temperature steam turbine. The method for thermosyphon calculation is developed. The example of thermal calculation was implemented, it showed that to cool the steam turbine blades at their heating by high-temperature steam, the heat can be removed in the rear part of the blades by air with the temperature of about 440°C.

  1. Thermosyphon Method for Cooling the Rotor Blades of High-Temperature Steam Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Bogomolov Alexander R.; Temnikova Elena Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The design scheme of closed two-phase thermosyphon were suggested that can provide standard thermal operation of blades of high-temperature steam turbine. The method for thermosyphon calculation is developed. The example of thermal calculation was implemented, it showed that to cool the steam turbine blades at their heating by high-temperature steam, the heat can be removed in the rear part of the blades by air with the temperature of about 440°C.

  2. Next Generation Engineered Materials for Ultra Supercritical Steam Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Arrell

    2006-05-31

    To reduce the effect of global warming on our climate, the levels of CO{sub 2} emissions should be reduced. One way to do this is to increase the efficiency of electricity production from fossil fuels. This will in turn reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} emissions for a given power output. Using US practice for efficiency calculations, then a move from a typical US plant running at 37% efficiency to a 760 C /38.5 MPa (1400 F/5580 psi) plant running at 48% efficiency would reduce CO2 emissions by 170kg/MW.hr or 25%. This report presents a literature review and roadmap for the materials development required to produce a 760 C (1400 F) / 38.5MPa (5580 psi) steam turbine without use of cooling steam to reduce the material temperature. The report reviews the materials solutions available for operation in components exposed to temperatures in the range of 600 to 760 C, i.e. above the current range of operating conditions for today's turbines. A roadmap of the timescale and approximate cost for carrying out the required development is also included. The nano-structured austenitic alloy CF8C+ was investigated during the program, and the mechanical behavior of this alloy is presented and discussed as an illustration of the potential benefits available from nano-control of the material structure.

  3. The Influence of Inlet Asymmetry on Steam Turbine Exhaust Hood Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Zoe; Hogg, Simon; Ingram, Grant L

    2014-04-01

    It has been widely recognized for some decades that it is essential to accurately represent the strong coupling between the last stage blades (LSB) and the diffuser inlet, in order to correctly capture the flow through the exhaust hoods of steam turbine low pressure cylinders. This applies to any form of simulation of the flow, i.e., numerical or experimental. The exhaust hood flow structure is highly three-dimensional and appropriate coupling will enable the important influence of this asymmetry to be transferred to the rotor. This, however, presents challenges as the calculation size grows rapidly when the full annulus is calculated. The size of the simulation means researchers are constantly searching for methods to reduce the computational effort without compromising solution accuracy. However, this can result in excessive computational demands in numerical simulations. Unsteady full-annulus CFD calculation will remain infeasible for routine design calculations for the foreseeable future. More computationally efficient methods for coupling the unsteady rotor flow to the hood flow are required that bring computational expense within realizable limits while still maintaining sufficient accuracy for meaningful design calculations. Research activity in this area is focused on developing new methods and techniques to improve accuracy and reduce computational expense. A novel approach for coupling the turbine last stage to the exhaust hood employing the nonlinear harmonic (NLH) method is presented in this paper. The generic, IP free, exhaust hood and last stage blade geometries from Burton et al. (2012. "A Generic Low Pressure Exhaust Diffuser for Steam Turbine Research,"Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo, Copenhagen, Denmark, Paper No. GT2012-68485) that are representative of modern designs, are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. This is achieved by comparing results obtained with the NLH to those obtained with a more conventional mixing

  4. Free-stream Turbulence Effects on the Boundary Layer of a High-lift Low-Pressure-Turbine Blade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simoni D.; Ubaldi M.; Zunino P.; Ampellio E.

    2016-01-01

    The suction side boundary layer evolution of a high-lift low-pressure turbine cascade has been experimentally investigated at low and high free-stream turbulence intensity conditions.Measurements have been carried out in order to analyze the boundary layer transition and separation processes at a low Reynolds number,under both steady and unsteady inflows.Static pressure distributions along the blade surfaces as well as total pressure distributions in a downstream tangential plane have been measured to evaluate the overall aerodynamic efficiency of the blade for the different conditions.Particle Image Velocimetry has been adopted to analyze the time-mean and time-varying velocity fields.The flow field has been surveyed in two orthogonal planes (a blade-to-blade plane and a wall-parallel one).These measurements allow the identification of the Kelvin-Helmholtz large scale coherent structures shed as a consequence of the boundary layer laminar separation under steady inflow,as well as the investigation of the three-dimensional effects induced by the intermittent passage of low and high speed streaks.A close inspection of the time-mean velocity profiles as well as of the boundary layer integral parameters helps to characterize the suction side boundary layer state,thus justifying the influence of free-stream turbulence intensity on the blade aerodynamic losses measured under steady and unsteady inflows.

  5. Free-stream turbulence effects on the boundary layer of a high-lift low-pressure-turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, D.; Ubaldi, M.; Zunino, P.; Ampellio, E.

    2016-06-01

    The suction side boundary layer evolution of a high-lift low-pressure turbine cascade has been experimentally investigated at low and high free-stream turbulence intensity conditions. Measurements have been carried out in order to analyze the boundary layer transition and separation processes at a low Reynolds number, under both steady and unsteady inflows. Static pressure distributions along the blade surfaces as well as total pressure distributions in a downstream tangential plane have been measured to evaluate the overall aerodynamic efficiency of the blade for the different conditions. Particle Image Velocimetry has been adopted to analyze the time-mean and time-varying velocity fields. The flow field has been surveyed in two orthogonal planes (a blade-to-blade plane and a wall-parallel one). These measurements allow the identification of the Kelvin-Helmholtz large scale coherent structures shed as a consequence of the boundary layer laminar separation under steady inflow, as well as the investigation of the three-dimensional effects induced by the intermittent passage of low and high speed streaks. A close inspection of the time-mean velocity profiles as well as of the boundary layer integral parameters helps to characterize the suction side boundary layer state, thus justifying the influence of free-stream turbulence intensity on the blade aerodynamic losses measured under steady and unsteady inflows.

  6. Steam Oxidation and Chromia Evaporation in Ultra-Supercritical Steam Boilers and Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon H. Holcomb

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy’s goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm, so-called ultra-supercritical (USC) conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

  7. Steam Turbine Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, R.; Hawk, J.; Schwant, R.; Saha, D.; Totemeier, T.; Goodstine, S.; McNally, M.; Allen, D. B.; Purgert, Robert

    2009-06-30

    The Ultrasupercritical (USC) Steam Turbine Materials Development Program is sponsored and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ohio Coal Development Office, through grants to Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO), a non-profit organization contracted to manage and direct the project. The program is co-funded by the General Electric Company, Alstom Power, Siemens Power Generation (formerly Siemens Westinghouse), and the Electric Power Research Institute, each organization having subcontracted with EIO and contributing teams of personnel to perform the requisite research. The program is focused on identifying, evaluating, and qualifying advanced alloys for utilization in coal-fired power plants that need to withstand steam turbine operating conditions up to 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi). For these conditions, components exposed to the highest temperatures and stresses will need to be constructed from nickel-based alloys with higher elevated temperature strength than the highchromium ferritic steels currently used in today's high-temperature steam turbines. In addition to the strength requirements, these alloys must also be weldable and resistant to environmental effects such as steam oxidation and solid particle erosion. In the present project, candidate materials with the required creep strength at desired temperatures have been identified. Coatings that can resist oxidation and solid particle erosion have also been identified. The ability to perform dissimilar welds between nickel base alloys and ferritic steels have been demonstrated, and the properties of the welds have been evaluated. Results of this three-year study that was completed in 2009 are described in this final report. Additional work is being planned and will commence in 2009. The specific objectives of the future studies will include conducting more detailed evaluations of the weld-ability, mechanical properties and repair-ability of the selected candidate alloys for rotors

  8. Low cycle fatigue analysis of a last stage steam turbine blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Měšťánek P.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the low cycle fatigue analysis of the low pressure (LP steam turbine blade. The blade is cyclically loaded by the centrifugal force because of the repeated startups of the turbine. The goal of the research is to develop a technique to assess fatigue life of the blade and to determine the number of startups to the crack initiation. Two approaches were employed. First approach is based on the elastic finite element analysis. Fictive 'elastic' results are recalculated using Neuber's rule and the equivalent energy method. Triaxial state of stress is reduced using von Mises theory. Strain amplitude is calculated employing the cyclic deformation curve. Second approach is based on elastic-plastic FE analysis. Strain amplitude is determined directly from the FE analysis by reducing the triaxial state of strain. Fatigue life was assessed using uniaxial damage parameters. Both approaches are compared and their applicability is discussed. Factors that can influence the fatigue life are introduced. Experimental low cycle fatigue testing is shortly described.

  9. Topping gas turbines improve steam power plant efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezuo, A. (Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). KWU Group)

    An interesting option for improving the efficiency and output of an existing conventional steam power plant is to convert it into a combined steam-and-gas cycle power plant by adding a topping gas turbine. The investment involved is relatively low, the payback period is short, and the low specific fuel consumption makes it possible to save on overall running costs. At the same time, the amount of residue for disposal and also pollutant emissions are drastically reduced. This article describes the configuration of a fully-fired combined-cycle power plant and discusses thermodynamic design and efficiency, operational aspects, emissions and residues and investment and economic viability. Both coal-fired and gas or oil-fired steam power plants can be converted by adding a topping cycle and the investment cost is about 20% of the cost of a new plant with the same output rating as the plant to be converted. Conversion reduces pollutant emission and residues produced (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, dust, ash, gypsum, waste heat). 4 figs.

  10. Microfabricated rankine cycle steam turbine for power generation and methods of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frechette, Luc (Inventor); Muller, Norbert (Inventor); Lee, Changgu (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, an integrated micro steam turbine power plant on-a-chip has been provided. The integrated micro steam turbine power plant on-a-chip of the present invention comprises a miniature electric power generation system fabricated using silicon microfabrication technology and lithographic patterning. The present invention converts heat to electricity by implementing a thermodynamic power cycle on a chip. The steam turbine power plant on-a-chip generally comprises a turbine, a pump, an electric generator, an evaporator, and a condenser. The turbine is formed by a rotatable, disk-shaped rotor having a plurality of rotor blades disposed thereon and a plurality of stator blades. The plurality of stator blades are interdigitated with the plurality of rotor blades to form the turbine. The generator is driven by the turbine and converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

  11. Effect of Gas/Steam Turbine Inlet Temperatures on Combined Cycle Having Air Transpiration Cooled Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Singh, O.

    2012-10-01

    Worldwide efforts are being made for further improving the gas/steam combined cycle performance by having better blade cooling technology in topping cycle and enhanced heat recovery in bottoming cycle. The scope of improvement is possible through turbines having higher turbine inlet temperatures (TITs) of both gas turbine and steam turbine. Literature review shows that a combined cycle with transpiration cooled gas turbine has not been analyzed with varying gas/steam TITs. In view of above the present study has been undertaken for thermodynamic study of gas/steam combined cycle with respect to variation in TIT in both topping and bottoming cycles, for air transpiration cooled gas turbine. The performance of combined cycle with dual pressure heat recovery steam generator has been evaluated for different cycle pressure ratios (CPRs) varying from 11 to 23 and the selection diagrams presented for TIT varying from 1,600 to 1,900 K. Both the cycle efficiency and specific work increase with TIT for each pressure ratio. For each TIT there exists an optimum pressure ratio for cycle efficiency and specific work. For the CPR of 23 the best cycle performance is seen at a TIT of 1,900 K for maximum steam temperature of 570 °C, which gives the cycle efficiency of 60.9 % with net specific work of 909 kJ/kg.

  12. Comparative Exergoeconomic Analyses of Gas Turbine Steam Injection Cycles with and without Fogging Inlet Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Athari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The results are reported of exergoeconomic analyses of a simple gas turbine cycle without a fogging system (SGT, a simple steam injection gas turbine cycle (STIG, and a steam injection gas turbine cycle with inlet fogging cooler (FSTIG. The results show that (1 a gas-turbine cycle with steam injection and simultaneous cooling has a higher power output than the other considered cycle; (2 at maximum energy efficiency conditions the gas turbine has the highest exergy efficiency of the cycle components and the lowest value of exergy efficiency is calculated for the fog cooler, where the mixing of air and water at greatly different temperatures causes the high exergy destruction; and (3 utilization of the fogging cooler in the steam injection cycle increases the exergy destruction in the combustion chamber. Furthermore, the simple gas turbine cycle is found to be more economic as its relative cost difference, total unit product cost, and exergoeconomic factors are less than those for the two other configurations. However, its efficiency and net power output are notably lower than for the gas turbine with steam injection and/or fog cooling. The total unit product cost is highest for the simple gas turbine with steam injection.

  13. An outbreak of acute fever among steam turbine condenser cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauderdale, J F; Johnson, C C

    1983-03-01

    Ten of twelve men who participated in the cleaning of an electric power steam turbine condenser clogged with freshwater sponge experienced an acute febrile illness. Two similar outbreaks have been previously described, one of which has been attributed to the Legionnaires' Disease bacterium. Epidemiologic studies of this case showed a syndrome very similar to the two previously reported episodes. However, the exact etiology for this outbreak has not been identified. Environmental sampling was not initiated until after the cleaning was completed. Subsequent testing did not reveal any likely cause for the outbreak. The delayed onset of symptoms and the nature of the illness pointed to an infectious agent. In the absence of any suitable criteria for employee exposure evaluation, it is suggested that crews cleaning condensers under unusually dirty conditions, especially if eye or respiratory symptoms are reported, should be provided with respiratory protection.

  14. Crack of a first stage blade in a steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nurbanasari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The failure of the first stage blade in a steam turbine of 55 MW was investigated. The blade was made of 17-4 PH stainless steel and has been used for 12 years before failure. The current work aims to find out the main cause of the first stage blade failure. The methods for investigation were metallurgical analysis, chemical composition test, and hardness measurement. The result showed that there was no evidence the blade failure was due to material. The damage found on the blade namely crack on the blade root. Two locations of the crack observed at the blade root, which was at the tang and the fillet, with different failure modes. In general, the damage of the blade was started by the corrosion occurred on the blade root. The crack at the blade root tang was due to corrosion fatigue and the crack occurred at the blade root fillet owing to stress corrosion cracking.

  15. Effect of thermal barrier coatings on the performance of steam and water-cooled gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainiger, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical study was made of the performance of air, steam, and water-cooled gas-turbine/steam turbine combined-cycle systems with and without thermal-barrier coatings. For steam cooling, thermal barrier coatings permit an increase in the turbine inlet temperature from 1205 C (2200 F), resulting in an efficiency improvement of 1.9 percentage points. The maximum specific power improvement with thermal barriers is 32.4 percent, when the turbine inlet temperature is increased from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1675 C (3050 F) and the airfoil temperature is kept the same. For water cooling, the maximum efficiency improvement is 2.2 percentage points at a turbine inlet temperature of 1683 C (3062 F) and the maximum specific power improvement is 36.6 percent by increasing the turbine inlet temperature from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1730 C (3150 F) and keeping the airfoil temperatures the same. These improvements are greater than that obtained with combined cycles using air cooling at a turbine inlet temperature of 1205 C (2200 F). The large temperature differences across the thermal barriers at these high temperatures, however, indicate that thermal stresses may present obstacles to the use of coatings at high turbine inlet temperatures.

  16. Physical-chemistry aspects of water in steam turbines associated with material stress and electrochemical assessment of the AISI 403 to simulate real condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, D.S.; Franco, C.V.; Godinho, J.F.; Frech, W.A.; Sonai, G.G. [Univ. Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil); Torres, L.A.M.; Ellwanger, A.R.F. [Tractebel Energia, Capivari de Baixo (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This study described a methodology developed to prevent the occurrence of corrosion failure in steam turbines. The methodology was developed after the failure of a turbine blade at a plant in Brazil. Deposits were collected from various locations along the turbine blade path and analyzed. A turbine deposit collector and simulator was installed to determine the concentrations of steam impurities. Samples were collected from the low pressure turbine at the crossover point and from the polishing station and analyzed using inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in order to determine if sodium levels exceeded 3 ppb. Filters were weighed in order to determine the accumulation of impurities. A 3-electrode system was used to determine the influence of chloride ions. The design of the system's condensate polisher beds was modified in order to improve condensate effluent conductivity. The condensate treatment procedure lowered the concentrations of salt impurities and established a monitoring methodology for water and steam used at the plant. It was concluded that the methodology can be used to to reduce inspection intervals and increase system reliability. 10 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  17. The effort of the steam turbine caused by a flood wave load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badur, Janusz; Ziolkowski, Pawel; Kornet, Sebastian; Stajnke, Michal; Bryk, Mateusz; Banas, Kamil; Ziolkowski, Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Development of the Thermal-FSI (Fluid Solid Interaction) let to accurate the process of cooling the steam turbine set. It provide to shorter times of maintenance and repairs of the turbine sets. The cooling of the steam turbine which temperature exceeds 500°C can take time of one week. Insulation and housing is taken off when temperature reaches 100°C. In analysis was applied thermal-FSI which takes into account temperature changes between solid material and fluid. In the paper authors propose this way to estimate effort of the turbine structure caused by an intrusion of water into the flow channels.

  18. Assessment of steam-injected gas turbine systems and their potential application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochl, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Results were arrived at by utilizing and expanding on information presented in the literature. The results were analyzed and compared with those for simple gas turbine and combined cycles for both utility power generation and industrial cogeneration applications. The efficiency and specific power of simple gas turbine cycles can be increased as much as 30 and 50 percent, respectively, by the injection of steam into the combustor. Steam-injected gas turbines appear to be economically competitive with both simple gas turbine and combined cycles for small, clean-fuel-fired utility power generation and industrial cogeneration applications. For large powerplants with integrated coal gasifiers, the economic advantages appear to be marginal.

  19. Power Plants, Steam and Gas Turbines WebQuest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ulloa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A WebQuest is an Internet-based and inquiry-oriented learning activity. The aim of this work is to outline the creation of a WebQuest entitled “Power Generation Plants: Steam and Gas Turbines.” This is one of the topics covered in the course “Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer,” which is offered in the second year of Mechanical Engineering at the Defense University Center at the Naval Academy in Vigo, Spain. While participating in the activity, students will be divided into groups of no more than 10 for seminars. The groups will create PowerPoint presentations that include all of the analyzed aspects. The topics to be discussed during the workshop on power plant turbines are the: (1 principles of operation; (2 processes involved; (3 advantages and disadvantages; (4 efficiency; (5 combined cycle; and (6 transversal competences, such as teamwork, oral and written presentations, and analysis and synthesis of information. This paper presents the use of Google Sites as a guide to the WebQuest so that students can access all information online, including instructions, summaries, resources, and information on qualifications.

  20. Computer-aided ultrasonic inspection of steam turbine rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, K.H.; Weber, M.; Weiss, M. [GEC ALSTHOM Energie GmbH, Nuremberg (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    As the output and economic value of power plants increase, the detection and sizing of the type of flaws liable to occur in the rotors of turbines using ultrasonic methods assumes increasing importance. An ultrasonic inspection carried out at considerable expense is expected to bring to light all safety-relevant flaws and to enable their size to be determined so as to permit a fracture-mechanics analysis to assess the reliability of the rotor under all possible stresses arising in operation with a high degree of accuracy. The advanced computer-aided ultrasonic inspection of steam turbine rotors have improved reliability, accuracy and reproducibility of ultrasonic inspection. Further, there has been an improvement in the resolution of resolvable group indications by applying reconstruction and imagine methods. In general, it is also true for the advanced computer-aided ultrasonic inspection methods that, in the case of flaw-affected forgings, automated data acquisition provides a substantial rationalization and a significant documentation of the results for the fracture mechanics assessment compared to manual inspection. (orig.) 8 refs.

  1. Estimation of Temperature Influence on Creep Rate of High-Temperature Elements in Steam Turbines and Steam Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Gerasimova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a high temperature influence on strength characteristics of steam pipelines and steam turbine parts of high and medium pressure. The charts showing a decisive temperature importance in diffuse creep have been presented in the paper. The paper contains a calculation of steel self-diffusion coefficient. Dependence Dsd = f(t for more accurate assessment of  resource characteristics of the applied steel has been proposed in the paper.

  2. THE ANALYSIS FOR THE AIRFLOW EXCITING-VIBRATION FORCE OF CONTROL STAGE OF STEAM TURBINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴山; 张耀明; 马浩; 曲庆文; 赵又群

    2001-01-01

    Based on the hydrodynamics, the airflow exciting-vibration force of control stage of steam turbine is studied by using the momentum theorem. A formulation for calculating the air exciting-vibration force of the control stage of steam turbine is deduced first by using theoretical analysis method and taking all the design factors of vane and nozzles into consideration. Moreover, the exciting-vibration forces in different load cases are discussed respectively.

  3. Study of steady and unsteady wet steam condensing flows in a turbine stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巫志华; 李亮; 丰镇平

    2007-01-01

    Objective To develop the numerical method for the steady and unsteady wet steam condensing flow in turbine stage. Methods An Eulerian/Eulerian numerical model is used to describe the spontaneous condensation flow in the steam turbine. For the steady condensing flow computations, the mixing plane model was used. For the unsteady condensing flow computations, the sliding mesh method was used to simulate the rotor-stator interactions. Results The numerical results showed the obvious differences between non-con...

  4. Effect of steam addition on cycle performance of simple and recuperated gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented for the cycle efficiency and specific power of simple and recuperated gas turbine cycles in which steam is generated and used to increase turbine flow. Calculations showed significant improvements in cycle efficiency and specific power by adding steam. The calculations were made using component efficiencies and loss assumptions typical of stationary powerplants. These results are presented for a range of operating temperatures and pressures. Relative heat exchanger size and the water use rate are also examined.

  5. Study of advanced radial outflow turbine for solar steam Rankine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C.; Kolenc, T.

    1979-01-01

    The performance characteristics of various steam Rankine engine configurations for solar electric power generation were investigated. A radial outflow steam turbine was investigated to determine: (1) a method for predicting performance from experimental data; (2) the flexibility of a single design with regard to power output and pressure ratio; and (3) the effect of varying the number of turbine stages. All turbine designs were restricted to be compatible with commercially available gearboxes and generators. A study of several operating methods and control schemes for the steam Rankine engine shows that from an efficiency and control simplicity standpoint, the best approach is to hold turbine inlet temperature constant, vary turbine inlet pressure to match load, and allow condenser temperature to float maintaining constant heat rejection load.

  6. Evaluation of Rotordynamic Stability of a Steam Turbine Due to Labyrinth Seal Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Toshio; Sasaki, Takashi; Sakakida, Hitoshi; Uchida, Tatsuro; Tsutsui, Masaji; Ikeda, Kazunori

    This paper describes the evaluation of unstable vibration caused by the seal force, which is known as "Steam Whirl" in a steam turbine. Stability of a steam turbine is evaluated by complex eigenvalue analysis of rotordynamics model considering the dynamics of seals, rotor, bearings and pedestals. A commercial CFD program is employed to estimate the dynamic coefficients of labyrinth seal. The labyrinth seal of a large scales steam turbine is taken as an object of analysis and a 3D model with eccentric rotor is solved to obtain the rotordynamic force components. The rotordynamic force is derived by integrating the pressure on the rotor surface. Evaluation formula is formed from the results of numerical calculation, which is used to predict the dynamic coefficient of each seal in a steam turbine. Then rotordynamics model of total system including seal is constructed and stability is evaluated by complex eigenvalue analysis. This procedure is applied to the design of steam turbines and enables the optimization of the turbine structure considering the efficiency and stability.

  7. Humid Air Turbine as a Primary Link of a Coal-Fired Steam Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan T. Szargut

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Outlet gases of the humid air turbine (having a temperature of about 125 oC and great content of steam can be used for the preheating of feed water of the steam power plant fueled with coal. So the efficiency of the plant can be increased and its ecological indices can be improved. The attainable incremental efficiency of the humid air turbine and the increased efficiency of the combined plant has been determined for three variants of the repowering of an existing steam power plant. The variant presented in Figure 4 is recommended for practical application.

  8. Thermal test of a hydro-steam turbine in a boiler house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mil'Man, O. O.; Fedorov, V. A.; Karyshev, A. K.; Shevelev, D. V.; Mikheev, A. G.; Burmistrov, S. A.; Akhlebinin, L. A.

    2009-04-01

    The description of the design of GPT-10 reaction-type hydro-steam turbine of 10-kW capacity is presented. A description of the test facility placed in the boiler house of MUP Kalugateploset is also provided. The results of turbine tests obtained with the temperature of the operating water being varied in a range from 90 to 120°C and a condenser pressure of 10-25 kPa are given. Ways to improve the steam turbine (HST) are proposed and the design parameters of a promising HST of 300 kW capacity are shown.

  9. Drying of foodstuffs by low-pressure superheated steam%食品低压过热蒸汽干燥技甫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马怡光; 张绪坤; 佘蓉; 魏伟

    2012-01-01

    Superheated steam drying is a new technology developed recently, compared with conventional hot air drying, it has some advantages, such as high drying efficiency, low energy consumption, better products' quality and so on. Drying of foodstuffs with superheated steam features advantages in comparison with traditional hot air drying are absence of oxygen prevents oxidative reactions, rendering a very porous material, easily rehydrated and with a minimum of volume reduction in most cases. Especially, drying of foodstuffs with low-pressure superheated which avoid the disadvantages of products qualities dried use atmospheric pressure or higher, it will be widely developed in the future.%过热蒸汽干燥是近年来发展起来的新技术,和传统的热风对流干燥相比具有干燥效率高、能耗低和干燥产品质量好等优点。过热蒸汽应用于食品的干燥,其显著的特点是能实现无氧或少氧的干燥环境,干燥过程不会出现“硬壳”或“结皮”的现象,消除了进一步干燥可能出现的障碍,产品具有多孔的结构。特别是低压过热蒸汽干燥应用于食品等热敏性物料,避免了过热蒸汽干燥操作温度高,从而影响产品质量的问题,具有广阔的发展前景。

  10. Heat transfer measurements on an incidence-tolerant low pressure turbine blade in a high speed linear cascade at low to moderate Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moualeu, Leolein Patrick Gouemeni

    Runway-independent aircraft are expected to be the future for short-haul flights by improving air transportation and reducing area congestion encountered in airports. The Vehicle Systems Program of NASA identified a Large Civil Tilt-Rotor, equipped with variable-speed power-turbine engines, as the best concept. At cruise altitude, the engine rotor-speed will be reduced by as much as the 50% of take-off speed. The large incidence variation in the low pressure turbine associated with the change in speed can be detrimental to the engine performance. Low pressure turbine blades in cruise altitude are more predisposed to develop regions of boundary layer separation. Typical phenomenon such as impinging wakes on downstream blades and mainstream turbulences enhance the complexity of the flow in low pressure turbines. It is therefore important to be able to understand the flow behavior to accurately predict the losses. Research facilities are seldom able to experimentally reproduce low Reynolds numbers at relevant engine Mach number. Having large incidence swing as an additional parameter in the investigation of the boundary layer development, on a low pressure turbine blade, makes this topic unique and as a consequence requires a unique facility to conduct the experimental research. The compressible flow wind tunnel facility at the University of North Dakota had been updated to perform steady state experiments on a modular-cascade, designed to replicate a large variation of the incidence angles. The high speed and low Reynolds number facility maintained a sealed and closed loop configuration for each incidence angle. The updated facility is capable to produce experimental Reynolds numbers as low as 45,000 and as high as 570,000 at an exit Mach number of 0.72. Pressure and surface temperature measurements were performed at these low pressure turbine conditions. The present thesis investigates the boundary layer development on the surface of an Incidence-tolerant blade. The

  11. Exergo-Economic Fuel-Impact Analysis for Steam Turbines Sections in Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Royo

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper exergoeconomic fuel-impact models for steam turbines in power plants are proposed. They are applied to calculate the impact on the steam cycle when malfunctions are occurring during the operation of steam turbine sections. Concepts such as the exergetic consumption and the dissipation temperature are used to understand the proposed fuel-impact analysis. In order to validate these fuel-impact methods, well-known procedures, to simulate on- and off-design conditions of a steam power cycle, are used as references. Three different methods a ASME PTC-6, b existing fuel-impact formula, and c proposed exergoeconomic Fuel–Impact formulation, are compared with respect to the simulator results. The proposed models allow evaluating fuel-impact cost with more accurate results than conventional procedures. An example of a 158 MW conventional power plant is presented herein. The malfunction costs occurring in the steam turbines are inferred from the results. One perspective of this analysis is to establish an on-line monitoring system into power plants that permits to opportunely detect steam turbine malfunctions, without simulators.

  12. Cooling performance of grid-sheets for highly loaded ultra-supercritical steam turbines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dieter BOHN; Robert KREWINKEL; Shuqing TIAN

    2009-01-01

    In order to increase efficiency and achieve a further CO2-reduction, the next generation of power plant turbines will have steam turbine inlet temperatures that are considerably higher than the current ones. The high pressure steam turbine inlet temperature is expected to be increased up to approximately 700℃ with a live steam pressure of 30 MPa. The elevated steam parameters in the high and intermediate pressure turbines can be encountered with Ni-base alloys, but this is a costly alternative associated with many manufacturing difficulties. Colla-borative research centre 561 "Thermally Highly Loaded,Porous and Cooled Multi-Layer Systems for Combined Cycle Power Plants" at RWTH Aachen University proposes cooling the highly loaded turbines instead, as this would necessitate the application of far less Ni-base alloys.To protect the thermally highly loaded components, a sandwich material consisting of two thin face sheets and a core made from a woven wire mesh is used to cover the walls of the steam turbine casing. The cooling steam is led through the woven wire mesh between the two face sheets to achieve a cooling effect. The wire mesh provides the grid-sheet with structural rigidity under varying operating conditions.In the present work, the cooling performance of the grid-sheets will be investigated applying the conjugate heat transfer method to ultra-supercritical live and cooling steam conditions for a section of the cooling structure. The behaviour of the flow and the heat transfer in the grid-sheet will be analyzed in detail using a parameter variation. The numerical results should give a first prediction of the cooling performance under future operating conditions.

  13. Combined heat and power plants with parallel tandem steam turbines; Smaaskalig kraftvaerme med parallellkopplade tandemturbiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinwall, Pontus; Norstroem, Urban; Pettersson, Camilla; Oesterlin, Erik

    2004-12-01

    We investigate the technical and economical conditions for a concept with parallel coupled tandem turbines in small scale combined heat and power plants fired with bio-fuel and waste. Performance and heat production costs at varying electricity prices for the concept with two smaller tandem coupled steam turbines has been compared to the traditional concept with one single multi-staged turbine. Three different types of plants have been investigated: - Bio fuelled CHP plant with thermal capacity of 15 MW{sub th}; - Waste fired CHP plant with thermal capacity of 20 MW{sub th}; - Bio fuelled CHP plant with thermal capacity of 25 MW{sub th}. The simple steam turbines (Curtis turbines) used in the tandem arrangement has an isentropic efficiency of about 49 to 53% compared to the multi-staged steam turbines with isentropic efficiency in the range of 59% to 81%. The lower isentropic efficiency for the single staged turbines is to some extent compensated at partial load when one of the two turbines can be shut down leading to better operational conditions for the one still in operation. For concepts with saturated steam at partial load below 50% the tandem arrangements presents higher electricity efficiency than the conventional single turbine alternative. The difference in annual production of electricity is therefore less than the difference in isentropic efficiency for the two concepts. Production of electricity is between 2% and 42% lower for the tandem arrangements in this study. Investment costs for the turbine island has been calculated for the two turbine concepts and when the costs for turbines, generator, power transmission, condensing system, piping system, buildings, assembling, commissioning and engineering has been added the sum is about the same for the two concepts. For the bio-fuelled plant with thermal capacity of 15 MW{sub th} the turbine island amount to about 10-12 MSEK and about 13-15 MSEK for the waste fired plant with a thermal capacity of 20 MW

  14. Double hidden layer RBF process neural network based online prediction of steam turbine exhaust enthalpy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Huanchun

    2014-01-01

    In order to diagnose the unit economic performance online,the radial basis function (RBF) process neural network with two hidden layers was introduced to online prediction of steam turbine exhaust enthalpy.Thus,the model reflecting complicated relationship between the steam turbine exhaust enthalpy and the relative operation parameters was established.Moreover,the enthalpy of final stage extraction steam and exhaust from a 300 MW unit turbine was taken as the example to perform the online calculation. The results show that,the average relative error of this method is less than 1%,so the accuracy of this al-gorithm is higher than that of the BP neutral network.Furthermore,this method has advantages of high convergence rate,simple structure and high accuracy.

  15. Correlation Dimension in Fault Diagnosis of 600 MW Steam Turbine Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Bao-heng; YANG Xia-ju; TONG De-chun; CHEN Zhao-neng

    2005-01-01

    GP algorithm of correlation dimension computation is ameliorated which overcomes the shortage of traditional one. Improved process of GP algorithm takes the influence of temporal correlative pairs of points on correlation dimension into account and promotes the computational efficiency prominently. Iterative SVD method is applied to remove the influence of noise on the result of correlation dimension. The faults of steam flow turbulence and oil film disturbance which occur in 600MW Steam Turbine Generator are analyzed and whose correlation dimensions are computed. More distinct quantitative index than FFT is gained to distinguish two faults and it's of little importance to apply correlation dimension to study the influence of various factors on steam flow turbulence fault for nonexistence of convergent floor in correlation integral curve, which presents a new way to learn the operational function of large capacity steam turbine generator and carry out comprehensive condition monitoring.

  16. Effects of Front-Loading and Stagger Angle on Endwall Losses of High Lift Low Pressure Turbine Vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Modeling for CFD,” 2 nd Edition. La Cañada, California: DCW Industries Inc. Wilcox, D.C., 2006, “Turbulence Modeling for CFD,” 3rd Edition. La...Cañada, California: DCW Industries Inc. Wilson, D.G. and Korakianitus, T., 1998, “The Design of High-Efficiency Turbomachinery and Gas Turbines

  17. Analysis of unsteady flow forces acting on the thermowell in a steam turbine control stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badur, J.; Kornet, S.; Sławiński, D.; Ziółkowski, P.

    2016-10-01

    In the present paper the phenomenon of unsteady flow forces acting on the thermowell for measuring steam temperature in a steam turbine control stage has been presented. The non-stationarity of fluid acting on the thermowell such as: Strouhal frequency, pressure amplitude, pressure peaks, pressure field, velocity field etc. have been studied analytically and numerically. There have been examined two cases of flow with changing mass flow rate, pressure and temperature in the control stage chamber of a turbine high-pressure cylinder. The problem of entry into resonance by thermowell has been described in the ASME standard PTC19.3 TW-2010 with providing detailed guidelines for thermowell designs.

  18. 船舶汽轮机优化设计%Optimal Design of Marine Steam Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成洋; 阎昌琪; 王建军

    2012-01-01

    The marine steam turbine is one of the key equipments in marine power plant, and it tends to using high power steam turbine, which makes the steam turbine to be heavier and larger, it causes difficulties to the design and arrangement of the steam turbine, and the marine maneuverability is seriously influenced. Therefore, it is necessary to apply optimization techniques to the design of the steam turbine in order to achieve the minimum weight or volume by means of finding the optimum combination of design parameters. The math model of the marine steam turbine design calculation was established. The sensitivities of condenser pressure, power ratio of HP turbine with LP turbine, and the ratio of diameter with height at the end stage of LP turbine, which influence the weight of the marine steam turbine, were analyzed. The optimal design of the marine steam turbine, aiming at the weight minimization while satisfying the structure and performance constraints, was carried out with the hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm. The results show that, steam turbine weight is reduced by 3. 13% with the optimization scheme. Finally, the optimization results were analyzed, and the steam turbine optimization design direction was indicated.%船舶汽轮机是船舶动力装置中关键设备之一,且随着汽轮机大功率的发展趋势,其重量体积进一步增加,这给设备的设计安装带来困难,并严重影响船舶的机动性.因此,有必要在汽轮机设计中,应用优化技术寻找设计参数的最优组合,以减小汽轮机的重量或体积.建立船舶汽轮机设计计算数学模型,对其重量受冷凝器压力、高低压缸功率比和低压缸末级径高比影响的敏感性进行分析.以船舶汽轮机重量最小为目标函数,在满足一定的结构及性能约束条件下,利用混合粒子群算法对其进行优化设计.研究结果显示,采用优化方案后,汽轮机重量减小了3.13%.最后对优

  19. Research on pattern recognition for marine steam turbine rotor axis orbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan; YANG Zhi-da; XIA Hong

    2003-01-01

    The structure,function and recognition method of an axis orbit auto-recognizing system are presented in this paper.In order to make the best use of information of format and dynamic characteristics of marine steam turbine axis orbit,the structure and functions or neural network are applied to this system,which can be used to auto-recognize axis orbit of the system turbine rotor using BP neural network.

  20. Some perspective decisions for the regeneration system equipment of the thermal and nuclear power plants decreasing the probability of water ingress into the turbine and rotor acceleration by return steam flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, N. N.; Svyatkin, F. A.; Sintsova, T. G.; Ukhanova, M. G.; Yesin, S. B.; Nikolayenkova, E. K.; Yurchenko, A. Yu.; Grigorieva, E. B.

    2016-03-01

    The regeneration system heaters are one of the sources of possible ingress of the water into the turbine. The water penetrates into the turbine either at the heaters overflow or with the return flow of steam generated when the water being in the heater boils up in the dynamic operation modes or at deenergization of the power-generating unit. The return flow of steam and water is dangerous to the turbine blades and can result in the rotor acceleration. The known protective devices used to prevent the overflow of the low-pressure and high-pressure heaters (LPH and HPH), of the horizontal and vertical heaters of heating-system water (HWH and VWH), as well as of the deaerators and low-pressure mixing heaters (LPMH) were considered. The main protective methods of the steam and water return flows supplied by the heaters in dynamic operation modes or at deenergization of the power-generating unit are described. Previous operating experience shows that the available protections do not fully prevent water ingress into the turbine and the rotor acceleration and, therefore, the development of measures to decrease the possibility of ingress of the water into the turbine is an actual problem. The measures allowing eliminating or reducing the water mass in the heaters are expounded; some of them were designed by the specialists of OAO Polzunov Scientific and Development Association on Research and Design of Power Equipment (NPO CKTI) and are efficiently introduced at heat power plants and nuclear power plants. The suggested technical solutions allow reducing the possibility of the water ingress into the turbine and rotor acceleration by return steam flow in the dynamic operation modes or in the case of power generating unit deenergization. Some of these solutions have been tested in experimental-industrial exploitation and can be used in industry.

  1. A computationally efficient and accurate numerical representation of thermodynamic properties of steam and water for computations of non-equilibrium condensing steam flow in steam turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrubý Jan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of the non-equilibrium condensing transonic steam flow in the complex 3D geometry of a steam turbine is a demanding problem both concerning the physical concepts and the required computational power. Available accurate formulations of steam properties IAPWS-95 and IAPWS-IF97 require much computation time. For this reason, the modelers often accept the unrealistic ideal-gas behavior. Here we present a computation scheme based on a piecewise, thermodynamically consistent representation of the IAPWS-95 formulation. Density and internal energy are chosen as independent variables to avoid variable transformations and iterations. On the contrary to the previous Tabular Taylor Series Expansion Method, the pressure and temperature are continuous functions of the independent variables, which is a desirable property for the solution of the differential equations of the mass, energy, and momentum conservation for both phases.

  2. Operational experience of a 300-MW lignite-fired utility unit: environmental performance after retrofiitting of a low pressure turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanetsakunvatana, Vicharn; Arkornsakul, P.

    2010-09-15

    The experimental data on major emissions from a 300-MW lignite-fired boiler operating under different fuel LHVs and turbine rotors are discussed. The thermal efficiency was quantified based on the heat loss method. The PM and CO2 emission rates were predicted. Specific emissions were quantified for the boiler of interest. The SO2, PM and NOx emission concentrations in flue gas were found lower than the respective emission standard. The CO2 emissions have also declined 4.65% in 2009, compared to 2008 and before. The clean development mechanism complied with UNFCCC methodology is adopted in this study responding to the global changes.

  3. Multi-objective PID Optimization for Speed Control of an Isolated Steam Turbine using Gentic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kr. Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on multi-objective optimization of the PID controllers for optimal speed control for an isolated steam turbine. In complex operations, optimal tuning plays an imperative role in maintaining the product quality and process safety. This study focuses on the comparison of the optimal PID tuning using Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II against normal genetic algorithm and Ziegler Nichols methods for the speed control of an isolated steam turbine. Isolated steam turbine not being connected to the grid; hence is usually used in refineries as steam turbine, where a hydraulic governor is used for the speed control. The PID controller for the system has been designed and implemented using MATLAB and SIMULINK and the results of the design methods have been compared, analysed and conclusions indicates that the significant improvement of results have been obtained by the Multi-Objective GA based optimization of PID as much faster response is obtained as compared to the ordinary GA and Ziegler Nichols method.

  4. Application of new techniques to renovation of 200 MW steam turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浮; 宋彦萍; 王仲奇

    2001-01-01

    Presents the new techniques leading to the improvements in aerodynamics of 200MW steam turbine high-pressure cylinder and mid-pressure cylinder, discusses the rearloaded profile and blade bowing, and concludes from numerical simulation and experimental results that the application of rearloaded profile and blade bowing has improved the performance of 200 MW unit.

  5. Increasing reliability of system water heaters for steam-turbine installations at the design stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezgin, V. I.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Brezgin, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    A system for designing water heaters of steam-turbine installations based on uniting standards, reference information, and some numerical procedures with design procedures via wide use of parameterization is considered. The developed design system is based on extensive application of modern information technologies.

  6. Structural and Phase State of Fractured Rotor of High-Pressure Steam Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, A. N.; Ababkov, N. V.; Kozlov, E. V.; Koneva, N. A.; Popova, N. A.

    2016-03-01

    The structural and phase state of the metal of a fractured rotor of a steam turbine is studied with the use of modern methods of physical research. The metal is shown to contain gradient structures. The cause of the failure of the rotor is established. The gradient structures are determined by the developed method of acoustic scanning.

  7. Steam turbine governor modeling and parameters testing for power system simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying LI; Chufeng PENG; Zenghui YANG

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical modeling, parameters test and model correction for a steam turbine (ST) governor are discussed. A set of ST Governor system model for power system simulation is created based on this research. A power system simulation for an actual power grid accident is conducted using this new model and the comparison between the simulation and actual data show that the results are satisfactory.

  8. The Steam Turbine: Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 2, No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to the steam turbine. A brief narrative on the subject is presented in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. Explanatory illustrations are appended. (JB)

  9. Nonpneumonic, short-incubation-period Legionellosis (Pontiac fever) in men who cleaned a steam turbine condenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, D W; Deubner, D C; Hill, D L; Gilliam, D K

    1979-08-17

    Pontiac fever affected ten men who had cleaned a steam turbine condenser with compressed air. Previous epidemics of Pontiac fever and Legionnaires' disease--both caused by Legionella Pneumophila (proposed sp. nov.)--involved "airborne spread" from air-conditioning cooling towers or evaporative condensers. Aerosols of contaminated water in heat-rejection systems appear to be important sources of epidemic legionellosis.

  10. Technique of optimization of minimum temperature driving forces in the heaters of regeneration system of a steam turbine unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamarokov, A. S.; Zorin, V. M.; Dai, Fam Kuang

    2016-03-01

    At the current stage of development of nuclear power engineering, high demands on nuclear power plants (NPP), including on their economy, are made. In these conditions, improving the quality of NPP means, in particular, the need to reasonably choose the values of numerous managed parameters of technological (heat) scheme. Furthermore, the chosen values should correspond to the economic conditions of NPP operation, which are postponed usually a considerable time interval from the point of time of parameters' choice. The article presents the technique of optimization of controlled parameters of the heat circuit of a steam turbine plant for the future. Its particularity is to obtain the results depending on a complex parameter combining the external economic and operating parameters that are relatively stable under the changing economic environment. The article presents the results of optimization according to this technique of the minimum temperature driving forces in the surface heaters of the heat regeneration system of the steam turbine plant of a K-1200-6.8/50 type. For optimization, the collector-screen heaters of high and low pressure developed at the OAO All-Russia Research and Design Institute of Nuclear Power Machine Building, which, in the authors' opinion, have the certain advantages over other types of heaters, were chosen. The optimality criterion in the task was the change in annual reduced costs for NPP compared to the version accepted as the baseline one. The influence on the decision of the task of independent variables that are not included in the complex parameter was analyzed. An optimization task was decided using the alternating-variable descent method. The obtained values of minimum temperature driving forces can guide the design of new nuclear plants with a heat circuit, similar to that accepted in the considered task.

  11. Main steam inlet sleeves on steam turbines: External ultrasonic test and external sleeve replacement (closed HP-IP casing)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauro, M.; Arrighi, L.; Gaibazzi, I.

    1996-12-31

    ENEL has gained extensive experience on turbines with bell seals in relation to defect diagnosis and the conducting of on-site repairs on the main steam inlet sleeves. Several cases of cracking in the trepan radius area, and of retainer nut breakage, on this type of sleeve have caused very significant levels of turbine downtime that have demanded costly unscheduled work in order to open the HP-IP housing. These are related phenomena which were initially diagnosed by using temperature sensing at the IP turbine exhaust. As a consequence of the above, a technique was developed for detecting defects from outside the turbine by using non-destructive ultrasonic inspection (UT). A procedure for replacing the sleeves while the casing is closed was developed in conjunction with the manufacturer. The time required and the scope of operation are both of a limited nature. Initial trials were held with inspections carried out on an open turbine when there was a planned outage and then on a real case. Since completing these trials, periodic UT inspections have been made on (all) the sleeves and this check is being carried out on a continuing basis. Any changes in relevant indications are noted during these inspections, thereby allowing any replacement operation to be planned on site and at any time.

  12. Some aspects of numerical simulation of control valves for steam turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matas Richard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the numerical simulation of air and steam flow through the model of control valve for steam turbines. Numerical simulations were compared with experimental measurements for the award of the same boundary conditions. Valve characteristics have been computed for individual travel heights and pressure ratios of two variants of seat inflow angle (90° and 60°. Some other aspects are discussed in the article - comparison of the axysymmetric and 3D modelling, influence of the computational domain size, comparison of characteristics for two flow media, experimental model of the valve etc. The mentioned results are important for engineering simulations and also for design of the control valves for steam turbines of the large output.

  13. Effects of Inlet Swirl on the Flow in a Steam Turbine Exhaust Hood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MiroslavStastny; LadislavTajc; 等

    2000-01-01

    The flow in the exhaust hood of a condensing steam turbine depends to a considerable extent on the inlet swirl of the flow which changes in tandem with the volumetric flow of steam through the last stage.This study gives a description of experiments which were carried out on the exhaust hood of a 500MW steam turbine under various conditions,e.g. when there is rated power,when there is an idle run,or when there are various pressures in the condenser,The flow in a model exhaust hood was investigated by means of CFD methods.Computations were performed with the help of the FLUENT5 code which is based on solving the Navier-Stokes equations while taking the RSM and LES models of turbulence into consideration.The results of the computations are in full conformity with the experiments.

  14. Modeling a high output marine steam generator feedwater control system which uses parallel turbine-driven feed pumps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Zhi-qiang; ZOU Hai; SUN Jian-hua

    2008-01-01

    Parallel turbine-driven feedwater pumps are needed when ships travel at high speed. In order to study marine steam generator feedwater control systems which use parallel turbine-driven feed pumps,a mathematical model of marine steam generator feedwater control system was developed which includes mathematical models of two steam generators and parallel turbine-driven feed pumps as well as mathematical models of feedwater pipes and feed regulating valves. The operating condition points of the parallel turbine-driven feed pumps were calculated by the Chebyshev curve fit method. A water level controller for the steam generator and a rotary speed controller for the turbine-driven feed pumps were also included in the model. The accuracy of the mathematical models and their controllers was verified by comparing their results with those from a simulator.

  15. Start-up circuit upgrading to reduce the erosion of the rotor blades of the last stages of steam turbines and prevent the mass strips of stellite plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhko, V. V.; Gorin, A. V.; Zaitsev, I. V.; Kovalev, I. A.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G.; Lomagin, S. N.; Chernov, V. P.

    2017-03-01

    At turbine starts with low steam flow rates in idle mode, the low-pressure rotor blades consume energy, causing the ventilation heating of the stages and creating higher depression in them than in the condenser. This leads to the return steam flows in the exhaust of the low-pressure cylinder (LPC), reducing the heat due to the moisture of starting steam damps and cooling injections. It is shown that, as a result of upgrading with the transition to fully milled shroud platforms of rotor blades, the depression in the stages decreases and their cooling efficiency is reduced due to the removal of an elastic turn of the rotor blades under the action of centrifugal forces and seal of them by periphery. Heating the rotor blades of the last stages exceeds the temperature threshold of soldering resistance of stellite plates (150°C), and their mass strips begin. The start-up circuit providing both the temperature retention of the last stages lower the soldering resistance threshold due to overwetting the steam damps up to saturation condition and the high degree of removal from the dump steam of excessive erosive-dangerous condensed moisture was proposed, applied, and tested at the operating power unit. The investment in the development and application of the new start-up circuit are compensated in the course of a year owing to guaranteed prevention of the strips of stellite plates that lengthens the service life of the rotor blades of the last stages as well as increase of the rotor blade efficiency due to the sharp decrease of erosive wear of the profiles and reduction of their surface roughness. This reduces the annual consumption of equivalent fuel by approximately 1000 t for every 100 MW of installed capacity.

  16. Parametric performance analysis of steam-injected gas turbine with a thermionic-energy-converter-lined combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Y. K.; Burns, R. K.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of steam-injected gas turbines having combustors lined with thermionic energy converters (STIG/TEC systems) was analyzed and compared with that of two baseline systems; a steam-injected gas turbine (without a TEC-lined combustor) and a conventional combined gas turbine/steam turbine cycle. Common gas turbine parameters were assumed for all of the systems. Two configurations of the STIG/TEC system were investigated. In both cases, steam produced in an exhaust-heat-recovery boiler cools the TEC collectors. It is then injected into the gas combustion stream and expanded through the gas turbine. The STIG/TEC system combines the advantage of gas turbine steam injection with the conversion of high-temperature combustion heat by TEC's. The addition of TEC's to the baseline steam-injected gas turbine improves both its efficiency and specific power. Depending on system configuration and design parameters, the STIG/TEC system can also achieve higher efficiency and specific power than the baseline combined cycle.

  17. Issues to improve the safety of 18K370 steam turbine operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bzymek Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the process of improving the safety and reliability of operation the 18K370 steam turbines Opole Power Plant since the first failure in 2010 [1], up to install the on-line monitoring system [2]. It shows how the units work and how to analyse the contol stage as a critical node in designing the turbine. Selected results of the analysis of the strength of CSD (Computational Solid Dynamic and the nature of the flow in different operating regimes - thanks to CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic analysis have been included. We have also briefly discussed the way of lifecycle management of individual elements [2,3]. The presented actions could be considered satisfactory, and improve the safety of operating steam turbines of type 18K370.

  18. Study of steady and unsteady wet steam condensing flows in a turbine stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To develop the numerical method for the steady and unsteady wet steam condensing flow in turbine stage. Methods An Eulerian/Eulerian numerical model is used to describe the spontaneous condensation flow in the steam turbine. For the steady condensing flow computations, the mixing plane model was used. For the unsteady condensing flow computations, the sliding mesh method was used to simulate the rotor-stator interactions. Results The numerical results showed the obvious differences between non-condensing and condensing flows. The results also showed the unsteadiness effect due to rotor-stator interactions had a deep influence on the formation and growth process of water droplets. Conclusion The numerical methods presented in this paper are valid for the condensing flow in the turbine stage.

  19. Diagnostic methods of a bladed disc mode shape evaluation used for shrouded blades in steam turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, Jaromir; Liska, Jindrich

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with advanced methods for the evaluation of a bladed disc behavior in terms of the wheel vibration and blade service time consumption. These methods are developed as parts of the noncontact vibration monitoring system of the steam turbine shrouded blades. The proposed methods utilize the time-frequency processing (cross spectra) and the method using least squares to analyse the data from the optical and magnetoresistive sensors, which are mounted in the stator radially above the rotor blades. Fundamentally, the blade vibrations are detected during the blade passages under the sensors and the following signal processing, which covers also the proposed methods, leads to the estimation of the blade residual service life. The prototype system implementing above mentioned techniques was installed into the last stage of the new steam turbine (LP part). The methods for bladed disc mode shape evaluation were successfully verified on the signals, which were obtained during the commission operation of the turbine.

  20. The Life Assessment of Steam Turbine Rotors for Fossil Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sungho; Song, Geewook; Kim, Bumshin; Hyun, Jungseb; Ha, Jeongsoo

    The operational mode of thermal power plants has been changed from base load to duty cycle. From the changeover, fossil power plants cannot avoid frequent thermal transient states, for example, start up and stop, which results in thermal fatigue damage at the heavy section components. The rotor is the highest capital cost component in a steam turbine and requires long outage for replacing with a new one. For an optimized power plant operational life, inspection management of the rotor is necessary. It is known in general that the start-up and shutdown operations greatly affect the steam turbine life. The start-up operational condition is especially severe because of the rapid temperature and rotational speed increase, which causes damage and reduction of life of the main components life of the steam turbine. The start-up stress of a rotor which is directly related to life is composed of thermal and rotational stresses. The thermal stress is due to the variation of steam flow temperature and rotational stress is due to the rotational speed of the turbine. In this paper, the analysis method for the start-up stress of a rotor is proposed, which considers simultaneously temperature and rotational speed transition, and includes a case study regarding a 500MW fossil power plant steam turbine rotor. Also, the method of quantitative damage estimation for fatigue-creep damage to operational conditions, is described. The method can be applied to find weak points for fatigue-creep damage. Using the method, total life consumption can be obtained, and can be also be used for determining future operational modes and life extension of old fossil power units.

  1. Functioning efficiency of intermediate coolers of multistage steam-jet ejectors of steam turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, K. E.; Ryabchikov, A. Yu.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Zhelonkin, N. V.; Murmanskii, I. B.

    2017-03-01

    Designs of various types of intermediate coolers of multistage ejectors are analyzed and thermal effectiveness and gas-dynamic resistance of coolers are estimated. Data on quantity of steam condensed from steam-air mixture in stage I of an ejector cooler was obtained on the basis of experimental results. It is established that the amount of steam condensed in the cooler constitutes 0.6-0.7 and is almost independent of operating steam pressure (and, consequently, of steam flow) and air amount in steam-air mixture. It is suggested to estimate the amount of condensed steam in a cooler of stage I based on comparison of computed and experimental characteristics of stage II. Computation taking this hypothesis for main types of mass produced multistage ejectors into account shows that 0.60-0.85 of steam amount should be condensed in stage I of the cooler. For ejectors with "pipe-in-pipe" type coolers (EPO-3-200) and helical coolers (EO-30), amount of condensed steam may reach 0.93-0.98. Estimation of gas-dynamic resistance of coolers shows that resistance from steam side in coolers with built-in and remote pipe bundle constitutes 100-300 Pa. Gas-dynamic resistance of "pipein- pipe" and helical type coolers is significantly higher (3-6 times) compared with pipe bundle. However, performance by "dry" (atmospheric) air is higher for ejectors with relatively high gas-dynamic resistance of coolers than those with low resistance at approximately equal operating flow values of ejectors.

  2. Incorporating supercritical steam turbines into molten-salt power tower plants :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, James Edward; Wolf, Thorsten; Muley, Nishant

    2013-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Siemens Energy, Inc., examined 14 different subcritical and supercritical steam cycles to determine if it is feasible to configure a molten-salt supercritical steam plant that has a capacity in the range of 150 to 200 MWe. The effects of main steam pressure and temperature, final feedwater temperature, and hot salt and cold salt return temperatures were determined on gross and half-net efficiencies. The main steam pressures ranged from 120 bar-a (subcritical) to 260 bar-a (supercritical). Hot salt temperatures of 566 and 600ÀC were evaluated, which resulted in main steam temperatures of 553 and 580ÀC, respectively. Also, the effects of final feedwater temperature (between 260 and 320ÀC) were evaluated, which impacted the cold salt return temperature. The annual energy production and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) were calculated using the System Advisory Model on 165 MWe subcritical plants (baseline and advanced) and the most promising supercritical plants. It was concluded that the supercritical steam plants produced more annual energy than the baseline subcritical steam plant for the same-size heliostat field, receiver, and thermal storage system. Two supercritical steam plants had the highest annual performance and had nearly the same LCOE. Both operated at 230 bar-a main steam pressure. One was designed for a hot salt temperature of 600ÀC and the other 565ÀC. The LCOEs for these plants were about 10% lower than the baseline subcritical plant operating at 120 bar-a main steam pressure and a hot salt temperature of 565ÀC. Based on the results of this study, it appears economically and technically feasible to incorporate supercritical steam turbines in molten-salt power tower plants.

  3. Non-contacting shaft seals for gas and steam turbines

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Improvements upon current gas turbine sealing technology performance are essential for decreasing specific fuel consumption to meet stringent future efficiency targets. The clearances between rotating and static components of a gas turbine, which need to be sealed, vary over a flight cycle. Hence, a seal which can passively maintain an optimum clearance, whilst preventing contact between itself and the rotor, is extremely desirable. Various configurations of a Rolls Royce (RR) seal concep...

  4. Effects of Input Voltage on Flow Separation Control for Low-Pressure Turbine at Low Reynolds Number by Plasma Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Matsunuma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Active flow control using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD plasma actuators was investigated to reattach the simulated boundary layer separation on the suction surface of a turbine blade at low Reynolds number, Re = 1.7 × 104. The flow separation is induced on a curved plate installed in the test section of a low-speed wind tunnel. Particle image velocimetry (PIV was used to obtain instantaneous and time-averaged two-dimensional velocity measurements. The amplitude of input voltage for the plasma actuator was varied from ±2.0 kV to ±2.8 kV. The separated flow reattached on the curved wall when the input voltage was ±2.4 kV and above. The displacement thickness of the boundary layer near the trailing edge decreased by 20% at ±2.0 kV. The displacement thickness was suddenly reduced as much as 56% at ±2.2 kV, and it was reduced gradually from ±2.4 kV to ±2.8 kV (77% reduction. The total pressure loss coefficient, estimated from the boundary layer displacement thickness and momentum thickness, was 0.172 at the baseline (actuator off condition. The total pressure loss was reduced to 0.107 (38% reduction at ±2.2 kV and 0.078 (55% reduction at ±2.8 kV.

  5. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF BOILERS (80 AND 40 TPH AND 21MW STEAM TURBINE OF COGEN PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P.TAWARE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The proposed study is conducted at The Malegaon Sugar Mills, Baramati, and District Pune. Data is collected for a high pressure 80 TPH & 40TPH bagasse fired boiler. The boilers are natural circulation and bi-drum water tube type. The both boilers are equipped with super heater, air heater and economizer in order to utilize maximum available heat of flue gases. Boiler efficiency is calculated by indirect method. Also plant has 21 MW cogeneration capacity, with two turbines are installed with capacity 14MW (Back Pressure Type & 7MW (Extraction Cum Condensing Type. From the heat input given to turbines per unit of electricity generated, the turbine heat rate is calculated. Different instruments and devices are used to record the different parameters of both boilers & turbines. Steam produced per ton of bagasse is being found out for both boilers.

  6. Solid particle erosion of steels and nickel based alloys candidates for USC steam turbine blading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernuschi, Federico; Guardamagna, Cristina; Lorenzoni, Lorenzo [ERSE SpA, Milan (Italy); Robba, Davide [CESI, Milan (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    The main objective of COST536 Action is to develop highly efficient steam power plant with low emissions, from innovative alloy development to validation of component integrity. In this perspective, to improve the operating efficiency, materials capable of withstanding higher operating temperatures are required. For the manufacturing of components for steam power plants with higher efficiency steels and nickel-based alloys with improved oxidation resistance and creep strength at temperature as high as 650 C - 700 C have to be developed. Candidate alloys for manufacturing high pressure steam turbine diaphragms, buckets, radial seals and control valves should exhibit, among other properties, a good resistance at the erosion phenomena induced by hard solid particles. Ferric oxide (magnetite) scales cause SPE by exfoliating from boiler tubes and steam pipes (mainly super-heaters and re-heaters) and being transported within the steam flow to the turbine. In order to comparatively study the erosion behaviour of different materials in relatively short times, an accelerated experimental simulation of the erosion phenomena must be carried out. Among different techniques to induce erosion on material targets, the use of an air jet tester is well recognised to be one of the most valid and reliable. In this work the results of SPE comparative tests performed at high temperatures (550 C, 600 C and 650 C) at different impaction angles on some steels and nickel based alloys samples are reported. (orig.)

  7. Control valves and cascades for the first stages of turbines with ultrasupercritical steam parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaryankin, A. E.; Rogalev, N. D.; Rogalev, A. N.; Garanin, I. V.; Osipov, S. K.; Grigoriev, E. Yu.

    2016-06-01

    This paper considers the problems that will unavoidably be encountered in the creation of new-generation turbines operated at ultrasupercritical initial steam parameters, namely, the development of new control and shutoff valves, the reduction of end energy losses in blade cascades and steam leaks in high-pressure cylinders (HPCs), the elimination of effect produced by regenerative steam bleedoffs on the afterextraction stage, the cooling of a blade cascade, etc. Some possible solutions are given for the two first of the listed problems. The conclusion about the need for the transition to new-generation control valves in the development of new advanced steam turbines with ultrasupercritical initial steam parameters has been made. From the viewpoint of their design, the considered new-generation valves differ from the known contemporary constructions by a shaped axially symmetric confusor channel and perforated zones on the streamlined spool surface and the inlet diffuser saddle part. The analysis of the vibration behavior of new-generation valves has demonstrated a decrease in the dynamic loads acting on their stems. To reduce the end energy losses in nozzle or blade cascades with small aspect ratios, it is proposed to use finned shrouds in the interblade channels. The cross section of fins has a triangular profile, and their height must be comparable with the thickness of the boundary layer in the outlet cross section of a cascade and, provisionally, be smaller than 8% of the cascade chord.

  8. Experimental Study of Laser Cladding Methods on Water Erosion Resistance to Low Pressure Blades Materials of Steam Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental apparatus was built to study the effects of liquid-solid impact on laser cladding processing specimens of 17-4PH stainless steel material in the present investigation. Then the result of specimens without laser surface process was compared. The impact effect on the specimens was observed using the three-dimensional digital microscope. The depth of laser cladding and substrate material caused by liquid droplet impact was studied in detail and measured. The accuracy and reliability of the experimental system and computing methods were also verified. The depth of the impact area of laser cladding specimens was distributed in the range of 0.5–1.5 μm while the 17-4PH group was distributed in the range of 2.5–3.5 μm. In contrast with specimens without laser surface processing, the material processed by laser cladding has significantly higher resistance to water erosion.

  9. Influence of steam leakage through vane, gland, and shaft seals on rotordynamics of high-pressure rotor of a 1,000 MW ultra-supercritical steam turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, P.N. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Key Laboratory of Power Machinery and Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Turbine Company, Department of R and D, Shanghai (China); Wang, W.Z.; Liu, Y.Z. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Key Laboratory of Power Machinery and Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai (China); Meng, G. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai (China)

    2012-02-15

    A comparative analysis of the influence of steam leakage through vane, gland, and shaft seals on the rotordynamics of the high-pressure rotor of a 1,000 MW ultra-supercritical steam turbine was performed using numerical calculations. The rotordynamic coefficients associated with steam leakage through the three labyrinth seals were calculated using the control-volume method and perturbation analysis. A stability analysis of the rotor system subject to the steam forcing induced by the leakage flow was performed using the finite element method. An analysis of the influence of the labyrinth seal forcing on the rotordynamics was carried out by varying the geometrical parameters pertaining to the tooth number, seal clearance, and inner diameter of the labyrinth seals, along with the thermal parameters with respect to pressures and temperatures. The results demonstrated that the steam forcing with an increase in the length of the blade for the vane seal significantly influences the rotordynamic coefficients. Furthermore, the contribution of steam forcing to the instability of the rotor is decreased and increased with increases in the seal clearance and tooth number, respectively. The comparison of the rotordynamic coefficients associated with steam leakage through the vane seal, gland seal, and shaft seal convincingly disclosed that, although the steam forcing attenuates the stability of the rotor system, the steam turbine is still operating under safe conditions. (orig.)

  10. Laser shock peening of steam turbine blade for enhanced service life

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Sundar; B K Pant; Harish Kumar; P Ganesh; D C Nagpure; P Haedoo; Rakesh Kaul; K Ranganathan; K S Bindra; S M Oak; L M Kukreja

    2014-02-01

    Fretting-fatigue is an important factor influencing service life of turbine blades. The present paper describes laser shock peening of potential crack nucleation site in the root region of steam turbine blade for its enhanced service life. The experimental study, performed with an in-house developed 2.5 J/7 ns Nd:YAG laser demonstrated that laser peening introduced a residual surface compressive stress of −260 to −390 MPa. Case depth of laser peened surface layer was found to be more than 900 m.

  11. A 400-kWe high-efficiency steam turbine for industrial cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, H. M.

    1982-01-01

    An advanced state-of-the-art steam turbine-generator developed to serve as the power conversion subsystem for the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories' Solar Total-Energy Project (STEP) is described. The turbine-generator, which is designed to provide 400-kW of net electrical power, represents the largest turbine-generator built specifically for commercial solar-powered cogeneration. The controls for the turbine-generator incorporate a multiple, partial-arc entry to provide efficient off-design performance, as well as an extraction control scheme to permit extraction flow regulation while maintaining 110-spsig pressure. Normal turbine operation is achieved while synchronized to a local utility and in a stand-alone mode. In both cases, the turbine-generator features automatic load control as well as remote start-up and shutdown capability. Tests totaling 200 hours were conducted to confirm the integrity of the turbine's mechanical structure and control function. Performance tests resulted in a measured inlet throttle flow of 8,450 pounds per hour, which was near design conditions.

  12. Ecotaxes and their impact in the cost of steam and electric energy generated by a steam turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero, Gisela [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico). Instituto de Ingenieria; Pulido, Ricardo; Pineda, Carlos; Rivero, Ricardo [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-12-15

    Ecotaxes allow the internalization of costs that are considered externalities associated with polluting industrial process emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, ecotaxes internalize polluting emissions negative impacts that are added to electricity and steam generated costs of a steam turbine and heat recovery systems from a utilities refinery plant. Steam costs were calculated by means of an exergy analysis tool and Aspen Plus simulation models. Ecotaxes were calculated for specific substances emitted in the refinery flue gases, based on a toxicity and pollution scale. Ecotaxes were generated from a model that includes damages produced to biotic and abiotic resources and considers the relative position of those substances in a toxicity and pollution scale. These ecotaxes were internalized by an exergoeconomic analysis resulting in an increase in the cost per kWh produced. This kind of ecotax is not applied in Mexico. The values of ecotaxes used in the cost determination are referred to the values currently applied by some European countries to nitrogen oxides emissions. (author)

  13. Heat transfer coefficient of wheel rim of large capacity steam turbines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinyuan SHI; Zhicheng DENG; Yu YANG; Ganwen JUN

    2008-01-01

    A way of calculating the overall equivalent heat transfer coefficient of wheel rims of large capacity steam turbines is presented. The method and formula to calculate the mean forced convection heat-transfer coefficient of the surface of the blade and for the bottom wall of the blade passage, are introduced. The heat transmission from the blade to the rim was simplified by analogy to heat transmission in the fins. A fin heat transfer model was then used to calculate the equivalent heat transfer coefficient of the blade passage. The overall equivalent heat transfer coefficient of the wheel rim was then calculated using a cylindrical surface model. A practical calculation example was presented. The pro-posed method helps determine the heat transfer bound-ary conditions in finite element analyses of temperature and thermal stress fields of steam turbine rotors.

  14. Inlet Flux Influence to Aerodynamic Performance of Steam Turbine Vane Cascade

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Zi-Ming; Ding Huanhuan; Li Chunhong; Xu Ping

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the aerodynamic performance and the performance of off-design working condition, it is necessary to research the inlet flow rate influence to overall performance of steam turbine. This study uses CFD technology to numerical simulation the flow field of nozzle cascades passage at 80, 100, 120% flow rate, respectively. The simulation results indicates that the various flow loss of nozzle have a little change at 100% design working condition, have decreased at 80% design work...

  15. Experimental Study of Boundary Layer Behavior in a Simulated Low Pressure Turbine. Degree awarded by the University of Toledo, May 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyne, Rickey J.

    1998-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the flow physics occurring on the suction side of a simulated Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) blade was performed. A contoured upper wall was designed to simulate the pressure distribution of an actual LPT blade onto a flat plate. The experiments were carried out at Reynolds numbers of 100,000 and 250,000 with three levels of freestream turbulence. Freestream turbulence levels ranging from 0.8% to 3% was used in this experiment. Smoke-wire flow visualization data was used to confirm that the boundary layer was separated and formed a bubble. Hot-wires (single and x-wire) and surface mounted hot-film gases and static pressure taps were used to map the flowfield. The transition process over the separated flow region is observed to be similar to a laminar free shear layer flow with the formation of a large coherent eddy structure. For each condition, the locations defining the separation bubble were determined by careful examination of pressure and mean velocity profile data. Transition onset location and length determined from intermittency profiles decrease as freestream turbulence levels increase. Additionally, the length and height of the laminar separation bubbles were observed to be inversely proportional to the levels of freestream turbulence.

  16. Operation of Steam Turbines under Blade Failures during the Summer Peak Load Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hsing Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a discussion of practical experience related to the study of a cogeneration system where one of the four steam units occurs a failure of the low-pressure blades during peak load times of the summer months in Taiwan in the year 2007. This study investigates various scenarios consisting of shutting down the damaged unit for repairs and having continued operation of the unit by removing the low-pressure blades and replacing the stationary blade ring with buffer boards. Based on the simulation results, the numerical model has reflected strong agreement with the critical decisions made to operate the damaged unit continuously in a time of the blade failure.

  17. Can dissolved carbon dioxide be considered dangerous to steam turbine material?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rziha, M. [Siemens KWU, Erlangen (Germany); Aspden, J.D. [Eskom, Chemistry and Auxiliary Plant Engineering, Johannesburg (South Africa); Bellows, J.C. [Westinghouse Power Generation, Orlando, FL (United States); Hein, M. [PreussenElektra Kraftwerke AG and Co. KG, Kraftwerk Staudinger, Grosskrotzenburg (Germany); Huber, S. [DOC-Labor, IHK Technologiefabrik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Maughan, E.V. [Tablar Messtechnik GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Pflug, H.D.; Zeijseink, A.G.L. [KEMA Power Generation, ET Arnhern (Netherlands); Seipp, H.-G. [ABB Technikdienste and Logistik GmbH, TDL/C, Mannheim (Germany); Svoboda, R. [ABB Power Generation Ltd., Baden (Switzerland); Woost, O. [Solvay Alkali Bernburg GmbH, Bernburg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Modern power plants, mainly combined cycles, are operated more and more in a cycling mode due to the liberalisation of the power market. The so called 2-shift operation with one shutdown daily becomes more and more a ''normal operation''. Under these conditions it is unavoidable that steam with increased acid conductivity resulting from air-borne carbon dioxide ingress during shut down, is fed to the steam turbine more frequently when compared to base load units. In addition, the CO{sub 2}-contamination due thermal breakdown of organic matter must be considered as well. The discussion, if CO{sub 2} is harmful to turbine materials, depending on concentration and time of exposure, is still ongoing. A dedicated group of international scientists and power plant chemists has been commissioned under the auspices of the VGB to examine and document the impact of organic matter and dissolved carbon dioxide on materials of construction in the steam-water circuit of power plant. This presentation deals with the progress made to date by the working group on the discussion if CO{sub 2} is to be considered dangerous to turbine materials. (orig.)

  18. Prediction of Losses in Flow Through the Last Stage of LP Steam Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Dykas; W. Wróblewski; H. (L)ukowicz; T. Chmielniak

    2007-01-01

    The aim of presented work was the prediction of the losses in the wet steam flow through the last stage of 200MW steam turbine LP part. To this end, three numerical tools were used. The first method was the streamline curvature method (SCM) used on the meridional plane with losses correlations. The next two methods, TASCflow commercial CFD code and an in-house CFD code, based on the solution of the Reynoldsaveraged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS). Application of three independent numerical tools allowed to make the more reliable losses analysis and made possible to compare applied numerical methods with each other. For the flow modeling in the last stage of LP steam turbine the various two-phase flow models were used and compared. The equilibrium model and non-equilibrium models with homogeneous and/or heterogeneous condensation were considered. The boundary conditions at the inlet and outlet from the stage were selected in such way to get the beginning of the homogeneous condensation process in the stator. It corresponded to the part load of the turbine, i. e. 140MW power and pressure in condenser 2.7kPa.

  19. BP neural network based online prediction of steam turbine exhaust dryness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Danmei; CHEN Chang; XIONG Yangheng; GAO Shang; WANG Chun

    2014-01-01

    In large scale condensing turbine unit,the exhaust status always lies in wet steam area.Due to the lack of effective measuring method,the exhaust dryness of the steam turbine is difficult to obtain di-rectly,which has been the difficult problem in online economic analysis for thermal power units.By taking an N1000-25/600/600 ultra-supercritical steam turbine as an example,the nonlinear mapping ability of BP neural network was used to establish a model which can reflect the relationship between exhaust dryness and unit load and exhaust pressure.After learning and training under some typical conditions,this model was used for exhaust dryness online calculation under full condition.The results show the final error of the training samples and verifying samples were controlled within -0.006 1 and -0.001 0,which satisfies the accuracy requirement for engineering calculation,indicating the established BP neural network can be used in exhaust dryness prediction.

  20. 200 MW汽轮机多背压运行的热经济性分析%An Analysis of the The rmodynamic Effectiveness of a 200 MW Steam Turbine with Mu ltiple Back-pressure Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 曹祖庆

    2001-01-01

    通过对某200 MW汽轮机采用三背压凝汽器运行相对于单压运 行的凝结水温度、1号低压加热器抽汽量、各排汽缸最末级相对内效率及整机功率的变化 情况的计算,定量分析了200 MW汽轮机采用三背压运行的经济性,并给出了200 MW汽轮机采 用三背压运行冷却水温应满足的条件。%A calculation was conducted of the variation of parameters when a 200 MW steam t urbine employs a triple back-pressure condenser instead of a single back-press ur e one. Such parameters include the condensate temperature, the steam extraction rate of No.1 low-pressure heater, the relative inner efficiency of the last sta g e of various exhaust cylinders and the power output of the turbine unit as a who le. On this basis a quantitative analysis was performed of the thermodynamic eff ectiveness of the 200 MW steam turbine employing the triple back-pressure conde n ser. In addition, also given are the cooling water temperature requirements to b e met by the above-mentioned 200 MW steam turbine unit.

  1. Operational diagnostics of thermal state and efficiency of steam turbines of TPP and NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhko, V. V.; Kovalenko, A. N.; Lyapunov, V. M.; Khomenok, L. A.

    2016-05-01

    Various ways for solving complex problems of the strength and operating life of steam turbines of TPP and NPP are studied. Diagnostic characters and technical possibilities for their control during the steam turbine operation are determined. It is shown that the effect of various factors on the reliability, maneuverability, and service life of power installations of TPP and NPP is generally determined by the thermal state of steam-electric generating sets. Leading foreign and domestic manufacturers give major attention to the organization of the control of the thermal state of facilities and the development of systems for accounting ("counter") the service life depletion. Zones of high-temperature sites of shafts and disks with maximum parameters of operating environment are determined. A model for on-line computation of thermal stresses with the diagnostic evaluation of the service life depletion (fatigue accumulation) and forecasting of optimum heating conditions for thermostressed turbine units is briefly stated. An example of a program for diagnostics of the quality of the facility operation is given. The program provides the operative control of thermal stresses and the service life depletion in main units of the turbine under various operation conditions, operates in the real-time mode, calculates and represents currents values of thermal stresses in turbine units, and forms and transmits into the industrial control signals on the occurrence of restrictions with respect to thermal stresses and prohibition of an increase or decrease in the vapor temperature and the load in the case of approaching pressures to maximum permissible ones. In the case of stationary operation conditions, the program computed the current efficiency in high (HPC) and mean (MPC) pressure cylinders.

  2. Losses estimation in transonic wet steam flow through linear blade cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykas, Sławomir; Majkut, Mirosław; Strozik, Michał; Smołka, Krystian

    2015-04-01

    Experimental investigations of non-equilibrium spontaneous condensation in transonic steam flow were carried out in linear blade cascade. The linear cascade consists of the stator blades of the last stage of low pressure steam turbine. The applied experimental test section is a part of a small scale steam power plant located at Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice. The steam parameters at the test section inlet correspond to the real conditions in low pressure part of 200MWe steam turbine. The losses in the cascade were estimated using measured static pressure and temperature behind the cascade and the total parameters at inlet. The static pressure measurements on the blade surface as well as the Schlieren pictures were used to assess the flow field in linear cascade of steam turbine stator blades.

  3. A high-temperature gas-and-steam turbine plant operating on combined fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Milman, O. O.; Shifrin, B. A.

    2015-11-01

    A high-temperature gas-steam turbine plant (GSTP) for ultrasupercritical steam conditions is proposed based on an analysis of prospects for the development of power engineering around the world and in Russia up to 2040. The performance indicators of a GSTP using steam from a coal-fired boiler with a temperature of 560-620°C with its superheating to 1000-1500°C by firing natural gas with oxygen in a mixingtype steam superheater are analyzed. The thermal process circuit and design of a GSTP for a capacity of 25 MW with the high- and intermediate-pressure high-temperature parts with the total efficiency equal to 51.7% and the natural gas utilization efficiency equal to 64-68% are developed. The principles of designing and the design arrangement of a 300 MW GSTP are developed. The effect of economic parameters (the level and ratio of prices for solid fuel and gas, and capital investments) on the net cost of electric energy is determined. The net cost of electric energy produced by the GSTP is lower than that produced by modern combined-cycle power plants in a wide variation range of these parameters. The components of a high-temperature GSTP the development of which determines the main features of such installations are pointed out: a chamber for combusting natural gas and oxygen in a mixture with steam, a vacuum device for condensing steam with a high content of nondensables, and a control system. The possibility of using domestically available gas turbine technologies for developing the GSTP's intermediate-pressure high-temperature part is pointed out. In regard of its environmental characteristics, the GSTP is more advantageous as compared with modern condensing power plants: it allows a flow of concentrated carbon dioxide to be obtained at its outlet, which can be reclaimed; in addition, this plant requires half as much consumption of fresh water.

  4. Enhanced Droplet Erosion Resistance of Laser Treated Nano Structured TWAS and Plasma Ion Nitro-Carburized Coatings for High Rating Steam Turbine Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, B. K.; Arya, Vivek; Mann, B. S.

    2010-09-01

    This article deals with surface modification of twin wire arc sprayed (TWAS) and plasma ion nitro-carburized X10CrNiMoV1222 steel using high power diode laser (HPDL) to overcome water droplet erosion occurring in low pressure steam turbine (LPST) bypass valves and LPST moving blades used in high rating conventional, critical, and super critical thermal power plants. The materials commonly used for high rating steam turbines blading are X10CrNiMoV1222 steel and Ti6Al4V titanium alloy. The HPDL surface treatment on TWAS coated X10CrNiMoV1222 steel as well as on plasma ion nitro-carburized steel has improved water droplet resistance manifolds. This may be due to combination of increased hardness and toughness as well as the formation of fine grained structure due to rapid heating and cooling rates associated with the laser surface treatment. The water droplet erosion test results along with their damage mechanism are reported in this article.

  5. Influence of Cycle Air Parameters and Flue Gas Path Aerodynamics on Efficiency of Gas Turbine and Steam Gas Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Grinchouk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an influence of gas-air path aerodynamic resistance for a gas-turbine plant, barometric pressure, air moisture and outside air temperature on parameters, efficiency and characteristics of electric power plants with gas-turbine and combined-cycle sets. Calculations and analysis have been executed for Alstom GT13E2 gas-turbine which is included in composition of Steam Gas Plant-230 at the Minsk Thermal Power Plant No.3.

  6. An investigation into failure analysis of interfering part of a steam turbine journal bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mehdizadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Journal bearings as so sensitive parts of steam turbines are very susceptible to failure through different mechanisms of wear, fatigue and crush during service conditions. Failure occurring through these mechanisms lead to turbine completely shut down as a result of interfering in working conditions of bearing different parts. In this research, failed interfered part of a journal bearing related to a 320,000 kW steam turbine was examined. Failure analysis investigations were performed by utilizing of stereographic, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS analysis and hardness test. Surface crush, large amounts of surface cracks, no noticeable changes of failed surface chemical composition and microstructure with significant hardness improvement were the main obtained results. The studies were revealed that the bearing part loosing and inappropriate clearance can produce relative displacements under cyclic gradient loading. This condition was detrimental for the service life of turbine journal bearing via failure through fretting fatigue mechanism.

  7. 蜂窝汽封在中小型汽轮机组的应用%Application of Honeycomb Steam Seal in Medium and Small Steam Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江丽红; 毛吉献

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the structure and working principle of cellular steam seal and its advantages compared with the traditional comb , focusing on the steam seal technology application in medium and small gas turbine generator set . According to the actual application effect conclusion can be drawn that it has a notable effect in the steam seal technology in steam turbine steam for reducing leakage , and improved the efficiency of steam turbine .%本文介绍了蜂窝汽封的结构及工作原理,分析了该汽封与传统梳齿密封相比的优势,重点阐述了该汽封技术在中小型汽轮机组的应用,根据应用的实际效果,可以得出该汽封技术在降低汽轮机蒸汽泄漏量、提高汽轮机效率上效果显著。

  8. Efficient use of low-temperature and low-pressure steam for heating different media by dynamic steam blending; Effiziente Dampfverwertung von niedrig Temperatur und Niederdruck-Dampf zur Aufheizung verschiedenster Medien mittels dynamischer Dampfeinmischung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michal, L. [Andritz AG, Graz (Austria); Wallner, C.

    2007-07-01

    In this novel steam blending system, steam is added to the medium to be heated at a high relative speed. The dynamic mixing process provides even and fine distribution of the steam through the medium. The contact surfaces of the various phases of the gaseous steam and the liquid medium are enlarged substantially. This results in rapid and careful heat transfer from the steam to the medium, because the steam condenses immediately, minimizing steam bubbles. The key component consists mainly of a mixer casing and a rotating steam manifold. The steam needed to heat the stock is fed to the manifold through the specially shaped casing. The manifold, which is mounted on the extended motor shaft, rotates at the motor speed. The rotating steam nozzles cover the entire cross-section and 'plough' through the linear medium flow in radial direction. The large contact surfaces between the steam and the medium, as well as preventing local overheating of the medium, obviate condensation surges to a large extent. (orig.)

  9. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes investigation of high-lift low-pressure turbine blade aerodynamics at low Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, Bryan M.

    Design trends for the low-pressure turbine (LPT) section of modern gas turbine engines include increasing the loading per airfoil, which promises a decreased airfoil count resulting in reduced manufacturing and operating costs. Accurate Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes predictions of separated boundary layers and transition to turbulence are needed, as the lack of an economical and reliable computational model has contributed to this high-lift concept not reaching its full potential. Presented here for what is believed to be the first time applied to low-Re computations of high-lift linear cascade simulations is the Abe-Kondoh-Nagano (AKN) linear low-Re two-equation turbulence model which utilizes the Kolmogorov velocity scale for improved predictions of separated boundary layers. A second turbulence model investigated is the Kato-Launder modified version of the AKN, denoted MPAKN, which damps turbulent production in highly strained regions of flow. Fully Laminar solutions have also been calculated in an effort to elucidate the transitional quality of the turbulence model solutions. Time accurate simulations of three modern high-lift blades at a Reynolds number of 25,000 are compared to experimental data and higher-order computations in order to judge the accuracy of the results, where it is shown that the RANS simulations with highly refined grids can produce both quantitatively and qualitatively similar separation behavior as found in experiments. In particular, the MPAKN model is shown to predict the correct boundary layer behavior for all three blades, and evidence of transition is found through inspection of the components of the Reynolds Stress Tensor, spectral analysis, and the turbulence production parameter. Unfortunately, definitively stating that transition is occurring becomes an uncertain task, as similar evidence of the transition process is found in the Laminar predictions. This reveals that boundary layer reattachment may be a result of laminar

  10. Effects of Non-Equilibrium Condensation on Deviation Angle and Performance Losses in Wet Steam Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Bagheri Esfe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, effects of non-equilibrium condensation on deviation angle and performance losses of wet stages of steam turbines are investigated. The AUSM-van Leer hybrid scheme is used to solve the two-phase turbulent transonic steam flow around a turbine rotor tip section. The dominant solver of the computational domain is the non-diffusive AUSM scheme (1993, while a smooth transition from AUSM in regions with large gradients (e.g. in and around condensation- and aerodynamic-shocks to the diffusive scheme by van Leer (1979 guarantees a robust hybrid scheme throughout the domain. The steam is assumed to obey non-equilibrium thermodynamic model, in which abrupt formation of liquid droplets produces a condensation shock. To validate the results, the experimental data by Bakhtar et al. (1995 has been used. It is observed that as a result of condensation, the aerothermodymics of the flow field changes. For example for supersonic wet case with back pressure Pb=30 kPa, the deviation angle and total pressure loss coefficient change by 65% and 200%, respectively, with respect to that in dry case.

  11. Materials for Advanced Ultrasupercritical Steam Turbines Task 4: Cast Superalloy Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangirala, Mani

    2015-09-30

    The Steam Turbine critical stationary structural components are high integrity Large Shell and Valve Casing heavy section Castings, containing high temperature steam under high pressures. Hence to support the development of advanced materials technology for use in an AUSC steam turbine capable of operating with steam conditions of 760°C (1400°F) and 35 Mpa (5000 psia), Casting alloy selection and evaluation of mechanical, metallurgical properties and castability with robust manufacturing methods are mandated. Alloy down select from Phase 1 based on producability criteria and creep rupture properties tested by NETL-Albany and ORNL directed the consortium to investigate cast properties of Haynes 282 and Haynes 263. The goals of Task 4 in Phase 2 are to understand a broader range of mechanical properties, the impact of manufacturing variables on those properties. Scale up the size of heats to production levels to facilitate the understanding of the impact of heat and component weight, on metallurgical and mechanical behavior. GE Power & Water Materials and Processes Engineering for the Phase 2, Task 4.0 Castings work, systematically designed and executed casting material property evaluation, multiple test programs. Starting from 15 lbs. cylinder castings to world’s first 17,000 lbs. poured weight, heavy section large steam turbine partial valve Haynes 282 super alloy casting. This has demonstrated scalability of the material for steam Turbine applications. Activities under Task 4.0, Investigated and characterized various mechanical properties of Cast Haynes 282 and Cast Nimonic 263. The development stages involved were: 1) Small Cast Evaluation: 4 inch diam. Haynes 282 and Nimonic 263 Cylinders. This provided effects of liquidus super heat range and first baseline mechanical data on cast versions of conventional vacuum re-melted and forged Ni based super alloys. 2) Step block castings of 300 lbs. and 600 lbs. Haynes 282 from 2 foundry heats were evaluated which

  12. Processing of Advanced Cast Alloys for A-USC Steam Turbine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Hawk, Jeffery A.; Cowen, Christopher J.; Maziasz, Philip J.

    2012-02-01

    The high-temperature components within conventional supercritical coal-fired power plants are manufactured from ferritic/martensitic steels. To reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, the efficiency of pulverized coal steam power plants must be increased to as high a temperature and pressure as feasible. The proposed steam temperature in the DOE/NETL Advanced Ultra Supercritical power plant is high enough (760°C) that ferritic/martensitic steels will not work for the majority of high-temperature components in the turbine or for pipes and tubes in the boiler due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Thus, Ni-based superalloys are being considered for many of these components. Off-the-shelf forged nickel alloys have shown good promise at these temperatures, but further improvements can be made through experimentation within the nominal chemistry range as well as through thermomechanical processing and subsequent heat treatment. However, cast nickel-based superalloys, which possess high strength, creep resistance, and weldability, are typically not available, particularly those with good ductility and toughness that are weldable in thick sections. To address those issues related to thick casting for turbine casings, for example, cast analogs of selected wrought nickel-based superalloys such as alloy 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105 have been produced. Alloy design criteria, melt processing experiences, and heat treatment are discussed with respect to the as-processed and heat-treated microstructures and selected mechanical properties. The discussion concludes with the prospects for full-scale development of a thick section casting for a steam turbine valve chest or rotor casing.

  13. Effect of internal elements of the steam turbine exhaust hood on losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajč Ladislav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The document deals with the flow in the exhaust hood of a single flow steam turbine. The effect of the shape of the external case of the hood and the position and dimensions of the internal reinforcements on the energy loss coefficient is evaluated. Using this coefficient, it is possible to determine the gained or lost output in the diffuser and the entire exhaust hood at a known flow and efficiency of the last stage. Flow research in the exhaust hood was performed especially using numeric simulations; some variants were verified experimentally in the aerodynamic wind tunnel.

  14. An experimental study on flowrate and stability for 600MW supercritical steam-turbine control valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    相晓伟; 毛靖儒; 孙弼

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study on flowrate and stability of a type of control valve of 600MW supercritical steam-turbine was presented by measuring instruments of static, dynamic pressure and vibration in self-designed test rig. The investigation shows that flow coefficient is 30% up more than that of the control valve of GX-1 type used widely in domestic power plants now, as small-medium lifts. If the relative lift (h/D) is less than 20%, the valve can always work steadily in all the pressure ratios. When the h/D i...

  15. 3D Flow in the Axial—Radial Exhaust Hood of a Steam Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STASTNYM.,SKODA; KOLARP.,

    1997-01-01

    The computation model of the 3D viscous flow is used for the analysis of the flow conditions in the model of steam turbine exhaust hood,that was in previous time investigated experimentally,The computation method and the obtained results are described.The calculation is concentrated on the finding of the influence of inlet velocity field and on the influence of compressibility of the flow medium.Especially it followed the fluid motion in the outlte vortex and the occurrence of the areas with flow separation.

  16. DESIGN OF COMBINED CYCLE GENERATION SYSTEM WITH HIGH TEMPERATURE FUEL CELL AND STEAM TURBINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lijun; Yuan Junqi; Cao Guangyi

    2003-01-01

    For environment protection and high efficiency, development of new concept power plant has been required in China. The fuel cell is expected to be used in a power plant as a centralized power station or distributed power plant. It is a chemical power generation device that converts the energy of a chemical reaction directly into electrical energy and not limited by Carnot cycle efficiency. The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plant has several attractive features I.e. High efficiency and lower emission of Nox and Sox. A combined cycle generation system with MCFC and steam turbine is designed. Its net electrical efficiency LHV is about 55%.

  17. User's manual for PRESTO: A computer code for the performance of regenerative steam turbine cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, L. C.; Stovall, T. K.

    1979-01-01

    Standard turbine cycles for baseload power plants and cycles with such additional features as process steam extraction and induction and feedwater heating by external heat sources may be modeled. Peaking and high back pressure cycles are also included. The code's methodology is to use the expansion line efficiencies, exhaust loss, leakages, mechanical losses, and generator losses to calculate the heat rate and generator output. A general description of the code is given as well as the instructions for input data preparation. Appended are two complete example cases.

  18. Inlet Flux Influence to Aerodynamic Performance of Steam Turbine Vane Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zi-Ming

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the aerodynamic performance and the performance of off-design working condition, it is necessary to research the inlet flow rate influence to overall performance of steam turbine. This study uses CFD technology to numerical simulation the flow field of nozzle cascades passage at 80, 100, 120% flow rate, respectively. The simulation results indicates that the various flow loss of nozzle have a little change at 100% design working condition, have decreased at 80% design working condition and have increased at 120% design working condition.

  19. Flow simulation of a partial-admission steam turbine; Stroemungssimulation einer teilbeaufschlagten Dampfturbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkkuhl, Tobias J.

    2014-11-21

    This thesis discusses the CFD simulation of the flow in an industrial steam turbine, equipped with a control stage. Due to partial admission, the rotor blades suffer from high cyclic blade loading. Specific losses occur. The circumferential asymmetry of the flow involves high gradients of the flow variables in circumferential direction. At the boundaries, between the admitted and the non-admitted sectors, high velocities appear. The specific flow patterns produce high flow unsteadiness of the rotor resulting in cyclic blade loading. Due to the pressure fluctuations the aerodynamic forces, acting on the rotor blades, are many times higher than the average forces in the admitted sector. The thesis describes the high cyclic blade loading, together with the unsteady and three-dimensional flow patterns inside the control stage and the attenuation in the adjacent turbine stages. Modifications to the geometry within the control stage show severe influence on the dynamics.

  20. A high-speed photographic system for flow visualization in a steam turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barna, G. J.

    1973-01-01

    A photographic system was designed to visualize the moisture flow in a steam turbine. Good performance of the system was verified using dry turbine mockups in which an aerosol spray simulated, in a rough way, the moisture flow in the turbine. Borescopes and fiber-optic light tubes were selected as the general instrumentation approach. High speed motion-picture photographs of the liquid flow over the stator blade surfaces were taken using stroboscopic lighting. Good visualization of the liquid flow was obtained. Still photographs of drops in flight were made using short duration flash sources. Drops with diameters as small as 30 micrometers (0.0012 in.) could be resolved. In addition, motion pictures of a spray of water simulating the spray off the rotor blades and shrouds were taken at normal framing rates. Specially constructed light tubes containing small tungsten-halogen lamps were used. Sixteen millimeter photography was used in all cases. Two potential problems resulting from the two-phase turbine flow (attenuation and scattering of light by the fog present and liquid accumulation on the borescope mirrors) were taken into account in the photographic system design but not evaluated experimentally.

  1. Integrated vacuum absorption steam cycle gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiaguo; Lu, Yonggi; Rostam-Abadi, Massoud

    2011-11-22

    Methods and systems for separating a targeted gas from a gas stream emitted from a power plant. The gas stream is brought into contact with an absorption solution to preferentially absorb the targeted gas to be separated from the gas stream so that an absorbed gas is present within the absorption solution. This provides a gas-rich solution, which is introduced into a stripper. Low pressure exhaust steam from a low pressure steam turbine of the power plant is injected into the stripper with the gas-rich solution. The absorbed gas from the gas-rich solution is stripped in the stripper using the injected low pressure steam to provide a gas stream containing the targeted gas. The stripper is at or near vacuum. Water vapor in a gas stream from the stripper is condensed in a condenser operating at a pressure lower than the stripper to concentrate the targeted gas. Condensed water is separated from the concentrated targeted gas.

  2. State-of-the-art turbine technology enabling extremely high steam temperatures in unit R of the Boxberg power plant. Significantly contributing to a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions; Modernste Turbinentechnologie mit hoechsten Dampftemperaturen fuer das Kraftwerk Boxberg, Block R. Ein signifikanter Beitrag zur Reduktion der CO{sub 2}-Emissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremmel, A.; Brandt, C. [ALSTOM Power Generation AG, Mannheim (Germany); Mandel, H. [Vattenfall Europe Generation AG und Co. KG, Cottbus (Germany); Klauke, U. [Vattenfall Europe Powerconsult GmbH, Vetschau (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    This paper will describe the steam turbo-generator set designed for the Boxberg Power Plant, Unit R. Consistent measures of improvement have been taken, based on field-proven technology. For instance, the use of state-of-the-art materials, developed by European research groups, allows the plant to be run with extremely high steam parameters. In addition, the flow configuration in the turbine is optimised in all areas. This includes the use of advanced aerodynamic profiles for the blading and an optimised design for the low-pressure last stages, combined with a downstream diffuser. (orig.)

  3. Ultrsonic Phased-array Inspection of Mushroom Shaped Leaf Root of Steam Turbine%汽轮机转子菌形叶根超声相控阵检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄桥生; 陈红冬; 龙毅; 熊亮; 胡彬

    2012-01-01

    The steam turbine is one of the most important rotation equipments in the Nuclear Power Plant,the blade of steam turbine is likely to engender crack in the root position that may eventually affect the safety work of low-pressure rotor.The article mainly introduces ultrsonic phased array technology on methods concerning the blade of steam turbine.It is helpful to master the method on how to judge the defects according to the inspection technique of Mushroom shaped leaf root.The inspection result indicated that present technique had good application effectiveness,and the development of the ultrsonic phased-array technology of blade root had great significance in the area of assuring the safety and reliability of running condition of steam turbine.%汽轮机转子是电厂重要的转动设备,高速旋转可能导致叶片叶根裂纹产生,从而影响到低压转子的安全运行。通过对汽轮机转子菌形叶根超声相控阵检测技术研究,掌握叶根缺陷信号的判断方法。检测结果表明:开发超声相控阵检验技术应用效果良好,在保证电厂汽轮机安全、可靠运行上起了重要的作用。

  4. Dynamic Response of Rub Caused by a Shedding Annular Component Happening in a Steam Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rub caused by a shedding annular component is a severe fault happening in a steam turbine, which could result in a long-term wearing effect on the shaft. The shafting abrasion defects shortened the service life and damaged the unit. To identify the fault in time, the dynamic response of rub caused by a shedding annular component was studied as follows: (I a rotor-bearing model was established based on the structural features of certain steam turbines; node-to-node contact constraint and penalty method were utilized to analyze the impact and friction; (II dynamic response of the rotor-bearing system and the shedding component was simulated with the development of rub after the component was dropping; (III fault features were extracted from the vibration near the bearing position by time-domain and frequency-domain analysis. The results indicate that the shedding annular component would not only rotate pivoting its axis but also revolve around the shaft after a period of time. Under the excitation of the contact force, the peak-peak vibration fluctuates greatly. The frequency spectrum contains two main components, that is, the working rotating frequency and revolving frequency. The same phenomenon was observed from the historical data in the field.

  5. 低压余热回收蒸汽发电技术在球团厂的应用%Application of the Technology of Power Generation with Low-pressure Steam from Recovered Waste Heat in a Pelletizing Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣雷

    2014-01-01

    The application of the technology of power generation with low-pressure steam from recovered waste heat in a pelletizing plant and the good economic results are discussed through introduction of a waste heat power generation project at a pelletizing plant of some steel company. The process flow, principle, main equipment and technical parameters and e-conomic result of the project are described in detail.%通过某公司球团厂余热发电项目的介绍,探讨低压余热回收蒸汽发电技术在球团厂的应用及其产生的良好经济效益。详细介绍了工艺流程、原理及主要设备技术参数、经济效益等。

  6. Unsteady Numerical Simulation of Steam-Solid Two-Phase Flow in the Governing Stage of a Steam Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yufeng Li; Peigang Yan; Wanjin Han

    2009-01-01

    Solid particle erosion (SPE) in an ultra-supercritical steam turbine control stage with block configuration is inves-tigated numerically, based on the finite volume method and the fluid-particle coupling solver. We apply the parti-cle discrete phase model to model the solid particles flow, and use the Euler conservation equations to solve the continuous phase. The investigation is focused on the influence of the solid particle parameters (such as particle diameter, particle velocity and particle trajectory) on the erosion rate of the stator and rotor blade surface in un-steady condition. The distributions of the highly eroded zone on the stator and rotor blade surfaces are shown and discussed in detail according to the mechanism of solid particle/blade wall interaction. We obtain that the erosion rate of the vane blade is sensitive to the fluctuation of the potential flow field, and the smaller particle has a greater impact on the erosion distribution of rotor blade. The erosion rate does not entirely depend on the diameter size of the solid particle.

  7. Advanced Nuclear Steam Turbine for Highest Power Output%先进的具高出力的核电汽轮机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Wichtmann; Norbert Schindler; Wilfried Ulm

    2003-01-01

    介绍了西门子设计制造先进大功率核电汽轮机的长期运行经验,并发展半速饱和蒸汽核电汽轮机,功率达1700MW,末级长叶片高度为1829mm,从设计、工艺、材料选择等方面论述了提高机组出力、提高机组效率、减少腐蚀的方法,其中包括套装叶轮设计、3DSTM叶片技术、高压透平和低压透平等.%The paper introduces long operational experience of nuclear power plant at Siemens which has been developing the half speed saturated steam turboset for high power output up to 1700MWel with the longest blade length up to 1829mm/72 inch. The advanced design methods, process and appropriate material selection have been proved to increase the highest power output and efficiency, decrease erosion and corrosion. The features of the shrunk-on disk design, 3DSTM blade technique, high pressure turbine and low pressure turbine are also described in the paper.

  8. Development and Verification of 3000Rpm 48Inch Integral Shroud Blade for Steam Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Yasutomo; Mori, Kazushi; Ohyama, Hiroharu

    The 3000rpm 48inch blade for steam turbine was developed as one of the new standard series of LP end blades. The new LP end blades are characterized by the ISB (Integral Shroud Blade) structure. In the ISB structure, blades are continuously coupled by blade untwist due to centrifugal force when the blades rotate at high speed. Therefore, the number of the resonant vibration modes can be reduced by virtue of the vibration characteristics of the circumferentially continuous blades, and the resonant stress can be decreased due to the additional friction damping generated at shrouds and stubs. In order to develop the 3000rpm 48inch blade, the latest analysis methods to predict the vibration characteristics of the ISB structure were applied, after confirming their validity to the blade design. Moreover, the verification tests such as rotational vibration tests and model turbine tests were carried out in the shop to confirm the reliability of the developed blade. As the final verification test, the field test of the actual steam turbine was carried out in the site during the trial operation, and the vibration stress of the 3000rpm 48inch blade was measured by use of telemetry system. In the field test, the vibratory stress of the blade was measured under various operating conditions for more than one month. This paper first presents the up-to-date design technology applied to the design of the 3000rpm 48inch blade. In the second place, the results of the various verification tests carried out in the shop are presented as well as their procedure. Lastly, the results of the final verification tests of 3000rpm 48inch blade carried out in the site are presented.

  9. Co-generation on steam industrial systems with disks turbines; Co-geracao em sistemas industriais de vapor com turbinas de discos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezsovits, Ferenc [Universidad de Tecnologia y Economia de Budapest (Hungary)

    2010-03-15

    The disk turbine, also called Tesla turbine, being of simple construction and low cost, can be used as steam pressure reduction on industrial systems, generating simultaneously electric power, becoming the co-generation even at lower levels. Can be used for various operational parameters and mass flux ratios.This paper analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the turbines under various operation conditions.

  10. The 15 kW sub e (nominal) solar thermal electric power conversion concept definition study: Steam Rankine turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    A study to define the performance and cost characteristics of a solar powered, steam Rankine turbine system located at the focal point of a solar concentrator is presented. A two stage re-entry turbine with reheat between stages, which has an efficiency of 27% at a turbine inlet temperature of 732 C was used. System efficiency was defined as 60 Hertz electrical output divided by absorbed thermal input in the working fluid. Mass production costs were found to be approximately 364 dollars/KW.

  11. Thermo-economic comparative analysis of gas turbine GT10 integrated with air and steam bottoming cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Daniel; Chmielnak, Tadeusz; Lepszy, Sebastian

    2014-12-01

    A thermodynamic and economic analysis of a GT10 gas turbine integrated with the air bottoming cycle is presented. The results are compared to commercially available combined cycle power plants based on the same gas turbine. The systems under analysis have a better chance of competing with steam bottoming cycle configurations in a small range of the power output capacity. The aim of the calculations is to determine the final cost of electricity generated by the gas turbine air bottoming cycle based on a 25 MW GT10 gas turbine with the exhaust gas mass flow rate of about 80 kg/s. The article shows the results of thermodynamic optimization of the selection of the technological structure of gas turbine air bottoming cycle and of a comparative economic analysis. Quantities are determined that have a decisive impact on the considered units profitability and competitiveness compared to the popular technology based on the steam bottoming cycle. The ultimate quantity that can be compared in the calculations is the cost of 1 MWh of electricity. It should be noted that the systems analyzed herein are power plants where electricity is the only generated product. The performed calculations do not take account of any other (potential) revenues from the sale of energy origin certificates. Keywords: Gas turbine air bottoming cycle, Air bottoming cycle, Gas turbine, GT10

  12. Steam turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Vališ, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Diplomová práce se zabývá návrhem parní turbíny s regulovaným odběrem páry pro spalovnu komunálního odpadu. Nejprve je uvedena historie zařízení využívajících páry jako hybného média, dále následuje popis výpočtového programu, v němž výpočet probíhal. Podstata diplomové práce pak spočívá v termodynamickém návrhu lopatkování turbíny, základním návrhu převodovky včetně kontrolních výpočtů a porovnání jednohřídelového a dvouhřídelového konstrukčního provedení z technickoekonomického hlediska. Po...

  13. Thermo-economic analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell and steam injected gas turbine plant integrated with woodchips gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a thermo-economic analysis of an integrated biogas-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for electric power generation. Basic plant layout consists of a gasification plant (GP), an SOFC and a retrofitted steam-injected gas turbine (STIG). Different system configurations...

  14. Modeling Creep-Fatigue-Environment Interactions in Steam Turbine Rotor Materials for Advanced Ultra-supercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Chen [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this project is to model creep-fatigue-environment interactions in steam turbine rotor materials for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) coal power Alloy 282 plants, to develop and demonstrate computational algorithms for alloy property predictions, and to determine and model key mechanisms that contribute to the damages caused by creep-fatigue-environment interactions.

  15. Materials for Advanced Ultrasupercritical Steam Turbines Task 4: Cast Superalloy Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangirala, Mani

    2015-09-30

    The Steam Turbine critical stationary structural components are high integrity Large Shell and Valve Casing heavy section Castings, containing high temperature steam under high pressures. Hence to support the development of advanced materials technology for use in an AUSC steam turbine capable of operating with steam conditions of 760°C (1400°F) and 35 Mpa (5000 psia), Casting alloy selection and evaluation of mechanical, metallurgical properties and castability with robust manufacturing methods are mandated. Alloy down select from Phase 1 based on producability criteria and creep rupture properties tested by NETL-Albany and ORNL directed the consortium to investigate cast properties of Haynes 282 and Haynes 263. The goals of Task 4 in Phase 2 are to understand a broader range of mechanical properties, the impact of manufacturing variables on those properties. Scale up the size of heats to production levels to facilitate the understanding of the impact of heat and component weight, on metallurgical and mechanical behavior. GE Power & Water Materials and Processes Engineering for the Phase 2, Task 4.0 Castings work, systematically designed and executed casting material property evaluation, multiple test programs. Starting from 15 lbs. cylinder castings to world’s first 17,000 lbs. poured weight, heavy section large steam turbine partial valve Haynes 282 super alloy casting. This has demonstrated scalability of the material for steam Turbine applications. Activities under Task 4.0, Investigated and characterized various mechanical properties of Cast Haynes 282 and Cast Nimonic 263. The development stages involved were: 1) Small Cast Evaluation: 4 inch diam. Haynes 282 and Nimonic 263 Cylinders. This provided effects of liquidus super heat range and first baseline mechanical data on cast versions of conventional vacuum re-melted and forged Ni based super alloys. 2) Step block castings of 300 lbs. and 600 lbs. Haynes 282 from 2 foundry heats were evaluated which

  16. A CFD Analysis of Steam Flow in the Two-Stage Experimental Impulse Turbine with the Drum Rotor Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Kukchol; Tajč, L.; Kolovratník, M.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the CFD analysis of the steam flow in the two-stage turbine with a drum rotor and balancing slots. The balancing slot is a part of every rotor blade and it can be used in the same way as balancing holes on the classical rotor disc. The main attention is focused on the explanation of the experimental knowledge about the impact of the slot covering and uncovering on the efficiency of the individual stages and the entire turbine. The pressure and temperature fields and the mass steam flows through the shaft seals, slots and blade cascades are calculated. The impact of the balancing slots covering or uncovering on the reaction and velocity conditions in the stages is evaluated according to the pressure and temperature fields. We have also concentrated on the analysis of the seal steam flow through the balancing slots. The optimized design of the balancing slots has been suggested.

  17. Analisis Bahaya dengan Metode Hazop dan Manajemen Risiko pada Steam Turbine PLTU di Unit 5 Pembangkitan Listrik Paiton (PT. YTL Jawa Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Zulfiana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Steam turbine beroperasi pada temperatur dan tekanan uap yang tinggi sehingga keamanan proses harus dijaga agar tidak terjadi bahaya yang menimbulkan risiko. Untuk analisis dan identifikasi bahaya digunakan metode HAZOP yang selanjutnya melakukan manajemen resiko berupa emergency respon plan berdasarkan bahaya yang mungkin terjadi pada PLTU. Identifikasi bahaya dengan metode HAZOP dilakukan dengan penentuan 4 node pada steam turbine yaitu HP Turbine, IP Turbine, LP Turbine 1 dan LP Turbine 2, penentuan guideword dan deviasi berdasarkan control chart data proses transmitter di setiap node, dan untuk estimasi likelihood berdasarkan nilai MTTF tiap transmitter. ERP pada steam turbine dibuat untuk kejadian kebakaran karena berisiko tinggi dan kemungkinan besar terjadi serta dapat menyebabkan bahaya lain seperti ledakan dsb. Dari penelitian ini diketahui kondisi yang paling berbahaya pada steam turbine adalah kondisi high pressure yang diketahui dari risk matrix pressure trasnmitter pada 4 node yang bernilai high dan ekstrim yang dapat menyebabkan turbin mengalami overspeed. Rekomendasi untuk menanggulangi bahaya tersebut antara lain pemasangan pressure alarm, simulasi automatic turbine test, pemeriksaan turbine overspeed protection serta kalibrasi maupun pengecekan pada pressure trasnmitter tersebut.

  18. The influence of selected design and operating parameters on the dynamics of the steam micro-turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żywica, Grzegorz; Kiciński, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The topic of the article is the analysis of the influence of selected design parameters and operating conditions on the radial steam micro-turbine, which was adapted to operate with low-boiling agent in the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). In the following parts of this article the results of the thermal load analysis, the residual unbalance and the stiffness of bearing supports are discussed. Advanced computational methods and numerical models have been used. Computational analysis showed that the steam micro-turbine is characterized by very good dynamic properties and is resistant to extreme operating conditions. The prototype of micro-turbine has passed a series of test calculations. It has been found that it can be subjected to experimental research in the micro combined heat and power system.

  19. Thermo-economic study on the implementation of steam turbine concepts for flexible operation on a direct steam generation solar tower power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topel, Monika; Ellakany, Farid; Guédez, Rafael; Genrup, Magnus; Laumert, Björn

    2016-05-01

    Among concentrating solar power technologies, direct steam generation solar tower power plants represent a promising option. These systems eliminate the usage of heat transfer fluids allowing for the power block to be run at greater operating temperatures and therefore further increasing the thermal efficiency of the power cycle. On the other hand, the current state of the art of these systems does not comprise thermal energy storage as there are no currently available and techno-economically feasible storage integration options. This situation makes direct steam generation configurations even more susceptible to the already existing variability of operating conditions due to the fluctuation of the solar supply. In the interest of improving the annual performance and competitiveness of direct steam generation solar tower systems, the present study examines the influence of implementing two flexibility enhancing concepts which control the steam flow to the turbine as a function of the incoming solar irradiation. The proposed concepts were implemented in a reference plant model previously developed by the authors. Then, a multi-objective optimization was carried out in order to understand which configurations of the steam turbine concepts yield reductions of the levelized cost of electricity at a lower investment costs when compared to the reference model. Results show that the implementation of the proposed strategies can enhance the thermo-economic performance of direct steam generation systems by yielding a reduction of up to 9.2% on the levelized cost of electricity, mainly due to allowing 20% increase in the capacity factor, while increasing the investment costs by 7.8%.

  20. An experimental study on flowrate and stability for 600MW supercritical steam-turbine control valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study on flowrate and stability of a type of control valve of 600MW supercritical steam-turbine was presented by measuring instruments of static, dynamic pressure and vibration in self-designed test rig. The investigation shows that flow coefficient is 30% up more than that of the control valve of GX-1 type used widely in domestic power plants now, as small-medium lifts. If the relative lift (h/D) is less than 20%, the valve can always work steadily in all the pressure ratios. When the h/D is between 20% to 24%, big vibration of valve stem occurs if the pressure ratio is between 0.7 to 0.8. When h/D is more than 25%, relatively great vibration happens in a wide range of pressure ratios of 0.4 to 0.85.

  1. Comparison of Integrated Gasifier-Combined Cycle and AFB-steam turbine systems for industrial cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainiger, J. J.; Abbott, J. M.; Burns, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    In the cogeneration technology alternatives study (CTAS) a number of advanced coal fired systems were examined and systems using a integrated coal gasifier IGCC or a fluid bed combustor AFB were found to yield attractive cogeneration results in industrial cogeneration applications. A range of site requirements and cogeneration sizing strategies using ground rules based on CTAS were used in comparing an IGCC and an AFB. The effect of time variations in site requirements and the sensitivity to fuel and electricity price assumptions are examined. The economic alternatives of industrial or utility ownership are also considered. The results indicate that the IGCC system has potentially higher fuel and emission savings and could be an attractive option for utility ownership. The AFB steam turbine system has a potentially higher return on investment and could be attractive assuming industrial ownership.

  2. Comparison of Integrated Gasifier-Combined Cycle and AFB-steam turbine systems for industrial cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainiger, J. J.; Abbott, J. M.; Burns, R. K.

    In the cogeneration technology alternatives study (CTAS) a number of advanced coal fired systems were examined and systems using a integrated coal gasifier IGCC or a fluid bed combustor AFB were found to yield attractive cogeneration results in industrial cogeneration applications. A range of site requirements and cogeneration sizing strategies using ground rules based on CTAS were used in comparing an IGCC and an AFB. The effect of time variations in site requirements and the sensitivity to fuel and electricity price assumptions are examined. The economic alternatives of industrial or utility ownership are also considered. The results indicate that the IGCC system has potentially higher fuel and emission savings and could be an attractive option for utility ownership. The AFB steam turbine system has a potentially higher return on investment and could be attractive assuming industrial ownership.

  3. Analysis of the Seal Characteristic for LP Cylinder of Large Steam Turbine%三维数字模拟技术在汽轮机低压汽缸汽密性设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伯树; 魏军; 杜连庆; 何成君; 平路光

    2011-01-01

    随着大容量、高参数火电机组的不断发展,机组整体汽密性的设计对机组安全性和效率的影响变得越来越重要.将全三维非线性热固、流固耦合数值模拟技术引入到大型汽轮机机组低压汽缸及其部件的汽密性设计分析中,通过对结构的全新改进和优化解决了华能沁北电厂和大唐乌沙山电厂低压汽缸漏汽问题,提高了机组效率.%With the development of the emergence large-capacity, high-parameter thermal power unit, the higher economy and reliability is demanded. The widespread steam seal issue on thermal power unit seriously affects the safe operation and coal-fired efficiency of the steam turbine,and the steam leakage of the low pressure cylinder is more serious and frequent.The seal characteristic of the steam turbine cylinder ( blade ring,etc) was simulated using large-scale finite element software and CFD software in this paper. Through the improvement and optimization in the structure , huaneng qinbei power plant and datang wusha hill power plant LP cylinder steam leakage problems have been resolved , in addition it improve the efficiency of the unit. of the new solution.

  4. Design of a H∞ Robust Controller with μ-Analysis for Steam Turbine Power Generation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Iannino

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated Solar Power plants are complex systems subjected to quite sensitive variations of the steam production profile and external disturbances, thus advanced control techniques that ensure system stability and suitable performance criteria are required. In this work, a multi-objective H∞ robust controller is designed and applied to the power control of a Concentered Solar Power plant composed by two turbines, a gear and a generator. In order to provide robust performance and stability in presence of disturbances, not modeled plant dynamics and plant-parameter variations, the advanced features of the μ-analysis are exploited. A high order controller is obtained from the process of synthesis that makes the implementation of the controller difficult and computational more demanding for a Programmable Logic Controller. Therefore, the controller order is reduced through the Balanced Truncation method and then discretized. The obtained robust control is compared to the current Proportional Integral Derivative-based governing system in order to evaluate its performance, considering unperturbed as well as perturbed scenarios, taking into account variations of steam conditions, sensor measurement delays and power losses. The simulations results show that the proposed controller achieves better robustness and performance compared to the existing Proportional Integral Derivative controller.

  5. A new adaptive backstepping method for nonlinear control of turbine main steam valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun FU; Jun ZHAO

    2007-01-01

    A new approach for nonlinear adaptive control of turbine main steam valve is developed.In comparison with the existing controller based on "classical" adaptive backstepping.this method does not follow the classical certaintyequivalence principle in the design of adaptive control law.We introduce this approach,for the first time,to power systems and present a novel parameter estimator and dynamic feedback controller for a single machine infinite bus(SMIB)system with steam valve contral.This system contains unknown parameters such as reactance of transmission lines.Besides preserving useful nonlinearities and the real-time estimation of uncertain parameters,the proposed approach possesses better performances with respect to the response of the system and the speed of adaptation.The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach is better than the design based on "classical" adaptive backstepping in terms of properties of stability and parameter estimation,and recovers the performance of the "full-information" controller.Hence.the proposed method provides an alternative for engineers in applications.

  6. Aerodynamic-acoustic Three-dimensional Numerical Optimization of Low Pressure Turbine: Lean Vane Strategy%低压涡轮的气动-声学三维数值优化:倾斜导叶策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵磊; 乔渭阳; 谭洪川

    2013-01-01

    The low pressure turbine of an aircraft is an important engine noise source at approach power, and there is a high requirement on its aerodynamic efficiency. The noise level of a low pressure turbine must be considered together with its aerodynamic performance to achieve a significantly quiet low pressure turbine design. In this paper some insights are presented on three-dimensional aerodynamic-acousitc optimization for a high performance and low noise level turbine. First, a steady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is made to evaluate the aerodynamic performance with three-dimensional design variations. Then the unsteady aerodynamic effects and tonal noise level are obtained using unsteady CFD calculation combined with a triple-plane pressure (TPP) matching strategy. Finally an optimal design plan is selected. Taking as an example the calculation of the last stage of a GE-E3 (Energy Efficient Engine) low pressure turbine, the potential of using lean vanes as a turbine tonal noise reduction strategy is numerically simulated. The results show that when the positive lean angle is smaller than 19° the single stage turbine performance is improved, with a maximum enhancement of efficiency of 0. 3% . Evaluation of tonal noise shows that positive lean increases the noise level, for it changes the characteristics of vane wakes, which means this method cannot be employed for noise reduction. The numerical simulation indicates that this three-dimensional optimization method can reflect simultaneously the effects of detailed three-dimensional changes of a blade on its aerodynamic and acoustic performance, and it can be effectively used in the aerodynamic-acousitc optimization process.%低压涡轮既是飞机进场着陆时发动机的重要声源,也是发动机中对效率要求很高的部件之一,为了实现低压涡轮低噪声的设计目标必须同时兼顾气动性能指标.研究给出了高效低噪声低压涡轮气动-声学三维优化的思路,

  7. The impact research of control modes in steam turbine control system (digital electric hydraulic to the low-frequency oscillation of grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanghai Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the analysis of the control theory for steam turbine, the transfer function of the steam turbine control modes in the parallel operation was obtained. The frequency domain analysis indicated that different control modes of turbine control system have different influence on the damping characteristics of the power system. The comparative analysis shows the direction and the degree of the influence under the different oscillation frequency range. This can provide the theory for the suppression of the low-frequency oscillation from turbine side and has a guiding significance for the stability of power system. The results of simulation tests are consistent with the theoretic analysis.

  8. Economics Effect and Optimization of Composite Steam Distribution Mode for Steam Turbine%汽轮机复合配汽方式对机组经济性的影响及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗绪东

    2014-01-01

    本文针对汽轮机复合配汽方式进行了探讨,分析了节流调节影响经济性的机理,论证了进行喷嘴配汽优化对机组安全性的影响及解决方案,得出结论:复合配汽方式对机组经济性影响较大,应改为喷嘴配汽。%Discuss the composite steam distribution mode for steam turbine,analyze throttle governing effect mecha-nism of economics,demonstrate the nozzle steam distribution optimization effect on the unit safety and solution,reach deci-sion:composite steam distribution mode has a great economics effect on steam turbine,should be convert to nozzle steam distribution.

  9. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of steam turbine materials for geothermal power plants in simulated geothermal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Haofeng [Shinshu Univ. (Japan). Graduate School; Niu Libin; Oishi, Shuji [Shinshu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Takaku, Hiroshi [Shinshu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Naigai Chemical Products Co. (Japan); Shiokawa, Kunio; Yamashita, Mitsuo; Sakai, Yoshihiro [Fuji Electric Advanced Technology Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2007-08-15

    In order to evaluate the influence of chloride, sulfate and carbon dioxide in water on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of geothermal steam turbine materials, measurements of the anodic polarization and the pitting corrosion potential were conducted in simulated geothermal waters. The corrosion resistance of all materials tested was lowered by an increasing carbon dioxide content in the simulated geothermal waters. Higher chloride concentrations in the waters induced lower corrosion resistance and also lower pitting corrosion potentials for materials with higher chromium contents, suggesting the corrosion behavior was mainly controlled by the chromium content of the materials. The corrosion resistance of 9CrMoV and 13Cr steels was also influenced by the concentration of sulfate in the water. The improved heat-treated 16Cr-4Ni material for turbine blades showed excellent corrosion resistance. In the presence of sulfate, the corrosion reactions are mitigated due to a decreasing concentration of chloride (due to the presence of sulfate) in corrosion pits. (orig.)

  10. Accurate calibration of steam turbine speed control system and its influence on primary regulation at electric grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irrazabal Bohorquez, Washington Orlando; Barbosa, Joao Roberto [Technological Institute of Aeronautics (ITA/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Center for Reference on Gas Turbine and Energy], E-mail: barbosa@ita.br

    2010-07-01

    In an interconnected electric system there are two very important parameters: the field voltage and the frequency system. The frequency system is very important for the primary regulation of the electric grid. Each turbomachine actuating as generator interconnected to the grid has an automatic speed regulator to keep the rotational speed and mechanical power of the prime machine operating at the set conditions and stable frequency. The electric grid is a dynamical system and in every moment the power units are exposed to several types of disturbances, which cause unbalance of the mechanical power developed by prime machine and the consumed electric power at the grid. The steam turbine speed control system controls the turbine speed to support the electric grid primary frequency at the same time it controls the frequency of the prime machine. Using a mathematical model for the speed control system, the transfer functions were calculated, as well as the proportionality constants of each element of the steam turbine automatic speed regulator. Among other parameters, the droop characteristic of steam turbine and the dynamic characteristics of the automatic speed regulator elements were calculated. Another important result was the determination of the behavior of the speed control when disturbances occur with the improvement of the calibration precision of the control system. (author)

  11. Performance Comparison on Repowering of a Steam Power Plant with Gas Turbines and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Repowering is a process for transforming an old power plant for greater capacity and/or higher efficiency. As a consequence, the repowered plant is characterized by higher power output and less specific CO2 emissions. Usually, repowering is performed by adding one or more gas turbines...... of this study, repowering of an existing power plant with SOFC as well as gas turbines. Different repowering strategies are studied here, repowering with one gas turbine with and without supplementary firing, repowering with two gas turbines with and without supplementary firing and finally repowering using...... into an existing steam cycle which was built decades ago. Thus, traditional repowering results in combined cycles (CC). High temperature fuel cells (such as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)) could also be used as a topping cycle, achieving even higher global plant efficiency and even lower specific CO2 emissions...

  12. Optimum Tilt Angle of Flow Guide in Steam Turbine Exhaust Hood Considering the Effect of Last Stage Flow Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAO, Lihua; LIN, Aqiang; LI, Yong; XIAO, Bin

    2017-07-01

    Heat transfer and vacuum in condenser are influenced by the aerodynamic performance of steam turbine exhaust hood. The current research on exhaust hood is mainly focused on analyzing flow loss and optimal design of its structure without consideration of the wet steam condensing flow and the exhaust hood coupled with the front and rear parts. To better understand the aerodynamic performance influenced by the tilt angle of flow guide inside a diffuser, taking a 600 MW steam turbine as an example, a numerical simulator CFX is adopted to solve compressible three-dimensional (3D) Reynolds time-averaged N-S equations and standard k- ɛ turbulence model. And the exhaust hood flow field influenced by different tilt angles of flow guide is investigated with consideration of the wet steam condensing flow and the exhaust hood coupled with the last stage blades and the condenser throat. The result shows that the total pressure loss coefficient and the static pressure recovery coefficient of exhaust hood change regularly and monotonously with the gradual increase of tilt angle of flow guide. When the tilt angle of flow guide is within the range of 30° to 40°, the static pressure recovery coefficient is in the range of 15.27% to 17.03% and the total pressure loss coefficient drops to approximately 51%, the aerodynamic performance of exhaust hood is significantly improved. And the effective enthalpy drop in steam turbine increases by 0.228% to 0.274%. It is feasible to obtain a reasonable title angle of flow guide by the method of coupling the last stage and the condenser throat to exhaust hood in combination of the wet steam model, which provides a practical guidance to flow guide transformation and optimal design in exhaust hood.

  13. Optimum Tilt Angle of Flow Guide in Steam Turbine Exhaust Hood Considering the Effect of Last Stage Flow Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAO, Lihua; LIN, Aqiang; LI, Yong; XIAO, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Heat transfer and vacuum in condenser are influenced by the aerodynamic performance of steam turbine exhaust hood. The current research on exhaust hood is mainly focused on analyzing flow loss and optimal design of its structure without consideration of the wet steam condensing flow and the exhaust hood coupled with the front and rear parts. To better understand the aerodynamic performance influenced by the tilt angle of flow guide inside a diffuser, taking a 600 MW steam turbine as an example, a numerical simulator CFX is adopted to solve compressible three-dimensional (3D) Reynolds time-averaged N-S equations and standard k-ɛ turbulence model. And the exhaust hood flow field influenced by different tilt angles of flow guide is investigated with consideration of the wet steam condensing flow and the exhaust hood coupled with the last stage blades and the condenser throat. The result shows that the total pressure loss coefficient and the static pressure recovery coefficient of exhaust hood change regularly and monotonously with the gradual increase of tilt angle of flow guide. When the tilt angle of flow guide is within the range of 30° to 40°, the static pressure recovery coefficient is in the range of 15.27% to 17.03% and the total pressure loss coefficient drops to approximately 51%, the aerodynamic performance of exhaust hood is significantly improved. And the effective enthalpy drop in steam turbine increases by 0.228% to 0.274%. It is feasible to obtain a reasonable title angle of flow guide by the method of coupling the last stage and the condenser throat to exhaust hood in combination of the wet steam model, which provides a practical guidance to flow guide transformation and optimal design in exhaust hood.

  14. Estimation of the residual life of steam-turbine condensers based on statistical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmansky, B. E.; Aronson, K. E.; Brodov, Yu. M.

    2015-11-01

    The article presents the results of a study aimed at estimation of the state and prediction of the residual life of steam-turbine condensers on the basis of statistical analysis. The possibility of such evaluation during the operation of steam-turbine plants with accuracy sufficient for practical purposes is demonstrated. It is shown that identification of the operating period, viz., the initial period, the normal operation period, or the period of the lifetime exhaustion, as well as determination of the condenser's operating time at the moment when the failure of an individual tube occurs, is very important for statistical evaluation of the condenser state. Two statistical models are proposed and comparative analysis of the results calculated by these models for the residual life of the condensers at the Reftinskaya SDPP has been performed. The first model can be used when comprehensive information about the condenser's operating time before the tubes have failed is available as well as a priori information—or information based on analysis of the condenser tube metal—that the condenser is in its normal operation period. In this case, the fact of exhaustion of the condenser's lifetime is established by reaching the limit of the failed condenser tubes, which is determined by technical and economic analysis of losses caused by operating the turbine with a reduced heat-exchange surface of the condenser. The distribution function for the operating time of the failed tubes is approximated by a normal distribution. In the cases when no precise information on the condenser tubes' operating time is available at the thermoelectric power plant (TEPP), the second statistical model based on censored samples is proposed for estimation of the condenser state. An expression to assess the confidence interval that determines the significant difference between the distribution functions for complete and censored operating time values has been derived. It is shown that this model

  15. 百万千瓦级核电汽轮发电机组选型%The Selecion of the speed of 1000MW Nuclear Steam Turbine Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪松

    2001-01-01

    This paper is to show how to select the speed of 1000MW nuclear steam turbine generator forour country's next nuclear power plants in accordance with the developing trend of the nuclear steam turbine generator abroad as well as a comprehensive analysis and comparison of full speed nuclear steam turbine generator and half speed steam turbine generator at 1000MW.%通过对国外核汽轮发电机组发展趋势的分析和对百万千瓦全转速与半转速机组的综合分析比较,简要阐述广东继岭澳一期电站工程后百万千瓦级核电站汽轮发电机组的选型问题。

  16. Design of a Test Loop for Performance Testing of Steam Turbines Under a Variety of Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrette, Jonathan

    The steam turbine is one of the most widely used energy conversion devices in the world, providing shaft power for electricity production, chemical processing, and HVAC systems. There are new opportunities in growing renewable and combined cycle applications. End-users are asking for energy efficiency improvements that require manufacturers to renew their experimentally verified design methods. A structured design approach was carried out along three integrated research thrusts. The first two thrusts, Turbine Performance Prediction and Measurement Planning, were carried out with the aim of supporting the theoretical modeling required for the third thrust, System Modeling. The primary use of the steam turbine test loop will be to improve performance prediction techniques. Thus the primary focus of the first thrust was to describe empirical loss correlations found in the literature. For the second thrust, a preliminary review of measurement codes and standards was carried out to determine their impact on overall test loop design. For the third thrust, quasi-steady theoretical models were derived from first principles for the turbine, condenser, pump, boiler, and pipe components using control volume analyses. The theoretical models were implemented in a new open source simulation environment that carries out the calculation process over a range of up-to three turbine model inputs. A parametric study was undertaken with the goal of defining preliminary design specifications for the test loop components. The test loop was simulated across a wide range of steady states for three different turbine blade configurations, each at three different values of the blade row enthalpy-loss coefficient. The parametric study demonstrates full coverage of possible turbine operating conditions. The results of the simulations were analyzed to narrow the required operating range of the test loop to a series of turbine test paths. The final operational envelope yielded a set of test loop

  17. Calculation of flow distribution in large radius ratio stages of axial flow turbines and comparison of theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, J.

    1974-01-01

    A method of calculating stage parameters and flow distribution of axial turbines is described. The governing equations apply to space between the blade rows and are based on the assumption of rotationally symmetrical, compressible, adiabatic flow conditions. Results are presented for stage design and flow analysis calculations. Theoretical results from the calculation system are compared with experimental data from low pressure steam turbine tests.

  18. Performance Comparison on Repowering of a Steam Power Plant with Gas Turbines and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rokni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Repowering is a process for transforming an old power plant for greater capacity and/or higher efficiency. As a consequence, the repowered plant is characterized by higher power output and less specific CO2 emissions. Usually, repowering is performed by adding one or more gas turbines into an existing steam cycle which was built decades ago. Thus, traditional repowering results in combined cycles (CC. High temperature fuel cells (such as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC could also be used as a topping cycle, achieving even higher global plant efficiency and even lower specific CO2 emissions. Decreasing the operating temperature in a SOFC allows the use of less complex materials and construction methods, consequently reducing plant and the electricity costs. A lower working temperature makes it also suitable for topping an existing steam cycle, instead of gas turbines. This is also the target of this study, repowering of an existing power plant with SOFC as well as gas turbines. Different repowering strategies are studied here, repowering with one gas turbine with and without supplementary firing, repowering with two gas turbines with and without supplementary firing and finally repowering using SOFC. Plant performances and CO2 emissions are compared for the suggested repowered plants.

  19. Modern technologies for rendering information support to cogeneration steam turbine units in their design and operation stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezgin, V. I.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Chubarov, A. A.; Brezgin, D. V.

    2013-08-01

    Application of modern information technologies in different stages of the lifecycle of cogeneration turbines is considered as one of possible ways for improving their competitiveness. Specific features relating to rendering information support for steam turbine units during the periods of their design and operation, which are the main stages of their life cycle, are presented. Three-dimension modeling, adaptive, and parametric design technologies are applied in the equipment design stages. Information support technologies developed by the authors are applied during the operation stage. Information is integrated by using a product lifecycle management (PLM) system.

  20. Research and development of improved efficiency small steam turbines (IESST). Technical progress report, Phase I, 16 April-31 December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choate, D.M.; Tuttle, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    Product Statistical Bulletins of the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) and Turbodyne's shipment records over a 10-y period were researched to determine quantities installed and to define general parameters of design. Engineering studies were conducted to determine the optimum turbine design to meet the defined design parameters. Two conceptual designs plus an added variation of one design were completed together with designs of gearing required to provide speeds compatible with driven equipment speeds. The calculated performance of the recommended design and currently available small steam turbines were compared and a life cycle cost analysis was conducted to determine the economic competitiveness of the new design.

  1. Specific features of the control systems of new-modification 310-330-MW steam turbines manufactured by PAO turboatom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvetsov, V. L.; Babaev, I. N.

    2017-07-01

    Principal engineering solutions taken by PAO Turboatom when developing the control systems of the 310-325-MW turbines for thermal power stations are set forth. A schematic diagram of the control system is presented and the designs of the retrofitted basic mechanisms, viz., high-pressure steam-distribution unit and the cutoff valve, are described. It is noted that the accepted principles of designing the control systems allow retaining the following advantages of the latter: use of the condensate as a cheap nonflammable working fluid, valveless switches to control the locking servomotors, a mechanical ring-type turbine trip mechanism (TTM) in combination with an actuator fitted with two double-seated actuator valves to control the pressure in the pulse security lines, and a rotary valve to block the triggering of the actuator valves during successive testing of the TTM rings by filling the oil during the operation of the turbine and the subsequent raising of the above valves. The control systems of the new-modification turbines are based on microprocessor hardware using electromechanical converters to drive every cutoff valve as a universal solution that is not oriented towards a particular manufacturer of the control system electronics. Application of a mechanical turbine trip mechanism is acknowledged as indispensable for unconditional guarantee of the safe operation of the turbines irrespective of the presence of the electronic turbine trip mechanism.

  2. Effect of chloride and sulfate ions in simulated AVT waters on electrochemical corrosion behavior and oxide film characteristics of LP steam turbine materials in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Takahiro [Shinshu Univ., Nagano City (Japan). Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Sience and Technology; Goto, Teruyuki [NSK Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Niu, Li-Bin [Shinshu Univ., Nagano City (Japan). Dept. of Environmental Science and Technology; Takaku, Hiroshi [Shinshu Univ., Nagano City (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2010-07-15

    Electrochemical corrosion behavior and film characteristics were investigated in simulated all-volatile treatment (AVT) waters containing both sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) and chloride (Cl{sup -}) for 13Cr, 16Cr-4Ni, 3.5NiCrMoV and high-purity 9CrMoV steels of low-pressure (LP) steam turbines in power plants. Concerning the 13Cr, 16Cr-4Ni and high-purity 9CrMoV steels, the corrosion pit growth proceeded with an increasing content of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} up to 50 mg x kg{sup -1} in the test water with 100 mg x kg{sup -1} Cl{sup -}, although a SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentration above 50 mg x kg{sup -1} in the test water suppressed the corrosion pit growth due to the combined effect of Cl{sup -} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. No corrosion pits occurred for 3.5NiCrMoV steel, which showed predominantly general corrosion in the test waters with Cl{sup -} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. It is concluded that both the heat-treatment-improved 16Cr-4Ni steel for blades and the newly developed high-purity 9CrMoV steel for rotors have a high resistance to pitting corrosion. (orig.)

  3. Performance Comparison on Repowering of a Steam Power Plant with Gas Turbines and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Rokni

    2016-01-01

    Repowering is a process for transforming an old power plant for greater capacity and/or higher efficiency. As a consequence, the repowered plant is characterized by higher power output and less specific CO2 emissions. Usually, repowering is performed by adding one or more gas turbines into an existing steam cycle which was built decades ago. Thus, traditional repowering results in combined cycles (CC). High temperature fuel cells (such as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)) could also be used as a ...

  4. Numerical investigation on the self-excited oscillation of wet steam flow in a supersonic turbine cascade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Liang; SUN Xiuling; LI Guojun; FENG Zhenping

    2006-01-01

    The self-excited flow oscillation due to supercritical heat addition during the condensation process in wet steam turbine is an important issue. With an Eulerian/Eulerian model, the self-excited oscillation of wet steam flow in a supersonic turbine cascade is investigated. A proper inlet supercooling results in the transition from steady flow to self-excited oscillating flow in the cascade of steam turbine.The frequency dependency on the inlet supercooling is not monotonic. The flow oscillation leads to non-synchronous periodical variation of the inlet and outlet mass flow rate. The aerodynamic force on the blade varies periodically due to the self-excited flow oscillation. With the frequency lies between 18.1-80.64 Hz, the oscillating flow is apt to act with the periodical variation of the inlet supercooling due to stator rotor interaction in a syntonic pattern, and results in larger aerodynamic force on the blade. The loss in the oscillating flow increases 20.64 % compared with that in the steady flow.

  5. Stress-optimised, steam-cooled gas turbine blade. Final report; Spannungsoptimierte, dampfgekuehlte Gasturbinenschaufel. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusterer, K.; Kammerer, T.; Kemper, M.; Lang, G.; Roeper, R.

    2002-07-01

    Steam cooling is a technology with a high innovation potential, so it is not surprising that intensive research is done currently especially in the USA and Japan. This project focused on the technological and constructional aspects of the technology, including thermal and thermomechanical design and calculation of a steam-cooled turbine blade as the high temperature gradients and high thermal stresses are a key problem in the implementation of this technology. This is the only EU-wide project with a technological and design-oriented approach. An interdisciplinary was chosen which includes process analysis, numeric simulations and experiments. Results so far are presented. [German] Die Technologie der Dampfkuehlung steht zur Zeit im Mittelpunkt intensiver industrieller Entwicklungsbemuehungen, insbesondere auf amerikanischer und japanischer Seite, weil das hohe Innovationspotenzial dieser Technologie erkannt worden ist. Die Motivation dieses Vorhabens beruht auf der Erkenntnis, dass die Technologie der Dampfkuehlung fuer Gasturbinen in GuD-Kraftwerken eine der Schluesseltechnologien ist, die im Hinblick auf die Wirkungsgradsteigerung der GuD-Anlagen und somit zur CO{sub 2}-Reduzierung eine wesentliche Rolle spielt. Im Vordergrund des Vorhabens stehen technologische und konstruktive Aspekte bei der Umsetzung der Dampfkuehlungstechnologie. Es sollen Erkenntnisse zu technischen Problemen sowie Loesungsansaetze hierzu erbracht werden, die fuer eine erfolgreiche Einfuehrung der innovativen Technologie notwendig sind. Damit verbunden ist die thermische und thermomechanische Auslegung und Berechnung einer dampfgekuehlten Schaufel, da insbesondere die Verbindung von hohen Temperaturgradienten und hohen thermischen Spannungen eine besondere Schwierigkeit bei der Umsetzung dieser Technologie darstellt. Die technisch-konstruktive Zielsetzung zur Umsetzung der Dampfkuehltechnologie fuer Turbinenschaufeln ist dabei im Rahmen europaeischer Forschungsanstrengungen einzigartig. Zur

  6. 基于600MW汽轮机组汽封改造的经济性评价%Economic Evaluation of Steam Sealing Reformation Based on 600 MW Steam Turbine Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海亭; 郝金玉

    2011-01-01

    通过对传统式汽封与蜂窝式汽封的比较,论述了600MW汽轮机组采用蜂窝式汽封改造能够有效减少各级漏气量,提高汽轮机三缸效率、降低机组的热耗,并取得了良好的经济效益.%Comparing traditional steam seals with honeycomb steam seals, the technical transformations of 600 MW steam turbine units adopting honeycomb steam seals were discussed in the paper. Remarkable achievements have being obtained by means of the technical transformations mentioned above, such as the reduction of air leakage from all levels, the improvement of three-cylinder efficiency for steam turbine units and the drop of heat consumption for units. All in all, the considerable economic benefits have being made.

  7. Fatigue test results of the rotating steel blades of steam turbine K-25-0.6 GEO with ion-plasma coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachalin, G. V.; Mednikov, A. F.; Tkhabisimov, A. B.; Arkad'ev, D. A.; Temkin, S. G.; Senina, N. A.

    2016-12-01

    Fatigue test results of the rotating steel blades of the fourth stage of the K-25-0.6 low pressure cylinder Geo steam turbine manufactured in the Kaluga Turbine Plant (hereinafter, KTP) with the ion-plasma coating were presented. Coating formation was carried out at the National Research University (MPEI) on the Gefest vacuum pilot plant by the magnetron sputtering method. Characteristics of the obtained coating were analyzed with the use of the scientific-research equipment of the National Research University (MPEI). Fatigue tests of the rotating blades and determination of the fatigue strength of the material with the ion-plasma coating were carried out on the electrodynamic vibration machines VEDS-400A in the KTP structural laboratory. The following characteristics were obtained after tests: Ti-TiN composition, 10-11 μm thickness, 1200 HV 0.05 microhardness. Fatigue tests showed that destruction, regardless of availability or nonavailability of the coating, took place by cross-section in the root zone both on the leading and trailing edges of the blade, i.e., in the most stressed zones. It was found out that the maximum stresses during tests were revealed in the root section along the trailing edge on the blade pressure side, and the less stresses were on the leading edge. Fatigue strength of the working blades after coating formation increased by 12% minimum. Results of the fatigue tests prove the previously obtained data concerning 10-12% increase of the fatigue strength of the blade steel with the ion-plasma coating and allow claiming that the process of their formation exerts the positive influence on the fatigue characteristics of the blade materials.

  8. User's instructions for ORCENT II: a digital computer program for the analysis of steam turbine cycles supplied by light-water-cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, L.C.

    1979-02-01

    The ORCENT-II digital computer program will perform calculations at valves-wide-open design conditions, maximum guaranteed rating conditions, and an approximation of part-load conditions for steam turbine cycles supplied with throttle steam characteristic of contemporary light-water reactors. Turbine performance calculations are based on a method published by the General Electric Company. Output includes all information normally shown on a turbine-cycle heat balance diagram. The program is written in FORTRAN IV for the IBM System 360 digital computers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  9. Design and evaluation of a two-phase turbine for low quality steam--water mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comfort, W.J. III

    1977-05-16

    A new two-phase turbine was designed and built for testing in the laboratory, using a low quality steam-water mixture as a working fluid. The measured performance compares well with performance predictions of a numerical model of the expander. Details of the selection of the type of expander are given. The design of an experimental expander for use in a clean two-phase flow laboratory experiment and the development of a numerical model for performance analysis and extrapolations are described. Experiments including static cascade performance with two-phase fluid, disk friction and windage measurements, and two-phase performance measurements of the experimental expander are reported. Comparisons of the numerical model and experimental results, and the prediction of the performance of an advanced design, indicating how performance improvements can be achieved, are also included. An engine efficiency of 23 percent for a single-nozzle test was measured. Full admission performance, based upon the numerical model and achievable nozzle thrust coefficients indicate that an engine efficiency of between 38 and 48 percent can be realized with present technology. If maximum liquid removal loss is assumed, this performance range is predicted to be 38 to 41 percent. Droplet size reduction and the development and implementation of enhanced two-phase flow analysis techniques should make it possible to achieve the research goal of 70 percent engine efficiency.

  10. Static and dynamic analysis of 1 220 mm steel last stage blade for steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubín Z.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The 3 000 rpm 1 220 mm blade for a steam turbine was developed with application of new design features. The last stage moving blade is designed with an integral cover, a mid-span tie-boss connection and a fir-tree dovetail. With this configuration the blades are continuously coupled by the blade untwist due to the centrifugal force when the blades rotate at high speed, so that vibration control and increased structural damping are provided. Blade was tuned in order to eigen-frequencies were safely far from possible excitation. Because of connection members, the number of the resonant vibration modes can be reduced by virtue of the vibration characteristics of the circumferentially continuous blades. The last stage airfoil was optimalized from view of minimalization of its centrifugal force. In order to develop the 3 000 rpm 1 220 mm blade, the advanced analysis methods to predict dynamics behavior of the bladed structure were applied. Coupled rotor-blade analysis was also aim of the attention. To validate calculated results the verification measurement such as rotational vibration tests was carried out in the high-speed test rig. Relation of the friction damping of the bladed structure on amount of excitation level was also monitored and evaluated.

  11. 核电汽轮机转子在低周疲劳与高周疲劳交互作用下裂纹扩展寿命的研究%Study on Crack Propagation Life under Low Cycle Fatigue and High Cycle Fatigue of Nuclear Steam Turbine Rotors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史进渊

    2015-01-01

    The calculation and assessment methods for the crack propagation life under low cycle fatigue and high cycle fatigue of nuclear steam turbine rotors is presented. The low high fatigue cycle stress amplitude and stress range as well as the crack propagation life calculation methods for low cycle fatigue and high cycle fatigue of nuclear steam turbine rotors are introduced. The calculation and assessment methods for the crack propagation calendar life under low cycle fatigue and high cycle fatigue of nuclear steam turbine rotors are given together with an application example for calculation and improvement of the fatigue crack propagation calendar life of a low pressure welded rotor for 1 000 MW nuclear steam turbines. The example results indicate that effect of the high cycle fatigue on the fatigue crack propagation calendar life of nuclear steam turbine rotors is bigger, it is necessary that assessment for the crack propagation life under low cycle fatigue and high cycle fatigue of rotors in the rotor structure design of new development for nuclear steam turbine and the rotor safety assessment for operation steam turbine for nuclear power plants.%提出核电汽轮机转子在低周疲劳与高周疲劳交互作用下裂纹扩展寿命的计算与评定方法.介绍核电汽轮机转子的低周疲劳与高周疲劳的应力幅与应力范围、低周疲劳裂纹扩展寿命与高周疲劳扩展寿命的计算方法.给出了核电汽轮机转子在低周疲劳与高周疲劳交互作用下裂纹扩展日历寿命的计算与评定方法,以及1 000 MW级核电汽轮机焊接低压转子疲劳裂纹扩展日历寿命的计算与改进的应用实例.结果表明,高周疲劳对汽轮机转子疲劳裂纹扩展日历寿命有比较大的影响,新研制核电汽轮机的转子结构设计和在役核电汽轮机的转子安全性评定,需要评估转子在低周疲劳与高周疲劳交互作用下裂纹扩展寿命.

  12. The Application of Steam Turbine Steam Path Audit Technology%汽轮机通流状态经济性评估技术的现场应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海生; 吴瑞涛; 李忠杰

    2012-01-01

    Analysis was made on the factors influencing the turbine steam path efficiency, and the concept of the turbine steam path audit was introduced. Using the turbine steam path technology, quantitative analysis and calculation for the factors influencing the steam turbine efficiency can be made using relevant tool software,which can help the decision making of the key maintenance area during the turbine overhaul. An example was given for one super-critical steam turbine, including the measurement data got during the turbine overhaul and the audit results,and the key maintenance tasks set out based on the steam path audit.%对影响汽轮机通流效率的各项因素的作用机理进行了定性分析,并对汽轮机通流状态经济性评估的基本概念进行了阐述.进行汽轮机通流部分经济性状态评估后,可以利用相关的分析工具软件对影响汽轮机通流部分经济性的因素进行有效分析及计算,为电厂大修中汽轮机的检修提供检修的重点.以某一超临界660MW汽轮机为例,给出了汽轮机通流状态经济性评估的大修通流状态实测数据及评估结果,在此基础上确定了汽轮机大修的重点检修工作.

  13. Estimation of lifespan and economy parameters of steam-turbine power units in thermal power plants using varying regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Shkret, A. F.; Garievskii, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    The use of potent power units in thermal and nuclear power plants in order to regulate the loads results in intense wear of power generating equipment and reduction in cost efficiency of their operation. We review the methodology of a quantitative assessment of the lifespan and wear of steam-turbine power units and estimate the effect of various operation regimes upon their efficiency. To assess the power units' equipment wear, we suggest using the concept of a turbine's equivalent lifespan. We give calculation formulae and an example of calculation of the lifespan of a steam-turbine power unit for supercritical parameters of steam for different options of its loading. The equivalent lifespan exceeds the turbine's assigned lifespan only provided daily shutdown of the power unit during the night off-peak time. We obtained the engineering and economical indices of the power unit operation for different loading regulation options in daily and weekly diagrams. We proved the change in the prime cost of electric power depending on the operation regimes and annual daily number of unloading (non-use) of the power unit's installed capacity. According to the calculation results, the prime cost of electric power for the assumed initial data varies from 11.3 cents/(kW h) in the basic regime of power unit operation (with an equivalent operation time of 166700 hours) to 15.5 cents/(kW h) in the regime with night and holiday shutdowns. The reduction of using the installed capacity of power unit at varying regimes from 3.5 to 11.9 hours per day can increase the prime cost of energy from 4.2 to 37.4%. Furthermore, repair and maintenance costs grow by 4.5% and by 3 times, respectively, in comparison with the basic regime. These results indicate the need to create special maneuverable equipment for working in the varying section of the electric load diagram.

  14. Corrosion fatigue in LP steam turbine blading - experiences, causes and appropriate measures; Korrosionsutmattning i aangturbinskovlar - Erfarenheter, inverkande faktorer och moejliga aatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavast, J. [ABB STAL AB, Finspaang (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    Corrosion fatigue in LP steam turbine blading was reviewed together with result of tests performed in order to find blade materials with improved resistance against this. According to international experience, corrosion fatigue of 12Cr steam turbine blades in the transition zone between dry and wet steam, is one of the major causes, if not the major cause, for unavailability of steam turbines. Corrosion fatigue in LP blading is a frequent problem also in Swedish and Finnish nuclear power plants, especially in turbines of type D54 in BWR-plants. Corrosion fatigue has also been discovered in at least one type of nuclear turbine. Initiation times have been very long and the varying experiences in different types of turbines may simply reflect differing initiation times. Corrosion fatigue may therefore become more frequent in other types of turbines in the future. The type of water treatment (BWR/PWR) and possibly temperature after reheating seem to influence the risk for corrosion fatigue. Influence of inleakage of cooling water is less clear for these nuclear plants. The long initiation times together with the fact that very few of the cracked blades have actually failed, indicate that the cracks initiate and/or propagate during transients. Extensive laboratory tests show that there are alternative blade materials available with improved resistance against corrosion fatigue, with the most promising being 15/5 PH and A905, together with Ti6Al4V. The Ti alloy shows the best resistance against corrosion fatigue in most environments and is already used in some turbines. Disadvantage is a higher cost and possible need for redesign of the blades. The alternative materials are recommended for use for blades in the transition zone between dry and wet steam in LP turbines. The main disadvantage is a lack of references, even if 15%5 PH has been used to a very limited extent. 40 refs, 24 figs, 12 tabs, 9 appendices

  15. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Steam Power Plant with Double Reheat and Feed Water Heaters

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A steam cycle with double reheat and turbine extraction is presented. Six heaters are used, three of them at high pressure and the other three at low pressure with deaerator. The first and second law analysis for the cycle and optimization of the thermal and exergy efficiencies are investigated. An exergy analysis is performed to guide the thermodynamic improvement for this cycle. The exergy and irreversibility analyses of each component of the cycle are determined. Effects of turbine inlet p...

  16. Oxygen transport membrane based advanced power cycle with low pressure synthesis gas slip stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Kelly, Sean M.

    2016-09-27

    A method and system for generating electrical power in which a high pressure synthesis gas stream generated in a gasifier is partially oxidized in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor, expanded and thereafter, is combusted in an oxygen transport membrane based boiler. A low pressure synthesis gas slip stream is split off downstream of the expanders and used as the source of fuel in the oxygen transport membrane based partial oxidation reactors to allow the oxygen transport membrane to operate at low fuel pressures with high fuel utilization. The combustion within the boiler generates heat to raise steam to in turn generate electricity by a generator coupled to a steam turbine. The resultant flue gas can be purified to produce a carbon dioxide product.

  17. Oxygen transport membrane based advanced power cycle with low pressure synthesis gas slip stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Kelly, Sean M.

    2016-09-27

    A method and system for generating electrical power in which a high pressure synthesis gas stream generated in a gasifier is partially oxidized in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor, expanded and thereafter, is combusted in an oxygen transport membrane based boiler. A low pressure synthesis gas slip stream is split off downstream of the expanders and used as the source of fuel in the oxygen transport membrane based partial oxidation reactors to allow the oxygen transport membrane to operate at low fuel pressures with high fuel utilization. The combustion within the boiler generates heat to raise steam to in turn generate electricity by a generator coupled to a steam turbine. The resultant flue gas can be purified to produce a carbon dioxide product.

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of heat recovery steam generator in combined cycle power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Naradasu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined cycle power plants play an important role in the present energy sector. The main challenge in designing a combined cycle power plant is proper utilization of gas turbine exhaust heat in the steam cycle in order to achieve optimum steam turbine output. Most of the combined cycle developers focused on the gas turbine output and neglected the role of the heat recovery steam generator which strongly affects the overall performance of the combined cycle power plant. The present paper is aimed at optimal utilization of the flue gas recovery heat with different heat recovery steam generator configurations of single pressure and dual pressure. The combined cycle efficiency with different heat recovery steam generator configurations have been analyzed parametrically by using first law and second law of thermodynamics. It is observed that in the dual cycle high pressure steam turbine pressure must be high and low pressure steam turbine pressure must be low for better heat recovery from heat recovery steam generator.

  19. Effect of ETA treatment on corrosion fatigue in rotors and blades and stress corrosion cracking in 3.5 NiCrMoV steel low-pressure turbine discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitomi, Itoh [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Takasago Research and Development Center (Japan); Takashi, Momoo [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Takasago Machinery Works (Japan); Takayuki, Shiomi [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    In recent years, to increase the reliability and reduce the amount of feed water iron to prevent of fouling of steam generator tubes, ethanolamine (ETA) treatment has been adopted into the secondary system. In this investigation, the authors verified that ethanolamine treatment does not adversely affect the susceptibility of either stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in the turbine discs that are the principal units in the secondary system or corrosion fatigue (CF) in rotors and blades. In the first stage, a laboratory investigation was made of (1) SCC initiation and propagation in 3,5 NiCrMoV steel and (2) CF in 3,5 NiCrMoV steel and blade steels, in both cases using deaerated water to which had been added ethanolamine with few organic acids that is 10 times the estimated concentration. It was confirmed that the ethanolamine treatment had almost no effect. In the second stage, test pieces (removed from the disc steel inserted into the turbine extraction chamber before the ethanolamine treatment was started) were used to observe the initiation and propagation of SCC. Even after long-term observation, ethanolamine treatment into the secondary system was found to have almost no effect on the susceptibility of SCC in discs. (author)

  20. Numerical investigation of methane combustion under mixed air-steam turbine conditions – FLAMESEEK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skevis, G.; Chrissanthopoulos, A.; Goussis, D.A.; Mastorakos, E.; Derksen, M.A.F.; Kok, J.B.W.

    2004-01-01

    Lowering emissions from power generating gas turbines, while retaining efficiency and power output, constitutes a formidable task, both at fundamental and technical levels. Combined gas turbine cycles involving air humidification are particularly attractive, since they provide additional power with

  1. A comparative analysis of 3D flow fields between straight and bowed blades in a steam turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.HASSANVAND; WANG Zhong-qi 王仲奇; WANG Song-tao 王松涛

    2004-01-01

    A commercial Navier-Stokes flow solver has been employed tor simulating steady subsonic flow characteristics and analyzing the comparative features of flow fields between straight and bowed blades applied to the stator of a high pressure steam turbine. For comparison, we have studied the effects of bowed blades on the wakes of stator trailing edge and horse shoe vortex in the rotor. It was found that the position of wakes for bowed blades is shifted toward the blade suction side. Also, we have discussed and compared the entropy generation and energy loss caused by dissipation mechanism within the boundary layers on the hub and shroud; and temperature gradient in meridional plane.

  2. Development and realization of the concept of an integrated system for the improvement of steam turbine plant reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmanskii, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Main works performed when implementing the concept of an integrated approach to the improvement of the steam turbine plant (STP) reliability were stated. The technique of an integrated approach to the collection and processing of data on the STP equipment reliability was presented. This technique is based on the information on damages resulting in equipment failures, damages revealed during the routine equipment maintenance, and on data concerning equipment faults occurred when operating the STP. There is an implementation example for the technique of defining main elements specifying the reliability of a specific unit based on the statistical analysis of STP operating data.

  3. Evaluation of the useful life of steam turbine rotors; Evaluacion de vida util de rotores de turbinas de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnero Parra, Antonio; Garcia Illescas, Rafael; Kubiak Szyszka, Janusz [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    This article presents the methodology applied by the Management of Turbomachinery of the Institute of Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), for the evaluation of the remaining useful life of steam turbine rotors in the phase of initiation of fissures. The evaluation of the remaining useful life of turbines, will reveal the real state of health of the rotor and will serve as a base for the future decision making that guarantees their structural integrity. [Spanish] El presentes articulo presenta la metodologia aplicada por la Gerencia de Turbomaquinaria del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), para la evaluacion de la vida util remanente de rotores de turbinas de vapor en la fase de iniciacion de fisuras. La evaluacion de la vida util de turbinas, revelar el estado real de salud del rotor y servira de base para la toma de decisiones futuras que garanticen su integridad estructural.

  4. Experience gained from using water and steam for bringing the operation of aircraft- and marine-derivative gas-turbine engines in compliance with environmental standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datsenko, V. V.; Zeigarnik, Yu. A.; Kosoi, A. S.

    2014-04-01

    Practical experience gained from using water and steam admission into the combustion chambers of aircraft- and marine-derivative gas turbines for bringing their operation in compliance with the requirements of environmental standards is described. The design and schematic modifications of combustion chambers and fuel system through which this goal is achieved are considered. The results obtained from industrial and rig tests of combustion chambers fitted with water or steam admission systems are presented.

  5. Off-design analysis of a gas turbine powerplant augmented by steam injection using various fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochl, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Results are compared using coal derived low and intermediate heating valve fuel gases and a conventional distillate. The results indicate that steam injection provides substantial increases in both power and efficiency within the available compressor surge margin. The results also indicate that these performance gains are relatively insensitive as to the type of fuel. Also, in a cogeneration application, steam injection could provide some degree of flexibility by varying the split between power and process steam.

  6. Low-pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Richard [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Kniep, Jay [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Hao, Pingjiao [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Chan, Chi Cheng [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Nguyen, Vincent [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Huang, Ivy [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Amo, Karl [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Freeman, Brice [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Fulton, Don [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Ly, Jennifer [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Lipscomb, Glenn [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Lou, Yuecun [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Gogar, Ravikumar [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States)

    2015-01-29

    This final technical progress report describes work conducted by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE NETL) on development of low-pressure membrane contactors for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from power plant flue gas (award number DE-FE0007553). The work was conducted from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2014. The overall goal of this three-year project was to build and operate a prototype 500 m2 low-pressure sweep membrane module specifically designed to separate CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. MTR was assisted in this project by a research group at the University of Toledo, which contributed to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of module design and process simulation. This report details the work conducted to develop a new type of membrane contactor specifically designed for the high-gas-flow, low-pressure, countercurrent sweep operation required for affordable membrane-based CO2 capture at coal power plants. Work for this project included module development and testing, design and assembly of a large membrane module test unit at MTR, CFD comparative analysis of cross-flow, countercurrent, and novel partial-countercurrent sweep membrane module designs, CFD analysis of membrane spacers, design and fabrication of a 500 m2 membrane module skid for field tests, a detailed performance and cost analysis of the MTR CO2 capture process with low-pressure sweep modules, and a process design analysis of a membrane-hybrid separation process for CO2 removal from coal-fired flue gas. Key results for each major task are discussed in the report.

  7. The online diagnosis of steam turbines; El diagnostico en linea de turbinas de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. Antonio; Rivera G, Juan J; Cristalinas N, Victor M; Marino L, Carlos A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    To maintain the efficiency values, power and unit thermal consumption of the electrical generation units near the design levels, has been always one of the objectives of the operation and maintenance personnel of the power plants of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). A way to obtain this objective is through the systematic analysis of the equipment operating conditions and of the diagnosis of the deviations causes of the normal operation way. The Gerencia de Operacion de Maquinaria (Management of Turbo-Machinery) through projects contracted with the Unidad de Investigacion y Desarrollo (Unit of Investigation and Development) of the CFE has made the thermal evaluation of different generation units. These evaluations have allowed to identify which internal components are causing the deviations and to improve the planning of the maintenance activities required to bring back the unit to its best working conditions. In this article the methodology for the online thermal evaluation of the steam turbines and its heat transfer auxiliary equipment is described -water condenser and heaters- and some of the obtained results are also presented. [Spanish] Mantener cercanos a los niveles de diseno los valores de eficiencia, potencia y consumo termico unitario de las unidades de generacion electrica ha sido siempre uno de los objetivos del personal de operacion y mantenimiento de las plantas de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Una manera de lograr este objetivo es a traves del analisis sistematico de las condiciones de operacion de los equipos y del diagnostico de las causas de las desviaciones del modo normal de operacion. La Gerencia de Turbomaquinaria a traves de proyectos contratados con la Unidad de Investigacion y Desarrollo de la CFE ha realizado la evaluacion termica de diferentes unidades de generacion. Estas evaluaciones han permitido identificar cuales componentes internos estan provocando las desviaciones y mejorar la planeacion de las actividades

  8. Energy analysis of a combined solid oxide fuel cell with a steam turbine power plant for marine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welaya, Yousri M. A.; Mosleh, M.; Ammar, Nader R.

    2013-12-01

    Strong restrictions on emissions from marine power plants (particularly SO x , NO x ) will probably be adopted in the near future. In this paper, a combined solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and steam turbine fuelled by natural gas is proposed as an attractive option to limit the environmental impact of the marine sector. The analyzed variant of the combined cycle includes a SOFC operated with natural gas fuel and a steam turbine with a single-pressure waste heat boiler. The calculations were performed for two types of tubular and planar SOFCs, each with an output power of 18 MW. This paper includes a detailed energy analysis of the combined system. Mass and energy balances are performed not only for the whole plant but also for each component in order to evaluate the thermal efficiency of the combined cycle. In addition, the effects of using natural gas as a fuel on the fuel cell voltage and performance are investigated. It has been found that a high overall efficiency approaching 60% may be achieved with an optimum configuration using the SOFC system. The hybrid system would also reduce emissions, fuel consumption, and improve the total system efficiency.

  9. FFT Analysis on Coupling Effect of Axial and Torsional Vibrations in Circular Cross Section Beam of Steam Turbine Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method to nonlinearly investigate the dynamics of the coupled axial and torsional vibrations in the circular cross section beam of the steam turbine generator using the FFT analysis. Firstly, the coupled axial and torsional vibrations of a beam are proved by equivalent law of shearing stress and different boundary conditions. Then, a nonlinear mathematical model of the coupled axial and torsional vibrations is established by the Galerkin method. Lastly, the fast Fourier transform (FFT is employed to investigate the coupled effect of the beam vibration. A practical calculation example is calculated numerically and the coupled mechanism of the beam’s axial and torsional vibrations is analyzed in detail. The analysis results show that the frequencies of the coupled response would be existed in some special orders and the coupled response frequencies are smaller than the single vibration. Since for the first time the coupled mechanism of the beam’s axial and torsional vibrations is theoretically analyzed, the findings in this work may provide directive reference for practical engineering problems in design of steam turbine generators.

  10. Energy Analysis of a Combined Solid Oxide Fuel Cell with a Steam Turbine Power Plant for Marine Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yousri M. A. Welaya; M. Mosleh; Nader R. Ammar

    2013-01-01

    Strong restrictions on emissions from marine power plants (particularly SOx, NOx) will probably be adopted in the near future. In this paper, a combined solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and steam turbine fuelled by natural gas is proposed as an attractive option to limit the environmental impact of the marine sector. The analyzed variant of the combined cycle includes a SOFC operated with natural gas fuel and a steam turbine with a single-pressure waste heat boiler. The calculations were performed for two types of tubular and planar SOFCs, each with an output power of 18 MW. This paper includes a detailed energy analysis of the combined system. Mass and energy balances are performed not only for the whole plant but also for each component in order to evaluate the thermal efficiency of the combined cycle. In addition, the effects of using natural gas as a fuel on the fuel cell voltage and performance are investigated. It has been found that a high overall efficiency approaching 60%may be achieved with an optimum configuration using the SOFC system. The hybrid system would also reduce emissions, fuel consumption, and improve the total system efficiency.

  11. Materials for Advanced Ultra-supercritical (A-USC) Steam Turbines – A-USC Component Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purgert, Robert [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Phillips, Jeffrey [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Hendrix, Howard [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Shingledecker, John [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Tanzosh, James [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The work by the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE)/Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) Steam Boiler and Turbine Materials Consortia from 2001 through September 2015 was primarily focused on lab scale and pilot scale materials testing. This testing included air- or steam-cooled “loops” that were inserted into existing utility boilers to gain exposure of these materials to realistic conditions of high temperature and corrosion due to the constituents in the coal. Successful research and development resulted in metallic alloy materials and fabrication processes suited for power generation applications with metal temperatures up to approximately 1472°F (800°C). These materials or alloys have shown, in extensive laboratory tests and shop fabrication studies, to have excellent applicability for high-efficiency low CO2 transformational power generation technologies previously mentioned. However, as valuable as these material loops have been for obtaining information, their scale is significantly below that required to minimize the risk associated with a power company building a multi-billion dollar A-USC power plant. To decrease the identified risk barriers to full-scale implementation of these advanced materials, the U.S. DOE/OCDO A-USC Steam Boiler and Turbine Materials Consortia identified the key areas of the technology that need to be tested at a larger scale. Based upon the recommendations and outcome of a Consortia-sponsored workshop with the U.S.’s leading utilities, a Component Test (ComTest) Program for A-USC was proposed. The A-USC ComTest program would define materials performance requirements, plan for overall advanced system integration, design critical component tests, fabricate components for testing from advanced materials, and carry out the tests. The AUSC Component Test was premised on the program occurring at multiple facilities, with the operating temperatures, pressure and/or size of

  12. A Novel Hybrid Approach for Numerical Modeling of the Nucleating Flow in Laval Nozzle and Transonic Steam Turbine Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Yousefi Rad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, considering the importance of desirable steam turbine design, improvement of numerical modeling of steam two-phase flows in convergent and divergent channels and the blades of transonic steam turbines has been targeted. The first novelty of this research is the innovative use of combined Convective Upstream Pressure Splitting (CUSP and scalar methods to update the flow properties at each calculation point. In other words, each property (density, temperature, pressure and velocity at each calculation point can be computed from either the CUSP or scalar method, depending on the least deviation criterion. For this reason this innovative method is named “hybrid method”. The next novelty of this research is the use of an inverse method alongside the proposed hybrid method to find the amount of the important parameter z in the CUSP method, which is herein referred to as “CUSP’s convergence parameter”. Using a relatively simple computational grid, firstly, five cases with similar conditions to those of the main cases under study in this research with available experimental data were used to obtain the value of z by the Levenberg-Marquardt inverse method. With this innovation, first, an optimum value of z = 2.667 was obtained using the inverse method and then directly used for the main cases considered in the research. Given that the aim is to investigate the two-dimensional, steady state, inviscid and adiabatic modeling of steam nucleating flows in three different nozzle and turbine blade geometries, flow simulation was performed using a relatively simple mesh and the innovative proposed hybrid method (scalar + CUSP, with the desired value of z = 2.667 . A comparison between the results of the hybrid modeling of the three main cases with experimental data showed a very good agreement, even within shock zones, including the condensation shock region, revealing the efficiency of this numerical modeling method innovation

  13. A fast response miniature probe for wet steam flow field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosdas, Ilias; Mansour, Michel; Kalfas, Anestis I.; Abhari, Reza S.

    2016-12-01

    Modern steam turbines require operational flexibility due to renewable energies’ increasing share of the electrical grid. Additionally, the continuous increase in energy demand necessitates efficient design of the steam turbines as well as power output augmentation. The long turbine rotor blades at the machines’ last stages are prone to mechanical vibrations and as a consequence time-resolved experimental data under wet steam conditions are essential for the development of large-scale low-pressure steam turbines. This paper presents a novel fast response miniature heated probe for unsteady wet steam flow field measurements. The probe has a tip diameter of 2.5 mm, and a miniature heater cartridge ensures uncontaminated pressure taps from condensed water. The probe is capable of providing the unsteady flow angles, total and static pressure as well as the flow Mach number. The operating principle and calibration procedure are described in the current work and a detailed uncertainty analysis demonstrates the capability of the new probe to perform accurate flow field measurements under wet steam conditions. In order to exclude any data possibly corrupted by droplets’ impact or evaporation from the heating process, a filtering algorithm was developed and implemented in the post-processing phase of the measured data. In the last part of this paper the probe is used in an experimental steam turbine test facility and measurements are conducted at the inlet and exit of the last stage with an average wetness mass fraction of 8.0%.

  14. Cause analysis of axial displacement augmentation for steam feed pump steam turbine%汽动给水泵汽轮机轴向位移增大原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王占武

    2015-01-01

    Analyzes the problem of axial displacement augmentation for A and B steam feed pump steam turbine of No.2 unit in Ningdong thermal power plant,analyzes the cause factor of failure, puts forward improvement method and preventing measure. the analysis result shows that the main cause of rotor axial displacement augmentation is that low temperature saturation steam of deaerator come into turbine of steam feed pump and result in moving blade of turbine of steam feed pump to bring water induction and induce rotor axial thrust augmentation,further burn-out thrust bearing shoe,abrasion seal gear,axial displacement protection device to act,so caused turbine of steam feed pump to trip.%针对宁东热电厂2号机组A、B汽动给水泵汽轮机轴向位移增大的问题,对事故原因进行分析,提出改进方法及预防措施.分析结果表明:转子轴向位移增大的主要原因是除氧器低温饱和蒸汽进入汽动给水泵汽轮机,造成了汽动给水泵汽轮机动叶受到水冲击,转子轴向推力增大,进而使得推力瓦块烧损,汽封齿磨损,轴向位移保护动作,引发给水泵汽轮机跳闸.

  15. AG Turbo, Turbotech 2. Subproject 1.422: Endwall effects in a multistage low pressure turbine rig. Final report; AG Turbo, Turbotech 2. Teilvorhaben 1.422: Seitenwandeffekte im mehrstufigen Niederdruck-Turbinenrig. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eymann, S.

    2001-07-01

    Reducing the secondary losses in the bladed annulus of compressors and turbines is one approach to enhance the efficiency of turbo components of modern gas turbines. The aim of this project is to analyse the influence of endwall contouring and 3D airfoil design in the endwall region on the generation of secondary flows in a multistage low pressure turbine. Therefore experimental studies were carried out in a three stage cold flow test rig. First in a reference blading the flow fields in the axial gapes between the rows were conducted with pneumatic probes and with a 3D-L2F system (DLR Koeln) and with 3D hot wire probes (RWTH Aachen) by the project partners. Pressure distributions on several stram line positions and endwall pressure measuring points are employed to assess the vane flow. In a second phase the inlet guide vanes and the blades of the first rotor were replaced with a blading with endwall contouring and modified airfoilds in the endwall region, which was designed by the project partner MTU. The investigations were carried out in the same manner as before. In comparison to the results of the reference blading the secondary losses in the plane downstream the optimised inlet guide van could be reduced about 20% in the outer region. A reduction in the secondary flow phenomen, the passage vortex, can be traced back to reduced cross channel pressure gradients at the endwall. The secondary losses in the tip region could be moved closer to the casing. After the following rows downstream the optimised first turbine stage there was no positive influence on the development of secondary flows detectable. A data base was generated to validate and to improve current numerical methods. The physical understanding of secondary flows in multistage turbines was deepened. (orig.) [German] Ein Ansatz zur weiteren Steigerung des Wirkungsgrades in den Turbokomponenten moderner Gasturbinen ist die Reduzierung der durch Sekundaerstroemungen verursachten Verluste im beschaufelten

  16. Reduction of Erosion Wear of Mean Pressure Cylinder of Steam Turbines Operating Beyond Critical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Kascheev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems leading to erosion wear of flowing part of a mean pressure turbine cylinder operating beyond critical parameters. Explanation of erosion wear of flowing part of a mean pressure turbine cylinder which is proved in practice and recommendations for wear reduction are given in the paper

  17. Niederaussem电站1000MW超临界汽轮机%1000 MW Supercritical Steam Turbine for the Niederaussem Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wilfried Ulm; Dale Ernette; John Kern; Ralf M. Bell

    2003-01-01

    本文对Niederaussem K电站汽轮机的初始运行情况展开讨论,并对已使用的最新技术进行了详细的论述.%This paper will discuss the details of this latest technology as well as the initial operating experience of the Niederaussem K steam turbine.

  18. The Retrofit of Steam Seal for 600MW Steam Turbine and Its Control Measures for the Starting Risk%600 MW汽轮机汽封改造及启动风险控制措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃恒锋

    2013-01-01

    Many power plants retrofit steam seal of steam turbine in order to reduce the steam leakage, reduce the rate of heat loss, increase the heat efficiency of the unit and its coefficient of the safe operation. The paper introduces the content and principle of steam seal retrofit of steam turbine in 600MW supercritical unit power plant, and puts forward control measures for the risk of starting the unit for the similar power plants.%  为了减少漏气,降低机组热耗率,提高机组热效率,增加机组安全运行系数,许多电厂对汽轮机汽封进行改造。文章介绍了600 MW超临界机组电厂汽轮机汽封改造的内容和原理,并提出了机组启动风险控制措施,为同类电厂提供借鉴。

  19. Causes of Vacuum Reduction in Medium and Small Steam Turbines and Countermeasures%中小汽轮机真空下降的原因分析及应对措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈云海; 邵永秀

    2014-01-01

    The function of the condenser of steam turbine was analyzed, and the main causes of vacuum reduction in the condenser of medium and small steam turbines were in-vestigated and based on this measures to increase the vacuum degree of the condenser of steam turbine were put forward.%分析了汽轮机凝汽器的作用,研究了导致中小汽轮机凝结器真空下降的主要原因,在此基础上提出了提高汽轮机凝结器真空度的措施。

  20. Influence of chloride and carbon dioxide on general and crevice corrosion of steam turbine materials for geothermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, HaiFeng; Niu, Libin; Oishi, Shuji; Takaku, Hiroshi [Shinshu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Shiokawa, Kunio; Yamashita, Mitsuo [Fuji Electric Advanced Technology Co. Ltd. (Japan); Sakai, Yoshihiro [Fuji Electric Systems Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    2006-09-15

    The influence of chloride and CO{sub 2} on general and crevice corrosion of steam turbine materials for geothermal power plants was investigated in two simulated geothermal waters. The general corrosion rates of the rotor steels with a lower Cr content were accelerated due to the CO{sub 2} in the water, while the corrosion rates of the blade steels with a higher Cr content were controlled mainly by the chloride concentration in the waters. Concerning the crevice corrosion behavior, the galvanic corrosion effects in each of the waters were confirmed for the rotor steels with lower corrosion potentials than those of the blade materials, and almost no difference in corrosion behavior was observed between the two waters tested. Regarding general and crevice corrosion in the two simulated geothermal waters, it was determined that a newly developed rotor material and also an improved heat-treated blade material are promising for actual usage in geothermal power plants. (orig.)

  1. Effects of Hot Steam Injection from the Slot at the Trailing Edge on Turbine Nozzle Vane Flow Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Xu; Peigang Yan; Hongyan Huang; Wanjin Han

    2008-01-01

    Moisture removal slot configurations with three different opening widths are in turn set at the trailing edges of a turbine hollow guide vane. The flow fields are analyzed by two-phase flow numerical simulation of solving the steady three dimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations on the basis of the real water vapor thermo-physical properties, and the blade temperature field is solved by the fluid-solid coupling. Exergy parame-ter is introduced as a measure to evaluate the economic cost of energy conversion process. The results indicate that the bigger slot allow lower quality of hot steam in the case of the equivalent injected quantity, while it has a higher exergy effective efficiency of the mixing process in the cascade channels. The hot steam injecting at the trailing edges has an optimal injected mass flow rate for a relatively large slot, on this point the exergy effective efficiency is the maximum, namely the flow loss is the minimum.

  2. Power Efficiency of Steam Turbine Generator Switching into Thermal Circuit of Small and Medium Boiler Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Yesman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the solution of the problem concerning power saving on the basis of small power-and-heat-supply plants.Power efficiency of power turbine generator switching into thermal circuit of small and medium boiler houses is justified in the paper.

  3. 汽轮机接口设计的分析与研究%Analysis and Research on the Interface Design of Steam Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the interface design of nuclear steam turbine, introduced in nuclear power engineering and application interface control manual(ICM)interface design and management related content, clarifies the coal-fired steam turbine technology interface to introduce ICM design superiority, advanced sex and necessity, in the hope of providing reference for future related work.%论述了核电汽轮机的接口设计,介绍了在核电工程中,应用接口控制手册(ICM)进行接口设计和管理的相关内容,阐明了燃煤汽轮机技术接口引进ICM设计的优越性、先进性和必要性,以期为今后相关的工作提供参考。

  4. Performance enhancement in coal fired thermal power plants. Part II: steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, M.S.; Rajkumar, N. [Central Power Research Institute, Trivandrum (India). Energy Research Centre

    1999-05-01

    The paper presents the results of the performance enhancement study on 22 coal fired thermal power stations in India with capacities 30-500 MW. The oldest units (30 MW) have served for 33 yr and the newer units (500 MW) have been in operation for 7 years. The turbine efficiencies are in the range 31.00-41.90% as compared to the design range of 34.80-43.98%. The isentropic efficiencies are in the range 74.13-86.40% as compared to design values of 83.20-89.10%. Considerable scope for efficiency improvement through low cost solutions: operational optimization, capital overhaul, simple modifications, etc., exists for all classes of units. The efficiencies can be restored to their design values. The developments in turbines over the last quarter of this century which have led to improved isentropic and thermal efficiencies must be adopted for existing units through retrofits, upgrades and revamps. The turbine efficiencies can be improved to 38.0% for 30 MW units and to 47% for 500 MW units. The maximum potential is for improvement in 210 and 500 MW units followed by 110 and 120 MW units. The potential for 30 and 62.5 MW units is rather limited because of their low capacity share, lack of interest in manufacturers to sell spares (because of the low volume of requirement) and large pay back periods for modernisation schemes. 19 refs., 2 figs., 18 tabs.

  5. Influences of attack angle and mach number on aerodynamic characters of typical sections of extra-long blade in a steam turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On super-sonic or trans-sonic planar cascade wind tunnel of free jet intermittent type, wind blowing experiments were performed on the typical sections of stator and rotor blades in the last stage of ultra-ultra-critical steam turbine with extra-long blade of 1200mm. The influences of attack angle and Mach number on the aerodynamic performances of these sections of the blade profiles were verified, and their operating ranges were also specified.

  6. 低压饱和蒸汽汽轮机的应用及其发展前景%Prosoect of Application and Development of Low Saturation Steam Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢业平

    2011-01-01

    节能减排是实现可持续发展的重要途径,在化工、石油、冶金、轻工、建材、环保、纺织、造纸等工业企业存在大量的低品位能源--低压饱和蒸汽,这些低品位能源除少量回收利用外,大量排空,造成极大的能源浪费和环境污染,开发研究低品位能量的回收利用方法具有重要的学术意义和工程应用价值.论文对低品位热能的回收利用方法和关键技术进行了系统的分析,对低压饱和蒸汽特种工业汽轮机技术进行了介绍,所做工作对于工业企业节能降耗具有重要的参考价值.%Energy Conservation is an important way to realize the sustainable development in chemical,petroleum, metallurgy, light industry, building material, environmental protection, textile, paper and other industrial enterprises where there exist large amounts of low - grade energy - low - pressure saturated steam, which are largely emptied with little recycled, causing tremendous energy loss and environmental pollution, so developing low grade energy recycling method has important academic and engineering application value. This paper researches on recycling methods of low - grade heat and key technologies of the system, introduces low saturation steam special industrial turbine technology, which has important referrence value for energy conservation of industrial enterprises.

  7. Useful life extension of steam turbine rotors; Alargamiento de la vida en rotores de turbina de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Arelle, Carlos [Turbomaquinas S. A. de C.V., La Piedad, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    The continuous use of steam turbines, the chemistry of the steam itself and the variations of operation velocities, cause the gradual deterioration by erosion, oxidation and/or corrosion of the rotors and blades. When this happens most of the original manufacturers recommend to rectify the areas, diminishing the surfaces, or to compare with a new rotor. TURBOMAQUINARIAS S.A. de C.V. has developed the most reliable and safe methods to return the rotor to its original dimensions and in case of recurrent problems such as erosion, oxidation and/or wear, it offers the alternative of attaching coatings metallurgically compatible with which these problems are eliminated or diminished that might show up on the rotor surface as well as in the body of the discs or of the blades. These restoring methods are recommended by the international standards such as API 687. [Spanish] El uso continuo de las turbinas de vapor, la quimica del mismo vapor y la variacion de las velocidades de operacion, ocasionan el deterioro gradual por erosion, oxidacion y/o corrosion de los rotores y de los alabes. Al ocurrir esto la mayoria de los fabricantes originales recomiendan rectificar las areas, disminuyendo las superficies, o bien comparar un rotor nuevo. TURBOMAQUINARIAS S.A. de C.V. ha desarrollado los metodos mas confiables y seguros para devolver a su rotor las dimensiones originales y en caso de problemas recurrentes tales como erosion, oxidacion y/o desgaste, ofrece la alternativa de agregar recubrimientos metalurgicamente compatibles con los cuales se eliminan o se disminuyen estos problemas que pueden presentarse tanto en la superficie del rotor como del cuerpo de los discos o bien de los alabes. Estos metodos de restauracion son recomendados por las normas internacionales tales como la API 687.

  8. Troubleshooting vacuum systems steam turbine surface condensers and refinery vacuum towers

    CERN Document Server

    Lieberman, Norman P

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum systems are in wide spread use in the petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries and power generation plants. The existing texts on this subject are theoretical in nature and only deal with how the equipment functions when in good mechanical conditions, from the viewpoint of the equipment vendor.  In this much-anticipated volume, one of the most well-respected and prolific process engineers in the world takes on troubleshooting vacuum systems, and especially steam ejectors, an extremely complex and difficult subject that greatly effects the profitability of the majority of the world'

  9. 基于Aspen Plus的蒸汽透平网络模拟和优化%Simulation and optimization of steam turbine network with Aspen Plus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马琳瑛; 赵亮; 李泽秋; 钱锋

    2012-01-01

    According to the unreasonable phenomena in the steam piping network of ethylene plant, the steam turbine network of the device is simulated and optimized by the chemical process software, Aspen Plus. The influence of operating condition change on turbine efficiency is discussed through simulation of the turbine, such as extraction steam flow, into steam temperature, exhaust steam pressure. Based on the results, the steam turbine network is simulated and optimized by particle swarm optimization through the interface toolkit MAP, while extraction steam flow for independent variable and the total into steam flow for target variables. Using intelligent algorithm, the defect of model's not easy to converge is avoided, which is caused by setting too much constraints as Design Regulations in Aspen Plus. The optimization results show that in the condition of meeting the same output power and the requirement of the other pipe networks, the steam consumption of supper-high-pressure (SS) could be reduced effectively by selecting the extraction capacity of every turbine reasonably. The turbine network optimized could decrease 0.6 ton SS consumption per hour.%针对乙烯装置蒸汽管网用能过程中存在的不合理现象,采用Aspen Plus化工流程软件对其中的蒸汽透平网络进行了模拟和优化.通过对单个透平的模拟,分析了透平抽汽量、进汽温度和排汽压力等操作条件的变化对透平效率的影响.在此基础上模拟了蒸汽透平网络,并以透平抽汽量为自变量、透平网络总进汽量为目标变量,通过MATLAB-Aspen Plus接口工具箱使用粒子群优化算法(PSO)对其进行操作参数优化.采用智能算法,避开了因在Aspen Plus中设置过多约束作为设计规定而导致模型不易收敛的不足;对于约束条件的处理,通过对不满足约束的粒子加以惩罚来实现.优化结果表明,在满足透平输出功率以及低等级管网蒸汽用量需求的前提下,通过合理分

  10. Analysis of Heat Balance on Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using Multi-Stage Steam Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Shoji; Ohmori, Shuichi; Mori, Michitsugu

    The total space and weight of the feedwater heaters in a nuclear power plant (NPP) can be reduced by replacing low-pressure feedwater heaters with high-efficiency steam injectors (SIs). The SI works as a direct heat exchanger between feedwater from condensers and steam extracted from turbines. It can attain pressures higher than the supplied steam pressure. The maintenance cost is lower than that of the current feedwater heater because of its simplified system without movable parts. In this paper, we explain the observed mechanisms of the SI experimentally and the analysis of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD). We then describe mainly the analysis of the heat balance and plant efficiency of the innovative-simplified NPP, which adapted to the boiling water reactor (BWR) with the high-efficiency SI. The plant efficiencies of this innovative-simplified BWR with SI are compared with those of a 1100MWe-class BWR. The SI model is adopted in the heat balance simulator as a simplified model. The results show that the plant efficiencies of the innovate-simplified BWR with SI are almost equal to those of the original BWR. They show that the plant efficiency would be slightly higher if the low-pressure steam, which is extracted from the low-pressure turbine, is used because the first-stage of the SI uses very low pressure.

  11. STUDY THE EFFECT OF ERROSION ON THE BREAKAGE OF STEAM TURBINE BLADE AT BAIJI POWER STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaned A. Daher

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The last stage endured on obvious erosion especially the front and the end of the blade. The erosion caused the appearance some cracks in this place. These remarks coincided with the theoretic   al results, which were acquired according to the condition of the turbine of station which showed that the droplet, which collided with the blade ends, caused high pressure on the surface of the blade and caused the occurrence of the corrosion. The danger of the erosion unavoidable due to its relationship with tae station efficiency and the only to avoid that is the use of the blade made of erosion resistance ingots.

  12. 汽轮机喷嘴室温度场分析%Analysis of the Temperature Field of Steam Turbine Nozzle Chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林; 程荣新; 张宏涛; 李宇峰; 翁振宇

    2015-01-01

    Nozzle chamber is one of the key components in steam turbine , the analysis of the temperature field is important when nozzle chamber of steam turbine is designed .Aim at a 600MW sub-critical steam turbine nozzle chamber , a three-dimensional finite element model of the nozzle chamber is developed , methods for calculating the convective heat transfer coefficients of the nozzle chamber surfaces different regions are described , three-dimensional transient thermal analysis is performed on the nozzle chamber by using finite element method .Detailed temperature distributions are determined during the cold start transient operating conditions .The results show that temperature distributions of the active chambers and those of the inactive chambers are different , inner surface temperature is higher than other surfaces temperature for the active chambers, temperatures of the contact surfaces between the inner casing and the support lugs on the nozzle chamber are lowest.The used analytic methods can be applied for temperature field analysis of sub-critical, supercritical and ultra-supercritical steam turbine nozzle chamber , a basis for the cooling design and the life evaluation of steam turbine nozzle chamber is provided .%喷嘴室是汽轮机中的关键部件,在汽轮机喷嘴室的设计过程中,必须分析其温度场。针对某亚临界600MW汽轮机喷嘴室,建立了三维有限元模型,介绍了喷嘴室表面不同区域的对流换热系数计算方法,用有限元法分析了喷嘴室的三维瞬态温度场,得出了在冷态启动运行工况的详细温度分布。结果表明,喷嘴室开启的室和关闭的室温度分布不同,对于开启的室,内表面的温度明显高于其它表面,内缸和喷嘴室支承键的接触表面处温度最低。所采用的分析方法可以用于分析亚临界、超临界和超超临界汽轮机喷嘴室,为喷嘴室的冷却设计和寿命评估打下了基础。

  13. Study on waste heat recovery from exhaust gas spark ignition (S.I. engine using steam turbine mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib Kamarulhelmy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of global warming has pushed the effort of researchers not only to find alternative renewable energy, but also to improve the machine’s energy efficiency. This includes the utilization of waste energy into ‘useful energy’. For a vehicle using internal combustion engine (ICE, the waste energy produce by exhaust gas can be utilize to ‘useful energy’ up to 34%. The energy from the automotive exhaust can be harness by implementing heat pipe heat exchanger in the automotive system. In order to maximize the amount of waste energy that can be turned to ‘useful energy’, the used of appropriate fluid in the heat exchanger is important. In this study, the fluid used is water, thus converting the fluid into steam and thus drive the turbine that coupling with generator. The paper will explore the performance of a naturally aspirated spark ignition (S.I. engine equipped with waste heat recovery mechanism (WHRM that used water as the heat absorption medium. The experimental and simulation test suggest that the concept is thermodynamically feasible and could significantly enhance the system performance depending on the load applied to the engine.

  14. Research on new type of fast-opening mechanism in steam turbine regulating system and optimization of operation tactic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-xiao LI; Xuan-yin WANG; Fu-shang LI

    2008-01-01

    With the analysis on regulating system in 200 MW steam turbine, the necessity of appending the fast-opening function to the original system is set forth and a new type of fast-opening mechanism is devised. The mathematical model of system is built up. With the use of AMESIM software, the displacement curve of the piston, the force curve of the cartridge valve spool, the pressure curve and the flux curve in the regulation process are obtained based on simulation. The performances of three fast-opening systems composed of cartridge valves with different diameters are compared. Based on the analysis on factors that affect the execution time of fast-opening, the dead zone of the fast-opening system is put forward, To overcome the defect, different operation modes are adopted for different zones. The result shows that with the increase of the valve diameter, the regulating time in the dead zone significantly exceeds the fast-opening time in the whole journey. Accordingly, the optimization operation tactic in the dead zone and the qualification conditions are brought forward. The fast-opening system composed of 32 mm cartridge valves is taken as an example with use of the tactic. The simulation result shows that the maximum regulating time is shortened by 509 ms.

  15. Fe Analysis of a Steam Turbine HP Rotor Blade Stage Concerning Material Effort, Dynamic Properties and Creep Damage Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borkowski Paweł

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the 1st stage of HP rotor blade assembly steam turbine TK 120. The methodology was focused on the selection of mechanical properties and the way of the rotor disc modeling and estimating the degree of damage caused by creep. Then the dynamic interference between the frequencies of excitation and the natural frequencies was assessed. Static calculations were performed for the cyclic sectors consisting of the disc, disc blades, spacers and shrouding, including loads as temperature, mass forces from the angular velocity and the pressure on the blades. Then, the creep analysis using a Norton’s model and the modal analysis were performed. Static analysis gave information concerning the distributions of displacements, stress and strain components. In the creep analysis, the creep displacements and stress relaxation versus time were determined and the estimated degree of damage caused by creep was evaluated at each part of the rotor disc. In the modal analysis, the natural frequencies and modes of vibrations corresponding to the nodal diameters were found. The results of modal analysis were shown in the SAFE graph. Numerical calculations have shown that the rotor disc was a well-designed structure and did not reveal any dynamic interference.

  16. 汽轮机安全经济运行中的监视与调整探究%On the Monitoring and Adjusting of Steam Turbine in the Safe and Economic Operation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武鑫

    2015-01-01

    Steam turbine is one of the three largest hosts of coal-fired power plants, is a large rotating equipment, and is also a major part of the work unit. Proper maintenance, adjusting monitoring of the steam turbine in the operation is the condition to ensure the normal operation of steam turbine. We can install necessary monitoring and protection equipment on steam turbine In the process of normal operation to real-time monitor various parameters in the running of steam turbine and ensure safe and economic operation of steam turbine. This paper studied the monitoring and adjusting of steam turbine in the safe and economic operation process.%汽轮机是火力发电厂的三大主机之一,是大型转动设备,也是机组做功的主要部件。在汽轮机运行中对设备进行正确维护、调整和监视,是保证汽轮机安全经济运行的条件。在正常运行过程中,可以在汽轮上安设必要的监视和保护设备,对汽轮机运行过程中的各项参数实现实时监控,确保汽轮机运行的安全经济性。对汽轮机安全经济运行中的监视与调整进行了探究。

  17. Recovery of exhaust waste heat for a hybrid car using steam turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababatin, Yasser

    A number of car engines operate with an efficiency rate of approximately 22% to 25% [1]. The remainder of the energy these engines generate is wasted through heat escape out of the exhaust pipe. There is now an increasing desire to reuse this heat energy, which would improve the overall efficiency of car engines by reducing their consumption of fuel. Another benefit is that such reuse would minimize harmful greenhouse gases that are emitted into the environment. Therefore, the purpose of this project is to examine how the wasted heat energy can be reused and/or recovered by use of a heat recovery system that would store this energy in a hybrid car battery. Green turbines will be analyzed as a possible solution to recycle the lost energy in a way that will also improve the overall automotive energy efficiency.

  18. Optimization on start-up process of high-pressure rotor for large power steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Qiu-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper combines thermal-structure coupling technique and pattern search optimization algorithm to establish an optimization system for the start-up process of a turbine unit. Firstly, a finite element model for thermal-structure coupling calculation is established to accurately analyze the transient temperature field and thermal stress field, which can obtain the thermal stress distribution during start-up process. Afterwards, a program of optimization on rotor start-up process is exploited to improve the time allocation in each operating stage of start-up process, which minimizes the maximum equivalent stress of rotor. The maximum equivalent stress has reduced 25.7% after the optimization, which reveals obvious effect.

  19. Thermionic combustor application to combined gas and steam turbine power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskolczy, G.; Wang, C. C.; Lieb, D. P.; Margulies, A. E.; Fusegni, L. J.; Lovell, B. J.

    A design for the insertion of thermionic converters into the wall of a conventional combustor to produce electricity in a topping cycle is described, and a study for applications in gas and steam generators of 70 and 30 MW is evaluated for engineering and economic feasibility. Waste heat from the thermionic elements is used to preheat the combustor air; the heat absorbed by the elements plus further quenching of the exhaust gases with ammonia is projected to reduce NO(x) emissions to acceptable levels. Schematics, flow diagrams, and components of a computer model for cost projections are provided. It was found that temperatures around the emitters must be maintained above 1,600 K, with maximum efficiency and allowable temperature at 1,800 K, while collectors generate maximally at 950 K, with a corresponding work function of 1.5 eV. Cost sensitive studies indicate an installed price of $475/kW for the topping cycle, with improvements in thermionic converter characteristics bringing the cost to $375/kW at a busbar figure of 500 mills/kWh.

  20. Control of Auxiliary System for USC Steam Turbines%超超临界汽轮机辅助系统的控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚

    2016-01-01

    介绍了超超临界汽轮机辅助系统的控制策略,包括本体疏水、抽汽逆止阀、汽封及油系统四个方面的内容。通过详细分析各子系统的控制特点,论证了超超临界汽轮机辅助系统控制的独特性和先进性。掌握这种控制策略,可为新系统开发提供理论参照。%The control strategy including turbine drains ,extraction non‐return valves ,gland seal and oil system for auxiliary system of USC steam turbines is presented .Based on analysis of the control characteristics of each subsystem ,the unique features and advances in this system are demonstrated .The strategy shall be regarded as theoretical reference for developing the new system of USC steam turbines .

  1. A review on the use of gas and steam turbine combined cycles as prime movers for large ships. Part II: Previous work and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haglind, Fredrik [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Building 402, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2008-12-15

    The aim of the present paper is to review the prospects of using combined cycles as prime movers for large ships, like, container ships, tankers and bulk carriers. The paper is divided into three parts of which this paper constitutes Part II. In Part I, the environmental and human health concerns of international shipping were outlined. The regulatory framework relevant for shipping and the design of combined cycles were discussed. Here, previous work and experience are reviewed, and an overview of the implications of introducing combined cycles as prime movers is included. In Part III, marine fuels are discussed and the pollutant emissions of gas turbines are compared with those of two-stroke, slow-speed diesel engines. In the past, combined cycles of COGAS and COGES configurations have been considered for ship propulsion. Another application where gas turbine-based systems have been considered as prime movers is for LNG ships, which are traditionally powered by steam turbines with gas-burning boilers. Previous experience for a cruiser shows that combined cycles weigh less and require a smaller volume than diesel engines, resulting in increased passenger capacity and/or voyage performance. Diesel engines respond faster to a load change than combined cycles. Provided parts within the steam cycle are warm, the start-up times of combined cycles and diesel engines are similar. (author)

  2. Status on the Component Models Developed in the Modelica Framework: High-Temperature Steam Electrolysis Plant & Gas Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk Kim, Jong [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This report has been prepared as part of an effort to design and build a modeling and simulation (M&S) framework to assess the economic viability of a nuclear-renewable hybrid energy system (N-R HES). In order to facilitate dynamic M&S of such an integrated system, research groups in multiple national laboratories have been developing various subsystems as dynamic physics-based components using the Modelica programming language. In fiscal year (FY) 2015, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed a dynamic analysis of two region-specific N-R HES configurations, including the gas-to-liquid (natural gas to Fischer-Tropsch synthetic fuel) and brackish water reverse osmosis desalination plants as industrial processes. In FY 2016, INL has developed two additional subsystems in the Modelica framework: a high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE) plant and a gas turbine power plant (GTPP). HTSE has been proposed as a high priority industrial process to be integrated with a light water reactor (LWR) in an N-R HES. This integrated energy system would be capable of dynamically apportioning thermal and electrical energy (1) to provide responsive generation to the power grid and (2) to produce alternative industrial products (i.e., hydrogen and oxygen) without generating any greenhouse gases. A dynamic performance analysis of the LWR/HTSE integration case was carried out to evaluate the technical feasibility (load-following capability) and safety of such a system operating under highly variable conditions requiring flexible output. To support the dynamic analysis, the detailed dynamic model and control design of the HTSE process, which employs solid oxide electrolysis cells, have been developed to predict the process behavior over a large range of operating conditions. As first-generation N-R HES technology will be based on LWRs, which provide thermal energy at a relatively low temperature, complementary temperature-boosting technology was suggested for integration with the

  3. Probability strength design of steam turbine blade and sensitivity analysis with respect to random parameters based on response surface method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei DUAN

    2008-01-01

    Many stochastic parameters have an effect on the reliability of a steam turbine blade during practical operation. To improve the reliability of blade design, it is necessary to take these stochastic parameters into account. An equal cross-section blade is investigated and a finite element model is built parametrically. Geometrical parameters, material parameters and load parameters of the blade are considered as input random variables while the maximum deflection and maximum equivalent stress are output random variables. Analysis file of the blade is compiled by deterministic finite element method and applied to be loop file to create sample points. A quadratic polynomial with cross terms is chosen to regress these samples by step-forward regression method and employed as a surrogate of numerical solver to drastically reduce the number of solvers call. Then, Monte Carlo method is used to obtain the statistical characteristics and cumulative distribution function of the maximum deflection and maximum equivalent stress of the blade. Probability sensitivity analysis, which combines the slope of the gradient and the width of the scatter range of the random input variables, is applied to evaluate how much the output parameters are influenced by the random input para-meters. The scatter plots of structural responses with respect to the random input variables are illustrated to analyze how to change the input random variables to improve the reliability of the blade. The results show that combination of the finite element method, the response surface method and Monte Carlo method is an ideal way for the reliability analysis and probability strength design of the blade.

  4. Steam turbine of domestic (ultra) critical unit steam turbine temperature low risk analysis and Suggestions%超(超)临界机组汽轮机蒸汽温度低风险分析及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靖长财

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical (ultra) steam turbine of guohua company steam temperature low risk be analyzed, In The principles of the protection configuration, Protection setting characteristics, rotection setting mode, Protection setting value selection and Operating control measures. To protect the turbine safety operation has certain significance.%从保护配置的原则、保护设置特点、保护设置方式、保护定值选取、运行控制措施等方面,分析国华公司超(超)临界机组汽轮机蒸汽温度低存在的风险,对保护汽轮机安全运行具有一定的借鉴意义。

  5. Development of CAD/CAM software for steam turbine-blades%汽轮机叶片CAD/CAM软件开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石勇; 刘文涛; 于红英

    2011-01-01

    由于通用CAD/CAM软件存在难以实现汽轮机叶片参数化三维建模,在变轴加工过程中不能进行变前倾角、变侧倾角加工和拐角减速等问题,开发了汽轮机叶片CAD/CAM软件.软件通过研究汽轮机叶片各曲面特征建模方法,实现叶片零件参数化建模;通过研究刀具轨迹计算公式,设置叶片各曲面段不同工艺参数,获得了叶片粗加工、螺旋精加工和清根加工的变参数轨迹规划方法,并解决了以上问题.%In order to solve the problems that, with the commonly used CAD/CAM software, it is difficult to carry out 3D modeling of steam-turbine-blade parameterization, and the variable leader angle, variable tilt angler, and speed-down at comers can not achieved during variable axis machining, a CAD/CAM software for steam-turbine-blades is developed. By studying the modeling method of various curve features for the steam-turbine-blade, this software can carry out parametric modeling of the blade parts.Through studying the calculation formula for the tool path and setting different process parameters for each curve section, the variable parameter trajectory planning method for blade rough machining,spiral finishing and Clean-up cutting are achieved, and above mentioned problems are solved.

  6. Determination of forces induced by steam flow in turbines; Determinacion de fuerzas inducidas por flujo de vapor en turbinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Castrejon, Juan Carlos

    2008-09-15

    The steam flow induced vibrations in turbines is a common problem during the operation of 300 MW turbines and it is one of the problems that requires solution to develop 1 GW steam turbines. The flow induced vibration is caused because there is an interaction between blades and the flow field. Blades are subjected to the forces caused by the flow field, but also the flow field is affected by the blades and its movement. The nozzle wakes cause uneven pressure field downstream and produces alternating forces on blades which lead to blade vibrations. Some of the vibrations originated in this way may damage the blades and affect the turbine performance. The forces acting on blades (and causing forced vibrations) as a result of the variations in the flow field in the axial rotor-stator clearance are studied in this project. These forces were determined applying computer fluid dynamics (CFD) in two turbine stages. The CFD analysis was carried out in the Curtis stage and in the last stage, using 2D and 3D models. An important part of the analysis is focused on discussing the pressure field variation, because this variation caused the forces acting on blades. The flow field was resolved using CFD and the computed pressure field was integrated around the blades to get the forces acting on blades. These computed dynamical forces were analyzed using a FFT analysis and the results were used in the blade useful life estimation and in the investigation of the failure causes of these blades. In every turbine stage the RNG - turbulence model and the sliding mesh method was used to deal with the blade motion. The 3D models were resolved using parallel computation in a cluster of 6 AMD 64 Opteron processors of 2412.36 MHz and 8 Gb of RAM. The results of the simulation in both stages get the pressure field behavior in the axial rotor-stator clearance and determine the force acting on the blades. These results showed that both, the pressure field and the force magnitude acting on

  7. Materials for Ultra-long Last Stage Blade of LP Steam Turbine%低压汽轮机末级超长叶片材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭建强; 李宇峰

    2015-01-01

    因为末级叶片长度决定了低压汽缸的数量、汽轮机的总长并最终决定电厂占地尺寸,对机组效率和电厂的建设成本有很大影响,所以末级叶片是汽轮机中非常关键的部件.然而,由于末级叶片尺寸大,工况条件严苛,对材料有着非常高的要求.因此,世界各国的汽轮机制造商都非常重视末级叶片材料的研发.目前,共有3类末级叶片材料,即;马氏体不锈钢、沉淀硬化不锈钢和钛合金.文章介绍了广泛使用及最新研发的末级叶片材料,比较了钢制和钛合金末级叶片材料的优缺点,并结合国内超长尺寸末级叶片模锻件制造能力,对国内高参数超超临界汽轮机超长叶片材料的研发给出了建议.%The length of the last stage blade (LSB) decides the number of the LP casing and the total length of the steam turbine, further decides the total area of the whole power plant, and influences the unit's efficiency and construction cost of the power plant significantly, so the LSB is the critical part of the steam turbine. However, the size of the LSB is huge, and the working condition of the LSB is severe, so the property requirement for the LSB material is very high. Hence, steam turbine manufacturers all over the world pay attention to the research and development (R&D) of the LSB material. Up to now, there are three types of LSB materials:matensitic stainless steel, precipitating hardening stainless steel and titanium alloy. This paper introduces the LSB material which is wildly used and newly developed, and compares the advantage and disadvantage of the LSB made of steel and titanium alloy, and gives R&D suggestions for the LSB material for the domestic USC steam turbine with high parameters, based on the die forging manufacture ability for the ultra-long LBS in China.

  8. Design and Performance Test of Jet Pump for Marine Steam Turbine%船用汽轮机注油器设计与试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晗; 徐鹏

    2016-01-01

    The performances of jet pump in marine turbine are calculated in this paper with the method of numerical simulation. The test facilities are built to validate the performance of pump. The results show that the performance is fully satisfied with the demand and the off-design condition is excellent. All above work is the solid base of marine steam turbine development.%通过数值仿真对所设计船用汽轮机注油器进行了数值仿真,并详细分析了其变工况性能,并搭建试验台进行了性能验证,结果表明性能满足设计使用要求,并具有良好的变工况性能,为汽轮发电机组的研制创造了坚实的基础。

  9. 汽轮机调节级动叶叶根产生裂纹的原因调查%An Investigation on the Cracks on Control Stage Blade Root of Steam Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广坤

    2015-01-01

    通过对汽轮机调节级动叶叶根抽样调查,得出其枞树叶根产生裂纹的根本原因,并就此提出汽轮机叶片更换时相关的具体措施,对汽轮机检修进行部分叶片更换具有一定的指导作用.%Through spot check of the control stage blade of steam turbine, the primary causes of cracking on the fir blade roots were found out and specific measures for changing steam turbine blades were put forward, to provide some guidance for changing blades in steam turbine maintenance.

  10. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Steam Power Plant with Double Reheat and Feed Water Heaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rashidi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A steam cycle with double reheat and turbine extraction is presented. Six heaters are used, three of them at high pressure and the other three at low pressure with deaerator. The first and second law analysis for the cycle and optimization of the thermal and exergy efficiencies are investigated. An exergy analysis is performed to guide the thermodynamic improvement for this cycle. The exergy and irreversibility analyses of each component of the cycle are determined. Effects of turbine inlet pressure, boiler exit steam temperature, and condenser pressure on the first and second laws' efficiencies are investigated. Also the best turbine extraction pressure on the first law efficiency is obtained. The results show that the biggest exergy loss occurs in the boiler followed by the turbine. The results also show that the overall thermal efficiency and the second law efficiency decrease as the condenser pressure increases for any fixed outlet boiler temperature, however, they increase as the boiler temperature increases for any condenser pressure. Furthermore, the best values of extraction pressure from high, intermediate, and low pressure turbine which give the maximum first law efficiencies are obtained based on the required heat load corresponding to each exit boiler temperature.

  11. The nuclear power steam turbine modeling based on modular method%基于模块化方法的核动力汽轮机建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余海燕; 杨永强; 汪伟

    2011-01-01

    汽轮机为核动力装置二回路系统重要部件,对整个系统的特性具有重要影响.根据模块化建模思想,将汽轮机划分为通用子模块,主要包括流动阻力型模块、流动存储型模块和转子模块.建立这些通用子模块的详细数学模型,利用不同模块的组合可以开发多种类型的汽轮机,提高汽轮机建模的效率.计算结果表明,建立的汽轮机模型可以满足大工况变动要求,为模拟整个核动力装置二回路系统提供可靠基础.%The steam turbine is an important component of the nuclear power plant second loop system,which has great influence on the characteristic of the power system.According to the modular method, the turbine is divided into some general sub modules, which mainly consist of the fluid resislive module,the fluid storage module and the rotational module.The advantage is that various turbines can he developed througb the assembly of the differenl modules,which improves the efficiency of steam turbine modeling.The results show that the models developed can successfully simulate the large disturbance transient process,and can provide reliable basis to simulate whole nuclear power plant second loop system.

  12. 超超临界二次再热汽轮机发展综述%Development of Ultra-supercritical Double-reheat Steam Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建录; 张晓东

    2016-01-01

    文章概述了汽轮机二次再热技术的发展历程,当前我国超超临界二次再热汽轮机技术研发情况,并重点介绍了我国首台超超临界二次再热汽轮机技术特点及运行情况,对未来二次再热汽轮机技术发展方向和典型机型进行了探讨。%This paper introduces the evolution of double-reheat turbine technology, the development of the ultra-supercritical double-reheat turbine technology in China,and mainly introduces the technical charateristic and operation conditions of the first ultra-super⁃critical double-reheat turbine unit made by DTC in China. The new development direction and typical models of the double-reheat steam turbine designed by DTC is discussed in this paper.

  13. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF WET STEAM CONDENSING FLOW WITH AN EULERIAN/EULERIAN MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Wet steam condensing flow in low-pressure steam turbine leads to efficiency losses and blade erosions.In order to investigate this problem by numerical approach, an Eulerian/Eulerian model has been developed, in which the wet steam is regarded as mixture comprising two coupled systems: the vapor phase and the liquid phase.These two systems are both described by conservation equations.High resolution TVD scheme is employed to capture condensing phenomena in wet steam flow.This model has been validated by numerical simulations of condensing flows in 1D and 2D nozzles.Compared with experimental data, a good agreement is observed.This Eulerian/Eulerian model can be extended to 3D calculation of condensing flow.

  14. S209FA燃气一蒸汽联合循环Dl l型汽轮机调节阀的电液转换控制%ElectrO-hydrauUc Conversion Control of Dll Steam Turbine Control Valve in S209FA Gas-Steam Combined Cycle Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈元锁

    2010-01-01

    Introduce the steam path of D11 Steam Turbine in S209FA Gas—Steam Combined Cycle Unit.Explain the control algorithm of the main steam,reheat steam and LP steam control valves.Describe the electro-hydraulic control principle and implementation process of control valves.%对S209FA燃气一蒸汽联合循环DIl型汽轮机的蒸汽流程进行说明;对主蒸汽、再热蒸汽以及低压补汽调节阀的控制计算进行讲解,并对这些调节阀的电液控制原理和实现过程进行叙述。

  15. Correction Method about the Working Condition Graph of the Heating Steam Turbine System and Parameter%供热式汽轮机工况图的系统及参数修正方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 吕泰萍; 王占洲

    2015-01-01

    Working condition of the heating steam turbine figure in existence,is mainly obtained in the rated parameters of main steam and reheat steam parameters,the exhaust steam parameters and the extraction steam pressure,and thinking of the regenerative system state is normal.While in the actual operation of the steam turbine,these parameters are not always keep their rating unchanged,regenerative system status also inevitably deviate from the design values,and there is also the reduction temperature of superheater and reheater.At this moment, In order to get the relationship among the electrical power and the main steam flow and the amount of extraction,we can' t pick up the operation condition of the steam turbine diagram directly,and must correct it.This paper give a modified method about the regenerative system states,main steam turbine parameters,regenerative system parameters,the reheat steam temperature,steam turbine exhaust steam pressure and extraction steam pressure deviating from the value of the design,and process the correct calculation with a certain C330/262-16.7/0.49/538/538 type steam turbine as an example.The proposed correction method also has a certain guiding significance of predicting steam turbine electric power according to the main steam flow and extraction steam flow in the actual operation.%现有的供热式汽轮机工况图,主要是在额定的主蒸汽参数、再热蒸汽参数、排汽参数及抽汽压力下得到的,并且认为回热系统的状态正常.而汽轮机实际运行中,这些参数并不总是保持其额定值不变,同时回热系统状态也不可避免地要偏离设计值,且还存在着过热器和再热器的喷水减温.此时,为了得到电功率与主蒸汽流量及抽汽量之间的关系,就不能直接查取汽轮机的工况图,而必须对其进行修正.给出了在汽轮机回热系统状态及主蒸汽参数、再热蒸汽温度、汽轮机排汽压力以及抽汽压力偏离设计值时的

  16. Discussion on the Causes and Countermeasures for the Fracture of the Steam Turbine Rotor of Aromatics Isomerization%芳烃异构化汽轮机转子断裂原因及应对措施研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁飞升; 郭鸿飞; 高飞

    2015-01-01

    对芳烃异构化汽轮机转子断裂原因进行分析,制订了预防转子断裂的方案,并提出了汽轮机转子安全运行的建议.%To analyze the causes of the fracture of the steam turbine rotor with aromatics isomerization, a scheme to pre-vent the rotor fracture is developed, and some suggestions for the safe operation of the steam turbine rotor are put forward.

  17. 700℃等级超超临界汽轮机用材探讨%Discussion on the Materials of 700℃Class Ultra-super Critical Steam Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭建强

    2014-01-01

    By combining domestic and international advanced research data of materials for ultra -super critical steam turbine , this paper provides the candidate materials as well as research and development focus of material tech -nology in China for 700℃class steam turbine .%综合国内外先进超超临界汽轮机材料方面的研究资料,给出我国700℃等级汽轮机用候选材料及材料技术的研发重点。

  18. 基于支持向量机的汽轮机振动故障诊断系统%Vibration Fault Diagnosis of Steam Turbine Based on SVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩中合; 刘明浩

    2013-01-01

    以MATLAB为开发平台构建了一套汽轮机振动故障诊断系统.该系统以支持向量机算法为核心,并通过建立支持向量机多分类模型对汽轮机常见故障进行了精确的诊断.%This paper develops a set of steam turbine vibration fault diagnosis system based on the development platform of MATLAB. The system uses the SVM algorithm as the core,and diagnoses the common faults of steam turbine accurately through establishing multiple classification SVM model.

  19. 火电厂600MW超临界机组汽轮机胀差控制分析%Steam Turbine Differential Expansion Controlling Analysis of 600 MW Supercritical Unit in Thermal Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晨; 朱懿

    2012-01-01

    N600-24.2/566/566 supercritical steam turbine which is made by Shanghai Steam Turbine Plant, for example, importance and variation of differential expansion controlling of steam turbine, mutual relations of the rotor and stator expansion, and the most effective technical measures of controlling differential expansion in the start-up process of Phase I 2 x 600 MW supercritical steam turbine of Huangjinbu Power Generation Co.,Ltd. of State Power Grid in Jiangxi were analyzed, and had some reference values for other turbines.%以上海汽轮机厂生产的N600.24.2/566/566型超临界汽轮机为例,分析了江西国电黄金埠发电有限公司1期2台600MW超临界汽轮机启动过程中,汽轮机胀差控制的重要性、变化规律、转子和静子膨胀的相互关系以及采取的最有效的控制胀差的技术措施,对于其它汽轮机具有一定的参考价值。

  20. 一起罕见的汽轮机油变绿原因分析%Reason Analysis on One Rare Event of Steam Turbine Oil Changing Green

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万涛; 李臻; 周舟; 何铁祥; 冯兵; 龚尚昆

    2015-01-01

    In allusion to problems of steam turbine oil discoloring and its abnormality in practical production,this paper ana-lyzes various performance index of steam turbine oil and considers that colored substances could not affect usability of the oil while antioxidant may cause the oil discolor. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer(GC-MS)and ultraviolet spectrum anal-ysis was conducted for extracted green substances and it was discovered reason for oil discoloring was partially using alkylated diphenylamines antioxidant. Meanwhile,it was pointed out that XDHX-1 typed high-effective adsorbent had good desorp-tion effect for colored substances.%针对生产实际中汽轮机油变色、不正常的问题,分析了汽轮机油各项性能指标,认为发色物质并未影响油品使用性能,可能为抗氧化剂造成变色。将萃取的绿色物质进行气质联用和紫外光谱分析,发现油品变色应为部分使用了烷基化二苯胺新型抗氧化剂所致,并指出 XDHX-1型高效吸附剂对发色物质具有良好的脱除效果。

  1. Substantiation of the cogeneration turbine unit selection for reconstruction of power units with a T-250/300-23.5 turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Shibaev, T. L.; Gol'dberg, A. A.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Bilan, V. N.; Kadkina, I. V.

    2016-11-01

    The selection of a cogeneration steam turbine unit (STU) for the reconstruction of power units with a T-250/300-23.5 turbine is substantiated by the example of power unit no. 9 at the cogeneration power station no. 22 (TETs-22) of Mosenergo Company. Series T-250 steam turbines have been developed for combined heat and power generation. A total of 31 turbines were manufactured. By the end of 2015, the total operation time of prototype power units with the T-250/300-23.5 turbine exceeded 290000 hours. Considering the expiry of the service life, the decision was made that the reconstruction of the power unit at st. no. 9 of TETs-22 should be the first priority. The main issues that arose in developing this project—the customer's requirements and the request for the reconstruction, the view on certain problems of Ural Turbine Works (UTZ) as the manufacturer of the main power unit equipment, and the opinions of other project parties—are examined. The decisions were made with account taken of the experience in operation of all Series T-250 turbines and the results of long-term discussions of pressing problems at scientific and technical councils, meetings, and negotiations. For the new power unit, the following parameters have been set: a live steam pressure of 23.5 MPa and live steam/reheat temperature of 565/565°C. Considering that the boiler equipment will be upgraded, the live steam flow is increased up to 1030 t/h. The reconstruction activities involving the replacement of the existing turbine with a new one will yield a service life of 250000 hours for turbine parts exposed to a temperature of 450°C or higher and 200000 hours for pipeline components. Hence, the decision has been made to reuse the arrangement of the existing turbine: a four-cylinder turbine unit comprising a high-pressure cylinder (HPC), two intermediate pressure cylinders (IPC-1 & 2), and a low-pressure cylinder (LPC). The flow path in the new turbine will have active blading in LPC and IPC-1

  2. Turbine main engines

    CERN Document Server

    Main, John B; Herbert, C W; Bennett, A J S

    1965-01-01

    Turbine Main Engines deals with the principle of operation of turbine main engines. Topics covered include practical considerations that affect turbine design and efficiency; steam turbine rotors, blades, nozzles, and diaphragms; lubricating oil systems; and gas turbines for use with nuclear reactors. Gas turbines for naval boost propulsion, merchant ship propulsion, and naval main propulsion are also considered. This book is divided into three parts and begins with an overview of the basic mode of operation of the steam turbine engine and how it converts the pressure energy of the ingoing ste

  3. Component testing of a ground based gas turbine steam cooled rich-burn primary zone combustor for emissions control of nitrogeneous fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    This effort summarizes the work performed on a steam cooled, rich-burn primary zone, variable geometry combustor designed for combustion of nitrogeneous fuels such as heavy oils or synthetic crude oils. The steam cooling was employed to determine its feasibility and assess its usefulness as part of a ground based gas turbine bottoming cycle. Variable combustor geometry was employed to demonstrate its ability to control primary and secondary zone equivalence ratios and overall pressure drop. Both concepts proved to be highly successful in achieving their desired objectives. The steam cooling reduced peak liner temperatures to less than 800 K. This low temperature offers the potential of both long life and reduced use of strategic materials for liner fabrication. These degrees of variable geometry were successfully employed to control air flow distribution within the combustor. A variable blade angle axial flow air swirler was used to control primary zone air flow, while the secondary and tertiary zone air flows were controlled by rotating bands which regulated air flow to the secondary zone quench holes and the dilutions holes respectively.

  4. Thermochemical recuperative combined cycle with methane-steam reforming combustion; Tennengasu kaishitsu nensho ni yoru konbaindo saikuru hatsuden no kokoritsuka oyobi denryoku fuka heijunka taio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, R.; Essaki, K.; Tsutsumi, A. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Chemical System Engineering; Kaganoi, S.; Kurimura, H. [Teikoku Sekiyu Co., Tokyo (Japan); Sasaki, T.; Ogawa, T. [Toshiba Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-10

    Thermochemical recuperative combined cycles with methane-steam reforming are proposed for improving their thermal efficiency and for peak-load leveling. For targeting higher thermal efficiency, a cycle with methane-steam reforming reaction heated by gas turbine exhaust was analyzed. The inlet temperature of gas turbine was set at 1,350 degree C. Low-pressure steam extracted from a steam turbine is mixed with methane, and then this mixture is heated by part of the gas turbine exhaust to promote a reforming reaction. The rest of the exhaust heat is used to produce steam, which drives steam turbines to generate electricity. The effect of steam-to-methane ratio (S/C) on thermal efficiency of the cycle, as well as on methane conversion, is investigated by using the ASPEN Plus process simulator. The methane feed rate was fixed at constant and S/C ratio was varied from 2.25 to 4.75. Methane conversion shows an increasing trend toward the ratio and has a maximum value of 17.9 % at S/C=4.0. Thermal efficiency for the system is about 51 % higher than that calculated for a conventional 1,300 degree C class combined cycle under similar conditions. A thermochemical recuperative combined cycle is designed for peak-load leveling. In night-time operation from 20 : 00 to 8 : 00 it stores hydrogen produced by methane steam reforming at S/C=3.9 to save power generation. The gas turbine inlet temperature is 1,330 degree C. In daytime operation from 8 : 00 to 20 : 00 the chemically recuperated combined cycle operated at S/C=2.0 is driven by the mixture of a combined cycle operated at constant load with the same methane feed rate, whereas daytime operation generated power 1.26 times larger than that of the combined cycle. (author)

  5. Crack repair welding by CMT brazing using low melting point filler wire for long-term used steam turbine cases of Cr-Mo-V cast steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoi, Kota, E-mail: kadoi@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Murakami, Aoi; Shinozaki, Kenji; Yamamoto, Motomichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Matsumura, Hideo [Chugoku Electric Power Co., 3-9-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan)

    2016-06-01

    Surface melting by gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding and overlaying by cold metal transfer (CMT) brazing using low melting point filler wire were investigated to develop a repair process for cracks in worn cast steel of steam turbine cases. Cr-Mo-V cast steel, operated for 188,500 h at 566 °C, was used as the base material. Silver and gold brazing filler wires were used as overlaying materials to decrease the heat input into the base metal and the peak temperature during the welding thermal cycle. Microstructural analysis revealed that the worn cast steel test samples contained ferrite phases with intragranular precipitates of Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3}, Mo{sub 2}C, and CrSi{sub 2} and grain boundary precipitates of Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} and Mo{sub 2}C. CMT brazing using low melting point filler wire was found to decrease the heat input and peak temperature during the thermal cycle of the process compared with those during GTA surface melting. Thus, the process helped to inhibit the formation of hardened phases such as intermetallics and martensite in the heat affected zone (HAZ). Additionally, in the case of CMT brazing using BAg-8, the change in the hardness of the HAZ was negligible even though other processes such as GTA surface melting cause significant changes. The creep-fatigue properties of weldments produced by CMT brazing with BAg-8 were the highest, and nearly the same as those of the base metal owing to the prevention of hardened phase formation. The number of fracture cycles using GTA surface melting and CMT brazing with BAu-4 was also quite small. Therefore, CMT brazing using low melting point filler wire such as BAg-8 is a promising candidate method for repairing steam turbine cases. However, it is necessary to take alloy segregation during turbine operation into account to design a suitable filler wire for practical use.

  6. 汽轮机润滑油系统进水的治理%Management of water power plant steam turbine lubricating oil system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘炜

    2014-01-01

    Combined with the moisture content of steam turbine lubricating oil exceed the standard phenomenon during the operation of the power plant, expounds the harm of water turbine lubricating oil system and cause water causes, introduces the reason of turbine shaft seal leakage, proposed to prevent water in lube oil system and reduce the lubricating oil system measures the moisture content, the favorable effect.%结合本电厂运行过程中出现的汽轮机润滑油水分含量超标现象,阐述了汽轮机润滑油系统进水的危害和引起进水原因,介绍了汽轮机轴封漏气的原因,提出了防止润滑油系统进水和降低润滑油系统中水分含量的具体措施,经过实施后效果良好。

  7. Study on the Steam Extraction Strategy of Pre-combustion CO2 Capture Based on IGCC%基于IGCC的燃烧前CO2捕集抽蒸汽策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新明; 闫姝; 方芳; 史绍平; 穆延非

    2015-01-01

    为了降低燃烧前CO2捕集对IGCC蒸汽动力系统出力的不利影响,并保证CO2捕集系统的稳定运行,CO2捕集消耗的蒸汽需要合理的从IGCC系统内部抽取。采用仿真模拟软件,研究了CO2捕集对IGCC系统中燃气轮机、余热锅炉和汽轮机负荷的影响。提出了两种水–气变换反应加湿蒸汽抽汽方案,通过对比这两种加湿蒸汽抽汽方案对汽轮机出力的影响,确定了最优的向 CO2捕集系统供汽策略。其中,水-气变换反应加湿蒸汽从气化炉汽包抽取,CO2分离过程消耗的低压加热蒸汽将根据负荷情况由余热锅炉低压蒸汽系统或汽轮机低压缸抽取。%To reduce the negative influence of pre-combustion CO2 capturing on the IGCC steam turbine performance and to maintain the stability of CO2 capture system operation, the steam consumed by CO2 capturing needs to be properly extracted from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system. Through process simulation, the effects of CO2 capture on the load of gas turbine, heat recovery steam generator, and steam turbine in the IGCC system are studied. Two methods of steam extraction for water-gas shift reaction humidification are proposed and the better one is recommended by comparing the effect of these two approaches on the steam turbine load. It was shown that the humidification steam for water-gas shift reaction should be extracted from gasifier steam drum, and the low pressure heating steam consumed by CO2 separation process should be extracted from the low pressure steam system of heat recovery steam generator or from the low pressure cylinder of the steam turbine depending on the load conditions.

  8. Analysis of Thermo Dynamic System and Thermo Ecomony for Nuclear Steam Turbine%核电汽轮机热力系统及热经济性的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀润景

    2016-01-01

    Based on simplification of outlet mix water enthalpy for collection heater and steam enthalpy in each stage of reheater, this paper established heat balance matrix model ,which can be applied for thermo system calculation of nuclear steam turbine .Based on the adjustment of calculation method which used to be applied for thermal power steam turbine ,this paper established a method which can be applied for nuclear turbine .The practical applicability of both the model and method is verified by the calculation of AP 1000 nuclear steam turbine .%对疏水汇集式加热器出口水焓值和再热器各阶段蒸汽焓值计算进行了简化处理,建立了适用于压水堆核电汽轮机热力系统计算的热平衡矩阵模型;对适用于火电再热机组的功率、热耗变化率计算方法进行了调整,建立了适合核电汽轮机的计算方法;利用AP 1000核电汽轮机作为算例,验证了上述方法的实用性。

  9. Ammonia Synthesis at Low Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussler, Edward; McCormick, Alon; Reese, Michael; Malmali, Mahdi

    2017-08-23

    Ammonia can be synthesized at low pressure by the use of an ammonia selective absorbent. The process can be driven with wind energy, available locally in areas requiring ammonia for synthetic fertilizer. Such wind energy is often called "stranded," because it is only available far from population centers where it can be directly used. In the proposed low pressure process, nitrogen is made from air using pressure swing absorption, and hydrogen is produced by electrolysis of water. While these gases can react at approximately 400 °C in the presence of a promoted conventional catalyst, the conversion is often limited by the reverse reaction, which makes this reaction only feasible at high pressures. This limitation can be removed by absorption on an ammine-like calcium or magnesium chloride. Such alkaline metal halides can effectively remove ammonia, thus suppressing the equilibrium constraints of the reaction. In the proposed absorption-enhanced ammonia synthesis process, the rate of reaction may then be controlled not by the chemical kinetics nor the absorption rates, but by the rate of the recycle of unreacted gases. The results compare favorably with ammonia made from a conventional small scale Haber-Bosch process.

  10. New features and applications of PRESTO, a computer code for the performance of regenerative, superheated steam turbine cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Y. K.; Staiger, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    The code was designed to analyze performance at valves-wide-open design flow. The code can model conventional steam cycles as well as cycles that include such special features as process steam extraction and induction and feedwater heating by external heat sources. Convenience features and extensions to the special features were incorporated into the PRESTO code. The features are described, and detailed examples illustrating the use of both the original and the special features are given.

  11. 1000MW燃煤机组锅炉汽动引风机驱动汽源选择%Selection of steam resources for turbine-driven induced draft fan in 1 000 MW coal fired unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范永春; 吴阿峰

    2011-01-01

    The induced draft (ID) fan driven by turbine instead of motor is excellent in several aspects, such as avoiding greater start-up current, reducing service power consumption rate, achieving higher efficiency for ID fan operating with variable speed, avoiding the second transformation of energy and so on. For 1 000 MW unit, both the fourth steam extraction (exhaust steam of middle pressure cylinder) and the cold reheated steam (exhaust steam of high pressure cylinder) can be used to drive steam turbine. Considering the different steam resource and different turbine exhaust mode, the techno-economic analysis of the fourth steam extraction paired with condensing steam turbine and the cold reheated steam paired with back pressure turbine was analyzed. The result shows that both the two schemes are feasible, but the former is more economical.%采用汽轮机代替电动机驱动引风机,可避免过大的电动机启动电流,并且具有降低厂用电率、实现引风机变速高效运行、避免能量二次转换等优点.就l 000MW超超临界机组而言,目前可用于驱动引风机汽轮机的汽源有四段抽汽(中压缸排汽)和冷再热蒸汽(高压缸排汽).结合不同的汽源配置方案和汽轮机排汽方式,重点对四段抽汽配凝汽式汽轮机和冷再热蒸汽配背压式汽轮机2个方案进行了技术经济分析.分析结果表明,这2个方案在技术上均可行,但前者经济性更好.

  12. Alkaline ;sulfite and low-pressure steam coupled pretreatment on Neosinocalamus affinis and its enzymatic hydrolysis%碱性亚硫酸盐耦合低压蒸汽预处理慈竹及其纤维素酶解转化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦书百川; 刘彦涛; 卜令习; 赵鹏翔; 蒋建新

    2016-01-01

    Neosinocalamus affinis, a widely distributed grassy material rich in cellulose, is a potential resource for cellulose ethanol production. In this study, a coupled pretreatment of low-pressure steam explosion ( SE) and alkaline sulfite ( AS ) was applied to N. affinis in order to protect carbohydrates against degradation and increase delignification, which is useful for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. The optimal conditions of SE-AS were explored using the orthogonal experiment. It was found that the optimum condition of SE-AS process was 140 ℃ in 40% dry substrate Na2 SO3 and 15% dry substrate NaOH. A final glucose yield of 88. 54% was achieved during the 72-h enzymatic hydrolysis process ( substrate concentration was 5%) . Further simplification by combining low-pressure SE and AS into one-step pretreatment with a similar glucose yield of 87. 25% was achieved with 89. 25% of cellulose retention rate.%慈竹作为一种富含纤维素、分布广泛的草类资源,是生产纤维素燃料乙醇的潜在原料。本文采用碱性亚硫酸盐法与低压蒸汽爆破相结合对慈竹原料进行预处理,在保留碳水化合物的同时能够有效脱除大量木质素进而提升后续的纤维素酶水解效率。通过正交试验确定最优工艺条件为反应温度140℃、亚硫酸盐用量40%、氢氧化钠用量15%。水解试验中加入质量分数5%的最优工艺条件预处理慈竹原料72 h,纤维素酶解生成葡萄糖得率达到88.54%。在此基础上将碱性亚硫酸盐与低压蒸汽爆破预处理相耦合,有效简化了预处理工艺并降低成本,可实现慈竹原料“一步法”高效预处理,纤维素保留率为89.25%,葡萄糖得率达87.25%。

  13. Analysis of Causes for Blocking at Inlet of Low Pressure Cylinder of Turbine Ammonia Refrigerating Machine and Countermeasures%透平氨冰机低压缸入口堵塞的原因分析及措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学信; 胡继卫

    2015-01-01

    In connection with the phenomenon of filter pressure difference increase at inlet of low pressure cylinder and primary separator of the ammonia refrigerating machine unit,the causes are analyzed and relevant measures are taken.The actual operation results show that the measures taken effectively eliminate unfavorable factors affecting safe production of the unit,ensuring the safe,stable and long period operation of the unit.%针对氨冰机组出现的一段分离器和低压缸入口过滤器压差增大的现象,分析其原因并采取了相应的措施。实际运行结果表明,采取的措施有效消除了影响装置安全生产的不利因素,保证了机组安全稳定长周期运行。

  14. To Wash Soluble Salt Deposits in the Flow Section of Steam Turbine with Wet Steam%利用湿蒸汽冲洗汽轮机通流部分可溶性盐垢

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长友; 党占东; 胡海

    2014-01-01

    Through analysis of the causes of high turbine flow resistance and high tem-perature of thrust bearing shoes, it was found that the main cause had been serious scaling in the flow section, which reduced the circulation area and in turn decreased the work ca-pacity of steam turbine preventing the unit from boosting to rated load. The causes of salt deposit in the flow section were also analyzed and studied and a flushing plan was drawn up, to reduce the resistance in the unit flow passages, lower the temperature of the thrust shoes and improve the safety and economy of the generating unit.%通过对汽轮机组通流部分阻力大、推力瓦温度高的原因进行分析,得出其主要原因为通流部分结垢严重,流通面积缩小,导致汽轮机做功能力下降,使机组无法带至额定负荷;并对通流部分结垢的原因进行分析、研究,作出冲洗方案,以求降低机组的通流部分阻力、推力瓦温度,提高机组的安全、经济性。

  15. Research on the Steam Turbine Static Blade Assembly Back Curved Surface Line Cutting Process%汽轮机静叶片装配内背弧型面线切割工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛鹏枭; 李双跃; 谌永祥; 刘勇; 曾岳飞

    2013-01-01

    The back curved surface machining of the steam turbine static blade assembly is one of the key processes of the steam turbine static blade. For the steam turbine static blade structural characteristics,applying WEDM and workpiece positioning principle,the steam turbine static blade machining process,WEDM process of the back curved surface in the steam turbine static blade assembly,WEDM fixture structure,workpiece clamping principle,adjustment method of WEDM process parameters were researched. So the machined part accuracy and surface roughness requirements are met and the perfect machining processing is formed in production.%  汽轮机静叶片装配内背弧型面加工是汽轮机静叶片关键工序之一。针对汽轮机静叶片结构特征,应用线切割加工技术和工件定位原理,研究汽轮机静叶片加工工艺过程、装配内背弧型面线切割工艺、线切割夹具结构及夹紧工作原理、线切割工艺参数的调整方法,从而在满足加工零件的精度及表面粗糙要求的同时,在生产应用中形成了更加完善的工艺方法。

  16. Critical economic point of industrial turbines%工业汽轮机的经济出力分界点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卓峰; 敦剑; 卢红波; 耿军; 冯霄

    2012-01-01

    Temperature and pressure reducers are widely used in the steam power system of petrochemical plants, which can transfer higher pressure steam to lower pressure steam for different grades of heat demands. Otherwise, generally in summer there is abundant low pressure steam in plants. Using backpressure turbines to replace temperature and pressure reducer, as well as condensing steam turbines to recover the energy of the abundant low pressure steam are effective energy-saving methods. In this paper, an economic evaluation model is proposed for determining the critical economic point for back-pressure and condensing steam turbines. The effect of steam price or the price ratio of electricity to heat on the critical point is discussed. The results for an industrial case show that the critical powers of steam turbine are relatively low, which means that in most industrial cases, using steam turbines to save energy is beneficial. This paper provides guidance in selection of suitable steam turbine for energy saving in petrochemical plants.%在石化企业蒸汽动力系统中存在大量的减温减压器,将较高压力蒸汽转化为较低压力蒸汽以适用于不同品位热量的需求.此外在夏季企业可能存在低压蒸汽过剩现象.采用背压汽轮机替代减温减压器和凝汽汽轮机回收过剩低压蒸汽能量是节能的有效方法.为了确定采用汽轮机的经济合理的范围,通过经济评价方程,获得了背压汽轮机和凝汽汽轮机的经济出力分界点,并讨论了在不同蒸汽价格或电热比价下该分界点的变化.案例结果表明,该临界值所对应的功率较小,表明在企业多数情况采用汽轮机的节能方案是经济可行的.本文可为在石化企业的节能减排中采用工业汽轮机提供指导和依据.

  17. Fracture mechanics analysis of damaged turbine rotor discs using finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasović Ivana V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents evaluation fracture mechanics parameters in low pressure turbine components. Critical locations such as keyway and dovetail area are experiencing stress concentration leading to crack initiation. Stress intensity factors were evaluated using the J-Integral approach available within ANSYS software code. The finite element method allowed the prediction of the point of crack initiation and the crack propagation using the orientations of the maximum principal stresses. Special attention in this investigation is focused to develop analytic expressions for stress intensity factors at critical location of low pres-sure steam turbine disc. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. I-174001 i br. TR-35045

  18. 1500 r/min核电汽轮机71英寸末级叶片的研发%Development of 1500 r/min 71 Inch Low Pressure End Blade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管继伟; 张秋鸿; 李宇峰; 刘长春

    2016-01-01

    简要介绍了哈汽公司1500r/min核电汽轮机71英寸末级叶片在气动、结构和频率特性等方面的设计思路,特别介绍了遵循叶片模化设计相似准则由1500r/min71英寸叶片模化设计的3000 r/min35.5英寸叶片的运行业绩,由此证明了1500r/min71英寸叶片的安全可靠性。%The 1500r/min 71 inch nuclear power steam turbine low pressure end blade has been developed by HTC with advanced design feature of aerodynamic ,structure and frequency character .A 3000 r/min 35.5 inch blade for combined cycle power plant steam turbine is obtained from the 1500 r/min 71 inch blade by law of similarity scale .Application practice of the 3000 r/min 35.5 inch blade for combined cycle power plant steam turbine has provided proof of safety of 1500r/min 71 inch blade.

  19. Heat transfer performance comparison of steam and air in gas turbine cooling channels with different rib angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaojun; Gao, Jianmin; Xu, Liang; Li, Fajin

    2013-11-01

    Using steam as working fluid to replace compressed air is a promising cooling technology for internal cooling passages of blades and vanes. The local heat transfer characteristics and the thermal performance of steam flow in wide aspect ratio channels ( W/ H = 2) with different angled ribs on two opposite walls have been experimentally investigated in this paper. The averaged Nusselt number ratios and the friction factor ratios of steam and air in four ribbed channels were also measured under the same test conditions for comparison. The Reynolds number range is 6,000-70,000. The rib angles are 90°, 60°, 45°, and 30°, respectively. The rib height to hydraulic diameter ratio is 0.047. The pitch-to-rib height ratio is 10. The results show that the Nusselt number ratios of steam are 1.19-1.32 times greater than those of air over the range of Reynolds numbers studied. For wide aspect ratio channels using steam as the coolant, the 60° angled ribs has the best heat transfer performance and is recommended for cooling design.

  20. 首台300MW汽轮机循环水供热改造技术与经济指标分析%Transformation Technology and Economic Indicators Analysis of the First 300MW Steam Turbine Supplying Heat Using High-temperature Circulating Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成渫畏; 王学栋; 宋昂

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the technology and content of the first subcritical 300MW steam turbine transforma-tion using high-temperature circulating water for direct heating, and illustrates the similarities and differences with the 135MW stage units. On the basis of transformation technology of double back-pressure and dual rotor switch on 135MW stage units, Technical problems that commonality transformation of dual low-pressure cylinder, feeding water pump turbine transformation, and condensate polishing treatment system transformation have been solved on 300MW turbine unit to achieve direct heating using high-temperature circulating water. After transformation, the performance test results show that economic indicators of the unit have reached design values. Its energy-saving effect is remarkable.%介绍了首台亚临界300MW汽轮机高温循环水供热改造技术和改造内容,并阐述了与135MW等级机组改造的异同点。在135MW等级机组双背压双转子互换改造技术的基础上,300MW汽轮机解决了双层低压缸通用性改造、给水泵小汽轮机改造以及凝结水精处理系统改造等关键技术难题,成功实施了高温循环水直接供热技术改造。由改造后性能考核试验结果得知,机组各项经济指标达到设计值,节能效果显著。

  1. Probable causes of damage of heat-exchange tubes of low-pressure-exchanges of PND-3 type and repair methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, N. N.; Esin, S. B.; Nikolaenkova, E. K.; Sukhorukov, Yu. G.; Svyatkin, F. A.; Sintsova, T. G.; Modestov, V. S.

    2017-08-01

    The structures of low-pressure heaters (LPH), which are installed at nuclear power plants with the K-1000-60/1500 type turbine plants are considered. It was revealed that only the PND-3 type low-pressure heaters have the damages of the heat exchange tubes. For a short operation life, the number of the damaged heat-exchange tubes of PND-3 is approximately 50 pcs for Kalinin NPP and 100-150 pcs for Balakovo NPP. The low-pressure heaters were manufactured at AO Ural Plant of Chemical Machine-Building "Uralkhimmash," OAO Taganrog Boiler-Making Works "Krasny Kotelshchik," and Vitkovice Machinery Group, but the damage nature of the heat-exchange tubes is identical for all PND-3. The damages occur in the place of passage of the heat exchange tubes through the first, the second, and the third partitions over the lower tube plate (the first path of the turbine condensate). Hydraulic shocks can be one of the possible causes of the damage of the heat-exchange tubes of PND-3. The analysis of the average thermal and dynamic loads of the tube systems of PND-1-PND-4 revealed that PND-3 by the thermal power are loaded 1.4-1.6 times and by the dynamic effects are loaded 1.8-2.0 times more than the remaining LPHs. Another possible cause of damage can be the cascaded drain of the separate into PND-4 and then through the drainage heat exchange into PND-3. An additional factor can be the structure of the condensate drainage unit. The advanced system of the heating steam flow and pumping scheme of the separate drain using the existing drainage pumps of PND-3 for K-1000-60/1500 turbine plants for Balakovo and Kalinin NPPs were proposed. The considered decisions make it possible to reduce the flow rate of the heating steam condensate from PND-3 into PND-4 and the speed of the heating steam in the tube space of PND-3 and eliminate the occurrence of hydraulic shocks and damages of the heat exchanger tubes.

  2. Adaptive nonlinear control for steam turbine governor%汽轮机调速系统的非线性自适应控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞华军; 李奇安; 李悦; 单海欧

    2012-01-01

    Steam turbine governor control has played an important role in not only improving power system transient stability but also restraining the low-frequency oscillation and bettering dynamic performance. Different from the former work based on the ideal steam turbine model with accurate parameter, this paper has proposed a nonlinear adaptive control strategy on the basis of comprehensive nonlinear model with inaccurate parameter by utilizing the differential geometry method and adaptive control theory. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed control method.%汽轮机汽门开度控制不仅对电力系统暂态稳定性的改善有着重要的作用,并且对抑制电力系统低频振荡和改善动态品质也有着极其重要的作用,汽轮机调速器的控制器设计通常是基于具有准确参数的理想汽轮机模型。考虑了汽轮发电机固有的非线性以及汽轮机参数的不确定性,基于微分几何学理论和自适应控制方法推导了汽轮机调速的非线性自适应控制律。仿真结果表明了通过该方法设计控制器的有效性和优越性。

  3. 接触分析在汽轮机隔板强度计算中的应用%Application of Contact FEM on the Strength Calculation of Steam Turbine Diaphragms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董成龙; 孙涛; 王晓放; 杨凤珍

    2014-01-01

    介绍了传统经验公式Wahl法和目前普遍采用的有限元数值计算方法,指出在对汽轮机隔板强度进行有限元计算时,设定合理准确的边界条件至关重要。通过对某汽轮机厂的实际隔板模型进行计算对比,表明在处理隔板的支承情况时,采用接触分析有限元法能更准确地计算隔板体的挠度和应力。%As the steam turbines develop to the direction of large capacity and high parameter ,the reliability of steam turbine diaphragms is increasingly drawing attention .This paper has a brief introduction to Wahl method and numerical computation method usually used at present .In the procedure of calculating steam turbine diaphragm ’ s strength,defining reasonable boundary conditions is very important according to the real working status .An actual diaphragm model from one Turbine Works is analyzed in this paper , proving that contact FEM , used to simulate its supporting conditions , can obtain more precise deflection and stress results of the diaphragm body .

  4. Characteristic of Structure in 660 MW UItra-supercriticaI DoubIe-reheat Steam Turbine%660 MW超超临界二次再热汽轮机结构特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓东; 方宇; 唐清舟; 王建伟

    2015-01-01

    Dongfang Turbine Co.,Ltd. developed a highly efficient ultra-supercritical double-reheat steam turbine with improved thermal efficiency and reduced emissions. In this paper, the characteristic of main structure for 660 MW ultra-supercritical double-reheat steam turbine was introduced. Its technical inheritance, reliability and usability were specifically explained. The unit would also become the first 660 MW double-reheat steam turbine in China.%为了进一步提高效率,节能减排,公司研制了超超临界高参数二次再热汽轮机组。文章主要介绍了公司660 MW高参数二次再热汽轮机结构特点,着重阐述了机组技术继承性、安全可靠性、使用性,该机组也将成为国内首个660 MW二次再热汽轮机组。

  5. Application of Advanced CFD-Methods to the Design of Highly Efficient Steam Turbines%运用现代CFD方法设计高效率的汽轮机(续前期)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.Thiemann; A.de Lazzer; M.Deckers

    2003-01-01

    论述了运用现代计算流体动力学(Computational Fluid Dynamics,CFD)技术设计高效率汽轮机的方法,典型应用的实例有全三维叶片级流场、叶片汽封和排汽蜗壳计算.计算结果和实际是相符的.进一步对结构性单元和非结构单元程序的计算结果进行了比较,已证明,非结构单元CFD程序用于复杂形状的流场计算时,结果与实际相当一致,并具有独特的功能.%The present paper involves the application of a modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD) meth-od in the design process of highly efficient steam turbines. The method is applied to typical steam turbine de-sign cases, namely the calculation of the fully three-dimensional flow through steam turbine stages, blade sealsand turbine exhaust hoods. Remarkably good agreement was achieved. Furthermore, the results of structuredand unstructured codes were compared against each other. Excellent agreement was found and the unique abili-ties of an unstructured CFD code to model complex geometries are demonstrated.

  6. Application of Advanced CFD-Methods to the Design of Highly Efficient Steam Turbines%运用现代CFD方法设计高效率的汽轮机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Thiemann; A. de Lazzer; M. Deckers

    2003-01-01

    论述了运用现代计算流体动力学(Computational Fluid Dynamics,CFD)技术设计高效率汽轮机的方法,典型应用的实例有全三维叶片级流场、叶片汽封和排汽蜗壳计算.计算结果和实际是相符的.进一步对结构性单元和非结构单元程序的计算结果进行了比较,已证明,非结构单元CFD程序用于复杂形状的流场计算时,结果与实际相当一致,并具有独特的功能.%The present paper involves the application of a modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method in the design process of highly efficient steam turbines. The method is applied to typical steam turbine design cases,namely the calculation of the fully three-dimensional flow through steam turbine stages, blade seals and turbine exhaust hoods. Remarkably good agreement was achieved. Furthermore, the results of structured and unstructured codes were compared against each other. Excellent agreement was found and the unique abilities of an unstructured CFD code to model complex geometries are demonstrated.

  7. Influence of Steam Turbine Valve Discharge Characteristics on Power Systems and Its Control Strategy%汽轮机阀门流量特性对电力系统的影响及其控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛锴; 刘复平; 刘武林; 寻新; 王伯春; 李劲柏

    2012-01-01

    汽轮机阀门流量特性是影响电力系统稳定性的重要因素,通过建立电网汽轮机及其调速系统、发电机、励磁系统的数学模型,研究了汽轮机调节阀门流量特性对电网安全稳定性的影响机制。数学分析和仿真结果表明,当汽轮机阀门流量特性不佳时,会引起原动机有功功率的周期性波动。针对此现象,提出了调整后的汽轮机调速系统控制策略,该策略能够抑制功率控制方式下的比例—积分—微分控制器的过度调节,有效增加系统阻尼,抑制原动机的功率波动。%Steam turbine valve discharge characteristics are among the important factors affecting the stability of the power systems.The influence mechanism of steam turbine valve discharge characteristics on the security and stability of the power grid is studied through the mathematical modeling of steam turbine and its speed control system,generator and excitation system.Mathematical analysis and simulation results show that cyclic fluctuations of generator active power might be caused by undesired steam turbine valve discharge characteristics.In view of this phenomenon,a modified control strategy of turbine governor modification system is proposed.This strategy can inhibit the excessive accommodation of proportion-integration-differentiation(PID) controller which is based on the power control mode,effectively increases the system damping,and suppresses power fluctuations of the prime mover.

  8. Wet Steam Test Turbine of Dual-rotors by Elastic Support%双转子浮动支撑湿蒸汽透平试验台设计开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于忠斌; 孙奇; 严倪; 江生科

    2014-01-01

    Wet steam test turbine is usually used for studying on dehumidification and optimization of flow pattern, improvement of the aerodynamic performance of wet steam flow path, and data acquisition of vibration characteristic and dynamic stress of long blade on small volume flow. This test turbine is the first domestic experimental test rig on wet steam study. This paper introduces the components, characteristics, rotor and elastic support, casing by special design, bearing box and baseplate of the new test turbine, which has been developed by Dongfang Steam Turbine Co. , Ltd. and the 703 Research Institute, along with an analysis of the key technology of test turbine.%湿蒸汽透平试验台是用于研究去湿效果、优选流型,提高湿蒸汽通流效率、研究长叶片的振动特性和小容积流量工况下长叶片动应力特性,国内还未有此类湿蒸汽透平试验台。本文介绍了东方汽轮机有限公司和703所联合开发的双转子浮动支撑湿蒸汽透平试验台,对试验收台的主要功能和参数、总体特点、轴系及浮动支撑、特殊设计的汽缸、轴承箱及机架进行了阐述,对试验台的主要技术特点和技术难点进行了分析说明。

  9. Influencia de los parámetros de proceso, en el comportamiento del parámetro vibración absoluta en turbinas de vapor. // Influence of process parameters of the behaviour of absolute vibration parameters in steam turbine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. de la Torre Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo muestra el estudio realizado en turbinas de vapor de pequeña capacidad de generación de las centralestermoeléctricas cubanas, relacionadas con la influencia estadística entre parámetros de proceso de la turbina, respecto alparámetro vibración absoluta, medidos en las chumaceras de la turbina. Se utilizan las bases de datos de los sistemas demonitoreado on-line de la turbina. Se exponen las relaciones existentes entre los principales parámetros seleccionados paraeste estudio.Palabras claves: Monitorado on-line, Monitorado de la condición, Parámetros de proceso, Vibraciónabsoluta, Turbinas de vapor.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThis work show the estudy in small steam turbine capacity of generation in cubans thermoelectric power station to relative withstatistical influence between steam process parameters regarding absolute vibration parameter, in the steam housing measurements.Themselves use database as steam on-line monitoring systems. Expose the existing relation between the principal selection parametersfor this study.Key Words: On.line monitoring, Condition monitoring, Process parameters, Absolute vibration, SteamTurbine.

  10. AnaIysis of SIiding Key System for Dongfang Independent NucIear Steam Turbine%东方自主核电汽轮机滑销系统分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢平; 高宏喜

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyzed the sliding key system for Dongfang independent nuclear power steam turbine, emphatically enumerated the emphasis in design process, and checked the strength of dead keys and guiding keys in larger seismic loads and extreme steam thrust operating conditions.%文章分析了东方自主核电汽轮机的滑销系统,着重列举了设计过程中的重点,在较大地震载荷及极限工况蒸汽推力下进行了主机部件死点键、导向键的强度校核。

  11. The influence of incidence angle on the aerodynamics of condensing flow around a rotor tip section of steam turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti Amiri, H.; Salmaniyeh, F.; Izadi, A.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the influence of incidence angle on the aerodynamics of the steam flow field around a rotor tip section is investigated. An Eulerian-Eulerian method, based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamics model for simulating the wet flow is employed. In this study, the effects of incidence angle on different design parameters such as: outflow Mach number, outflow gas phase mass fraction, loss coefficient and deviation angle are studied.

  12. Analysis and Management of Steam- excited Vibration Fault of a Certain 300MW Steam Turbine%某台300MW机组汽流激振故障的分析和处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔亚辉; 张俊杰; 徐福海; 毕春海; 温武斌; 陈荣轩

    2012-01-01

    Hie vibration of a certain 300MW steam turbine was effected by the opening order and size of control valve obviously,the vibration characteristics and the steam force which originated from control valve were analyzed,and the results showed that the vibration of unit could not be decreased or eliminated by increasing the load of journal, the load of journal could be adjusted by steam force which originated from the opening order of control valve. On the contrary, it increased the vibration of unit. The reason was that the radial position of rotor which located in casing had changed, and then the clearance of overcross section was changed. The offset of rotor was decreased by applying reasonable opening order and size of control valve, although the eccentricity and load of journal were decreased, the vibration was decreased obviously. Therefore,there are several methods to inhibit steam-excited vibration,the contradiction may occur when some methods are implemented on site. Firstly,it need to analyze the main factor which arouses steam-excited vibration,the satisfactory effect can be gained by applying key management.%某台300MW汽轮机的振动明显受到调门开启顺序和开度大小的影响,通过对机组的振动特征以及调门产生的汽流力进行分析、研究发现:采用调整阀门的开启顺序产生汽流力来提高轴承载荷并不能减小或消除该机组的振动,反而增大了机组的振动;原因是转子在汽缸中的径向位置发生了变化,改变了通流部分的间隙;通过采取合理的调门开启顺序和开度减小转子在汽缸中的偏移,虽然轴承偏心率减小、轴承载荷下降,但是振动水平明显降低了.由此可知,抑制汽流激振的方法有若干种,有些方法在现场实施起来可能会出现矛盾,此时首先需分析引起汽流激振的主要因素,然后采取能解决问题的关键措施,才能取得满意的效果.

  13. Rehabilitation and extension of the useful operating life of a high pressure casing of the 75 MW steam turbine of the thermoelectric power plant President Juarez in Rosarito, B.C.; Rehabilitacion y extension de vida util de una carcasa de alta presion de la turbina de vapor de 75 MW de la central termoelectrica Presidente Juarez en Rosarito, B.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur C, Zdzislaw; Hernandez R, Alejandro; Luna R, Alberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Fernandez, Rafael; Nieblas, Enrique [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Rosarito, Baja California (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The effective operation of the steam turbines is important to the world industries, but as all machinery, it is necessary to constantly examine and give maintenance to this equipment with the purpose of producing better results. Yet, many steam turbines arrive at an operation period of 30 or 40 years, over their original design capacity. A factor like this, only augments the probabilities of future problems with the casings, such as: thermal fatigue fissures, deformation of the horizontal union and erosion problems in the low pressure housings. The deformation of the casing can affect its capacity to maintain aligned the stationary parts of the turbine, as a consequence, damages can appear in the fixed and rotary components by interference or friction. Also, the water induction can deform the casing to such a degree that, the alignment of the stationary parts is altered until it causes contact and friction between stationary and rotary parts. However, depending on the type and degree of the casing deformation, different methods of rehabilitation can be applied. The core goal is to recover the planarity of the union of the flanges, re-machining the plane of the flange of the upper and lower casing or, alternatively, to carry out a scraping by hand. [Spanish] El funcionamiento eficaz de las turbinas de vapor es importante para las industrias del mundo, pero como toda maquinaria, es necesario examinar y dar mantenimiento constantemente a este equipo con la finalidad de producir mejores resultados. Con todo, muchas turbinas de vapor llegan a un periodo de operacion de 30 o 40 anos, por encima de su capacidad de diseno original. Un factor como este, solo eleva las probabilidades de futuros problemas con las carcasas, tales como: fisuras por fatiga termica, deformacion de la union horizontal y problemas de erosion en las carcasas de baja presion. La deformacion de la carcasa puede afectar su capacidad para mantener alineadas las partes estacionarias de la turbina, como

  14. Combined Numerical Simulation of Flow Fields at Steam Turbine's Last Two Stages and Low-Pressure Exhaust Hood%汽轮机低压排汽缸和末两级流场的联合数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜占波; 王科军

    2007-01-01

    采用商业软件FINE/Turbo模拟分析了某空冷汽轮机低压排汽缸(LPEH)流场.与排汽缸流场单独计算相比,排汽缸与末两级联合计算可以使计算域进出口条件的设定更加准确,从而获得排汽缸在实际应用时的真实性能.该方法为汽轮机通流部分及排汽缸的设计研究提供了新思路.

  15. THE DETECTION OF THE NECESSARY CONDITIONS OF EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF THE BALL CLEANING SYSTEM OF THE TUBES OF STEAM TURBINE CONDENSERS. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Gerasimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A problem of an increase of the power of turbine by improving heat transfer in condensers of steam turbines is considered in the article as a topical one. The analysis of contamination of the internal surfaces of cooling tubes and of the influence of pollution on the process of heat transfer in turbine condensers has been fulfilled. The existing method of cleaning of condenser tubes with the use of porous elastic balls of sponge rubber that is implemented on a number of large thermal power plants and state region power plants of the Republic of Belarus is examined. In the operation of the ball cleaning system a significant drawback has been revealed, viz. a low efficiency of this method due to the failure to comply with preparation the system of circulating water for operation. Also, a certain imperfection of ball cleaning system technology has been determined. One of the prerequisites for the effective functioning of the ball cleaning system is a certain degree of purity of the pipe system of the condenser, characterized by the coefficient of purity. To determine the effectiveness of ball cleaning system a series of experiments on the launching of porous rubber balls in the pipe system of the main and the embedded bunches of the T-250/300-240 UTMZ turbine has been produced. Immediately before the experiments hydraulic cleaning of the tubes of the condenser by a high-pressure installation were carried out. During the experiments, records of the number of downloaded porous rubber balls, of the number of rubber balls captured in a loading chamber, and of the number of rubber balls that remained in a calibration device were kept. A large proportion of default of the balls caused by the presence of residues of the carbonate sediments, that obstruct the movement of porous rubber balls in the tubes of the condenser, was determined. The presence of carbonate deposits in the tubes of the condenser indicates a lack of effectiveness of antiscale treatment

  16. Simulasi Numerik Aliran Fluida Pada Tingkat Pertama Turbin Uap Menggunakan CFD FLUENT

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Eko

    2011-01-01

    The steam turbine is a function of prime movers which converts the energy into kinetic energy of steam enthalpy of steam which was subsequently converted into mechanical energy in the form of rotations. Where in the agricultural industry is often used for steam turbine power plant. One of the testing and analysis of steam turbine performance is by numerical at the turbine blade. Computational studies required by the CFD method to simulate fluid flow in the turbine. Analysis on the blade p...

  17. 700℃以上超超临界汽轮机高中压转子用材研究%Research on the Materials of HP and MP Rotor of More than 700℃Ultra-supercritical Steam Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭建强

    2013-01-01

    综合国外700℃以上汽轮机高中压转子材料研究情况,结合我国高温合金材料的发展水平,给出我国700℃以上超超临界汽轮机高中压转子用材建议。%Integrated with domestic and international research situation on HP and MP rotor of more than 700℃steam turbine , and combined with the development level of high temperature alloy materials in China , the suggestion are given for the material of HP and MP rotor of more than 700℃ultra-supercritical steam turbine in China .

  18. Detection of the high vibration origin in the body of an electrical generator driven by steam turbine applying diagnostic techniques; Deteccion del origen de alta vibracion en el cuerpo de un generador electrico accionado por turbinas de vapor aplicando tecnicas de diagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Bravo, Fernando (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    One of the problems that electric generators present is the high vibration due to causes that can go from simple mechanical unbalance, misalignment, mechanical relaxation, resonance or some other interaction that can influence in the system. In this document is presented the vibration analysis of an electric generator with a capacity of 350 MW, driven by a steam turbine composed of three stages (high pressure, intermediate pressure and low pressure) connected to the electric generator through a rigid connection. [Spanish] Uno de los problemas que se presentan en los generadores electricos es la alta vibracion debida a causas que pueden ir desde un simple desbalance mecanico, desalineamiento, aflojamiento mecanico, resonancia o alguna otra interaccion que pueda influir en el sistema. Se presenta en este documento el analisis de vibracion de un generador electrico con una capacidad de 350 MW, impulsado por una turbina de vapor compuesta de tres etapas (alta presion, presion intermedia y baja presion) acopladas al generador electrico a traves de un acoplamiento rigido.

  19. 基于Apriori关联规则的汽轮机振动监测与故障诊断%Steam Turbine Vibration Based on the Apriori Association Rules Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑艳

    2012-01-01

    In the power plant steam turbine vibration fault depends only on the vibration parameters of fault diagnosis and diagnostic time is long and the diagnosis of the cause and site specific features, is proposed based on the association rules of steam turbine vibration monitoring and fault diagnosis method. Analysis of the steam turbine vibration fault related to vibration parameters and thermal parameters, on the thermodynamic parameters and vibration parameters associated with the fault diagnosis rules, established the running status monitoring and fault diagnosis system design. Through the actual test proved that this method has very strong practical and feasible, for thermal power plant steam turbine vibration fault of equipment research and development and improvement have draw lessons from a meaning.%针对火电厂汽轮机发生振动故障时仅依靠振动参数进行故障诊断而产生诊断时间长与诊断的原因与部位不具体的问题,提出了基于关联规则的汽轮机振动监测与故障诊断方法;分析了汽轮机振动故障产生时涉及到的振动参数与热力参数,研究了将热力参数与振动参数关联结合的故障诊断规则,确立了状态运行监测与故障诊断的系统设计思路;通过实际验证证明这种方法具有很强的实用型与可行性,对火电厂汽轮机振动故障设备的研发与改进有借鉴意义.

  20. Mechanisms of Water Droplets Deposition on Turbine Blade Surfaces and Erosion Wear Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ilieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Failure of turbine blades leads to various exploitation problems, efficiency decrease and economical losses, at all. A detailed research on aerodynamic features, in various exploitation conditions and regimes, and on reasons for failures, is a prerequisite to the obviated technical problems and increased reliability of turbine aggregates. Water droplets erosion is known as a very complex and crucial phenomena. It couples the effects of wet steam expansion, together with condensation (evaporation, presence of second phase with the impact of water droplets over blade surfaces, erosion effects and fatigue mechanisms. The present research deals with a logical sequence for numerical simulations and research on erosion mechanisms in a low pressure stage of К-1000-6 /1500 steam turbine, working at a Nuclear Power Plant. Attention is paid to the impact of droplets’ diameter on blade surfaces, their aerodynamic behavior and efficiency of energy conversion through turbine channels. Particular trajectories of water droplets, reasons for occurrence of erosion wear, over certain parts of the streamlined surfaces, are established and discussed. An approach to acquire incidence time to erosion appearance is implemented. Research methodology and obtained results are applicable to determine erosion effects on streamed complex surfaces, to replace expensive measurements campaigns, introduce approaches to decrease wetness in last stages of condensation turbines and prolong the reliability of blades operated in wet steam conditions

  1. Effect of alkaline sulfite coupling low pressure steam pretreatment on ethanol production from bamboo (Neosinocalamus affinis)%碱性亚硫酸盐耦合低压蒸汽预处理对慈竹转化乙醇得率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游艳芝; 吉骊; 秦书百川; 蒋建新

    2016-01-01

    Bamboo ( Neosinocalamus affinis) is one of the ideal materials for the production of biofuels and chemicals. In this paper, a“one⁃step” method, namely the alkaline sulfite pretreatment coupling low pressure steam ( ALS⁃SE) , was used to pretreat raw matarials ( RM) to increase delignification as well as protect carbohydrates from degradation, and thus to improve the ethanol fermentation efficiency. Infrared spectrum analysis showed that ALS⁃SE pretreated liquid con⁃tained lignosulfonate. It was added as a surfactant to the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation ( SSF) . The re⁃sults showed that it effectively reduced the enzyme ineffective adsorption to the lignin and improved the fermentation effi⁃ciency. The effect of different substrate mass fraction ( 5% and 10%) , enzyme loading ( 18 U/g⁃cellulose and 24 U/g⁃cellulose) and ALS⁃SE pretreated liquid on the ethanol yield were investigated and compared. The results indicated that the“one⁃step” pretreatment could significantly increase the ethanol yield of 63.22% at its theoretical yield with the sub⁃strate mass fraction of 5% and the cellulase amount of 18 U/g⁃cellulose. This yield was about 1�18 and 0�62 times high⁃er compared with the RM without pretreatment and with low pressure steam explosion ( SE) treatment. The ethanol yield of 82�14% was achieved by increased the substrate mass fraction of 10% and cellulase dosage of 24 U/g⁃cellulose;The conversion rate of ethanol was futher increased to 85�29% with the addition of ALS⁃SE pretreated liquid as a surfactant. At the same time, the happening of side reactions of Neosinocalamus affinis in SSF was reduced.%慈竹是转化生物质燃料及化学品的理想原料之一。笔者采用优化的碱性亚硫酸盐耦合低压蒸汽爆破( ALS⁃SE)“一步法”对原料慈竹进行预处理,在脱除木质素的同时,降低碳水化合物的降解,提高转化乙醇的效率。红外光谱分析表

  2. Analysis and control of erosion by solid particles in the elements of the flow system of steam turbines; Analisis y control de erosion por particulas solidas en los elementos del sistema de flujo de turbinas de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur Czerwiec, Zdzislaw; Campos Amezcua, Alfonso; Campos Amezcua, Rafael [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The analysis of erosion by solid particles is presented of different elements of the flow channel of the steam turbines that operate in Mexico: nozzles, stop valves, blade bosses, labyrinth seals and rotor disc; using tools of of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In these main elements of turbines a strong problem of erosion was registered that threatens the reliable operation of the turbines, its availability and its optimal yield. With base on the results of the numerical analyses, the design modifications of the different elements were developed from the flow channel of the steam turbines, in order to reduce the erosion and thus diminishing the energy losses and increasing the steam turbine efficiency. This work presents the main benefits that the Thermoelectric Power Plants obtain with the reduction of the erosion by solid particles that affect the critical components of steam turbines: extension of the period between maintenance, replacement of components, reduction of operation and maintenance costs of the turbines, and extension of the useful life of the main components. [Spanish] Se presenta el analisis de erosion por particulas solidas de diferentes elementos del canal de flujo de las turbinas de vapor que operan en Mexico: toberas, valvula de paro, tetones de los alabes, sellos de laberinto y disco del rotor; utilizando herramientas de Dinamica de Fluidos Computacional (DFC). En estos elementos principales de turbinas se registro un fuerte problema de erosion que amenaza la operacion confiable de las turbinas, su disponibilidad y su rendimiento optimo. Con base en los resultados de los analisis numericos, se desarrollaron las modificaciones de diseno de los diferentes elementos del canal de flujo de las turbinas de vapor, con el proposito de reducir la erosion y asi, disminuir las perdidas de energia e incrementar el rendimiento de las turbinas de vapor. Este trabajo presenta los principales beneficios que obtienen las Centrales Termoelectricas con la

  3. 汽轮机叶片汽道的结构模型研究%Study on structural model of steam turbine blade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾岳飞; 谌永祥; 钟成明; 江敏; 吴越

    2012-01-01

    As an important part of the steam turbine,blade determines the energy conversion efficiency.The features of the structure of steam turbine blades will be researched in it.And according to the characteristics of blade profile as well as the requirements of STEP issued by ISO, Cubic Uniform Rational B-spline and 2×3 drgee Non-Uniform Rational B-spline will be chosen to build the mathematical model of the blade,which matrix expression is later deduced respectively that prove the continuity of the curve,realize the digital expression for the blades. From the matrix expression, obvious Cubic Uniform Rational B-spline has more advantages than 2×3 drgee Non-Uniform Rational B-spline method,such as less computations ,simple and easy control, etc, which can provide theoretical support for subsequent interpolation algorithms.%叶片作为汽轮机的重要组成部分,决定着能量的转换效率.对汽轮机动叶片的结构特征进行了研究,从叶型的特点,结合国际标准化组织颁布的工业产品数据交换标准的要求,选取了三次均匀有理B样条和2×3次非均匀有理B样条为叶型的数学模型,推导了各自的矩阵表达式,证明了曲线的连续性,实现了叶片的数字化表示.由矩阵表达式可以看出,明显的三次均匀有理B样条比2×3次非均匀有理B样条方法的计算量小、简单和便于控制等,为后续的插补算法研究提供了理论支持.

  4. Low pressure gas collection system : solving environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saputelli, L.A. [PDVSA Exploracion and Produccion (Venezuela)

    1998-09-01

    Alternative solutions to flaring for collecting low pressure gases in oil fields, were discussed. Many different solutions for boosting or collecting low pressure gases and mixing them into the oil stream were examined. A solution for collecting low pressure gases using existing field facilities was proposed. Main factors considered in designing this solution included: (1) the use of existing power facilities, (2) low up-scaling cost, (3) keeping harmony with the environment, and (4) maintaining well efficiencies. Field trials (conducted in 1982) consisted of the testing of 10 `Ecopres` compressors in the Bolivar coastal field, Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela, in order to maximize gas utilization. The tests showed that it was possible to recover up to 99 per cent of annular gas with no reduction in oil well productivity but there was a 21 per cent reduction in oil production when the annular flow was connected directly to the flow line. In the proposed alternative solution, annular spaces are open to atmospheric pressure. The proposed system consists of a single stage gas compressor attached to a heat exchanger and a single stage gas turbine. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Body Structure and Design Feature of DTC New UItra-supercriticaI 1 000 MW Steam Turbine%东方新超超临界1000 MW汽轮机本体结构及设计特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雄; 袁永强; 黄果; 高展羽

    2015-01-01

    文章详细介绍了东方新一代超超临界1000 MW汽轮机的本体结构及设计特点。该机型是东方采用现代汽轮机技术自主研发而成的一种新型高参数汽轮机,通过重要结构的优化设计以及高温材料的合理选择,有效地提高了机组的经济性与可靠性。%The body structure and design feature of DTC new ultra-supercritical 1 000 MW steam turbine are introduced in details. The unit is a new high-parameter and self-developed turbine by DTC. These products are based on modern steam turbine tech-nologies.The reliability and economy of turbine are improved effectively through the optimization design of structure and the reason-able selection of high temperature material.

  6. A Study on the Air Vent Valve of the Hydraulic Servo Actuator for Steam Control of Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To produce adequate electricity in nuclear and thermal power plants, an optimal amount of steam should be supplied to a generator connected to high- and low-pressure steam turbines. A turbine output control device, which is a special steam valve employed to supply or interrupt the steam to the turbine, is operated using a hydraulic servo actuator. In power plants, the performance of servo actuators is degraded by the air generated from the hydraulic system, or causes frequent failures owing to an increase in the wear of the seal. This is due to the seal being burnt as generated heat using the produced compressed air. Some power plants have exhausted air using a fixed orifice, and thus they encounter power loss due to mass flow exhaust. Failures are generated in hydraulic pumps, electric motors, and valves, which are frequently operated. In this study, we perform modeling and analysis of the load-sensing air-exhaust valves, which can be passed through very fine flow under normal use conditions, and exhaust mass flow air at the beginning stage as with existing fixed orifices. Then, we propose a method to prevent failures due to the compressed air, and to ensure the control accuracy of hydraulic servo actuators.

  7. Analyses of Temperature Field and Deflection of Steam Turbine IP Inlet Flow Guide%汽轮机中压进汽导流环温度场及变形分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林

    2014-01-01

    IP inlet flow guide is one of the key components in steam turbine,analyses of temperature field and deflection are important when flow guide of steam turbine is designed.Aim at a 600MW sub-critical steam turbine flow guide,a finite element model is developed,methods for calculating the heat transfer coefficients of flow guide surfaces different regions are described,the finite element thermal and structural analyses are performed on the flow guide.Detailed temperature and deflection distributions are determined during the steady operating conditions.The results show that radial temperature gradient is principal,radial deflection of flow guide foot is 1.611 3mm,radial deflection of flow guide with seal is 2.063 6 mm.The used analytic methods can be applied for temperature field and deflection analyses of sub-critical,supercritical and ultra-supercritical steam turbine flow guide,a basis for the bolting analysis and the cooling structural design of steam turbine flow guide is provided.%中压进汽导流环是汽轮机中的关键部件,在设计过程中必须分析其温度场及变形。针对某亚临界600MW汽轮机导流环,建立了有限元模型,介绍了导流环表面不同区域的传热系数计算方法,用有限元法分析了导流环的温度场和变形,得出了在稳态运行工况的详细温度和变形分布。结果表明,导流环温度梯度以径向为主,导流环的最下部径向变形为1.6113mm,导流环安装汽封处径向变形为2.0636mm。所采用的分析方法可以用于分析亚临界、超临界和超超临界汽轮机导流环的温度场和变形,为导流环螺栓分析和冷却结构设计打下基础。

  8. 基于压水堆核电机组等效热降法的改进算法%Improved Algorithm Based on Equivalent Enthalpy Drop Method of Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Steam Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王虎; 齐光才; 李少华; 李常建

    2011-01-01

    由于核电汽轮机抽汽状态点焓值及排汽焓难以准确确定,使得压水堆核电机组常规等效热降法计算结果存在偏差.针对这一问题,提出压水堆核电机组等效热降法的改进算法.对1000MW压水堆核电机组二回路热力系统进行实例计算,结果表明:用等效热降法的改进算法所得的汽轮机实际循环热效率与设计值相比较,误差在允许的范围内.等效热降法的改进算法基于等熵膨胀过程,核电汽轮机抽汽状态点焓值及排汽焓可以准确确定,在实际运用中比常规等效热降法更合理、更准确.%Because it is difficulty to accurately determine the extraction steam turbine enthalpy and the exhaust enthalpy, the calculated result from the conventional equivalent enthalpy drop method of PWR nuclear steam turbine is not accurate. This paper presents the improved algorithm on the equivalent enthalpy drop method of PWR nuclear steam turbine to solve this problem and takes the secondary circuit thermal system calculation of 1000MW PWR as an example. The results show that, comparing with the design value, the error of actual thermal efficiency of the steam turbine cycle obtained by the improved algorithm is within the allowable range. Since the improved method is based on the isentropic expansion process, the extraction steam turbine enthalpy and the exhaust enthalpy can be determined accurately, which is more reasonable and accurate compared to the traditional equivalent enthalpy drop method..

  9. 汽轮机末级叶片振动特性分析%The Vibration Analysis of Steam Turbine Last Stage Blade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑磊; 马义良

    2011-01-01

    Last stage blade is working in wet steam area, its working condition is very bad. If the blade is resonance with its working frequency,the blade will be in danger,it probably direct to blade failure,and turbine may be shut down. So in the development of last stage blade, making sure the frequency of last stage blade has no resonance with its working frequency is the most important thing. Comparing calculated data and the result from experimentation to find the relationship between them,it will make the development of last stage blade's period shorter.%末级叶片多工作在湿蒸汽区,工况十分恶劣,如果叶片在工作转速下发生共振,会产生很大的危害,甚至出现叶片断裂,导致机组故障停机等问题.因此,设计频率避开工作转速共振区域成为末级叶片开发中的重中之重.通过有限元计算叶片振动特性与试验结果之间对比,得出理论计算数据与试验结果之间的联系,进而正确指导设计,缩短末级叶片的开发周期.

  10. Examination of cracks and fractures on operationally stressed turbine blades; Untersuchung von Rissen und Bruechen an betriebsbeanspruchten Turbinenschaufeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vodopivec, F. [Inst. of Metals and Technologies, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vrbic, V.S. [Electric Power Work Nikola Tesla, Obrenovac (Yugoslavia); Ule, B. [Inst. of Metals and Technologies, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Zvokelj, J. [Inst. of Metals and Technologies, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vehovar, L. [Inst. of Metals and Technologies, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1997-04-01

    This paper summarises the results of mechanical and fractographic examinations which had been carried out on fractures on the low-pressure blades of a 300 MW steam turbine. The crack-affected turbine blades had been removed, partly during inspections and partly after turbine breakdowns, in contrast to the fractured blades which had been extracted without exception following turbine breakdowns. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden die Ergebnisse der mechanischen und fraktographischen Untersuchungen zusammengefasst, die an Bruechen von ND-Schaufeln einer 300-MW-Dampfturbine durchgefuehrt wurden. Die rissbehafteten Turbinenschaufeln wurden teilweise waehrend Revisionen und teilweise nach Turbinenversagen entnommen, im Gegensatz zu den gebrochenen Schaufeln, die ausnahmslos nach Turbinenausfall ausgebaut wurden. (orig.)

  11. Study on Optimization of DEH Control System Based on DCS Steam Turbine%基于DCS汽轮机DEH控制系统的优化研究分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婧艳

    2012-01-01

    Digital electro-hydraulic control system(DEH) is the application of DCS control system in steam turbine control typical form, and the turbine is almost always uses the DEH control system to realize the control function. With the DCS control system and the rapid development of progress, on steam turbine DEH control system implementing the optimization measures also be imperative. The article complies with the development of science and technology requirements, based on the combination of DCS steam turbine DEH control system 's actual situation, the system optimization of relevant analysis and research, in order to realize the control function of the system of comprehensive optimization.%数字电液调节控制系统(DEH)是DCS控制系统应用于汽轮机控制的典型形式,而且当前的汽轮机几乎都是运用DEH控制系统来实现其有关的控制功能.随着DCS控制系统的迅速发展及进步,对汽轮机DEH控制系统实行相关的优化措施也势在必行.本文顺应科技发展的要求,结合基于DCS下汽轮机DEH控制系统的实际情况,对其系统的优化进行相应的分析和研究,以实现系统控制功能的全面优化.

  12. Improvement and Application of Nuclear Steam Turbine Shafting Differential Expansion Dynamic Monitoring Technology%核电汽轮机轴系胀差动态监控技术改进与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高伟; 李庆华; 孙振平

    2016-01-01

    As the problem of the nuclear half-speed steam turbine axial displacement and shafting differential expansion excessive during commissioning and operation period happened several times in a nuclear power plant project , it directly affects the safe and stable operation of the unit .Based on the analysis and research on the relationship between axial displacement ,shafting differential expansion , absolute expansion and “zero” value of the rotor of this type nuclear steam turbine,according to the relevant design document about the unit operation program ,combined with the actual installation and commissioning process monitoring data of the turbine shafting , the analysis and control method of the steam turbine shafting differential expansion ,axial displacement and absolute expansion are determined .Solved the problem of the shafting differential expansion ,axial displacement ,absolute expansion and “zero” position of this type nuclear steam turbine ,realized the reliable monitoring and protection of the unit .%针对国内某核电项目半速汽轮机在调试、运行期间多次发生转子轴向位移和胀差超标问题,直接影响机组安全、稳定运行。通过对该型式汽轮机转子轴向位移、胀差、绝对膨胀与“零”值关系分析和研究,依据相关设计运行程序文件,结合现场汽轮机转子轴系实际安装、调试过程监控数据,确定了汽轮机转子胀差、轴向位移及绝对膨胀变化分析和控制方法。解决了该型式核电汽轮机转子胀差、轴向位移、绝对膨胀及定“零”位等问题,实现了对机组的可靠监视和保护。

  13. 基于火电站汽轮机标准化安装过程的动态仿真研究%Dynamic Simulation Research Based on the Steam Turbine Standardization Installation Process of Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少华; 张庆喆; 车德勇; 王虎

    2013-01-01

    随着电力工业的快速发展,600MW和1 000MW等大型火电机组越来越多,并已成为主力发电机组,针对大型火电站汽轮机安装过程的复杂性,利用三维可视化仿真技术对整个火电站汽轮机安装过程进行三维动态仿真,并辅以图形、语音、文字等多媒体方式说明施工过程中的施工方法、施工工艺、技术标准等,构建汽轮机安装过程标准化方案,开发“火电站汽轮机建设过程仿真系统”.系统的开发对于汽轮机施工行业确定科学的施工方法、运用先进的工艺技术以及培养高素质的施工队伍具有重要的意义,并极大地促进了汽轮机施工行业的科技进步.%Following the rapid development of the power industry,600MW and 1000MW thermal power units are more and more,and has become the main generator sets,Aiming at the complexity of the installation process for steam turbine,3-D visualization techniques was used dynamic simulation of the entire power plant steam turbine installation process,Supplemented by graphics,voice,text and other multimedia means that every installation process of the construction method,construction technology,technical standards etc,Building thermal power station civil construction process standardizationconstruction scheme,Development the steam turbine installation process of 3-D visualization dynamic simulation system.The development of the system for steam turbine construction industry determine scientific construction method,using advanced technology and cultivate high-quality construction team has an important meaning,and greatly promoted the turbine construction industry science and technology progress.

  14. Selection of Materials for Critical Parts of 650 ℃ USC Steam Turbines%650℃等级超超临界汽轮机关键部件选材

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭建强

    2016-01-01

    The present study for high temperature materials of 650 ℃ USC steam turnbines is described .By analyzing the development process of materials used at 650 ℃ condition and the property requirements for critical parts of steam turbines ,the selection of the materials for critical parts is proposed ,then ,the existing problems are discussed .It is concluded that the research for heavy forgings and castings materials as well as related process property is the key issues on the materials for critical parts of 650 ℃ USC steam turbines .%介绍了国内外650℃等级超超临界汽轮机高温材料的最新研究情况。通过分析650℃等级材料的发展过程、汽轮关键部件对材料性能的要求等,给出了650℃等级超超临界汽轮机关键部件选材,并对存在的问题进行了分析讨论,表明大型铸锻件材料研究及相关工艺性能研究是650℃机组超超临界汽轮机关键部件选材的核心。

  15. Micro Steam Turbine Proportional Valve Control Unit Retrofit Analysis%小汽轮机比例阀驱动控制单元技术改造分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯康

    2013-01-01

    针对华能国际电力股份有限公司上安电厂350 M W机组小汽轮机调速系统在遇到外界干扰时,汽包水位难以控制的问题,提出小汽轮机比例阀驱动单元及电源配置改造中的安装施工方案和设备调试方案,分析改造效果,认为改造后比例驱动单元运行情况良好,小汽轮机进汽调门运行稳定。%The micro steam turbine speed control system of Huaneng Power International Inc S.hang′an Power Plant 350 MW unit is difficult to control the water level when encoun-tered outside interference .This paper advances the install construction project of micro steam turbine proportional valve control unit and power configuration ,analyzes reforma-tion effects considers that proportion drive unit operates well ,micro steam control door operates stably .

  16. Change in working characteristics of the steam turbine metal with operating time of more than 330000 hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladshteyn, V. I.; Troitskiy, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    Research of a metal of the stop valve case (SVC) of the K-300-23.5 LMZ turbine (steel grade 15Kh1M1FL), destroyed after operation for 331000 hours, is performed. It's chemical composition and properties are determined as follows: a short-term mechanical tensile stress at 20°C and at elevated temperature, critical temperature, fragility, critical crack opening at elevated temperature, and long-term strength. Furthermore, nature of the microstructure, packing density of carbide particles and their size, and chemical composition of carbide sediment are estimated. A manifestation of metal properties for the main case components by comparison with a forecast of the respective characteristics made for the operating time of 331000 hours is tested. Property-time relationships are built for the forecast using statistical treatment of the test results for the samples cut out from more than 300 parts. Representativeness of the research results is proved: the statistical treatment of their differences are within the range of ±5%. It has been found that, after 150000 hours of operation, only the tensile strength insignificantly depends on the operating time at 20°C, whereas indicators of strength at elevated temperature significantly reduce, depending on the operating time. A brittle-to-ductile transition temperature (BDTT) raises, a critical notch opening changes in a complicated way, a long-term strength reduces. It has been found empirically that the limit of a long-term strength of the SVC metal at 540°C and the operating time of 105 hours is almost 1.6 times less than the required value in the as-delivered state. It is possible to evaluate a service life of the operating valves with the operating time of more than 330000 hours with respect to the long-term strength of the metal taking into account the actual temperature and stress. Guidelines for the control of similar parts are provided.

  17. Fluid- and structural mechanical study of the inflow of a steam turbine; Stroemungs- und strukturmechanische Untersuchung der Einstroemung einer Dampfturbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecker, Simon

    2011-06-22

    This work presents design guidelines for two categorically different concepts of a power plant turbine inlet duct; a ring-type inlet chamber and an inlet scroll. Subjects of the analysis are aerodynamic considerations of the flow field in the ducts as well as the impact of the chamber topology on the radial clearances influencing casing deformations in stationary and transient load cases. To show the reliability of the CFD-program used, calculated results are compared with measured data. The numerical method catches the main physical effects observed in the reference cases with high accuracy. The flow field in the ring-type inlet chamber strongly depends on the Reynolds number Re; according to Re a symmetrical or swirling flow field can be observed. The calculations indicate that measured values in test stands of inlet ducts with a Reynolds number that is not comparable to the full-size model should be examined carefully. The optimization of the ring-type inlet chamber leads to a geometry with minimum losses from an aerodynamic and mechanical point of view. The greatest benefit can be realized by an optimized flow into the downstream following stator blades. The analysis of the inlet scroll unveils a negative influence of eccentrically arranged pipe ends on the leakage losses. For the casings investigated a very compact design leads to minimum total losses. When choosing the scroll topology, the leakage losses should be minded, as the link between scroll size and casing deformation is not negligible. A comparison of both optimized inlet chambers shows that they have the same loss level. The selection of one concept should take into account stress distributions and the offsets of casing flanges including their consequences.

  18. Research on Key Technology of Supercritical Steam Turbine%超临界汽轮机研制的关键技术及解决策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨其国

    2011-01-01

    针对超临界汽轮机蒸汽参数高的运行特点,指出了汽轮机零部件高温安全问题、固体颗粒腐蚀、汽流激振以及对机组效率的更高要求等关键难点.通过开发高温材料,采用转子冷却、防汽流激振和同体颗粒腐蚀等设计技术.设计制造了超临界汽轮机,圆满地解决了以上难题,在实际运行中安全高效.也为我国自主开发更高等级机组打下坚实基础.%According to the high steam parameter of supercritical steam turbine in running, this paper indicates a series of key difficulties, such as safety of parts in high temperature condition, solid particles erosion , steam excited vibration,more higher efficiency, etc. These difficulties above were solved successfully by technologies of high temperature materials,rotor cooling, protection against steam excited vibration and solid particles erosion. This power unit has high safety and efficiency in working, lays a solid foundation for development of high parameters units by self-research in China.

  19. Situation and Development of Steam Wetness Measurement in Turbine Exhaust Casing%汽轮机末级湿度测量方法研究现状及其发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兰欣; 张明智; 王松龄; 张学镭

    2001-01-01

    湿蒸汽参数的准确测量,对汽轮机的经济性和安全性具有重大意义。对这一课题的研究进展以及研究现状进行了讨论,并着重介绍了加热法和光学法。同时还介绍了此课题研究的最新动态。%Measured wetness of saturated steam plays an important role in the thermal efficiency and safety of condensing turbine. In this paper, the historical and current developments of this technology are introduced.Among the many methods for measuring the wetness of flowing wet steam, the heating method and optical method are discussed in more detail. In the mean time, this paper presents some new trands in the future.

  20. Simulation Study of a New Method to Synchronously Control Rotate Speed and Power of a Steam Turbine%汽轮机转速与功率同步控制新方法的仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史小平; 王子才

    2003-01-01

    经典的汽轮机调节系统在实现功率跟踪负荷变化的同时会不可避免地引起转速的变化,从而引起电网频率的变化.应用线性系统极点配置的方法,提出了一种既能使汽机功率跟踪负荷,同时又能对汽机转速按指令曲线进行控制的新方法.用这种方法设计的调节系统就能省去二次调频的环节.计算机仿真的结果证明了本文所提出方法的正确性和有效性.%The frequency of the electric network will inevitably fluctuate because of rotate speed variation of a steam turbine, while its classical regulation system is accomplishing matching between its power and the referenced electric load. A new method is developed to synchronously control rotate speed and power of a steam turbine with pole placement technique of linear system. With this new control method, not only the rotate speed of a steam turbine can be controlled according to its instruction curve, but also its power can be synchronously controlled to quickly track the electric load without additional component of the frequency regulation. The computer simulation verifies the correctness and the effectiveness of the presented new control method.

  1. Research on Dynamic Behavior of Frame Foundation for Large-Scale Steam Turbine-Generator Set%大型汽轮发电机组框架式基础的动力特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅德庆; 何闻; 沈润杰; 陈子辰

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the dynamic model building of frame foundation for large-scale steam turbine generator set is performed by substructure method. All the major components of frame foundation, including deck, piers, foundation mat, and soil medium, have been included. Deck and piers are treat ed as 3-D beam element, foundation mat is treated as elastic thin plate and simulated by approximate solution of Ritz function. Furthermore, FFAS software package is developed on the basis of the dy namic model, internal characteristics and dynamic response of frame foundation for a 600MW steam turbine-generator set are analysed by FFAS. And some important results are concluded, which is of some value to the design of frame foundation for large-scale steam turbine generator set. Figs 8, ta bles 2 and refs 8.%对大型汽轮发电机组框架式基础利用子结构法进行了动力学建模分析。平台、立柱框架部分采用梁 单元进行离散化,基础底板则采用弹性薄板的Ritz函数近似解来模拟,从而有效地解决了基础与地基的边界 接触问题。根据该动力学模型编制了FFAS框架式基础动力特性分析软件,并对国内某电厂的1台600MW 汽轮发电机组框架式基础进行了动力特性分析计算,并得出了结论。图8表2参8

  2. Effect of composition, heat treatment and processing technologies on the microstructure and properties of HP and IP rotors of large steam turbines from 1CrMoV steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchizhik, A.A. [The Polzunov Central Boiler and Turbine Institute, Department the Fatigue Life of Materials for Power Plant Equipment, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    In the presentation the evolution of the technology manufacturing of the large forging from the 1CrMoV steels and the results complex of the long time investigations rotors on virgin state and after different operation times is analyzed. Among the information there are the criterion of the optimization of the composition steel service properties, especially super long - term creep resistance, creep fracture and long time cracks resistance. Two safety coefficients: stress (SSC) and time safety coefficient (TSC) must be used for calculations of the possibility prolongation service life of HP and IP rotors for large steam turbines. (orig.) 11 refs.

  3. Causes of the Impact of Water Jet Air Ejector to Steam Turbine Vacuum and the Treatment%射水抽气器影响汽轮机真空的原因及处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪翠凤

    2011-01-01

    针对一台25MW汽轮机组真空系统的特点,通过一次事故原因的查找,分析了因射水抽气器工作状况不良而引起的真空下降的原因,并提出了处理方法.%Aiming at the characteristics of vacuum system of 25MW steam turbine, through the search for cause of the accident, the causes of vacuum down caused by poor working conditions of water jet air ejector are analyzed, and the treatment methods are proposed.

  4. Performance Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Wet-steam Turbines for Nuclear Power Plants%核电站汽轮机运行性能监测与诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓德兵; 赵清森; 陈伟; 刘刚

    2011-01-01

    就核电汽轮机与火电汽轮机的差异以及由此差异引起的湿蒸汽汽轮机通流性能表征与热平衡计算的难点进行了论述,提出了利用特征通流面积CFA来表征核电汽轮机的通流性能和采用小误差热平衡法来计算核电汽轮机的热平衡图,应用小误差热平衡法和特征通流面积成功开发了核电站热力性能在线监测与分析系统和核电站汽轮机全面热力试验计算软件,并将这两项技术应用在大亚湾核电机组热力性能在线监测与分析系统和岭澳二期核电机组全面热力试验中.结果表明:实际运行监测中特征通流面积监测值的测量精度可控制在1%以内.%An introduction is being presented to differences between nuclear and thermal power steam turbines,together with a description to the consequent difficulties in flow performance characterization and heat balance calculation.The concept of characteristic flow area(CFA) and the method of slight error heat balance(SEHB) are proposed to respectively characterize the flow performance and carry out relevant thermal calculations for nuclear power steam turbines,with which a series of software are developed for on-line performance monitoring/analysis and thermal calculation purposes.The two developed technologies have been applied to on-line performance monitoring/analysis of steam turbine in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant and to thermal performance test of steam turbine in Lingao Phase II Nuclear Power Plant.Actual operation results show that the measurement of CFA can be controlled within an accuracy of 1%.

  5. Valve Assembly Technology of 660 MW Ultra-supercritical Double-reheat Steam Turbine%660 MW超超临界二次再热汽轮机阀门装配技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂明; 胡开吉

    2016-01-01

    文章就公司自主开发的660 MW二次再热机组的阀门装配技术进行介绍。针对阀门的结构特点,详细介绍了其装配工艺流程、阀芯及阀盖部件的安装,文章内容将为同类型阀门的安装提供有益的借鉴。%This paper introduced the valve assembly technology of 660 MW ultra-supercritical double-reheat steam turbine indepen⁃dent researched and developed by Dongfang Turbine Co.,Ltd.(abbreviate DTC). For the valve design feature, the valve assembly pro⁃cess,valve core and valve seat installation were detailedly introduced. The paper can provide helpful reference for homotype valve as⁃sembly.

  6. Combined cycle simulator with gas turbine and steam turbine with one vaporization stage; Simulador de ciclo combinado con turbina de gas y de vapor con un nivel de vaporizacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Valle Cardenas, B.; Lugo Leyte, R. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Depto de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Toledo Velazquez, Miguel; Tolentino Eslava, G. [Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Laboratorio de Ingenieria Termica e Hidraulica Aplicada, ESIME-IPN-COFFA, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper shows the thermal analysis of a combined cycle with gas and steam turbines with one vaporization stage. The analysis is performed through a computer program, which allows the simulation of cycles with different operational conditions, obtaining this way a series of results that permits to know the way these cycles behave in effecting temperature and pressure changes; besides of being an excellent tool in thermodynamics for the user. The simulators were performed in Borland C++ and Builder C++ Versions 4.5 and 2.0 respectively, creating in this way a friendly ambient for the user. This tool offers the opportunity to all its users the ability to simulate combined cycles in a fast and easy way in order to obtain a wider understanding of its thermodynamic behavior. [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se muestra el analisis termico de un ciclo combinado con turbinas de gas y de vapor con un nivel de vaporizacion. El analisis se realiza a traves de un programa de computo, el cual permite simular los ciclos con diferentes condiciones de operacion, obteniendo con esto una serie de resultados que permiten conocer la forma en que trabajan estos ciclos al realizar cambios en temperaturas y presiones; ademas de que es una excelente herramienta para el usuario en termodinamica. Los simuladores fueron realizados en Borland C++ y Builder C++ Versiones 4.5 y 2.0 respectivamente, creandose asi un ambiente amigable para el usuario. Esta herramienta brinda la oportunidad a todos los usuarios de poder simular ciclos combinados de una manera rapida y sencilla con el fin de obtener una comprension mas amplia de su comportamiento termodinamico.

  7. Effect of the blades and seals system wear on steam turbine efficiency and power; Efecto del desgaste del sistema de alabes y sellos sobre la eficiencia y potencia de las turbinas de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Amezcua, Alfonso; Kubiak Szyszka, Janusz [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The implementation of a method for steam turbine evaluation through the measured geometry in the flow channel and its operating conditions, is presented. This method, previously developed, allows the identification and quantification of the power and efficiency loss due to the wear of its elements (worn or bent blades, worn seals, deposits, etc.); the benefit that is obtained is a more precise knowledge on the turbine behavior and a basis is acquired to give priority to the maintenance work, from the stand point of energy utilization. In this paper, the power and efficiency loss of a 300 MW steam turbine is located and evaluated, a sensibility analysis is presented for the typical elements that cause the deterioration of the efficiency in this type of turbines. [Espanol] Se presenta la implementacion de un metodo de evaluacion de turbinas de vapor a partir de la geometria medida del canal de flujo y sus condiciones de operacion. Este metodo, previamente desarrollado, permite identificar y cuantificar las perdidas de potencia y eficiencia debido al desgaste de sus elementos (alabes desgastados o doblados, sellos desgastados, depositos, etcetera); el beneficio que se obtiene es un conocimiento mas preciso del comportamiento de la turbina y que se tiene una base para dar prioridad a los trabajos de mantenimiento desde el punto de vista de aprovechamiento de la energia. En este articulo se localizan y evaluan las perdidas de potencia y eficiencia de una turbina de vapor de 300 MW, ademas, se presenta un analisis de sensibilidad para los elementos tipicos que originan el deterioro de la eficiencia en este tipo de turbinas.

  8. Mechanical (turbines and auxiliary equipment)

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2013-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Volume 3: Mechanical (Turbines and Auxiliary Equipment) focuses on the development of turbines and auxiliary equipment used in power stations in Great Britain. Topics covered include thermodynamics and steam turbine theory; turbine auxiliary systems such as lubrication systems, feed water heating systems, and the condenser and cooling water plants. Miscellaneous station services, and pipework in power plants are also described. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of thermodynamics and steam turbine theory, paying particular attenti

  9. Low pressure microfluidic-based DNA fragmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shui, Lingling; Sparreboom, Wouter; Bomer, Johan G.; Jin, Mingliang; Carlen, Edwin; van den Berg, Albert

    2011-01-01

    We report a low-pressure microfluidic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation device based on a combination of me-chanical hydrodynamic shearing and low temperature sample heating. Conventional DNA fragmentation based on hydrody-namic shearing is capable of achieving fragment lengths (FL) < 10k bp

  10. Ukraine Steam Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurvinder Singh

    2000-02-15

    The Ukraine Steam Partnership program is designed to implement energy efficiency improvements in industrial steam systems. These improvements are to be made by the private plants and local government departments responsible for generation and delivery of energy to end-users. One of the activities planned under this program was to provide a two-day training workshop on industrial steam systems focusing on energy efficiency issues related to the generation, distribution, and consumption of steam. The workshop was geared towards plant managers, who are not only technically oriented, but are also key decision makers in their respective companies. The Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology (ARENA-ECO), a non-governmental, not-for-profit organization founded to promote energy efficiency and environmental protection in Ukraine, in conjunction with the Alliance staff in Kiev sent out invitations to potential participants in all the regions of Ukraine. The purpose of this report is the describe the proceedings from the workshop and provide recommendations from the workshop's roundtable discussion. The workshop was broken down into two main areas: (1) Energy efficient boiler house steam generation; and Energy efficient steam distribution and consumption. The workshop also covered the following topics: (1) Ukrainian boilers; (2) Water treatment systems; (3) A profile of UKRESCO (Ukrainian Energy Services Company); (4) Turbine expanders and electricity generation; (5) Enterprise energy audit basics; and (6) Experience of steam use in Donetsk oblast.

  11. Técnica de monitorado continuo (on – line para la evaluación del estado técnico de los turbogrupos de 64 y 100 MW. // Technique of continuous monitored (on - line for the evaluation of the technical state in steam turbine units of 64 and 100 MW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. de la Torre. Silva

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta el resultado del estudio de factibilidad realizado a los turbogrupos de 64 y 100 MW de dosCentrales Termoeléctricas, sobre el empleo de técnicas de monitorado continuo “on line” para la evaluación del estadotécnico de estos turbogrupos.Palabras claves: Turbinas de vapor,vibraciones, monitorado continuo “on line”, diagnóstico.______________________________________________________________________Abstract:In this work an study of feasibility is presented. This study is carried out in steam turbine units of 64 and 100 MW, and show the use ofcontinuous monitored technique (on line for the evaluation of the technical state of these turbine units.Key Words: Steam turbines, vibrations, continuous monitoring on line, turbines supervision, Diagnosis,technical state evaluation.

  12. Quantitative Calculation of the Influence of Cold End Parameters on the Steam Turbine Exhaust Temperature%冷端参数变化对汽轮机排汽温度影响的定量计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Based on heat transfer theory and formula for heat transfer coefficient of condenser provided by American heat exchange institute(HEI) and mathematical derivation,and reasonably simplify according to the Taylor’ s formula,get the function of changes of steam turbine cold end parameters on exhaust steam temperature, the paper analyzed the function relationship of the error and points out the application conditions.The function obtained can be used for the analysis of the necessity of cold end adjustment and transformation, and has the guiding significance for the energy saving of the cold end of the turbine.%根据传热学原理和美国传热协会( HEI)提供的凝汽器换热系数公式进行数学推导,并根据泰勒公式进行合理简化,得到汽轮机冷端各参数的变化对排汽温度影响的函数关系式,分析了函数关系式的误差并指出了应用条件。得到的函数可以用于对冷端调整和改造必要性的分析,对汽轮机冷端节能具有指导意义。

  13. The Calculation of the Steam Turbine Governing Stage Enthalpy Drop and Reaction Degree in Off-design Condition%汽轮机调节级变工况时焓降和反动度的计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清; 黄竹青; 王运民; 李亮; 张伦柱

    2012-01-01

    The calculation of enthalpy drop and reaction degree is an important content and basis of the calculation for governing stage in off-design condition. The calculation method of the steam turbine governing stage enthalpy drop and reaction degree in off-design condition is introduced in this paper, and a instance calculating of a power plant - N600 - 16.67 -538 / 538 -1 steam turbine in Hunan province is simulated by MATLAB software. Finally,the changing curves of governing stage enthalpy drop and reaction degree is drawn according to the calculation results. The results from the research have an important value in theory and application.%调节级焓降和反动度的计算是调节级变工况计算的基础和重要内容.介绍了汽轮机调节级变工况时焓降和反动度的计算方法,并以湖南某电厂N600-16.67 -538/538 -Ⅰ型汽轮机为例,应用MATLAB语言编制计算软件进行了实例计算,根据计算结果绘制了调节级焓降和反动度的变化曲线.研究成果具有重要的理论意义和应用价值.

  14. 汽机房降温通风系统经济性分析%Analysis on the economy of ventilation cooling system of the steam-turbine house

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈艳; 张晓琼

    2015-01-01

    研究了汽机房不同降温通风方式(蒸发冷却、压缩式制冷、吸收式制冷等降温通风方式)的基本原理,结合实际工程案例,对各降温通风方式进行了设备选型,分析了各种方案的节能及经济性,为火电厂汽机房降温通风设计提供参考。%The paper studies basic principles of various ventilation cooling techniques of the steam-turbine house including evaporative cooling, compression refrigerating,absorption refrigeration and other cooling ventilation methods,carries out facilities selection of cooling ventilation meth-ods by combining with actual engineering examples,and analyzes their energy conservation and economy,which has provided some guidance for cooling ventilation design of the steam-turbine house of the thermal power plant.

  15. Low Pressure Nuclear Thermal Rocket (LPNTR) concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsthaler, J. H.

    1991-01-01

    A background and a description of the low pressure nuclear thermal system are presented. Performance, mission analysis, development, critical issues, and some conclusions are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: LPNTR's inherent advantages in critical NTR requirement; reactor trade studies; reference LPNTR; internal configuration and flow of preliminary LPNTR; particle bed fuel assembly; preliminary LPNTR neutronic study results; multiple LPNTR engine concept; tank and engine configuration for mission analysis; LPNTR reliability potential; LPNTR development program; and LPNTR program costs.

  16. Low-Pressure-Drop Shutoff Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornborrow, John

    1994-01-01

    Flapper valve remains open under normal flow conditions but closes upon sudden increases to high rate of flow and remains closed until reset. Valve is fluid/mechanical analog of electrical fuse or circuit breaker. Low-pressure-drop shutoff valve contains flapper machined from cylindrical surface. During normal flow conditions, flapper presents small cross section to flow. (Useful in stopping loss of fluid through leaks in cooling systems.)

  17. 汽轮机凝汽器空气漏入率在线检测方法%On-Line Measurement of Air Leakage Rate of Steam Turbine Condenser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭盈; 姚飞; 王学同; 周广顺

    2012-01-01

    A novel technique has been successfully developed to measure, on-line, the air leakage rate of the steam turbine condenser,installed in coal-fire power plant.The measuring principle was described and the calculation formula was derived. The prototyped set-up was constructed to experimentally simulate the air leakage rate of the vacuum pipe of the steam turbine condenser.The discrepancy between the calculated results, based on the newly-developed method, and the experimentally simulated results was found to be less than 1 % . The feasibility of the calculation scheme in developing an integrated device for on-line measurement of the air leakage rate in turbine vacuum system was also tentatively discussed.%提出了一种新的汽轮机凝汽器空气漏入率在线测量方法,阐述了测量原理并推导出了计算公式.在此基础上,搭建了模拟电厂凝汽器抽真空管道环境的实验台并对整个实验系统进行了不确定度分析,通过实验设定值与采用本文提出方法的计算结果比较,相对偏差均在1%以内,从而验证了本文提出方法的正确性.本文工作为下一步研制集成化的汽轮发电机组真空系统漏气率在线测量装置奠定了基础.

  18. 汽轮机转子的热力耦合随机动态响应分析%The Coupled Stochastic Dynamic Response Analysis of the Steam Turbine Rotor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石磊; 周宗和; 杨自春

    2013-01-01

    Not only consider the steam turbine rotor under multiaxial stress influence,and consider the thermoelastoplastic of the rotor, based on the integral Laguerre stochastic finite element method ( LISFEM) , the random dynamic response characteristics of the turbine rotor are analyzed. Then,using the second development function of ANSYS - UIDL (user interface design language) , the dynamic response analysis of the turbine rotor is modally encapsulated, embedded in ANSYS software, and convenient for the operation.%不仅考虑汽轮机转子承受多轴应力的影响,并且考虑转子材料的热弹塑性,利用基于Laguerre积分的随机有限元方法(LISFEM)对汽轮机转子的随机动态响应特性进行分析.然后,利用ANSYS二次开发功能——UIDL(用户界面设计语言),对汽轮机转子的随机动态响应分析过程进行模块化封装,嵌入ANSYS软件当中,以方便用户操作分析.

  19. Development of Multi-Stage Steam Injector for Feedwater Heaters in Simplified Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narabayashi, Tadashi; Ohmori, Shuichi; Mori, Michitsugu; Asanuma, Yutaka; Iwaki, Chikako

    A steam injector (SI) is a simple, compact and passive pump and also acts as a high-performance direct-contact compact heater to heat up feedwater by using extracted steam from the turbine. To develop high performance compact feedwater heater, it is necessary to quantify the characteristics between physical properties of the flow field. Its performance depends on the phenomena of steam condensation onto the water jet surface and heat transfer in the water jet due to turbulence on to the phase-interface. The analysis was conducted by using CFD code embedded separate two-phase flow models that were confirmed by the experimental data. As the four-stage SI is compact heater, the system is expected to bring about great simplification and materials-saving effects, and high reliability of its operation. Therefore, it is confirmed that the simplification of the power plant by replacing all low-pressure feedwater heaters with the four-stage SI system, having steam extraction pressures equal to those for the existing ABWR system.

  20. The Analysis of the Causes of 1000 MW Steam Turbine Bearing Metal Temperature on the High Side and Countermeasures%1000 MW 汽轮机轴承金属温度偏高的原因分析及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靖长财

    2016-01-01

    From the working principle and factors influencing the bearing metal temperature steam turbine bearing ,analyzes the abnormal temperature rise of 1000 MW steam turbine bearing metal four typical cases ,and puts forward the pertinence measures such as operation , maintenance and repair , design, research, for steam turbine safety and reliability operation reference ,in order to avoid high temperature steam turbine bearing metal failure repetitive failure occurred .%从汽轮机轴承工作原理和影响轴承金属温度因素,分析了1000MW汽轮机轴承金属温度异常升高的4次典型案例,提出了运行、检修、设计、研究等针对性措施,为汽轮机安全可靠运行提供参考,以避免汽轮机轴承金属温度高的故障重复发生。

  1. Robust velocity and load control of a steam turbine in a combined cycle thermoelectric power station; Control robusto de velocidad y carga de una turbina de vapor en una central termoelectrica de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Archundia, Enrique

    1998-12-31

    This research work is oriented to design, develop and validate an algorithm of modern control, that allows obtaining better performances in the control of speed of a steam turbine pertaining to a combined cycle thermoelectric power station, in all the operation interval, as well as obtaining better performances in the control of the amount of generated megawatts by the same when it is connected to an electric power generator, comparing the performance with the one obtained by means of the existing conventional controller. The changes in the speed reference or load are at the request of the operator and they always occur in incline form, indicating the rapidity with which it is desired to carry out the change of value in the reference. This is the reason for why the main objective of the control to design is to make a good follow up to references of the incline type. In the subsystem of the existing steam turbine the disadvantage is that the valves that regulate the steam flow to the turbine present a connection with the bypass valve that allows to derive the steam flow towards the main condenser without going through the turbine. It is for this reason that a multi-variable control that contemplates the interaction that occurs among the valves just mentioned, departing from a single variable design. The robust control H{infinity} has the following characteristics that allow it to be applied to the steam turbine process: the design can be made to have two poles in the origin, with which a good follow up to references of incline type is obtained; it allows the uncertainty handling, with which good results in everything are expected an entire operation interval; and it allows the design of multi-variable controllers, with which the existing interaction between the valves of control and bypass is considered. It is very difficult to be able to make tests with the real process, due to the cost and risks that it implies, nevertheless, the developments achieved in the areas

  2. Measurement of HP-IP turbine leakage flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, C.J.; Medina, C.A. [New England Power Co., Somerset, MA (United States); Cioffi, D.A.; Cook, E.T. [Encotech Engineering, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1996-05-01

    In most reheat units steam can leak from the high pressure (HP) turbine to the intermediate pressure (LP) turbine. This leakage flow should be measured, because it impairs heat rate and capacity. Further, it must be measured when testing LP or low pressure (LP) turbine efficiency. In most turbines, the leakage flow must be measured using a Booth Kautzmann temperature shift test. The ASME Code does not specify procedures for this test. Published data has shown that test results are severely affected by test procedures. An EPRI research project, WO 3894-04, aimed at identifying test methods that yield the best results, has been initiated. The project will involve comparing the true leakage flow with results of Booth Kautzmann tests. The project will be undertaken at the Brayton Point Station by the New England Power Co, and Encotech Engineering, P.C. This paper reviews the importance of the leakage flow measurement, the theory of the Booth Kautzmann test, and the problems with the test that have been reported by the authors and other investigators. The paper will describe the research project and report on its status.

  3. 基于特征通流面积的汽轮机变工况性能分析%Performance Analysis of Steam Turbine on Off-design Conditions Based on Characteristic Flow Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔海朋; 卢绪祥; 邴汉昆; 王运民

    2011-01-01

    阐述了基于留格尔公式提出的特征通流面积概念的定义及计算方法,在IAPWS - IF97公式基础上,利用Visual Basic 6.0平台初步开发了汽轮机组通流部分特征通流面积计算软件,并以国产600MW超临界机组为研究对象,对机组变工况下级组的特征通流面积进行了计算和分析.研究结果表明:汽轮机级组的特征通流面积在通流部分尺寸不发生变化时,其值保持不变,并且变工况下其计算精度能满足工程要求,可以作为机组通流能力及通流部分故障诊断的准则参数,为机组通流部分的状态监测与故障的精确诊断提供依据.%The definition and calculation method of characteristic flow area (CFA) which based on FlUgel Formula are presented in this paper. On the basis of the IAPWS - IF97 formula, calculation software of CFA for steam turbine flow passage was developed on Visual Basic 6. 0 software platform, and the CFAs of the domestic 600MW supercritical units under off-design conditions were calculated and analyzed. The results show that the calculation accuracy of CFA under off-design conditions is high and fits the project requirements. It is feasible to apply in calculation of variable CFA, monitoring and diagnosis of steam turbine, and to apply in the field of improved design of the flow passage, variable characteristic flow area calculation,monitoring and diagnosis of steam turbine flow passage.

  4. Repair by weld of steam and gas turbine rotors made of Cr-Mo-V steel; Reparacion por soldadura de rotores de turbinas de vapor y de gas fabricados con aceros al Cr-Mo-V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur C, Zdzislaw; Hernandez R, Alejando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Orozco S, Julian; Banuelos P, Jose E. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In this article an analysis is presented of the typical damages in steam and gas turbine rotors made of Cr-Mo-V low alloy steels. An analysis of the weldability of the Cr-Mo-V steel is carried out and a classification of the possible types of repairs of the turbine rotors is presented, starting off from the causes and ways of presentation of the faults/deterioration of the rotor materials during the operation of the turbine. With base on the damages detected in the rotor of a gas turbine of 20.65 MW, the development of the repairing technology carried out by weld in site is presented. After the repair process, the rotor was put again in operation. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta un analisis de los danos tipicos en rotores de turbinas de vapor y de gas fabricados con aceros de baja aleacion al Cr-Mo-V. Se lleva a cabo un analisis de la soldabilidad de los aceros al Cr-Mo-V y se presenta una clasificacion de los posibles tipos de reparaciones de los rotores de turbinas, partiendo de las causas y modos de presentacion de las fallas/deterioro del material de los rotores durante la operacion de la turbina. Con base en los danos detectados en el rotor de una turbina de gas de 20.65 MW, se presenta el desarrollo de la tecnologia de reparacion por soldadura llevada a cabo en sitio. Despues del proceso de reparacion, el rotor fue puesto nuevamente en servicio.

  5. An Analysis on the Air Exciting-vibration Force of Short Vane of Steam Turbine in Non-uniform Airflow Field%非均匀气流场中的汽轮机短叶片间隙气流激振力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张耀明; 柴山; 马浩; 曲庆文; 赵又群; 姚福生

    2001-01-01

    Because the outlet side of fixed blade has a certain thickness, the airflow field of steam turbine is a non-uniform airflow field. Based on the hydrodynamics, the clearance air exciting-vibration force acting on the blades of steam turbine in the non-uniform airflow field is studied by using the momentum theorem in this paper. The velocity of airflow was developed into Fourier series firstly, and then the computational formulas for the short blades in straight stages and twist stages of steam turbine in the non-uniform airflow field was derived. The presented formulas only include the structural parameters and airflow parameters of steam turbine and can overcome the difficulty of selecting efficiency factor in Alford formula, so they can be used to calculate the air exciting-vibration force of steam turbine with non-uniform airflow field easily.%从流体动力学出发,应用动量定理研究了定叶片出气边具有一定厚度的非均匀气流场中汽轮机的间隙气流激振力,将气流速度展开成Fourier级数,并综合考虑了叶片的各项设计参数,并应用理论分析的方法导出了在非均匀气流场中汽轮机直叶片级、扭叶片级短叶片的间隙气流激振力计算公式。

  6. The Study of Dynamic Coefficient of the Turbine Steam Rotor Affected by the Steam Flow Force on the Labyrinth Seal%受迷宫汽封汽流力影响的汽轮机转子动特性系数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴立明; 初世明

    2015-01-01

    Use the equivalent stiffness and damping coefficient to describe the turbine steam force between the rotor and labyrinth seal,summarize the law of the stiffness and damping coefficient at the different position of rotor ’ s steam seal. Then the stability effects of the parameter variation are analyzed ,and provide technical support for safe and stable operation of the unit.It is found that the stiffness and damping coefficient variation has a law at the different position of rotor ’s steam seal,and change the steam seal ’ s clearance is not a valid method to improve the stability of the rotor .%用等效刚度和阻尼系数对某汽轮机迷宫汽封蒸汽对转子的流体力进行描述,归纳汽轮机转子各位置处汽封等效刚度与阻尼系数的变化规律,进而分析参数变化对机组稳定性的影响,为机组的安全稳定运行提供技术支持。分析表明:汽轮机转子不同位置处的汽封等效刚度与阻尼系数存在一定的变化规律,单纯更改汽封间隙不是提高机组转子稳定性的有效办法。

  7. Development of Technologies on Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant using High-Efficiency Steam Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Shuichi; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Mori, Michitsugu; Iwaki, Chikako; Asanuma, Yutaka; Goto, Shoji

    A Steam Injector (SI) is a simple, compact and passive pump and also acts as a high-performance direct-contact heater. This provides SI with capability to serve also as a direct-contact feed-water heater that heats up feed-water by using extracted steam from turbine. Our technology development aims to significantly simplify equipment and reduce physical quantities by applying "High-Efficiency SI", which are applicable to a wide range of operation regimes beyond the performance and applicable range of existing SIs and enables unprecedented multistage and parallel operation, to the low-pressure feed-water heaters and Emergency Core Cooling System of nuclear power plants, as well as achieve high inherent safety to prevent severe accidents by keeping the core covered with water (a Severe Accident-Free Concept). This paper describes the results of the endurance and performance tests of low-pressure SIs for feed-water heaters with Jet-deaerator and core injection system.

  8. Experimental Equipment and Basic Technological Methods of Obtaining Cavitation Protective Coatings on Working Surfaces of Steam Turbine Blades Made of Titanium Alloy VT6 in Order to Replace Imports of Similar Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilous, V.A.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The experimental equipment and basic technological methods of obtaining сavitation protective coatings on the working surfaces of blades of steam turbines from titanium alloy VT6 have been created. The selection and the basis of the composition and conditions of synthesis of optimal coating for hardening blades have been justified. The parameters of deposition process of coatings on the blade model have been worked, the experimental technological deposition process of hardening coatings has been created. The tests of titanium alloy VT6 samples with the preferred coatings in simulation conditions close to operational have been conducted. The coatings on the blade model of length up to 130 cm and weight up to 30 kg have been deposited. The velocity of the TiN coating depositing was 10 mkm/h.

  9. 某电厂汽轮机低压缸隔板断裂失效原因分析%Failure Analysis for Diaphragm Fracture of LP Cylinder of Steam Turbine in a Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金状

    2014-01-01

    The fracture of a gray cast-iron diaphragm in LP cylinder of steam turbine in a power plant was analyzed by means of metallographic test, hardness test and structure analysis. The results suggest that it is normal for microstructure or hardness. Fracture is mainly caused by the stress concentration due to unreasonable structural design. Meanwhile, the proposal for repair welding of gray cast iron diaphragm is put forward.%对某火力发电厂断裂的汽轮机组铸铁隔板进行了金相组织观察、硬度测试和机械结构分析。结果表明隔板的断裂主要是结构设计不合理引起的应力集中造成的。同时,对该铸件的焊接修复提出了合理化建议。

  10. Creep Damage Evaluation of Steam Turbine Rotor Steel by Using the Nonlinear Ultrasonic Technique%汽轮机转子钢蠕变损伤的非线性超声评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萌; 轩福贞

    2016-01-01

    Creep damage is generally produced in the high temperature components of ultra-supercritical steam turbine which will detriment the structural integrity during the long term operation. Therefore, quick and effective identification of the creep damage is very critical for the service safety of steam turbine unit. In the present work, interrupted creep tests of FB2 steel which is commonly used in the ultra-supercritical steam turbine rotor have been conducted. Creep damaged specimens with various damage levels are thus generated. Using the damaged specimens, nonlinear longitudinal ultrasonic evaluation test has been performed and the nonlinear ultrasonic parameters of damaged specimens are obtained. Results indicate that nonlinear ultrasonic parameters increase with the increase of creep damage levels of steam turbine rotor steel. The microstructure of damaged specimens has been analyzed by using the transmission electron microscopy(TEM). Result reveals that the increase of nonlinear ultrasonic parameter can be ascribed to the increase of dislocation density. Furthermore, the increment of nonlinear ultrasonic parameter is related to the dislocation climbing at higher stress and to the dislocation slipping at lower stress. In terms of the dislocation theory, a correlation between the nonlinear ultrasonic parameters2A2A1 and the steady state creep strain rate has been developed accordingly.%超超临界汽轮机高温部件长期服役会产生蠕变损伤,威胁设备的强度安全,快速、有效地检出高温构件蠕变损伤状况对保证设备服役安全意义重大。采用中断蠕变试验,在实验室模拟获得了汽轮机转子钢 FB2不同程度的蠕变损伤,进行损伤后试样的非线性超声纵波表征试验。结果表明:非线性超声参量随转子钢 FB2蠕变损伤程度的增加而增大;透射电镜微观分析表明,超声非线性参量增大与位错密度增加有关;非线性超声纵波参量与高应力水平

  11. Comparative analysis of the economy quality and increasing energy efficiency means for 310MW Steam Turbine%310MW汽轮机组经济节能性对比分析及提高途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昊

    2013-01-01

    Through the maintenance of steam turbine unit, the article contrastively analyses the economy quality be-fore and after repairing 310MW unit and studies the difference between design value and experimental value and puts for-word corresponding improvement measures and discusses the way of economic increase.%  文章通过对汽轮机组的检修,对比分析了检修310MW机组前后的经济性,并研究了设计值与试验值的差别,提出相应的改进措施,探讨了经济性提高的途径。

  12. Investigations into low pressure methanol synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharafutdinov, Irek

    The central topic of this work has been synthesis, characterization and optimization of novel Ni-Ga based catalysts for hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol. The overall goal was to search for materials that could be used as a low temperature (and low pressure) methanol synthesis catalyst....... Among them, Ni-Ga has been chosen, primarily due to low price of constituent metals. After the preliminary optimization work, an optimal catalyst composition and preparation method has been suggested. Indeed, for an optimal catalyst, which is a SiO2 supported Ni-Ga prepared from a solution of nitrates...... due to carbon formation) and under accelerated ageing conditions (due to dealloying). However, the initial activity could always be restored after treatment in hydrogen flow at elevated temperatures. The work in the direction of suppression of deactivation and by-product formation is still in progress....

  13. Scale Model Test and Transient Analysis of Steam Injector Driven Passive Core Injection System for Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Shuichi; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Mori, Michitsugu

    A steam injector (SI) is a simple, compact and passive pump and also acts as a high-performance direct-contact compact heater. This provides SI with capability to serve also as a direct-contact feed-water heater that heats up feed-water by using extracted steam from turbine. Our technology development aims to significantly simplify equipment and reduce physical quantities by applying "high-efficiency SI", which are applicable to a wide range of operation regimes beyond the performance and applicable range of existing SIs and enables unprecedented multistage and parallel operation, to the low-pressure feed-water heaters and emergency core cooling system of nuclear power plants, as well as achieve high inherent safety to prevent severe accidents by keeping the core covered with water (a severe accident-free concept). This paper describes the results of the scale model test, and the transient analysis of SI-driven passive core injection system (PCIS).

  14. 试论火力发电厂汽机辅机现状及优化策略%On the Current Situation and Optimization Strategies of Thermal Power Plant Steam Turbine Auxiliary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛继群; 梁健

    2013-01-01

    随着我国社会的不断进步,经济的快速发展,对火力发电需求越来越高,汽机辅机是整个火力发电中的一个重要组成部分,它在火力发电中起到了决定性的作用。可随着现在用电量的日渐加大,火力发电厂的发电量也在逐日上涨,这对汽机辅机造成了一定程度的影响。%With the continuous progress of our society and the rapid economic development, the demand for power generation is increasing. Steam turbine auxiliary is an important part in the whole power generation, and it plays a decisive role in thermal power. With the gradually increased electricity consumption, the generating capacity of thermal power is also rising day by day, which has caused a certain influence on the auxiliary turbine.

  15. Optimization of intermediate cooling and intermediate heating in the gas turbine process; Optimierung der Zwischenkuehlung und der Zwischenerhitzung beim Gasturbinenprozess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woerrlein, K.

    1998-07-01

    The author investigated how the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine process can be improved by intermediate cooling, intermediate heating, or combined intermediate cooling and heating. The focus was on the pressure ratios of low-pressure compressors and high-pressure turbines. The numeric calculations were carried out using real gas characteristics. The findings suggest that intermediate coling inside the compressor has much more influence on the thermal efficiency than intermediate heating inside the turbine. However, the latter is advantageous in the case of gas turbines for combined cycle operation, as the off-gas temperatures required for steam generation are reached even at relatively low turbine inlet temperatures, so that NOx emissions of the gas turbine combustion chamber will be low. It is recommended that solitary gas turbines should be operated with intermediate cooling and gas turbines in combined cycle operation with intermediate heating. [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit soll untersucht werden, in welcher Weise sich der thermische Wirkungsgrad des Gasturbinen-Prozesses durch Zwischenkuehlung, Zwischenerhitzung bzw. Zwischenkuehlung und Zwischenerhitzung verbessern laesst. Dabei sollen in erster Linie die Druckverhaeltnisse von ND-Verdichter bzw. HD-Turbine bestimmt werden, bei denen Zwischenkuehlung und Zwischenerhitzung vorgenommen werden sollen, um eine optimale Verbesserung des thermischen Wirkungsgrades zu erreichen. Die numerische Durchrechnung soll mit den Stoffwerten des realen Gases durchgefuehrt werden. Die numerischen Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Zwischenkuehlung im Verdichter einen weit groesseren Einfluss auf den thermischen Wirkungsgrad hat als die Zwischenerhitzung in der Turbine. Letztere ist aber bei Gasturbinen fuer den Kombibetrieb von Vorteil, erreicht man doch die fuer die Dampferzeugung notwendigen Abgastemperaturen der Gasturbine schon bei relativ niedrigen Turbineneintrittstemperaturen, so dass die NO{sub x}-Emission der

  16. 汽轮发电机组轴系扭振多指标非线性协调控制%Multi-index nonlinear coordination control design for steam-turbine generator shafting torsional vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李啸骢; 鹿建成; 韦善革; 梁志坚; 徐俊华

    2014-01-01

    为减少机电扰动对汽轮发电机组轴系扭振的影响,在单机无穷大系统中,建立了汽轮发电机组轴系、励磁和调速的六阶非线性状态空间数学模型。基于反馈精确线性化理论,设计了发电机组励磁和调速的多指标非线性协调控制(MINC)策略。同时与线性最优控制(LOC)方法做对比,仿真表明:采用MINC方法,当系统受到短路故障,调功和调压扰动时,不仅能更好地抑制汽轮机和发电机之间功角位移偏差的振荡,减少轴系扭振事故的发生,还可以兼顾各状态量的动、静态性能,提高电力系统稳定运行水平。%To reduce the effect of mechanical and electrical disturbance on torsional vibration of steam-turbine generator shafting, in a single machine infinite system, a six order nonlinear state space model is set up for steam turbine generator shafting based on the generator excitation and speed-regulation system. According to the accurate feedback linearization theory, the multi-index nonlinear coordination (MINC) control strategy is designed for suppressing the torsional vibration of shafting. The strategy is compared with linear optimal control (LOC) method. The simulation results show that when the short-circuit fault occurs and the regulating power and voltage are disturbed, the MINC method can restrain oscillation of the angular displacement deviation between turbine and generator, reduce the risk of shaft torsional vibration, give better consideration of both dynamic and static performance of each state quantity, and stabilize the operation of power system.

  17. Mechanical behavior of PDMS at low pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyan, J.; Tawfick, S.

    2017-07-01

    Polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS) are used in a wide range of soft devices including lab-on-chip, soft robots and flexible electronics. These technologies are currently considered for space exploration applications. We experimentally study the effects of vacuum pressure on the dynamics of PDMS resonator and demonstrate that, unlike hard materials, it exhibits an appreciable change in modulus manifested as a shift in resonance frequency with varying pressure. To reveal this dependence, we carefully probe the dissipation due to air pressure damping acting on the surface of the membrane. For a 1 µm thick membrane, the modulus of the PDMS decreases when the pressure is below P t  =  3.175 Torr, whereas at pressures above {{P}\\text{t}} the dynamics are dominated by gas damping in the free molecular flow and viscous regimes. We conjecture that the observed effect is a consequence of a change in shear modulus resulting in a logarithmic linear relationship between pressure and stiffness for a circular PDMS membrane. These results are important for the application of PDMS microdevices at low pressure.

  18. 汽轮机中心孔转子与实心转子的性能对比%Performance comparison between hollow rotor and solid rotor in steam turbines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀润景

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive comparison and analysis on hollow rotor and solid rotor was carried out,from such aspects as service life,reliability,stress corrosion and maintenance,to discuss whether it is necessary to ma-chine center hole for turbine rotors.The results show that,the hollow rotor has a certain risk and unrelia-bility in operation and maintenance aspects.For low pressure rotors in large scale thermal power units and turbine rotors in nuclear power plants,non-hollow rotor should be applied as much as possible,while for high pressure rotors in thermal power units,considering of the creep effect,several factors should be com-prehensively regarded.%从转子寿命、可靠性、应力腐蚀、运行维护等方面对中心孔转子与实心转子的性能进行了对比分析。结果表明,中心孔转子在运行、维护方面存在一定的风险和不可靠性;大容量火电机组汽轮机低压转子和核电机组汽轮机整个转子应尽量采用实心转子;火电机组汽轮机高压转子则需考虑蠕变影响,综合各种因素酌情处理。

  19. Steam generation unit in a simple version of biomass based small cogeneration unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sornek Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic Rankine cycle (ORC is a very promising process for the conversion of low or medium temperature heat to electricity in small and micro scale biomass powered systems. Classic ORC is analogous to Clausius–Rankine cycle in a steam power plant, but instead of water it uses low boiling, organic working fluids. Seeking energy and economical optimization of biomass-based ORC systems, we have proposed some modifications e.g. in low boiling fluid circuit construction. Due to the fact that the operation of a micro steam turbine is rather inefficient from the technical and economic point of view, a specially modified air compressor can be used as a steam piston engine. Such engine should be designed to work at low pressure of the working medium. Studies regarding the first version of the prototype installation were focused on the confirmation of applicability of a straw boiler in the prototype ORC power system. The results of the previous studies and the studies described in the paper (on the new cogeneration unit confirmed the high potential of the developed solution. Of course, many further studies have to be carried out.

  20. 节流式蒸汽调节阀的改进与性能计算%Improvement and Calculation of Throttle Control Valve in Steam Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高怡秋; 周振东; 奚骏

    2012-01-01

    蒸汽调节阀由于长期处于小流量、大压差状态下,高速汽流对滑阀表面产生了严重的冲蚀,使其无法正常工作.对调节阀提出改进措施,在低负荷工况时采用了多级小孔降压的结构.给出了多级降压的计算方法,并通过数值计算得到了改进前后的流场分布.计算结果表明改进后的结构可大幅降低汽流速度并增大总压损失系数,改善了汽流的冲蚀作用,提高了蒸汽调节阀的安全可靠性.%Due to steam control valve is under the high difference pressure and low flow conditions in a long time,the surface of the slide valve under high-speed flow has serious erosion, which does not work well. The improvement measures of control valve are proposed, that using the structure of multistage depression holes when in low load conditions. The measure of calculation of multistage depression is given, and the flow field before and after is obtained by numerical calculation. The results show that the improved structure can significantly reduce the steam velocity and increase the pressure loss coefficient,which can reform the steam flow erosion and improve the safety and reliability of the steam control valve.

  1. 汽轮机内湿蒸汽两相流介电性质研究%Study on Dielectric Properties of Wet Steam in Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱江波; 韩中合; 张美凤

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between complex permittivity and static dielectric parameters,frequency of alternating electric field was substituted into the Maxwell-Wagner non-homogeneous dielectric theory.An equivalent complex permittivity model of wet steam was established.The complex permittivity distribution of saturated water,dry saturated steam and wet steam with wavelength and temperature changing were obtained.The real part of saturated water complex permittivity increases with wavelength increasing and temperature decreasing.When wavelength is large,the real part closes to static dielectric constant,and when wavelength is small,it closes to a constant,independent of temperature.The imaginary part of saturated water complex permittivity first increases and then decreases with wavelength increasing,and it increases with temperature decreasing.When wavelength is large or small,the imaginary part closes to 0.The real part of dry saturated steam complex permittivity increases with wavelength and temperature increasing.When wavelength is small or temperature is low,the real part closes to 1.The imaginary part of dry saturated steam complex permittivity first increases and then decreases with wavelength increasing,and it increases with temperature increasing.When wavelength is large or small or temperature is low,the imaginary part closes to 0.The complex permittivity of wet steam is similar to the one of dry saturated steam.When humidity increases especially in high temperature,the real and imaginary parts are larger.%将电介质的复介电常数与其静介电参数、交变电场频率的关系引入Maxwell-Wagner非均质电介质理论,建立湿蒸汽等效复介电常数模型,得到饱和水、干饱和蒸汽和湿蒸汽的复介电常数随波长和温度的变化。饱和水复介电常数的实部随波长增加、温度降低而变大,当波长较大时,实部趋于静介电常数,当波长较小时,实部趋于常数,与温度无关;其虚部随波长增加先

  2. Study on Cooling Performance of Turbine Classifier Bearing for Steam-Powered Jet Mill%蒸汽动能磨分级机轴承油冷却性能研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖小林; 陈俊冬; 王沁淘; 张尚; 陈海焱

    2015-01-01

    The finite element model of turbine classifier bearing for steam jet mill under the condition of superheated steam was established based on ANSYS.The effects of friction heating of the bearings,superheated steam and oil cooling on the temperature rising of classifier bearings were discussed under different classifier rotating speed. The results show that the higher the classifier rotating speed is,the higher the self⁃heating temperature of classifier bearing is,and the larger the temperature difference between upper bearing and lower bearing becomes.The heat transfer of superheated steam has great influence on temperature rising of classifier bearings,which results in the increase of the temperature difference between the bearings.The method of oil cooling can make the temperature of classifier bearing less than the maximum service tem⁃perature of 75 ℃,and the temperature of classifier spindle higher than 100 ℃ to avoid the steam condensation.Compared the measured data with the simulation results of temperature rising,it shows the temperature of the spindle bearing under the condition of superheated steam could be predicted using the numerical simulation method based on ANSYS.%利用ANSYS建立过热蒸汽条件下蒸汽动能磨分级机轴承的有限元模型,探讨不同分级机转速轴承摩擦生热、过热蒸汽、油冷却对分级机轴承温升的影响。数值模拟结果表明:分级机转速越高,分级机轴承自身发热温升越高,且上下轴承温升差值越来越大;过热蒸汽传热对分级机轴承温升影响较大,且使得上下轴承的温度差值进一步变大;采用油冷却的方式可使分级机轴承温度低于要求的最高使用温度75℃,而分级腔主轴段温度高于100℃,避免了过热蒸汽出现冷凝的情况。轴承温升实测数据与模拟结果基本一致,表明采用ANSYS数值模拟的方法可有效预测过热蒸汽状态下主轴轴承温度。

  3. Analysis on High Temperature Strength and Sealing Behavior of U-type Seal in Steam Turbine Valves%汽轮机进汽阀U型密封高温强度与密封性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      U型密封因其优越的密封性能而被广泛应用在超超临界汽轮机进汽阀门中。随着运行参数(温度,压力)不断提升, U 型密封承受的蠕变越发严重。为了研究 U 型密封在高参数运行条件下的蠕变强度与密封性能,引用经过时间硬化修正的 Norton-Bailay 蠕变本构方程和基于孔洞长大理论的多轴蠕变模型,分析计算了汽轮机进气阀U型密封2×105 h工作时域内接触面位置、接触应力和蠕变多轴度因子的变化规律。结果表明:随蠕变时间增加,U型密封的接触应力下降明显;U型密封的关键部位受到较大多轴应力影响,并产生较大的 Cocks-Ashby 蠕变等效应变,试验结果与预测结果一致。%U-type seal has been widely used in the inlet valves of ultra-supercritical steam turbines due to its superior sealing performance. However, the U-type seal bears greater creep deformation with the increase of the operational parameters (T, P). In order to investigate the creep strength and sealing performance of the U-type seal, the modified time-hardening Norton-Bailay constitutive equation and multiaxial cavity growth model were employed in the calculation. Furthermore, the variation of contact position, contact stress and multiaxial factor of U-type seal of steam turbine valve were analyzed under 0.2 million creep hours. The results illustrate that the contact stress of U-type seal significantly reduces with the creep hours increases. Some key areas of U-type seal suffer great multi-axial state of stress, and then huge Cock-Ashby equivalent strain is produced. The experimental result is consistent with predicted result.

  4. Investigations of the microstructural stability of wrought Ni-(Fe)-based syperalloys for steam turbine rotor application beyond 700 C; Untersuchungen der Strukturstabilitaet von Ni-(Fe)-Basislegierungen fuer Rotorwellen in Dampfturbinen mit Arbeitstemperaturen ueber 700 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seliga, T.

    2005-07-01

    There is a continuous trend to improve the efficiency of modern power plants with steam turbine require operating steam temperature from 700 to 720 C. For substantial parts like turbine rotors and discs this means increased requirements on the high temperature resistance, which can not longer be fulfilled by the presently used steel. As new materials for the components, which are thermo-mechanically loaded, only Ni-based superalloys are suitable for their fabrication, structure stability and thermo-mechanical characteristics. With view on creep and creep crack growth resistance as suitable candidates in the context a DFG research project wrought Ni-based superalloy Waspaloy and Ni-Fe-based alloy Inconel 706 were selected, which exhibited different hardening mechanisms. Waspaloy is a {gamma}'-hardened material with small portion of carbides on the grain boundaries. Inconel 706 is a particle hardened alloy with a very complex microstructure, it consists of {gamma}', {gamma}{sup ''}-particle, {eta}-phase und carbides. Concerning to their castability, forgeability, creep and creep crack growth and microstructural stability these candidate materials have been investigated and modelled. The knowledge about their long time stability of the microstructure, castability, forgeability and mechanical properties leads to the two new modification (Waspaloy{yields}DT750 and Inconel 706{yields}DT706). The modification of the Waspaloy to DT 750 served better castability (elimination of the Freckle formation). An improvement of the long-term stability of the microstructure was not necessary, by a changed heat treatment was reached a homogeneous, monomodale {gamma}'-particle distribution. The modification of Inconel 706 to DT 706 served to stabilize the {gamma}'-phase and to reduce of the {gamma}{sup ''} phase without suppressing the cellular {eta}-phase colonies on the grain boundaries. This work presents the test results for the structural

  5. nfluence of Water Marbles on Efficiency, Blade Fracture and Water Erosion of Steam Turbines%弹珠对汽轮机效率及叶片断裂、水蚀的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高德伟

    2012-01-01

    By analyzing the status of blade fracture and water erosion occurring in an extraction condensing turbine unit, the failure is found to be caused mainly by the braking force from water marbles, which inhibits the rotation of the rotor, and therefore directly affects the efficiency of the steam turbine. The formation mechanism of secondary water droplets from water marbles is compared with that from water films at blade trailing edge torn and broken by high-speed steam flows. It is pointed out that the number of water marbles can be effectively decreased by changing the structure of corresponding baffle plates, so as to reduce the mentioned braking force, economize the energy consumption, and therefore elongate the blade life and raise the unit efficiency.%通过对一台抽汽凝汽式汽轮机组叶片水蚀状况进行分析,提出导致叶片断裂和水蚀的主要原因是由弹珠所引起的“弹珠阻止转子旋转的制动力”,它会直接影响汽轮机效率.阐述了由“弹珠”所形成的二次水滴与叶片出汽边处的“水膜”被高速汽流撕裂和破碎所形成的二次水滴的区别.指出利用一定的科学技术手段,改变隔板的结构形式可以有效地减少弹珠的生成数量,减小损耗,减小和抑制“弹珠阻止转子旋转的制动力”,从而达到提高机组效率、延长叶片使用寿命的目的.

  6. Design and construction of a height caliper of labyrinths seals of high power steam turbines; Diseno y construccion de un calibrador de alturas para sellos laberintos de turbinas de vapor de alta potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinonez Osuna, Jose R. [Instituto Tecnologico de Mazatlan, Mazatlan, Sinaloa (Mexico); Mazur Czerwiec, Zdzislaw [instituto de Investigaciones Electicas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Valdez Valdez, Omar [Instituto Tecnologico de Mazatlan, Mazatlan, Sinaloa (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    This article presents the development of a new instrument that allows calibrating with exactness the labyrinths seals height of the radial type, normally used in steam turbines and many other turbo-machines. The calibration process derived from the application of the designed instrument is distinguished from the existing one in the fact of considering a perpendicularity reference that allows high exactness in the measurement of height differences (0,008 mm), which is performed at the moment of adjusting the steam seals each time that its sheets are substituted for new ones. Such characteristic, allows therefore, higher efficiency conditions, stability and trustworthiness in the unit operation, once maintenance of this kind has been applied to it. The lack of monitoring and periodic maintenance of the gaps between seals and rotor constitutes the main cause of efficiency loss in power plant turbines installed in Mexico, generating wastes of up to 4% of its capacity, which represents 15 MW in high power units. [Spanish] El articulo representa el desarrollo de un nuevo instrumento que permite calibrar con exactitud las alturas de los sellos laberinticos de tipo radial, ordinariamente empleados en turbinas de vapor y en muchas otras turbo-maquinas. El proceso de calibracion derivado de la aplicacion del instrumento disenado se distingue del existente, en el hecho de considerar una referencia de perpendicularidad que permite alta precision en la medicion de diferencias de altura (0.008 mm.), lo cual es realizado en el momento de ajustar los sellos de vapor cada vez que sus laminas son sustituidas por nuevas. Dicha caracteristica, procura por ende condiciones mayores de eficiencia, estabilidad y confiabilidad en la operacion de la unidad, una vez que le ha sido brindado un mantenimiento de esta naturaleza. La falta de monitoreo y mantenimiento periodico de los claros entre sellos y rotor, constituye la principal causa de perdida de eficiencia en las turbinas de las

  7. Appl ication of Hel ium Mass Spectrum Detector in Turbine HP Cylinder Steam Leak Diagnosis%氦质谱检漏技术在汽轮机高压缸漏汽诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴立民; 苏剑

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the principle of helium mass spectrometer leak detection technology,combined with leak-age Datang Baoding Thermal Power Plant Unit No.1 1 ,puts forward diagnosis scheme of turbine HP cylinder steam leak with the helium mass spectrometer leak detection technolo-gy,analyzes the diagnosis process and diagnosis results,con-siders that the helium mass spectrometer leak detection tech-nology can diagnosis high pressure cylinder leakage rapidly and accurately,to avoid the phenomenon of turbine vibra-tion,and to ensure the safe operation of the unit,at last,puts forward advices on leakage detection accuracy for high pres-sure cylinder parts.%介绍氦质谱检漏技术原理,结合大唐保定热电厂11号机组泄漏情况,提出采用氦质谱检漏技术对汽轮机高压缸漏汽情况进行诊断的方案,分析诊断过程及诊断结果,认为氦质谱检漏技术可以快速、准确诊断出高压缸泄漏部位,避免汽轮机振动现象的发生,保障机组的安全运行,并提出提高氦质普检漏技术检测高压缸泄漏部位准确性的建议。

  8. Digest of "Invariant Method of Load Independent Pressure Control in Steam Boiler"

    OpenAIRE

    Sniders, Andris; Komass, Toms

    2012-01-01

    The paper considers the possibility of steam production and supply process improvement by perfection of the steam boiler control system, applying invariance principle that makes possible preemptive compensation of the influence of steam expenditure as a disturbance on the control process quality and efficiency. For the development of invariant control system, the mathematical modeling and simulation in MATLAB - SIMULINK environment is made. The control unit is low pressure steam boiler with o...

  9. Heat Recovery Steam Generator by Using Cogeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Vivek, P. Vijaya kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A heat recovery steam generator or HRSG is an energy recovery heat exchanger that recovers heat from a hot gas stream. It produces steam that can be used in a process (cogeneration or used to drive a steam turbine (combined cycle. It has been working with open and closed cycle. Both of cycles are used to increase the performance and also power on the cogeneration plant. If we are using closed cycle technology, we can recycle the waste heat from the turbine. in cogeneration plant, mostly they are using open cycle technology. additional, by using closed cycle technology, we can use the waste heat that converts into useful amount of work. In this paper, the exhaust gas will be sent by using proper outlet from cogen unit, we are using only waste heat that produce from turbine.

  10. Useful life extension of steam-turbine elements by means of welding processes; Extension de la vida util de los elementos de las turbinas de vapor mediante procesos de soldadura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur Czerwiec, Zdzislaw; Cristalinas Navarro, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1994-03-01

    The elements of the flow system in the steam turbines are subjected to a natural or accelerated wear during their operation. The stationary and the rotating blades are parts of the turbine that present damages, faults or materials wear, after some service periods, that can be from mechanical or metallurgical origin and prevent its continuous operation. This is also revealed in the equipment availability, reliability and performance diminution. Several cases are presented of recovery, and useful life extension of worn stationary blades (nozzle blocks and diaphragms), and rotating blades by means of welding processes executed in several fossil fuel power plants of Comision Federal de Electricidad. For each specific case, wear type or damage, the special processes based in welding processes, were developed. The blade recovery process also includes: the stress relieving, machining, special coating, quality control and tool design. Once the recovery process is completed, the components were installed back in the turbines for their utilization. The application of the welding technologies developed for blade recovery, represents just a fraction of the cost of new blades, that results in an economic saving. [Espanol] Los elementos del sistema de flujo de las turbinas de vapor sufren un desgaste natural o acelerado durante su operacion. Los alabes fijos y moviles son las partes de la turbina que despues de ciertos periodos de servicio presentan danos, fallas o desgaste del material que pueden ser de origen mecanico o metalurgico y no permiten su operacion continua. Esto se refleja tambien en la disminucion de la disponibilidad, confiabilidad y rendimiento del equipo. Se presentan varios casos de recuperacion y prolongacion de la vida util de alabes fijos (bloques de toberas y diafragmas) y moviles danados y gastados a causa de procesos de soldadura que se llevaron a cabo en varias plantas termoelectricas de la Comision Federal de Electricidad. Para cada caso especifico

  11. 年产百万吨乙烯装置裂解气压缩机用汽轮机的研制%Development of steam turbine for cracking gas compressor with annual output of one million tons of ethylene device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方寅; 孙烈; 张科; 刘龙海

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the localization of steam turbine for cracking gas compressor with annual output of one million tons of ethylene device, it was introduced that the background and process of the project based on the instance of the application of steam turbine research and development projects in Tianjin Petrochemical. Combined with conforming and implementation of the development scheme which relies on the first domestic set of steam turbine used in this condition, it was described in detail the main technical parameters,structure configuration, technical characteristics and the international standard needed to be complied with, as well as the key issues, research difficulties and the measures. In the end, the three innovation patents were introduced which were achieved during the process of the steam turbine's development of localization. The results indicate that the localization of the steam turbine is completely realized.%针对年产百万吨乙烯装置裂解气压缩机用汽轮机的国产化问题,依托天津石化实例应用汽轮机的研制开发项目,介绍了年产百万吨乙烯装置用汽轮压缩机组国产化研制论证立项的背景和过程,结合国内首台套该用途汽轮机研制方案的确定和实施,详述了该用途汽轮机的主要技术参数、结构配置、技术特点、需遵循和执行的国际标准,以及研制过程中需要解决的关键问题、方案难点和采取的对策措施,最后简述了该汽轮机国产化研制中获得的3个创新专利成果.研究结果表明,本研究实现了该用途汽轮机的完全国产化.

  12. Brush Seal in the Application of Energy Saving in a Steam Turbine%刷式汽封在汽轮机节能减排中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁杨; 何国亮; 谷新房

    2012-01-01

    介绍刷式汽封工作原理、结构特点,结合电厂的实际使用情况,根据机组A级检修前后的热力试验,分析刷式汽封在发电厂汽轮机节能减排中应用,在保障机组安全运行的条件下,通过提高轴端汽封、隔板汽封的径向密封问隙水平,实现节能减排。%This paper introduced the introductions of brush seal about works and structural features, combined with the actual use of the power plant, according to the unit A -level maintenance before and after the thermal test, the brush seal in the application of energy saving in the power plant steam turbine practical is analyzed. Under the conditions of safe operation, it can achieve the purpose of energy saving by improving the shaft gas seal, radial seal gland partition gap level.

  13. 大型汽轮机低压排汽缸气动分析研究%Aerodynamic Performance AnaIysis of LP Exhaust Hood for Large Power Steam Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江生科; 彭英杰

    2014-01-01

    Aerodynamic performance of the LP exhaust hood influenced power and efficiency of the steam turbine. Numerical anal-ysis for single cylinder and LP last stage coupling with exhaust hood showed that the exit flow field's inhomogeneity and pre-swirl of last stage blade affected the aerodynamic performance of LP exhaust hood. Design of LP exhaust hood with high performance should consider the interaction of the last stage and flow field of LP exhaust hood.%低压排汽缸的气动性能影响汽轮机组的功率和效率。文章对单独排汽缸和汽轮机低压末级整圈与排汽缸耦合进行了数值分析对比,发现汽轮机末级动叶出口流场的不均匀性和强烈的预旋影响低压排汽缸的气动性能。高性能的低压排汽缸设计应该考虑末级与低压排汽缸流场之间的相互作用。

  14. The Development and Application of Online Life Loss Monitoring System for Steam Turbine Rotors%汽轮机转子寿命损耗在线监测系统开发及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    基于有限差分法,采用MATLAB和组态软件开发了基于火电厂SIS数据平台的汽轮机组寿命在线监测系统,实时考虑放热系数变化,转子材料物性变化等因素。通过现场运行,结果表明该系统能很好的反映出转子温度场及应力场分布,可以为机组的安全、经济运行及寿命管理提供有效的技术手段,能够很好地满足工程实际需要。%Based on the finite difference method,the online life loss monitoring system was developed by using Matlab and Configuration software tools, basing on data center platform of SIS, the real -time heat transfer coefficient and the rotor material properties changes and other factors have been considered.The actual field operations showed that the system can well reflect the distribution of temperature field and stress field.The system can provide effective technical means for the safe, economical operation and life management for the steam turbine,can effectively meet the needs of engineering practical.

  15. Research on Nil-Ductility Transition Temperature of Steel Used for Cylinder of Industrial Steam Turbine%工业汽轮机汽缸用材无塑性转变温度的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何成; 刘中华; 周黎明; 刘京伟; 林云; 宋思远

    2016-01-01

    The issue that the temperature of test liquid required by the hydraulic test shall be higher than the nil-ductility transition temperature of test material has been expressed. The NDT temperature of steel used for the cylinder of industrial steam turbine has been examined by the drop test, and the factor influenced on NDT temperature has been analyzed as well. By adopting the advanced smelting technology and heat treatment process to strictly control P and S contents, and refining the grain, NDT temperature of steel could be reduced effectively.%针对水压试验要求试验液体温度应高于试验材料的无塑性转变温度的问题,通过落锤试验测定了工业汽轮机汽缸用材的NDT温度,并分析了影响NDT温度的因素。通过先进的冶炼技术和热加工工艺严格控制P、S含量,细化晶粒等手段,可有效降低钢材的NDT温度。

  16. CO{sub 2} separation by carbonate looping including additional power generation with a CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O steam turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strelow, M.; Schlitzberger, C.; Roeder, F.; Magda, S.; Leithner, R. [Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Institut fuer Waerme- und Brennstofftechnik, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Usually the separation of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas in power plants is connected with high efficiency losses, independent of separation technology. The reason is that the separation processes of the pre- or post-combustion capture or using an oxy-fuel process as proposed today result in additional energy consumption. But there are also sorbents, e.g., lime, that form carbonates and release heat at a temperature level of about 600 C and will be calcinated at higher temperatures (about 900 C). Integration of these processes in the design of a conventional power plant and production of additional power output by integration of another Rankine cycle using the separated CO{sub 2} and steam minimizes efficiency losses. The simulation and the results of such a CO{sub 2} capture process are described in this paper. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. 神经网络算法在汽轮机排汽焓估算中的应用%Application of neural network algorithm in steam turbine's exhaust enthalpy estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊杰; 侯宏娟; 杨勇平

    2014-01-01

    The dryness of turbine's exhaust steam can hardly be obtained via direct measurements in online performance calculation of thermal system,for the steam is usually in wet state.The artificial's neural net-works was established to calculate the exhaust enthalpy of steam turbine.By analyzing the main factors af-fecting the exhaust enthalpy and transforming the original data into non-dimensional parameters,the calcu-lation speed and accuracy were compared by using different training functions in Back-Propagation (BP) neural network.Meanwhile,the accuracy of the BP Neural Network and the Radial Basis Function (RBF) network was compared as well.Consequently,when calculating the exhaust enthalpy,the BP neural net-work depends strongly on training functions,some of which will result in strong random and low calcula-tion speed.After the research,three of the training functions:'traingdx','trainscg'and'trainoss',have the ad-vantages of both fast calculation speed and high accuracy.The RBF network has the advantages of faster calculation speed and weaker dependence on training functions but the disadvantage of lower accuracy,com-pared with the BP neural network.The error will be diminished when enough training samples are provid-ed.%在线机组热力系统性能计算中,汽轮机的排汽通常处于湿蒸汽区,排汽干度目前无法实现直接测量。对此,将神经网络方法应用于汽轮机排汽焓的估算,通过分析汽轮机排汽焓的影响因素,并对数据进行无量纲化处理,对BP神经网络在不同训练函数下的计算精度与速度,以及BP神经网络与RBF神经网络计算排汽焓的准确度进行比较。结果表明:BP 神经网络对训练函数的依赖程度较大,部分函数在计算中随机性较强、计算时间较长;traingdx、trainscg和trainoss 3个函数计算时间较短、计算精度较高,可作为训练函数;RBF神经网络的计算误差较BP神经网络大,但其自适应能力强,

  18. Numerical Solution of Transonic Wet Steam Flow in Blade-to-Blade Cascade with Non-equilibrium Condensation and Real Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hric Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an engineering approach to mathematical modeling and numerical solution of 2D inviscid transonic flow of wet steam in a steam turbine cascade channel of penultimate stage at rotor tip section in full Eulerian framework. Our flow model consists of the Euler system for the mixture (dry steam + homogeneously dispersed water droplets and transport equations for moments of droplet number distribution function known as method of moments. Thermodynamic properties of vapor steam are provided by set of IAPWS equations. For equation of state for vapor phase valid both in superheated and wet (meta-stable region we adopted recently developed equation in CFD formulation for low pressures provi1ded by Hrubý et al. [9], [8], [10]. For extraction of vapor parameters from the mixture ones we implemented simple relations in polynomial form describing thermodynamic properties of saturated liquid state. Nucleation model is resorting to modified classical nucleation theory. Linear droplet growth model is implemented for calculation of liquid sources. Numerical method is simple: cell-centered finite volume approach, 1st-order AUSM+ scheme for spatial derivatives, symmetrical fractional step method for separation of convection and condensation part, explicit 2-stage 2nd-order Runge-Kutta method for time integration. Geometry of blade profile and experimental results are provided by Bakhtar’s work [22], [23]. Results were obtained for one subsonic inlet/subsonic outlet regime and gave quite reasonable accordance with experiment.

  19. 220MW汽轮机通流改造经济性分析%The Economic Analysis of 220MW Steam Turbine Flow Rehabilitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓飞; 巴特德力格

    2013-01-01

      以马头电厂220MW机组(8号)为研究对象,在额定工况和定、滑压工况下对其汽轮机通流部分改造后的经济性进行了分析,提出了节能降耗的建议及技术措施。%Taking Ma Tau power plant 220MW unit (8) as example, the economics of retrofitting of flow passage of stream turbine is analyzed under the nominal condition ,constant pressure and variable pressure conditions. Specific measures of energy saving and consumption in this field were also given.

  20. Steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, G.; Gilli, P.V.; Fritz, K.; Lippitsch, J.

    1975-12-02

    A steam generator is disclosed which is particularly adapted to be used in nuclear power plants. A casing is provided with an inlet and outlet to receive and discharge a primary heating fluid from which heat is to be extracted. A pair of tube plates extend across the interior of the casing at the region of the inlet and outlet thereof, and a plurality of tubes extend along the interior of the casing and are connected in parallel between the tube plates with all of the tubes having open ends communicating with the inlet and outlet of the casing so that the primary heating fluid will flow through the interior of the tubes while a fluid in the casing at the exterior of the tubes will extract heat from the primary fluid. The casing has between the tubes at the region of the inlet a superheating chamber and at the region of the outlet a preheating chamber and between the latter chambers an evaporating chamber, the casing receiving water through an inlet at the preheating chamber and discharging superheated steam through an outlet at the superheating chamber. A separator communicates with the evaporating chamber to receive a mixture of steam and water therefrom for separating the steam from the water and for delivering the separated steam to the superheating chamber.

  1. Possibilities for gas turbine and waste incinerator integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korobitsyn, M.A.; Jellema, P.; Hirs, G.G.

    1999-01-01

    The aggressive nature of the flue gases in municipal waste incinerators does not allow the temperature of steam in the boiler to rise above 400°C. An increase in steam temperature can be achieved by external superheating in a heat recovery steam generator positioned behind a gas turbine, so that ste

  2. Business venture-analysis case study relating to the manufacture of gas turbines for the generation of utility electric power. Volume II. Private sector and public sector venture studies. Final report. [Use of coal gasifier with combined gas and steam system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davison, W.R.

    1978-05-05

    Increasing national attention is being directed toward the search for clean, efficient, and reliable energy-conversion systems, capable of using abundant indigenous fuels such as coal, for generation of utility electric power. A prime candidate in this area is the combined gas and steam (COGAS) system employing a high-temperature gas turbine with a steam-turbine bottoming cycle, fed by a coal gasifier. This program demonstrates the use of a logical and consistent venture-analysis methodology which could also be applied to investigate other high-technology, energy-conversion systems that have yet to reach a state of commercialization but which are of significant interest to the U.S. Government. The venture analysis was performed by using a computer to model the development, production, sales, and in-service development phases of programs necessary to introduce new gas turbines in COGAS systems. The simulations were produced in terms of estimated cash flows, rates of returns, and risks which a manufacturer would experience. Similar simulations were used to estimate public-sector benefits resulting from the lower cost of power and improved environment gained from the use of COGAS systems rather than conventional systems. The study shows that substantial social benefits could be realized and private investment would be made by the gas-turbine manufacturers if an infusion of external funds were made during key portions of the gas-turbine development program. It is shown that there is substantial precedent for such public assistance to make possible economic and environmental benefits that otherwise would not be possible. 42 references.

  3. Numerical Simulation Study on IP Rotor Coding Coupled Heat Transfer of 1000MW Ultra-supercritical Steam Turbine%1000MW超超临界汽轮机中压转子冷却耦合换热数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明; 李长宝; 管继伟; 刘云峰

    2013-01-01

    By using CFD and conjugate heat transfer(CHT) methods,IP Rotor Cooling of 1000MW Ultra-supercritical Steam Turbine has been numerical simulated.The temperature distribution whether the fluid and solid coupled heat transfer,cooling steam temperature effects on IP Rotor and the temperature distribution of the two half-rotor have been investigated.The fluid and solid temperature field distribution characteristics has been more realistic simulated.This article can provide a reliable basis for the structural design of ultra-supercritical steam turbine.%通过采用CFD和CHT(共轭换热)的数值方法,对超超临界1000MW汽轮机中压转子冷却进行了数值模拟,研究了有无流体与固体耦合换热的温度场分布差别,冷却蒸汽温度对中压转子冷却效果的影响,中压二级半转子冷却的温度分布,较真实地模拟了流体、固体区域温度场的分布特性.

  4. Design of the AM600 Turbine-Generator for NPPs in Emerging Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandru, Bogdan; Abdoelatef, M. Gomaa; Field, Robert [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, preliminary analysis related to: (i) the T/G steam flow path, and (ii) the turbine cycle heat balance is examined. Analysis of global electric markets indicates that the current and near term capacity of electrical grids for many developing countries (e.g., Bangladesh, Kenya, Vietnam, Malaysia) is insufficient to reliably incorporate Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) with large unit sizes (e.g., >1000 MWe). Thus a modern NPP design with a smaller output (-600 MWe) is of interest. To address conditions for such markets, the 'AM600' Turbine-Generator (T/G) design proposed here represents a 600 MWe design which is robust and supports a simplified steam cycle. The proposed shaftline starts with a determination of the number of flows, followed by a determination of the number of high and low pressure stages, followed by heat balance analysis. The conceptual design for the AM600 T/G offers the following: • a stiff shaftline which can offer robust performance in smaller grids lacking optimal stability relative to grid disturbances and frequency variation, • a simplified approach to T/G fabrication, installation, operation, testing, inspections, and maintenance due to design with a single LPT cylinder while maintaining high thermal efficiency, and • a reduced component count for MSRs, FWHs, and power train pumps and drivers (and associated support system components) resulting in lower capital outlays, simplified operations, and further reducing the maintenance, testing, and inspection burden.

  5. Design of Steam Turbine Blades Based on BP (Back Propagation) Neural Network and Decomposition Techniques%基于BP神经网络和分解技术的汽轮机叶片可靠性反求设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段巍; 王璋奇; 万书亭

    2009-01-01

    The reliability reverse-solution-seeking design of steam turbine blades aims at determining the design parameters of blades with unknown probability to meet a given reliability requirement.In the light of the blade function being a random variable implicit function,a reliability reverse-solution-seeking design method was presented based on finite element method,BP neural network and decomposition techniques.It combined the finite element method with BP neural network to establish an approximate analytic expression showing the relationship between the performance function and the random input variables.By employing the decomposition techniques,the overall optimization problem involving the solution-seeking of random design parameters was decomposed into a main problem and sub-problems.By way of the sub-problems,the standard optimization toolbox was used directly to obtain the reliability indexes,and the decomposition and iterative techniques were employed to seek solutions to the main problem,thus obtaining the sensitivity of the random design parameters and target reliability indexes to various random variables.With the equal and straight blades of a steam turbine on a test rig serving as an example,the concrete application process of the method was expounded.The method features a simple mathematical expression and can be directly used in standard optimization programs.It successfully solved the reliability reverse-solution-seeking design problem of blades under an implicit function,thus enjoying a relatively good application value for engineering projects.%汽轮机叶片可靠性反求设计旨在确定叶片未知概率设计参数以满足给定的可靠度要求.针对叶片功能函数为随机变量隐性函数的情况,提出了基于有限元、BP神经网络和分解技术的可靠性反求设计方法,该方法将有限元和BP神经网络相结合以构造功能函数与随机输入变量之间的近似解析表达式,运用分解技术,将求解随机

  6. Borosonic inspection and remaining useful operational life estimation of steam turbine rotors; Inspeccion borosonica y estimacion de vida remanente de rotores de turbinas de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnero P, Jose A; Dorantes G, Oscar; Munoz Q, Rodolfo; Serrano R, Luis E. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The turbo-generators used in the electric power generation frequently go through transitory operations (start ups, shut downs or power changes). Such actions cause that certain critical components of the turbines, such as rotors and casings, are put under cycles of repetitive stresses, which consume its useful life. The frequency whereupon these transitory thermal cycles happen result in the presence of high thermo-mechanical stresses that produce fatigue (damage) in the rotor material. With time, at the increase of the material fatigue, fissures form that can inclusively lead to severe, catastrophic faults. The borosonic inspection consists in introducing and positioning an automatic probe in the central drill of the rotor, this allows the non-destructive inspection with longitudinal ultrasonic beam, ultrasonic cross-sectional and ultrasonic superficial. This way, it is possible to detect and locate geometric discontinuities (superficial and volumetric), in at least 100 mm of depth from the drill surface in its entire periphery and throughout the rotor length. [Spanish] Los turbogeneradores empleados en la generacion de energia electrica con frecuencia realizan operaciones transitorias (arranques, paros o cambios de potencia). Acciones tales, provocan que ciertos componentes criticos de las turbinas, como los rotores y carcasas, sean sometidos a ciclos de esfuerzos repetitivos, lo que consume su vida util. La frecuencia con que ocurren estos ciclos termicos transitorios da como resultado la presencia de altos esfuerzos termomecanicos que producen una fatiga (dano) en el material del rotor. Con el tiempo, al incrementarse la fatiga del material, se forman fisuras que pueden conducir a fallas severas, catastroficas inclusive. La inspeccion borosonica consiste en introducir y posicionar una sonda automatica en el barreno central del rotor, ello permite la inspeccion no destructiva con haz ultrasonico longitudinal, haz ultrasonico transversal y haz ultrasonico

  7. 1000 MW超超临界汽轮机高压外缸蠕变强度的分析%Creep Strength Analysis on HP Outer Casing of a 1 000 MW Ultra Supercritical Steam Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋浦宁

    2013-01-01

    以1 000 MW超超临界汽轮机高压外缸为研究对象,通过引入Norton-Bailey材料蠕变本构方程和Cocks-Ashby多轴韧度系数,对汽缸轴对称二维模型的温度场、应力场和CA蠕变等效应变分布进行了计算,找出了结构设计中不合理区域并提出相应的结构改进方案.结果表明:经改进的高压外缸结构设计是合理的;CA蠕变等效应变计算结果均小于推荐考核标准,该1 000 MW超超临界汽轮机高压外缸的高温蠕变应变强度能够满足设计要求.%Taking the high-pressure outer casing of a 1 000 MW ultra supercritical steam turbine as an object of study, and by adopting the Norton-Bailey material creep constitutive equation and Cocks-Ashby multiaxial coefficient, the temperature field, stress field and the CA equivalent creep strain dictribution of the 2D axisymmetric model were calculated, during which the unreasonable structure of original design was found out and impoved with corresponding schemes. Results show that the improved structure of the HP outer casing is reasonable; all the calculated results of CA equivalent creep strain are less than those in the recommended criteria for assessment. The high-temperature creep strain of above mentioned outer casing can meet the design requirements.

  8. Analysis of Steam Turbine Reheat Butterfly Valve Jam Phenomena based on CFX Simulation%基于CFX仿真分析汽轮机再热蝶阀卡阀现象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张守印; 汤春梅; 张峻峰

    2014-01-01

    汽轮机再热蝶阀是汽轮机组的重要元件,该类型蝶阀在冷起动过程中经常发生卡阀。研究表明,由于零件间热量传递速度存在差异,所以在冷起动过程中,不同零件物理性能差异导致了径向间隙和轴向间隙的变化不同。本文采用 CFX流固耦合有限元法定量分析再热蝶阀在冷起动过程中阀体和阀瓣之间的间隙变化,这对于解决该类工程问题具有重要的理论价值和指导意义。%The reheat butterfly valve is a vital component in the steam turbine unit,mechanical j amming often emerges in such mechanisms during the cold start.Research showed that the different physical property leads to the different trans-mission speed of heat in parts,so the radial and axial clearance varies greatly in the process of cold start.CFX fluid-solid coupling finite element method was used to quantitatively analyze the clearance variation between valve body and valve clack, which has important theoretical value and realistic guiding significance to the solution of such engineering problems.

  9. Condensation-Induced Steam Bubble Collapse in a Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Steam bubbles often occur in pipelines due to the pipeline structure or operational errors. The water hammer force induced by the steam bubble collapse is a hidden safety concern. This paper experimentally and numerically investigates the conditions for steam bubble formation and collapse. A series of video pictures taken in the laboratory show that steam bubbles form and collapse over several cycles. The pressure history of the steam bubbles is measured in conjunction with the pictures. In the experiment, the liquid column cavitated at the low pressures and then the cavities collapsed due to condensation causing high pressure pulses. The process was also simulated numerically. The results suggest that coolant pipeline design and operation must include procedures to avoid steam bubble formation.

  10. Turbine Blade Image Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Neal S.; Snyder, Wesley E.; Rajala, Sarah A.

    1983-10-01

    A vision system has been developed at North Carolina State University to identify the orientation and three dimensional location of steam turbine blades that are stacked in an industrial A-frame cart. The system uses a controlled light source for structured illumination and a single camera to extract the information required by the image processing software to calculate the position and orientation of a turbine blade in real time.

  11. Digital implementation, simulation and tests in MATLAB of the models of Steam line, the turbines, the pressure regulator of a BWR type nucleo electric power plant; Implementacion digital, simulacion y pruebas en MATLAB de los modelos de la linea de vapor, las turbinas y el regulador de presion de una central Nucleoelectrica tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, A. [UNAM, Laboratorio de Analisis de Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, DEPFI, Campus Morelos, en IMTA Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: andyskamx@yahoo.com.mx

    2004-07-01

    In this phase of the project they were carried out exhaustive tests to the models of the steam lines, turbines and pressure regulator of a BWR type nucleo electric central for to verify that their tendencies and behaviors are it more real possible. For it, it was necessary to also analyze the transfer functions of the different components along the steam line until the power generator. Such models define alone the dominant poles of the system, what is not limitation to reproduce a wide range of anticipated transitoriness of a power station operation. In the same manner, it was integrated and proved the integrated model form with the models of feeding water of the SUN-RAH, simulating the nuclear reactor starting from predetermined entrances of the prospective values of the vessel. Also it was coupled with the graphic interface developed with the libraries DirectX implementing a specific monitoring panel for this system. (Author)

  12. Analisis Numerikal Frekuensi Natural Pada Poros Low Pressure Boiler Feed Pump PT.PJB UP Gresik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Taufik Akbar Ofrial

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Low pressure boiler feed pump (LPBFP merupakan salah satu komponen penting dalam sistem Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG, pada pengoperasiannya sering terjadi permasalahan yaitu patahnya poros yang dapat terjadi 8-10 kali dalam setahun yang mungkin disebabkan oleh faktor getaran. Untuk itu pada penelitian ini dilakukan perhitungan dengan pemodelan metode elemen hingga menggunakan software ANSYS untuk menghitung frekuensi natural dan modus getaran untuk 10 frekuensi natural pertama pada komponen LPBFP. Dari hasil simulasi didapatkan nilai yaitu untuk orde pertama sebesar 583,03 Hz, orde kedua sebesar 583,39 Hz, orde ketiga sebesar 2820,8 Hz, orde keempat sebesar 2849 Hz, orde kelima sebesar 3943,9 Hz, orde keenam sebesar 4079,6 Hz, orde ketujuh sebesar 5428,3 Hz, orde kedelapan sebesar 6111 Hz, orde kesembilan sebesar 6594 Hz, orde kesepuluh sebesar 6715 Hz. Sepuluh frekuensi natural menghasilkan lima jenis modus getaran yaitu lateral bending vibration, shear bending vibration, torsional bending vibration, axial bending vibration, torsional shear bending vibration. Dari kesepuluh frekuensi natural yang diperoleh semuanya menyebabkan kegagalan poros low pressure boiler feed pump.

  13. 循环水泵前池水位降低对汽轮机冷端系统运行性能影响分析%Influence Analysis of Circulating Water Pump Forebay Water Lowering on the Operating Performance of Steam Turbine Cold-end System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田思来; 程东涛; 居文平

    2016-01-01

    Water lowering of the power station circulating water pump forebay compared to local water level influences the safety and economy of the steam turbine cold-end system.Through quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis ,the analysis of impact of water lowering of the circulating water pump forebay on the economic performance of the steam turbine cold -end system,clearly put forward decision criteria for operating safety of the steam turbine cold-end system.A set of simple and practical calculation method is developed , applied to the quantitative analysis on the problems existing in the circulating water system,at the same time provides guidance advice for the work of design and selection of circulating water system of same type.%电站循环水泵前池水位相对水源地水位下降,对汽轮机冷端系统安全性和经济性运行产生重要影响。通过定量分析和定性分析相结合,分析计算循环水泵前池水位下降对汽轮机冷端系统运行经济性的影响量,明确了对汽轮机冷端系统运行安全性影响的判定标准。形成了一套简便、实用的分析计算方法,对循环水取水系统存在的问题进行量化分析,同时为同类型循环水取水系统的设计选型工作提供了指导建议。

  14. Gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ok Ryong

    2004-01-15

    This book introduces gas turbine cycle explaining general thing of gas turbine, full gas turbine cycle, Ericson cycle and Brayton cycle, practical gas turbine cycle without pressure loss, multiaxial type gas turbine cycle and special gas turbine cycle, application of basic theory on a study on suction-cooling gas turbine cycle with turbo-refrigerating machine using the bleed air, and general performance characteristics of the suction-cooling gas turbine cycle combined with absorption-type refrigerating machine.

  15. Reviews Exhibitions: Collider: Step inside the World's Greatest Experiment Equipment: Hero Steam Turbine Classroom Video: Most of Our Universe is Missing Book: Serving the Reich Book: Breakthrough to CLIL for Physics Book: The Good Research Guide Apps: Popplet Web Watch Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    WE RECOMMEND Collider: step inside the world's greatest experiment A great exhibition at the Science Museum in London Hero Steam Turbine Superb engine model gets up to 2500 rpm Most of Our Universe is Missing BBC video explores the dark truth Serving the Reich Science and morality in Nazi Germany The Good Research Guide A non-specialist book for teachers starting out in education research WORTH A LOOK Breakthrough to CLIL for Physics A book based on a physics curriculum for non-English students WEB WATCH Electric cycles online: patterns of use APPS The virtual laboratory advances personal skills

  16. Performance and control study of a low-pressure-ratio turbojet engine for a drone aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldner, K.; Geyser, L. C.; Gold, H.; Walker, D.; Burgner, G.

    1972-01-01

    The results of analog and digital computer studies of a low-pressure-ratio turbojet engine system for use in a drone vehicle are presented. The turbojet engine consists of a four-stage axial compressor, single-stage turbine, and a fixed area exhaust nozzle. Three simplified fuel schedules and a generalized parameter fuel control for the engine system are presented and evaluated. The evaluation is based on the performance of each schedule or control during engine acceleration from a windmill start at Mach 0.8 and 6100 meters to 100 percent corrected speed. It was found that, because of the higher acceleration margin permitted by the control, the generalized parameter control exhibited the best dynamic performance.

  17. Bulk characterization of pharmaceutical powders by low-pressure compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A.H.; Sonnergaard, Jørn; Hovgaard, L.

    2005-01-01

    for characterization purposes. Significant correlation was demonstrated between several of the compression and tapping-derived parameters. The discriminative power of the low-pressure compression test was discussed using the compressed density at 0.2 MPa, correlated with the tapped density, and the relative Walker...... coefficient, correlated with the Compressibility Index, as examples. The compressed density at 0.2 MPa and the relative Walker coefficient demonstrated excellent discriminative power, superior to the discriminative power of the correlated tapping derived parameters. The low-pressure compression test......Low-pressure compression of pharmaceutical powders using small amounts of sample (50 mg) was evaluated as an alternative to traditional bulk powder characterization by tapping volumetry. Material parameters were extrapolated directly from the compression data and by fitting with the Walker...

  18. Ice-melt rates during volcanic eruptions within water-drained, low-pressure subglacial cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, D. C.; Lane, S. J.; Gilbert, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    Subglacial volcanism generates proximal and distal hazards including large-scale flooding and increased levels of explosivity. Direct observation of subglacial volcanic processes is infeasible; therefore, we model heat transfer mechanisms during subglacial eruptions under conditions where cavities have become depressurized by connection to the atmosphere. We consider basaltic eruptions in a water-drained, low-pressure subglacial cavity, including the case when an eruption jet develops. Such drained cavities may develop on sloping terrain, where ice may be relatively shallow and where gravity drainage of meltwater will be promoted. We quantify, for the first time, the heat fluxes to the ice cavity surface that result from steam condensation during free convection at atmospheric pressure and from direct and indirect radiative heat transfer from an eruption jet. Our calculations indicate that the direct radiative heat flux from a lava fountain (a "dry" end-member eruption jet) to ice is c. 25 kW m-2 and is a minor component. The dominant heat transfer mechanism involves free convection of steam within the cavity; we estimate the resulting condensation heat flux to be c. 250 kW m-2. Absorption of radiation from a lava fountain by steam enhances convection, but the increase in condensing heat flux is modest at c. 25 kW m-2. Overall, heat fluxes to the ice cavity surface are likely to be no greater than c. 300 kW m-2. These are comparable with heat fluxes obtained by single phase convection of water in a subglacial cavity but much less than those obtained by two-phase convection.

  19. Parametric Optimization of Biomass Steam-and-Gas Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sednin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a parametric analysis of the simplest scheme of a steam-and gas plant for the conditions required for biomass burning. It has been shown that application of gas-turbine and steam-and-gas plants can significantly exceed an efficiency of steam-power supply units which are used at the present moment. Optimum thermo-dynamical conditions for application of steam-and gas plants with the purpose to burn biomass require new technological solutions in the field of heat-exchange equipment designs.

  20. Thermodynamics of supersaturated steam: Molecular simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moučka, Filip; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2016-12-01

    Supersaturated steam modeled by the Gaussian charge polarizable model [P. Paricaud, M. Předota, and A. A. Chialvo, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 244511 (2005)] and BK3 model [P. Kiss and A. Baranyai, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 204507 (2013)] has been simulated at conditions occurring in steam turbines using the multiple-particle-move Monte Carlo for both the homogeneous phase and also implemented for the Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo molecular simulation methods. Because of these thermodynamic conditions, a specific simulation algorithm has been developed to bypass common simulation problems resulting from very low densities of steam and cluster formation therein. In addition to pressure-temperature-density and orthobaric data, the distribution of clusters has also been evaluated. The obtained extensive data of high precision should serve as a basis for development of reliable molecular-based equations for properties of metastable steam.