WorldWideScience

Sample records for low-pressure biomedical applications

  1. Low-pressure plasma enhanced immobilization of chitosan on low-density polyethylene for bio-medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandiyaraj, K. Navaneetha; Ferraria, Ana Maria; Rego, Ana Maria Botelho do; Deshmukh, Rajendra. R.; Su, Pi-Guey; Halleluyah Mercy, Jr.; Halim, Ahmad Sukari

    2015-02-01

    With the aim of improving blood compatibility of low density polyethylene (LDPE) films, an effective low-pressure plasma technology was employed to functionalize the LDPE film surfaces through in-situ grafting of acrylic acid (AAc). Subsequently, the molecules of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and chitosan (CHI) were immobilized on the surface of grafted LDPE films. The unmodified and modified LDPE films were analyzed using various characterization techniques such as contact angle, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) to understand the changes in surface properties such as hydrophilicity, surface topography and chemical composition, respectively. Furthermore, LDPE films have been subjected to an ageing process to determine the durability of the plasma assisted surface modification. The blood compatibility of the surface modified LDPE films was confirmed by in vitro tests. It was found that surface modified LDPE films show better hydrophilic behavior compared with the unmodified one. FTIR and XPS results confirm the successful immobilization of CHI on the surface of LDPE films. LDPE films showed marked morphological changes after grafting of AAc, PEG and CHI which were confirmed through AFM imaging. The in vitro blood compatibility tests have clearly demonstrated that CHI immobilized LDPE films exhibit remarkable anti thrombogenic nature compared with other modified films. Surface modified LDPE films through low-pressure plasma technique could be adequate for biomedical implants such as artificial skin substrates, urethral catheters or cardiac stents, among others.

  2. Low-pressure plasma enhanced immobilization of chitosan on low-density polyethylene for bio-medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandiyaraj, K. Navaneetha, E-mail: dr.knpr@gmail.com [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L& T by pass, Chinniyam Palayam (post), Coimbatore, 641062 (India); Ferraria, Ana Maria; Rego, Ana Maria Botelho do [Centro de Química- Física Molecular and Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon (Portugal); Deshmukh, Rajendra R. [Department of Physics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Su, Pi-Guey [Department of Chemistry, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China); Halleluyah, Jr. Mercy; Halim, Ahmad Sukari [Reconstructive Science Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Acrylic acid (AAc) was grafted on LDPE film by in situ plasma polymerization. • Molecules of PEG and chitosan were immobilized on AAc grafted LDPE films. • Surface modified LDPE exhibits excellent hydrophilic property. • Surface modified LDPE resist the adsorption of protein and adhesion of platelets. - Abstract: With the aim of improving blood compatibility of low density polyethylene (LDPE) films, an effective low-pressure plasma technology was employed to functionalize the LDPE film surfaces through in-situ grafting of acrylic acid (AAc). Subsequently, the molecules of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and chitosan (CHI) were immobilized on the surface of grafted LDPE films. The unmodified and modified LDPE films were analyzed using various characterization techniques such as contact angle, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) to understand the changes in surface properties such as hydrophilicity, surface topography and chemical composition, respectively. Furthermore, LDPE films have been subjected to an ageing process to determine the durability of the plasma assisted surface modification. The blood compatibility of the surface modified LDPE films was confirmed by in vitro tests. It was found that surface modified LDPE films show better hydrophilic behavior compared with the unmodified one. FTIR and XPS results confirm the successful immobilization of CHI on the surface of LDPE films. LDPE films showed marked morphological changes after grafting of AAc, PEG and CHI which were confirmed through AFM imaging. The in vitro blood compatibility tests have clearly demonstrated that CHI immobilized LDPE films exhibit remarkable anti thrombogenic nature compared with other modified films. Surface modified LDPE films through low-pressure plasma technique could be adequate for biomedical implants such as artificial skin substrates, urethral catheters or cardiac stents

  3. Biomedical applications of polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Gebelein, C G

    1991-01-01

    The biomedical applications of polymers span an extremely wide spectrum of uses, including artificial organs, skin and soft tissue replacements, orthopaedic applications, dental applications, and controlled release of medications. No single, short review can possibly cover all these items in detail, and dozens of books andhundreds of reviews exist on biomedical polymers. Only a few relatively recent examples will be cited here;additional reviews are listed under most of the major topics in this book. We will consider each of the majorclassifications of biomedical polymers to some extent, inclu

  4. Sensors for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, Piet

    1986-01-01

    This paper considers the impact during the last decade of modern IC technology, microelectronics, thin- and thick-film technology, fibre optic technology, etc. on the development of sensors for biomedical applications.

  5. Optical Polarizationin Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tuchin, Valery V; Zimnyakov, Dmitry A

    2006-01-01

    Optical Polarization in Biomedical Applications introduces key developments in optical polarization methods for quantitative studies of tissues, while presenting the theory of polarization transfer in a random medium as a basis for the quantitative description of polarized light interaction with tissues. This theory uses the modified transfer equation for Stokes parameters and predicts the polarization structure of multiple scattered optical fields. The backscattering polarization matrices (Jones matrix and Mueller matrix) important for noninvasive medical diagnostic are introduced. The text also describes a number of diagnostic techniques such as CW polarization imaging and spectroscopy, polarization microscopy and cytometry. As a new tool for medical diagnosis, optical coherent polarization tomography is analyzed. The monograph also covers a range of biomedical applications, among them cataract and glaucoma diagnostics, glucose sensing, and the detection of bacteria.

  6. Spectroscopic Investigation of Indium Halides as Substitutes of Mercury in Low Pressure Discharges for Lighting Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Briefi, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Low pressure discharges with indium halides as radiator are discussed as substitutes for hazardous mercury in conventional fluorescent lamps. In this work, the applicability of InBr and InCl in a low pressure discharge light source is investigated. The aim is to identify and understand the physical processes which determine the discharge characteristics and the efficiency of the generated near-UV emission of the indium halide molecule and of the indium atom which is created due to dissociatio...

  7. Biomedical applications of nisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J M; Gwak, J W; Kamarajan, P; Fenno, J C; Rickard, A H; Kapila, Y L

    2016-06-01

    Nisin is a bacteriocin produced by a group of Gram-positive bacteria that belongs to Lactococcus and Streptococcus species. Nisin is classified as a Type A (I) lantibiotic that is synthesized from mRNA and the translated peptide contains several unusual amino acids due to post-translational modifications. Over the past few decades, nisin has been used widely as a food biopreservative. Since then, many natural and genetically modified variants of nisin have been identified and studied for their unique antimicrobial properties. Nisin is FDA approved and generally regarded as a safe peptide with recognized potential for clinical use. Over the past two decades the application of nisin has been extended to biomedical fields. Studies have reported that nisin can prevent the growth of drug-resistant bacterial strains, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococci and Clostridium difficile. Nisin has now been shown to have antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative disease-associated pathogens. Nisin has been reported to have anti-biofilm properties and can work synergistically in combination with conventional therapeutic drugs. In addition, like host-defence peptides, nisin may activate the adaptive immune response and have an immunomodulatory role. Increasing evidence indicates that nisin can influence the growth of tumours and exhibit selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells. Collectively, the application of nisin has advanced beyond its role as a food biopreservative. Thus, this review will describe and compare studies on nisin and provide insight into its future biomedical applications.

  8. Biomedical applications of collagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramshaw, John A M

    2016-05-01

    Collagen-based biomedical materials have developed into important, clinically effective materials used in a range of devices that have gained wide acceptance. These devices come with collagen in various formats, including those based on stabilized natural tissues, those that are based on extracted and purified collagens, and designed composite, biosynthetic materials. Further knowledge on the structure and function of collagens has led to on-going developments and improvements. Among these developments has been the production of recombinant collagen materials that are well defined and are disease free. Most recently, a group of bacterial, non-animal collagens has emerged that may provide an excellent, novel source of collagen for use in biomaterials and other applications. These newer collagens are discussed in detail. They can be modified to direct their function, and they can be fabricated into various formats, including films and sponges, while solutions can also be adapted for use in surface coating technologies.

  9. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardharajula, Sandhya; Ali, Sk Z; Tiwari, Pooja M; Eroğlu, Erdal; Vig, Komal; Dennis, Vida A; Singh, Shree R

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity.

  10. RPCs in biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); De Vecchi, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Giroletti, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Guida, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Musitelli, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Nardo, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Necchi, M.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Pagano, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Ratti, S.P. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Sani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Vicini, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Vitulo, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Viviani, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2006-08-15

    We are studying possible applications of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in the biomedical domain such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The use of RPCs in PET can provide several improvements on the usual scintillation-based detectors. The most striking features are the extremely good spatial and time resolutions. They can be as low as 50 {mu}m and 25 ps respectively, to be compared to the much higher intrinsic limits in bulk detectors. Much efforts have been made to investigate suitable materials to make RPCs sensitive to 511 keV photons. For this reason, we are studying different types of coating employing high Z materials with proper electrical resistivity. Later investigations explored the possibility of coating glass electrodes by mean of serigraphy techniques, employing oxide based mixtures with a high density of high Z materials; the efficiency is strongly dependent on its thickness and it reaches a maximum for a characteristic value that is a function of the compound (usually a few hundred microns). The most promising mixtures seem to be PbO, Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Tl{sub 2}O. Preliminary gamma efficiency measurements for a Multigap RPC prototype (MRPC) are presented as well as simulations using GEANT4-based framework. The MRPC has 5 gas gaps; their spacings are kept by 0.3 mm diameter nylon fishing line, electrodes are made of thin glasses (1 mm for the outer electrodes, 0.15-0.4 mm for the inner ones). The detector is enclosed in a metallic gas-tight box, filled with a C{sub 2}H{sub 2}F{sub 4} 92.5%, SF{sub 6} 2.5%, C{sub 4}H{sub 10} 5% mixture. Different gas mixtures are being studied increasing the SF6 percentage and results of efficiency as a function of the new mixtures will be presented.

  11. RPCs in biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, G.; De Vecchi, C.; Giroletti, E.; Guida, R.; Musitelli, G.; Nardò, R.; Necchi, M. M.; Pagano, D.; Ratti, S. P.; Sani, G.; Vicini, A.; Vitulo, P.; Viviani, C.

    2006-08-01

    We are studying possible applications of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in the biomedical domain such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The use of RPCs in PET can provide several improvements on the usual scintillation-based detectors. The most striking features are the extremely good spatial and time resolutions. They can be as low as 50 μm and 25 ps respectively, to be compared to the much higher intrinsic limits in bulk detectors. Much efforts have been made to investigate suitable materials to make RPCs sensitive to 511 keV photons. For this reason, we are studying different types of coating employing high Z materials with proper electrical resistivity. Later investigations explored the possibility of coating glass electrodes by mean of serigraphy techniques, employing oxide based mixtures with a high density of high Z materials; the efficiency is strongly dependent on its thickness and it reaches a maximum for a characteristic value that is a function of the compound (usually a few hundred microns). The most promising mixtures seem to be PbO, Bi 2O 3 and Tl 2O. Preliminary gamma efficiency measurements for a Multigap RPC prototype (MRPC) are presented as well as simulations using GEANT4-based framework. The MRPC has 5 gas gaps; their spacings are kept by 0.3 mm diameter nylon fishing line, electrodes are made of thin glasses (1 mm for the outer electrodes, 0.15-0.4 mm for the inner ones). The detector is enclosed in a metallic gas-tight box, filled with a C 2H 2F 4 92.5%, SF 6 2.5%, C 4H 10 5% mixture. Different gas mixtures are being studied increasing the SF6 percentage and results of efficiency as a function of the new mixtures will be presented.

  12. Hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings are of great importance in the biological and biomedical coatings fields, especially in the current era of nanotechnology and bioapplications. With a bonelike structure that promotes osseointegration, hydroxyapatite coating can be applied to otherwise bioinactive implants to make their surface bioactive, thus achieving faster healing and recovery. In addition to applications in orthopedic and dental implants, this coating can also be used in drug delivery. Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Applications explores developments in the processing and property characteri

  13. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardharajula S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sandhya Vardharajula,1 Sk Z Ali,2 Pooja M Tiwari,1 Erdal Eroğlu,1 Komal Vig,1 Vida A Dennis,1 Shree R Singh11Center for NanoBiotechnology and Life Sciences Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USA; 2Department of Microbiology, Osmania University, Hyderabad, IndiaAbstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity.Keywords: carbon nanotubes, cytotoxicity, functionalization, biomedical applications

  14. Biomedical applications of magnetic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Mefford, Thompson

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic particles are increasingly being used in a wide variety of biomedical applications. Written by a team of internationally respected experts, this book provides an up-to-date authoritative reference for scientists and engineers. The first section presents the fundamentals of the field by explaining the theory of magnetism, describing techniques to synthesize magnetic particles, and detailing methods to characterize magnetic particles. The second section describes biomedical applications, including chemical sensors and cellular actuators, and diagnostic applications such as drug delivery, hyperthermia cancer treatment, and magnetic resonance imaging contrast.

  15. Annularly grooved membrane combined with rood beam piezoresistive pressure sensor for low pressure applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuang; Cordovilla, Francisco; Ocaña, José L

    2017-03-01

    A novel structural piezoresistive pressure sensor with annularly grooved membrane combined with rood beam has been proposed for low pressure measurements based on silicon substrate. In this study, a design method, including the model design, dimensions optimization, and performance prediction of the novel structure sensor, is presented. The finite element method has been used to analyze the stress distribution of sensitive elements and the deflection of membrane. On the basis of simulation results, the relationships between structural dimension variables and mechanical performance are deduced, which make the fabrication processes more efficient. According to statistics theory, the coefficient of determination R(2) and residual sum of squares are introduced to indicate whether the fitting equations and curves match well with the simulation results. After that, a series of the optimal membrane dimensions are determined. Compared with other structural sensors, the optimized sensor achieves the best overall properties as it mitigates the contradiction between sensitivity and linearity. The reasons why the proposed sensor can maximize sensitivity and minimize nonlinearity are also discussed. By localizing more strain energy in the high concentrated stress profile and creating partially stiffened membrane, the proposed sensor has achieved a high sensitivity of 34.5 (mV/V)/psi and a low nonlinearity of 0.25% FSS. Thus, the proposed structure sensor will be a proper choice for low pressure applications less than 1 psi.

  16. Annularly grooved membrane combined with rood beam piezoresistive pressure sensor for low pressure applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuang; Cordovilla, Francisco; Ocaña, José L.

    2017-03-01

    A novel structural piezoresistive pressure sensor with annularly grooved membrane combined with rood beam has been proposed for low pressure measurements based on silicon substrate. In this study, a design method, including the model design, dimensions optimization, and performance prediction of the novel structure sensor, is presented. The finite element method has been used to analyze the stress distribution of sensitive elements and the deflection of membrane. On the basis of simulation results, the relationships between structural dimension variables and mechanical performance are deduced, which make the fabrication processes more efficient. According to statistics theory, the coefficient of determination R2 and residual sum of squares are introduced to indicate whether the fitting equations and curves match well with the simulation results. After that, a series of the optimal membrane dimensions are determined. Compared with other structural sensors, the optimized sensor achieves the best overall properties as it mitigates the contradiction between sensitivity and linearity. The reasons why the proposed sensor can maximize sensitivity and minimize nonlinearity are also discussed. By localizing more strain energy in the high concentrated stress profile and creating partially stiffened membrane, the proposed sensor has achieved a high sensitivity of 34.5 (mV/V)/psi and a low nonlinearity of 0.25% FSS. Thus, the proposed structure sensor will be a proper choice for low pressure applications less than 1 psi.

  17. Biomedical applications of magnesium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillekens, W.H.; Bormann, D.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with the emerging field of biomedical applications for magnesium-based materials, envisioning degradable implants that dissolve in the human body after having cured a particular medical condition. After outlining the background of this interest, some major aspects concerning degra

  18. Biomedical Imaging Principles and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Salzer, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    This book presents and describes imaging technologies that can be used to study chemical processes and structural interactions in dynamic systems, principally in biomedical systems. The imaging technologies, largely biomedical imaging technologies such as MRT, Fluorescence mapping, raman mapping, nanoESCA, and CARS microscopy, have been selected according to their application range and to the chemical information content of their data. These technologies allow for the analysis and evaluation of delicate biological samples, which must not be disturbed during the profess. Ultimately, this may me

  19. Biomedical Application of Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. X. He; Alan Chow; Jiada Mo; Wang Zhuo

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Lasers have revolutionized research and development in medicine and dentistry. They have led to development and production of many new products. Laser applications in diagnosis, treatment and surgery are enormous and have led to speedy and more efficient results, as well as better and quicker healing Processes. The applications could be classified in terms of areas of uses or in terms of instruments/products.In this paper, discussions will not be grouped in a particular fashion, but will be on specific applications. A lot of information on these applications can be found in the Internet. Such information will be mentioned in related discussions and will be given in the appendix.

  20. Nanomaterials in biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jesper de Claville; Potarniche, Catalina-Gabriela; Vuluga, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in nano materials have lead to applications in many areas from automotive to electronics and medicine. Nano composites are a popular group of nano materials. Nanocomposites in medical applications provide novel solutions to common problems. Materials for implants, biosensors and drug del...

  1. Nanomaterials in biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jesper de Claville; Potarniche, Catalina-Gabriela; Vuluga, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in nano materials have lead to applications in many areas from automotive to electronics and medicine. Nano composites are a popular group of nano materials. Nanocomposites in medical applications provide novel solutions to common problems. Materials for implants, biosensors and drug del...

  2. Biomedical Applications of Biodegradable Polyesters

    OpenAIRE

    Iman Manavitehrani; Ali Fathi; Hesham Badr; Sean Daly; Ali Negahi Shirazi; Fariba Dehghani

    2016-01-01

    The focus in the field of biomedical engineering has shifted in recent years to biodegradable polymers and, in particular, polyesters. Dozens of polyester-based medical devices are commercially available, and every year more are introduced to the market. The mechanical performance and wide range of biodegradation properties of this class of polymers allow for high degrees of selectivity for targeted clinical applications. Recent research endeavors to expand the application of polymers have be...

  3. Biomedical Applications of Biodegradable Polyesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Manavitehrani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus in the field of biomedical engineering has shifted in recent years to biodegradable polymers and, in particular, polyesters. Dozens of polyester-based medical devices are commercially available, and every year more are introduced to the market. The mechanical performance and wide range of biodegradation properties of this class of polymers allow for high degrees of selectivity for targeted clinical applications. Recent research endeavors to expand the application of polymers have been driven by a need to target the general hydrophobic nature of polyesters and their limited cell motif sites. This review provides a comprehensive investigation into advanced strategies to modify polyesters and their clinical potential for future biomedical applications.

  4. NASA: Biomedical applications team

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The status of projects involving the adaptation of NASA technologies for medical purposes is reviewed. Devices for the measurement of joint deformation of arthritic hands, the development of an artificial pancreas, provision of an auditory signal to avert epileptic seizures, are described along with the control of medication levels, a compressed air tank to supply power for field dentistry, and an electroencephalogram monitor. The use of the Lixiscope as a portable fluoroscope, thermal laminates for hand and foot warmers for patients with Raynaud's syndrome, and the use of absorptive coatings for instruments for controlling medication levels are described. The applicability of occupation health and safety practices to industry, computerized patient scheduling, impregnation of the common facial tissue with an agent for killing respiratory viruses, commercial applications of anthropometric data, and multispectral image analysis of the skin as a diagnostic tool are reviewed.

  5. Carbon nanotubes: engineering biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gualdrón, Diego A; Burgos, Juan C; Yu, Jiamei; Balbuena, Perla B

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are cylinder-shaped allotropic forms of carbon, most widely produced under chemical vapor deposition. They possess astounding chemical, electronic, mechanical, and optical properties. Being among the most promising materials in nanotechnology, they are also likely to revolutionize medicine. Among other biomedical applications, after proper functionalization carbon nanotubes can be transformed into sophisticated biosensing and biocompatible drug-delivery systems, for specific targeting and elimination of tumor cells. This chapter provides an introduction to the chemical and electronic structure and properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes, followed by a description of the main synthesis and post-synthesis methods. These sections allow the reader to become familiar with the specific characteristics of these materials and the manner in which these properties may be dependent on the specific synthesis and post-synthesis processes. The chapter ends with a review of the current biomedical applications of carbon nanotubes, highlighting successes and challenges.

  6. New biomedical applications of radiocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.C.

    1990-12-01

    The potential of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and radiocarbon in biomedical applications is being investigated by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A measurement of the dose-response curve for DNA damage caused by a carcinogen in mouse liver cells was an initial experiment. This demonstrated the sensitivity and utility of AMS for detecting radiocarbon tags and led to numerous follow-on experiments. The initial experiment and follow-on experiments are discussed in this report. 12 refs., 4 figs. (SM)

  7. Biomedical devices and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    This volume introduces readers to the basic concepts and recent advances in the field of biomedical devices. The text gives a detailed account of novel developments in drug delivery, protein electrophoresis, estrogen mimicking methods and medical devices. It also provides the necessary theoretical background as well as describing a wide range of practical applications. The level and style make this book accessible not only to scientific and medical researchers but also to graduate students.

  8. Thermoresponsive Polymers for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theoni K. Georgiou

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermoresponsive polymers are a class of “smart” materials that have the ability to respond to a change in temperature; a property that makes them useful materials in a wide range of applications and consequently attracts much scientific interest. This review focuses mainly on the studies published over the last 10 years on the synthesis and use of thermoresponsive polymers for biomedical applications including drug delivery, tissue engineering and gene delivery. A summary of the main applications is given following the different studies on thermoresponsive polymers which are categorized based on their 3-dimensional structure; hydrogels, interpenetrating networks, micelles, crosslinked micelles, polymersomes, films and particles.

  9. Biomedical applications of nanodiamond (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcheniuk, K.; Mochalin, Vadym N.

    2017-06-01

    The interest in nanodiamond applications in biology and medicine is on the rise over recent years. This is due to the unique combination of properties that nanodiamond provides. Small size (∼5 nm), low cost, scalable production, negligible toxicity, chemical inertness of diamond core and rich chemistry of nanodiamond surface, as well as bright and robust fluorescence resistant to photobleaching are the distinct parameters that render nanodiamond superior to any other nanomaterial when it comes to biomedical applications. The most exciting recent results have been related to the use of nanodiamonds for drug delivery and diagnostics—two components of a quickly growing area of biomedical research dubbed theranostics. However, nanodiamond offers much more in addition: it can be used to produce biodegradable bone surgery devices, tissue engineering scaffolds, kill drug resistant microbes, help us to fight viruses, and deliver genetic material into cell nucleus. All these exciting opportunities require an in-depth understanding of nanodiamond. This review covers the recent progress as well as general trends in biomedical applications of nanodiamond, and underlines the importance of purification, characterization, and rational modification of this nanomaterial when designing nanodiamond based theranostic platforms.

  10. Review of recent developments and applications in low-pressure (vacuum outlet) gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Lehotay, Steven J

    2015-10-29

    The concept of low pressure (LP) vacuum outlet gas chromatography (GC) was introduced more than 50 years ago, but it was not until the 2000s that its theoretical applicability to fast analysis of GC-amenable chemicals was realized. In practice, LPGC is implemented by placing the outlet of a short, wide (typically 10-15 m, 0.53 mm inner diameter) analytical column under vacuum conditions, which speeds the separation by reducing viscosity of the carrier gas, thereby leading to a higher optimal flow rate for the most separation efficiency. To keep the inlet at normal operating pressures, the analytical column is commonly coupled to a short, narrow uncoated restriction capillary that also acts as a guard column. The faster separations in LPGC usually result in worse separation efficiency relative to conventional GC, but selective detection usually overcomes this drawback. Mass spectrometry (MS) provides highly selective and sensitive universal detection, and nearly all GC-MS instruments provide vacuum outlet conditions for implementation of LPGC-MS(/MS) without need for adaptations. In addition to higher sample throughput, LPGC provides other benefits, including lower detection limits, less chance of analyte degradation, reduced peak tailing, increased sample loadability, and more ruggedness without overly narrow peaks that would necessitate excessively fast data acquisition rates. This critical review summarizes recent developments in the application of LPGC with MS and other detectors in the analysis of pesticides, environmental contaminants, explosives, phytosterols, and other semi-volatile compounds.

  11. Superhydrophobic materials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falde, Eric J; Yohe, Stefan T; Colson, Yolonda L; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2016-10-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are actively studied across a wide range of applications and industries, and are now finding increased use in the biomedical arena as substrates to control protein adsorption, cellular interaction, and bacterial growth, as well as platforms for drug delivery devices and for diagnostic tools. The commonality in the design of these materials is to create a stable or metastable air layer at the material surface, which lends itself to a number of unique properties. These activities are catalyzing the development of new materials, applications, and fabrication techniques, as well as collaborations across material science, chemistry, engineering, and medicine given the interdisciplinary nature of this work. The review begins with a discussion of superhydrophobicity, and then explores biomedical applications that are utilizing superhydrophobicity in depth including material selection characteristics, in vitro performance, and in vivo performance. General trends are offered for each application in addition to discussion of conflicting data in the literature, and the review concludes with the authors' future perspectives on the utility of superhydrophobic biomaterials for medical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Piezoelectric nanomaterials for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Menciassi, Arianna

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscale structures and materials have been explored in many biological applications because of their novel and impressive physical and chemical properties. Such properties allow remarkable opportunities to study and interact with complex biological processes. This book analyses the state of the art of piezoelectric nanomaterials and introduces their applications in the biomedical field. Despite their impressive potentials, piezoelectric materials have not yet received significant attention for bio-applications. This book shows that the exploitation of piezoelectric nanoparticles in nanomedicine is possible and realistic, and their impressive physical properties can be useful for several applications, ranging from sensors and transducers for the detection of biomolecules to “sensible” substrates for tissue engineering or cell stimulation.

  13. A comparison of low-pressure and supercharged operation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell systems for aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, C.; Preiß, G.; Gores, F.; Griebenow, M.; Heitmann, S.

    2016-08-01

    Multifunctional fuel cell systems are competitive solutions aboard future generations of civil aircraft concerning energy consumption, environmental issues, and safety reasons. The present study compares low-pressure and supercharged operation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells with respect to performance and efficiency criteria. This is motivated by the challenge of pressure-dependent fuel cell operation aboard aircraft with cabin pressure varying with operating altitude. Experimental investigations of low-pressure fuel cell operation use model-based design of experiments and are complemented by numerical investigations concerning supercharged fuel cell operation. It is demonstrated that a low-pressure operation is feasible with the fuel cell device under test, but that its range of stable operation changes between both operating modes. Including an external compressor, it can be shown that the power demand for supercharging the fuel cell is about the same as the loss in power output of the fuel cell due to low-pressure operation. Furthermore, the supercharged fuel cell operation appears to be more sensitive with respect to variations in the considered independent operating parameters load requirement, cathode stoichiometric ratio, and cooling temperature. The results indicate that a pressure-dependent self-humidification control might be able to exploit the potential of low-pressure fuel cell operation for aircraft applications to the best advantage.

  14. [Application of elastin in biomedical materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Decai; Wang, Xiaoli; Hou, Xin; Yao, Kangde

    2008-12-01

    Elastin is a natural biomedical material of great potential. Being endowed with the special crosslinking and hydrophobic structure, elastin retains many good properties such as good elasticity, ductibility, biocompatibility, biodegradability and so on. Nowadays, elastin as a material, which is gradually attracting people' s attention in the biomedical materials field, has been used as tissue engineering scaffolds, derma substitutes and other biomedical materials. In this context, a systematic review on the characteristics of elastin as a biomedical material and on the actuality of its application is presented. Future developments of elastin in the field of biomedical applications are also discussed.

  15. Biomedical applications of control engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hacısalihzade, Selim S

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical Applications of Control Engineering is a lucidly written textbook for graduate control engin­eering and biomedical engineering students as well as for medical prac­ti­tioners who want to get acquainted with quantitative methods. It is based on decades of experience both in control engineering and clinical practice.   The book begins by reviewing basic concepts of system theory and the modeling process. It then goes on to discuss control engineering application areas like ·         Different models for the human operator, ·         Dosage and timing optimization in oral drug administration, ·         Measuring symptoms of and optimal dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson’s disease, ·         Measure­ment and control of blood glucose le­vels both naturally and by means of external controllers in diabetes, and ·         Control of depth of anaesthesia using inhalational anaesthetic agents like sevoflurane using both fuzzy and state feedback controllers....

  16. Biomedical Application of Knowledge Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, A.

    With rapid progress in biomedical fields, the knowledge accumulated in scientific papers has increased significantly. Most of these papers draw only a fragmental conclusion from the viewpoint of scientific facts, so discovery of hidden knowledge or hypothesis generation by leveraging this fragmental information has come into the limelight and more expectations on the system constructions to assist them has been paid. To respond to these expectations, we have developed a system called BioTermNet (http://btn.ontology.ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp:8081/) to make a conceptual network by connecting conceptual relationships (fragmental information) explicitly described in papers and explore the hidden relationships in the conceptual network. The conceptual relationships are extracted by hybrid methods of information extraction and information-retrieval techniques. This system has a potential for wide application. After the validation of system performance, we take up some topics of conceptual network-based analysis and refer to other applications in the future prospects section.

  17. Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, M.; Mazare, A.; Gongadze, E.; Perutkova, Š.; Kralj-Iglič, V.; Milošev, I.; Schmuki, P.; Iglič, A.; Mozetič, M.

    2015-02-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys exhibit a unique combination of strength and biocompatibility, which enables their use in medical applications and accounts for their extensive use as implant materials in the last 50 years. Currently, a large amount of research is being carried out in order to determine the optimal surface topography for use in bioapplications, and thus the emphasis is on nanotechnology for biomedical applications. It was recently shown that titanium implants with rough surface topography and free energy increase osteoblast adhesion, maturation and subsequent bone formation. Furthermore, the adhesion of different cell lines to the surface of titanium implants is influenced by the surface characteristics of titanium; namely topography, charge distribution and chemistry. The present review article focuses on the specific nanotopography of titanium, i.e. titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes, using a simple electrochemical anodisation method of the metallic substrate and other processes such as the hydrothermal or sol-gel template. One key advantage of using TiO2 nanotubes in cell interactions is based on the fact that TiO2 nanotube morphology is correlated with cell adhesion, spreading, growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, which were shown to be maximally induced on smaller diameter nanotubes (15 nm), but hindered on larger diameter (100 nm) tubes, leading to cell death and apoptosis. Research has supported the significance of nanotopography (TiO2 nanotube diameter) in cell adhesion and cell growth, and suggests that the mechanics of focal adhesion formation are similar among different cell types. As such, the present review will focus on perhaps the most spectacular and surprising one-dimensional structures and their unique biomedical applications for increased osseointegration, protein interaction and antibacterial properties.

  18. Biomedical Applications for Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuszynski, J. A.; Dixon, J. M.

    2001-12-01

    Can be utilized in either Algebra or Calculus-based courses and is available either as a standalone text or as a supplement for books like Cutnell PHYSICS, 5e or Halliday, Resnick, & Walker FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICS, 6e. Math level is Algebra & Trigonometry; however, a few examples require the use of integration and differentiation. Unlike competing supplements, Tuszinski offers both a wealth of engaging biomedical applications as well as quantitative problem-solving. The quantitative problem-solving is presented in the form of worked examples and homework problems. The quantitative problem-solving is presented in the form of worked examples and homework problems. The standard organization facilitates the integration of the material into most introductory courses.

  19. Comparing image compression methods in biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Hargas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Compression methods suitable for image processing are described in this article in biomedical applications. The compression is often realized by reduction of irrelevance or redundancy. There are described lossless and lossy compression methods which can be use for compress of images in biomedical applications and comparison of these methods based on fidelity criteria.

  20. Semiconducting silicon nanowires for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Coffer, JL

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical applications have benefited greatly from the increasing interest and research into semiconducting silicon nanowires. Semiconducting Silicon Nanowires for Biomedical Applications reviews the fabrication, properties, and applications of this emerging material. The book begins by reviewing the basics, as well as the growth, characterization, biocompatibility, and surface modification, of semiconducting silicon nanowires. It goes on to focus on silicon nanowires for tissue engineering and delivery applications, including cellular binding and internalization, orthopedic tissue scaffol

  1. Centrifugal microfluidics for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkin, Robert; Park, Jiwoon; Siegrist, Jonathan; Amasia, Mary; Lee, Beom Seok; Park, Jong-Myeon; Kim, Jintae; Kim, Hanshin; Madou, Marc; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung

    2010-07-21

    The centrifugal microfluidic platform has been a focus of academic and industrial research efforts for almost 40 years. Primarily targeting biomedical applications, a range of assays have been adapted on the system; however, the platform has found limited commercial success as a research or clinical tool. Nonetheless, new developments in centrifugal microfluidic technologies have the potential to establish wide-spread utilization of the platform. This paper presents an in-depth review of the centrifugal microfluidic platform, while highlighting recent progress in the field and outlining the potential for future applications. An overview of centrifugal microfluidic technologies is presented, including descriptions of advantages of the platform as a microfluidic handling system and the principles behind centrifugal fluidic manipulation. The paper also discusses a history of significant centrifugal microfluidic platform developments with an explanation of the evolution of the platform as it pertains to academia and industry. Lastly, we review the few centrifugal microfluidic-based sample-to-answer analysis systems shown to date and examine the challenges to be tackled before the centrifugal platform can be more broadly accepted as a new diagnostic platform. In particular, fully integrated, easy to operate, inexpensive and accurate microfluidic tools in the area of in vitro nucleic acid diagnostics are discussed.

  2. Applications of computational intelligence in biomedical technology

    CERN Document Server

    Majernik, Jaroslav; Pancerz, Krzysztof; Zaitseva, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This book presents latest results and selected applications of Computational Intelligence in Biomedical Technologies. Most of contributions deal with problems of Biomedical and Medical Informatics, ranging from theoretical considerations to practical applications. Various aspects of development methods and algorithms in Biomedical and Medical Informatics as well as Algorithms for medical image processing, modeling methods are discussed. Individual contributions also cover medical decision making support, estimation of risks of treatments, reliability of medical systems, problems of practical clinical applications and many other topics  This book is intended for scientists interested in problems of Biomedical Technologies, for researchers and academic staff, for all dealing with Biomedical and Medical Informatics, as well as PhD students. Useful information is offered also to IT companies, developers of equipment and/or software for medicine and medical professionals.  .

  3. Studies of THGEM-based detector at low-pressure Hydrogen/Deuterium, for AT-TPC applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cortesi, Marco; Mittig, Wolfgang; Bazin, Daniel; Beceiro-Novo, Saul; Stolz, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We study the performance of single- and double- THick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM) detectors in pure Hydrogen and Deuterium at low pressures, in the range of 100-450 Torr. The effect of the pressure on the maximum achievable gain, ion-back flow and long-term gain stability are investigated for single and double cascade detectors. In particular, it was found that maximum achievable gains above 10^4, from single-photoelectrons avalanche, can be achieved for pressures of 200 Torr and above; for lower pressure the gains are limited by avalanche-induced secondary effects to a values of around 103. The results of this work are relevant in the field of avalanche mechanism in low-pressure, low-mass noble gases, in particular for applications of THGEM end-cap readout for active-target Time Projection Chambers (TPC) in the field of nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics.

  4. Development and field application of a novel emulsion system O/W for well drilling of low pressure reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano, J.; Ojeda, A.; Blanco, J.; Medina, N.; Gutierrez, X.; Carrasquero, M.; Briceno, H. [PDVSA (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In Venezuela, there are important reserves of hydrocarbons in low pressure reservoirs but accessing to these reserves is a major challenge. This paper presents a new oil in water emulsion (O/W) system, using fatty acids and their salts as surfactant additives for use in such reservoirs, and the results obtained in field applications. Emulsions were prepared using two oil types and multiple salt (KCl) concentrations. Tests were then conducted to determine their thermal stability and return permeability percentage. Results showed good tolerance of high concentrations of KCl, as well as good stability under high temperatures and a good rheological behavior. The field test showed that the O/W emulsion system presents technological and cost advantages over other commercial technologies. This paper presented a new oil in water emulsion system which is a good alternative to water based fluids for well drilling in low pressure reservoirs.

  5. Biomedical Optical Imaging Technologies Design and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to design of biomedical optical imaging technologies and their applications. The main topics include: fluorescence imaging, confocal imaging, micro-endoscope, polarization imaging, hyperspectral imaging, OCT imaging, multimodal imaging and spectroscopic systems. Each chapter is written by the world leaders of the respective fields, and will cover: principles and limitations of optical imaging technology, system design and practical implementation for one or two specific applications, including design guidelines, system configuration, optical design, component requirements and selection, system optimization and design examples, recent advances and applications in biomedical researches and clinical imaging. This book serves as a reference for students and researchers in optics and biomedical engineering.

  6. Development and Commercial Application of Ultra-Low Pressure Naphtha Reforming Technology with Continuous Catalyst Regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Aizeng; Xu Youchun; Yang Dong; Zhang Xinkuan; Wang Jieguang

    2013-01-01

    The development history and major technological innovations of the ultra-low pressure naphtha reforming tech-nology with continuous catalyst regeneration in China were introduced. This technology had been adopted by the 1.0 Mt/a CCR unit at the Guangzhou Company. The appropriate catalyst was selected to meet the demand of the unit capacity, the feedstock, and the product slate. The design parameters, including the reaction pressure, the octane number of C5+ liquid product, the reaction temperature, the space velocity, the hydrogen/oil molar ratio, and the catalyst circulating rate, were chosen based on the study of process conditions and parameters. The commercial test results showed that the research oc-tane number of C5+ product reached 104 when the capacity of the CCR unit was 100% and 115% of the design value. The other technical targets attained or exceeded the expected value.

  7. Propagation of light in low pressure ionised and atomic hydrogen. Application to astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Moret-Bailly, J

    2003-01-01

    The "Impulsive Stimulated Raman Scattering" (ISRS) performed using ultrashort laser pulses shifts the light frequencies. Tried using ordinary incoherent light, it keeps its qualitative properties except the nonlinearity due to the power of the laser pulses. The relative frequency shifts of the "Coherent Raman Effect on Incoherent Light" (CREIL) which is obtained do not depend on the intensity and, in a first approximation, on the frequency of the light. As CREIL does not blur the images and the spectra, its shifts may be confused with Doppler shifts. ISRS and CREIL are parametric effects which do not excite the matter, transferring energy from hot beams to cold beams; for CREIL, the cold light is thermal radiation which is heated. CREIL requires low pressure gases acting as catalysts. These gases must have Raman transitions in the radiofrequencies range: for instance H2+ or excited atomic hydrogen in a magnetic field. The spectral lines resulting from a simultaneous absorption (or emission) and CREIL have a w...

  8. Biomedical image understanding methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Joo-Hwee; Xiong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to understanding and interpreting digital images in medical and functional applications Biomedical Image Understanding focuses on image understanding and semantic interpretation, with clear introductions to related concepts, in-depth theoretical analysis, and detailed descriptions of important biomedical applications. It covers image processing, image filtering, enhancement, de-noising, restoration, and reconstruction; image segmentation and feature extraction; registration; clustering, pattern classification, and data fusion. With contributions from ex

  9. Biomedical Applications of Enzymes From Marine Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamala, K; Sivaperumal, P

    Marine microbial enzyme technologies have progressed significantly in the last few decades for different applications. Among the various microorganisms, marine actinobacterial enzymes have significant active properties, which could allow them to be biocatalysts with tremendous bioactive metabolites. Moreover, marine actinobacteria have been considered as biofactories, since their enzymes fulfill biomedical and industrial needs. In this chapter, the marine actinobacteria and their enzymes' uses in biological activities and biomedical applications are described. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Composites for Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang; Yuhe Zhu; Susan Liao; Jiajia Li

    2014-01-01

    This review paper reported carbon nanotubes reinforced composites for biomedical applications. Several studies have found enhancement in the mechanical properties of CNTs-based reinforced composites by the addition of CNTs. CNTs reinforced composites have been intensively investigated for many aspects of life, especially being made for biomedical applications. The review introduced fabrication of CNTs reinforced composites (CNTs reinforced metal matrix composites, CNTs reinforced polymer matr...

  11. Pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Neha; Mehra, Neelesh K; Jain, Keerti; Jain, Narendra K

    2016-05-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have captured the fascination and attention of scientists due to their simultaneous targeting and imaging potential in drug delivery, in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. In the present study, we have exhaustively reviewed various aspects of QDs, highlighting their pharmaceutical and biomedical applications, pharmacology, interactions, and toxicological manifestations. The eventual use of QDs is to dramatically improve clinical diagnostic tests for early detection of cancer. In recent years, QDs were introduced to cell biology as an alternative fluorescent probe.

  12. Design and Application of a High Sensitivity Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor for Low Pressure Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huiyang; Huang, Jianqiu

    2015-09-08

    In this paper, a pressure sensor for low pressure detection (0.5 kPa-40 kPa) is proposed. In one structure (No. 1), the silicon membrane is partly etched to form a crossed beam on its top for stress concentration. An aluminum layer is also deposited as part of the beam. Four piezoresistors are fabricated. Two are located at the two ends of the beam. The other two are located at the membrane periphery. Four piezoresistors connect into a Wheatstone bridge. To demonstrate the stress concentrate effect of this structure, two other structures were designed and fabricated. One is a flat membrane structure (No. 2), the other is a structure with the aluminum beam, but without etched silicon (No. 3). The measurement results of these three structures show that the No.1 structure has the highest sensitivity, which is about 3.8 times that of the No. 2 structure and 2.7 times that of the No. 3 structure. They also show that the residual stress in the beam has some backside effect on the sensor performance.

  13. Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles and Their Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree R. Singh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Metal nanoparticles are being extensively used in various biomedical applications due to their small size to volume ratio and extensive thermal stability. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs are an obvious choice due to their amenability of synthesis and functionalization, less toxicity and ease of detection. The present review focuses on various methods of functionalization of GNPs and their applications in biomedical research. Functionalization facilitates targeted delivery of these nanoparticles to various cell types, bioimaging, gene delivery, drug delivery and other therapeutic and diagnostic applications. This review is an amalgamation of recent advances in the field of functionalization of gold nanoparticles and their potential applications in the field of medicine and biology.

  14. Polydopamine Integrated Nanomaterials and Their Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoping; Huang, Yongshun; Yang, Gang; Li, Jiaxing; Wang, Tingting; Schulz, Olaf H; Jennings, Lisa K

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, the applications of nanomaterials in biologic systems have become one of the most studied areas. Many novel syntheses and processing methods have been developed to generate nanomaterials to enhance biomedical applications. Among those methods, polydopamine (PDA) integrated nanomaterials have attracted considerable interest for various types of biomedical applications. This concise review outlines the basic chemistry and material science regarding PDA and discusses its successful applications in drug delivery, biosensing, antifouling and antimicrobial activities, as well as its interaction with cells.

  15. Europium enabled luminescent nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syamchand, S.S., E-mail: syamchand.ss@gmail.com; Sony, G., E-mail: emailtosony@gmail.com

    2015-09-15

    Lanthanide based nanoparticles are receiving great attention ought to their excellent luminescent and magnetic properties and find challenging biomedical applications. Among the luminescent lanthanide NPs, europium based NPs (Eu-NPs) are better candidates for immunoassay and imaging applications. The Eu-NPs have an edge over quantum dots (QDs) by means of their stable luminescence, long fluorescence lifetime, sharp emission peaks with narrow band width, lack of blinking and biocompatibility. This review surveys the synthesis and properties of a variety of Eu-NPs consolidated from different research articles, for their applications in medicine and biology. The exquisite luminescent properties of Eu-NPs are explored for developing biomedical applications such as immunoassay and bioimaging including multimodal imaging. The biomedical applications of Eu-NPs are mostly diagnostic in nature and mainly focus on various key analytes present in biological systems. The luminescent properties of europium enabled NPs are influenced by a number of factors such as the site symmetry, the metal nanoparticles, metal ions, quantum dots, surfactants, morphology of Eu-NPs, crystal defect, phenomena like antenna effect and physical parameters like temperature. Through this review we explore and assimilate all the factors which affect the luminescence in Eu-NPs and coil a new thread of parameters that control the luminescence in Eu-NPs, which would provide further insight in developing Eu-based nanoprobes for future biomedical prospects. - Highlights: • The review describes 14 major factors that influence the luminescence properties of europium enabled luminescent nanoparticles (Eu-NPs). • Surveys different types of europium containing nanoparticles that have been reported for their biomedical applications. • Eu-NPs are conveniently divided into four different categories, based on the type of the substrates involved. The four categories are (1) virgin Eu-substrate based NPs; (2

  16. Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Composites for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review paper reported carbon nanotubes reinforced composites for biomedical applications. Several studies have found enhancement in the mechanical properties of CNTs-based reinforced composites by the addition of CNTs. CNTs reinforced composites have been intensively investigated for many aspects of life, especially being made for biomedical applications. The review introduced fabrication of CNTs reinforced composites (CNTs reinforced metal matrix composites, CNTs reinforced polymer matrix composites, and CNTs reinforced ceramic matrix composites, their mechanical properties, cell experiments in vitro, and biocompatibility tests in vivo.

  17. Carbon nanotubes reinforced composites for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhu, Yuhe; Liao, Susan; Li, Jiajia

    2014-01-01

    This review paper reported carbon nanotubes reinforced composites for biomedical applications. Several studies have found enhancement in the mechanical properties of CNTs-based reinforced composites by the addition of CNTs. CNTs reinforced composites have been intensively investigated for many aspects of life, especially being made for biomedical applications. The review introduced fabrication of CNTs reinforced composites (CNTs reinforced metal matrix composites, CNTs reinforced polymer matrix composites, and CNTs reinforced ceramic matrix composites), their mechanical properties, cell experiments in vitro, and biocompatibility tests in vivo.

  18. Graphene based materials for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqi Yang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Graphene, a single layer 2-dimensional structure nanomaterial with unique physicochemical properties (e.g. high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, strong mechanical strength, unparalleled thermal conductivity, remarkable biocompatibility and ease of functionalization, has received increasing attention in physical, chemical and biomedical fields. This article selectively reviews current advances of graphene based materials for biomedical applications. In particular, graphene based biosensors for small biomolecules (glucose, dopamine etc., proteins and DNA detection have been summarized; graphene based bioimaging, drug delivery, and photothermal therapy applications have been described in detail. Future perspectives and possible challenges in this rapidly developing area are also discussed.

  19. Tritium AMS for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.L.; Velsko, C.; Turteltaub, K.W.

    1993-08-01

    We are developing {sup 3}H-AMS to measure {sup 3}H activity of mg-sized biological samples. LLNL has already successfully applied {sup 14}C AMS to a variety of problems in the area of biomedical research. Development of {sup 3}H AMS would greatly complement these studies. The ability to perform {sup 3}H AMS measurements at sensitivities equivalent to those obtained for {sup 14}C will allow us to perform experiments using compounds that are not readily available in {sup 14}C-tagged form. A {sup 3}H capability would also allow us to perform unique double-labeling experiments in which we learn the fate, distribution, and metabolism of separate fractions of biological compounds.

  20. Development of a chromatographic low pressure flow injection system using amperometric detection: Application to the analysis of niacin in coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, João Rodrigo; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-11-15

    In this work, an analytical flow system able to perform low pressure chromatography with amperometric detection is presented. As case study, the determination of niacin (vitamin B3) in coffee brewed samples was selected. The manifold comprised a 1.0 cm length monolithic column coated with didecyldimethylammonium bromide, a laboratory-made boron doped diamond electrode, and featured in-line ionic strength adjustment of the mobile phase. The figures of merit concerning the selected case study namely, detection limit, 7.90 × 10(-7) M, determination rate, ca. 10 samplesh(-1), mobile phase and ISA solution consumption, ca. 2.6 mL per analysis, and CV, below 5% for retention time and peak height, showed the competitiveness of this analytical strategy comparing to the described HPLC methods for niacin determination. The strategy displays a simple configuration, low cost, fast and easy assembling, foreseeing its use to general purpose applications.

  1. Opal web services for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingyuan; Williams, Nadya; Clementi, Luca; Krishnan, Sriram; Li, Wilfred W

    2010-07-01

    Biomedical applications have become increasingly complex, and they often require large-scale high-performance computing resources with a large number of processors and memory. The complexity of application deployment and the advances in cluster, grid and cloud computing require new modes of support for biomedical research. Scientific Software as a Service (sSaaS) enables scalable and transparent access to biomedical applications through simple standards-based Web interfaces. Towards this end, we built a production web server (http://ws.nbcr.net) in August 2007 to support the bioinformatics application called MEME. The server has grown since to include docking analysis with AutoDock and AutoDock Vina, electrostatic calculations using PDB2PQR and APBS, and off-target analysis using SMAP. All the applications on the servers are powered by Opal, a toolkit that allows users to wrap scientific applications easily as web services without any modification to the scientific codes, by writing simple XML configuration files. Opal allows both web forms-based access and programmatic access of all our applications. The Opal toolkit currently supports SOAP-based Web service access to a number of popular applications from the National Biomedical Computation Resource (NBCR) and affiliated collaborative and service projects. In addition, Opal's programmatic access capability allows our applications to be accessed through many workflow tools, including Vision, Kepler, Nimrod/K and VisTrails. From mid-August 2007 to the end of 2009, we have successfully executed 239,814 jobs. The number of successfully executed jobs more than doubled from 205 to 411 per day between 2008 and 2009. The Opal-enabled service model is useful for a wide range of applications. It provides for interoperation with other applications with Web Service interfaces, and allows application developers to focus on the scientific tool and workflow development. Web server availability: http://ws.nbcr.net.

  2. Peptides and metallic nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogan, M.J.; Olmedo, I.; Hosta, L.; Guerrero, A.R.; Cruz Ricondo, L.J.; Albericio, F.

    2007-01-01

    In this review, we describe the contribution of peptides to the biomedical applications of metallic nanoparticles. We also discuss strategies for the preparation of peptide-nanoparticle conjugates and the synthesis of the peptides and metallic nanoparticles. An overview of the techniques used for th

  3. Zirconium: biomedical and nephrological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David B N; Roberts, Martin; Bluchel, Christian G; Odell, Ross A

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a rapid increase in the use of zirconium (Zr)-containing compounds in artificial internal organs. Examples include dental implants and other restorative practices, total knee and hip replacement, and middle-ear ossicular chain reconstruction. In nephrological practice, Zr-containing sorbents have been used in hemofiltration, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and in the design and construction of wearable artificial kidneys. Zr compounds continue to be widely and extensively used in deodorant and antiperspirant preparations. In the public health arena, Zr compounds have been studied or used in controlling phosphorus pollution and in the reclamation of poison and bacteria-contaminated water. Experimental and clinical studies support the general consensus that Zr compounds are biocompatible and exhibit low toxicity. Reports on possible Zr-associated adverse reactions are rare and, in general, have not rigorously established a cause-and-effect relationship. Although publications on the use of Zr compounds have continued to increase in recent years, reports on Zr toxicity have virtually disappeared from the medical literature. Nevertheless, familiarity with, and continued vigilant monitoring of, the use of these compounds are warranted. This article provides an updated review on the biomedical use of Zr compounds.

  4. Medical and biomedical applications of shock waves

    CERN Document Server

    Loske, Achim M

    2017-01-01

    This book provides current, comprehensive, and clear explanations of the physics behind medical and biomedical applications of shock waves. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is one of the greatest medical advances of our time, and its techniques and clinical devices are continuously evolving. Further research continues to improve the understanding of calculi fragmentation and tissue-damaging mechanisms. Shock waves are also used in orthopedics and traumatology. Possible applications in oncology, cardiology, dentistry, gene therapy, cell transfection, transformation of fungi and bacteria, as well as the inactivation of microorganisms are promising approaches for clinical treatment, industrial applications and research. Medical and Biomedical Applications of Shock Waves is useful as a guide for students, technicians and researchers working in universities and laboratories. Chemists, biologists, physicians and veterinarians, involved in research or clinical practice will find useful advice, but also engineer...

  5. Implantable biomedical microsystems design principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bhunia, Swarup; Sawan, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Research and innovation in areas such as circuits, microsystems, packaging, biocompatibility, miniaturization, power supplies, remote control, reliability, and lifespan are leading to a rapid increase in the range of devices and corresponding applications in the field of wearable and implantable biomedical microsystems, which are used for monitoring, diagnosing, and controlling the health conditions of the human body. This book provides comprehensive coverage of the fundamental design principles and validation for implantable microsystems, as well as several major application areas. Each co

  6. Production and Biomedical Applications of Probiotic Biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariq, Anila; Saeed, Ayesha

    2016-04-01

    Biosurfactants have been widely used for environmental and industrial applications. However, their use in medical field is still limited. Probiotic biosurfactants possess an immense antimicrobial, anti-adhesive, antitumor, and antibiofilm potential. Moreover, they have an additional advantage over conventional microbial surfactants because probiotics are an integral part of normal human microflora and their biosurfactants are innocuous to human. So, they can be effectively exploited for medicinal use. Present review is aimed to discourse the production and biomedical applications of probiotic biosurfactants.

  7. Biomedical Applications of Nanodiamonds: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeri, D; Rinaldi, F; Ingallina, C; Carafa, M; Rossi, M; Terranova, M L; Marianecci, C

    2015-02-01

    Nanodiamonds are a novel class of nanomaterials which have raised much attention for application in biomedical field, as they combine the possibility of being produced on large scale using relatively inexpensive synthetic processes, of being fluorescent as a consequence of the presence of nitrogen vacancies, of having their surfaces functionalized, and of having good biocompatibility. Among other applications, we mainly focus on drug delivery, including cell interaction, targeting, cancer therapy, gene and protein delivery. In addition, nanodiamonds for bone and dental implants and for antibacterial use is discussed. Techniques for detection and imaging of nanodiamonds in biological tissues are also reviewed, including electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, Raman mapping, atomic force microscopy, thermal imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography, either in vitro, in vivo, or ex vivo. Toxicological aspects related to the use of nanodiamonds are also discussed. Finally, patents, preclinical and clinical trials based on the use of nanodiamonds for biomedical applications are reviewed.

  8. Wireless tuning fork gyroscope for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jose K.; Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Sarukesi, K.

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a Bluetooth enabled wireless tuning fork gyroscope for the biomedical applications, including gait phase detection system, human motion analysis and physical therapy. This gyroscope is capable of measuring rotation rates between -90 and 90 and it can read the rotation information using a computer. Currently, the information from a gyroscope can trigger automobile airbag deployment during rollover, improve the accuracy and reliability of GPS navigation systems and stabilize moving platforms such as automobiles, airplanes, robots, antennas, and industrial equipment. Adding wireless capability to the existing gyroscope could help to expand its applications in many areas particularly in biomedical applications, where a continuous patient monitoring is quite difficult. This wireless system provides information on several aspects of activities of patients for real-time monitoring in hospitals.

  9. Combinatorial nanodiamond in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dae Gon; Prim, Racelly Ena; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kang, Eunah; Park, Kinam; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2016-11-30

    One of the newly emerging carbon materials, nanodiamond (ND), has been exploited for use in traditional electric materials and this has extended into biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Recently, NDs have attained significant interests as a multifunctional and combinational drug delivery system. ND studies have provided insights into granting new potentials with their wide ranging surface chemistry, complex formation with biopolymers, and combination with biomolecules. The studies that have proved ND inertness, biocompatibility, and low toxicity have made NDs much more feasible for use in real in vivo applications. This review gives an understanding of NDs in biomedical engineering and pharmaceuticals, focusing on the classified introduction of ND/drug complexes. In addition, the diverse potential applications that can be obtained with chemical modification are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dehai; Hsiao, Benjamin S.; Chu, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Functional nanofibrous scaffolds produced by electrospinning have great potential in many biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, wound dressing, enzyme immobilization and drug (gene) delivery. For a specific successful application, the chemical, physical and biological properties of electrospun scaffolds should be adjusted to match the environment by using a combination of multi-component compositions and fabrication techniques where electrospinning has often become a pivotal tool. The property of the nanofibrous scaffold can be further improved with innovative development in electrospinning processes, such as two-component electrospinning and in-situ mixing electrospinning. Post modifications of electrospun membranes also provide effective means to render the electrospun scaffolds with controlled anisotropy and porosity. In this review, we review the materials, techniques and post modification methods to functionalize electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds suitable for biomedical applications. PMID:17884240

  11. Crosslinking biopolymers for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Narendra; Reddy, Roopa; Jiang, Qiuran

    2015-06-01

    Biomaterials made from proteins, polysaccharides, and synthetic biopolymers are preferred but lack the mechanical properties and stability in aqueous environments necessary for medical applications. Crosslinking improves the properties of the biomaterials, but most crosslinkers either cause undesirable changes to the functionality of the biopolymers or result in cytotoxicity. Glutaraldehyde, the most widely used crosslinking agent, is difficult to handle and contradictory views have been presented on the cytotoxicity of glutaraldehyde-crosslinked materials. Recently, poly(carboxylic acids) that can crosslink in both dry and wet conditions have been shown to provide the desired improvements in tensile properties, increase in stability under aqueous conditions, and also promote cell attachment and proliferation. Green chemicals and newer crosslinking approaches are necessary to obtain biopolymeric materials with properties desired for medical applications.

  12. BMDO Technologies for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    biofilm . Even bacteria that are normally eradicable by antibiotics can avoid harm by col- onizing implants in this manner. In addition, rough surfaces on... dental applications 86, 87 Users, carbon dioxide 86, 87 Users, radiofrcquency-direct current 86, 87 Lens implant , photochemical treatment 82, 83...Nanophosphors 56 Optical Biopsy 58 Sagebrush Gimbal for Needle Biopsy 60 CHAPTER 3 - INTERVENTION TECHNOLOGIES Section A - Implants MEMS Sensor for

  13. Biomedical applications of graphene and graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chul; Kim, Young-Kwan; Shin, Dolly; Ryoo, Soo-Ryoon; Hong, Byung Hee; Min, Dal-Hee

    2013-10-15

    Graphene has unique mechanical, electronic, and optical properties, which researchers have used to develop novel electronic materials including transparent conductors and ultrafast transistors. Recently, the understanding of various chemical properties of graphene has facilitated its application in high-performance devices that generate and store energy. Graphene is now expanding its territory beyond electronic and chemical applications toward biomedical areas such as precise biosensing through graphene-quenched fluorescence, graphene-enhanced cell differentiation and growth, and graphene-assisted laser desorption/ionization for mass spectrometry. In this Account, we review recent efforts to apply graphene and graphene oxides (GO) to biomedical research and a few different approaches to prepare graphene materials designed for biomedical applications. Because of its excellent aqueous processability, amphiphilicity, surface functionalizability, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and fluorescence quenching ability, GO chemically exfoliated from oxidized graphite is considered a promising material for biological applications. In addition, the hydrophobicity and flexibility of large-area graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) allow this material to play an important role in cell growth and differentiation. The lack of acceptable classification standards of graphene derivatives based on chemical and physical properties has hindered the biological application of graphene derivatives. The development of an efficient graphene-based biosensor requires stable biofunctionalization of graphene derivatives under physiological conditions with minimal loss of their unique properties. For the development graphene-based therapeutics, researchers will need to build on the standardization of graphene derivatives and study the biofunctionalization of graphene to clearly understand how cells respond to exposure to graphene derivatives. Although several

  14. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah, Bullo; Hussein, Mohd Zobir B

    2015-01-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes), high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging. PMID:26366081

  15. Design of Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Hiroyuki; Li, Xiang; Chung, Ung-Il; Sakai, Takamasa

    2015-11-18

    Hydrogels are considered key tools for the design of biomaterials, such as wound dressings, drug reservoirs, and temporary scaffolds for cells. Despite their potential, conventional hydrogels have limited applicability under wet physiological conditions because they suffer from the uncontrollable temporal change in shape: swelling takes place immediately after the installation. Swollen hydrogels easily fail under mechanical stress. The morphological change may cause not only the slippage from the installation site but also local nerve compression. The design of hydrogels that can retain their original shape and mechanical properties in an aqueous environment is, therefore, of great importance. On the one hand, the controlled degradation of used hydrogels has to be realized in some biomedical applications. This Progress Report provides a brief overview of the recent progress in the development of hydrogels for biomedical applications. Practical approaches to control the swelling properties of hydrogels are discussed. The designs of hydrogels with controlled degradation properties as well as the theoretical models to predict the degradation behavior are also introduced. Moreover, current challenges and limitation toward biomedical applications are discussed, and future directions are offered.

  16. Nanocellulose and its Composites for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumanli, Ahu Gumrah

    2017-01-01

    Cellulose is a natural linear biopolymer, which is constituted of an assembly of cellulose nanofibrils in a hierarchical order. Nanocelluloses in particular show great promise as a cost-effective advanced material for biomedical applications because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and low cytotoxicity. Moreover, with their chemical functionality they can be easily modified to yield useful products. While nature uses the hierarchical nanostructure of cellulose as the load-bearing constituent in plants, a significant amount of research has been directed toward the fabrication of advanced cellulosic materials with various nanostructures and functional properties. Such nanocelluloses are widely applied in medical implants, tissue engineering, drug delivery, wound healing, diagnostics, and other medical applications with real examples in this field. There are also emerging fields being developed to use nanocelluloses and their composites in more novel ways in biomedical applications such as 3D printing and magnetically responsive materials. In this mini-review, recent advances in the design and fabrication of nanocellulose-based materials and composites are presented with a special emphasis on their suitability for material requirements for biomedical applications as well as the new directions and challenges that the materials might face in the future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah, Bullo; Hussein, Mohd Zobir B

    2015-01-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes), high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging.

  18. Application of infrared to biomedical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Etehadtavakol, Mahnaz

    2017-01-01

    The book covers the latest updates in the application of infrared to biomedical sciences, a non-invasive, contactless, safe and easy approach imaging of skin and tissue temperatures. Its diagnostic procedure allows practitioners to identify the locations of abnormal chemical and blood vessel activity such as angiogenesis in body tissue. Its non-invasive approach works by applying the technology of the infrared camera and state-of-the-art software, where high-resolution digital infrared imaging technology benefits highly from enhanced image production, standardized image interpretation protocols, computerized comparison and storage, and sophisticated image enhancement and analysis. The book contains contributions from global prominent scientists in the area of infrared applications in biomedical studies. The target audience includes academics, practitioners, clinicians and students working in the area of infrared imaging in biomedicine.

  19. Harnessing supramolecular peptide nanotechnology in biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kiat Hwa; Lee, Wei Hao; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Ni, Ming

    2017-01-01

    The harnessing of peptides in biomedical applications is a recent hot topic. This arises mainly from the general biocompatibility of peptides, as well as from the ease of tunability of peptide structure to engineer desired properties. The ease of progression from laboratory testing to clinical trials is evident from the plethora of examples available. In this review, we compare and contrast how three distinct self-assembled peptide nanostructures possess different functions. We have 1) nanofibrils in biomaterials that can interact with cells, 2) nanoparticles that can traverse the bloodstream to deliver its payload and also be bioimaged, and 3) nanotubes that can serve as cross-membrane conduits and as a template for nanowire formation. Through this review, we aim to illustrate how various peptides, in their various self-assembled nanostructures, possess great promise in a wide range of biomedical applications and what more can be expected. PMID:28223805

  20. Potential of Starch Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, N. H.; Muhammad, N.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, the development of biodegradable materials from renewable sources based on polymeric biomaterials have grown rapidly due to increase environmental concerns and the shortage of petroleum sources. In this regard, naturally renewable polymers such as starch has shown great potential as environmental friendly materials. Besides, the unique properties of starch such as biodegradable and non-toxic, biocompatible and solubility make them useful for a various biomedical applications. Regardless of their unique properties, starch materials are known to have limitations in term of poor processability, low mechanical properties, poor long term stability and high water sensitivity. In order to overcome these limitations, the incorporation of nano size fillers into starch materials (nanocomposites) has been introduced. This review aims to give an overview about structure and characteristics of starch, modification of starch by nanocomposites and their potential for biomedical applications.

  1. Nanodiamonds of Laser Synthesis for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perevedentseva, E; Peer, D; Uvarov, V; Zousman, B; Levinson, O

    2015-02-01

    In recent decade detonation nanodiamonds (DND), discovered 50 years ago and used in diverse technological processes, have been actively applied in biomedical research as a drug and gene delivery carrier, a contrast agent for bio-imaging and diagnostics and an adsorbent for protein separation and purification. In this work we report about nanodiamonds of high purity produced by laser assisted technique, compare them with DND and consider the prospect and advantages of their use in the said applications.

  2. Magnetic Fluids: Biomedical Applications and Magnetic Fractionation

    OpenAIRE

    Rheinländer, Thomas; Kötitz, Róman; Weitschies, Werner; Semmler, Wolfhard

    2000-01-01

    In addition to engineering applications, magnetic fluids containing magnetic nanoparticles are being increasingly applied to biomedical purposes. Besides the well established use of magnetic particles for biological separation or as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic particles are also being tested for the inductive heat treatment of tumors or as markers for the quantification of biologically active substances. The properties of magnetic nanoparticles usually exhibit a b...

  3. Functionalized conjugated polyelectrolytes design and biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Functionalized Conjugated Polyelectrolytes presents a comprehensive review of these polyelectrolytes and their biomedical applications. Basic aspects like molecular design and optoelectronic properties are covered in the first chapter. Emphasis is placed on the various applications including sensing (chemical and biological), disease diagnosis, cell imaging, drug/gene delivery and disease treatment. This book explores a multi-disciplinary topic of interest to researchers working in the fields of chemistry, materials, biology and medicine. It also offers an integrated perspective on both basic research and application issues. Functionalized conjugated polyelectrolyte materials, which have already drawn considerable interest, will become a major new direction for biomedicine development.

  4. Functional supramolecular polymers for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ruijiao; Zhou, Yongfeng; Huang, Xiaohua; Zhu, Xinyuan; Lu, Yunfeng; Shen, Jian

    2015-01-21

    As a novel class of dynamic and non-covalent polymers, supramolecular polymers not only display specific structural and physicochemical properties, but also have the ability to undergo reversible changes of structure, shape, and function in response to diverse external stimuli, making them promising candidates for widespread applications ranging from academic research to industrial fields. By an elegant combination of dynamic/reversible structures with exceptional functions, functional supramolecular polymers are attracting increasing attention in various fields. In particular, functional supramolecular polymers offer several unique advantages, including inherent degradable polymer backbones, smart responsiveness to various biological stimuli, and the ease for the incorporation of multiple biofunctionalities (e.g., targeting and bioactivity), thereby showing great potential for a wide range of applications in the biomedical field. In this Review, the trends and representative achievements in the design and synthesis of supramolecular polymers with specific functions are summarized, as well as their wide-ranging biomedical applications such as drug delivery, gene transfection, protein delivery, bio-imaging and diagnosis, tissue engineering, and biomimetic chemistry. These achievements further inspire persistent efforts in an emerging interdisciplin-ary research area of supramolecular chemistry, polymer science, material science, biomedical engineering, and nanotechnology. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Aptamers: Biomedical Interest and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Romero-López

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are short DNA or RNA oligonucleotides specialized in the specific and efficient binding to a target molecule. They are obtained by in vitro selection or evolution processes. It was in 1990 that two independent research groups described the bases of a new in vitro technology for the identification of RNA molecules able to specifically bind to a target [1,2]. Tuerk and Gold established the principals of the in vitro selection process that was named SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment, which is based on iterative cycles of binding, partitioning, and amplification of oligonucleotides from a pool of variant sequences [2]. Ellington and Szostak coined the term aptamer to define the selected molecules by the application of this method [1]. To date, numerous reports have described the isolation of aptamers directed against a great variety of targets covering a wide diversity of molecules varying in nature, size, and complexity ranging from ions to whole cells, including small molecules (e.g., aminoacids, nucleotides, antibiotics, peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, and viruses, among others (for example, see [3–6]. Modifications and optimization of the SELEX procedure aimed to get newly modified aptamers has also attracted much interest (examples can be found in [7,8]. These advances along with the parallel progresses in the nucleic acids chemistry and cellular delivery fields have allowed for the rise of a new hope in developing aptamers as efficient molecular tools for diagnostics and therapeutics (for recent comprehensive reviews, see [9–11].

  6. Cyanine polyene reactivity: scope and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorka, Alexander P; Nani, Roger R; Schnermann, Martin J

    2015-07-28

    Cyanines are indispensable fluorophores that form the chemical basis of many fluorescence-based applications. A feature that distinguishes cyanines from other common fluorophores is an exposed polyene linker that is both crucial to absorption and emission and subject to covalent reactions that dramatically alter these optical properties. Over the past decade, reactions involving the cyanine polyene have been used as foundational elements for a range of biomedical techniques. These include the optical sensing of biological analytes, super-resolution imaging, and near-IR light-initiated uncaging. This review surveys the chemical reactivity of the cyanine polyene and the biomedical methods enabled by these reactions. The overarching goal is to highlight the multifaceted nature of cyanine chemistry and biology, as well as to point out the key role of reactivity-based insights in this promising area.

  7. Biodegradable polymers for electrospinning: towards biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Dan; Liow, Sing Shy; Loh, Xian Jun

    2014-12-01

    Electrospinning has received much attention recently due to the growing interest in nano-technologies and the unique material properties. This review focuses on recent progress in applying electrospinning technique in production of biodegradable nanofibers to the emerging field of biomedical. It first introduces the basic theory and parameters of nanofibers fabrication, with focus on factors affecting the morphology and fiber diameter of biodegradable nanofibers. Next, commonly electrospun biodegradable nanofibers are discussed, and the comparison of the degradation rate of nanoscale materials with macroscale materials are highlighted. The article also assesses the recent advancement of biodegradable nanofibers in different biomedical applications, including tissue engineering, drug delivery, biosensor and immunoassay. Future perspectives of biodegradable nanofibers are discussed in the last section, which emphasizes on the innovation and development in electrospinning of hydrogels nanofibers, pore size control and scale-up productions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nanocrystalline diamond films for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Alcaide, Maria

    2014-01-01

    performance of nanocrystalline diamond films is reviewed from an application-specific perspective, covering topics such as enhancement of cellular adhesion, anti-fouling coatings, non-thrombogenic surfaces, micropatterning of cells and proteins, and immobilization of biomolecules for bioassays. In order......Nanocrystalline diamond films, which comprise the so called nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) and ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD), represent a class of biomaterials possessing outstanding mechanical, tribological, and electrical properties, which include high surface smoothness, high corrosion...... resistance, chemical inertness, superior electrochemical behavior, biocompatibility, and nontoxicity. These properties have positioned the nanocrystalline diamond films as an attractive class of materials for a range of therapeutic and diagnostic applications in the biomedical field. Consequently...

  9. Organic Bioelectronic Tools for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Löffler

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic bioelectronics forms the basis of conductive polymer tools with great potential for application in biomedical science and medicine. It is a rapidly growing field of both academic and industrial interest since conductive polymers bridge the gap between electronics and biology by being electronically and ionically conductive. This feature can be employed in numerous ways by choosing the right polyelectrolyte system and tuning its properties towards the intended application. This review highlights how active organic bioelectronic surfaces can be used to control cell attachment and release as well as to trigger cell signaling by means of electrical, chemical or mechanical actuation. Furthermore, we report on the unique properties of conductive polymers that make them outstanding materials for labeled or label-free biosensors. Techniques for electronically controlled ion transport in organic bioelectronic devices are introduced, and examples are provided to illustrate their use in self-regulated medical devices. Organic bioelectronics have great potential to become a primary platform in future bioelectronics. We therefore introduce current applications that will aid in the development of advanced in vitro systems for biomedical science and of automated systems for applications in neuroscience, cell biology and infection biology. Considering this broad spectrum of applications, organic bioelectronics could lead to timely detection of disease, and facilitate the use of remote and personalized medicine. As such, organic bioelectronics might contribute to efficient healthcare and reduced hospitalization times for patients.

  10. Electroactive polymers for healthcare and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Siegfried

    2017-04-01

    Electroactivity was noticed early in biological substances, including proteins, polynucleotides and enzymes, even piezoand pyroelectricity were found in wool, hair, wood, bone and tendon. Recently, ferroelectricity has been identified in a surprisingly large number of biologically relevant materials, including hydroxyapatite, aortic walls and elastin. Inspired by the variety of natural electroactive materials, a wealth of new elastomers and polymers were designed recently, including an all organic elastomer electret and self-healing dielectric elastomers. Let's further draw inspiration from nature and widen the utilization of electroactive polymers towards (mobile) healthcare and biomedical applications. Ferroelectrets, internally charged polymer foams with a strong piezoelectric thickness coefficient are employed in biomedical sensing, for example as blood pressure and pulse sensor, as vital signs monitor or for the detection of tonicclonic seizures. Piezo- and pyroelectric polymers are booming in printed electronics research. They provide electronic skin the ability to "feel" pressure and temperature changes, or to generate electrical energy from vibrations and motions, even from contractile and relaxation motions of the heart and lung. Dielectric elastomers are pioneered by StretchSense as wearable motion capture sensors, monitoring pressure, stretch, bend and shear, quantifying comfort in sports and healthcare. On the cellular level, electroactive polymer arrays are used to study mechanotransduction of individual cells. Ionic electroactive polymers show potential to be used in implantable electroactive biomedical devices. Already with the currently available science and technology, we are at the verge of witnessing the demonstration of truly complex bionic systems.

  11. Nature inspired structured surfaces for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, H K; Hasan, J; Truong, V K; Crawford, R J; Ivanova, E P

    2011-01-01

    Nature has created an array of superhydrophobic surfaces that possess water-repellent, self-cleaning and anti-icing properties. These surfaces have a number of potential applications in the biomedical industry, as they have the potential to control protein adsorption and cell adhesion. Natural superhydrophobic surfaces are typically composed of materials with a low intrinsic surface free-energy (e.g the cuticular waxes of lotus leaves and insect wings) with a hierarchical structural configuration. This hierarchical surface topography acts to decrease the contact area of water droplets in contact with the surface, thereby increasing the extent of the air/water interface, resulting in water contact angles greater than 150º. In order to employ these surfaces in biotechnological applications, fabrication techniques must be developed so that these multi-scale surface roughness characteristics can be reproduced. Additionally, these fabrication techniques must also be able to be applied to the material required for the intended application. An overview of some of the superhydrophobic surfaces that exist in nature is presented, together with an explanation of the theories of their wettability. Also included is a description of some of the biomedical applications of superhydrophobic surfaces and fabrication techniques that can be used to mimic superhydrophobic surfaces found in nature.

  12. CMT for biomedical and other applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spanne, P. [ESRF, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    This session includes two presentations describing applications for x-ray tomography using synchrotron radiation for biomedical uses and fluid flow modeling, and outlines advantages for using monoenergetic x-rays. Contrast mechanisms are briefly described and several graphs of absorbed doses and scattering of x-rays are included. Also presented are schematic diagrams of computerized tomographic instrumentation with camera head. A brief description of goals for a real time tomographic system and expected improvements to the system are described. Color photomicrographs of the Berea Sandstone and human bone are provided, as well as a 3-D microtomographic reconstruction of a human vertebra sample.

  13. Designing fractal nanostructured biointerfaces for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengchao; Wang, Shutao

    2014-06-06

    Fractal structures in nature offer a unique "fractal contact mode" that guarantees the efficient working of an organism with an optimized style. Fractal nanostructured biointerfaces have shown great potential for the ultrasensitive detection of disease-relevant biomarkers from small biomolecules on the nanoscale to cancer cells on the microscale. This review will present the advantages of fractal nanostructures, the basic concept of designing fractal nanostructured biointerfaces, and their biomedical applications for the ultrasensitive detection of various disease-relevant biomarkers, such microRNA, cancer antigen 125, and breast cancer cells, from unpurified cell lysates and the blood of patients.

  14. Single-domain antibodies for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krah, Simon; Schröter, Christian; Zielonka, Stefan; Empting, Martin; Valldorf, Bernhard; Kolmar, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Single-domain antibodies are the smallest antigen-binding units of antibodies, consisting either only of one variable domain or one engineered constant domain that solely facilitates target binding. This class of antibody derivatives comprises naturally occurring variable domains derived from camelids and sharks as well as engineered human variable or constant antibody domains of the heavy or light chain. Because of their high affinity and specificity as well as stability, small size and benefit of multiple re-formatting opportunities, those molecules emerged as promising candidates for biomedical applications and some of these entities have already proven to be successful in clinical development.

  15. Degradable vinyl polymers for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delplace, Vianney; Nicolas, Julien

    2015-10-01

    Vinyl polymers have been the focus of intensive research over the past few decades and are attractive materials owing to their ease of synthesis and their broad diversity of architectures, compositions and functionalities. Their carbon-carbon backbones are extremely resistant to degradation, however, and this property limits their uses. Degradable polymers are an important field of research in polymer science and have been used in a wide range of applications spanning from (nano)medicine to microelectronics and environmental protection. The development of synthetic strategies to enable complete or partial degradation of vinyl polymers is, therefore, of great importance because it will offer new opportunities for the application of these materials. This Review captures the most recent and promising approaches to the design of degradable vinyl polymers and discusses the potential of these materials for biomedical applications.

  16. Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudovan, Dragoș; Balaure, Paul Cătălin; Mihăiescu, Dan Eduard; Fudulu, Adrian; Purcăreanu, Bogdan; Radu, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles followed two main directions in the field of biomedical applications: one direction is as image enhancing agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the other is as drugdelivery devices for various biologically-active substances. A third field which just emerges in nanomedicine is the field of the so-called theranostic devices which combines in the same delivery vehicle both the therapeutic agent and the contrast substance. The advantages of using nanoparticles instead of larger carriers for delivery of both drug and image contrast enhancing agents will be highlighted throughout this review article. Despite the ever increasing number of articles reporting both in vitro and in vivo studies carried out on functionalized magnetic nanoparticles and envisaging their potential biomedical applications, only few formulations reached the phase of clinical trials and even fewer became marketed products. The perspectives in the field are open, since new drugs require new delivery devices and possibly new means of functionalization. At the same time, the field of nanomedicine also provides the opportunity to better exploit drugs that are already in clinical use by improving their bioavailability through appropriate nanoformulations.

  17. Engineering Stem Cells for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Perry T; Han, Edward; Lee, Ki-Bum

    2016-01-07

    Stem cells are characterized by a number of useful properties, including their ability to migrate, differentiate, and secrete a variety of therapeutic molecules such as immunomodulatory factors. As such, numerous pre-clinical and clinical studies have utilized stem cell-based therapies and demonstrated their tremendous potential for the treatment of various human diseases and disorders. Recently, efforts have focused on engineering stem cells in order to further enhance their innate abilities as well as to confer them with new functionalities, which can then be used in various biomedical applications. These engineered stem cells can take on a number of forms. For instance, engineered stem cells encompass the genetic modification of stem cells as well as the use of stem cells for gene delivery, nanoparticle loading and delivery, and even small molecule drug delivery. The present Review gives an in-depth account of the current status of engineered stem cells, including potential cell sources, the most common methods used to engineer stem cells, and the utilization of engineered stem cells in various biomedical applications, with a particular focus on tissue regeneration, the treatment of immunodeficiency diseases, and cancer.

  18. Rotation Covariant Image Processing for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Skibbe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of novel biomedical 3D image acquisition techniques, the efficient and reliable analysis of volumetric images has become more and more important. The amount of data is enormous and demands an automated processing. The applications are manifold, ranging from image enhancement, image reconstruction, and image description to object/feature detection and high-level contextual feature extraction. In most scenarios, it is expected that geometric transformations alter the output in a mathematically well-defined manner. In this paper we emphasis on 3D translations and rotations. Many algorithms rely on intensity or low-order tensorial-like descriptions to fulfill this demand. This paper proposes a general mathematical framework based on mathematical concepts and theories transferred from mathematical physics and harmonic analysis into the domain of image analysis and pattern recognition. Based on two basic operations, spherical tensor differentiation and spherical tensor multiplication, we show how to design a variety of 3D image processing methods in an efficient way. The framework has already been applied to several biomedical applications ranging from feature and object detection tasks to image enhancement and image restoration techniques. In this paper, the proposed methods are applied on a variety of different 3D data modalities stemming from medical and biological sciences.

  19. Hyperbranched polyphosphates: synthesis, functionalization and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinyao; Huang, Wei; Pang, Yan; Yan, Deyue

    2015-06-21

    Hyperbranched polyphosphates (HBPPs) are newly emerged polymeric biomaterials with repeating phosphate bonds in a highly branched framework over the past 5 years. Due to the integration of the advantages of both hyperbranched polymers and polyphosphates, HBPPs are versatile in chemical structure, flexible in physicochemical properties, water soluble, biocompatible and biodegradable in biological features. On the basis of their excellent water solubility, biocompatibility, biodegradability and potential functionalization as well as their simple preparation in one-pot synthesis, HBPPs have fascinating biomedical applications, especially for drug delivery. In this tutorial review, the recent advances of HBPPs are summarized. HBPPs with different topological structures and various functionalities were synthesized via adjusting the side group of cyclic phosphate monomers, which have shown promising biomedical applications, for example, using as a macromolecular anticancer agent and constructing advanced drug delivery systems, including site-specific delivery systems, self-delivery systems, and stimuli-responsive delivery systems. Such progress may promote the further development of interdisciplinary research between polymer chemistry, material science and biomedicine.

  20. Surface tailoring of inorganic materials for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rimondini, Lia; Vernè, Enrica

    2012-01-01

    This e-book provides comprehensive information on technologies for development and characterization of successful functionalized materials for biomedical applications relevant to surface modification.

  1. Recent progress in the biomedical applications of polydopamine nanostructures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Batul, Rahila; Tamanna, Tasnuva; Khaliq, Abdul; Yu, Aimin

    2017-01-01

    .... Although its structure and polymerization mechanism have not been fully understood, there has been a rapid growth in the synthesis and applications of polydopamine nanostructures in biomedical fields...

  2. Engineering β-sheet peptide assemblies for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiqiang; Cai, Zheng; Chen, Qiling; Liu, Menghua; Ye, Ling; Ren, Jiaoyan; Liao, Wenzhen; Liu, Shuwen

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogels have been widely studied in various biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, cell culture, immunotherapy and vaccines, and drug delivery. Peptide-based nanofibers represent a promising new strategy for current drug delivery approaches and cell carriers for tissue engineering. This review focuses on the recent advances in the use of self-assembling engineered β-sheet peptide assemblies for biomedical applications. The applications of peptide nanofibers in biomedical fields, such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, immunotherapy, and vaccines, are highlighted. The current challenges and future perspectives for self-assembling peptide nanofibers in biomedical applications are discussed.

  3. Chitosan Modification and Pharmaceutical/Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Zhang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan has received much attention as a functional biopolymer for diverse applications, especially in pharmaceutics and medicine. Our recent efforts focused on the chemical and biological modification of chitosan in order to increase its solubility in aqueous solutions and absorbability in the in vivo system, thus for a better use of chitosan. This review summarizes chitosan modification and its pharmaceutical/biomedical applications based on our achievements as well as the domestic and overseas developments: (1 enzymatic preparation of low molecular weight chitosans/chitooligosaccharides with their hypocholesterolemic and immuno-modulating effects; (2 the effects of chitin, chitosan and their derivatives on blood hemostasis; and (3 synthesis of a non-toxic ion ligand—D-Glucosaminic acid from Oxidation of D-Glucosamine for cancer and diabetes therapy.

  4. Engineering nanomaterial surfaces for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Li-Hong; Ramström, Olof; Yan, Mingdi

    2009-10-01

    Nanomaterials, possessing unique physical and chemical properties, have attracted much interest and generated wide varieties of applications. Recent investigations of functionalized nanomaterials have expanded into the biological area, providing a versatile platform in biomedical applications such as biomolecular sensing, biological imaging, drug delivery and disease therapy. Bio-functions and bio-compatibility of nanomaterials are realized by introducing synthetic ligands or natural biomolecules onto nanomaterials, and combining ligand-receptor biological interactions with intrinsic nanomaterial properties. Common strategies of engineering nanomaterial surfaces involve physisorption or chemisorption of desired ligands. We developed a photochemically initiated surface coupling chemistry, bringing versatility and simplicity to nanomaterial functionalization. The method was applied to attach underivatized carbohydrates efficiently on gold and iron oxide nanoparticles, and the resulting glyconanoparticles were successfully used as a sensitive biosensing system probing specific interactions between carbohydrates and proteins as well as bacteria.

  5. Fluid-structure interaction and biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Galdi, Giovanni; Nečasová, Šárka

    2014-01-01

    This book presents, in a methodical way, updated and comprehensive descriptions and analyses of some of the most relevant problems in the context of fluid-structure interaction (FSI). Generally speaking, FSI is among the most popular and intriguing problems in applied sciences and includes industrial as well as biological applications. Various fundamental aspects of FSI are addressed from different perspectives, with a focus on biomedical applications. More specifically, the book presents a mathematical analysis of basic questions like the well-posedness of the relevant initial and boundary value problems, as well as the modeling and the numerical simulation of a number of fundamental phenomena related to human biology. These latter research topics include blood flow in arteries and veins, blood coagulation and speech modeling. We believe that the variety of the topics discussed, along with the different approaches used to address and solve the corresponding problems, will help readers to develop a more holis...

  6. Dielectrophoresis for Biomedical Sciences Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhaslina Abd Rahman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dielectrophoresis (DEP is a label-free, accurate, fast, low-cost diagnostic technique that uses the principles of polarization and the motion of bioparticles in applied electric fields. This technique has been proven to be beneficial in various fields, including environmental research, polymer research, biosensors, microfluidics, medicine and diagnostics. Biomedical science research is one of the major research areas that could potentially benefit from DEP technology for diverse applications. Nevertheless, many medical science research investigations have yet to benefit from the possibilities offered by DEP. This paper critically reviews the fundamentals, recent progress, current challenges, future directions and potential applications of research investigations in the medical sciences utilizing DEP technique. This review will also act as a guide and reference for medical researchers and scientists to explore and utilize the DEP technique in their research fields.

  7. Chitosan Modification and Pharmaceutical/Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiali; Xia, Wenshui; Liu, Ping; Cheng, Qinyuan; Tahirou, Talba; Gu, Wenxiu; Li, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Chitosan has received much attention as a functional biopolymer for diverse applications, especially in pharmaceutics and medicine. Our recent efforts focused on the chemical and biological modification of chitosan in order to increase its solubility in aqueous solutions and absorbability in the in vivo system, thus for a better use of chitosan. This review summarizes chitosan modification and its pharmaceutical/biomedical applications based on our achievements as well as the domestic and overseas developments: (1) enzymatic preparation of low molecular weight chitosans/chitooligosaccharides with their hypocholesterolemic and immuno-modulating effects; (2) the effects of chitin, chitosan and their derivatives on blood hemostasis; and (3) synthesis of a non-toxic ion ligand—D-Glucosaminic acid from Oxidation of D-Glucosamine for cancer and diabetes therapy. PMID:20714418

  8. Engineering Nanomaterial Surfaces for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Li-Hong; Ramström, Olof; Yan, Mingdi

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials, possessing unique physical and chemical properties, have attracted much interest and generated wide varieties of applications. Recent investigations of functionalized nanomaterials have expanded into the biological area, providing a versatile platform in biomedical applications such as biomolecular sensing, biological imaging, drug delivery and disease therapy. Bio-functions and bio-compatibility of nanomaterials are realized by introducing synthetic ligands or natural biomolecules onto nanomaterials, and combining ligand-receptor biological interactions with intrinsic nanomaterial properties. Common strategies of engineering nanomaterial surfaces involve physisorption or chemisorption of desired ligands. We developed a photochemically initiated surface coupling chemistry, bringing versatility and simplicity to nanomaterial functionalization. The method was applied to attach underivatized carbohydrates efficiently on gold and iron oxide nanoparticles, and the resulting glyconanoparticles were successfully used as a sensitive biosensing system probing specific interactions between carbohydrates and proteins as well as bacteria. PMID:19596820

  9. Dielectrophoresis for Biomedical Sciences Applications: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Rahman, Nurhaslina; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Yafouz, Bashar

    2017-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is a label-free, accurate, fast, low-cost diagnostic technique that uses the principles of polarization and the motion of bioparticles in applied electric fields. This technique has been proven to be beneficial in various fields, including environmental research, polymer research, biosensors, microfluidics, medicine and diagnostics. Biomedical science research is one of the major research areas that could potentially benefit from DEP technology for diverse applications. Nevertheless, many medical science research investigations have yet to benefit from the possibilities offered by DEP. This paper critically reviews the fundamentals, recent progress, current challenges, future directions and potential applications of research investigations in the medical sciences utilizing DEP technique. This review will also act as a guide and reference for medical researchers and scientists to explore and utilize the DEP technique in their research fields. PMID:28245552

  10. Silk fibroin nanostructured materials for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulos, Alexander N.

    Nanostructured biopolymers have proven to be promising to develop novel biomedical applications where forming structures at the nanoscale normally occurs by self-assembly. However, synthesizing these structures can also occur by inducing materials to transition into other forms by adding chemical cross-linkers, changing pH, or changing ionic composition. Understanding the generation of nanostructures in fluid environments, such as liquid organic solvents or supercritical fluids, has not been thoroughly examined, particularly those that are based on protein-based block-copolymers. Here, we examine the transformation of reconstituted silk fibroin, which has emerged as a promising biopolymer due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and ease of functionalization, into submicron spheres and gel networks which offer applications in tissue engineering and advanced sensors. Two types of gel networks, hydrogels and aerogels, have small pores and large surface areas that are defined by their structure. We design and analyze silk nanoparticle formation using a microfluidic device while offering an application for drug delivery. Additionally, we provide a model and characterize hydrogel formation from micelles to nanoparticles, while investigating cellular response to the hydrogel in an in vitro cell culture model. Lastly, we provide a second model of nanofiber formation during near-critical and supercritical drying and characterize the silk fibroin properties at different drying pressures which, when acting as a stabilizing matrix, shows to improve the activity of entrapped enzymes dried at different pressures. This work has created new nanostructured silk fibroin forms to benefit biomedical applications that could be applied to other fibrous proteins.

  11. Recent advances with a hybrid micro-pattern gas detector operated in low pressure H2 and He, for AT-TPC applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cortesi, Marco; Bazin, Daniel; Beceiro-Novo, Saul; Yurkon, John; Tanani, Rim Soussi; Wolff, Michael; Stolz, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In view of a possible application as a charge-particle track readout for an Active-Target Time Projection Chamber (AT-TPC), the operational properties and performances of a hybrid Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detector (MPGD) were investigated in pure low-pressure Hydrogen (H2) and Helium (He). The detector consists of a MICROMesh GAseous Structure (MICROMEGAS) coupled to a single- or multi-cascade THick Gaseous Electron Multiplier (THGEM) as a pre-amplification stage. This study reports of the effective gain dependence of the hybrid-MPGD at relevant pressure (in the range of 200-760 torr) for different detector arrangements. The results of this work are relevant in the field of avalanche mechanism in low-pressure, low-mass noble gases, in particularly for applications of MPGD end-cap readout for active-target Time Projection Chambers (TPC) in the field of nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics.

  12. Nanomaterials and nanofabrication for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chao-Min; Chia-Wen Wu, Kevin

    2013-08-01

    Traditional boundaries between materials science and engineering and life sciences are rapidly disintegrating as interdisciplinary research teams develop new materials-science-based tools for exploring fundamental issues in both medicine and biology. With recent technological advances in multiple research fields such as materials science, cell and molecular biology and micro-/nano-technology, much attention is shifting toward evaluating the functional advantages of nanomaterials and nanofabrication, at the cellular and molecular levels, for specific, biomedically relevant applications. The pursuit of this direction enhances the understanding of the mechanisms of, and therapeutic potentials for, some of the most lethal diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, organ fibrosis and cancers. This interdisciplinary approach has generated great interest among researchers working in a wide variety of communities including industry, universities and research laboratories. The purpose of this focus issue in Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is to bridge nanotechnology and biology with medicine, focusing more on the applications of nanomaterials and nanofabrication in biomedically relevant issues. This focus issue, we believe, will provide a more comprehensive understanding of (i) the preparation of nanomaterials and the underlying mechanisms of nanofabrication, and (ii) the linkage of nanomaterials and nanofabrication with biomedical applications. The multidisciplinary focus issue that we have attempted to organize is of interest to various research fields including biomaterials and tissue engineering, bioengineering, nanotechnology and nanomaterials, i.e. chemistry, physics and engineering. Nanomaterials and nanofabrication topics addressed in this focus issue include sensing and diagnosis (e.g. immunosensing and diagnostic devices for diseases), cellular and molecular biology (e.g. probing cellular behaviors and stem cell differentiation) and drug delivery

  13. 低压洗涤塔在尿素装置低压尾气回收中的应用%Application of low-pressure scrubber in low-pressure exhaust gas recycling of urea plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯立志

    2014-01-01

    简要介绍二氧化碳汽提尿素装置低压回收工序采用低压洗涤塔工艺,有效降低了尾气中氨、二氧化碳的排放,大大降低了生产成本。%The paper briefly introduces low-pressure scrubber process in low-pressure exhaust gas recycling of CO2 stripping urea plant,reducing ammonia and carbon dioxide emissions effectively in tail gas,and reducing the cost of production greatly.

  14. Biomedical applications of poisonous plant research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lynn F; Panter, Kip E; Gaffield, William; Molyneux, Russell J

    2004-06-01

    Research designed to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds responsible for the toxicity of plants to livestock that graze them has been extremely successful. The knowledge gained has been used to design management techniques to prevent economic losses, predict potential outbreaks of poisoning, and treat affected animals. The availability of these compounds in pure form has now provided scientists with tools to develop animal models for human diseases, study modes of action at the molecular level, and apply such knowledge to the development of potential drug candidates for the treatment of a number of genetic and infectious conditions. These advances are illustrated by specific examples of biomedical applications of the toxins of Veratrum californicum (western false hellebore), Lupinus species (lupines), and Astragalus and Oxytropis species (locoweeds).

  15. Encapsulated magnetite particles for biomedical application

    CERN Document Server

    Landfester, K

    2003-01-01

    The process of miniemulsification allows the generation of small, homogeneous, and stable droplets containing monomer or polymer precursors and magnetite which are then transferred by polymer reactions to the final polymer latexes, keeping their particular identity without serious exchange kinetics involved. It is shown that the miniemulsion process can excellently be used for the formulation of polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles which can further be used for biomedical applications. The use of high shear, appropriate surfactants, and the addition of a hydrophobe in order to suppress the influence of Ostwald ripening are key factors for the formation of the small and stable droplets in miniemulsion and will be discussed. Two different approaches based on miniemulsion processes for the encapsulation of magnetite into polymer particles will be presented in detail.

  16. Nanostructured Diamond Device for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijalkowski, M; Karczemska, A; Lysko, J M; Zybala, R; KozaneckI, M; Filipczak, P; Ralchenko, V; Walock, M; Stanishevsky, A; Mitura, S

    2015-02-01

    Diamond is increasingly used in biomedical applications because of its unique properties such as the highest thermal conductivity, good optical properties, high electrical breakdown voltage as well as excellent biocompatibility and chemical resistance. Diamond has also been introduced as an excellent substrate to make the functional microchip structures for electrophoresis, which is the most popular separation technique for the determination of analytes. In this investigation, a diamond electrophoretic chip was manufactured by a replica method using a silicon mold. A polycrystalline 300 micron-thick diamond layer was grown by the microwave plasma-assisted CVD (MPCVD) technique onto a patterned silicon substrate followed by the removal of the substrate. The geometry of microstructure, chemical composition, thermal and optical properties of the resulting free-standing diamond electrophoretic microchip structure were examined by CLSM, SFE, UV-Vis, Raman, XRD and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and by a modified laser flash method for thermal property measurements.

  17. Optical nanoparticles: synthesis and biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhung Tran, Hong; Nghiem, Thi Ha Lien; Thuy Duong Vu, Thi; Chu, Viet Ha; Huan Le, Quang; Nhung Hoang, Thi My; Thanh Nguyen, Lai; Pham, Duc Minh; Thuan Tong, Kim; Hoa Do, Quang; Vu, Duong; Nghia Nguyen, Trong; Tan Pham, Minh; Nguyen Duong, Cao; Thuy Tran, Thanh; Son Vu, Van; Thuy Nguyen, Thi; Nguyen, Thi Bich Ngoc; Tran, Anh Duc; Thuong Trinh, Thi; Nguyen, Thi Thai An

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of our results on studies of synthesis and biomedical application of optical nanoparticles. Gold, dye-doped silica based and core-shell multifunctional multilayer (SiO2/Au, Fe3O4/SiO2, Fe3O4/SiO2/Au) water-monodispersed nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical route and surface modified with proteins and biocompatible chemical reagents. The particles were conjugated with antibody or aptamer for specific detecting and imaging bacteria and cancer cells. The photothermal effects of gold nanoshells (SiO2/Au and Fe3O4/SiO2/Au) on cells and tissues were investigated. The nano silver substrates were developed for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy to detect melamine.

  18. Irradiation effects on hydrases for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Masakazu E-mail: mfuruta@riast.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Ohashi, Isao; Oka, Masahito; Hayashi, Toshio

    2000-03-01

    To apply an irradiation technique to sterilize 'Hybrid' biomedical materials including enzymes, we selected papain, a well-characterized plant endopeptidase as a model to examine durability of enzyme activity under the practical irradiation condition in which limited data were available for irradiation inactivation of enzymes. Dry powder and frozen aqueous solution of papain showed significant durability against {sup 60}Co-gamma irradiation suggesting that, the commercial irradiation sterilizing method is applicable without modification. Although irradiation of unfrozen aqueous papain solution showed an unusual change of the enzymatic activity with the increasing doses, and was totally inactivated at 15 kGy, we managed to keep the residual activity more than 50% of initial activity after 30-kGy irradiation, taking such optimum conditions as increasing enzyme concentration from 10 to 100 mg/ml and purging with N{sub 2} gas to suppress the formation of free radicals. (author)

  19. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); King, S.J.; Day, J.P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-12-31

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of {sup 26}Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 129}I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs.

  20. Porphyrin Microparticles for Biological and Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Elizabeth

    Lipids are one of the critical building blocks of life, forming the plasma membrane of cells. In addition, porphyrins also play an equally important role in life, for example, through carrying oxygen in blood. The importance of both these components is evident through the biological and biomedical applications of supramolecular structures generated from lipids and porphyrins. This thesis investigates new porphyrin microparticles based on porphyrin-lipid architecture and their potential applications in biology and medicine. In Chapter 1, a background on lipid and porphyrin-based supramolecular structures is presented and design considerations for generating multifunctional agents. Chapter 2 describes the generation of a monolayer porphyrin microparticle as a dual-modal ultrasound and photoacoustic contrast agent and subsequently, a trimodal ultrasound, photoacoustic and fluorescence contrast agent. Chapter 3 examines the optical and morphological response of these multimodality ultrasound-based contrast agents to low frequency, high duty cycle ultrasound that causes the porphyrin microparticles to convertinto nanoparticles. Chapter 4 examines the generation of bilayer micrometer-sized porphyrin vesicles and their properties. Chapter 5 presents a brief summary and potential future directions. Although these microscale structures are similar in structure, the applications of these structures greatly differ with potential applications in biology and also imaging and therapy of disease. This thesis aims to explore and demonstrate the potential of new simplified, supramolecular structures based on one main building block, porphyrin-lipid.

  1. Novel Hyperbranched Polyurethane Brushes for Biomedical Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ton; Loontjens; Bart; Plum

    2007-01-01

    1 Results The objective was to make hyperbranched (HB) polyurethane brushes with reactive end groups, to coat biomedical devices and to enable the introduction of various functionalities that are needed to fulfill biomedical tasks.Biomedical materials should fulfill at least three requirements: (1) good mechanical properties, (2) good biocompatibility and (3) provided with functionalities to perform the required tasks. Since polyurethanes are able to fulfill the first 2 requirements we focused in this w...

  2. High-power green diode laser systems for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André

    Due to their unique characteristics, diode lasers are increasingly attractive for numerous applications. For example, in the biomedical field the provided output power, spatial quality, and wavelength coverage of diode lasers has enabled their applications in, e.g., dermatology, diffuse spectrosc......Due to their unique characteristics, diode lasers are increasingly attractive for numerous applications. For example, in the biomedical field the provided output power, spatial quality, and wavelength coverage of diode lasers has enabled their applications in, e.g., dermatology, diffuse......, the obtained results clearly strengthen the application potential of diode lasers, including the biomedical field....

  3. Fabricating Superhydrophobic Polymeric Materials for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Jonah; Grinstaff, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Superhydrophobic materials, with surfaces possessing permanent or metastable non-wetted states, are of interest for a number of biomedical and industrial applications. Here we describe how electrospinning or electrospraying a polymer mixture containing a biodegradable, biocompatible aliphatic polyester (e.g., polycaprolactone and poly(lactide-co-glycolide)), as the major component, doped with a hydrophobic copolymer composed of the polyester and a stearate-modified poly(glycerol carbonate) affords a superhydrophobic biomaterial. The fabrication techniques of electrospinning or electrospraying provide the enhanced surface roughness and porosity on and within the fibers or the particles, respectively. The use of a low surface energy copolymer dopant that blends with the polyester and can be stably electrospun or electrosprayed affords these superhydrophobic materials. Important parameters such as fiber size, copolymer dopant composition and/or concentration, and their effects on wettability are discussed. This combination of polymer chemistry and process engineering affords a versatile approach to develop application-specific materials using scalable techniques, which are likely generalizable to a wider class of polymers for a variety of applications. PMID:26383018

  4. TLC/HPTLC in Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, A.; Moheman, A.

    The main objective of this chapter is to encapsulate the applications of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) as used in the analysis of compounds of pharmaceutical importance. The chapter discusses the advantages of using TLC or HPTLC for biomedical applications and summarizes important information on stationary and mobile phases, adopted methodology, sample application, zone detection, and identification and quantification of amino acids and proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, bile acids, drugs, vitamins, and porphyrins in biological matrices such as blood, urine, feces, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, body tissues, etc. Among the stationary phases, silica gel has been the most preferred layer material in combination of mixed aqueous- organic or multicomponent organic solvent systems as mobile phase. For quantitative determination of analyte in various matrices, densitometry has been more commonly used. According to the literature survey, the interest of chromatographers in using the TLC/HPTLC has been in the following order: drugs > amino acids and proteins > lipids > bile acids > carbohydrates/vitamins > porphyrins.

  5. Biomedical Applications of Shape Memory Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Petrini

    2011-01-01

    behaviors, due to the peculiar crystallographic structure of the alloys, assure the recovery of the original shape even after large deformations and the maintenance of a constant applied force in correspondence of significant displacements. These properties, joined with good corrosion and bending resistance, biological and magnetic resonance compatibility, explain the large diffusion, in the last 20 years, of SMA in the production of biomedical devices, in particular for mini-invasive techniques. In this paper a detailed review of the main applications of NiTi alloys in dental, orthopedics, vascular, neurological, and surgical fields is presented. In particular for each device the main characteristics and the advantages of using SMA are discussed. Moreover, the paper underlines the opportunities and the room for new ideas able to enlarge the range of SMA applications. However, it is fundamental to remember that the complexity of the material and application requires a strict collaboration between clinicians, engineers, physicists and chemists for defining accurately the problem, finding the best solution in terms of device design and accordingly optimizing the NiTi alloy properties.

  6. Low-pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Richard [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Kniep, Jay [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Hao, Pingjiao [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Chan, Chi Cheng [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Nguyen, Vincent [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Huang, Ivy [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Amo, Karl [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Freeman, Brice [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Fulton, Don [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Ly, Jennifer [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Lipscomb, Glenn [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Lou, Yuecun [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Gogar, Ravikumar [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States)

    2015-01-29

    This final technical progress report describes work conducted by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE NETL) on development of low-pressure membrane contactors for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from power plant flue gas (award number DE-FE0007553). The work was conducted from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2014. The overall goal of this three-year project was to build and operate a prototype 500 m2 low-pressure sweep membrane module specifically designed to separate CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. MTR was assisted in this project by a research group at the University of Toledo, which contributed to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of module design and process simulation. This report details the work conducted to develop a new type of membrane contactor specifically designed for the high-gas-flow, low-pressure, countercurrent sweep operation required for affordable membrane-based CO2 capture at coal power plants. Work for this project included module development and testing, design and assembly of a large membrane module test unit at MTR, CFD comparative analysis of cross-flow, countercurrent, and novel partial-countercurrent sweep membrane module designs, CFD analysis of membrane spacers, design and fabrication of a 500 m2 membrane module skid for field tests, a detailed performance and cost analysis of the MTR CO2 capture process with low-pressure sweep modules, and a process design analysis of a membrane-hybrid separation process for CO2 removal from coal-fired flue gas. Key results for each major task are discussed in the report.

  7. Camera systems in human motion analysis for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lim Chee; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yaacob, Sazali; Juan, Yeap Ewe; Kadir, Aida Khairunnisaa Ab.

    2015-05-01

    Human Motion Analysis (HMA) system has been one of the major interests among researchers in the field of computer vision, artificial intelligence and biomedical engineering and sciences. This is due to its wide and promising biomedical applications, namely, bio-instrumentation for human computer interfacing and surveillance system for monitoring human behaviour as well as analysis of biomedical signal and image processing for diagnosis and rehabilitation applications. This paper provides an extensive review of the camera system of HMA, its taxonomy, including camera types, camera calibration and camera configuration. The review focused on evaluating the camera system consideration of the HMA system specifically for biomedical applications. This review is important as it provides guidelines and recommendation for researchers and practitioners in selecting a camera system of the HMA system for biomedical applications.

  8. Fullerenol - properties and applications in biomedical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Grębowski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fullerenols, the water-soluble derivatives of fullerenes, are currently being recently intensively studied in the context of the possibility of their application in the biomedicine. Due to their hydrophilic properties and the ability to eliminate free radicals, fullerenols may in the future provide a solid alternative to currently used pharmacological methods in chemotherapy, treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and radiobiology. Depending on the research protocol applied, fullerenols may also act as pro oxidants. The dualistic nature of fullerenols may contribute to finding new biomedical applications of these agents in the future, by exerting a cytotoxic or protective effect respectively against cancer cells or healthy cells. Because of the encapsulated structure of fullerenols, there exists the possibility of their application in medical diagnostics in the transfer of contrast agents or in the drug transport. During the planning of an experiment designed to investigate the effects of radiation in combination with derivatives of water-soluble fullerenes, the possibility of appearance of the “dose-response effect” should be taken into consideration since it significantly contributes to one of the two possible effects: protection or sensitization. The same applies to the possibility of using these compounds as potential neuroprotectors. Fullerenol may protect neurons in the particular areas of the brain but in the definedcertain doses it may also induce cell death. A giant leap in the field of nanotechnology not only leads scientists to search for new applications of nanomaterials such as fullerenols, but also raises the question about their harmful effect on the environment. High utilization of hardly biodegradable fullerenols increases the likelihood of their accidental release into natural systems and their bioaccumulation. Despite convincing evidences about the potential applications of fullerenols in biomedicine, we still have

  9. Polyurethane biocompatible silver bionanocomposites for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, D.; Macocinschi, D.; Paslaru, E.; Munteanu, B. S.; Dumitriu, R. P.; Lungu, M.; Vasile, C.

    2014-11-01

    Bionanocomposite membranes based on polyurethane (PU), extracellular matrix (EM), and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared by applying both solvent casting method and electrospinning/electrospraying method. PU-EM-Ag compositions were electrospun/electrosprayed onto PU membrane to realize improved biocompatible biomaterials. Surface morphological characteristics and wettability properties were investigated by SEM and AFM techniques and water contact angle measurements. Water contact angle depends on surface chemistry and the two methods employed for preparation of biomembranes as well as roughness of the membrane surfaces. Rheological study brings information on electrospinability of the polymer solutions/dispersions. Silver nanoparticles greatly influence the electrospinability of the polymer dispersions because of the increase in dynamic viscosity with the increasing silver content. Native PU and PU incorporated with low contents of AgNPs less than 0.3 % show high cell proliferation and good biocompatibility. The electrospun PU-EM-Ag nanobiocomposite membranes bring the advantage of using of low amounts of bioactive and biocidal components. The obtained silver nanobiocomposite membranes possess good bioactivity and non-cytotoxicity necessary for biomedical device applications. The obtained nanobiocomposite membranes are expected to find application for medical devices such as urinary catheters, wound dressings, etc.

  10. Glyconanoparticles: multifunctional nanomaterials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Isabel; Marradi, Marco; Penadés, Soledad

    2010-07-01

    Metal-based glyconanoparticles (GNPs) are biofunctional nanomaterials that combine the unique physical, chemical and optical properties of the metallic nucleus with the characteristics of the carbohydrate coating. The latter characteristics comprise a series of advantages that range from ensuring water solubility, biocompatibility and stability to targeting properties. The selection of suitable carbohydrates for specifically targeting biomarkers opens up the possibility to employ metallic GNPs in diagnostics and/or therapy. Within the vast nanoscience field, this review intends to focus on the advances of multifunctional and multimodal GNPs, which make use of the 'glycocode' to specifically address pathogens or pathological-related biomedical problems. Examples of their potential application in antiadhesion therapy and diagnosis are highlighted. From the ex vivo diagnostic perspective, it can be predicted that GNPs will soon be used clinically. However, the in vivo application of metallic GNPs in humans will probably need more time. In particular, major concerns regarding nanotoxicity need to be exhaustively addressed. However, it is expected that the sugar shell of GNPs will lower the intrinsic toxicity of metal nanoclusters better than other non-natural coatings.

  11. Biopolymeric Formulations for Biocatalysis and Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy M. M. Elnashar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three gel disks formulations prepared using chitosan (Chito or polyethylenimine (PEI followed by glutaraldehyde were prepared for biocatalysis and biomedical applications. The carriers have been used to immobilize lactase covalently and it was evaluated in terms of enzyme loading capacity and enzyme kinetics (km and Vmax. The Km of the Chito formulation was almost half that of the PEI formulations, which is favored in industries. On the other hand, the gel disks were evaluated in terms of their swelling kinetics and the gels’ morphology using SEM. The mechanism of the three gels’ swelling was also studied and it was found to be non-Fickian, where the mechanism of transport depends on both the diffusion and polymer relaxation, which are controlling the overall rate of water uptake. The Chito formulation was 2–5 folds and PEI formulations were 33–62 folds in terms of the swelling rate constant and the diffusion rate, respectively. These results were highly supported by the SEM. This study will help scientists to design the right polymer network for enzymes immobilization as well as control the surface area and the swelling power of the polymers for different applications such as drug delivery systems and tissue engineering.

  12. Synthetic biology: programming cells for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörner, Maximilian; Reischmann, Nadine; Weber, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of synthetic biology is a novel biological discipline at the interface between traditional biology, chemistry, and engineering sciences. Synthetic biology aims at the rational design of complex synthetic biological devices and systems with desired properties by combining compatible, modular biological parts in a systematic manner. While the first engineered systems were mainly proof-of-principle studies to demonstrate the power of the modular engineering approach of synthetic biology, subsequent systems focus on applications in the health, environmental, and energy sectors. This review describes recent approaches for biomedical applications that were developed along the synthetic biology design hierarchy, at the level of individual parts, of devices, and of complex multicellular systems. It describes how synthetic biological parts can be used for the synthesis of drug-delivery tools, how synthetic biological devices can facilitate the discovery of novel drugs, and how multicellular synthetic ecosystems can give insight into population dynamics of parasites and hosts. These examples demonstrate how this new discipline could contribute to novel solutions in the biopharmaceutical industry.

  13. Phytofabricated gold nanoparticles and their biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Bashir; Hafeez, Nabia; Bashir, Shumaila; Rauf, Abdur; Mujeeb-Ur-Rehman

    2017-02-26

    In a couple of decades, nanotechnology has become a trending technology owing to its integrated science collection that incorporates variety of fields such as chemistry, physics, medicine, catalytic processes, food processing industries, electronics and energy sectors. One of the emerging fields of nanotechnology that has gained momentous admiration is nano-biotechnology. Nano-biotechnology is an integrated combination of biology with nanotechnology that encompasses the tailoring, and synthesis of small particles that are less than 100nm in size and subsequent exploitation of these particles for their biological applications. Though the variety of physical techniques and chemical procedures are known for the nanoparticles synthesis, biological approach is considered to be the preferred one. Environmental hazards and concerns associated with the physical and chemical approaches of nanoparticles synthesis has added impetus and zenith to the biological approach involving the use of plants and microorganisms. The current review article is focused on the synthesis of plant-derived (phytochemical) gold nanoparticles alongside their scope in biomedical applications.

  14. Biomedical and environmental applications of magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dai Lam; Le, Van Hong; Linh Pham, Hoai; Nhung Hoang, Thi My; Quy Nguyen, Thi; Luong, Thien Tai; Thu Ha, Phuong; Phuc Nguyen, Xuan

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of syntheses and applications of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) at the Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology. Three families of oxide MNPs, magnetite, manganite and spinel ferrite materials, were prepared in various ways: coprecipitation, sol-gel and high energy mechanical milling. Basic properties of MNPs were characterized by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and Physical Properties Measurement Systems (PPMS). As for biomedical application, the aim was to design a novel multifunctional, nanosized magnetofluorescent water-dispersible Fe3O4-curcumin conjugate, and its ability to label, target and treat tumor cells was described. The conjugate possesses a magnetic nano Fe3O4 core, chitosan (CS) or Oleic acid (OL) as an outer shell and entrapped curcumin (Cur), serving the dual function of naturally autofluorescent dye as well as antitumor model drug. Fe3O4-Cur conjugate exhibited a high loading cellular uptake with the help of a macrophage, which was clearly visualized dually by Fluorescence Microscope and Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope (LSCM), as well as by magnetization measurement (PPMS). A preliminary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study also showed a clear contrast enhancement by using the conjugate. As for the environmental aspect, the use of magnetite MNPs for the removal of heavy toxic metals, such as Arsenic (As) and Lead (Pb), from contaminated water was studied.

  15. Bacterial cellulose in biomedical applications: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picheth, Guilherme Fadel; Pirich, Cleverton Luiz; Sierakowski, Maria Rita; Woehl, Marco Aurélio; Sakakibara, Caroline Novak; de Souza, Clayton Fernandes; Martin, Andressa Amado; da Silva, Renata; de Freitas, Rilton Alves

    2017-11-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) derived materials represents major advances to the current regenerative and diagnostic medicine. BC is a highly pure, biocompatible and versatile material that can be utilized in several applications - individually or in the combination with different components (e.g. biopolymers and nanoparticles) - to provide structural organization and flexible matrixes to distinct finalities. The wide application and importance of BC is described by its common utilization as skin repair treatments in cases of burns, wounds and ulcers. BC membranes accelerate the process of epithelialization and avoid infections. Furthermore, BC biocomposites exhibit the potential to regulate cell adhesion, an important characteristic to scaffolds and grafts; ultra-thin films of BC might be also utilized in the development of diagnostic sensors for its capability in immobilizing several antigens. Therefore, the growing interest in BC derived materials establishes it as a great promise to enhance the quality and functionalities of the current generation of biomedical materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Small sample Accelerator Mass Spectrometry for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salehpour, M., E-mail: mehran.salehpour@physics.uu.se; Håkansson, K.; Possnert, G.

    2015-10-15

    The Accelerator Mass Spectrometry activities at Uppsala University include a group dedicated to the biomedical applications, involving natural level samples, as well as {sup 14}C-labeled substances requiring separate handling and preparation. For most applications sufficient sample amounts are available but many applications are limited to samples sizes in the μg-range. We have developed a preparation procedure for small samples biomedical applications, where a few μg C can be analyzed, albeit with compromised precision. The latest results for the small sample AMS method are shown and some of the biomedical activities at our laboratory are presented.

  17. Passive wireless MEMS microphones for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen, A S; Sivaramakrishnan, S; Hur, S; Rajamani, R; Robbins, W; Nelson, B J

    2005-11-01

    This paper introduces passive wireless telemetry based operation for high frequency acoustic sensors. The focus is on the development, fabrication, and evaluation of wireless, battery-less SAW-IDT MEMS microphones for biomedical applications. Due to the absence of batteries, the developed sensors are small and as a result of the batch manufacturing strategy are inexpensive which enables their utilization as disposable sensors. A pulse modulated surface acoustic wave interdigital transducer (SAW-IDT) based sensing strategy has been formulated. The sensing strategy relies on detecting the ac component of the acoustic pressure signal only and does not require calibration. The proposed sensing strategy has been successfully implemented on an in-house fabricated SAW-IDT sensor and a variable capacitor which mimics the impedance change of a capacitive microphone. Wireless telemetry distances of up to 5 centimeters have been achieved. A silicon MEMS microphone which will be used with the SAW-IDT device is being microfabricated and tested. The complete passive wireless sensor package will include the MEMS microphone wire-bonded on the SAW substrate and interrogated through an on-board antenna. This work on acoustic sensors breaks new ground by introducing high frequency (i.e., audio frequencies) sensor measurement utilizing SAW-IDT sensors. The developed sensors can be used for wireless monitoring of body sounds in a number of different applications, including monitoring breathing sounds in apnea patients, monitoring chest sounds after cardiac surgery, and for feedback sensing in compression (HFCC) vests used for respiratory ventilation. Another promising application is monitoring chest sounds in neonatal care units where the miniature sensors will minimize discomfort for the newborns.

  18. Nanomedicine: magnetic nanoparticles and their biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Reshmi; Katsenovich, Yelena; Lagos, Leonel; McIintosh, M; Zhang, Xueji; Li, Chen-Zhong

    2010-01-01

    During this past decade, science and engineering have seen a rapid increase in interest for nanoscale materials with dimensions less than 100 nm, which lie in the intermediate state between atoms and bulk (solid) materials. Their attributes are significantly altered relative to the corresponding bulk materials as they exhibit size dependent behavior such as quantum size effects (depending on bulk Bohr radius), optical absorption and emission, coulomb staircase behavior (electrical transport), superparamagnetism and various unique properties. They are active components of ferrofluids, recording tape, flexible disk recording media along with potential future applications in spintronics: a new paradigm of electronics utilizing intrinsic charge and spin of electrons for ultra-high-density data storage and quantum computing. They are used in a gamut of biomedical applications: bioseparation of biological entities, therapeutic drugs and gene delivery, radiofrequency-induced destruction of cells and tumors (hyperthermia), and contrast-enhancement agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The magnetic nanoparticles have optimizable, controllable sizes enabling their comparison to cells (10-100 µm), viruses (20-250 nm), proteins (3-50 nm), and genes (10-100 nm). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) provide necessary characterization methods that enable accurate structural and functional analysis of interaction of the biofunctional particles with the target bioentities. The goal of the present discussion is to provide a broad review of magnetic nanoparticle research with a special focus on the synthesis, functionalization and medical applications of these particles, which have been carried out during the past decade, and to examine several prospective directions.

  19. Sodium Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madelin, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present an up-to-date overview of the potential biomedical applications of sodium MRI in vivo. Sodium MRI is a subject of increasing interest in translational research as it can give some direct and quantitative biochemical information on the tissue viability, cell integrity and function, and therefore not only help the diagnosis but also the prognosis of diseases and treatment outcomes. It has already been applied in vivo in most of human tissues, such as brain for stroke or tumor detection and therapeutic response, in breast cancer, in articular cartilage, in muscle and in kidney, and it was shown in some studies that it could provide very useful new information not available through standard proton MRI. However, this technique is still very challenging due to the low detectable sodium signal in biological tissue with MRI and hardware/software limitations of the clinical scanners. The article is divided in three parts: (1) the role of sodium in biological tissues, (2) a short review on s...

  20. Stimuli responsive magnetic nanogels for biomedical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craciunescu, I.; Petran, A.; Turcu, R. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Daia, C.; Marinica, O.; Vekas, L. [Romanian Academy, Timisoara Branch, Magnetic Fluids Laboratory, Timisoara (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    We report the synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanogels based on magnetite nanoparticles sterically stabilized by double layer oleic acid in water carrier and chemically cross linked poly (N-isopropylacril amide) (pNIPA) and poly (acrylic acid) (pAAc). In this structure the magnetite nanoparticles are attached to the flexible network chain by adhesive forces, resulting in a direct coupling between magnetic and elastic properties. Stable water suspensions of dual responsive magnetic nanogels based on temperature-responsive N-isopropyl acryl amide, pH responsive acrylic acid were obtained. The FTIR spectra of p(NIPA-AAc) ferrogel samples, showed the absorption region of the specific chemical groups associated with pNIPA, pAAc and the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles. The morphology and the structure of the as prepared materials were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the size distribution was determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The magnetic microgels have high magnetization and superparamagnetic behaviour being suitable materials for biomedical application.

  1. Stimuli responsive magnetic nanogels for biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciunescu, I.; Petran, A.; Daia, C.; Marinica, O.; Vekas, L.; Turcu, R.

    2013-11-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanogels based on magnetite nanoparticles sterically stabilized by double layer oleic acid in water carrier and chemically cross linked poly (N-isopropylacril amide) (pNIPA) and poly (acrylic acid) (pAAc). In this structure the magnetite nanoparticles are attached to the flexible network chain by adhesive forces, resulting in a direct coupling between magnetic and elastic properties. Stable water suspensions of dual responsive magnetic nanogels based on temperature-responsive N-isopropyl acryl amide, pH responsive acrylic acid were obtained. The FTIR spectra of p(NIPA-AAc) ferrogel samples, showed the absorption region of the specific chemical groups associated with pNIPA, pAAc and the Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles. The morphology and the structure of the as prepared materials were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the size distribution was determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The magnetic microgels have high magnetization and superparamagnetic behaviour being suitable materials for biomedical application.

  2. Bio-Inspired Extreme Wetting Surfaces for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sera Shin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological creatures with unique surface wettability have long served as a source of inspiration for scientists and engineers. More specifically, materials exhibiting extreme wetting properties, such as superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces, have attracted considerable attention because of their potential use in various applications, such as self-cleaning fabrics, anti-fog windows, anti-corrosive coatings, drag-reduction systems, and efficient water transportation. In particular, the engineering of surface wettability by manipulating chemical properties and structure opens emerging biomedical applications ranging from high-throughput cell culture platforms to biomedical devices. This review describes design and fabrication methods for artificial extreme wetting surfaces. Next, we introduce some of the newer and emerging biomedical applications using extreme wetting surfaces. Current challenges and future prospects of the surfaces for potential biomedical applications are also addressed.

  3. Switchable and responsive surfaces and materials for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Johnathan

    2015-01-01

    Surface modification of biomaterials can ultimately determine whether a material is accepted or rejected from the human body, and a responsive surface can further make the material ""smart"" and ""intelligent"". Switchable and Responsive Surfaces and Materials for Biomedical Applications outlines synthetic and biological materials that are responsive under different stimuli, their surface design and modification techniques, and applicability in regenerative medicine/tissue engineering,  drug delivery, medical devices, and biomedical diagnostics. Part one provides a detailed overview of swit

  4. Upconversion nanoparticles and their hybrid assemblies for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenik, E. A.; Kostyuk, A. B.; Deyev, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    The progress in the design of hybrid photoluminescent assemblies based on upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) meant for biomedical applications is analyzed. The key approaches to the synthesis of bright UCNPs and their surface modification, including encapsulation into hydrophilic shells and providing with therapeutic and targeting agents, are described. The range of potential applications of UCNPs in analytical biochemistry, biomedical diagnostics and therapy of cancer and infectious diseases is considered. The bibliography includes 145 references.

  5. Diode laser based light sources for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Marschall, Sebastian; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin;

    2013-01-01

    Diode lasers are by far the most efficient lasers currently available. With the ever-continuing improvement in diode laser technology, this type of laser has become increasingly attractive for a wide range of biomedical applications. Compared to the characteristics of competing laser systems, diode...... imaging. This review provides an overview of the latest development of diode laser technology and systems and their use within selected biomedical applications....

  6. Application of nanotechnology in antimicrobial finishing of biomedical textiles

    OpenAIRE

    Zille, Andrea; Almeida, Luís; Amorim, M. T. Pessoa de; CARNEIRO, Noémia; Esteves, M. de Fátima; Silva, Carla J. S. M.; Souto, A. Pedro

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the antimicrobial nanofinishing of biomedical textiles has become a very active, high-growth research field, assuming great importance among all available material surface modifications in the textile industry. This review offers the opportunity to update and critically discuss the latest advances and applications in this field. The survey suggests an emerging new paradigm in the production and distribution of nanoparticles for biomedical textile applications based on non-tox...

  7. DNA nanotechnology and its applications in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lifan; Yu, Lu; Shen, Wanqiu

    2014-09-01

    DNA nanotechnology, which uses DNA as a material to self-assemble designed nanostructures, including DNA 2D arrays, 3D nanostructures, DNA nanotubes and DNA nanomechanical devices, has showed great promise in biomedical applications. Various DNA nanostructures have been used for protein characterization, enzyme assembly, biosensing, drug delivery and biomimetic assemblies. In this review, we will present recent advances of DNA nanotechnology and its applications in biomedical research field.

  8. Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies Developed for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphus D. Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research and development of new electronic-nose applications in the biomedical field has accelerated at a phenomenal rate over the past 25 years. Many innovative e-nose technologies have provided solutions and applications to a wide variety of complex biomedical and healthcare problems. The purposes of this review are to present a comprehensive analysis of past and recent biomedical research findings and developments of electronic-nose sensor technologies, and to identify current and future potential e-nose applications that will continue to advance the effectiveness and efficiency of biomedical treatments and healthcare services for many years. An abundance of electronic-nose applications has been developed for a variety of healthcare sectors including diagnostics, immunology, pathology, patient recovery, pharmacology, physical therapy, physiology, preventative medicine, remote healthcare, and wound and graft healing. Specific biomedical e-nose applications range from uses in biochemical testing, blood-compatibility evaluations, disease diagnoses, and drug delivery to monitoring of metabolic levels, organ dysfunctions, and patient conditions through telemedicine. This paper summarizes the major electronic-nose technologies developed for healthcare and biomedical applications since the late 1980s when electronic aroma detection technologies were first recognized to be potentially useful in providing effective solutions to problems in the healthcare industry.

  9. Personalized biomedical devices & systems for healthcare applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I.-Ming; Phee, Soo Jay; Luo, Zhiqiang; Lim, Chee Kian

    2011-03-01

    With the advancement in micro- and nanotechnology, electromechanical components and systems are getting smaller and smaller and gradually can be applied to the human as portable, mobile and even wearable devices. Healthcare industry have started to benefit from this technology trend by providing more and more miniature biomedical devices for personalized medical treatments in order to obtain better and more accurate outcome. This article introduces some recent development in non-intrusive and intrusive biomedical devices resulted from the advancement of niche miniature sensors and actuators, namely, wearable biomedical sensors, wearable haptic devices, and ingestible medical capsules. The development of these devices requires carful integration of knowledge and people from many different disciplines like medicine, electronics, mechanics, and design. Furthermore, designing affordable devices and systems to benefit all mankind is a great challenge ahead. The multi-disciplinary nature of the R&D effort in this area provides a new perspective for the future mechanical engineers.

  10. Marine Collagen: An Emerging Player in Biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, Fazli; Ikram, Muhammad; Shehzad, Adeeb; Ghafoor, Abdul

    2015-08-01

    Mammalian collagen is a multifactorial biomaterial that is widely used for beneficial purposes in the advanced biomedical technologies. Generally, biomedical applicable collagen is extracted from the mammalian body, but it can also be derived from marine species. Recently, mammalian tissues collagen proteins are considered a great pathological risk for transmitted diseases, because purification of such protein is very challenging and needs efficient tool to avoid structure alteration. Thus, difficult extraction process and high cost decreased mammalian collagen demands for beneficial effects compared to marine collagen. In contrast, marine collagen is safe and easy to extract, however this potential source of collagen is hindered by low denaturing temperature, which is considered a main hurdle in the beneficial effects of marine collagen. Characterization and biomedical applications of marine collagen are in transition state and yet to be discovered. Therefore, an attempt was made to summarize the recent knowledge regarding different aspects of marine collagen applications in the biomedical engineering field.

  11. Selected Topics in MicroNano-robotics for Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Selected Topics in Micro/Nano-robotics for Biomedical Applications features a system approach and incorporates modern methodologies in autonomous mobile robots for programmable and controllable micro/nano-robots aiming at biomedical applications. The book provides chapters of instructional materials and cutting-edge research results in micro/nanorobotics for biomedical applications. The book presents new sensing technology on nanofibers, new power supply techniques including miniature fuel cells and energy harvesting devices, and manipulation techniques including AFM-based nano-robotic manipulation, robot-aided optical tweezers, and robot-assisted catheter surgery systems. It also contains case studies on using micro/nano-robots in biomedical environments and in biomedicine, as well as a design example to conceptually develop a Vitamin-pill sized robot to enter human’s gastrointestinal tract. Each chapter covers a different topic of the highly interdisciplinary area. Bring together the selected topics into ...

  12. Development of polyphenolic nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huaitzung Andrew

    enough to be uptaken into mammalian cells. Furthermore, by self-assembling with gadolinium, pseudotannins can effectively attenuate the signal of gadolinium based MRI contrast agents. This in conjunction with oxidation responsive decomplexation could be a viable option for diagnosing the severity and risk of rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Also, we demonstrate that pegylated compounds can easily be incorporated into pseudotannin nanoparticles to impart cell targeting functionality. The subsequent uptake of pseudotannin nanoparticles into breast cancer cells demonstrated the ability to increase their sensitivity to UV radiation. The creation of synthetic tannin-like polymers leads to directly to making a variety of self-assembling, stimuli responsive, and bioactive nanoparticles well-suited for various biomedical applications.

  13. Micro and Nano Manipulations for Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yih, Tachung C

    2007-01-01

    Taking bio-device research and development to "the next level," this book covers the latest advances in biomedical microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). The book presents new developments in the synthesis and use of metallic nanoparticles in bio-sensing and drug delivery, including quantum dots semiconductors nanocrystals.

  14. Marine Collagen: An Emerging Player in Biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Subhan, Fazli; Ikram, Muhammad; Shehzad,Adeeb; Ghafoor, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian collagen is a multifactorial biomaterial that is widely used for beneficial purposes in the advanced biomedical technologies. Generally, biomedical applicable collagen is extracted from the mammalian body, but it can also be derived from marine species. Recently, mammalian tissues collagen proteins are considered a great pathological risk for transmitted diseases, because purification of such protein is very challenging and needs efficient tool to avoid structure alteration. Thus, d...

  15. Mimicking biological functionality with polymers for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jordan J.; Elisseeff, Jennifer H.

    2016-12-01

    The vast opportunities for biomaterials design and functionality enabled by mimicking nature continue to stretch the limits of imagination. As both biological understanding and engineering capabilities develop, more sophisticated biomedical materials can be synthesized that have multifaceted chemical, biological and physical characteristics designed to achieve specific therapeutic goals. Mimicry is being used in the design of polymers for biomedical applications that are required locally in tissues, systemically throughout the body, and at the interface with tissues.

  16. Ultralow-power electronics for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrakasan, Anantha P; Verma, Naveen; Daly, Denis C

    2008-01-01

    The electronics of a general biomedical device consist of energy delivery, analog-to-digital conversion, signal processing, and communication subsystems. Each of these blocks must be designed for minimum energy consumption. Specific design techniques, such as aggressive voltage scaling, dynamic power-performance management, and energy-efficient signaling, must be employed to adhere to the stringent energy constraint. The constraint itself is set by the energy source, so energy harvesting holds tremendous promise toward enabling sophisticated systems without straining user lifestyle. Further, once harvested, efficient delivery of the low-energy levels, as well as robust operation in the aggressive low-power modes, requires careful understanding and treatment of the specific design limitations that dominate this realm. We outline the performance and power constraints of biomedical devices, and present circuit techniques to achieve complete systems operating down to power levels of microwatts. In all cases, approaches that leverage advanced technology trends are emphasized.

  17. Dielectric Elastomers for Fluidic and Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoul, David James

    Dielectric elastomers have demonstrated tremendous potential as high-strain electromechanical transducers for a myriad of novel applications across all engineering disciplines. Because their soft, viscoelastic mechanical properties are similar to those of living tissues, dielectric elastomers have garnered a strong foothold in a plethora of biomedical and biomimetic applications. Dielectric elastomers consist of a sheet of stretched rubber, or elastomer, coated on both sides with compliant electrode materials; application of a voltage generates an electrostatic pressure that deforms the elastomer. They can function as soft generators, sensors, or actuators, and this last function is the focus of this dissertation. Many design configurations are possible, such as stacks, minimum energy structures, interpenetrating polymer networks, shape memory dielectric elastomers, and others; dielectric elastomers are already being applied to many fields of biomedicine. The first part of the original research presented in this dissertation details a PDMS microfluidic system paired with a dielectric elastomer stack actuator of anisotropically prestrained VHB(TM) 4910 (3M(TM)) and single-walled carbon nanotubes. These electroactive microfluidic devices demonstrated active increases in microchannel width when 3 and 4 kV were applied. Fluorescence microscopy also indicated an accompanying increase in channel depth with actuation. The cross-sectional area strains at 3 and 4 kV were approximately 2.9% and 7.4%, respectively. The device was then interfaced with a syringe pump, and the pressure was measured upstream. Linear pressure-flow plots were developed, which showed decreasing fluidic resistance with actuation, from 0.192 psi/(microL/min) at 0 kV, to 0.160 and 0.157 psi/(microL/min) at 3 and 4 kV, respectively. This corresponds to an ~18% drop in fluidic resistance at 4 kV. Active de-clogging was tested in situ with the device by introducing ~50 microm diameter PDMS microbeads and

  18. Functional modification of chitosan for biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ruogu

    Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide. Normally commercial chitosan consists of randomly distributed beta-(1-4)-linked D-glucosamine (deacetylated proportion) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (acetylated proportion) together. Chitosan has been proved to be a multifunctional biopolymer that presents several unique properties due to free amino groups in the repeating unit therefore chitosan has been widely applied in various areas. To be specific, provided by the excellent biocompatibility, chitosan is expected to be used in biological and medical applications including wound dressing, implants, drug carrier/delivery, etc. In this thesis, we worked on chitosan functionalization for biomedical application. The thesis are composed of three parts: In the first part, we focused on modifying the chitosan thin film, chemically introducing the nitric oxide functional groups on chitosan film. We covalently bonded small molecule diazeniumdiolates onto the chitosan films and examined the antimicrobial function and biocompatibility. Commercial chitosan was cast into films from acidic aqueous solutions. Glutaraldehyde reacted with the chitosan film to introduce aldehyde groups onto the chitosan film (GA-CS film). GA-CS reacted with a small molecule NO donor, NOC-18, to covalently immobilize NONO groups onto the polymer (NO-CS film). The-CHO and [NONO] group were verified by FT IR, UV and Griess reagent. The NO releasing rate in aqueous solution and and thermal stability were studied quantitatively to prove its effectiveness. A series of antimicrobial tests indicated that NO-CS films have multiple functions: 1. It could inhibit the bacteria growth in nutrient rich environment; 2. It could directly inactivate bacteria and biofilm; 3. It could reduce the bacteria adherence on the film surface as well as inhibit biofilm formation. In addition, the NO-CS film was proved to be biocompatible with cell and it was also compatible with other antibiotics like Amoxicillin. In the second part, we

  19. Development of new metallic alloys for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinomi, Mitsuo; Nakai, Masaaki; Hieda, Junko

    2012-11-01

    New low modulus β-type titanium alloys for biomedical applications are still currently being developed. Strong and enduring β-type titanium alloy with a low Young's modulus are being investigated. A low modulus has been proved to be effective in inhibiting bone atrophy, leading to good bone remodeling in a bone fracture model in the rabbit tibia. Very recently β-type titanium alloys with a self-tunable modulus have been proposed for the construction of removable implants. Nickel-free low modulus β-type titanium alloys showing shape memory and super elastic behavior are also currently being developed. Nickel-free stainless steel and cobalt-chromium alloys for biomedical applications are receiving attention as well. Newly developed zirconium-based alloys for biomedical applications are proving very interesting. Magnesium-based or iron-based biodegradable biomaterials are under development. Further, tantalum, and niobium and its alloys are being investigated for biomedical applications. The development of new metallic alloys for biomedical applications is described in this paper.

  20. Current investigations into magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Wei, Jianrong; Aifantis, Katerina E; Fan, Yubo; Feng, Qingling; Cui, Fu-Zhai; Watari, Fumio

    2016-05-01

    It is generally recognized that nanoparticles possess unique physicochemical properties that are largely different from those of conventional materials, specifically the electromagnetic properties of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). These properties have attracted many researchers to launch investigations into their potential biomedical applications, which have been reviewed in this article. First, common types of MNPs were briefly introduced. Then, the biomedical applications of MNPs were reviewed in seven parts: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cancer therapy, the delivery of drugs and genes, bone and dental repair, tissue engineering, biosensors, and in other aspects, which indicated that MNPs possess great potentials for many kinds of biomedical applications due to their unique properties. Although lots of achievements have been obtained, there is still a lot of work to do. New synthesis techniques and methods are still needed to develop the MNPs with satisfactory biocompatibility. More effective methods need to be exploited to prepare MNPs-based composites with fine microstructures and high biomedical performances. Other promising research points include the development of more appropriate techniques of experiments both in vitro and in vivo to detect and analyze the biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of MNPs and understand the possible influencing mechanism of the two properties. More comprehensive investigations into the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of composites containing MNPs with "core-shell" structure and deeper understanding and further study into the properties of MNPs to reveal their new biomedical applications, are also described in the conclusion and perspectives part.

  1. Low pressure micro-Joule picosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and its prospective applications to minimally destructive and high resolution analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Abdulmadjid, Syahrun; Jobiliong, Eric; Margaretha Suliyanti, Maria; Pardede, Marincan; Suyanto, Hery; Hendrik Kurniawan, Koo; Jie Lie, Tjung; Hedwig, Rinda; Sukra Lie, Zener; Karnadi, Indra; Wihardjo, Erning; Tjia, May On; Kagawa, Kiichiro

    2017-09-01

    A time-resolved spectroscopic study is performed by using 125-500 micro-Joule (µJ) ps laser focused directly without the aid of microscope on a Cu plate sample in a variety of low-pressure ambient gases including air, helium and argon. It is shown that the ultrashort µJ laser-induced low-pressure plasma in Ar ambient gas exhibits the typical characteristics of shock wave plasma responsible for the thermal excitation and sharp emission of the analyte atoms. It is found that the highest signal to background (S/B) ratio of about 100 is achieved in 1.3 kPa argon ambient gas and detected with optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) gate delay of 1 ns and gate width of 50 µs. The emission spectra obtained from pure Zn sample show the effective suppression of the ionic emission with ablation energy around and below 500 µJ. The experimental setup is successfully applied to Cr analysis with low detection limit in steel. In particular, its application to C analysis in steel is demonstrated to resolve the long standing problem of overlapping contributions from the neutral and ionic Fe emission. It is further found that an element of high excitation energy such as fluorine (F) can be clearly detected from a non metal teflon sample. Further, its application to alluminum sample containing various concentrations of Mg, Ca, Fe, and Si impurity elements clearly displays the existence of linear calibration lines promising for quantitative analyses in certain dynamical ranges. Finally, in view of the tiny crater sizes of less than 10 µm diameter created by the very low ps laser energy, this technique is promising for micrometer resolution mapping of elemental distribution on the sample surface and its depth profiling.

  2. Recent progress in biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Giouroudi, Ioanna

    2010-06-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been proposed for biomedical applications for several years. Various research groups worldwide have focused on improving their synthesis, their characterization techniques and the specific tailoring of their properties. Yet, it is the recent, impressive advances in nanotechnology and biotechnology which caused the breakthrough in their successful application in biomedicine. This paper aims at reviewing some current biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles as well as some recent patents in this field. Special emphasis is placed on i) hyperthermia, ii) therapeutics iii) diagnostics. Future prospects are also discussed. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

  3. Terahertz Imaging for Biomedical Applications Pattern Recognition and Tomographic Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Xiaoxia; Abbott, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Terahertz Imaging for Biomedical Applications: Pattern Recognition and Tomographic Reconstruction presents the necessary algorithms needed to assist screening, diagnosis, and treatment, and these algorithms will play a critical role in the accurate detection of abnormalities present in biomedical imaging. Terahertz biomedical imaging has become an area of interest due to its ability to simultaneously acquire both image and spectral information. Terahertz imaging systems are being commercialized with an increasing number of trials performed in a biomedical setting. Terahertz tomographic imaging and detection technology contributes to the ability to identify opaque objects with clear boundaries,and would be useful to both in vivo and ex vivo environments. This book also: Introduces terahertz radiation techniques and provides a number of topical examples of signal and image processing, as well as machine learning Presents the most recent developments in an emerging field, terahertz radiation Utilizes new methods...

  4. Biomedical research applications of electromagnetically separated enriched stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, R. M.

    The current and projected annual requirements through 1985 for stable isotopes enriched by electromagnetic separation methods were reviewed for applications in various types of biomedical research: (1) medical radiosiotope production, labeled compounds, and potential radio-pharmaceuticals; (2) nutrition, food science, and pharmacology: (3) metallobiochemistry and environmental toxicology; (4) nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance, and moessbauer spectroscopy in biochemical, biophysical, and biomedical research; and (5) miscellaneous advances in radioactive and nonradioactive tracer technology. Radioisotopes available from commercial sources or routinely used in clinical nuclear medicine were excluded. Current requirements for enriched stable isotopes in biomedical research are not being satisfied. Severe shortages exist for Mg 26, Ca 43, Zn 70, Se 76, Se 77, Se 78, Pd 102, Cd 111, Cd 113, and Os 190. Many interesting and potentially important investigations in biomedical research require small quantities of specific elements at high isotopic enrichments.

  5. [Shape-memory polymers for biomedical engineering applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangming; Liu, Zhongrang

    2005-10-01

    The latest progress in shape-memory polymer for biomedical engineering applications was summarized in this paper. The mechanism responsible for shape memory effect was analyzed in reference to the polymer structure. Also introduced and reviewed were the characteristics of some shape-memory polymers (polyurethane polycaprolactone and polylactide) and their applications in medical engineering.

  6. Engineering artificial machines from designable DNA materials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hao; Huang, Guoyou; Han, Yulong; Zhang, Xiaohui; Li, Yuhui; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng; Wang, Lin

    2015-06-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) emerges as building bricks for the fabrication of nanostructure with complete artificial architecture and geometry. The amazing ability of DNA in building two- and three-dimensional structures raises the possibility of developing smart nanomachines with versatile controllability for various applications. Here, we overviewed the recent progresses in engineering DNA machines for specific bioengineering and biomedical applications.

  7. Lipid-coated silica nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298205610; van Schooneveld, M.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315032863; Cormode, D.P.; Fayad, Z.; Meijerink, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075044986; Mulder, W.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Silica particles as a nanoparticulate carrier material for contrast agents have received considerable attention the past few years, since the material holds great promise for biomedical applications. A key feature for successful application of this material in vivo is biocompatibility, which may be

  8. MODELING MICROBUBBLE DYNAMICS IN BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAHINE Georges L.; HSIAO Chao-Tsung

    2012-01-01

    Controlling mierobubble dynamics to produce desirable biomedical outcomes when and where necessary and avoid deleterious effects requires advanced knowledge,which can be achieved only through a combination of experimental and numerical/analytical techniques.The present communication presents a multi-physics approach to study the dynamics combining viscousinviseid effects,liquid and structure dynamics,and multi bubble interaction.While complex numerical tools are developed and used,the study aims at identifying the key parameters influencing the dynamics,which need to be included in simpler models.

  9. Marine polysaccharides from algae with potential biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Raposo, Maria Filomena; de Morais, Alcina Maria Bernardo; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa

    2015-05-15

    There is a current tendency towards bioactive natural products with applications in various industries, such as pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetics and food. This has put some emphasis in research on marine organisms, including macroalgae and microalgae, among others. Polysaccharides with marine origin constitute one type of these biochemical compounds that have already proved to have several important properties, such as anticoagulant and/or antithrombotic, immunomodulatory ability, antitumor and cancer preventive, antilipidaemic and hypoglycaemic, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, making them promising bioactive products and biomaterials with a wide range of applications. Their properties are mainly due to their structure and physicochemical characteristics, which depend on the organism they are produced by. In the biomedical field, the polysaccharides from algae can be used in controlled drug delivery, wound management, and regenerative medicine. This review will focus on the biomedical applications of marine polysaccharides from algae.

  10. Porous silicon nanoparticles for nanomedicine: preparation and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hélder A; Mäkilä, Ermei; Airaksinen, Anu J; Bimbo, Luis M; Hirvonen, Jouni

    2014-04-01

    The research on porous silicon (PSi) materials for biomedical applications has expanded greatly since the early studies of Leigh Canham more than 25 years ago. Currently, PSi nanoparticles are receiving growing attention from the scientific biomedical community. These nanostructured materials have emerged as promising multifunctional and versatile platforms for nanomedicine in drug delivery, diagnostics and therapy. The outstanding properties of PSi, including excellent in vivo biocompatibility and biodegradability, have led to many applications of PSi for delivery of therapeutic agents. In this review, we highlight current advances and recent efforts on PSi nanoparticles regarding the production properties, efficient drug delivery, multidrug delivery, permeation across biological barriers, biosafety and in vivo tracking for biomedical applications. The constant boost on successful preclinical in vivo data reported so far makes this the 'golden age' for PSi, which is expected to finally be translated into the clinic in the near future.

  11. Photoreconfigurable polymers for biomedical applications: chemistry and macromolecular engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Congcong; Ninh, Chi; Bettinger, Christopher J

    2014-10-13

    Stimuli-responsive polymers play an important role in many biomedical technologies. Light responsive polymers are particularly desirable because the parameters of irradiated light and diverse photoactive chemistries produce a large number of combinations between functional materials and associated stimuli. This Review summarizes recent advances in utilizing photoactive chemistries in macromolecules for prospective use in biomedical applications. Special focus is granted to selection criterion when choosing photofunctional groups. Synthetic strategies to incorporate these functionalities into polymers and networks with different topologies are also highlighted herein. Prospective applications of these materials are discussed including programmable matrices for controlled release, dynamic scaffolds for tissue engineering, and functional coatings for medical devices. The article concludes by summarizing the state of the art in photoresponsive polymers for biomedical applications including current challenges and future opportunities.

  12. Recent progress in the biomedical applications of polydopamine nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batul, Rahila; Tamanna, Tasnuva; Khaliq, Abdul; Yu, Aimin

    2017-06-27

    Polydopamine is a dark brown-black insoluble biopolymer produced by autoxidation of dopamine. Although its structure and polymerization mechanism have not been fully understood, there has been a rapid growth in the synthesis and applications of polydopamine nanostructures in biomedical fields such as drug delivery, photothermal therapy, bone and tissue engineering, and cell adhesion and patterning, as well as antimicrobial applications. This article is dedicated to reviewing some of the recent polydopamine developments in these biomedical fields. Firstly, the polymerization mechanism is introduced with a discussion of the factors that influence the polymerization process. The discussion is followed by the introduction of various forms of polydopamine nanostructures and their recent applications in biomedical fields, especially in drug delivery. Finally, the review is summarized followed by brief comments on the future prospects of polydopamine.

  13. Marine Polysaccharides from Algae with Potential Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena de Jesus Raposo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a current tendency towards bioactive natural products with applications in various industries, such as pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetics and food. This has put some emphasis in research on marine organisms, including macroalgae and microalgae, among others. Polysaccharides with marine origin constitute one type of these biochemical compounds that have already proved to have several important properties, such as anticoagulant and/or antithrombotic, immunomodulatory ability, antitumor and cancer preventive, antilipidaemic and hypoglycaemic, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, making them promising bioactive products and biomaterials with a wide range of applications. Their properties are mainly due to their structure and physicochemical characteristics, which depend on the organism they are produced by. In the biomedical field, the polysaccharides from algae can be used in controlled drug delivery, wound management, and regenerative medicine. This review will focus on the biomedical applications of marine polysaccharides from algae.

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Thermal Flow Sensing in Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Baseerat; Kakkar, Vipan

    2016-01-01

    Flow sensors have diverse applications in the field of biomedical engineering and also in industries. Micromachining of flow sensors has accomplished a new goal when it comes to miniaturization. Due to the scaling in dimensions, power consumption, mass cost, sensitivity and integration with other modules such as wireless telemetry has improvised to a great extent. Thermal flow sensors find wide applications in biomedical such as in hydrocephalus shunts and drug delivery systems. Infrared thermal sensing is used for preclinical diagnosis of breast cancer, for identifying various neurological disorders and for monitoring various muscular movements. In this paper, various modes of thermal flow sensing and transduction methods with respect to different biomedical applications are discussed. Thermal flow sensing is given prime focus because of the simplicity in the design. Finally, a comparison of flow sensing technologies is also presented.

  15. Magnetic Helical Micro- and Nanorobots: Toward Their Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Famin Qiu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic helical micro- and nanorobots can perform 3D navigation in various liquids with a sub-micrometer precision under low-strength rotating magnetic fields (<10 mT. Since magnetic fields with low strengths are harmless to cells and tissues, magnetic helical micro/nanorobots are promising tools for biomedical applications, such as minimally invasive surgery, cell manipulation and analysis, and targeted therapy. This review provides general information on magnetic helical micro/nanorobots, including their fabrication, motion control, and further functionalization for biomedical applications.

  16. Application of nanotechnology in antimicrobial finishing of biomedical textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zille, Andrea; Almeida, Luís; Amorim, Teresa; Carneiro, Noémia; Fátima Esteves, Maria; Silva, Carla J.; Souto, António Pedro

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, the antimicrobial nanofinishing of biomedical textiles has become a very active, high-growth research field, assuming great importance among all available material surface modifications in the textile industry. This review offers the opportunity to update and critically discuss the latest advances and applications in this field. The survey suggests an emerging new paradigm in the production and distribution of nanoparticles for biomedical textile applications based on non-toxic renewable biopolymers such as chitosan, alginate and starch. Moreover, a relationship among metal and metal oxide nanoparticle (NP) size, its concentration on the fabric, and the antimicrobial activity exists, allowing the optimization of antimicrobial functionality.

  17. Trends in surface engineering of biomaterials: atmospheric pressure plasma deposition of coatings for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Ponte, G.; Sardella, E.; Fanelli, F.; D'Agostino, R.; Favia, P.

    2011-11-01

    Cold plasma processes for surface engineering of biomaterials and biomedical devices are traditionally performed at low pressure; more and more, though, surface modification plasma processes at atmospheric pressure are also gaining popularity. This short review is aimed to list briefly atmospheric pressure plasma processes reported, in the last decade, for adapting the surface of materials to the best interactions with cells, bacteria and biomolecules.

  18. Carbon nanotubes from synthesis to in vivo biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad Imran; Jamshaid, Usama; Jamshaid, Talha; Zafar, Nadiah; Fessi, H; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2016-03-30

    Owing to their unique and interesting properties, extensive research round the globe has been carried out on carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotubes based systems to investigate their practical usefulness in biomedical applications. The results from these studies demonstrate a great promise in their use in targeted drug delivery systems, diagnostic techniques and in bio-analytical applications. Although, carbon nanotubes possess quite interesting properties, which make them potential candidates in the biomedical science, but they also have some inherent properties which arise great concern regarding their biosafety. In this comprehensive review, we have discussed different aspects of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube based systems related to biomedical applications. In the beginning, a short historical account of these tiny yet powerful particles is given followed by discussion regarding their types, properties, methods of synthesis, large scale production method, purification techniques and characterization aspects of carbon nanotubes. In the second part of the review, the functionalization of carbon nanotubes is reviewed in detail, which is not only important to make them biocompatible and stable in biological systems but also render them a great property of loading various biomolecules, diagnostic and therapeutic moieties resulting in diversified applications. In the final part of the review, emphasis is given on the pharmacokinetic aspects of carbon nanotubes including administration routes, absorption mechanisms, distribution and elimination of carbon nanotubes based systems. Lastly, a comprehensive account about the potential biomedical applications has been given followed by insights into the future.

  19. Chitosan: An Update on Potential Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Chi Fai Cheung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a natural polycationic linear polysaccharide derived from chitin. The low solubility of chitosan in neutral and alkaline solution limits its application. Nevertheless, chemical modification into composites or hydrogels brings to it new functional properties for different applications. Chitosans are recognized as versatile biomaterials because of their non-toxicity, low allergenicity, biocompatibility and biodegradability. This review presents the recent research, trends and prospects in chitosan. Some special pharmaceutical and biomedical applications are also highlighted.

  20. Chitosan: An Update on Potential Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wong, Jack Ho; Chan, Wai Yee

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a natural polycationic linear polysaccharide derived from chitin. The low solubility of chitosan in neutral and alkaline solution limits its application. Nevertheless, chemical modification into composites or hydrogels brings to it new functional properties for different applications. Chitosans are recognized as versatile biomaterials because of their non-toxicity, low allergenicity, biocompatibility and biodegradability. This review presents the recent research, trends and prospects in chitosan. Some special pharmaceutical and biomedical applications are also highlighted. PMID:26287217

  1. Controllable synthesis and biomedical applications of silver nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhihai; Jiang, Xiaoli; Guo, Dawei; Gu, Ning

    2011-11-01

    Silver nanomaterials have lots of peculiar and exciting physical and chemical properties that are different from massive silver, so the synthesis and applications of silver nanomaterials have attracted a great deal of attention in the last decade. Currently, all kinds of silver nanomaterials having different shapes and sizes have been synthesized by many ingenious methods, and silver nanomaterials have exhibited extensive application prospects in many fields especially in biomedical aspect. In this article, the controllable synthesis of silver nanomaterials including nanorods, nanowires, nanotubes, nanoprisms, nanoplates, nanodisks, nanospheres, and nanopolyhedrons, etc. are reviewed. Silver nanomaterials are most utilized in the form of nanoparticles, so the main biomedical applications of silver nanoparticles, such as antibacterial and antiviral applications, antitumor applications, biosensors and biological labels, optical imaging and imaging intensifier, are discussed. Although antibacterial applications are still the most important aspects of silver nanomaterials at present, antitumor, optical sensors and imaging applications of silver nanomaterials have also shown good potential perspectives. More biomedical applications of silver nanomaterials still need to be exploited for the future, and the biological safety of silver nanomaterials also should be paid enough attention before their practical applications.

  2. Preparation and biomedical applications of chitin and chitosan nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kazuo; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Osaki, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Minami, Saburo

    2014-10-01

    Chitin (β-(1-4)-poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) is widely distributed in nature and is the second most abundant polysaccharide after cellulose. Chitin occurs in nature as ordered macrofibrils. It is the major structural component in the exoskeleton of crab and shrimp shells and the cell wall of fungi and yeast. As chitin is not readily dissolved in common solvents, it is often converted to its more deacetylated derivative, chitosan. Chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives are widely used in tissue engineering, wound healing, and as functional foods. Recently, easy methods for the preparation of chitin and chitosan nanofibers have been developed, and studies on biomedical applications of chitin and chitosan nanofibers are ongoing. Chitin and chitosan nanofibers are considered to have great potential for various biomedical applications, because they have several useful properties such as high specific surface area and high porosity. This review summarizes methods for the preparation of chitin and chitosan nanofibers. Further, biomedical applications of chitin and chitosan nanofibers in (i) tissue engineering, (ii) wound dressing, (iii) cosmetic and skin health, (iv) stem cell technology, (v) anti-cancer treatments and drug delivery, (vi) anti-inflammatory treatments, and (vii) obesity treatment are summarized. Many studies indicate that chitin and chitosan nanofibers are suitable materials for various biomedical applications.

  3. Biomedical Applications of Carbon Nanotubes: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Mehra, Neelesh Kumar; Jain, Keerti; Jain, N K

    2016-08-01

    The convergence of nano and biotechnology is enabling scientific and technical knowledge for improving human well being. Carbon nanotubes have become most fascinating material to be studied and unveil new avenues in the field of nanobiotechnology. The nanometer size and high aspect ratio of the CNTs are the two distinct features, which have contributed to diverse biomedical applications. They have captured the attention as nanoscale materials due to their nanometric structure and remarkable list of superlative and extravagant properties that encouraged their exploitation for promising applications. Significant progress has been made in order to overcome some of the major hurdles towards biomedical application of nanomaterials, especially on issues regarding the aqueous solubility/dispersion and safety of CNTs. Functionalized CNTs have been used in drug targeting, imaging, and in the efficient delivery of gene and nucleic acids. CNTs have also demonstrated great potential in diverse biomedical uses like drug targeting, imaging, cancer treatment, tissue regeneration, diagnostics, biosensing, genetic engineering and so forth. The present review highlights the possible potential of CNTs in diagnostics, imaging and targeted delivery of bioactives and also outlines the future opportunities for biomedical applications.

  4. Bovine tuberculosis research: Immune mechanisms relevant to biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioneer studies on infectious disease and immunology by Jenner, Pasteur, Koch, Von Behring, Nocard, Roux, and Ehrlich forged a path for the dual-purpose with dual benefit approach, clearly demonstrating the relevance of veterinary studies for biomedical applications. Tuberculosis (TB), primarily due...

  5. Recent development and biomedical applications of self-healing hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinan; Adokoh, Christian K; Narain, Ravin

    2017-08-23

    Hydrogels are of special importance, owing to their high-water content and various applications in biomedical and bio-engineering research. Self-healing properties is a common phenomenon in living organisms. Their endowed property of being able to self-repair after physical/chemical/mechanical damage to fully or partially its original properties demonstrates their prospective therapeutic applications. Due to complicated preparation and selection of suitable materials, the application of many host-guest supramolecular polymeric hydrogels are so limited. Thus, the design and construction of self-repairing material are highly desirable for effectively increase in the lifetime of a functional material. However, recent advances in the field of materials science and bioengineering and nanotechnology have led to the design of biologically relevant self-healing hydrogels for therapeutic applications. This review focuses on the recent development of self-healing hydrogels for biomedical application. Areas covered: The strategies of making self-healing hydrogels and their healing mechanisms are discussed. The significance of self-healing hydrogel for biomedical application is also highlighted in areas such as 3D/4D printing, cell/drug delivery, as well as soft actuators. Expert opinion: Materials that have the ability to self-repair damage and regain the desired mechanical properties, have been found to be excellent candidate materials for a range of biomedical uses especially if their unique characteristics are similar to that of soft-tissues. Self-healing hydrogels have been synthesized and shown to exhibit similar characteristics as human tissues, however, significant improvement is required in the fabrication process from inexpensive and nontoxic/non-hazardous materials and techniques, and, in addition, further fine-tuning of the self-healing properties are needed for specific biomedical uses.

  6. Recent Advances in Shape Memory Soft Materials for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Benjamin Qi Yu; Low, Zhi Wei Kenny; Heng, Sylvester Jun Wen; Chan, Siew Yin; Owh, Cally; Loh, Xian Jun

    2016-04-27

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are smart and adaptive materials able to recover their shape through an external stimulus. This functionality, combined with the good biocompatibility of polymers, has garnered much interest for biomedical applications. In this review, we discuss the design considerations critical to the successful integration of SMPs for use in vivo. We also highlight recent work on three classes of SMPs: shape memory polymers and blends, shape memory polymer composites, and shape memory hydrogels. These developments open the possibility of incorporating SMPs into device design, which can lead to vast technological improvements in the biomedical field.

  7. Rational design of nanoparticles for biomedical imaging and photovoltaic applications

    OpenAIRE

    QIN, HAIYAN

    2011-01-01

    This thesis aims to rationally design nanoparticles and promote their applications in biomedical imaging and photovoltaic cells. Quantum dots (QDs) are promising fluorescent probes for biomedical imaging. We have fabricated two types of MSA capped QDs: CdTe/ZnSe core/shell QDs synthesized via an aqueous method and CdTe QDs via a hydrothermal method. They present high quantum yields (QYs), narrow emission band widths, high photo- and pH-stability, and low cytotoxicity. QD-IgG probes were produ...

  8. Novel block, graft and random copolymers for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Tanaka, Masaru;

    roles for this [2]. An artificial lung (oxygenator), already in use, is coated with high MW PMEA prepared by radical polymerization with AIBN [2]. To broaden the possibilities for designing biomedical devices [3] and inspired from these findings we first prepared homo polymers of MEA and their block...... copolymers with MMA [4] utilizing ATRP. Here we present other block, graft and random copolymers of MEA intended for biomedical applications. These macromolecular architectures have been constructed by employing controlled radical polymerization methods such as RAFT and ATRP....

  9. Role of MEMS in Biomedical Application: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himani SHARMA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we have focused over MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical System technology in the area of biomedical, which have played in important role-as diagnostic equipment in the diagnoses of different human body parts. The miniaturization of classical “bulky” measurement techniques has led to the realization of complex analytic systems, including such sensors as a Biochem Lab-On-Chip. This rapid progress in miniature devices and instrumentation development will significantly impact the practice of medical care as well as future advances in the biomedical field. Recently, MEMS along with modern IC also effected significantly on electrochemical, optical and acoustic wave transducer technologies, which have emerged as some of the most promising biomedical sensing technologies. Here, important features of these technologies, along with new developments and some of the applications, are presented.

  10. Micro/Nanostructured Films and Adhesives for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungkyu K; Kang, Sung Min; Yang, Sung Ho; Cho, Woo Kyung

    2015-12-01

    The advanced technologies available for micro/nanofabrication have opened new avenues for interdisciplinary approaches to solve the unmet medical needs of regenerative medicine and biomedical devices. This review highlights the recent developments in micro/nanostructured adhesives and films for biomedical applications, including waterproof seals for wounds or surgery sites, drug delivery, sensing human body signals, and optical imaging of human tissues. We describe in detail the fabrication processes required to prepare the adhesives and films, such as tape-based adhesives, nanofilms, and flexible and stretchable film-based electronic devices. We also discuss their biomedical functions, performance in vitro and in vivo, and the future research needed to improve the current systems.

  11. Biomedical applications of gold nanomaterials: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Abhilash; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A

    2015-01-01

    In the past few years, there has been an unprecedented development of gold nanomaterials (AuNMs) for potential clinical applications. Owing to their advantageous physical, chemical, and biological properties, AuNMs have attracted great attention in the nanomedicine arena for applications in biological sensing, biomedical imaging, drug delivery, and photothermal therapy. Their tunable size, shape, and surface characteristics coupled with excellent biocompatibility render them ideal candidates for translation from bench-top to bedside. This review summarizes the recent research on the applications of AuNM with a focus on biomedical diagnostics and therapeutics. The bio-interaction of these NM with cells and their in vivo responses are presented. After reviewing these potential applications, future challenges and prospects are discussed and the suitability of how AuNMs are used as effective tools in clinical medicine is assessed.

  12. Application Summary of Large-Scale Low Pressure Ammonia Synthesis Technology%大型低压氨合成技术应用总结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡成

    2016-01-01

    鲁西化工和国昌公司通过对国内外氨合成工艺技术进行研究,在企业多年氨合成技术的开发设计和实践应用基础上,开发了具有安全性好、氨净值高、能耗较低、余热回收量大等显著特点的国产大型低压氨合成工艺。%Based on the research of ammonia synthesis technology at home and abroad,as well as the development,design and practical application of ammonia synthesis technology for many years,Luxi Chemical and Guochang have developed a new kind of ammonia synthesis technology with good safety,high net value of ammonia,Low,large amount of waste heat recovery and other significant characteristics of domestic large-scale low-pressure ammonia synthesis process.

  13. Fucoidan-Mimetic Glycopolymers : Synthesis and Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Tengdelius, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    The marine polysaccharide fucoidan has demonstrated several interesting biological properties, for instance being antiviral, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and platelet activating. Many of these properties are desirable for various biomedical applications. Yet, there are few reports on fucoidan being used in such applications. The reasons for this are primarily the heterogeneity and low structural reproducibility of fucoidan. This thesis describes the synthesis of polymers with...

  14. Pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of surface engineered carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Neelesh Kumar; Jain, Keerti; Jain, Narendra Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Surface engineered carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are attracting recent attention of scientists owing to their vivid biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. The focus of this review is to highlight the important role of surface engineered CNTs in the highly challenging but rewarding area of nanotechnology. The major strength of this review lies in highlighting the exciting applications of CNTs to boost the research efforts, which unfortunately are otherwise scattered in the literature making the reading non-coherent and non-homogeneous.

  15. Novel application of plasma treatment for pharmaceutical and biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuya, Masayuki; Sasai, Yasushi; Kondo, Shin-Ichi; Yamauchi, Yukinori

    2009-06-01

    The nature of plasma-induced surface radicals formed on a variety of organic polymers has been studied by electron spin resonance (ESR), making it possible to provide a sound basis for future experimental design of polymer surface processing using plasma treatment. On the basis of the findings from such studies, several novel bio-applications in the field of drug- and biomedical- engineering have been developed. Applications for drug engineering include the preparation of reservoir-type drug delivery system (DDS) of sustained- and delayed-release, and floating drug delivery system (FDDS) possessing gastric retention capabilities, followed by preparation of "Patient-Tailored DDS". Furthermore, the preparation of composite powders applicable to matrix-type DDS was developed by making a mechanical application to the surface radical-containing polymer powders with drug powders. In applications for biomedical engineering, the novel method to introduce the durable surface hydrophilicity and lubricity on hydrophobic biomedical polymers was developed by plasma-assisted immobilization of carboxyl group-containing polymer on the polymer substrate. The surfaces thus prepared were further used for the covalent immobilization of oligo-nucleotides (DNA) onto the polymer surfaces applicable to constructing DNA diagnosis system, and also plasma-assisted preparation of functionalized chemo-embolic agent of vinyl alcohol-sodium acrylate copolymer (PVA- PAANa).

  16. Potential of Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical and Dental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zafar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospinning is a versatile technique that has gained popularity for various biomedical applications in recent years. Electrospinning is being used for fabricating nanofibers for various biomedical and dental applications such as tooth regeneration, wound healing and prevention of dental caries. Electrospun materials have the benefits of unique properties for instance, high surface area to volume ratio, enhanced cellular interactions, protein absorption to facilitate binding sites for cell receptors. Extensive research has been conducted to explore the potential of electrospun nanofibers for repair and regeneration of various dental and oral tissues including dental pulp, dentin, periodontal tissues, oral mucosa and skeletal tissues. However, there are a few limitations of electrospinning hindering the progress of these materials to practical or clinical applications. In terms of biomaterials aspects, the better understanding of controlled fabrication, properties and functioning of electrospun materials is required to overcome the limitations. More in vivo studies are definitely required to evaluate the biocompatibility of electrospun scaffolds. Furthermore, mechanical properties of such scaffolds should be enhanced so that they resist mechanical stresses during tissue regeneration applications. The objective of this article is to review the current progress of electrospun nanofibers for biomedical and dental applications. In addition, various aspects of electrospun materials in relation to potential dental applications have been discussed.

  17. Poly(lactic acid) blends in biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, P; Arora, M; Kumar, M N V Ravi

    2016-12-15

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) has become a "material of choice" in biomedical applications for its ability to fulfill complex needs that typically include properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, mechanical strength, and processability. Despite the advantages of pure PLA in a wider spectrum of applications, it is limited by its hydrophobicity, low impact toughness, and slow degradation rate. Blending PLA with other polymers offers a convenient option to enhance its properties or generate novel properties for target applications without the need to develop new materials. PLA blends with different natural and synthetic polymers have been developed by solvent and melt blending techniques and further processed based on end-use applications. A variety of PLA blends has been explored for biomedical applications such as drug delivery, implants, sutures, and tissue engineering. This review discusses the opportunities for PLA blends in the biomedical arena, including the overview of blending and postblend processing techniques and the applications of PLA blends currently in use and under development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Plasma technology for biomedical material applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Li, X

    2000-03-01

    In this paper is introduced the plasma technology for the applications of several species biomaterial such as ophthalmological material, drug delivery system, tissue culture material, blood anticoagulant material as well as plasma surface clearing and plasma sterilization, and so on.

  19. Recent advances in biomedical applications of accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, Sang Soo; Henderson, Paul T; Turteltaub, Kenneth W

    2009-06-17

    The use of radioisotopes has a long history in biomedical science, and the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), an extremely sensitive nuclear physics technique for detection of very low-abundant, stable and long-lived isotopes, has now revolutionized high-sensitivity isotope detection in biomedical research, because it allows the direct determination of the amount of isotope in a sample rather than measuring its decay, and thus the quantitative analysis of the fate of the radiolabeled probes under the given conditions. Since AMS was first used in the early 90's for the analysis of biological samples containing enriched 14C for toxicology and cancer research, the biomedical applications of AMS to date range from in vitro to in vivo studies, including the studies of 1) toxicant and drug metabolism, 2) neuroscience, 3) pharmacokinetics, and 4) nutrition and metabolism of endogenous molecules such as vitamins. In addition, a new drug development concept that relies on the ultrasensitivity of AMS, known as human microdosing, is being used to obtain early human metabolism information of candidate drugs. These various aspects of AMS are reviewed and a perspective on future applications of AMS to biomedical research is provided.

  20. Recent advances in biomedical applications of accelerator mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hah Sang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of radioisotopes has a long history in biomedical science, and the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS, an extremely sensitive nuclear physics technique for detection of very low-abundant, stable and long-lived isotopes, has now revolutionized high-sensitivity isotope detection in biomedical research, because it allows the direct determination of the amount of isotope in a sample rather than measuring its decay, and thus the quantitative analysis of the fate of the radiolabeled probes under the given conditions. Since AMS was first used in the early 90's for the analysis of biological samples containing enriched 14C for toxicology and cancer research, the biomedical applications of AMS to date range from in vitro to in vivo studies, including the studies of 1 toxicant and drug metabolism, 2 neuroscience, 3 pharmacokinetics, and 4 nutrition and metabolism of endogenous molecules such as vitamins. In addition, a new drug development concept that relies on the ultrasensitivity of AMS, known as human microdosing, is being used to obtain early human metabolism information of candidate drugs. These various aspects of AMS are reviewed and a perspective on future applications of AMS to biomedical research is provided.

  1. Novel Magnesium Alloys Developed for Biomedical Application: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Li; Yufeng Zheng

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the development of magnesium alloys both for industrial and biomedical applications.Industrial interest in magnesium alloys is based on strong demand of weight reduction of transportation vehicles for better fuel efficiency,so higher strength,and better ductility and corrosion resistance are required.Nevertheless,biomedical magnesium alloys require appropriate mechanical properties,suitable degradation rate in physiological environment,and what is most important,biosafety to human body.Rather than simply apply commercial magnesium alloys to biomedical field,new alloys should be designed from the point of view of nutriology and toxicology.This article provides a review of state-of-the-art of magnesium alloy implants and devices for orthopedic,cardiovascular and tissue engineering applications.Advances in new alloy design,novel structure design and surface modification are overviewed.The factors that influence the corrosion behavior of magnesium alloys are discussed and the strategy in the future development of biomedical magnesium alloys is proposed.

  2. Silver metal nanoparticles study for biomedical and green house applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauwel, E.; Simón-Gracia, L.; Guha, M.; Rauwel, P.; Kuunal, S.; Wragg, D.

    2017-02-01

    Metallic nanoparticles (MNP) with diameters ranging from 2 to 100nm have received extensive attention during the past decades due to their many potential applications. This paper presents a structural and cytotoxicity study of silver metal nanoparticles targeted towards biomedical applications. Spherical Ag MNPs of diameter from 20 to 50 nm have been synthesized. The encapsulation of Ag MNPs inside pH-sensitive polymersomes has been also studied for the development of biomedical applications. A cytotoxicity study of the Ag MNPs against primary prostatic cancer cell line (PPC-1) has demonstrated a high mortality rate for concentrations ranging from 100 to 200mg/L. The paper will discuss the potential for therapeutic treatments of these Ag MNPs.

  3. Fabrication of keratin-silica hydrogel for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakkar, Prachi; Madhan, Balaraman, E-mail: bmadhan76@yahoo.co.in

    2016-09-01

    In the recent past, keratin has been fabricated into different forms of biomaterials like scaffold, gel, sponge, film etc. In lieu of the myriad advantages of the hydrogels for biomedical applications, a keratin-silica hydrogel was fabricated using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). Textural analysis shed light on the physical properties of the fabricated hydrogel, inturn enabling the optimization of the hydrogel. The optimized keratin-silica hydrogel was found to exhibit instant springiness, optimum hardness, with ease of spreadability. Moreover, the hydrogel showed excellent swelling with highly porous microarchitecture. MTT assay and DAPI staining revealed that keratin-silica hydrogel was biocompatible with fibroblast cells. Collectively, these properties make the fabricated keratin-silica hydrogel, a suitable dressing material for biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Keratin-silica hydrogel has been fabricated using sol–gel technique. • The hydrogel shows appropriate textural properties. • The hydrogel promotes fibroblast cells proliferation. • The hydrogel has potential soft tissue engineering applications like wound healing.

  4. Functionalized fluorescent nanodiamonds for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaijayanthimala, V; Chang, H-C

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, carbon and carbon-based nanomaterials have received increasing attention for applications in life sciences. Nanodiamond (ND) stands out as a unique new substance in these applications because it holds several momentous properties such as good biocompatibility, excellent photostability and facile surface functionalizability. A number of experiments have shown that ND has the highest biocompatibility of all carbon-based nanomaterials including carbon blacks, multiwalled nanotubes, single-walled nanotubes and fullerenes. Additionally, the surface of ND can be readily derivatized with various functional groups for either covalent or noncovalent conjugation with biomolecules. Furthermore, some radiation-damaged NDs can emit strong and stable photoluminescence (red or green) from nitrogen-vacancy defect centers embedded in the crystal lattice. These properties together make ND a highly promising nanomaterial for both in vitro and in vivo applications.

  5. Potential biomedical applications of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Li, Xiao-Chun; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2017-06-03

    Functional components extracted from algal biomass are widely used as dietary and health supplements with a variety of applications in food science and technology. In contrast, the applications of algae in dermal-related products have received much less attention, despite that algae also possess high potential for the uses in anti-infection, anti-aging, skin-whitening, and skin tumor treatments. This review, therefore, focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to human skin care, health and therapy. The active compounds in algae related to human skin treatments are mentioned and the possible mechanisms involved are described. The main purpose of this review is to identify serviceable algae functions in skin treatments to facilitate practical applications in this high-potential area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Processing silk hydrogel and its applications in biomedical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This review mainly introduces the types of silk hydrogels, their processing methods, and applications. There are various methods for hydrogel preparation, and many new processes are being developed for various applications. Silk hydrogels can be used in cartilage tissue engineering, drug release materials, 3D scaffolds for cells, and artificial skin, among other applications because of their porous structure and high porosity and the large surface area for growth, migration, adhesion and proliferation of cells that the hydrogels provide. All of these advantages have made silk hydrogels increasingly attractive. In addition, silk hydrogels have wide prospects for application in the field of biomedical materials.

  7. Nanoceria as Antioxidant: Synthesis and Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The therapeutic application of nanomaterials has been a focus of numerous studies in the past decade. Due to its unique redox properties, cerium oxide (ceria) is finding widespread use in the treatment of medical disorders caused by the reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI). The radical-scavenging rol...

  8. Short pulse laser systems for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Kunal

    2017-01-01

    This book presents practical information on the clinical applications of short pulse laser systems and the techniques for optimizing these applications in a manner that will be relevant to a broad audience, including engineering and medical students as well as researchers, clinicians, and technicians. Short pulse laser systems are useful for both subsurface tissue imaging and laser induced thermal therapy (LITT), which hold great promise in cancer diagnostics and treatment. Such laser systems may be used alone or in combination with optically active nanoparticles specifically administered to the tissues of interest for enhanced contrast in imaging and precise heating during LITT. Mathematical and computational models of short pulse laser-tissue interactions that consider the transient radiative transport equation coupled with a bio-heat equation considering the initial transients of laser heating were developed to analyze the laser-tissue interaction during imaging and therapy. Experiments were first performe...

  9. Wireless magnetoelastic transducers for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, S. R.; Gianchandani, Y. B.

    2017-05-01

    This paper highlights emerging medical applications for magnetoelastic sensing and actuation, each taking advantage of the wireless capabilities and small form factor enabled by the magnetoelastic transduction technique. Magnetoelastic transduction leverages the strong coupling between stress, strain, and magnetization intrinsic to some materials - notably amorphous metals and rare earth crystalline alloys. This coupling provides inherently wireless transduction that does not require any onboard power; these traits are especially advantageous in diagnostic and therapeutic medical implant applications. This paper first describes the basic transduction technique, and considerations for design and fabrication of medical systems which utilize the technique. These considerations include material selection, magnetic biasing, packaging, and interrogation approaches. The first application highlighted is stent monitoring, in which the masssensitive magnetoelastic resonator is integrated along the inner sidewall of the stent to provide early detection of stent occlusion. Prototype tests indicate clinical feasibility and a full scale range from zero stent occlusion to full stent occlusion. Wireless ranges of up to 15 cm in situ have been achieved using 25 mm long resonators. The second application is wireless strain sensing, which can be useful for orthopedic implants and orthodontia. A differential strain sensor is described, with a dynamic range of 0-1.85 mstrain - accommodating typical palatal expander strain - and a sensitivity of 12.5x103 ppm/mstrain. Finally, a wireless actuator intended to agitate fluid for mitigation of encapsulation of glaucoma drainage devices is shown. Peak actuator vibration amplitudes of 1.5 μm - sufficient to affect cell adhesion in other studies - are recorded at a wireless range of 25-30 mm.

  10. Magnetorelaxometry assisting biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiekhorst, Frank; Steinhoff, Uwe; Eberbeck, Dietmar; Trahms, Lutz

    2012-05-01

    Due to their biocompatibility and small size, iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) can be guided to virtually every biological environment. MNP are susceptible to external magnetic fields and can thus be used for transport of drugs and genes, for heat generation in magnetic hyperthermia or for contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging of biological tissue. At the same time, their magnetic properties allow one to develop sensitive and specific measurement methods to non-invasively detect MNP, to quantify MNP distribution in tissue and to determine their binding state. In this article, we review the application of magnetorelaxometry (MRX) for MNP detection. The underlying physical properties of MNP responsible for the generation of the MRX signal with its characteristic parameters of relaxation amplitude and relaxation time are described. Existing single and multi-channel MRX devices are reviewed. Finally, we thoroughly describe some applications of MRX to cellular MNP quantification, MNP organ distribution and MNP-based binding assays. Providing specific MNP signals, a detection limit down to a few nanogram MNP, in-vivo capability in conscious animals and measurement times of a few seconds, MRX is a valuable tool to improve the application of MNP for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  11. Biological and biomedical applications of engineered nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yunzhi; Xiao, Li; Li, Alice S S; Zhang, Xu; Sirois, Pierre; Zhang, Jia; Li, Kai

    2013-09-01

    The development of engineered nucleases is the fruit of a new technological approach developed in the last two decades which has led to significant benefits on genome engineering, particularly on gene therapy. These applications enable efficient and specific genetic modifications via the induction of a double-strand break (DSB) in a specific genomic target sequence, followed by the homology-directed repair (HDR) or non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathways. In addition to the application on gene modification in cells and intact organisms, a number of recent papers have reported that this gene editing technology can be applied effectively to human diseases. With the promising data obtained using engineered endonucleases in gene therapy, it appears reasonable to expect that more diseases could be treated and even be cured in this new era of individualized medicine. This paper first brief introduces the development of engineered nucleases with a special emphasis on zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector (TALE) nucleases (TALENs), and then takes CCR5-based gene therapy as an example to discuss the therapeutic applications of engineered nucleases.

  12. Two-dimensional graphene analogues for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Lianzhou

    2015-05-07

    The increasing demand of clinical biomedicine and fast development of nanobiotechnology has substantially promoted the generation of a variety of organic/inorganic nanosystems for biomedical applications. Biocompatible two-dimensional (2D) graphene analogues (e.g., nanosheets of transition metal dichalcogenides, transition metal oxides, g-C3N4, Bi2Se3, BN, etc.), which are referred to as 2D-GAs, have emerged as a new unique family of nanomaterials that show unprecedented advantages and superior performances in biomedicine due to their unique compositional, structural and physicochemical features. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art progress of this dynamically developed material family with a particular focus on biomedical applications. After the introduction, the second section of the article summarizes a range of synthetic methods for new types of 2D-GAs as well as their surface functionalization. The subsequent section provides a snapshot on the use of these biocompatible 2D-GAs for a broad spectrum of biomedical applications, including therapeutic (photothermal/photodynamic therapy, chemotherapy and synergistic therapy), diagnostic (fluorescent/magnetic resonance/computed tomography/photoacoustic imaging) and theranostic (concurrent diagnostic imaging and therapy) applications, especially on oncology. In addition, we briefly present the biosensing applications of these 2D-GAs for the detection of biomacromolecules and their in vitro/in vivo biosafety evaluations. The last section summarizes some critical unresolved issues, possible challenges/obstacles and also proposes future perspectives related to the rational design and construction of 2D-GAs for biomedical engineering, which are believed to promote their clinical translations for benefiting the personalized medicine and human health.

  13. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifullah B

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bullo Saifullah, Mohd Zobir B HusseinMaterials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, MalaysiaAbstract: Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes, high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging.Keywords: inorganic nanolayers, layered double hydroxides, layered hydroxy salts, drug delivery, biosensors, bioimaging

  14. Bimetallic nanoparticles: Preparation, properties, and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrabadi, Hamid Tayefi; Abbasi, Elham; Davaran, Soodabeh; Kouhi, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Many studies of non-supported bimetallic nanoparticle (BMNP) dispersions, stabilized by ligands or polymers, and copolymers, were started only about 10 years ago. Several preparative procedures have been proposed, and full characterizations on BMNPs have been approved. Studies on BMNPs received huge attention from both scientific and technological communities because most of the NPs' catalytic activity depends on their structural aspects. In this study, we focus on the preparation, properties, and bio-application of BMNPs and introduction of the recent advance in these NPs.

  15. Electrochemical multi sensors for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Tahirbegi, Islam Bogachan

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, pH and potassium all-solid-state ISE based on potentiometry and bioimpedance sensors were designed, fabricated and integrated in a miniaturized array for its application in endoscopic surgery for in vivo ischemia detection inside the stomach. To achieve this goal, the developed array withstood the low pH and corrosive condition in the gastric juice of the stomach, by modifying the surface with a conductive Ag/AgCl ink containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups. That create...

  16. Continuous-terahertz-wave molecular imaging system for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Liangliang; Wu, Tong; Wang, Ruixue; Zuo, Shasha; Wu, Dong; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Molecular imaging techniques are becoming increasingly important in biomedical research and potentially in clinical practice. We present a continuous-terahertz (THz)-wave molecular imaging system for biomedical applications, in which an infrared (IR) laser is integrated into a 0.2-THz reflection-mode continuous-THz-wave imaging system to induce surface plasmon polaritons on the nanoparticles and further improve the intensity of the reflected signal from the water around the nanoparticles. A strong and rapid increment of the reflected THz signal in the nanoparticle solution upon the IR laser irradiation is demonstrated, using either gold or silver nanoparticles. This low-cost, simple, and stable continuous-THz-wave molecular imaging system is suitable for miniaturization and practical imaging applications; in particular, it shows great promise for cancer diagnosis and nanoparticle drug-delivery monitoring.

  17. Metallic glass thin films for potential biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Neelam; Sharma, Parmanand; Ahadian, Samad; Khademhosseini, Ali; Takahashi, Masaharu; Makino, Akihiro; Tanaka, Shuji; Esashi, Masayoshi

    2014-10-01

    We introduce metallic glass thin films (TiCuNi) as biocompatible materials for biomedical applications. TiCuNi metallic glass thin films were deposited on the Si substrate and their structural, surface, and mechanical properties were investigated. The fabricated films showed good biocompatibility upon exposure to muscle cells. Also, they exhibited an average roughness of films was shown to be free from Ni and mainly composed of a thin titanium oxide layer, which resulted in the high surface biocompatibility. In particular, there was no cytotoxicity effect of metallic glass films on the C2C12 myoblasts and the cells were able to proliferate well on these substrates. Low cost, viscoelastic behavior, patternability, high electrical conductivity, and the capability to coat various materials (e.g., nonbiocompatible materials) make TiCuNi as an attractive material for biomedical applications.

  18. Recent advances in glycerol polymers: chemistry and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2014-11-01

    Glycerol polymers are attracting increased attention due to the diversity of polymer compositions and architectures available. This article provides a brief chronological review on the current status of these polymers along with representative examples of their use for biomedical applications. First, the underlying chemistry of glycerol that provides access to a range of monomers for subsequent polymerizations is described. Then, the various synthetic methodologies to prepare glycerol-based polymers including polyethers, polycarbonates, polyesters, and so forth are reviewed. Next, several biomedical applications where glycerol polymers are being investigated including carriers for drug delivery, sealants or coatings for tissue repair, and agents possessing antibacterial activity are described. Fourth, the growing market opportunity for the use of polymers in medicine is described. Finally, the findings are concluded and summarized, as well as the potential opportunities for continued research efforts are discussed.

  19. Antimicrobial Chitosan based formulations with impact on different biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Marius; Ficai, Denisa; Oprea, Ovidiu; Ficai, Anton; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Holban, Alina M

    2015-01-01

    Owing to its physico-chemical characteristics, the biodegradable and biocompatible polymer derived from crustacean shells, Chitosan is one of the preferred candidates for green biomedical applications and also for several industries. Its solubility in acid solutions and ability to form complexes with anionic macromolecules to yield nanoparticles, microparticles and hydrogels, as well as the ability of chitosan based nanocomposites to remain stable at physiological pH recommend this polymer for the development of efficient drug delivery systems. This paper reviews the main utilities of chitosan as a drug delivery component and describes the most recent technologies which utilize this polymer for developing nanostructured systems with antimicrobial effect, offering a perspective of using these findings in new, ecological biomedical applications.

  20. Surface engineering of graphene-based nanomaterials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sixiang; Chen, Feng; Ehlerding, Emily B; Cai, Weibo

    2014-09-17

    Graphene-based nanomaterials have attracted tremendous interest over the past decade due to their unique electronic, optical, mechanical, and chemical properties. However, the biomedical applications of these intriguing nanomaterials are still limited due to their suboptimal solubility/biocompatibility, potential toxicity, and difficulties in achieving active tumor targeting, just to name a few. In this Topical Review, we will discuss in detail the important role of surface engineering (i.e., bioconjugation) in improving the in vitro/in vivo stability and enriching the functionality of graphene-based nanomaterials, which can enable single/multimodality imaging (e.g., optical imaging, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and therapy (e.g., photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, and drug/gene delivery) of cancer. Current challenges and future research directions are also discussed and we believe that graphene-based nanomaterials are attractive nanoplatforms for a broad array of future biomedical applications.

  1. Stimulus-responsive polymeric nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles with unique properties are regarded as the most promising materials for biomedical applications including drug delivery and in vitro/in vivo imaging.Among them,stimulus-responsive polymeric nanoparticles,usually termed as "intelligent" nanoparticles,could undergo structure,shape,and property changes after being exposed to external signals including pH,temperature,magnetic field,and light,which could be used to modulate the macroscopical behavior of the nanoparticles.This paper reviews the recent progress in stimulus-responsive nanoparticles used for drug delivery and in vitro/in vivo imaging,with an emphasis on double/multiple stimulus-responsive systems and their biomedical applications.

  2. [Flexible print circuit technology application in biomedical engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lihua; Cao, Yi; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2013-06-01

    Flexible print circuit (FPC) technology has been widely applied in variety of electric circuits with high precision due to its advantages, such as low-cost, high specific fabrication ability, and good flexibility, etc. Recently, this technology has also been used in biomedical engineering, especially in the development of microfluidic chip and microelectrode array. The high specific fabrication can help making microelectrode and other micro-structure equipment. And good flexibility allows the micro devices based on FPC technique to be easily packaged with other parts. In addition, it also reduces the damage of microelectrodes to the tissue. In this paper, the application of FPC technology in biomedical engineering is introduced. Moreover, the important parameters of FPC technique and the development trend of prosperous applications is also discussed.

  3. Polymeric and Ceramic Nanoparticles in Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura-Ileana Moreno-Vega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials in the nanometer size range may possess unique and beneficial properties, which are very useful for different medical applications including stomatology, pharmacy, and implantology tissue engineering. The application of nanotechnology to medicine, known as nanomedicine, concerns the use of precisely engineered materials at this length scale to develop novel therapeutic and diagnostic modalities. Nanomaterials have unique physicochemical properties, such as small size, large surface area to mass ratio, and high reactivity, which are different from bulk materials of the same composition. Polymeric and ceramic nanoparticles have been extensively studied as particulate carriers in the pharmaceutical and medical fields, because they show promise as drug delivery systems as a result of their controlled- and sustained-release properties, subcellular size, and biocompatibility with tissue and cells. These properties can be used to overcome some of the limitations found in traditional therapeutic and diagnostic agents. Nanotechnology is showing promising developments in many areas and may benefit our health and welfare. However, a wide range of ethical issues has been raised by this innovative science. Many authorities believe that these advancements could lead to irreversible disasters if not limited by ethical guidelines.

  4. Biomedical applications of functionalized fullerene-based nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Ranga Partha; Conyers, Jodie L.

    2009-01-01

    Ranga Partha, Jodie L ConyersCenter for Translational Injury Research, The University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030, USAAbstract: Since their discovery in 1985, fullerenes have been investigated extensively due to their unique physical and chemical properties. In recent years, studies on functionalized fullerenes for various applications in the field of biomedical sciences have seen a significant increase. The ultimate goal is towards employing these functionalized fullere...

  5. Emerging Raman Applications and Techniques in Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    The book presents the latest technological advances in Raman spectroscopy that are presently redrawing the landscape of many fields of biomedical and pharmaceutical R&D. Numerous examples are given to illustrate the application of the new methods and compared with established and related techniques. The book is suitable for both new researchers and practitioners in this area as well as for those familiar with the Raman technique but seeking to keep abreast of the latest dramatic advances in this field.

  6. A compact, high performance atomic magnetometer for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vishal K; Wakai, Ronald T

    2013-11-21

    We present a highly sensitive room-temperature atomic magnetometer (AM), designed for use in biomedical applications. The magnetometer sensor head is only 2 × 2 × 5 cm3 and is constructed using readily available, low-cost optical components. The magnetic field resolution of the AM is magnetometers. We present side-by-side comparisons between our AM and a SQUID magnetometer, and show that equally high quality magnetoencephalography and magnetocardiography recordings can be obtained using our AM.

  7. Recent advances in carbon nanodots: synthesis, properties and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Peng; Han, Kun; Tang, Yuguo; Wang, Bidou; Lin, Tao; Cheng, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    Herein, a mini review is presented concerning the most recent research progress of carbon nanodots, which have emerged as one of the most attractive photoluminescent materials. Different synthetic methodologies to achieve advanced functions and better photoluminescence performances are summarized, which are mainly divided into two classes: top-down and bottom-up. The inspiring properties, including photoluminescence emission, chemiluminescence, electrochemical luminescence, peroxidase-like activity and toxicity, are discussed. Moreover, the biomedical applications in biosensing, bioimaging and drug delivery are reviewed.

  8. Ultra-wideband and 60 GHz communications for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yuce, Mehmet R

    2013-01-01

    This book investigates the design of devices, systems, and circuits for medical applications using the two recently established frequency bands: ultra-wideband (3.1-10.6 GHz) and 60 GHz ISM band. These two bands provide the largest bandwidths available for communication technologies and present many attractive opportunities for medical applications. The applications of these bands in healthcare are wireless body area network (WBAN), medical imaging, biomedical sensing, wearable and implantable devices, fast medical device connectivity, video data transmission, and vital signs monitoring. The r

  9. Biomedical applications of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, Susanne; Dangerfield, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) use a unique posttranslational modification to link proteins to lipid bilayer membranes. The anchoring structure consists of both a lipid and carbohydrate portion and is highly conserved in eukaryotic organisms regarding its basic characteristics, yet highly variable in its molecular details. The strong membrane targeting property has made the anchors an interesting tool for biotechnological modification of lipid membrane-covered entities from cells through extracellular vesicles to enveloped virus particles. In this review, we will take a closer look at the mechanisms and fields of application for GPI-APs in lipid bilayer membrane engineering and discuss their advantages and disadvantages for biomedicine. PMID:27542385

  10. Tetracalcium phosphate: Synthesis, properties and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseke, C; Gbureck, U

    2010-10-01

    Monoclinic tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP, Ca(4)(PO(4))(2)O), also known by the mineral name hilgenstockite, is formed in the (CaO-P(2)O(5)) system at temperatures>1300 degrees C. TTCP is the only calcium phosphate with a Ca/P ratio greater than hydroxyapatite (HA). It appears as a by-product in plasma-sprayed HA coatings and shows moderate reactivity and concurrent solubility when combined with acidic calcium phosphates such as dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA, monetite) or dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD, brushite). Therefore it is widely used in self-setting calcium phosphate bone cements, which form HA under physiological conditions. This paper aims to review the synthesis and properties of TTCP in biomaterials applications such as cements, sintered ceramics and coatings on implant metals.

  11. Engineered cell manipulation for biomedical application

    CERN Document Server

    Akashi, Misturu; Matsusaki, Michiya

    2014-01-01

    This book is the first to summarize new technologies for engineered cell manipulation. The contents focus on control of cellular functions by nanomaterials and control of three-dimensional cell-cell interactions. Control of cellular functions is important for cell differentiation, maturation, and activation, which generally are controlled by the addition of soluble cytokines or growth factors into cell culture dishes. Target antigen molecules can be efficiently delivered to the cytosol of the dendritic cells using the nanoparticle technique described here, and cellular functions such as dendritic cell maturation can be controlled easily and with precision. This book describes basic preparation of the nanoparticles, activation control of dendritic cells, immune function control, and in vivo application for various vaccination systems. The second type of control,that of cell-cell interaction, is important for tissue engineering in order to develop three-dimensional cellular constructs. To achieve in vitro engin...

  12. Microbial production and biomedical applications of lovastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seenivasan A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lovastatin is a potent hypercholesterolemic drug used for lowering blood cholesterol. Lovastatin acts by competitively inhibiting the enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase involved in the biosynthesis of cholesterol. Commercially lovastatin is produced by a variety of filamentous fungi including Penicillium species, Monascus ruber and Aspergillus terreus as a secondary metabolite. Production of lovastatin by fermentation decreases the production cost compared to costs of chemical synthesis. In recent years, lovastatin has also been reported as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of various types of tumors and also play a tremendous role in the regulation of the inflammatory and immune response, coagulation process, bone turnover, neovascularization, vascular tone, and arterial pressure. This review deals with the structure, biosynthesis, various modes of fermentation and applications of lovastatin.

  13. Progress in material design for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitt, Mark W; Rodell, Christopher B; Burdick, Jason A; Anseth, Kristi S

    2015-11-24

    Biomaterials that interface with biological systems are used to deliver drugs safely and efficiently; to prevent, detect, and treat disease; to assist the body as it heals; and to engineer functional tissues outside of the body for organ replacement. The field has evolved beyond selecting materials that were originally designed for other applications with a primary focus on properties that enabled restoration of function and mitigation of acute pathology. Biomaterials are now designed rationally with controlled structure and dynamic functionality to integrate with biological complexity and perform tailored, high-level functions in the body. The transition has been from permissive to promoting biomaterials that are no longer bioinert but bioactive. This perspective surveys recent developments in the field of polymeric and soft biomaterials with a specific emphasis on advances in nano- to macroscale control, static to dynamic functionality, and biocomplex materials.

  14. Surface Modification of Polymer Substrates for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldřich Neděla

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While polymers are widely utilized materials in the biomedical industry, they are rarely used in an unmodified state. Some kind of a surface treatment is often necessary to achieve properties suitable for specific applications. There are multiple methods of surface treatment, each with their own pros and cons, such as plasma and laser treatment, UV lamp modification, etching, grafting, metallization, ion sputtering and others. An appropriate treatment can change the physico-chemical properties of the surface of a polymer in a way that makes it attractive for a variety of biological compounds, or, on the contrary, makes the polymer exhibit antibacterial or cytotoxic properties, thus making the polymer usable in a variety of biomedical applications. This review examines four popular methods of polymer surface modification: laser treatment, ion implantation, plasma treatment and nanoparticle grafting. Surface treatment-induced changes of the physico-chemical properties, morphology, chemical composition and biocompatibility of a variety of polymer substrates are studied. Relevant biological methods are used to determine the influence of various surface treatments and grafting processes on the biocompatibility of the new surfaces—mammalian cell adhesion and proliferation is studied as well as other potential applications of the surface-treated polymer substrates in the biomedical industry.

  15. Decoration of silk fibroin by click chemistry for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongshi; Heusler, Eva; Jones, Gabriel; Li, Linhao; Werner, Vera; Germershaus, Oliver; Ritzer, Jennifer; Luehmann, Tessa; Meinel, Lorenz

    2014-06-01

    Silkfibroin (SF) has an excellent biocompatibility and its remarkable structure translates into exciting mechanical properties rendering this biomaterial particularly fascinating for biomedical application. To further boost the material's biological/preclinical impact, SF is decorated with biologics, typically by carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide coupling (EDC/NHS). For biomedical application, this chemistry challenges the product risk profile due to the formation of covalent aggregates, particularly when decoration is with biologics occurring naturally in humans as these aggregates may prime for autoimmunity. Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC; click chemistry) provides the necessary specificity to avoid such intermolecular, covalent aggregates. We present a blueprint outlining the necessary chemistry rendering SF compatible with CuAAC and with a particular focus on structural consequences. For that, the number of SF carboxyl groups (carboxyl-SF; required for EDC/NHS chemistry) or azido groups (azido-SF; required for click chemistry) was tailored by means of diazonium coupling of the SF tyrosine residues. Structural impact on SF and decorated SF was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The click chemistry yielded a better controlled product as compared to the EDC/NHS chemistry with no formation of inter- and intramolecular crosslinks as demonstrated for SF decorated with fluorescent model compounds or a biologic, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), respectively. In conclusion, SF can readily be translated into a scaffold compatible with click chemistry yielding decorated products with a better risk profile for biomedical application.

  16. Smart hydrogels based on itaconic acid for biomedical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Simonida Lj.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available pH and temperature sensitive hydrogels, based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA and itaconic acid (IA copolymers, were prepared by gamma irradiation and characterized in order to examine their potential use in biomedical applications. The influence of comonomer ratio in these smart copolymers on their morphology, mechanical properties, biocompatibility and microbe penetration capability was investigated. The mechanical properties of copolymers were investigated using the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, while their morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The morphology and mechanical properties of these hydrogels were found to be suitable for most requirements of biomedical applications. The in vitro study of P(HEMA/IA biocompatibility showed no evidence of cell toxicity nor any considerable hemolytic activity. Furthermore, the microbe penetration test showed that neither Staphylococcus aureus nor Escherichia coli passed through the hydogel dressing; thus the P(HEMA/IA dressing could be considered a good barrier against microbes. All results indicate that stimuli-responsive P(HEMA/IA hydrogels have great potential for biomedical applications, especially for skin treatment and wound dressings.

  17. Wool fibril sponges with perspective biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrucco, A., E-mail: a.patrucco@bi.ismac.cnr.it [CNR-ISMAC, Italian National Research Council, Institute for Macromolecular Studies, Corso G. Pella 16, 13900, Biella (Italy); Cristofaro, F., E-mail: francesco.cristofaro01@universitadipavia.it [Department of Molecular Medicine, INSTM UdR of Pavia, University of Pavia, Viale Taramelli 3/B, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Centre for Health Technologies (CHT), University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Simionati, M., E-mail: m.simionati@bi.ismac.cnr.it [CNR-ISMAC, Italian National Research Council, Institute for Macromolecular Studies, Corso G. Pella 16, 13900, Biella (Italy); Zoccola, M., E-mail: m.zoccola@bi.ismac.cnr.it [CNR-ISMAC, Italian National Research Council, Institute for Macromolecular Studies, Corso G. Pella 16, 13900, Biella (Italy); Bruni, G., E-mail: giovanna.bruni@unipv.it [Department of Chemistry, — Physical-Chemistry Section, University of Pavia, Viale Taramelli 16, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Fassina, L., E-mail: lorenzo.fassina@unipv.it [Centre for Health Technologies (CHT), University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Department of Electrical, Computer and Biomedical Engineering, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Visai, L., E-mail: livia.visai@unipv.it [Department of Molecular Medicine, INSTM UdR of Pavia, University of Pavia, Viale Taramelli 3/B, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Centre for Health Technologies (CHT), University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Department of Occupational Medicine, Toxicology and Environmental Risks, S. Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Via S. Boezio, 28, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Magenes, G., E-mail: giovanni.magenes@unipv.it [Centre for Health Technologies (CHT), University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Department of Electrical, Computer and Biomedical Engineering, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); and others

    2016-04-01

    Sheep's wool was used as a natural source to prepare keratin microfibril sponges for scaffolding, by disruption of the histological structure of the fibres through mild alkali treatment, followed by ultrasonication, casting and salt-leaching. The wool sponges showed highly interconnected porosity (93%) and contain intrinsic sites of cellular recognition that mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM). They displayed good thermal and water stability due to the conversion of disulphide cystine bonds into shorter monosulphide lanthionine intermolecular bonds, but significantly swelled in water, because of the high hydrophilicity and porosity, with a volume increasing up to 38%. Nevertheless, sponges were stable in water without structural changes, with a neutral pH in aqueous media, and showed excellent resilience to repeated compression stresses. According to in vitro biocompatibility assays, wool fibril sponges showed a good cell adhesion and proliferation as proved by MTT, FDA assays and SEM observations. The unique structure of the cortical cell network made by wool keratin proteins with controlled-size macro-porosity suitable for cell guesting, and nutrient feeding, provides an excellent scaffold for future tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Scaffolds were prepared from wool exploiting the fibres' histology structure. • The scaffold showed high interconnected micro- and macro-porosity. • The microscopic structure is very similar to the extracellular bone matrix. • Scaffolds reversibly swell in water with high resilience to repeated compression. • Composites were cytocompatible and supported the growth of SAOS-2 cell line.

  18. Imaging systems for biomedical applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radparvar, M.

    1995-06-06

    Many of the activities of the human body manifest themselves by the presence of a very weak magnetic field outside the body, a field that is so weak that an ultra-sensitive magnetic sensor is needed for specific biomagnetic measurements. Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) are extremely sensitive detectors of magnetic flux and have been used extensively to detect the human magnetocardiogram, and magnetoencephalogram. and other biomagnetic signals. In order to utilize a SQUID as a magnetometer, its transfer characteristics should be linearized. This linearization requires extensive peripheral electronics, thus limiting the number of SQUID magnetometer channels in a practical system. The proposed digital SQUID integrates the processing circuitry on the same cryogenic chip as the SQUID magnetometer and eliminates the sophisticated peripheral electronics. Such a system is compact and cost effective, and requires minimal support electronics. Under a DOE-sponsored SBIR program, we designed, simulated, laid out, fabricated, evaluated, and demonstrated a digital SQUID magnetometer. This report summarizes the accomplishments under this program and clearly demonstrates that all of the tasks proposed in the phase II application were successfully completed with confirmed experimental results.

  19. Wool fibril sponges with perspective biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrucco, A; Cristofaro, F; Simionati, M; Zoccola, M; Bruni, G; Fassina, L; Visai, L; Magenes, G; Mossotti, R; Montarsolo, A; Tonin, C

    2016-04-01

    Sheep's wool was used as a natural source to prepare keratin microfibril sponges for scaffolding, by disruption of the histological structure of the fibres through mild alkali treatment, followed by ultrasonication, casting and salt-leaching. The wool sponges showed highly interconnected porosity (93%) and contain intrinsic sites of cellular recognition that mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM). They displayed good thermal and water stability due to the conversion of disulphide cystine bonds into shorter monosulphide lanthionine intermolecular bonds, but significantly swelled in water, because of the high hydrophilicity and porosity, with a volume increasing up to 38%. Nevertheless, sponges were stable in water without structural changes, with a neutral pH in aqueous media, and showed excellent resilience to repeated compression stresses. According to in vitro biocompatibility assays, wool fibril sponges showed a good cell adhesion and proliferation as proved by MTT, FDA assays and SEM observations. The unique structure of the cortical cell network made by wool keratin proteins with controlled-size macro-porosity suitable for cell guesting, and nutrient feeding, provides an excellent scaffold for future tissue engineering applications.

  20. Promises, facts and challenges for graphene in biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Giacomo; González-Domínguez, José Miguel; Criado, Alejandro; Vázquez, Ester; Bianco, Alberto; Prato, Maurizio

    2017-07-31

    The graphene family has captured the interest and the imagination of an increasing number of scientists working in different fields, ranging from composites to flexible electronics. In the area of biomedical applications, graphene is especially involved in drug delivery, biosensing and tissue engineering, with strong contributions to the whole nanomedicine area. Besides the interesting results obtained so far and the evident success, there are still many problems to solve, on the way to the manufacturing of biomedical devices, including the lack of standardization in the production of the graphene family members. Control of lateral size, aggregation state (single vs. few layers) and oxidation state (unmodified graphene vs. oxidized graphenes) is essential for the translation of this material into clinical assays. In this Tutorial Review we critically describe the latest developments of the graphene family materials into the biomedical field. We analyze graphene-based devices starting from graphene synthetic strategies, functionalization and processibility protocols up to the final in vitro and in vivo applications. We also address the toxicological impact and the limitations in translating graphene materials into advanced clinical tools. Finally, new trends and guidelines for future developments are presented.

  1. Computational Phase Imaging for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tan Huu

    laser comes at the expense of speckles, which degrades image quality. Therefore, solutions purely based on physical modeling and computations to remove these artifacts, using white-light illumination, are highly desirable. Here, using physical optics, we develop a theoretical model that accurately explains the effects of partial coherence on image information and phase information. The model is further combined with numerical processing to suppress the artifacts, and recover the correct phase information. The third topic is devoted to applying QPI to clinical applications. Traditionally, stained tissues are used in prostate cancer diagnosis instead. The reason is that tissue samples used in diagnosis are nearly transparent under bright field inspection if unstained. Contrast-enhanced microscopy techniques, e.g., phase contrast microscopy (PC) and differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC), can render visibility of the untagged samples with high throughput. However, since these methods are intensity-based, the contrast of acquired images varies significantly from one imaging facility to another, preventing them from being used in diagnosis. Inheriting the merits of PC, SLIM produces phase maps, which measure the refractive index of label-free samples. However, the maps measured by SLIM are not affected by variation in imaging conditions, e.g., illumination, magnification, etc., allowing consistent imaging results when using SLIM across different clinical institutions. Here, we combine SLIM images with machine learning for automatic diagnosis results for prostate cancer. We focus on two diagnosis problems of automatic Gleason grading and cancer vs. non-cancer diagnosis. Finally, we introduce a new imaging modality, named Gradient Light Interference Microscopy (GLIM), which is able to image through optically thick samples using low spatial coherence illumination. The key benefit of GLIM comes from a large numerical aperture of the condenser, which is 0.55 NA

  2. Application of MRI and biomedical engineering in speech production study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, S R; Freitas, D R; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2009-12-01

    Speech production has always been a subject of interest both at the morphological and acoustic levels. This knowledge is useful for a better understanding of all the involved mechanisms and for the construction of articulatory models. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful technique that allows the study of the whole vocal tract, with good soft tissue contrast and resolution, and permits the calculation of area functions towards a better understanding of this mechanism. Thus, our aim is to demonstrate the value and application of MRI in speech production study and its relationship with engineering, namely with biomedical engineering. After vocal tract contours extraction, data were processed for 3D reconstruction culminating in model construction of some of the sounds of European Portuguese. MRI provides useful morphological data about the position and shape of the different speech articulators, and the biomedical engineering computational tools for its analysis.

  3. Metal-Based Antibacterial Substrates for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladini, Federica; Pollini, Mauro; Sannino, Alessandro; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-07-13

    The interest in nanotechnology and the growing concern for the antibiotic resistance demonstrated by many microorganisms have recently stimulated many efforts in designing innovative biomaterials and substrates with antibacterial properties. Among the implemented strategies to control the incidence of infections associated with the use of biomedical device and implants, interesting routes are represented by the incorporation of bactericidal agents onto the surface of biomaterials for the prevention of bacterial adhesion and biofilm growth. Natural products and particularly bioactive metals such as silver, copper and zinc represent an interesting alternative for the development of advanced biomaterials with antimicrobial properties. This review presents an overview of recent progress in the modification of biomaterials as well as the most attractive techniques for the deposition of antimicrobial coatings on different substrates for biomedical application. Moreover, some research activities and results achieved by the authors in the development of antibacterial materials are also presented and discussed.

  4. Application of CRISPR/Cas9 for biomedical discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Sean M; Heruth, Daniel P; Zhang, Li Q; Ye, Shui Qing

    2015-01-01

    The Clustered Regions of Interspersed Palindromic Repeats-Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9), a viral defense system found in bacteria and archaea, has emerged as a tour de force genome editing tool. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is much easier to customize and optimize because the site selection for DNA cleavage is guided by a short sequence of RNA rather than an engineered protein as in the systems of zinc finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN), and meganucleases. Although it still suffers from some off-target effects, the CRISPR/Cas9 system has been broadly and successfully applied for biomedical discoveries in a number of areas. In this review, we present a brief history and development of the CRISPR system and focus on the application of this genome editing technology for biomedical discoveries. We then present concise concluding remarks and future directions for this fast moving field.

  5. Applications of ontology design patterns in biomedical ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Jonathan M; Horridge, Matthew; Musen, Mark A; Noy, Natalya F

    2012-01-01

    Ontology design patterns (ODPs) are a proposed solution to facilitate ontology development, and to help users avoid some of the most frequent modeling mistakes. ODPs originate from similar approaches in software engineering, where software design patterns have become a critical aspect of software development. There is little empirical evidence for ODP prevalence or effectiveness thus far. In this work, we determine the use and applicability of ODPs in a case study of biomedical ontologies. We encoded ontology design patterns from two ODP catalogs. We then searched for these patterns in a set of eight ontologies. We found five patterns of the 69 patterns. Two of the eight ontologies contained these patterns. While ontology design patterns provide a vehicle for capturing formally reoccurring models and best practices in ontology design, we show that today their use in a case study of widely used biomedical ontologies is limited.

  6. Applications of Ontology Design Patterns in Biomedical Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Jonathan M.; Horridge, Matthew; Musen, Mark A.; Noy, Natalya F.

    2012-01-01

    Ontology design patterns (ODPs) are a proposed solution to facilitate ontology development, and to help users avoid some of the most frequent modeling mistakes. ODPs originate from similar approaches in software engineering, where software design patterns have become a critical aspect of software development. There is little empirical evidence for ODP prevalence or effectiveness thus far. In this work, we determine the use and applicability of ODPs in a case study of biomedical ontologies. We encoded ontology design patterns from two ODP catalogs. We then searched for these patterns in a set of eight ontologies. We found five patterns of the 69 patterns. Two of the eight ontologies contained these patterns. While ontology design patterns provide a vehicle for capturing formally reoccurring models and best practices in ontology design, we show that today their use in a case study of widely used biomedical ontologies is limited. PMID:23304337

  7. Sensor Fusion and Smart Sensor in Sports and Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jair Alves Mendes Jr.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The following work presents an overview of smart sensors and sensor fusion targeted at biomedical applications and sports areas. In this work, the integration of these areas is demonstrated, promoting a reflection about techniques and applications to collect, quantify and qualify some physical variables associated with the human body. These techniques are presented in various biomedical and sports applications, which cover areas related to diagnostics, rehabilitation, physical monitoring, and the development of performance in athletes, among others. Although some applications are described in only one of two fields of study (biomedicine and sports, it is very likely that the same application fits in both, with small peculiarities or adaptations. To illustrate the contemporaneity of applications, an analysis of specialized papers published in the last six years has been made. In this context, the main characteristic of this review is to present the largest quantity of relevant examples of sensor fusion and smart sensors focusing on their utilization and proposals, without deeply addressing one specific system or technique, to the detriment of the others.

  8. Gold Nanoparticles: Recent Advances in the Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoying

    2015-07-01

    Among the multiple branches of nanotechnology applications in the area of medicine and biology, Nanoparticle technology is the fastest growing and shows significant future promise. Nanoscale structures, with size similar to many biological molecules, show different physical and chemical properties compared to either small molecules or bulk materials, find many applications in the fields of biomedical imaging and therapy. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are relatively inert in biological environment, and have a number of physical properties that are suitable for several biomedical applications. For example, AuNPs have been successfully employed in inducing localized hyperthermia for the destruction of tumors or radiotherapy for cancer, photodynamic therapy, computed tomography imaging, as drug carriers to tumors, bio-labeling through single particle detection by electron microscopy and in photothermal microscopy. Recent advances in synthetic chemistry makes it possible to make gold nanoparticles with precise control over physicochemical and optical properties that are desired for specific clinical or biological applications. Because of the availability of several methods for easy modification of the surface of gold nanoparticles for attaching a ligand, drug or other targeting molecules, AuNPs are useful in a wide variety of applications. Even though gold is biologically inert and thus shows much less toxicity, the relatively low rate of clearance from circulation and tissues can lead to health problems and therefore, specific targeting of diseased cells and tissues must be achieved before AuNPs find their application for routine human use.

  9. Sensor Fusion and Smart Sensor in Sports and Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, José Jair Alves; Vieira, Mário Elias Marinho; Pires, Marcelo Bissi; Stevan, Sergio Luiz

    2016-01-01

    The following work presents an overview of smart sensors and sensor fusion targeted at biomedical applications and sports areas. In this work, the integration of these areas is demonstrated, promoting a reflection about techniques and applications to collect, quantify and qualify some physical variables associated with the human body. These techniques are presented in various biomedical and sports applications, which cover areas related to diagnostics, rehabilitation, physical monitoring, and the development of performance in athletes, among others. Although some applications are described in only one of two fields of study (biomedicine and sports), it is very likely that the same application fits in both, with small peculiarities or adaptations. To illustrate the contemporaneity of applications, an analysis of specialized papers published in the last six years has been made. In this context, the main characteristic of this review is to present the largest quantity of relevant examples of sensor fusion and smart sensors focusing on their utilization and proposals, without deeply addressing one specific system or technique, to the detriment of the others. PMID:27669260

  10. Elastin-like polypeptides: biomedical applications of tunable biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEwan, Sarah R; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2010-01-01

    Artificial repetitive polypeptides have grown in popularity as a bioinspired alternative to synthetic polymers. The genetically encoded synthesis, monodispersity, potential lack of toxicity, and biocompatibility are attractive features of these biopolymers for biological applications. Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are one such class of biopolymers that are of particular interest because of their "smart"-stimuli responsive-properties. Herein, we discuss the genetically encoded design and recombinant synthesis of ELPs that enable precise control of their physicochemical properties and which have led to a wide range of biomedical applications of these biopolymers in the last decade.

  11. Precision biopolymers from protein precursors for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Seah Ling; Wu, Yuzhou; Weil, Tanja

    2013-03-12

    The synthesis of biohybrid materials with tailored functional properties represents a topic of emerging interest. Combining proteins as natural, macromolecular building blocks, and synthetic polymers opens access to giant brush-like biopolymers of high structural definition. The properties of these precision polypeptide copolymers can be tailored through various chemical modifications along their polypeptide backbone, which expands the repertoire of known protein-based materials to address biomedical applications. In this article, the synthetic strategies for the design of precision biopolymers from proteins through amino acid specific conjugation reagents are highlighted and the different functionalization strategies, their characterization, and applications are discussed.

  12. Layer-by-layer films for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Picart, Catherine; Voegel, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition technique is a versatile approach for preparing nanoscale multimaterial films: the fabrication of multicomposite films by the LbL procedure allows the combination of literally hundreds of different materials with nanometer thickness in a single device to obtain novel or superior performance. In the last 15 years the LbL technique has seen considerable developments and has now reached a point where it is beginning to find applications in bioengineering and biomedical engineering. The book gives a thorough overview of applications of the LbL technique in the c

  13. Applications Of Biostereometrics To Biomedical And Anthropological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savara, Bhim S.; Steen, John C.; Vannier, Michael W.

    1986-07-01

    The field of biostereometrics provides us with three dimensional measurements (x,y,z coordinates) by utilizing stereopairs of either photographs or radiographs. The recent rapid development of sophisticated equipment and advanced computergraphics methods give an impetus for applications of biostereometrics to biomedical imaging. The combination of these two areas, that is, biostereometrics and advanced computergraphics, can be used to enhance our ability to make instantaneous (within 1/30 second), interactive surgical simulations and representations, and continuous, comparative, superimposed, quantitative displays. These procedures are applicable for serial observation and diagnosis and treatment planning for craniofacial anomalies, dermatologic lesions, gingival inflammatory processes and skeletal anthroplogy.

  14. Polyion complex (PIC) particles: Preparation and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insua, Ignacio; Wilkinson, Andrew; Fernandez-Trillo, Francisco

    2016-08-01

    Oppositely charged polyions can self-assemble in solution to form colloidal polyion complex (PIC) particles. Such nanomaterials can be loaded with charged therapeutics such as DNA, drugs or probes for application as novel nanomedicines and chemical sensors to detect disease markers. A comprehensive discussion of the factors affecting PIC particle self-assembly and their response to physical and chemical stimuli in solution is described herein. Finally, a collection of key examples of polyionic nanoparticles for biomedical applications is discussed to illustrate their behaviour and demonstrate the potential of PIC nanoparticles in medicine.

  15. Biomedical applications of polypeptide multilayer nanofilms and microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudra, Jai Simha S.

    The past few years have witnessed considerable growth in synthetic polymer chemistry and physics, biomaterials science, and nano-scale engineering. Research on polypeptide multilayer films, coatings, and microcapsules is located at the intersection of these areas and are promising materials for applications in medicine, biotechnology, environmental science. Most envisioned applications of polypeptide multilayers have a biomedical bent. This dissertation on polypeptide multilayer film applications covers key points of polypeptides as materials, means of polymer production, film preparation, film characterization methods, and key points of current research in basic science. Both commercial and designed peptides have been used to fabricate films for in-vitro applications such as antimicrobial coatings and cell culture coatings and also microcapsules for drug delivery applications. Other areas of product development include artificial red blood cells, anisotropic coatings, enantioselective membranes, and artificial viruses.

  16. Piezoelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducers in biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qifa; Lam, Kwok Ho; Zheng, Hairong; Qiu, Weibao; Shung, K. Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric single crystals, which have excellent piezoelectric properties, have extensively been employed for various sensors and actuators applications. In this paper, the state–of–art in piezoelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications is reviewed. Firstly, the basic principles and design considerations of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers will be addressed. Then, the popular piezoelectric single crystals used for ultrasonic transducer applications, including LiNbO3 (LN), PMN–PT and PIN–PMN–PT, will be introduced. After describing the preparation and performance of the single crystals, the recent development of both the single–element and array transducers fabricated using the single crystals will be presented. Finally, various biomedical applications including eye imaging, intravascular imaging, blood flow measurement, photoacoustic imaging, and microbeam applications of the single crystal transducers will be discussed. PMID:25386032

  17. Application of an efficient Bayesian discretization method to biomedical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan Vanathi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several data mining methods require data that are discrete, and other methods often perform better with discrete data. We introduce an efficient Bayesian discretization (EBD method for optimal discretization of variables that runs efficiently on high-dimensional biomedical datasets. The EBD method consists of two components, namely, a Bayesian score to evaluate discretizations and a dynamic programming search procedure to efficiently search the space of possible discretizations. We compared the performance of EBD to Fayyad and Irani's (FI discretization method, which is commonly used for discretization. Results On 24 biomedical datasets obtained from high-throughput transcriptomic and proteomic studies, the classification performances of the C4.5 classifier and the naïve Bayes classifier were statistically significantly better when the predictor variables were discretized using EBD over FI. EBD was statistically significantly more stable to the variability of the datasets than FI. However, EBD was less robust, though not statistically significantly so, than FI and produced slightly more complex discretizations than FI. Conclusions On a range of biomedical datasets, a Bayesian discretization method (EBD yielded better classification performance and stability but was less robust than the widely used FI discretization method. The EBD discretization method is easy to implement, permits the incorporation of prior knowledge and belief, and is sufficiently fast for application to high-dimensional data.

  18. Biochemical imaging of tissues by SIMS for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Geol; Park, Ji-Won; Shon, Hyun Kyong; Moon, Dae Won; Choi, Won Woo; Li, Kapsok; Chung, Jin Ho

    2008-12-01

    With the development of optimal surface cleaning techniques by cluster ion beam sputtering, certain applications of SIMS for analyzing cells and tissues have been actively investigated. For this report, we collaborated with bio-medical scientists to study bio-SIMS analyses of skin and cancer tissues for biomedical diagnostics. We pay close attention to the setting up of a routine procedure for preparing tissue specimens and treating the surface before obtaining the bio-SIMS data. Bio-SIMS was used to study two biosystems, skin tissues for understanding the effects of photoaging and colon cancer tissues for insight into the development of new cancer diagnostics for cancer. Time-of-flight SIMS imaging measurements were taken after surface cleaning with cluster ion bombardment by Bi n or C 60 under varying conditions. The imaging capability of bio-SIMS with a spatial resolution of a few microns combined with principal component analysis reveal biologically meaningful information, but the lack of high molecular weight peaks even with cluster ion bombardment was a problem. This, among other problems, shows that discourse with biologists and medical doctors are critical to glean any meaningful information from SIMS mass spectrometric and imaging data. For SIMS to be accepted as a routine, daily analysis tool in biomedical laboratories, various practical sample handling methodology such as surface matrix treatment, including nano-metal particles and metal coating, in addition to cluster sputtering, should be studied.

  19. Biomedical text mining and its applications in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fei; Patumcharoenpol, Preecha; Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Yang; Chan, Jonathan; Meechai, Asawin; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Shen, Bairong

    2013-04-01

    Cancer is a malignant disease that has caused millions of human deaths. Its study has a long history of well over 100years. There have been an enormous number of publications on cancer research. This integrated but unstructured biomedical text is of great value for cancer diagnostics, treatment, and prevention. The immense body and rapid growth of biomedical text on cancer has led to the appearance of a large number of text mining techniques aimed at extracting novel knowledge from scientific text. Biomedical text mining on cancer research is computationally automatic and high-throughput in nature. However, it is error-prone due to the complexity of natural language processing. In this review, we introduce the basic concepts underlying text mining and examine some frequently used algorithms, tools, and data sets, as well as assessing how much these algorithms have been utilized. We then discuss the current state-of-the-art text mining applications in cancer research and we also provide some resources for cancer text mining. With the development of systems biology, researchers tend to understand complex biomedical systems from a systems biology viewpoint. Thus, the full utilization of text mining to facilitate cancer systems biology research is fast becoming a major concern. To address this issue, we describe the general workflow of text mining in cancer systems biology and each phase of the workflow. We hope that this review can (i) provide a useful overview of the current work of this field; (ii) help researchers to choose text mining tools and datasets; and (iii) highlight how to apply text mining to assist cancer systems biology research.

  20. New Developments of Ti-Based Alloys for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ti-based alloys are finding ever-increasing applications in biomaterials due to their excellent mechanical, physical and biological performance. Nowdays, low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys are still being developed. Meanwhile, porous Ti-based alloys are being developed as an alternative orthopedic implant material, as they can provide good biological fixation through bone tissue ingrowth into the porous network. This paper focuses on recent developments of biomedical Ti-based alloys. It can be divided into four main sections. The first section focuses on the fundamental requirements titanium biomaterial should fulfill and its market and application prospects. This section is followed by discussing basic phases, alloying elements and mechanical properties of low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys. Thermal treatment, grain size, texture and properties in Ti-based alloys and their limitations are dicussed in the third section. Finally, the fourth section reviews the influence of microstructural configurations on mechanical properties of porous Ti-based alloys and all known methods for fabricating porous Ti-based alloys. This section also reviews prospects and challenges of porous Ti-based alloys, emphasizing their current status, future opportunities and obstacles for expanded applications. Overall, efforts have been made to reveal the latest scenario of bulk and porous Ti-based materials for biomedical applications.

  1. Recent patents on bacteriocins: food and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmechernene, Zineb; Fernandez-No, Inmaculada; Kihal, Mebrouk; Böhme, Karola; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Barros-Velazquez, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Most types of bacteria produce bacteriocins, which are proteinaceous extracellular compounds that can inhibit the growth of other undesirable microorganisms. Bacteriocins are receiving increasing attention, due to their many applications, ranging from their initial application in strategies for food preservation to more recent proposed uses in biomedical strategies aimed at fighting certain bacterial infections. Thus, while nisin has a long history of use as a safe additive in certain food products for the purpose of food preservation, certain bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria, which are generally recognised as safe microorganisms, or their extracellular extracts are receiving increased attention as protective cultures or antimicrobial extracts in minimally processed food products. More recently, a number of these bacteriocinproducing cultures have been proposed for use in other applications, such as in probiotics, for the inhibition of biofilms in the food industry, or even as coadjuvants of combined therapeutical strategies along with other antimicrobial agents in biomedical applications. This review aims to provide a brief overview of the most relevant recent patents in this field.

  2. New Developments of Ti-Based Alloys for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhua; Yang, Chao; Zhao, Haidong; Qu, Shengguan; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Ti-based alloys are finding ever-increasing applications in biomaterials due to their excellent mechanical, physical and biological performance. Nowdays, low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys are still being developed. Meanwhile, porous Ti-based alloys are being developed as an alternative orthopedic implant material, as they can provide good biological fixation through bone tissue ingrowth into the porous network. This paper focuses on recent developments of biomedical Ti-based alloys. It can be divided into four main sections. The first section focuses on the fundamental requirements titanium biomaterial should fulfill and its market and application prospects. This section is followed by discussing basic phases, alloying elements and mechanical properties of low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys. Thermal treatment, grain size, texture and properties in Ti-based alloys and their limitations are dicussed in the third section. Finally, the fourth section reviews the influence of microstructural configurations on mechanical properties of porous Ti-based alloys and all known methods for fabricating porous Ti-based alloys. This section also reviews prospects and challenges of porous Ti-based alloys, emphasizing their current status, future opportunities and obstacles for expanded applications. Overall, efforts have been made to reveal the latest scenario of bulk and porous Ti-based materials for biomedical applications. PMID:28788539

  3. Mechanical biocompatibilities of titanium alloys for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinomi, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    Young's modulus as well as tensile strength, ductility, fatigue life, fretting fatigue life, wear properties, functionalities, etc., should be adjusted to levels that are suitable for structural biomaterials used in implants that replace hard tissue. These factors may be collectively referred to as mechanical biocompatibilities. In this paper, the following are described with regard to biomedical applications of titanium alloys: the Young's modulus, wear properties, notch fatigue strength, fatigue behaviour on relation to ageing treatment, improvement of fatigue strength, fatigue crack propagation resistance and ductility by the deformation-induced martensitic transformation of the unstable beta phase, and multifunctional deformation behaviours of titanium alloys.

  4. Lab-on-a-chip techniques, circuits, and biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ghallab, Yehya H

    2010-01-01

    Here's a groundbreaking book that introduces and discusses the important aspects of lab-on-a-chip, including the practical techniques, circuits, microsystems, and key applications in the biomedical, biology, and life science fields. Moreover, this volume covers ongoing research in lab-on-a-chip integration and electric field imaging. Presented in a clear and logical manner, the book provides you with the fundamental underpinnings of lab-on-a-chip, presents practical results, and brings you up to date with state-of-the-art research in the field. This unique resource is supported with over 160 i

  5. Nanoparticle-Based Delivery System for Biomedical Applications of RNAi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Chuanxu

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a post-transcriptional gene silencing process triggered by double-strand RNA, including synthetic short interfering RNA (siRNA) and endogenous microRNA (miRNA). RNAi has attracted great attention for developing a new class of therapeutics, due to its capability to speci......RNA/miRNA and transport them to the action site in the target cells. This thesis describes the development of various nanocarriers for siRNA/miRNA delivery and investigate their potential biomedical applications including: anti-inflammation, tissue engineering and cancer...

  6. Introduction to fiber optics: Sensors for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R Y; Agrawal, Y K

    2011-01-01

    The paper focuses on the introduction of fiber optics, a fusion of science and engineering and describes the materials generally used for its construction along with the procedure used to design the fibers. It gives an idea of the materials used for the construction along with the pros and cons associated with them and various factors governing the emission of ultraviolet, infrared or visible radiations. The central core revolves around the applications of optical fibers in the medical and biomedical field and extending the use of the same in pharmaceutical industry as probes in quality control and dosage form analysis.

  7. Biomedical Applications of Thermally Activated Shape Memory Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small IV, W; Singhal, P; Wilson, T S; Maitland, D J

    2009-04-10

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are smart materials that can remember a primary shape and can return to this primary shape from a deformed secondary shape when given an appropriate stimulus. This property allows them to be delivered in a compact form via minimally invasive surgeries in humans, and deployed to achieve complex final shapes. Here we review the various biomedical applications of SMPs and the challenges they face with respect to actuation and biocompatibility. While shape memory behavior has been demonstrated with heat, light and chemical environment, here we focus our discussion on thermally stimulated SMPs.

  8. A Compact, High Performance Atomic Magnetometer for Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Vishal K

    2013-01-01

    We present a highly sensitive room-temperature atomic magnetometer (AM), designed for use in biomedical applications. The magnetometer sensor head is only 2x2x5 cm^3 and it is constructed using readily available, low-cost optical components. The magnetic field resolution of the AM is <10 fT/sqrt(Hz), which is comparable to cryogenically cooled superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers. We present side-by-side comparisons between our AM and a SQUID magnetometer, and show that equally high quality magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetocardiography (MCG) recordings can be obtained using our AM.

  9. Polymers in life sciences: Pharmaceutical and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Anna Angela; Dalmoro, Annalisa; d'Amore, Matteo; Lamberti, Gaetano; Cascone, Sara; Titomanlio, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the work done by prof. Titomanlio and his group in the fields of pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of polymers. In particular, the main topics covered are: i) controlled drug release from pharmaceuticals based on hydrogel for oral delivery of drugs; ii) production and characterization of micro and nanoparticles based on stimuli-responsive polymers; iii) use of polymers for coronary stent gel-paving; iv) design and realization of novel methods (in-vitro and in-silico) to test polymer-based pharmaceuticals.

  10. Biomedical technical transfer. Applications of NASA science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Lower body negative pressure testing in cardiac patients has been completed as well as the design and construction of a new leg negative unit for evaluating heart patients. This technology is based on NASA research, using vacuum chambers to stress the cardiovascular system during space flight. Additional laboratory tests of an intracranial pressure transducer, have been conducted. Three new biomedical problems to which NASA technology is applicable are also identified. These are: a communication device for the speech impaired, the NASA development liquid-cooled garment, and miniature force transducers for heart research.

  11. Application of ionizing radiation processing in biomedical engineering and microelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongfej, H.; Jilan, W.

    1988-01-01

    The applied radiation chemistry has made great contributions to the development of polymeric industrial materials by the characteristics reaction means such as crosslinking, graft copolymerization and low-temperature or solid-phase polymerization, and become a important field on peaceful use of atomic energy. A brief review on the applications of ionizing radiation processing in biomedical engineering and microelectronics is presented. The examples of this technique were the studies on biocompatible and biofunctional polymers for medical use and on resists of lithography in microelectronics.

  12. New functionalizable alkyltrichlorosilane surface modifiers for biosensor and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszykowski, Christophe; Sheikh, Sonia; Benvenuto, Pasquale; Thompson, Michael

    2012-02-07

    We report herein three unprecedented alkyltrichlorosilane surface modifiers bearing pentafluorophenyl ester (PFP), benzothiosulfonate (BTS), or novel β-propiolactone (BPL) functionalizable terminal groups. Evidence is provided that these molecules can be prepared in very high purity (as assessed by NMR) through a last synthetic step of Pt-catalyzed alkene hydrosilylation then directly employed, without further purification, for the surface modification of quartz and medical grade stainless steel. Subsequent on-surface functionalizations with amine and thiol model molecules demonstrate the potential of these molecular adlayers to be important platforms for future applications in the bioanalytical and biomedical fields.

  13. AC Electrokinetics of Physiological Fluids for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Liu, Tingting; Lamanda, Ariana C; Sin, Mandy L Y; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C; Wong, Pak Kin

    2015-12-01

    Alternating current (AC) electrokinetics is a collection of processes for manipulating bulk fluid mass and embedded objects with AC electric fields. The ability of AC electrokinetics to implement the major microfluidic operations, such as pumping, mixing, concentration, and separation, makes it possible to develop integrated systems for clinical diagnostics in nontraditional health care settings. The high conductivity of physiological fluids presents new challenges and opportunities for AC electrokinetics-based diagnostic systems. In this review, AC electrokinetic phenomena in conductive physiological fluids are described followed by a review of the basic microfluidic operations and the recent biomedical applications of AC electrokinetics. The future prospects of AC electrokinetics for clinical diagnostics are presented.

  14. Advances in targeted proteomics and applications to biomedical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Tujin [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Song, Ehwang [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Nie, Song [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Rodland, Karin D. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Liu, Tao [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Qian, Wei-Jun [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Smith, Richard D. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2016-08-01

    Targeted proteomics technique has emerged as a powerful protein quantification tool in systems biology, biomedical research, and increasing for clinical applications. The most widely used targeted proteomics approach, selected reaction monitoring (SRM), also known as multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), can be used for quantification of cellular signaling networks and preclinical verification of candidate protein biomarkers. As an extension to our previous review on advances in SRM sensitivity (Shi et al., Proteomics, 12, 1074–1092, 2012) herein we review recent advances in the method and technology for further enhancing SRM sensitivity (from 2012 to present), and highlighting its broad biomedical applications in human bodily fluids, tissue and cell lines. Furthermore, we also review two recently introduced targeted proteomics approaches, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) and data-independent acquisition (DIA) with targeted data extraction on fast scanning high-resolution accurate-mass (HR/AM) instruments. Such HR/AM targeted quantification with monitoring all target product ions addresses SRM limitations effectively in specificity and multiplexing; whereas when compared to SRM, PRM and DIA are still in the infancy with a limited number of applications. Thus, for HR/AM targeted quantification we focus our discussion on method development, data processing and analysis, and its advantages and limitations in targeted proteomics. Finally, general perspectives on the potential of achieving both high sensitivity and high sample throughput for large-scale quantification of hundreds of target proteins are discussed.

  15. High-fidelity geometric modeling for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zeyun [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Holst, Michael J. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Andrew McCammon, J. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Pharmacology

    2008-05-19

    In this paper, we describe a combination of algorithms for high-fidelity geometric modeling and mesh generation. Although our methods and implementations are application-neutral, our primary target application is multiscale biomedical models that range in scales across the molecular, cellular, and organ levels. Our software toolchain implementing these algorithms is general in the sense that it can take as input a molecule in PDB/PQR forms, a 3D scalar volume, or a user-defined triangular surface mesh that may have very low quality. The main goal of our work presented is to generate high quality and smooth surface triangulations from the aforementioned inputs, and to reduce the mesh sizes by mesh coarsening. Tetrahedral meshes are also generated for finite element analysis in biomedical applications. Experiments on a number of bio-structures are demonstrated, showing that our approach possesses several desirable properties: feature-preservation, local adaptivity, high quality, and smoothness (for surface meshes). Finally, the availability of this software toolchain will give researchers in computational biomedicine and other modeling areas access to higher-fidelity geometric models.

  16. Laser ablation ICP-MS: Application in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussulini, Alessandra; Becker, Julia Susanne; Becker, Johanna Sabine

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, the development of diverse bioanalytical methodologies based on mass spectrometry imaging has increased, as has their application in biomedical questions. The distribution analysis of elements (metals, semimetals, and non-metals) in biological samples is a point of interest in life sciences, especially within the context of metallomics, which is the scientific field that encompasses the global analysis of the entirety of elemental species inside a cell or tissue. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been efficiently employed to generate qualitative and quantitative maps of elemental distribution in thin tissue sections of a variety of biological samples, for example, brain, cartilage, spinal cord, etc. The combination of elemental with molecular mass spectrometry allows obtaining information about the elements bound to proteins, when they are previously separated by gel electrophoresis (metalloproteomics), and also adding a new dimension to molecular mass spectrometry imaging by the correlation of molecular and elemental distribution maps in definite regions in a biological tissue. In the present review, recent biomedical applications in LA-ICP-MS imaging as a stand-alone technique and in combination with molecular mass spectrometry imaging techniques are discussed. Applications of LA-ICP-MS in the study of neurodegenerative diseases, distribution of contrast agents and metallodrugs, and metalloproteomics will be focused in this review. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 36:47-57, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Diverse Near-Infrared Resonant Gold Nanostructures for Biomedical Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2015-12-08

    The ability of near-infrared (NIR) light to penetrate tissues deeply and to target malignant sites with high specificity via precise temporal and spatial control of light illumination makes it useful for diagnosing and treating diseases. Owing to their unique biocompatibility, surface chemistry and optical properties, gold nanostructures offer advantages as in vivo NIR photosensitizers. This chapter describes the recent progress in the varied use of NIR-resonant gold nanostructures for NIR-light-mediated diagnostic and therapeutic applications. We begin by describing the unique biological, chemical and physical properties of gold nanostructures that make them excellent candidates for biomedical applications. From here, we make an account of the basic principles involved in the diagnostic and therapeutic applications where gold nanostructures have set foot. Finally, we review recent developments in the fabrication and use of diverse NIR-resonant gold nanostructures for cancer imaging and cancer therapy.

  18. Biomedical applications of nanodiamonds in imaging and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perevedentseva, Elena; Lin, Yu-Chung; Jani, Mona; Cheng, Chia-Liang

    2013-12-01

    Nanodiamonds have attracted remarkable scientific attention for bioimaging and therapeutic applications owing to their low toxicity with many cell lines, convenient surface properties and stable fluorescence without photobleaching. Newer techniques are being applied to enhance fluorescence. Interest is also growing in exploring the possibilities for modifying the nanodiamond surface and functionalities by attaching various biomolecules of interest for interaction with the targets. The potential of Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence properties of nanodiamonds has been explored for bioimaging and drug delivery tracing. The interest in nanodiamonds' biological/medical application appears to be continuing with enhanced focus. In this review an attempt is made to capture the scope, spirit and recent developments in the field of nanodiamonds for biomedical applications.

  19. A flexible organic resistance memory device for wearable biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yimao; Tan, Jing; YeFan, Liu; Lin, Min; Huang, Ru

    2016-07-01

    Parylene is a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved material which can be safely used within the human body and it is also offers chemically inert and flexible merits. Here, we present a flexible parylene-based organic resistive random access memory (RRAM) device suitable for wearable biomedical application. The proposed device is fabricated through standard lithography and pattern processes at room temperature, exhibiting the feasibility of integration with CMOS circuits. This organic RRAM device offers a high storage window (>104), superior retention ability and immunity to disturbing. In addition, brilliant mechanical and electrical stabilities of this device are demonstrated when under harsh bending (bending cycle >500, bending radius <10 mm). Finally, the underlying mechanism for resistance switching of this kind of device is discussed, and metallic conducting filament formation and annihilation related to oxidization/redox of Al and Al anions migrating in the parylene layer can be attributed to resistance switching in this device. These advantages reveal the significant potential of parylene-based flexible RRAM devices for wearable biomedical applications.

  20. A flexible organic resistance memory device for wearable biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yimao; Tan, Jing; YeFan, Liu; Lin, Min; Huang, Ru

    2016-07-08

    Parylene is a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved material which can be safely used within the human body and it is also offers chemically inert and flexible merits. Here, we present a flexible parylene-based organic resistive random access memory (RRAM) device suitable for wearable biomedical application. The proposed device is fabricated through standard lithography and pattern processes at room temperature, exhibiting the feasibility of integration with CMOS circuits. This organic RRAM device offers a high storage window (>10(4)), superior retention ability and immunity to disturbing. In addition, brilliant mechanical and electrical stabilities of this device are demonstrated when under harsh bending (bending cycle >500, bending radius mechanism for resistance switching of this kind of device is discussed, and metallic conducting filament formation and annihilation related to oxidization/redox of Al and Al anions migrating in the parylene layer can be attributed to resistance switching in this device. These advantages reveal the significant potential of parylene-based flexible RRAM devices for wearable biomedical applications.

  1. Electrochemical stability of binary TiNb for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, K. M.; Kuromoto, N. K.; Alves Claro, A. P. R.; Marino, C. E. B.

    2017-07-01

    The Ti-Nb alloy binary system has been widely studied with regard to biomedical applications due to the high biocompatibility and excellent mechanical properties of the alloys. Regarding physical-chemical stability, Ti-Nb alloys maintain the properties of Ti metal, which is highly resistant to corrosion in aggressive media due to a spontaneous stable oxide layer (TiO2) formed on its surface. The objective of this study was to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the Ti-40Nb alloy in artificial blood. The thermodynamic stability was studied using the open circuit potential technique and the corrosion resistance was assessed by potentiodynamic measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrochemical results indicated that the Ti-40Nb alloy has high corrosion resistance and good thermodynamic stability, with an OCP of around  -485 mV, and the alloy remained electrochemically stable in potentiodynamic conditions with initial and final potentials of  -1.0 V to  +2.0 Vsce, respectively, in low current densities (~µA cm-2) with an absence of hysteresis, aspure Ti. The results obtained showed that this specific alloy has the potential to be used in biomedical applications.

  2. Significance of Tribocorrosion in Biomedical Applications: Overview and Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Mathew

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, “tribocorrosion,” a research area combining the science of tribology and corrosion, has drawn attention from scientists and engineers belonging to a wide spectrum of research domains. This is due to its practical impact on daily life and also the accompanying economical burdens. It encompasses numerous applications including the offshore, space, and biomedical industry, for instance, in the case of artificial joints (Total Hip Replacement, THR in orthopedic surgery, where implant metals are constantly exposed to tribological events (joint articulations in the presence of corrosive solutions, that is, body fluids. Keeping the importance of this upcoming area of research in biomedical applications in mind, it was thought to consolidate the work in this area with some fundamental aspects so that a comprehensive picture of the current state of knowledge can be depicted. Complexity of tribocorrosion processes has been highlighted, as it is influenced by several parameters (mechanical and corrosion and also due to the lack of an integrated/efficient test system. Finally a review of the recent work in the area of biotribocorrosion is provided, by focusing on orthopedic surgery and dentistry.

  3. [The application of Fourier transform infrared technology in biomedical sphere].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-qing; Xu, Zhi; Ling, Xiao-feng; Xu, Yi-zhuang; Wu, Jin-guang

    2010-01-01

    The authors systemically reviewed the development of FTIR technology and its innovative advances during the past fifty years. FTIR technique was once abandoned after initial exploration in biomedical fields, which could not confirm its reliability and credibility. After technological innovation and refined numerical analysis methods, FTIR technique has been applied to a wide range of fields, from single cellular to the complex biomedical tissue components. Nowadays, mature and advanced FTIR technology, such as FTIR microspectrometer and FTIR imaging system, with the aid of pattern recognition and tissue microarray, greatly facilitated the large parallel scale investigation of molecular structure. The recent development of FTIR spectroscopic imaging has enhanced our capability to examine, on a microscopic scale, the spatial distribution of vibrational spectroscopic signatures of materials spanning the physical and biomedical disciplines. The integration of instrumentation development, theoretical analyses to provide guidelines for imaging practice, novel data processing algorithms, and the introduction of the technique to new fields. FTIR technique has helped analyze the complex components of bile stones, which persisted to be a vexing problem and causing high death rate in China. Besides, FTIR technology could provide reliable information in discriminating benign and malignancy. It has been used in detecting thyroid nodules, mammary gland, gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular and prostate diseases, and parotid gland tissue in combination with ATR detecting device, and has broad clinical application prospects. Till now, FTIR technology has achieved the fast and accurate diagnosis for freshly dissected tissues such as discriminating thyroid carcinoma from nodular goiter intraoperatively. However, further investigations need to be done in this sphere to achieve greater accomplishments.

  4. Electrospinning of ultrafine core/shell fibers for biomedical applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Because of the inherent appearance similar to the natural extracellular matrix,ultrafine fibrous membranes prepared via electrospinning exhibit widespread applications,especially in the biomedical area.Extensional modifications of coaxial and emulsion electrospinning have drawn much attention in preparation of core/shell fibers for applications as tissue engineering scaffolds and controlled delivery systems for bioactive substances.Due to incorporation of multi-components in the electrospun core/ shell fibers,the process of coaxial and emulsion electrospinning became more susceptible.The theories have not been fully understood.A series of investigations were carried out evaluating the systematic and processing parameters.This paper reviews advantages and potentials of electrospun core/shell fibers as well as factors influencing their formation on the basis of our research and new progress.

  5. The applications of conductive nanomaterials in the biomedical field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Tianxiao; Sun, Lianwen; Aifantis, Katerina E; Fan, Yubo; Feng, Qingling; Cui, Fuzhai; Watari, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    As their name suggests, conductive nanomaterials (CNMs) are a type of functional materials, which not only have a high surface area to volume ratio, but also possess excellent conductivity. Thus far, CNMs have been widely used in biomedical applications, such as effectively transferring electrical signals, and providing a large surface area to adsorb proteins and induce cellular functions. Recent works propose further applications of CNMs in biosensors, tissue engineering, neural probes, and drug delivery. This review focuses on common types of CNMs and elaborates on their unique properties, which indicate that such CNMs have a potential to develop into a class of indispensable biomaterials for the diagnosis and therapy of human diseases. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Advances in the Fabrication of Antimicrobial Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen M. González-Henríquez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This review describes, in an organized manner, the recent developments in the elaboration of hydrogels that possess antimicrobial activity. The fabrication of antibacterial hydrogels for biomedical applications that permits cell adhesion and proliferation still remains as an interesting challenge, in particular for tissue engineering applications. In this context, a large number of studies has been carried out in the design of hydrogels that serve as support for antimicrobial agents (nanoparticles, antibiotics, etc.. Another interesting approach is to use polymers with inherent antimicrobial activity provided by functional groups contained in their structures, such as quaternary ammonium salt or hydrogels fabricated from antimicrobial peptides (AMPs or natural polymers, such as chitosan. A summary of the different alternatives employed for this purpose is described in this review, considering their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, more recent methodologies that lead to more sophisticated hydrogels that are able to react to external stimuli are equally depicted in this review.

  7. Designing advanced functional periodic mesoporous organosilicas for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Esquivel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs, reported for the first time in 1999, constitute a new branch of organic-inorganic hybrid materials with high-ordered structures, uniform pore size and homogenous distribution of organic bridges into a silica framework. Unlike conventional mesoporous silicas, these materials offer the possibility to adjust the surface (hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and physical properties (morphology, porosity as well as their mechanical stability through the incorporation of different functional organic moieties in their pore walls. A broad variety of PMOs has been designed for their subsequent application in many fields. More recently, PMOs have attracted growing interest in emerging areas as biology and biomedicine. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the most recent breakthroughs achieved for PMOs in biological and biomedical applications.

  8. Porous shape memory alloy scaffolds for biomedical applications: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, C E; Xiong, J Y; Li, Y C; Hodgson, P D [Institute for Technology Research and Innovation, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, VIC 3217 (Australia)

    2010-05-01

    The interest in using porous shape memory alloy (SMA) scaffolds as implant materials has been growing in recent years due to the combination of their unique mechanical and functional properties, i.e. shape memory effect and superelasticity, low elastic modulus combined with new bone tissue ingrowth ability and vascularization. These attractive properties are of great benefit to the healing process for implant applications. This paper reviews current state-of-the art on the processing, porous characteristics and mechanical properties of porous SMAs for biomedical applications, with special focus on the most widely used SMA nickel-titanium (NiTi), including (i) microstructural features, mechanical and functional properties of NiTi SMAs; (ii) main processing methods for the fabrication of porous NiTi SMAs and their mechanical properties and (iii) new-generation Ni-free, biocompatible porous SMA scaffolds.

  9. A review on stereolithography and its applications in biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchels, Ferry P W; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W

    2010-08-01

    Stereolithography is a solid freeform technique (SFF) that was introduced in the late 1980s. Although many other techniques have been developed since then, stereolithography remains one of the most powerful and versatile of all SFF techniques. It has the highest fabrication accuracy and an increasing number of materials that can be processed is becoming available. In this paper we discuss the characteristic features of the stereolithography technique and compare it to other SFF techniques. The biomedical applications of stereolithography are reviewed, as well as the biodegradable resin materials that have been developed for use with stereolithography. Finally, an overview of the application of stereolithography in preparing porous structures for tissue engineering is given.

  10. Tunable magnetic nanowires for biomedical and harsh environment applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2016-04-13

    We have synthesized nanowires with an iron core and an iron oxide (magnetite) shell by a facile low-cost fabrication process. The magnetic properties of the nanowires can be tuned by changing shell thicknesses to yield remarkable new properties and multi-functionality. A multi-domain state at remanence can be obtained, which is an attractive feature for biomedical applications, where a low remanence is desirable. The nanowires can also be encoded with different remanence values. Notably, the oxidation process of single-crystal iron nanowires halts at a shell thickness of 10 nm. The oxide shell of these nanowires acts as a passivation layer, retaining the magnetic properties of the iron core even during high-temperature operations. This property renders these core-shell nanowires attractive materials for application to harsh environments. A cell viability study reveals a high degree of biocompatibility of the core-shell nanowires.

  11. Ammonia Synthesis at Low Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussler, Edward; McCormick, Alon; Reese, Michael; Malmali, Mahdi

    2017-08-23

    Ammonia can be synthesized at low pressure by the use of an ammonia selective absorbent. The process can be driven with wind energy, available locally in areas requiring ammonia for synthetic fertilizer. Such wind energy is often called "stranded," because it is only available far from population centers where it can be directly used. In the proposed low pressure process, nitrogen is made from air using pressure swing absorption, and hydrogen is produced by electrolysis of water. While these gases can react at approximately 400 °C in the presence of a promoted conventional catalyst, the conversion is often limited by the reverse reaction, which makes this reaction only feasible at high pressures. This limitation can be removed by absorption on an ammine-like calcium or magnesium chloride. Such alkaline metal halides can effectively remove ammonia, thus suppressing the equilibrium constraints of the reaction. In the proposed absorption-enhanced ammonia synthesis process, the rate of reaction may then be controlled not by the chemical kinetics nor the absorption rates, but by the rate of the recycle of unreacted gases. The results compare favorably with ammonia made from a conventional small scale Haber-Bosch process.

  12. Trends in biochemical and biomedical applications of mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelpi, Emilio

    1992-09-01

    This review attempts an in-depth evaluation of progress and achievements made since the last 11th International Mass Spectrometry Conference in the application of mass spectrometric techniques to biochemistry and biomedicine. For this purpose, scientific contributions in this field at major international meetings have been monitored, together with an extensive appraisal of literature data covering the period from 1988 to 1991. A bibliometric evaluation of the MEDLINE database for this period provides a total of almost 4000 entries for mass spectrometry. This allows a detailed study of literature and geographical sources of the most frequent applications, of disciplines where mass spectrometry is most active and of types of sample and instrumentation most commonly used. In this regard major efforts according to number of publications (over 100 literature reports) are concentrated in countries like Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Sweden, UK and the USA. Also, most of the work using mass spectrometry in biochemistry and biomedicine is centred on studies on biotransformation, metabolism, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and toxicology, which have been carried out on samples of blood, urine, plasma and tissue, by order of frequency of use. Human and animal studies appear to be evenly distributed in terms of the number of reports published in the literature in which the authors make use of experimental animals or describe work on human samples. Along these lines, special attention is given to the real usefulness of mass spectrometry (MS) technology in routine medical practice. Thus the review concentrates on evaluating the progress made in disease diagnosis and overall patient care. As regards prevailing techniques, GCMS continues to be the mainstay of the state of the art methods for multicomponent analysis, stable isotope tracer studies and metabolic profiling, while HPLC--MS and tandem MS are becoming increasingly important in biomedical research. However

  13. Current investigations into carbon nanotubes for biomedical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaoming; Fan Yubo [Key Laboratory for Biomechanics and Mechanobiology of Ministry of Education, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Watari, Fumio, E-mail: x.m.li@hotmail.co [Department of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    The nano-dimensionality of nature has logically given rise to the interest in using nanomaterials in the biomedical field. Currently, a lot of investigations into carbon nanotubes (CNTs), as one of the typical nanomaterials, are being made for biomedical application. In this review, five parts, such as cellular functions induced by CNTs, apatite formation on CNTs, CNT-based tissue engineering scaffold, functionalized CNTs for the delivery of genes and drugs and CNT-based biosensors, are stated, which might indicate that CNTs, with a range of unique properties, appear suited as a biomaterial and may become a useful tool for tissue engineering. However, everything has two parts and CNTs is not an exception. There are still concerns about cytotoxicity and biodegradation of CNTs. Chemical fictionalization may be one of the effective ways to improve the 'disadvantages' and utilize the 'advantages' of CNTs. One of their 'disadvantages', unbiodegradable property, may be utilized by creating monitors in in vivo-engineered tissues or nanosized CNT-based biosensors. Other promising research points, for example proteins adsorbed on CNTs, use of CNTs in combination with other biomaterials to achieve the goals of tissue engineering, mineralization of CNTs and standard toxicological tests for CNTs, are also described in the conclusion and perspectives part. (topical review)

  14. Wireless, magnetic-based sensors for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Keat Ghee; Tan, Ee Lim; Pereles, Brandon; Horton, Brock

    2009-01-01

    Wireless magnetic sensor technologies are gaining popularity in biomedical community due to their remote query nature, which allows them to be used as long-term implantable sensors. Some of these sensors are also low cost so they are suitable for use on a disposable basis. In this paper, two wireless magnetic sensors are described: the magnetoelastic sensor and the magneto-harmonic sensor. Magnetoelastic sensors are made of magnetoelastic materials that when under an AC magnetic field excitation, vibrate and resonate at their resonant frequencies. Since the resonant frequency of a magnetoelastic sensor is proportional to the mass or viscosity of the surrounding material, it has been used to detect chemical and biological targets by incorporating coatings that change mass/elasticity in response to the parameters of interest. Conversely, magneto-harmonic sensors detect parameters of interest by monitoring the change in the pattern or amplitude of the magnetic higher-order harmonic fields. Typically, a magneto-harmonic sensor consists of a magnetically soft material (sensing element) and a permanent magnet (biasing element). When energized by an AC magnetic field, the sensing element generates higher-order magnetic fields that change with the biasing field from the biasing element. By designing the sensor so the separation distance between these two elements varies with the parameters of interest, the magneto-harmonic sensor has been used for remote measurement of pressure and stress. This paper presents the operating principles and biomedical applications of these sensors.

  15. Low temperature planar regrowth of semi-insulating InP by low pressure hydride vapour phase epitaxy for device application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, F.; Parillaud, O.; Nguyen, D. C.; Azoulay, R.; Quillec, M.; Bouchoule, S.; Le Mestreallan, G.; Juhel, M.; Le Roux, G.; Rao, E. V. K.

    1998-05-01

    The growth of both undoped and iron doped InP on planar as well as non-planar (0 0 1)InP substrates has been explored using low pressure hydride vapour phase epitaxy (LP-HVPE) in the temperature range of 500-620°C. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements have shown no drastic degradation in the crystal quality with decreasing growth temperature. The Fe incorporation in the layers is found to be independent of the substrate temperature ( Ts) and in all experiments semi-insulating InP : Fe layers with resistivities close to 10 9 Ω cm have been obtained. A perfect growth selectivity with no deposition on masked areas and a good planarized regrowth on mesas has been demonstrated even at low Ts.

  16. Advances in polymeric systems for tissue engineering and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Rajeswari; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Mukherjee, Shayanti; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2012-03-01

    The characteristics of tissue engineered scaffolds are major concerns in the quest to fabricate ideal scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. The polymer scaffolds employed for tissue engineering applications should possess multifunctional properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability and favorable mechanical properties as it comes in direct contact with the body fluids in vivo. Additionally, the polymer system should also possess biomimetic architecture and should support stem cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. As the progress in polymer technology continues, polymeric biomaterials have taken characteristics more closely related to that desired for tissue engineering and clinical needs. Stimuli responsive polymers also termed as smart biomaterials respond to stimuli such as pH, temperature, enzyme, antigen, glucose and electrical stimuli that are inherently present in living systems. This review highlights the exciting advancements in these polymeric systems that relate to biological and tissue engineering applications. Additionally, several aspects of technology namely scaffold fabrication methods and surface modifications to confer biological functionality to the polymers have also been discussed. The ultimate objective is to emphasize on these underutilized adaptive behaviors of the polymers so that novel applications and new generations of smart polymeric materials can be realized for biomedical and tissue engineering applications.

  17. Nanocellulose in Polymer Composites and Biomedical: Research and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yuan [ORNL; Tekinalp, Halil L [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Eberle, Cliff [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL; Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Nanocellulose materials are nano-sized cellulose fibers or crystals that are produced by bacteria or derived from plants. These materials exhibit exceptional strength characteristics, light weight, transparency, and excellent biocompatibility. Compared to some other nanomaterials, nanocellulose is renewable and less expensive to produce. As such, a wide range of applications for nanocellulose has been envisioned. Most extensively studied areas include polymer composites and biomedical applications. Cellulose nanofibrils and nanocrystals have been used to reinforce both thermoplastic and thermoset polymers. Given the hydrophilic nature of these materials, the interfacial properties with most polymers are often poor. Various surface modification procedures have thus been adopted to improve the interaction between polymer matrix and cellulose nanofibrils or nanocrystals. In addition, the applications of nanocellulose as biomaterials have been explored including wound dressing, tissue repair, and medical implants. Nanocellulose materials for wound healing and periodontal tissue recovery have become commercially available, demonstrating the great potential of nanocellulose as a new generation of biomaterials. In this review, we highlight the applications of nanocellulose as reinforcing fillers for composites and the effect of surface modification on the mechanical properties as well as the application as biomaterials.

  18. Light-guide snapshot spectrometer for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Pawlowski, Michal E.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2016-04-01

    We present a proof-of-principle prototype of a fiber-based snapshot spectrometer to provide high spatial and spectral sampling for biomedical application such as cell signaling or diagnostics. An image is collected by a custom fiber bundle and then divided into spatial groups with spaces in between for dispersion. The image is later scaled down by an image taper (to scale down the image size and allow smaller optical components), dispersed with a prism and captured by a CCD camera. An interpolation algorithm is used to locate each wavelength and reconstruct the image for each spectral channel. The fiber bundle is fabricated by aligning multi-mode bare fiber ribbons as matrix, gluing together in Teflon molds, laser cutting and polishing. We present preliminary finger occlusion results obtained with the spectrometer where the oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin spectrum could be differentiated.

  19. Applications of conducting polymers and their issues in biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Rajeswari; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Mukherjee, Shayanti; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2010-10-06

    Conducting polymers (CPs) have attracted much interest as suitable matrices of biomolecules and have been used to enhance the stability, speed and sensitivity of various biomedical devices. Moreover, CPs are inexpensive, easy to synthesize and versatile because their properties can be readily modulated by (i) surface functionalization techniques and (ii) the use of a wide range of molecules that can be entrapped or used as dopants. This paper discusses the various surface modifications of the CP that can be employed in order to impart physico-chemical and biological guidance cues that promote cell adhesion/proliferation at the polymer-tissue interface. This ability of the CP to induce various cellular mechanisms widens its applications in medical fields and bioengineering.

  20. Integrated Filters for Short Range Wireless and Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Laoudias, Costas

    2012-01-01

    This book describes the design of low-voltage analog integrated filters using current mirrors, one of the most common building blocks both in analog and mixed-signal VLSI circuits, offering the advantages of low-voltage operation, derivation of resistorless topologies and electronic adjustment capability of their frequency characteristics.  Several design examples are described, using current mirrors that fulfill the requirements of modern low-power wireless and biomedical applications, such as universal biquadratic filter topologies, complex filters for Bluetooth/ZigBee low-IF receivers and Wavelet filters for cardiac signal detection. The experimental results from the fabricated chips will also be presented, showing their utility in modern low-voltage low-power portable devices.

  1. Biomedical technology transfer: Applications of NASA science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The major efforts of the Stanford Biomedical Applications Team Program at the Stanford University School of Medicine for the period from October 1, 1975 to September 31, 1976 are covered. A completed EMG biotelemetry system which monitors the physiological signals of man and animals in space related research is discussed. The results of a pilot study involving lower body negative pressure testing in cardiac patients has been completed as well as the design and construction of a new leg negative pressure unit for evaluating heart patients. This technology utilizes vacuum chambers to stress the cardiovascular system during space flight. Laboratory tests of an intracranial pressure transducer, have been conducted. Extremely stable long term data using capacative pressure sensors has lead to the order of commercially manufactured monitoring systems base. Projects involving commercialization are: flexible medical electrodes, an echocardioscope, a miniature biotelemetry system, and an on-line ventricular contour detector.

  2. Emerging chitin and chitosan nanofibrous materials for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fuyuan; Deng, Hongbing; Du, Yumin; Shi, Xiaowen; Wang, Qun

    2014-07-01

    Over the past several decades, we have witnessed significant progress in chitosan and chitin based nanostructured materials. The nanofibers from chitin and chitosan with appealing physical and biological features have attracted intense attention due to their excellent biological properties related to biodegradability, biocompatibility, antibacterial activity, low immunogenicity and wound healing capacity. Various methods, such as electrospinning, self-assembly, phase separation, mechanical treatment, printing, ultrasonication and chemical treatment were employed to prepare chitin and chitosan nanofibers. These nanofibrous materials have tremendous potential to be used as drug delivery systems, tissue engineering scaffolds, wound dressing materials, antimicrobial agents, and biosensors. This review article discusses the most recent progress in the preparation and application of chitin and chitosan based nanofibrous materials in biomedical fields.

  3. Guided self-assembly of magnetic beads for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gusenbauer, Markus; Reichel, Franz; Exl, Lukas; Bance, Simon; Fischbacher, Johann; Özelt, Harald; Kovacs, Alexander; Brandl, Martin; Schrefl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Micromagnetic beads are widely used in biomedical applications for cell separation, drug delivery, and hypothermia cancer treatment. Here we propose to use self-organized magnetic bead structures which accumulate on fixed magnetic seeding points to isolate circulating tumor cells. The analysis of circulating tumor cells is an emerging tool for cancer biology research and clinical cancer management including the detection, diagnosis and monitoring of cancer. Microfluidic chips for isolating circulating tumor cells use either affinity, size or density capturing methods. We combine multiphysics simulation techniques to understand the microscopic behavior of magnetic beads interacting with Nickel accumulation points used in lab-on-chip technologies. Our proposed chip technology offers the possibility to combine affinity and size capturing with special antibody-coated bead arrangements using a magnetic gradient field created by Neodymium Iron Boron permanent magnets. The multiscale simulation environment combines ...

  4. Tunable Properties of Magnetoactive Elastomers for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Liudmila A.; Alekhina, Yuliya A.; Rusakova, Tatiana S.; Perov, Nikolai S.

    The remote controllable magneto-mechanical devices based on MAEs (magnetoactive elastomers) can be obtained through variation of magnetic parameters of MAEs. Such devices can be used as the elements of peristaltic systems, artificial muscles, hyperthermia or drug delivery. MAEs with different matrix rigidity and filler particles type were investigated with VSM Lakeshore 7400 series and immittance meter Aktakom AM-3016 model. The dependencies of magnetostatic and magnetodynamic properties of MAEs with different types of magnetic particles on concentration of the magnetic filler and DC magnetic field strength were studied. There is a possibility to control the "magnetic hardness", energy absorption and heating, relaxation properties of MAEs which allow to use MAEs as the main element of the tunable devices for biomedical applications.

  5. Guided self-assembly of magnetic beads for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusenbauer, Markus; Nguyen, Ha; Reichel, Franz; Exl, Lukas; Bance, Simon; Fischbacher, Johann; Özelt, Harald; Kovacs, Alexander; Brandl, Martin; Schrefl, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Micromagnetic beads are widely used in biomedical applications for cell separation, drug delivery, and hyperthermia cancer treatment. Here we propose to use self-organized magnetic bead structures which accumulate on fixed magnetic seeding points to isolate circulating tumor cells. The analysis of circulating tumor cells is an emerging tool for cancer biology research and clinical cancer management including the detection, diagnosis and monitoring of cancer. Microfluidic chips for isolating circulating tumor cells use either affinity, size or density capturing methods. We combine multiphysics simulation techniques to understand the microscopic behavior of magnetic beads interacting with soft magnetic accumulation points used in lab-on-chip technologies. Our proposed chip technology offers the possibility to combine affinity and size capturing with special antibody-coated bead arrangements using a magnetic gradient field created by Neodymium Iron Boron permanent magnets. The multiscale simulation environment combines magnetic field computation, fluid dynamics and discrete particle dynamics.

  6. Applications of conducting polymers and their issues in biomedical engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Rajeswari; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Mukherjee, Shayanti; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymers (CPs) have attracted much interest as suitable matrices of biomolecules and have been used to enhance the stability, speed and sensitivity of various biomedical devices. Moreover, CPs are inexpensive, easy to synthesize and versatile because their properties can be readily modulated by (i) surface functionalization techniques and (ii) the use of a wide range of molecules that can be entrapped or used as dopants. This paper discusses the various surface modifications of the CP that can be employed in order to impart physico-chemical and biological guidance cues that promote cell adhesion/proliferation at the polymer–tissue interface. This ability of the CP to induce various cellular mechanisms widens its applications in medical fields and bioengineering. PMID:20610422

  7. Biopolymers and supramolecular polymers as biomaterials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ronit; Boekhoven, Job; Dickerson, Matthew B; Naik, Rajesh R; Stupp, Samuel I

    2015-12-01

    Protein- and peptide-based structural biopolymers are abundant building blocks of biological systems. Either in their natural forms, such as collagen, silk or fibronectin, or as related synthetic materials they can be used in various technologies. An emerging area is that of biomimetic materials inspired by protein-based biopolymers, which are made up of small molecules rather than macromolecules and can therefore be described as supramolecular polymers. These materials are very useful in biomedical applications because of their ability to imitate the extracellular matrix both in architecture and their capacity to signal cells. This article describes important features of the natural extracellular matrix and highlight how these features are being incorporated into biomaterials composed of biopolymers and supramolecular polymers. We particularly focus on the structures, properties, and functions of collagen, fibronectin, silk, and the supramolecular polymers inspired by them as biomaterials for regenerative medicine.

  8. Radioactive ion beams for biomedical research and nuclear medical application

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Gerd-Jürgen

    2002-01-01

    The ISOLDE facility at CERN is the world leading on On-Line Isotope Separator installation. The main aspects which makes ISOLDE produced radio-isotopes such valuable for use in biomedical research are: the availability of exotic or uncommon radioisotopes, the high purity and the ion beam quality. A short overview on research strategies, on experimental work and application of ISOLDE produced radionuclides used in the field of biomedicine over a period of more than 2 decades will be given. Special attention will be directed to the radio- lanthanides, because they can be seen as one single element providing the unique possibility to study systematically relationships between molecule parameters and a biological response without changes in the basic tracer molecule. Among those radionuclides we find any radiation properties we wish (single photon emission) suitable for SPECT, positron emission suitable for positron emission tomography (PET), alpha -, beta /sup -/- and Auger electron emission. (21 refs).

  9. Biomedical applications of the graphene-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baomei; Wang, Yang; Zhai, Guangxi

    2016-04-01

    Graphene, a rapidly rising star, has gained extensive research interests lately due to its excellent properties--such as the exceptional optical, electrical, thermal and mechanical features--which are superior to other materials, so it is called "two-dimensional magical materials". This article presents diverse types and various properties of graphene-based materials, and the current methods for the surface modifications of the graphene-based materials are briefly described. In addition, the in vivo and in vitro cytotoxicity of graphene-based materials are comprehensively discussed. What's more, a summary of its biomedical applications such as drug/gene delivery, photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy and multimodality therapy is also offered. Finally, an outlook of the graphene-based materials and the challenges in this field are briefly discussed.

  10. Pulse laser assisted optical tweezers for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Tadao; Maeda, Saki; Honda, Ayae

    2012-01-01

    Optical tweezers which enables to trap micron to nanometer sized objects by radiation pressure force is utilized for manipulation of particles under a microscope and for measurement of forces between biomolecules. Weak force of optical tweezers causes some limitations such as particle adhesion or steric barrier like lipid membrane in a cell prevent further movement of objects. For biomedical applications we need to overcome these difficulties. We have developed a technique to exert strong instantaneous force by use of a pulse laser beam and to assist conventional optical tweezers. A pulse laser beam has huge instantaneous laser power of more than 1000 times as strong as a conventional continuous-wave laser beam so that the instantaneous force is strong enough to break chemical bonding and molecular force between objects and obstacles. We derive suitable pulse duration for pulse assist of optical tweezers and demonstrate particle manipulation in difficult situations through an experiment of particle removal from sticky surface of glass substrate.

  11. Synthesis of enzymatically-gellable carboxymethylcellulose for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogushi, Yuko; Sakai, Shinji; Kawakami, Koei

    2007-07-01

    We synthesized a carboxymethylcellulose with phenol moieties by covalently incorporating tyramine into carboxymethylcellulose using aqueous-phase carbodiimide activation chemistry. The resulting hydrogel was obtained from an aqueous solution of the conjugate via the horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation reaction of phenols by consuming H(2)O(2), where the gelation speed depended on the concentrations of enzyme and H(2)O(2). The viability of the mammalian cells enclosed within the hydrogel prepared from 1.5% (w/v) conjugate solution containing 5 units/ml horseradish peroxidase and 1 mM H(2)O(2), was 80% after 24 h. These results demonstrate that this carboxymethylcellulose with phenol moieties has potential for biomedical applications including tissue-engineering.

  12. Thermoresponsive hydrogels in biomedical applications: A seven-year update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klouda, Leda

    2015-11-01

    Thermally responsive hydrogels modulate their gelation behavior upon temperature change. Aqueous solutions solidify into hydrogels when a critical temperature is reached. In biomedical applications, the change from ambient temperature to physiological temperature can be employed. Their potential as in situ forming biomaterials has rendered these hydrogels very attractive. Advances in drug delivery, tissue engineering and cell sheet engineering have been made in recent years with the use of thermoresponsive hydrogels. The scope of this article is to review the literature on thermosensitive hydrogels published over the past seven years. The article concentrates on natural polymers as well as synthetic polymers, including systems based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm), poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-biodegradable polyester copolymers, poly(organophosphazenes) and 2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA).

  13. Elastomeric networks based on trimethylene carbonate polymers for biomedical applications : physical properties and degradation behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bat, Erhan

    2010-01-01

    The number of applications for biomedical technologies is ever-increasing, and there is a need to develop new materials with properties that can conform to the requirements of a specific application. Synthetic polymers are of great importance in the biomedical field as they can be designed to exhibi

  14. New Perspectives on Biomedical Applications of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Massimiliano; Baratella, Davide; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; de Almeida Roger, Jessica; Vianello, Fabio

    2017-06-16

    Iron oxide nanomaterials are considered promising tools for improved therapeutic efficacy and diagnostic applications in biomedicine. Accordingly, engineered iron oxide nanomaterials are increasingly proposed in biomedicine, and the interdisciplinary researches involving physics, chemistry, biology (nanotechnology) and medicine have led to exciting developments in the last decades. The progresses of the development of magnetic nanoparticles with tailored physico-chemical and surface properties produced a variety of clinically relevant applications, spanning from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), drug delivery, magnetic hyperthermia, to in vitro diagnostics. Notwithstanding the well-known conventional synthetic procedures and their wide use, recent advances in the synthetic methods open the door to new generations of naked iron oxide nanoparticles possessing peculiar surface chemistries, suitable for other competitive biomedical applications. New abilities to rationally manipulate iron oxides and their physical, chemical, and biological properties, allow the emersion of additional possibilities for designing novel nanomaterials for theranostic applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Electrospinning versus microfluidic spinning of functional fibers for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Jun, Yesl; Qin, Jianhua; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Micro- or nanofiber-based materials have extensive applications in biomedical fields due to their capability to mimic many aspects of physiological microenvironment in vivo. Fabricating micro- or nanofibers using biocompatible and biodegradable materials is becoming of great interest in the area of biomaterials and tissue engineering. Among the various technologies, electrospinning and microfluidic spinning are the two promising approaches to produce fibers at micro- and nano-scale. Choosing an appropriate spinning method is critical important for a specific application. Although some review papers on each spinning method have been published, a review comparing these two methods has not been reported yet. In this review, we present an overview of the two spinning methods including the spinning principle, their unique features and materials selections. Several applications of fibers spun by both methods, especially in tissue engineering, organ function regeneration and drug delivery are introduced. The current challenges, future directions and potential applications of these approaches are discussed as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nanodiamonds as a new horizon for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Harsiddhi M; Duttagupta, Aindrilla S; Jadhav, Kisan R; Chilajwar, Sai V; Kadam, Vilasrao J

    2015-01-01

    A palpable need for the optimization of therapeutic agents, due to challenges tackled by them such as poor pharmacokinetics and chemoresistance, has steered the journey towards novel interdisciplinary scientific field for emergence of nanostructure materials as a carrier for targeted delivery of therapeutic agents. Amongst various nanostructures, nanodiamonds are rapidly rising as promising nanostructures that are suited especially for various biomedical and imaging applications. Advantage of being biocompatible and ease of surface functionalization for targeting purpose, besides safety which are vacant by nanodiamonds made them a striking nanotool compared to other nonmaterials which seldom offer advantages of both functionality as well as safety. This review outlines the summary of nanodiamonds, regarding their types, methods of preparation, and surface modification. It also portrays the potential applications of nanodiamond as targeted drug delivery of various bioactive agents. Based on photoluminescent and optical property, nanodiamonds are envisioned as an efficient bioimaging nanostructure. Nanodiamonds as a novel platform hold great promise for targeting cancer cells and in-vivo cell imaging. Based upon their inimitable properties and applications nanodiamonds propose an exciting future in field of therapeutics and thus possess vibrant opportunities.

  17. Modular Ontology Techniques and their Applications in the Biomedical Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Jyotishman; Johnson, Thomas M; Chute, Christopher G

    2008-08-05

    In the past several years, various ontologies and terminologies such as the Gene Ontology have been developed to enable interoperability across multiple diverse medical information systems. They provide a standard way of representing terms and concepts thereby supporting easy transmission and interpretation of data for various applications. However, with their growing utilization, not only has the number of available ontologies increased considerably, but they are also becoming larger and more complex to manage. Toward this end, a growing body of work is emerging in the area of modular ontologies where the emphasis is on either extracting and managing "modules" of an ontology relevant to a particular application scenario (ontology decomposition) or developing them independently and integrating into a larger ontology (ontology composition). In this paper, we investigate state-of-the-art approaches in modular ontologies focusing on techniques that are based on rigorous logical formalisms as well as well-studied graph theories. We analyze and compare how such approaches can be leveraged in developing tools and applications in the biomedical domain. We conclude by highlighting some of the limitations of the modular ontology formalisms and put forward additional requirements to steer their future development.

  18. Polymer-based stimuli-responsive nanosystems for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joglekar, Madhura; Trewyn, Brian G

    2013-08-01

    The application of organic polymers and inorganic/organic hybrid systems in numerous fields of biotechnology has seen a considerable growth in recent years. Typically, organic polymers with diverse structures, compositional variations and differing molecular weights have been utilized to assemble polymeric nanosystems such as polymeric micelles, polymersomes, and nanohydrogels with unique features and structural properties. The architecture of these polymeric nanosystems involves the use of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic polymeric blocks, making them suitable as vehicles for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Recently, "smart" or "intelligent" polymers have attracted significant attention in the biomedical field wherein careful introduction of specific polymeric modalities changes a banal polymeric nanosystem to an advanced stimuli-responsive nanosystem capable of performing extraordinary functions in response to an internal or external trigger such as pH, temperature, redox, enzymes, light, magnetic, or ultrasound. Further, incorporation of inorganic nanoparticles such as gold, silica, or iron oxide with surface-bound stimuli-responsive polymers offers additional advantages and multifunctionality in the field of nanomedicine. This review covers the physical properties and applications of both organic and organic/inorganic hybrid nanosystems with specific recent breakthroughs in drug delivery, imaging, tissue engineering, and separations and provides a brief discussion on the future direction.

  19. Chitin and Chitosan: Production and Application of Versatile Biomedical Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elieh-Ali-Komi, Daniel; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-03-01

    Chitin is the most abundant aminopolysaccharide polymer occurring in nature, and is the building material that gives strength to the exoskeletons of crustaceans, insects, and the cell walls of fungi. Through enzymatic or chemical deacetylation, chitin can be converted to its most well-known derivative, chitosan. The main natural sources of chitin are shrimp and crab shells, which are an abundant byproduct of the food-processing industry, that provides large quantities of this biopolymer to be used in biomedical applications. In living chitin-synthesizing organisms, the synthesis and degradation of chitin require strict enzymatic control to maintain homeostasis. Chitin synthase, the pivotal enzyme in the chitin synthesis pathway, uses UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDPGlcNAc), produce the chitin polymer, whereas, chitinase enzymes degrade chitin. Bacteria are considered as the major mediators of chitin degradation in nature. Chitin and chitosan, owing to their unique biochemical properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity, ability to form films, etc, have found many promising biomedical applications. Nanotechnology has also increasingly applied chitin and chitosan-based materials in its most recent achievements. Chitin and chitosan have been widely employed to fabricate polymer scaffolds. Moreover, the use of chitosan to produce designed-nanocarriers and to enable microencapsulation techniques is under increasing investigation for the delivery of drugs, biologics and vaccines. Each application is likely to require uniquely designed chitosan-based nano/micro-particles with specific dimensions and cargo-release characteristics. The ability to reproducibly manufacture chitosan nano/microparticles that can encapsulate protein cargos with high loading efficiencies remains a challenge. Chitosan can be successfully used in solution, as hydrogels and/or nano/microparticles, and (with different degrees of deacetylation) an endless array of derivatives with

  20. Convolutional Neural Networks for Biomedical Text Classification: Application in Indexing Biomedical Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Anthony; Kavuluru, Ramakanth

    2015-09-01

    Building high accuracy text classifiers is an important task in biomedicine given the wealth of information hidden in unstructured narratives such as research articles and clinical documents. Due to large feature spaces, traditionally, discriminative approaches such as logistic regression and support vector machines with n-gram and semantic features (e.g., named entities) have been used for text classification where additional performance gains are typically made through feature selection and ensemble approaches. In this paper, we demonstrate that a more direct approach using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) outperforms several traditional approaches in biomedical text classification with the specific use-case of assigning medical subject headings (or MeSH terms) to biomedical articles. Trained annotators at the national library of medicine (NLM) assign on an average 13 codes to each biomedical article, thus semantically indexing scientific literature to support NLM's PubMed search system. Recent evidence suggests that effective automated efforts for MeSH term assignment start with binary classifiers for each term. In this paper, we use CNNs to build binary text classifiers and achieve an absolute improvement of over 3% in macro F-score over a set of selected hard-to-classify MeSH terms when compared with the best prior results on a public dataset. Additional experiments on 50 high frequency terms in the dataset also show improvements with CNNs. Our results indicate the strong potential of CNNs in biomedical text classification tasks.

  1. Recent development and biomedical applications of probabilistic Boolean networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Probabilistic Boolean network (PBN) modelling is a semi-quantitative approach widely used for the study of the topology and dynamic aspects of biological systems. The combined use of rule-based representation and probability makes PBN appealing for large-scale modelling of biological networks where degrees of uncertainty need to be considered. A considerable expansion of our knowledge in the field of theoretical research on PBN can be observed over the past few years, with a focus on network inference, network intervention and control. With respect to areas of applications, PBN is mainly used for the study of gene regulatory networks though with an increasing emergence in signal transduction, metabolic, and also physiological networks. At the same time, a number of computational tools, facilitating the modelling and analysis of PBNs, are continuously developed. A concise yet comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art on PBN modelling is offered in this article, including a comparative discussion on PBN versus similar models with respect to concepts and biomedical applications. Due to their many advantages, we consider PBN to stand as a suitable modelling framework for the description and analysis of complex biological systems, ranging from molecular to physiological levels. PMID:23815817

  2. Fabrication of homobifunctional crosslinker stabilized collagen for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakra, Rachita; Kiran, Manikantan Syamala; Sai, Korrapati Purna

    2015-11-27

    Collagen biopolymer has found widespread application in the field of tissue engineering owing to its excellent tissue compatibility and negligible immunogenicity. Mechanical strength and enzymatic degradation of the collagen necessitates the physical and chemical strength enhancement. One such attempt deals with the understanding of crosslinking behaviour of EGS (ethylene glycol-bis (succinic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester)) with collagen to improve the physico-chemical properties. The incorporation of a crosslinker during fibril formation enhanced the thermal and mechanical stability of collagen. EGS crosslinked collagen films exhibited higher denaturation temperature (T d) and the residue left after thermogravimetric analysis was about 16 ± 5.2%. Mechanical properties determined by uniaxial tensile tests showed a threefold increase in tensile strength and Young's modulus at higher concentration (100 μM). Water uptake capacity reduced up to a moderate extent upon crosslinking which is essential for the transport of nutrients to the cells. Cell viability was found to be 100% upon treatment with 100 μM EGS whereas only 30% viability could be observed with glutaraldehyde. Rheological studies of crosslinked collagen showed an increase in shear stress and shear viscosity at 37 °C. Crosslinking with EGS resulted in the formation of a uniform fibrillar network. Trinitrobenzene sulfonate (TNBS) assay confirmed that EGS crosslinked collagen by forming a covalent interaction with ε-amino acids of collagen. The homobifunctional crosslinker used in this study enhanced the effectiveness of collagen as a biomaterial for biomedical application.

  3. The hemocompatibility of oxidized diamond nanocrystals for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hung-Cheng; Hsieh, Feng-Jen; Chen, Ching-Pin; Chang, Ming-Yao; Hsieh, Patrick C. H.; Chen, Chia-Chun; Hung, Shain-Un; Wu, Che-Chih; Chang, Huan-Cheng

    2013-10-01

    Low-dimensional carbon-based nanomaterials have recently received enormous attention for biomedical applications. However, increasing evidence indicates that they are cytotoxic and can cause inflammatory responses in the body. Here, we show that monocrystalline nanodiamonds (NDs) synthesized by high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) methods and purified by air oxidation and strong oxidative acid treatments have excellent hemocompatibility with negligible hemolytic and thrombogenic activities. Cell viability assays with human primary endothelial cells suggested that the oxidized HPHT-NDs (dimensions of 35-500 nm) are non-cytotoxic. No significant elevation of the inflammatory cytokine levels of IL-1β and IL-6 was detected in mice after intravenous injection of the nanocrystals in vivo. Using a hindlimb-ischemia mouse model, we demonstrated that 35-nm NDs after covalent conjugation with polyarginine are useful as a drug delivery vehicle of heparin for prolonged anticoagulation treatment. The present study lays a solid foundation for further therapeutic applications of NDs in biomedicine.

  4. Nano/micro-scale magnetophoretic devices for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Byeonghwa; Vavassori, Paolo; Sooryakumar, R.; Kim, CheolGi

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there have been tremendous advances in the versatility of magnetic shuttle technology using nano/micro-scale magnets for digital magnetophoresis. While the technology has been used for a wide variety of single-cell manipulation tasks such as selection, capture, transport, encapsulation, transfection, or lysing of magnetically labeled and unlabeled cells, it has also expanded to include parallel actuation and study of multiple bio-entities. The use of nano/micro-patterned magnetic structures that enable remote control of the applied forces has greatly facilitated integration of the technology with microfluidics, thereby fostering applications in the biomedical arena. The basic design and fabrication of various scaled magnets for remote manipulation of individual and multiple beads/cells, and their associated energies and forces that underlie the broad functionalities of this approach, are presented. One of the most useful features enabled by such advanced integrated engineering is the capacity to remotely tune the magnetic field gradient and energy landscape, permitting such multipurpose shuttles to be implemented within lab-on-chip platforms for a wide range of applications at the intersection of cellular biology and biotechnology.

  5. Multifunctional Magnetic-fluorescent Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakovich Yury

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractNanotechnology is a fast-growing area, involving the fabrication and use of nano-sized materials and devices. Various nanocomposite materials play a number of important roles in modern science and technology. Magnetic and fluorescent inorganic nanoparticles are of particular importance due to their broad range of potential applications. It is expected that the combination of magnetic and fluorescent properties in one nanocomposite would enable the engineering of unique multifunctional nanoscale devices, which could be manipulated using external magnetic fields. The aim of this review is to present an overview of bimodal “two-in-one” magnetic-fluorescent nanocomposite materials which combine both magnetic and fluorescent properties in one entity, in particular those with potential applications in biotechnology and nanomedicine. There is a great necessity for the development of these multifunctional nanocomposites, but there are some difficulties and challenges to overcome in their fabrication such as quenching of the fluorescent entity by the magnetic core. Fluorescent-magnetic nanocomposites include a variety of materials including silica-based, dye-functionalised magnetic nanoparticles and quantum dots-magnetic nanoparticle composites. The classification and main synthesis strategies, along with approaches for the fabrication of fluorescent-magnetic nanocomposites, are considered. The current and potential biomedical uses, including biological imaging, cell tracking, magnetic bioseparation, nanomedicine and bio- and chemo-sensoring, of magnetic-fluorescent nanocomposites are also discussed.

  6. Laponite®: A key nanoplatform for biomedical applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, Helena; Alves, Carla S; Rodrigues, João

    2017-05-26

    Laponite® is a synthetic smectite clay that already has many important technological applications, which go beyond the conventional uses of clays in pharmaceutics and cosmetics. In biomedical applications, particularly in nanomedicine, this material holds great potential. Laponite® is a 2-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial composed of disk-shaped nanoscale crystals that have a high aspect ratio. These disks can strongly interact with many types of chemical entities (from small molecules or ions, to natural or synthetic polymers, to different inorganic nanoparticles) and are also easily functionalized and readily degraded in the physiological environment giving rise to non-toxic and even bioactive products. This review will highlight the potential of Laponite® as a nanomaterial in the fields of drug delivery, bioimaging, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. New concepts, as well as novel innovative materials that stand out from the usual ones due to the unique properties of Laponite®, will also be presented and discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rational design of nanoparticles for biomedical imaging and photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Haiyan

    2011-07-01

    This thesis aims to rationally design nanoparticles and promote their applications in biomedical imaging and photovoltaic cells. Quantum dots (QDs) are promising fluorescent probes for biomedical imaging. We have fabricated two types of MSA capped QDs: CdTe/ZnSe core/shell QDs synthesized via an aqueous method and CdTe QDs via a hydrothermal method. They present high quantum yields (QYs), narrow emission band widths, high photo- and pH-stability, and low cytotoxicity. QD-IgG probes were produced and applied for labeling breast cancer marker HER2 proteins on MCF-7 cells. For the purpose of single molecule tracking using QDs as fluorescent probes, we use small affibodies instead of antibodies to produce QD-affibody probes. Smaller QD-target protein complexes are obtained using a direct immunofluorescence approach. These QD-affibody probes are developed to study the dynamic motion of single HER2 proteins on A431 cell membranes. Fluorescence blinking in single QDs is harmful for dynamic tracking due to information loss. We have experimentally studied the blinking phenomenon and the mechanism behind. We have discovered an emission bunching effect that two nearby QDs tend to emit light synchronously. The long-range Coulomb potential induced by the negative charge on the QD surface is found to be the major cause for the single QD blinking and the emission bunching in QD pairs. We have studied the in vitro cytotoxicity of CdTe QDs to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The QDs treatment increases the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and disrupts the mitochondrial membrane potential. The protein expression levels indicate that the mitochondria apoptosis is the main cause of HUVCEs apoptosis induced by CdTe QDs. Gold nanorods (GNRs) are scattering probes due to their tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) enhanced scattering spectrum. In order to control the yield and morphology of GNRs, we have systematically studied the effects of composition

  8. Design and Experiment of Applicating 3 D in Emergency Maintenance of Vehicle Low-pressure Pipeline%3D 打印应用于车辆低压管路的抢修设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封会娟; 杨明; 唐彦峰; 李慧梅

    2016-01-01

    After introducing the theory, technology, material and application status of 3D printing technology, the paper chooses low-pressure pipeline as the study object and analyzes its function and damage characteristics , and designs an e-mergency maintenance plan and tests the plan with real vehicle .The test proves that 3D printing technology is feasible and effective in low-pressure pipeline repair and its worth to explore and study the application of 3D printing technology in BDAR.%在对3D打印技术的原理、技术、材料和应用情况进行综述的基础上,选取车辆易损件低压油管为研究对象,分析其功能特性和损伤特点,设计其3D打印抢修方案,并按照抢修方案进行实车验证。实验证明,3D打印技术应用于车辆装备低压油管的抢修是可行且有效的,将3D打印技术应用于战场抢修值得探索研究。

  9. Catalytic properties and biomedical applications of cerium oxide nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Walkey, Carl D.

    2014-11-10

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) have shown promise as catalytic antioxidants in the test tube, cell culture models and animal models of disease. However given the reactivity that is well established at the surface of these nanoparticles, the biological utilization of nanoceria as a therapeutic still poses many challenges. Moreover the form that these particles take in a biological environment, such as the changes that can occur due to a protein corona, are not well established. This review aims to summarize the existing literature on biological use of nanoceria, and to raise questions about what further study is needed to apply this interesting catalytic material to biomedical applications. These questions include: 1) How does preparation, exposure dose, route and experimental model influence the reported effects of nanoceria in animal studies? 2) What are the considerations to develop nanoceria as a therapeutic agent in regards to these parameters? 3) What biological targets of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are relevant to this targeting, and how do these properties also influence the safety of these nanomaterials?

  10. MAPI: a software framework for distributed biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Johan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amount of web-based resources (databases, tools etc. in biomedicine has increased, but the integrated usage of those resources is complex due to differences in access protocols and data formats. However, distributed data processing is becoming inevitable in several domains, in particular in biomedicine, where researchers face rapidly increasing data sizes. This big data is difficult to process locally because of the large processing, memory and storage capacity required. Results This manuscript describes a framework, called MAPI, which provides a uniform representation of resources available over the Internet, in particular for Web Services. The framework enhances their interoperability and collaborative use by enabling a uniform and remote access. The framework functionality is organized in modules that can be combined and configured in different ways to fulfil concrete development requirements. Conclusions The framework has been tested in the biomedical application domain where it has been a base for developing several clients that are able to integrate different web resources. The MAPI binaries and documentation are freely available at http://www.bitlab-es.com/mapi under the Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivative Works 2.5 Spain License. The MAPI source code is available by request (GPL v3 license.

  11. Transferrin-bearing maghemite nano-constructs for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piraux, H.; Hai, J.; Gaudisson, T.; Ammar, S.; Gazeau, F.; El Hage Chahine, J. M.; Hémadi, M.

    2015-05-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in biomedicine for hyperthermia and magnetic resonance imagery. Targeting them to specific cancerous cells is, therefore, of a great value for therapy and diagnostic. Transferrin and its receptor constitute the major iron-acquisition system in human. The former crosses the plasma membrane within a few minutes by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Thus, transferrin can be a valuable vector for the delivery of NPs to specific cells and across the blood brain barrier. For such a purpose, three different sizes of maghemite NPs (5, 10, and 15 nm) were synthesized by the polyol method, coated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, and coupled to transferrin by amide bonds. The number of transferrins per nanoparticle was determined. Raw nanoparticles and the "transferrin-nanoparticle" constructs were characterized. The magnetic properties and the colloidal stability of raw NPs and transferrin-NP constructs were measured and analyzed in relation to their inorganic core size variation. They all proved to be good candidates for nanoparticle targeting for biomedical application.

  12. A scalable micro-mixer for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortelezzi, Luca; Ferrari, Simone; Dubini, Angelo

    2016-11-01

    Our study presents a geometrically scalable active micro-mixer suitable for biomedical/bioengineering applications and potentially assimilable in a Lab-on-Chip. We designed our micro-mixer with the goal of satisfying the following constraints: small dimensions, because the device must be able to process volumes of fluid in the range of 10-6 ÷10-9 liters; high mixing speed, because mixing should be obtained in the shortest possible time; constructive simplicity, to facilitate realizability, assimilability and reusability of the micro-mixer; and geometrical scalability, because the micro-mixer should be assimilable to microfluidic systems of different dimensions. We studied numerically the mixing performance of our micro-mixer both in two- and three-dimensions. We characterize the mixing performance in terms of Reynolds, Strouhal and Péclet numbers in order to establish a practical range of operating conditions for our micro-mixer. Finally, we show that our micro-mixer is geometrically scalable, ie., micro-mixers of different geometrical dimensions having the same nondimensional specifications produce nearly the same mixing performance.

  13. Characterization of Sucrose Thin Films for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Iconaru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose is a natural osmolyte accumulated in the cells of organisms as they adapt to environmental stress. In vitro sucrose increases protein stability and forces partially unfolded structures to refold. Thin films of sucrose (C12H22O11 were deposited on thin cut glass substrates by the thermal evaporation technique (P∼10−5 torr. Characteristics of thin films were put into evidence by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and differential thermal analysis and thermal gravimetric analysis (TG/DTA. The experimental results confirm a uniform deposition of an adherent layer. In this paper we present a part of the characteristics of sucrose thin films deposited on glass in medium vacuum conditions, as a part of a culture medium for osteoblast cells. Osteoblast cells were used to determine proliferation, viability, and cytotoxicity interactions with sucrose powder and sucrose thin films. The osteoblast cells have been provided from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC Centre. The outcome of this study demonstrated the effectiveness of sucrose thin films as a possible nontoxic agent for biomedical applications.

  14. Marine derived polysaccharides for biomedical applications: chemical modification approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ayala, Giovanna Gomez; Malinconico, Mario; Laurienzo, Paola

    2008-09-03

    Polysaccharide-based biomaterials are an emerging class in several biomedical fields such as tissue regeneration, particularly for cartilage, drug delivery devices and gelentrapment systems for the immobilization of cells. Important properties of the polysaccharides include controllable biological activity, biodegradability, and their ability to form hydrogels. Most of the polysaccharides used derive from natural sources; particularly, alginate and chitin, two polysaccharides which have an extensive history of use in medicine, pharmacy and basic sciences, and can be easily extracted from marine plants (algae kelp) and crab shells, respectively. The recent rediscovery of poly-saccharidebased materials is also attributable to new synthetic routes for their chemical modification, with the aim of promoting new biological activities and/or to modify the final properties of the biomaterials for specific purposes. These synthetic strategies also involve the combination of polysaccharides with other polymers. A review of the more recent research in the field of chemical modification of alginate, chitin and its derivative chitosan is presented. Moreover, we report as case studies the results of our recent work concerning various different approaches and applications of polysaccharide-based biomaterials, such as the realization of novel composites based on calcium sulphate blended with alginate and with a chemically modified chitosan, the synthesis of novel alginate-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers and the development of a family of materials based on alginate and acrylic polymers of potential interest as drug delivery systems.

  15. Marine Derived Polysaccharides for Biomedical Applications: Chemical Modification Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Laurienzo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide-based biomaterials are an emerging class in several biomedical fields such as tissue regeneration, particularly for cartilage, drug delivery devices and gelentrapment systems for the immobilization of cells. Important properties of the polysaccharides include controllable biological activity, biodegradability, and their ability to form hydrogels. Most of the polysaccharides used derive from natural sources; particularly, alginate and chitin, two polysaccharides which have an extensive history of use in medicine, pharmacy and basic sciences, and can be easily extracted from marine plants (algae kelp and crab shells, respectively. The recent rediscovery of poly-saccharidebased materials is also attributable to new synthetic routes for their chemical modification, with the aim of promoting new biological activities and/or to modify the final properties of the biomaterials for specific purposes. These synthetic strategies also involve the combination of polysaccharides with other polymers. A review of the more recent research in the field of chemical modification of alginate, chitin and its derivative chitosan is presented. Moreover, we report as case studies the results of our recent work concerning various different approaches and applications of polysaccharide-based biomaterials, such as the realization of novel composites based on calcium sulphate blended with alginate and with a chemically modified chitosan, the synthesis of novel alginate-poly(ethylene glycol copolymers and the development of a family of materials based on alginate and acrylic polymers of potential interest as drug delivery systems.

  16. New ideally absorbing Au plasmonic nanostructures for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakomirnyi, Vadim I.; Rasskazov, Ilia L.; Karpov, Sergey V.; Polyutov, Sergey P.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a new set of plasmonic nanostructures operating at the conditions of an ideal absorption (Grigoriev et al., 2015 [1]) was proposed for novel biomedical applications. We consider spherical x/Au nanoshells and Au/x/Au nanomatryoshkas, where 'x' changes from conventional Si and SiO2 to alternative plasmonic materials (Naik and Shalaev, 2013 [2]), such as zinc oxide doped with aluminum, gallium and indium tin oxide. The absorption peak of proposed nanostructures lies within 700-1100 nm wavelength region and corresponds to the maximal optical transparency of hemoglobin and melanin as well as to the radiation frequency of available pulsed medical lasers. It was shown that the ideal absorption takes place in a given wavelength region for Au coatings with thickness less than 12 nm. In this case finite quantum size effects for metallic nanoshells play a significant role. The mathematical model for the search of the ideal absorption conditions was modified by taking into account the finite quantum size effects.

  17. Carbon matrix based magnetic nanocomposites for potential biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izydorzak-Wozniak, M; Leonowicz, M

    2014-03-01

    It was found that by varying the pyrolysis temperature of the polymeric precursor, carbon matrix magnetic nanocomposites with different constitution and fractions of magnetic component were made. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy revealed the presence of nanocrystallites (NCs) of Co, Fe3C and Ni embedded in porous, partially-graphitized carbon matrix. Vibrating sample magnetometer measurements enabled to determine the correlation between NCs size distribution and magnetic properties. The magnetic studies confirmed that the coercivity, saturation and remanent magnetizations, as well as fraction of the magnetic component depend on the pyrolysis temperature. The Co#C and Fe3C#C composites exhibited ferromagnetic behavior with a remanent to saturation magnetization (M(R)/M(S)) ratio ranging from 0.25 to 0.3, whereas in the Ni containing samples a relatively small M(R)/M(S) ratio point to significant contribution of superparamagnetic interactions. As the carbon matrix magnetic nanocomposites are proposed for biomedical application the basic cytotoxicity test were performed to evaluate a potential toxic effect of the materials on MG-63 cells line.

  18. Protein-semiconductor quantum dot hybrids for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansur, Herman; Mansur, Alexandra [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627 - Escola de Engenharia - Bloco 2/2233, Belo Horizonte 31.270-901 (Brazil); Gonzalez, Juan [Department of Physics, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627 - Instituto de Ciencias Exatas - Depto de Fisica, Belo Horizonte 31.270-901 (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    The present work reports the bioconjugation of CdS quantum dots (QDs) with protein by means of an aqueous route at room temperature, applying colloidal chemistry methods. Essentially, the bioconjugates were developed based on albumin (BSA) used as capping ligands for the stabilization of CdS QDs produced using cadmium perchlorate and thioacetamide precursors. CdS QDs were directly capped with BSA or BSA bioconjugated to polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer. UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), TEM and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) were used to characterize the stability and morphology of CdS nanoparticles. The CdS nanocrystals were produced with estimated average particle size smaller than 4.0 nm, indicating that they were within the so-called ''quantum-size confinement range''. The results have clearly shown that both routes (BSA and BSA conjugates) were effective on stabilizing fluorescent QDs in aqueous dispersions to be potentially used in biomedical applications (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Diamond thin films: giving biomedical applications a new shine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistor, P A; May, P W

    2017-09-01

    Progress made in the last two decades in chemical vapour deposition technology has enabled the production of inexpensive, high-quality coatings made from diamond to become a scientific and commercial reality. Two properties of diamond make it a highly desirable candidate material for biomedical applications: first, it is bioinert, meaning that there is minimal immune response when diamond is implanted into the body, and second, its electrical conductivity can be altered in a controlled manner, from insulating to near-metallic. In vitro, diamond can be used as a substrate upon which a range of biological cells can be cultured. In vivo, diamond thin films have been proposed as coatings for implants and prostheses. Here, we review a large body of data regarding the use of diamond substrates for in vitro cell culture. We also detail more recent work exploring diamond-coated implants with the main targets being bone and neural tissue. We conclude that diamond emerges as one of the major new biomaterials of the twenty-first century that could shape the way medical treatment will be performed, especially when invasive procedures are required. © 2017 The Authors.

  20. Clinical applications of biomedical microdevices for controlled drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, Pablo; Miranda, Oscar R; Clayton, Kevin; Rosen, Yitzhak; Elman, Noel M

    2015-01-01

    Miniaturization of devices to micrometer and nanometer scales, combined with the use of biocompatible and functional materials, has created new opportunities for the implementation of drug delivery systems. Advances in biomedical microdevices for controlled drug delivery platforms promise a new generation of capabilities for the treatment of acute conditions and chronic illnesses, which require high adherence to treatment, in which temporal control over the pharmacokinetic profiles is critical. In addition, clinical conditions that require a combination of drugs with specific pharmacodynamic profiles and local delivery will benefit from drug delivery microdevices. This review provides a summary of various clinical applications for state-of-the-art controlled drug delivery microdevices, including cancer, endocrine and ocular disorders, and acute conditions such as hemorrhagic shock. Regulatory considerations for clinical translation of drug delivery microdevices are also discussed. Drug delivery microdevices promise a remarkable gain in clinical outcomes and a substantial social impact. A review of articles covering the field of microdevices for drug delivery was performed between January 1, 1990, and January 1, 2014, using PubMed as a search engine.

  1. Stabilization and functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstad, Esther; Textor, Marcus; Reimhult, Erik

    2011-07-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are used in a rapidly expanding number of research and practical applications in the biomedical field, including magnetic cell labeling separation and tracking, for therapeutic purposes in hyperthermia and drug delivery, and for diagnostic purposes, e.g., as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. These applications require good NP stability at physiological conditions, close control over NP size and controlled surface presentation of functionalities. This review is focused on different aspects of the stability of superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs, from its practical definition to its implementation by molecular design of the dispersant shell around the iron oxide core and further on to its influence on the magnetic properties of the superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs. Special attention is given to the selection of molecular anchors for the dispersant shell, because of their importance to ensure colloidal and functional stability of sterically stabilized superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs. We further detail how dispersants have been optimized to gain close control over iron oxide NP stability, size and functionalities by independently considering the influences of anchors and the attached sterically repulsive polymer brushes. A critical evaluation of different strategies to stabilize and functionalize core-shell superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs as well as a brief introduction to characterization methods to compare those strategies is given.Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are used in a rapidly expanding number of research and practical applications in the biomedical field, including magnetic cell labeling separation and tracking, for therapeutic purposes in hyperthermia and drug delivery, and for diagnostic purposes, e.g., as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. These applications require good NP stability at physiological conditions, close control over NP size and controlled surface

  2. Polymer and polymer-hybrid nanoparticles from synthesis to biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rangelov, Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric and hybrid nanoparticles have received increased scientific interest in terms of basic research as well as commercial applications, promising a variety of uses for nanostructures in fields including bionanotechnology and medicine. Condensing the relevant research into a comprehensive reference, Polymer and Polymer-Hybrid Nanoparticles: From Synthesis to Biomedical Applications covers an array of topics from synthetic procedures and macromolecular design to possible biomedical applications of nanoparticles and materials based on original and unique polymers. The book presents a well-r

  3. Data science, learning, and applications to biomedical and health sciences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adam, Nabil R; Wieder, Robert; Ghosh, Debopriya

    2017-01-01

    ...‐tracking, collectively referred to as Big Data. Properly harnessed, Big Data can provide insights and drive discovery that will accelerate biomedical advances, improve patient outcomes, and reduce costs...

  4. Applications of protein biochips in biomedical and biotechnological research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinrich, Dirk; Jonkheijm, Pascal; Niemeyer, Christof M.; Waldmann, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Progress in the development of protein-immobilization strategies and methods has made protein biochips increasingly accessible. The integration of these assay and analysis platforms into biomedical and biotechnological research has substantially expanded the repertoire of methods available for prote

  5. Phase-space dissimilarity measures for industrial and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopopescu, V. A.; Hively, L. M.

    2005-12-01

    its various points, corresponding to the baseline DF. Condition change is established by comparing the base line DFs to subsequent test case DFs via new, phase space dissimilarity measures (PSDM), namely the distance and - square statistics between two DFs. A clear trend in the dissimilarity measures over time indicates substantial departure from the baseline dynamics, thus signaling condition change. The severity of this departure can be interpreted as a "normal" fluctuation, abnormal behavior, impending failure, or complete breakdown. We illustrate the new approach on an assortment of machinery and biomedical examples. The machine data were collected during laboratory tests on industrial equipment, for diverse failure modes, via seeded faults and accelerated failures. The biomedical applications involve detection of physiological changes, such as epileptic seizures from EEG; ventricular fibrillation, fainting, and sepsis onset from ECG; and breathing difficulty from chest sounds. The PSDM show a consistent discrimination of normal-to-abnormal transitions, allowing earlier, more accurate, and more robust detection of the dynamical change for all of these applications in comparison to TNM.

  6. Biomedical applications of magneto-plasmonic nanoclusters (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Konstantin V.; Wu, Chun-Hsien; Cook, Jason; Zal, Tomasz; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2016-03-01

    Perhaps one of the most intriguing aspects of nanotechnology is the ability to create multimodal and multifunctional nanostructures that can open new venues in solving challenging biomedical problems. Here, we present multimodal magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles (MPNs) with a strong red-NIR absorbance, superparamagnetic properties and a high magnetic moment in an external magnetic field. Our design is based on self-assembly of 6 nm primary particles which consist of 5 nm diameter iron-oxide cores coated with a very thin ca. 0.5 nm gold shell. The assembly results in spherical highly uniform MPNs. We developed antibody targeted MPNs to address two highly challenging applications: (i) development of real-time assays for capture, enumeration and characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and (ii) enhancement of adoptive cell immunotherapy (ACT). Our results showed that MPNs can be used for simultaneous magnetic capture and photoacoustic (PA) detection of cancer cells in whole blood with no laborious processing steps. Furthermore, we demonstrated that MPNs conjugated with anti-CD8 antibodies, which are specific for cytotoxic T cells used in ATC, label CD8+ T cells with high specificity ex vivo and in vivo. Labeled T cells can be easily manipulated by a small magnet in suspension and under flow conditions. In addition, MPNs generate high contrast in MRI and PA imaging with the potential to detect just few cells per imaging voxel. These results show that immunotargeted MPNs can be explored for simultaneous visualization and magnetic guidance of T cell subsets in vivo for cancer treatment.

  7. Magnetite Nanoparticles Stabilized Under Physiological Conditions for Biomedical Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdãº, A.; Tombácz, E.; Illés, E.; Bica, D.; Vékás, L.

    The biomedical application of water based magnetic fluids (MFs) is of great practical importance. Their colloidal stability under physiological conditions (blood pH ˜ 7.2-7.4 and salt concentration ˜0.15 M) and more in high magnetic field gradient is crucial. Magnetite or maghemite nanoparticles are used in general. In the present work, magnetite nanoparticles were stabilized with different compounds (citric acid (CA) and phosphate) and sodium oleate (NaO) as the most used surfactant in the stabilization of MFs. The adsorption and overcharging effect were quantified, and the enhancement in salt tolerance of stabilized systems was studied. Adsorption, electrophoretic mobility and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements were performed. The electrolyte tolerance was tested in coagulation kinetic measurements. Above the adsorption saturation, the nanoparticles are stabilized in a way of combined steric and electrostatic effects. The aim was to research these two important effects and demonstrate that none of them alone is enough. The phosphate was not able to stabilize the ferrofluid in spite of our expectation, but the other two additives proved to be effective stabilizing agents. The magnetite was well stabilized by the surface complexation of CA above pH ˜ 5, however, the salt tolerance of citrate stabilized MFs remained much below the concentration of physiological salt solution, and more the dissolution of magnetite nanocrystals was enhanced due to Fe-CA complexation in aqueous medium, which may cause problems in vivo. The oleate double layers were able to stabilize magnetite nanoparticles perfectly at pH ˜ 6 preventing particle aggregation effectively even in physiological salt solution.

  8. Current Developments in Antimicrobial Surface Coatings for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartjes, J J T M; Sharma, P K; van Kooten, T G; van der Mei, H C; Mahmoudi, M; Busscher, H J; Rochford, E T J

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation on material surfaces represent a serious problem in society from both an economical and health perspective. Surface coating approaches to prevent bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are of increased importance due to the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains. Effective antimicrobial surface coatings can be based on an anti-adhesive principle that prevents bacteria to adhere, or on bactericidal strategies, killing organisms either before or after contact is made with the surface. Many strategies, however, implement a multifunctional approach that incorporates both of these mechanisms. For anti-adhesive strategies, the use of polymer chains, or hydrogels is preferred, although recently a new class of super-hydrophobic surfaces has been described which demonstrate improved anti-adhesive activity. In addition, bacterial killing can be achieved using antimicrobial peptides, antibiotics, chitosan or enzymes directly bound, tethered through spacer-molecules or encased in biodegradable matrices, nanoparticles and quaternary ammonium compounds. Notwithstanding the ubiquitous nature of the problem of microbial colonization of material surfaces, this review focuses on the recent developments in antimicrobial surface coatings with respect to biomaterial implants and devices. In this biomedical arena, to rank the different coating strategies in order of increasing efficacy is impossible, since this depends on the clinical application aimed for and whether expectations are short- or long term. Considering that the era of antibiotics to control infectious biofilms will eventually come to an end, the future for biofilm control on biomaterial implants and devices is likely with surface-associated modifications that are non-antibiotic related.

  9. Biomedical Applications of the Cold Atmospheric Plasma: Cell Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volotskova, Olga

    Current breakthrough research on cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) demonstrates that CAP has great potential in various areas, including medicine and biology, thus providing a new tool for living tissue treatment. Depending on the configuration the cold plasma sources can be used in the following areas: wound healing, skin diseases, hospital hygiene, sterilization, antifungal treatments, dental care, cosmetics targeted cell/tissue removal, and cancer treatments. This dissertation is focused on the studies of biomedical applications of cold atmospheric plasma jet based on helium flow and resultant cell responses to the cold plasma treatment. The studies were carried out on extra-cellular and intra-cellular levels in vitro. The main practical applications are wound healing and alternative to existing cancer therapy methods, areas of great interest and significant challenges. The CAP jet was built in the Micropropulsion and Nanotechnology Laboratory of Dr. Michael Keidar, as a part of multidisciplinary collaboration with the GW Medical School (Dr. M.A. Stepp) concerned with plasma medicine and bioengineering studies. Normal and cancer cells have two fundamental behavioral properties, proliferation and motility, which can be evaluated through cell migration rates and cell cycle progression. Various microscopic, spectroscopic and flow cytometry techniques were used to characterize cell responses to the cold plasma treatment. It was found that CAP effect on the cells is localized within the area of the treatment (of around ˜ 5mm in diameter). The migration rates of the normal skin cells can be reduced up to ˜ 40%. However, depending on the cell type the required treatment time is different, thus differential treatment of various cells presented in tissue is possible. The CAP effect on the migration was explained through the changes of the cell surface proteins/integrins. It was also found that normal and cancer cells respond differently to the CAP treatment under the same

  10. Elastomeric networks based on trimethylene carbonate polymers for biomedical applications : physical properties and degradation behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Bat, Erhan

    2010-01-01

    The number of applications for biomedical technologies is ever-increasing, and there is a need to develop new materials with properties that can conform to the requirements of a specific application. Synthetic polymers are of great importance in the biomedical field as they can be designed to exhibit a wide range of physical- and biological properties and a range of degradation profiles. Interest in biodegradable elastomers is increasing, particularly for the engineering of soft and elastic t...

  11. Biomedical and microbiological applications of bio-based porous materials: a review\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    T. M. S. Udenni Gunathilake; Ching, Yern Chee; Ching, Kuan Yong; Chuah, Cheng Hock; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah

    2017-01-01

    Extensive employment of biomaterials in the areas of biomedical and microbiological applications is considered to be of prime importance. As expected, oil based polymer materials were gradually replaced by natural or synthetic biopolymers due to their well-known intrinsic characteristics such as biodegradability, non-toxicity and biocompatibility. Literature on this subject was found to be expanding, especially in the areas of biomedical and microbiological applications. Introduction of poros...

  12. Self-folding devices and materials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Christina L; Gultepe, Evin; Gracias, David H

    2012-03-01

    Because the native cellular environment is 3D, there is a need to extend planar, micro- and nanostructured biomedical devices to the third dimension. Self-folding methods can extend the precision of planar lithographic patterning into the third dimension and create reconfigurable structures that fold or unfold in response to specific environmental cues. Here, we review the use of hinge-based self-folding methods in the creation of functional 3D biomedical devices including precisely patterned nano- to centimeter scale polyhedral containers, scaffolds for cell culture and reconfigurable surgical tools such as grippers that respond autonomously to specific chemicals.

  13. Interactive Processing and Visualization of Image Data forBiomedical and Life Science Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staadt, Oliver G.; Natarjan, Vijay; Weber, Gunther H.; Wiley,David F.; Hamann, Bernd

    2007-02-01

    Background: Applications in biomedical science and life science produce large data sets using increasingly powerful imaging devices and computer simulations. It is becoming increasingly difficult for scientists to explore and analyze these data using traditional tools. Interactive data processing and visualization tools can support scientists to overcome these limitations. Results: We show that new data processing tools and visualization systems can be used successfully in biomedical and life science applications. We present an adaptive high-resolution display system suitable for biomedical image data, algorithms for analyzing and visualization protein surfaces and retinal optical coherence tomography data, and visualization tools for 3D gene expression data. Conclusion: We demonstrated that interactive processing and visualization methods and systems can support scientists in a variety of biomedical and life science application areas concerned with massive data analysis.

  14. Photoacoustic and thermoacoustic tomography: System development for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Geng

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT), as well as thermoacoustic tomography (TAT), utilize electromagnetic radiation in its visible, near infrared, microwave, and radiofrequency forms, respectively, to induce acoustic waves in biological tissues for imaging purposes. Combining the advantages of both the high image contrast that results from electromagnetic absorption and the high resolution of ultrasound imaging, these new imaging modalities could be the next successful imaging techniques in biomedical applications. Basic research on PAT and TAT, and the relevant physics, is presented in Chapter I. In Chapter II, we investigate the imaging mechanisms of TAT in terms of signal generation, propagation and detection. We present a theoretical analysis as well as simulations of such imaging characteristics as contrast and resolution, accompanied by experimental results from phantom and tissue samples. In Chapter III, we discuss the further application of TAT to the imaging of biological tissues. The microwave absorption difference in normal and cancerous breast tissues, as well as its influence on thermoacoustic wave generation and the resulting transducer response, is investigated over a wide range of electromagnetic frequencies and depths of tumor locations. In Chapter IV, we describe the mechanism of PAT and the algorithm used for image reconstruction. Because of the broad bandwidth of the laser-induced ultrasonic waves and the limited bandwidth of the single transducer, multiple ultrasonic transducers, each with a different central frequency, are employed for simultaneous detection. Chapter V further demonstrates PAT's ability to image vascular structures in biological tissue based on blood's strong light absorption capability. The photoacoustic images of rat brain tumors in this study clearly reveal the angiogenesis that is associated with tumors. In Chapter VI, we report on further developing PAT to image deeply embedded optical heterogeneity in biological tissues. The

  15. PREFACE Surface Modifications and Functionalization of Materials for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrino, Jose Luis; Puértolas, Jose A.; Albella, Jose M.

    2010-11-01

    Conference photograph This special issue contains selected papers which were presented as invited and contributed communications at the workshop entitled 'Surface modification and functionalization of materials for biomedical applications' (BIO-COAT 2010) which was held on 24 June 2010 in Zaragoza (Spain). The surface of a material plays a major role in its interaction with the biological medium. Processes related to the mechanical stability of articular devices in contact, osseointegration, thrombogenicity, corrosion and leaching, or the inflammatory response of rejection of a material, are clearly conditioned by the surface properties. Therefore, the modification or functionalization of surfaces can have an important impact on these issues. New techniques for functionalization by thin film deposition or surface treatments help to improve superficial properties, while understanding the interaction of the surface-biological medium is critical for their application in new devices. Jointly organized by the Spanish Materials Research Society, BIO-COAT 2010 provided an open forum to discuss the progress and latest developments in thin film processing and the engineering of biomaterials. Invited lectures were particularly aimed at providing overviews on scientific topics and were given by recognized world-class scientists. Two of them have contributed with a proceedings article to this selected collection (articles 012001 and 012008). The contributed communications were focused on particular cutting-edge aspects of thin film science and functionalization technologies for biomaterials, showing the major scientific push of Spanish research groups in the field. The 2010 BIO-COAT conference was organized along four main topics: (1) functionalization and texture on surfaces, (2) tribology and corrosion, (3) the surface modification of biomaterials, and (4) surface-biological environment interactions. The papers published in this volume were accepted for publication after

  16. Formation and emission characteristics of CN molecules in laser induced low pressure He plasma and its applications to N analysis in coal and fossilization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahna, Kurnia; Idroes, Rinaldi; Idris, Nasrullah; Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik; Tjia, May On; Pardede, Marincan; Kagawa, Kiichiro

    2016-03-01

    Presented in this paper are the results of an experimental study on the laser induced plasma emission of a number of CN free samples (urea, sucrose) with 40 mJ pulse energy using He and N₂ ambient gases. It is shown that the CN emission has its exclusive sources in the molecules produced as the result of chemical bonding either between the ablated C and N ions in the He plasma or between the ablated C and dissociated N from the N₂ ambient gas. The emission intensities in both cases are found to have the highest values at the low gas pressure of 2 kPa. The emission in He gas is shown to exhibit the typical characteristics related to a shockwave generated excitation mechanism. The experiments using He ambient gas further demonstrate the feasible laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy application to quantitative and sensitive N analysis of coal and promising application for practical in situ carbon dating of fossils.

  17. 低压余热回收蒸汽发电技术在球团厂的应用%Application of the Technology of Power Generation with Low-pressure Steam from Recovered Waste Heat in a Pelletizing Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣雷

    2014-01-01

    The application of the technology of power generation with low-pressure steam from recovered waste heat in a pelletizing plant and the good economic results are discussed through introduction of a waste heat power generation project at a pelletizing plant of some steel company. The process flow, principle, main equipment and technical parameters and e-conomic result of the project are described in detail.%通过某公司球团厂余热发电项目的介绍,探讨低压余热回收蒸汽发电技术在球团厂的应用及其产生的良好经济效益。详细介绍了工艺流程、原理及主要设备技术参数、经济效益等。

  18. Application of Low-pressure Saturated Steam Power Generating Technology in Steel Enterprises%低压饱和蒸汽发电技术在钢铁企业的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖; 马永锋

    2016-01-01

    介绍了钢铁企业饱和蒸汽发电主要的应用技术,并通过某钢厂的低压饱和蒸汽利用方案,对比了饱和蒸汽汽轮机和饱和蒸汽螺杆发电机应用的优缺点.%The main application technology of saturated steam power generating in steel enterprises is introduced. Taking the utilization program of low-pressure saturated steam pow-er generating of some steelmaker as an example, the advantages and disadvantages of saturat-ed steam turbine generator and saturated steam screw generator are compared.

  19. Low pressure mediated enhancement of nanoparticle and macromolecule loading into porous silicon structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Fransisca; Margulis-Goshen, Katrin; Liu, Xuewu; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Magdassi, Shlomo; Godin, Biana

    2014-01-01

    Ensuring drug loading efficiency and consistency is one of the most critical stages in engineering drug delivery vectors based on porous materials. Here we propose a technique to significantly enhance the efficiency of loading by employing simple and widely available methods: applying low pressure with and without centrifugation. Our results point toward the advantages the proposed method over the passive loading, especially where the size difference of loaded materials and the pore size of the porous silicon particles is smaller, an increase up to 20-fold can be observed. The technique described in the study can be used for efficient and reproducible loading of porous materials with therapeutic molecules, nanoparticles and contrast imaging agents for biomedical application.

  20. From biomedical-engineering research to clinical application and industrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Tetsushi; Aoyagi, Takao

    2012-12-01

    The rising costs and aging of the population due to a low birth rate negatively affect the healthcare system in Japan. In 2011, the Council for Science and Technology Policy released the 4th Japan's Science and Technology Basic Policy Report from 2011 to 2015. This report includes two major innovations, 'Life Innovation' and 'Green Innovation', to promote economic growth. Biomedical engineering research is part of 'Life Innovation' and its outcomes are required to maintain people's mental and physical health. It has already resulted in numerous biomedical products, and new ones should be developed using nanotechnology-based concepts. The combination of accumulated knowledge and experience, and 'nanoarchitechtonics' will result in novel, well-designed functional biomaterials. This focus issue contains three reviews and 19 original papers on various biomedical topics, including biomaterials, drug-delivery systems, tissue engineering and diagnostics. We hope that it demonstrates the importance of collaboration among scientists, engineers and clinicians, and will contribute to the further development of biomedical engineering.

  1. Design and Fabrication of Tunable Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Leming

    biomaterials, the sundew-inspired hydrogels demonstrated superior wound healing capabilities. Collectively, our studies show that sundew-inspired hydrogels contain ideal properties that promote wound healing and suggest that sundew-inspired-ADSCs combination therapy is an efficacious approach for treating wounds without eliciting noticeable toxicity or inflammation. While tremendous efforts have been spent in investigating scalable approaches for fabricating nanoparticles, less progress has been made in scalable synthesizing cyclic peptide nanoparticles and nanotubes, despite their great potential for broader biomedical applications. In Chapter 4, tunable synthesis of self-assembled cyclic peptide nanotubes and nanoparticles using three different methods, phase equilibrium, pH-driven, and pH-sensitive methods were proposed and investigated. The goal is for scalable nano-manufacturing of cyclic peptide nanoparticles and nanotubes with different sizes in large quality by controlling multiple process parameters. The dimensions of self-assembled nanostructures were found to be strongly influenced by the cyclic peptides concentration, side chains modification, pH value, reaction time, stirring intensity, and sonication time. This study proposed an overall strategy to integrate all the parameters to achieve optimal synthesis outputs. AD is associated with the accumulation of insoluble forms of amyloid-beta (Abeta) in plaques in extracellular spaces, as well as in the walls of blood vessels, and aggregation of microtubule protein tau in neurofibrillary tangles in neurons. In Chapter 5, we designed and synthesized a series of fluorescent cyclic peptide nanoparticles that can be used to detect Abeta aggregates in both the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum, which were obtained from healthy people and AD patients in different disease stages. Our experimental studies indicate that the fluorescence intensities and wavelengths generated from the interactions between the negatively charged

  2. Mechanical behavior of PDMS at low pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyan, J.; Tawfick, S.

    2017-07-01

    Polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS) are used in a wide range of soft devices including lab-on-chip, soft robots and flexible electronics. These technologies are currently considered for space exploration applications. We experimentally study the effects of vacuum pressure on the dynamics of PDMS resonator and demonstrate that, unlike hard materials, it exhibits an appreciable change in modulus manifested as a shift in resonance frequency with varying pressure. To reveal this dependence, we carefully probe the dissipation due to air pressure damping acting on the surface of the membrane. For a 1 µm thick membrane, the modulus of the PDMS decreases when the pressure is below P t  =  3.175 Torr, whereas at pressures above {{P}\\text{t}} the dynamics are dominated by gas damping in the free molecular flow and viscous regimes. We conjecture that the observed effect is a consequence of a change in shear modulus resulting in a logarithmic linear relationship between pressure and stiffness for a circular PDMS membrane. These results are important for the application of PDMS microdevices at low pressure.

  3. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles for biomedical and catalytical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiaoxing [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Mesoporous silica materials, discovered in 1992 by the Mobile Oil Corporation, have received considerable attention in the chemical industry due to their superior textual properties such as high surface area, large pore volume, tunable pore diameter, and narrow pore size distribution. Among those materials, MCM-41, referred to Mobile Composition of Matter NO. 41, contains honeycomb liked porous structure that is the most common mesoporous molecular sieve studied. Applications of MCM-41 type mesoporous silica material in biomedical field as well as catalytical field have been developed and discussed in this thesis. The unique features of mesoporous silica nanoparticles were utilized for the design of delivery system for multiple biomolecules as described in chapter 2. We loaded luciferin into the hexagonal channels of MSN and capped the pore ends with gold nanoparticles to prevent premature release. Luciferase was adsorbed onto the outer surface of the MSN. Both the MSN and the gold nanoparticles were protected by poly-ethylene glycol to minimize nonspecific interaction of luciferase and keep it from denaturating. Controlled release of luciferin was triggered within the cells and the enzymatic reaction was detected by a luminometer. Further developments by varying enzyme/substrate pairs may provide opportunities to control cell behavior and manipulate intracellular reactions. MSN was also served as a noble metal catalyst support due to its large surface area and its stability with active metals. We prepared MSN with pore diameter of 10 nm (LP10-MSN) which can facilitate mass transfer. And we successfully synthesized an organo silane, 2,2'-Bipyridine-amide-triethoxylsilane (Bpy-amide-TES). Then we were able to functionalize LP10-MSN with bipyridinyl group by both post-grafting method and co-condensation method. Future research of this material would be platinum complexation. This Pt (II) complex catalyst has been reported for a C-H bond activation reaction as an

  4. Natural Polymers and their Application in Drug Delivery and Biomedical Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana S*,1

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable polymers are widely being studied as a potential carrier material for site specific drug delivery because of its non-toxic,biocompatible in nature. Natural polysaccharides have been investigated for drug delivery applications as well as in biomedical fields. Modified polymer has found its application as a support material for gene delivery, cell culture, and tissue engineering. Now a day, the polymer is being modified to obtain novel biomaterial for controlled drug delivery applications. This review provides an overview of the different modified polymer derivatives and their applications with special attention being put on controlled drug delivery and biomedical engineering.

  5. Nanosecond Nd-YAG laser induced plasma emission characteristics in low pressure CO{sub 2} ambient gas for spectrochemical application on Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lie, Zener Sukra; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik, E-mail: kurnia18@cbn.net.id [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40/80 Srengseng Raya, Jakarta 11630 (Indonesia); Pardede, Marincan [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Pelita Harapan, 1100 M.H. Thamrin Boulevard, Lippo Village, Tangerang 15811 (Indonesia); Tjia, May On [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40/80 Srengseng Raya, Jakarta 11630 (Indonesia); Physics of Magnetism and Photonics Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, 10 Ganesha, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Kagawa, Kiichiro [Fukui Science Education Academy, Takagi Chuou 2 choume, Fukui 910-0804 (Japan); Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40/80 Srengseng Raya, Jakarta 11630 (Indonesia)

    2015-08-28

    An experimental study is conducted on the possibility and viability of performing spectrochemical analysis of carbon and other elements in trace amount in Mars, in particular, the clean detection of C, which is indispensible for tracking the sign of life in Mars. For this study, a nanosecond Nd-YAG laser is employed to generate plasma emission from a pure copper target in CO{sub 2} ambient gas of reduced pressure simulating the atmospheric condition of Mars. It is shown that the same shock wave excitation mechanism also works this case while exhibiting remarkably long cooling stage. The highest Cu emission intensities induced by 4 mJ laser ablation energy is attained in 600 Pa CO{sub 2} ambient gas. Meanwhile the considerably weaker carbon emission from the CO{sub 2} gas appears relatively featureless over the entire range of pressure variation, posing a serious problem for sensitive trace analysis of C contained in a solid sample. Our time resolved intensity measurement nevertheless reveals earlier appearance of C emission from the CO{sub 2} gas with a limited duration from 50 ns to 400 ns after the laser irradiation, well before the initial appearance of the long lasting C emission from the solid target at about 1 μs, due to the different C-releasing processes from their different host materials. The unwanted C emission from the ambient gas can thus be eliminated from the detected spectrum by a proper time gated detection window. The excellent spectra of carbon, aluminum, calcium, sodium, hydrogen, and oxygen obtained from an agate sample are presented to further demonstrate and verify merit of this special time gated LIBS using CO{sub 2} ambient gas and suggesting its viability for broad ranging in-situ applications in Mars.

  6. Investigation of hafnium for biomedical applications:corrosion and tribocorrosion in simulated body fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Sin, Jorge Rituerto

    2013-01-01

    Metals have excellent properties, such as high strength, ductility and toughness, which make them the material of choice for many biomedical applications. However, the main drawback of metals is their general tendency to corrode, which is an important factor when they are used as biomaterials due to the corrosive nature of the human body.Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used in biomedical devices due to their excellent corrosion resistance and good biocompatibility. However, one of the...

  7. Synthesis and optimization of chitosan nanoparticles: Potential applications in nanomedicine and biomedical engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadi, Arezou; Mahjoub, Soleiman; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Talebnia, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chitosan nanoparticles have become of great interest for nanomedicine, biomedical engineering and development of new therapeutic drug release systems with improved bioavailability, increased specificity and sensitivity, and reduced pharmacological toxicity. The aim of the present study was to synthesis and optimize of the chitosan nanoparticles for industrial and biomedical applications. Methods: Fe3O4 was synthesized and optimized as magnetic core nanoparticles and then chitosan ...

  8. Anti-fouling Coatings of Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Devices for Biological and Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hongbin; Chiao, Mu

    2015-01-01

    Fouling initiated by nonspecific protein adsorption is a great challenge in biomedical applications, including biosensors, bioanalytical devices, and implants. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), a popular material with many attractive properties for device fabrication in the biomedical field, suffers serious fouling problems from protein adsorption due to its hydrophobic nature, which limits the practical use of PDMS-based devices. Effort has been made to develop biocompatible materials for anti-...

  9. Anti-fouling Coatings of Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Devices for Biological and Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hongbin; Chiao, Mu

    2015-01-01

    Fouling initiated by nonspecific protein adsorption is a great challenge in biomedical applications, including biosensors, bioanalytical devices, and implants. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), a popular material with many attractive properties for device fabrication in the biomedical field, suffers serious fouling problems from protein adsorption due to its hydrophobic nature, which limits the practical use of PDMS-based devices. Effort has been made to develop biocompatible materials for anti-...

  10. Biomedical applications of accelerator mass spectrometry at ANU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Tada, M.L. di; Liu, K.; Cresswell, R.G. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Department of Nuclear Physics; Day, J.P.; Oldham, C.L.; Popplewell, J.; Carson, R. [University of Manchester, (United Kingdom). Department of Chemistry

    1997-10-01

    Radioactive isotopic tracers are widely used in biomedical research, but for some elements of much current interest such as aluminium, silicon and plutonium, suitable isotopes for radioactive decay counting are not available. Each of these elements, however, possesses a long-lived isotope which could in principle be used if a suitable atom-counting detection technique were available. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is such a technique. AMS can provide ultra-sensitive detection of fewer than 10{sup 6} atoms of isotope, thereby enabling tracer experiments with human subjects without adding significantly to radiation body burdens. At the ANU, the AMS system based on the 14UD accelerator is being applied to a number of biomedical projects using {sup 26}AI, {sup 32}Si and the isotopes of plutonium as tracers

  11. Microfluidic devices with integrated biosensors for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    [eng] In recent years, the LOC community has focused most of its research in the biomedical and biotechnology fields, due to the need of portable, low power consumption and low cost theranostics microdevices. Some developing countries do not have suitable medical diagnostics technologies and the supply and storage of the reagents is in many cases limited as well as the access to energy. Furthermore, developed countries are experimenting population aging needing novel low cost efficient diseas...

  12. Advances in the Biomedical Applications of the EELA Project

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, Vicente; Aparicio, Gabriel; Isea, Raul; Chavés, Juan Luis; Hernández, Álvaro; Mora, Henry Ricardo; Fernández, Manuel; Acero, Alicia; Montes, Esther; Mayo, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    In the last years an increasing demand for Grid Infrastructures has resulted in several international collaborations. This is the case of the EELA Project, which has brought together collaborating groups of Latin America and Europe. One year ago we presented this e-infrastructure used, among others, by the Biomedical groups for the studies of oncological analysis, neglected diseases, sequence alignments and computation phylogenetics. After this period, the achieved advances are summarised in this paper.

  13. Recent development of antifouling polymers: structure, evaluation, and biomedical applications in nano/micro-structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingyun; Li, Wenchen; Liu, Qingsheng

    2014-01-01

    Antifouling polymers have been proven to be vital to many biomedical applications such as medical implants, drug delivery, and biosensing. This review covers the major development of antifouling polymers in the last 2 decades, including the material chemistry, structural factors important to antifouling properties, and how to challenge or evaluate the antifouling performances. We then discuss the applications of antifouling polymers in nano/micro-biomedical applications in the form of nanoparticles, thin coatings for medical devices (e.g., artificial joint, catheter, wound dressing), and nano/microscale fibers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Tuning peptide amphiphile supramolecular structure for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashuck, Eugene Thomas, III

    The use of biomaterials in regenerative medicine has been an active area of research for more than a decade. Peptide amphiphiles, which are short peptide sequences coupled to alkyl tails, have been studied in the Stupp group since the beginning of the decade and been used for a variety of biomedical applications. Most of the work has focused on the bioactive epitopes places on the periphery of the PA molecules, but the interior amino acids, known as the beta-sheet region, give the PA nanofiber gel much of its mechanical strength. To study the important parameters in the beta-sheet region, six PA molecules were constructed to determine the influence of beta-sheet length and order of the amino acids in the beta-sheet. It was found that having beta-sheet forming amino acids near the center of the fiber improves PA gel stiffness, and that having extra amino acids that have preferences for other secondary structures, like alpha-helix decreased the gels stiffness. Using FTIR and circular dichroism it was found that the mechanical properties are influenced by the amount of twist in the beta-sheet, and PAs that have more twisted beta-sheets form weaker gels. The effect amino acid properties have on peptide amphiphile self-assembly where studied by synthesizining molecules with varying side group size and hydrophobicity. It was found that smaller amino acids lead to stiffer gels and when two amino acids had the same size the amino acid with the larger beta-sheet propensity lead to a stiffer gel. Furthermore, small changes in peptide structure were found to lead to big changes in nanostructure, as leucine and isoleucine, which have the same size but slightly different structures, form flat ribbons and cylindrical nanofibers, respectively. Phenylalanine and alanine were studied more indepth because they represent the effects of adding an aromatic group to amino acids in the beta-sheet regon. These phenylalanine PAs formed short, twisted ribbons when freshly dissolved in water

  15. Synthesis, toxicity, biocompatibility, and biomedical applications of graphene and graphene-related materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurunathan S

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sangiliyandi Gurunathan, Jin-Hoi Kim Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Abstract: Graphene is a two-dimensional atomic crystal, and since its development it has been applied in many novel ways in both research and industry. Graphene possesses unique properties, and it has been used in many applications including sensors, batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, transistors, components of high-strength machinery, and display screens in mobile devices. In the past decade, the biomedical applications of graphene have attracted much interest. Graphene has been reported to have antibacterial, antiplatelet, and anticancer activities. Several salient features of graphene make it a potential candidate for biological and biomedical applications. The synthesis, toxicity, biocompatibility, and biomedical applications of graphene are fundamental issues that require thorough investigation in any kind of applications related to human welfare. Therefore, this review addresses the various methods available for the synthesis of graphene, with special reference to biological synthesis, and highlights the biological applications of graphene with a focus on cancer therapy, drug delivery, bio-imaging, and tissue engineering, together with a brief discussion of the challenges and future perspectives of graphene. We hope to provide a comprehensive review of the latest progress in research on graphene, from synthesis to applications. Keywords: biomedical applications, cancer therapy, drug delivery, graphene, graphene-related materials, tissue engineering, toxicity 

  16. End-functionalized ROMP polymers for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Ahmad E; Koch, Amelie H R; Lienkamp, Karen; Tew, Gregory N

    2010-05-25

    We present two novel allyl-based terminating agents that can be used to end-functionalize living polymer chains obtained by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) using Grubbs' third generation catalyst. Both terminating agents can be easily synthesized and yield ROMP polymers with stable, storable activated ester groups at the chain-end. These end-functionalized ROMP polymers are attractive building blocks for advanced polymeric materials, especially in the biomedical field. Dye-labeling and surface-coupling of antimicrobially active polymers using these end-groups were demonstrated.

  17. Analysis and application of analog electronic circuits to biomedical instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Northrop, Robert B

    2003-01-01

    This book introduces the basic mathematical tools used to describe noise and its propagation through linear systems and provides a basic description of the improvement of signal-to-noise ratio by signal averaging and linear filtering. The text also demonstrates how op amps are the keystone of modern analog signal conditioning systems design, and illustrates their use in isolation and instrumentation amplifiers, active filters, and numerous biomedical instrumentation systems and subsystems. It examines the properties of the ideal op amp and applies this model to the analysis of various circuits

  18. Analysis and application of analog electronic circuits to biomedical instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Northrop, Robert B

    2012-01-01

    All chapters include an introduction and chapter summary.Sources and Properties of Biomedical SignalsSources of Endogenous Bioelectric SignalsNerve Action PotentialsMuscle Action PotentialsThe ElectrocardiogramOther BiopotentialsElectrical Properties of BioelectrodesExogenous Bioelectric SignalsProperties and Models of Semiconductor Devices Used in Analog Electronic Systemspn Junction DiodesMidfrequency Models for BJT BehaviorMidfrequency Models for Field-Effect TransistorsHigh-Frequency Models for Transistors and Simple Transistor AmplifiersPhotons, Photodiodes, Photoconductors, LEDs, and Las

  19. Semiconductor microlasers with intracavity microfluidics for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourley, P.L.; McDonald, A.E.

    1997-03-01

    Microfabricated electro-optical-mechanical systems are expected to play an important role in future biomedical, biochemical and environmental technologies. Semiconductor photonic materials and devices are attractive components of such systems because of their ability to generate, transmit, modulate, and detect light. In this paper the authors report investigations of light-emitting semiconductor/glass microcavities filled with simple fluids. They examine surface tension for transporting liquids into the intracavity space and study the influence of the liquid on the spectral emission of the microcavity.

  20. Environmental and biomedical applications of natural metal stable isotope variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, T.D.; Walczyk, T.

    2009-01-01

    etal stable isotopes are now being used to trace metal contaminants in the environment and as indicators of human systemic function where metals play a role. Stable isotope abundance variations provide information about metal sources and the processes affecting metals in complex natural systems, complementing information gained from surrogate tracers, such as metal abundance ratios or biochemical markers of metal metabolism. The science is still in its infancy, but the results of initial studies confirm that metal stable isotopes can provide a powerful tool for forensic and biomedical investigations.

  1. Preparation of Magnetic Carbon Nanotubes (Mag-CNTs for Biomedical and Biotechnological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Masotti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have been widely studied for their potential applications in many fields from nanotechnology to biomedicine. The preparation of magnetic CNTs (Mag-CNTs opens new avenues in nanobiotechnology and biomedical applications as a consequence of their multiple properties embedded within the same moiety. Several preparation techniques have been developed during the last few years to obtain magnetic CNTs: grafting or filling nanotubes with magnetic ferrofluids or attachment of magnetic nanoparticles to CNTs or their polymeric coating. These strategies allow the generation of novel versatile systems that can be employed in many biotechnological or biomedical fields. Here, we review and discuss the most recent papers dealing with the preparation of magnetic CNTs and their application in biomedical and biotechnological fields.

  2. Recent research and development in titanium alloys for biomedical applications and healthcare goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuo Niinomi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nb, Ta and Zr are the favorable non-toxic alloying elements for titanium alloys for biomedical applications. Low rigidity titanium alloys composed of non-toxic elements are getting much attention. The advantage of low rigidity titanium alloy for the healing of bone fracture and the remodeling of bone is successfully proved by fracture model made in tibia of rabbit. Ni-free super elastic and shape memory titanium alloys for biomedical applications are energetically developed. Titanium alloys for not only implants, but also dental products like crowns, dentures, etc. are also getting much attention in dentistry. Development of investment materials suitable for titanium alloys with high melting point is desired in dental precision castings. Bioactive surface modifications of titanium alloys for biomedical applications are very important for achieving further developed biocompatibility. Low cost titanium alloys for healthcare goods, like general wheel chairs, etc. has been recently proposed.

  3. Recent advances in bioactive 1D and 2D carbon nanomaterials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Ozlem; Uyan, Idil; Hatip, Meryem; Yilmaz, Canelif; Tekinay, Ayse B; Guler, Mustafa O

    2017-05-26

    One-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the two-dimensional (2D) graphene represent the most widely studied allotropes of carbon. Due to their unique structural, electrical, mechanical and optical properties, 1D and 2D carbon nanostructures are considered to be leading candidates for numerous applications in biomedical fields, including tissue engineering, drug delivery, bioimaging and biosensors. The biocompatibility and toxicity issues associated with these nanostructures have been a critical impediment for their use in biomedical applications. In this review, we present an overview of the various materials types, properties, functionalization strategies and characterization methods of 1D and 2D carbon nanomaterials and their derivatives in terms of their biomedical applications. In addition, we discuss various factors and mechanisms affecting their toxicity and biocompatibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparation of magnetic carbon nanotubes (Mag-CNTs) for biomedical and biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masotti, Andrea; Caporali, Andrea

    2013-12-18

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely studied for their potential applications in many fields from nanotechnology to biomedicine. The preparation of magnetic CNTs (Mag-CNTs) opens new avenues in nanobiotechnology and biomedical applications as a consequence of their multiple properties embedded within the same moiety. Several preparation techniques have been developed during the last few years to obtain magnetic CNTs: grafting or filling nanotubes with magnetic ferrofluids or attachment of magnetic nanoparticles to CNTs or their polymeric coating. These strategies allow the generation of novel versatile systems that can be employed in many biotechnological or biomedical fields. Here, we review and discuss the most recent papers dealing with the preparation of magnetic CNTs and their application in biomedical and biotechnological fields.

  5. Polymeric AIE-based nanoprobes for biomedical applications: recent advances and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wang, Ke; Liu, Meiying; Zhang, Xiqi; Tao, Lei; Chen, Yiwang; Wei, Yen

    2015-07-01

    The development of polymeric luminescent nanomaterials for biomedical applications has recently attracted a large amount of attention due to the remarkable advantages of these materials compared with small organic dyes and fluorescent inorganic nanomaterials. Among these polymeric luminescent nanomaterials, polymeric luminescent nanomaterials based on dyes with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) properties should be of great research interest due to their unique AIE properties, the designability of polymers and their multifunctional potential. In this review, the recent advances in the design and biomedical applications of polymeric luminescent nanomaterials based on AIE dyes is summarized. Various design strategies for incorporation of these AIE dyes into polymeric systems are included. The potential biomedical applications such as biological imaging, and use in biological sensors and theranostic systems of these polymeric AIE-based nanomaterials have also been highlighted. We trust this review will attract significant interest from scientists from different research fields in chemistry, materials, biology and interdisciplinary areas.

  6. [Development and application of electroanalytical methods in biomedical fields].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusu, Fumiyo

    2015-01-01

    To summarize our electroanalytical research in the biomedical field over the past 43 years, this review describes studies on specular reflection measurement, redox potential determination, amperometric acid sensing, HPLC with electrochemical detection, and potential oscillation across a liquid membrane. The specular reflection method was used for clarifying the adsorption of neurotransmitters and their related drugs onto a gold electrode and the interaction between dental alloys and compound iodine glycerin. A voltammetric screening test using a redox potential for the antioxidative effect of flavonoids was proposed. Amperometric acid sensing based on the measurement of the reduction prepeak current of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (VK3) or 3,5-di-tert-buty1-1,2-benzoquinone (DBBQ) was applied to determine acid values of fats and oils, titrable acidity of coffee, and enzyme activity of lipase, free fatty acids (FFAs) in serum, short-chain fatty acids in feces, etc. The electrode reactions of phenothiazines, catechins, and cholesterol were applied to biomedical analysis using HPLC with electrochemical detection. A three-channel electrochemical detection system was utilized for the sensitive determination of redox compounds in Chinese herbal medicines. The behavior of barbituric acid derivatives was examined based on potential oscillation measurements.

  7. Antibacterial polyelectrolyte-coated Mg alloys for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraz, Md. S.; Asmatulu, R.; Chen, Z.; Ceylan, M.; Mahapatro, A.; Yang, S. Y.

    2014-04-01

    This study deals with two biomedical subjects: corrosion rates of polyelectrolyte-coated magnesium (Mg) alloys, mainly used for biomedical purposes, and antibacterial properties of these alloys. Thin sheets of Mg alloys were coated with cationic polyelectrolyte chitosan (CHI) and anionic polyelectrolyte carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) using a layer-by-layer coating method and then embedded with antibacterial agents under vacuum. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was employed to analyze these samples in order to detect their corrosion properties at different conditions. In the electrochemical analysis section, a corrosion rate of 72 mille inches per year was found in a salt solution for the sample coated with a 12 phosphonic acid self-assembled monolayer and 9 CHI/CMC multilayers. In the antibacterial tests, gentamicin was used to investigate the effects of the drug embedded with the coated surfaces against the Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. Antibacterial studies were tested using the disk diffusion method. Based on the standard diameter of the zone of inhibition chart, the antibacterial diffusion from the surface strongly inhibited bacterial growth in the regions. The largest recorded diameter of the zone of inhibition was 50 mm for the pre-UV treated and gentamicin-loaded sample, which is more than three times the standard diameter.

  8. Application of ceramic phosphors for near infrared biomedical imaging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Kohei; Tokuzen, Kimikazu; Tsuji, Kosuke; Yamano, Tomoyoshi; Venkatachalam, Nallusamy; Hyodo, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Hidehiro

    2010-02-01

    Near infrared wavelength region between 0.8 and 2 μm is an attractive region for biomedical imaging due to the low loss in biomedical objects in the region. Rare-earth doped ceramic phosphors are known to emit efficient fluorescence in the same wavelength region. The authors have developed micro fluorescence bioimaging system for cellular or tissue imaging and macro one for in vivo imaging. This paper will review the materials synthesis for the near infrared fluorescence probes as well as the system development and demonstrative works. Er-doped or Yb/Er-doped ceramic phosphors were synthesized with required particle size. The phosphors were partly modified with polyethylene glycol to give dispersion and controlled interaction with the biological objects. By using the micro imaging system, nematodes, mouse tissue and M1 cells were observed by detecting 1.5 μm emission from Er doped in the ceramic phosphor. in vivo imaging with the same fluorescence scheme was also performed for the digestive organs of live mouse.

  9. Design and development of novel antibacterial Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory alloys for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H F; Qiu, K J; Zhou, F Y; Li, L; Zheng, Y F

    2016-11-29

    In the case of medical implants, foreign materials are preferential sites for bacterial adhesion and microbial contamination, which can lead to the development of prosthetic infections. Commercially biomedical TiNi shape memory alloys are the most commonly used materials for permanent implants in contact with bone and dental, and the prevention of infections of TiNi biomedical shape memory alloys in clinical cases is therefore a crucial challenge for orthopaedic and dental surgeons. In the present study, copper has been chosen as the alloying element for design and development novel ternary biomedical Ti‒Ni‒Cu shape memory alloys with antibacterial properties. The effects of copper alloying element on the microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion behaviors, cytocompatibility and antibacterial properties of biomedical Ti‒Ni‒Cu shape memory alloys have been systematically investigated. The results demonstrated that Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys have good mechanical properties, and remain the excellent shape memory effects after adding copper alloying element. The corrosion behaviors of Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys are better than the commercial biomedical Ti‒50.8Ni alloys. The Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys exhibit excellent antibacterial properties while maintaining the good cytocompatibility, which would further guarantee the potential application of Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys as future biomedical implants and devices without inducing bacterial infections.

  10. Design and development of novel antibacterial Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory alloys for biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. F.; Qiu, K. J.; Zhou, F. Y.; Li, L.; Zheng, Y. F.

    2016-11-01

    In the case of medical implants, foreign materials are preferential sites for bacterial adhesion and microbial contamination, which can lead to the development of prosthetic infections. Commercially biomedical TiNi shape memory alloys are the most commonly used materials for permanent implants in contact with bone and dental, and the prevention of infections of TiNi biomedical shape memory alloys in clinical cases is therefore a crucial challenge for orthopaedic and dental surgeons. In the present study, copper has been chosen as the alloying element for design and development novel ternary biomedical Ti‒Ni‒Cu shape memory alloys with antibacterial properties. The effects of copper alloying element on the microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion behaviors, cytocompatibility and antibacterial properties of biomedical Ti‒Ni‒Cu shape memory alloys have been systematically investigated. The results demonstrated that Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys have good mechanical properties, and remain the excellent shape memory effects after adding copper alloying element. The corrosion behaviors of Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys are better than the commercial biomedical Ti‒50.8Ni alloys. The Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys exhibit excellent antibacterial properties while maintaining the good cytocompatibility, which would further guarantee the potential application of Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys as future biomedical implants and devices without inducing bacterial infections.

  11. Electrophoretic deposition of hyaluronic acid and composite films for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, R.; Li, Y.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2010-06-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HYH) is a natural biopolymer, which has tremendous potential for various biomedical applications. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) methods have been developed for the fabrication of HYH films and composites. New methods for the immobilization of drugs and proteins have been utilized for the fabrication of organic composites. Electrophoretic deposition enabled the fabrication of organic-inorganic composites containing bioceramics and bioglass in the HYH matrix. It was shown that the deposition yield, microstructure, and composition of the films can be controlled. Potential applications of EPD for the surface modification of biomedical implants and fabrication of biosensors are highlighted.

  12. Mussel-Inspired Polydopamine Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangling Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA coated iron oxide nanoparticles have served as a feasible, robust, and functional platform for various biomedical applications. However, there is scarcely a systemic paper reviewed about such functionalising nanomaterials to date. In this review, the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles, the mechanism of dopamine self-oxidation, the interaction between iron oxide and dopamine, and the functionality and the safety assessment of dopamine modified iron oxide nanoparticles as well as the biomedical application of such nanoparticles are discussed. To enlighten the future research, the opportunities and the limitations of functionalising iron oxide nanoparticles coated with PDA are also analyzed.

  13. Synthesis and applications of biomedical and pharmaceutical polymers via click chemistry methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Maarten; Rijkers, Dirk T S; Liskamp, Rob M J; van Nostrum, Cornelus F; Hennink, Wim E

    2009-11-01

    In this review, the synthesis and application of biomedical and pharmaceutical polymers synthesized via the copper(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition, the thiol-ene reaction, or a combination of both click reactions are discussed. Since the introduction of both "click" methods, numerous articles have disclosed new approaches for the synthesis of polymers with different architectures, e.g., block and graft copolymers, dendrimers, and hydrogels, for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. By describing selected examples, an overview is given of the possibilities and limitations that these two "click" methods may offer.

  14. A biobank management model applicable to biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patenaude Johane

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The work of Research Ethics Boards (REBs, especially when involving genetics research and biobanks, has become more challenging with the growth of biotechnology and biomedical research. Some REBs have even rejected research projects where the use of a biobank with coded samples was an integral part of the study, the greatest fear being the lack of participant protection and uncontrolled use of biological samples or related genetic data. The risks of discrimination and stigmatization are a recurrent issue. In light of the increasing interest in biomedical research and the resulting benefits to the health of participants, it is imperative that practical solutions be found to the problems associated with the management of biobanks: namely, protecting the integrity of the research participants, as well as guaranteeing the security and confidentiality of the participant's information. Methods We aimed to devise a practical and efficient model for the management of biobanks in biomedical research where a medical archivist plays the pivotal role as a data-protection officer. The model had to reduce the burden placed on REBs responsible for the evaluation of genetics projects and, at the same time, maximize the protection of research participants. Results The proposed model includes the following: 1 a means of protecting the information in biobanks, 2 offers ways to provide follow-up information requested about the participants, 3 protects the participant's confidentiality and 4 adequately deals with the ethical issues at stake in biobanking. Conclusion Until a governmental governance body is established in Quebec to guarantee the protection of research participants and establish harmonized guidelines for the management of biobanks in medical research, it is definitely up to REBs to find solutions that the present lack of guidelines poses. The model presented in this article offers a practical solution on a day-to-day basis for REBs

  15. Magnetic microfluidic platform for biomedical applications using magnetic nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Stipsitz, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Microfluidic platforms are well-suited for biomedical analysis and usually consist of a set of units which guarantee the manipulation, detection and recognition of bioanalyte in a reliable and flexible manner. Additionally, the use of magnetic fields for perfoming the aforementioned tasks has been steadily gainining interest. This is due to the fact that magnetic fields can be well tuned and applied either externally or from a directly integrated solution in the diagnostic system. In combination with these applied magnetic fields, magnetic nanoparticles are used. In this paper, we present some of our most recent results in research towards a) microfluidic diagnostics using MR sensors and magnetic particles and b) single cell analysis using magnetic particles. We have successfully manipulated magnetically labeled bacteria and measured their response with integrated GMR sensors and we have also managed to separate magnetically labeled jurkat cells for single cell analysis. © 2015 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  16. Application of text mining in the biomedical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuren, Wilco W M; Alkema, Wynand

    2015-03-01

    In recent years the amount of experimental data that is produced in biomedical research and the number of papers that are being published in this field have grown rapidly. In order to keep up to date with developments in their field of interest and to interpret the outcome of experiments in light of all available literature, researchers turn more and more to the use of automated literature mining. As a consequence, text mining tools have evolved considerably in number and quality and nowadays can be used to address a variety of research questions ranging from de novo drug target discovery to enhanced biological interpretation of the results from high throughput experiments. In this paper we introduce the most important techniques that are used for a text mining and give an overview of the text mining tools that are currently being used and the type of problems they are typically applied for.

  17. Data science, learning, and applications to biomedical and health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Nabil R; Wieder, Robert; Ghosh, Debopriya

    2017-01-01

    The last decade has seen an unprecedented increase in the volume and variety of electronic data related to research and development, health records, and patient self-tracking, collectively referred to as Big Data. Properly harnessed, Big Data can provide insights and drive discovery that will accelerate biomedical advances, improve patient outcomes, and reduce costs. However, the considerable potential of Big Data remains unrealized owing to obstacles including a limited ability to standardize and consolidate data and challenges in sharing data, among a variety of sources, providers, and facilities. Here, we discuss some of these challenges and potential solutions, as well as initiatives that are already underway to take advantage of Big Data. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Nanoporous metal organic frameworks as hybrid polymer-metal composites for drug delivery and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, Sarwar; Rahman, Mahfoozur; Jain, Atul; Saini, Sumant; Midoux, Patrick; Pichon, Chantal; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; Akhter, Sohail

    2017-04-01

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs), porous hybrid polymer-metal composites at the nanoscale, are recent innovations in the field of chemistry; they are novel polymeric materials with diverse biomedical applications. MOFs are nanoporous materials, consisting of metal ions linked together by organic bridging ligands. The unique physical and chemical characteristics of MOFs have attracted wider attention from the scientific community, exploring their utility in the field of material science, biology, nanotechnology and drug delivery. The practical feasibility of MOFs is possible owing to their abilities for biodegradability, excellent porosity, high loading capacity, ease of surface modification, among others. In this regard, this review provides an account of various types of MOFs, their physiochemical characteristics and use in diverse disciplines of biomedical sciences - with special emphasis on drug delivery and theranostics. Moreover, this review also highlights the stability and toxicity issues of MOFs, along with their market potential for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Low pressure microfluidic-based DNA fragmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shui, Lingling; Sparreboom, Wouter; Bomer, Johan G.; Jin, Mingliang; Carlen, Edwin; van den Berg, Albert

    2011-01-01

    We report a low-pressure microfluidic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation device based on a combination of me-chanical hydrodynamic shearing and low temperature sample heating. Conventional DNA fragmentation based on hydrody-namic shearing is capable of achieving fragment lengths (FL) < 10k bp

  20. A Biomedical Application of Activated Carbon Adsorption: An Experiment Using Acetaminophen and N-Acetylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybolt, Thomas R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Illustrates an interesting biomedical application of adsorption from solution and demonstrates some of the factors that influence the in vivo adsorption of drug molecules onto activated charcoal. Uses acetaminophen and N-acetylcysteine for the determination. Suggests several related experiments. (MVL)

  1. TiNi shape memory alloy coated with tungsten : A novel approach for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Huafang; Zheng, Yufeng; Pei, Y. T.; de Hosson, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the use of DC magnetron sputtering tungsten thin films for surface modification of TiNi shape memory alloy (SMA) targeting for biomedical applications. SEM, AFM and automatic contact angle meter instrument were used to determine the surface characteristics of the tungsten thin fi

  2. Sol-gel-derived silicate nano-hybrids for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuru, Kanji; Shirosaki, Yuki; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Osaka, Akiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrids of poly(dimethyl siloxane), gelatin, and chitosan with such silanes as tetraethoxysilane and 3-glycidoxytriethoxysilane are derived via the sol-gel routes. Their biomedical applications are discussed from biomimetic deposition of bone-like apatite, cell culture, and in vivo behavior.

  3. Magnesium single crystals for biomedical applications grown in vertical Bridgman apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunke, Pravahan; Joshi, Madhura; Chaswal, Vibhor; Zhang, Guangqi; Rosenbaum, Leonard A.; Dowling, Kevin; Decker, Paul; Shanov, Vesselin

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes successful efforts to design, build, test, and utilize a single crystal apparatus using the Bridgman approach for directional solidification. The created instrument has been successfully tested to grow magnesium single crystals from melt. Preliminary mechanical tests carried out on these single crystals indicate unique and promising properties, which can be harnessed for biomedical applications.

  4. Filtration track membranes and their biomedical applications; Trekowe membrany filtracyjne oraz ich zastosowania biomedyczne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buczkowski, M.; Wawszczak, D.; Starosta, W. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    The characteristics of track filtration membranes has been performed. The investigation of radiation resistance has been carried out for different types of polymer foil used as a membrane material. Biomedical applications of track filtration membranes have been presented and discussed. 10 refs, 10 figs.

  5. Engineering ultrasmall water-soluble gold and silver nanoclusters for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhentao; Zheng, Kaiyuan; Xie, Jianping

    2014-05-25

    Gold and silver nanoclusters or Au/Ag NCs with core sizes smaller than 2 nm have been an attractive frontier of nanoparticle research because of their unique physicochemical properties such as well-defined molecular structure, discrete electronic transitions, quantized charging, and strong luminescence. As a result of these unique properties, ultrasmall size, and good biocompatibility, Au/Ag NCs have great potential for a variety of biomedical applications, such as bioimaging, biosensing, antimicrobial agents, and cancer therapy. In this feature article, we will first discuss some critical biological considerations, such as biocompatibility and renal clearance, of Au/Ag NCs that are applied for biomedical applications, leading to some design criteria for functional Au/Ag NCs in the biological settings. According to these biological considerations, we will then survey some efficient synthetic strategies for the preparation of protein- and peptide-protected Au/Ag NCs with an emphasis on our recent contributions in this fast-growing field. In the last part, we will highlight some potential biomedical applications of these protein- and peptide-protected Au/Ag NCs. It is believed that with continued efforts to understand the interactions of biomolecule-protected Au/Ag NCs with the biological systems, scientists can largely realize the great potential of Au/Ag NCs for biomedical applications, which could finally pave their way towards clinical use.

  6. Introduction to the Special Section on Biomedical Devices for Personal Health Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I-Ming CHEN

    2011-01-01

    @@ This Special Section of Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering (FME) is dedicated to the topic of Biomedical Devices for Personal Health Applications.To reflect the fast pace of development in this area of research, a number of special sessions were firstly organized in the 2010 IEEE International Conference on Robotics, Automation, and Mechatronics (RAM 2010) from 28 to 30 June 2010 in Singapore.

  7. Analytical techniques in biomedical stable isotope applications : (isotope ratio) mass spectrometry or infrared spectrometry?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellaard, F; Elzinga, H

    2005-01-01

    An overview is presented of biomedical applications of stable isotopes in general, but mainly focused on the activities of the Center for Liver, Digestive and Metabolic Diseases of the University Medical Center Groningen. The aims of metabolic studies in the areas of glucose, fat, cholesterol and

  8. Dendrimer-based organic/inorganic hybrid nanoparticles in biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mingwu; Shi, Xiangyang

    2010-09-01

    This review reports some recent advances on the synthesis, self-assembly, and biofunctionalization of various dendrimer-based organic/inorganic hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) for various biomedical applications, including but not limited to protein immobilization, gene delivery, and molecular diagnosis. In particular, targeted molecular imaging of cancer using dendrimer-based organic/inorganic hybrid NPs will be introduced in detail.

  9. ANTIMICROBIAL REAGENTS AS FUNCTIONAL FINISHING FOR TEXTILES INTENDED FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS. I. SYNTHETIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Zanoaga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers an overview of some contemporary antimicrobial (biocides and biostatics agents used as functional finishing for textiles intended for biomedical applications. It reviews only synthetic agents, namely quaternary ammonium compounds, halogenated phenols, polybiguanides, N-halamines, and renewable peroxides, as a part of an extensive study currently in progress.

  10. Synthesis and Biomedical Applications of Poly((meth)acrylic acid) Brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhenyuan; Xu, Hong; Gu, Hongchen

    2015-07-15

    Poly((meth)acrylic acid) (P(M)AA) brushes possess a number of distinctive properties that are particularly attractive for biomedical applications. This minireview summarizes recent advances in the synthesis and biomedical applications of P(M)AA brushes and brushes containing P(M)AA segments. First, we review different surface-initiated polymerization (SIP) methods, with a focus on recent progress in the surface-initiated controlled/living radical polymerization (SI-CLRP) techniques used to generate P(M)AA brushes with a tailored structure. Next, we discuss biomolecule immobilization methods for P(M)AA brushes, including physical adsorption, covalent binding, and affinity interactions. Finally, typical biomedical applications of P(M)AA brushes are reviewed, and their performance is discussed based on their unique properties. We conclude that P(M)AA brushes are promising biomaterials, and more potential biomedical applications are expected to emerge with the further development of synthetic techniques and increased understanding of their interactions with biological systems.

  11. Nanomaterials made of non-toxic metallic sulfides: A systematic review of their potential biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argueta-Figueroa, Liliana; Martínez-Alvarez, O; Santos-Cruz, J; Garcia-Contreras, R; Acosta-Torres, L S; de la Fuente-Hernández, J; Arenas-Arrocena, M C

    2017-07-01

    Metallic sulfides involve the chemical bonding of one or more sulfur atoms to a metal. Metallic sulfides are cheap, abundant semiconductor materials that can be used for several applications. However, an important and emerging use for non-toxic metallic sulfides in biomedical applications has arisen quickly in the medical field. In this systematic review, the available data from electronic databases were collected according to PRISMA alignments for systematic reviews. This review shows that these metallic sulfides could be promising for biomedical uses and applications. This systematic review is focused primarily on the following compounds: silver sulfide, copper sulfide, and iron sulfide. The aim of this review was to provide a quick reference on synthesis methods, biocompatibility, recent advances and perspectives, with remarks on future improvements. The toxicity of metallic sulfides depends directly on the cytotoxicity of their interactions with cells and tissues. Metallic sulfides have potential biomedical applications due to their antibacterial properties, uses in imaging and diagnostics, therapies such as photothermal therapy and chemotherapy in tumors and cancer cells, drug delivery and the fabrication of biosensors for the sensitive and selective detection of moieties, among others. Although current evidence about metallic sulfide NPs is promising, there are still several issues to be addressed before these NPs can be used in biomedicine. The current review is a brief but significant guide to metallic sulfides and their potential uses in the biomedical field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. TiNi shape memory alloy coated with tungsten : A novel approach for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Huafang; Zheng, Yufeng; Pei, Y. T.; de Hosson, Jeff

    This study explores the use of DC magnetron sputtering tungsten thin films for surface modification of TiNi shape memory alloy (SMA) targeting for biomedical applications. SEM, AFM and automatic contact angle meter instrument were used to determine the surface characteristics of the tungsten thin

  13. Nanosystems: the use of nanoalloys, metallic, bimetallic, and magnetic nanoparticles in biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Karrina; Tofail, Syed A M

    2015-11-14

    There is a growing interest in the use of nanosystems such as nanoalloys, bimetallic nanoparticles, metallic nanoparticles and magnetic nanoparticles in biomedical applications. These applications can be as diverse as hyperthermic treatments; targeted drug delivery; bio-imaging; cell labelling and gene delivery. The use of nanoalloys in these applications has received only limited attention due to the fact that there were many unanswered questions and concerns regarding nanoparticles and nanoalloys such as their stability over time, tendency to agglomerate, chemical activity, ease of oxidation, biocompatibility and cytotoxicity. In this chapter we survey current applications and advances in magnetic nanoparticles used in these biomedical applications so as to understand the materials properties that can pave the way for the use of nanoalloys as a potential alternative or improve solutions that are offered by current materials.

  14. Interface pressure sensor for IVRA and other biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, V; O'Sullivan, S; McEwen, J A

    2004-03-01

    The fabrication and testing of a minimally intrusive (2 mm high, 10 mm diameter) biomedical interface pressure sensor are described. Such sensors are needed for the implementation of improved safety features in the next generation of automated intravenous regional anaesthesia (IVRA) systems. The sensor utilizes a structured elastomer as a deflection element sandwiched between the plates of a parallel plate capacitor device. Simple mechanical modifications allow sensitivity and zero offset adjustment. The sensor is housed in a package machined from an engineering polymer. The device is easily calibrated using either a bench-top or an on-body calibration procedure. The device is particularly sensitive to cuff artefacts arising from variations in cuff-wrap tightness and folding of the cuff. As such, it offers some promise for detecting potential hazard conditions which can occur during conventional IVRA procedures. For the purpose of unit conversion, 1 Pa = 1 N/m2, 1 MPA = 1 N/mm2 and 40 kPa approximately equal to 300 mmHg.

  15. Surface parameters modification by multilayer coatings deposition for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zykova, A [Institute of Surface Engineering, 4 Zalutinskaya Str., Kharkov (Ukraine); Safonov, V [National Science Center, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, 1 Akademicheskaja Str., 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Virva, O; Luk' yanchenko, V [Institute of Spine and Joint Pathologies, 80 Pushkinskaya Str., 61024 Kharkov (Ukraine); Walkowich, J; Rogowska, R [Institute for Sustainable Technologies, National Research Institute, 6/10 K. Pulaskiego Str., Radom (Poland); Yakovin, S [Department of Physical Technologies, Kharkov National University, 31 Kurchatov Ave., Kharkov (Ukraine)], E-mail: zykov@bi.com.ua

    2008-05-01

    Studies are presented of the surface parameters of various multilayer coatings, namely, TiN, CrN, (Ti, Cr)N, TiN/TiC{sub 10}N{sub 90}, TiN/TiC{sub 20}N{sub 80} deposited by means of Arc-PVD on stainless steel (1H18N9), as well as of the same coatings with an additional Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering (RMS). The surface thickness, roughness and topography are estimated. Other parameters, such as the surface free energy (SFE) and fractional polarity are determined by means of the Wu and the Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Kaelble methods. Experiments are carried out on the in vitro cell/material interaction (in a fibroblasts culture) in order to determine the materials biomedical response. The results show some correlation between the surface properties and cell adhesion. The best biological response parameters (cell number, proliferation function, morphology) are obtained in the case of coatings with the highest values of the polar part component of the SFE and the fractional polarity, such as TiN, TiN/TiC{sub 10}N{sub 90} and oxide coatings.

  16. Functionality of porous silicon particles: Surface modification for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallach, D.; Recio Sanchez, G.; Munoz Noval, A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigaciones Biomedicas en Red, Biomateriales, Bioingenieria y Nanomedicina (CIBERbbn) (Spain); Manso Silvan, M., E-mail: miguel.manso@uam.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigaciones Biomedicas en Red, Biomateriales, Bioingenieria y Nanomedicina (CIBERbbn) (Spain); Ceccone, G. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission, 21020 Ispra (Italy); Martin Palma, R.J.; Torres Costa, V.; Martinez Duart, J.M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigaciones Biomedicas en Red, Biomateriales, Bioingenieria y Nanomedicina (CIBERbbn) (Spain)

    2010-05-25

    Porous silicon-based particles (PSps) with tailored physical and biological properties have recently attracted great attention given their biomedical potential. Within this context, the objective of the present work is to optimize the experimental parameters for the formation of biofunctional mesoporous PSps. Their functionality has been studied on the one hand by analyzing the fluorescence characteristics, such as tunable narrow band emission and fluorescence aging for PSps with different molecular capping. With regard to the biofunctional characteristics, two different molecular end-capping processes have been assayed: antifouling polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polar binding amino silanes (APTS), which were evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Both PEG and APTS binding to the particles could be confirmed from the analysis of Si 2p and C 1s XPS core level spectra. The finding that these PSp-molecule conjugates allow the reduction of fluorescence degradation with time in solution is of interest for the development of cellular or tissue markers. From the morphological point of view, PEG termination is of special interest allowing the PSps after an ultrasonic treatment to get spherical shapes in the micron scale. The functionality as solid state dyes is preliminarily evaluated by direct fluorescence imaging.

  17. Ion beam modification of surfaces for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommerfeld, Jana

    2014-07-15

    Human life expectancy increased significantly within the last century. Hence, medical care must ever be improved. Optimizing artificial replacements such as hip joints or stents etc. is of special interest. For this purpose, new materials are constantly developed or known ones modified. This work focused on the possibility to change the chemistry and topography of biomedically relevant materials such as diamond-like carbon (DLC) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) by means of ion beam irradiation. Mass-separated ion beam deposition was used in order to synthesize DLC layers with a high sp{sup 3} content (> 70%), a sufficiently smooth surface (RMS<1 nm) and a manageable film thickness (50 nm). The chemistry of the DLC layers was changed by ion beam doping with different ion species (Ag,Ti) and concentrations. Additionally, the surface topography of silicon and titanium dioxide was altered by ion beam irradiation under non-perpendicular angle of incidence. The created periodic wave structures (so-called ripples) were characterized and their dependency on the ion energy was investigated. Moreover, ripples on silicon were covered with a thin DLC layer in order to create DLC ripples. The biocompatibility of all samples was investigated by adsorption experiments. For this purpose, human plasma fibrinogen (HPF) was used due to its ambiphilic character, which allows the protein to assume different conformations on materials with different hydrophilicities. Moreover, HPF is a crucial factor in the blood coagulation process. This work comes to the conclusion that the interaction of both, the surface chemistry and topography, has a strong influence on the adsorption behavior of HPF and thus the biocompatibility of a material. Both factors can be specifically tuned by means of ion beam irradiation.

  18. Biomedical discovery acceleration, with applications to craniofacial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Sonia M; Tipney, Hannah; Feng, Weiguo; Baumgartner, William A; Kasliwal, Priyanka; Schuyler, Ronald P; Williams, Trevor; Spritz, Richard A; Hunter, Lawrence

    2009-03-01

    The profusion of high-throughput instruments and the explosion of new results in the scientific literature, particularly in molecular biomedicine, is both a blessing and a curse to the bench researcher. Even knowledgeable and experienced scientists can benefit from computational tools that help navigate this vast and rapidly evolving terrain. In this paper, we describe a novel computational approach to this challenge, a knowledge-based system that combines reading, reasoning, and reporting methods to facilitate analysis of experimental data. Reading methods extract information from external resources, either by parsing structured data or using biomedical language processing to extract information from unstructured data, and track knowledge provenance. Reasoning methods enrich the knowledge that results from reading by, for example, noting two genes that are annotated to the same ontology term or database entry. Reasoning is also used to combine all sources into a knowledge network that represents the integration of all sorts of relationships between a pair of genes, and to calculate a combined reliability score. Reporting methods combine the knowledge network with a congruent network constructed from experimental data and visualize the combined network in a tool that facilitates the knowledge-based analysis of that data. An implementation of this approach, called the Hanalyzer, is demonstrated on a large-scale gene expression array dataset relevant to craniofacial development. The use of the tool was critical in the creation of hypotheses regarding the roles of four genes never previously characterized as involved in craniofacial development; each of these hypotheses was validated by further experimental work.

  19. Biomedical discovery acceleration, with applications to craniofacial development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M Leach

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The profusion of high-throughput instruments and the explosion of new results in the scientific literature, particularly in molecular biomedicine, is both a blessing and a curse to the bench researcher. Even knowledgeable and experienced scientists can benefit from computational tools that help navigate this vast and rapidly evolving terrain. In this paper, we describe a novel computational approach to this challenge, a knowledge-based system that combines reading, reasoning, and reporting methods to facilitate analysis of experimental data. Reading methods extract information from external resources, either by parsing structured data or using biomedical language processing to extract information from unstructured data, and track knowledge provenance. Reasoning methods enrich the knowledge that results from reading by, for example, noting two genes that are annotated to the same ontology term or database entry. Reasoning is also used to combine all sources into a knowledge network that represents the integration of all sorts of relationships between a pair of genes, and to calculate a combined reliability score. Reporting methods combine the knowledge network with a congruent network constructed from experimental data and visualize the combined network in a tool that facilitates the knowledge-based analysis of that data. An implementation of this approach, called the Hanalyzer, is demonstrated on a large-scale gene expression array dataset relevant to craniofacial development. The use of the tool was critical in the creation of hypotheses regarding the roles of four genes never previously characterized as involved in craniofacial development; each of these hypotheses was validated by further experimental work.

  20. Design, fabrication, and operation of hybrid bionanodevices for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Robert Matthew

    Cells are the fundamental building blocks of life. Despite their simplicity, cells are extremely versatile, performing a variety of functions including detection, signaling, and repair. While current biomedical devices operate at the organ level, the next generation will operate at the cellular level, combining the nanoscale machinery of cells with the mechanical robustness of synthetic materials in the form of new hybrid devices. This thesis presents advances in four topics concerning the development of nanomedical devices: fabrication, stabilization, control, and operation. First, as feature sizes decrease from the milli- and microscale towards the nanoscale, new fabrication methods must be developed. A new rapid prototyping technique using confocal microscopy was used to produce freely-programmable high-resolution protein patterns of functional motor proteins on thermo-responsive polymer surfaces. Second, hybrid device operation should be temperature-independent, but most biological components have strong responses to temperature fluctuations. To counter operational fluctuations, the temperature-dependent enzymatic activity was characterized for two types of molecular motors with the goal of developing a bionanosystem which is stabilized against temperature fluctuations. Third, replacing electromechanical systems consisting of pumps and batteries with proteins that directly convert chemical potential into mechanical energy increases the efficiency and decreases the size of the bionanodevice, but requires new control methods. An enzymatic network was developed in which fuel was photolytically released to activate molecular shuttles, excess fuel was sequestered using an enzyme, and spatial and temporal control of the system was achieved. Finally, chemically powered bionanodevices will require high-precision nano- and microscale actuators. A two-part hybrid actuator was designed, which consists of a molecular motor-coated synthetic macroscale forcer and a

  1. Piezoelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducers in biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qifa; Lam, Kwok Ho; Zheng, Hairong; Qiu, Weibao; Shung, K. Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric single crystals, which have excellent piezoelectric properties, have extensively been employed for various sensors and actuators applications. In this paper, the state–of–art in piezoelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications is reviewed. Firstly, the basic principles and design considerations of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers will be addressed. Then, the popular piezoelectric single crystals used for ultrasonic transducer applications, including LiNbO...

  2. Synthesis, toxicity, biocompatibility, and biomedical applications of graphene and graphene-related materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2016-01-01

    Graphene is a two-dimensional atomic crystal, and since its development it has been applied in many novel ways in both research and industry. Graphene possesses unique properties, and it has been used in many applications including sensors, batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, transistors, components of high-strength machinery, and display screens in mobile devices. In the past decade, the biomedical applications of graphene have attracted much interest. Graphene has been reported to have antibacterial, antiplatelet, and anticancer activities. Several salient features of graphene make it a potential candidate for biological and biomedical applications. The synthesis, toxicity, biocompatibility, and biomedical applications of graphene are fundamental issues that require thorough investigation in any kind of applications related to human welfare. Therefore, this review addresses the various methods available for the synthesis of graphene, with special reference to biological synthesis, and highlights the biological applications of graphene with a focus on cancer therapy, drug delivery, bio-imaging, and tissue engineering, together with a brief discussion of the challenges and future perspectives of graphene. We hope to provide a comprehensive review of the latest progress in research on graphene, from synthesis to applications.

  3. Biomedical and Microbiological Applications of Bio-Based Porous Materials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. S. Udenni Gunathilake

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Extensive employment of biomaterials in the areas of biomedical and microbiological applications is considered to be of prime importance. As expected, oil based polymer materials were gradually replaced by natural or synthetic biopolymers due to their well-known intrinsic characteristics such as biodegradability, non-toxicity and biocompatibility. Literature on this subject was found to be expanding, especially in the areas of biomedical and microbiological applications. Introduction of porosity into a biomaterial broadens the scope of applications. In addition, increased porosity can have a beneficial effect for the applications which exploit their exceptional ability of loading, retaining and releasing of fluids. Different applications require a unique set of pore characteristics in the biopolymer matrix. Various pore morphologies have different characteristics and contribute different performances to the biopolymer matrix. Fabrication methods for bio-based porous materials more related to the choice of material. By choosing the appropriate combination of fabrication technique and biomaterial employment, one can obtain tunable pore characteristic to fulfill the requirements of desired application. In our previous review, we described the literature related to biopolymers and fabrication techniques of porous materials. This paper we will focus on the biomedical and microbiological applications of bio-based porous materials.

  4. Iron oxide nanoparticles - In vivo/in vitro biomedical applications and in silico studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedyalkova, Miroslava; Donkova, Borjana; Romanova, Julia; Tzvetkov, George; Madurga, Sergio; Simeonov, Vasil

    2017-05-03

    The review presents a broad overview of the biomedical applications of surface functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agents for sensitive and precise diagnosis tool and synergistic combination with other imaging modalities. Then, the recent progress in therapeutic applications, such as hyperthermia is discussed and the available toxicity data of magnetic nanoparticles concerning in vitro and in vivo biomedical applications are addressed. This review also presents the available computer models using molecular dynamics (MD), Monte Carlo (MC) and density functional theory (DFT), as a basis for a complete understanding of the behaviour and morphology of functionalized IONPs, for improving NPs surface design and expanding the potential applications in nanomedicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Extraction and Characterization of Collagen from Buffalo Skin for Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa A. Rizk; Nasser Y. Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Collagen is widely used for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications due to its excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and weak antigenicity. However, applicability is limited due to its high cost and probability of disease transmission from the current sources, which are bovine and porcine. In the present study, collagen was extracted from 6 months buffalo skins as alternative save sources. Collagen was characterized by different physico-chemical techniques like ATR-FTIR, Raman, SEM...

  6. Design, Microfabrication and Characterization of a Power Delivery System for new Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARUSO Massimo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, microfabrication and characterization of a wireless power delivery system capable of driving a surface acoustic wave sensor (SAW for biomedical applications. The system consists of two planar, spiral-square microcoils, which have been geometrically optimized in order to maximize the quality factor Q. The integration of the SAW - microcoil system into artificial implant sites will allow a real-time biofilm growth monitoring and treatment, providing countless advantages to the related medical applications.

  7. Polymers in regenerative medicine biomedical applications from nano- to macro-structures

    CERN Document Server

    Monleon Pradas, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical applications of Polymers from Scaffolds toNanostructures The ability of polymers to span wide ranges of mechanicalproperties and morph into desired shapes makes them useful for avariety of applications, including scaffolds, self-assemblingmaterials, and nanomedicines. With an interdisciplinary list ofsubjects and contributors, this book overviews the biomedicalapplications of polymers and focuses on the aspect of regenerativemedicine. Chapters also cover fundamentals, theories, and tools forscientists to apply polymers in the following ways: Matrix protein interactions with synthe

  8. Natural Polymers and their Application in Drug Delivery and Biomedical Field

    OpenAIRE

    Jana S; Gandhi A; Sen KK; Basu SK

    2011-01-01

    Biodegradable polymers are widely being studied as a potential carrier material for site specific drug delivery because of its non-toxic,biocompatible in nature. Natural polysaccharides have been investigated for drug delivery applications as well as in biomedical fields. Modified polymer has found its application as a support material for gene delivery, cell culture, and tissue engineering. Now a day, the polymer is being modified to obtain novel biomaterial for controlled drug delivery appl...

  9. Natural Polymers and their Application in Drug Delivery and Biomedical Field

    OpenAIRE

    Jana S; Gandhi A; Sen KK; Basu SK

    2011-01-01

    Biodegradable polymers are widely being studied as a potential carrier material for site specific drug delivery because of its non-toxic,biocompatible in nature. Natural polysaccharides have been investigated for drug delivery applications as well as in biomedical fields. Modified polymer has found its application as a support material for gene delivery, cell culture, and tissue engineering. Now a day, the polymer is being modified to obtain novel biomaterial for controlled drug delivery appl...

  10. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) based thermosensitive injectable hydrogels for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Amit; Ajazuddin; Khan, Junaid; Saraf, Swarnlata; Saraf, Shailendra

    2014-11-01

    Protein and peptide delivery by the use of stimuli triggered polymers remains to be the area of interest among the scientist and innovators. In-situ forming gel for the parenteral route in the form of hydrogel and implants are being utilized for various biomedical applications. The formulation of gel depends upon factors such as temperature modulation, pH changes, the presence of ions and ultra-violet irradiation, from which drug is released in a sustained and controlled manner. Among various stimuli triggered factors, thermoresponsive is the most potential one for the delivery of protein and peptides. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based copolymers play a crucial role as a biomedical material for biomedical applications, because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability, thermosensitivity and easy controlled characters. This review, stresses on the physicochemical property, stability and compositions prospects of smart thermoresponsive polymer specifically, PEG/Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) based thermoresponsive injectable hydrogels, recently utilized for biomedical applications. PEG-PNIPAAm based hydrogel exhibits good gelling mechanical strength and minimizes the initial burst effect of the drug. In addition, upon changing the composition and proportion of the copolymer molecular weight and ratio, the gelling time can be reduced to a great extent providing better sol-gel transition. The hydrogel formed by the same is able to release the drug over a long duration of time, meanwhile is also biocompatible and biodegradable. Manuscript will give the new researchers an idea about the potential and benefits of PNIPAAm based thermoresponsive hydrogels for the biomedical application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Low Pressure Nuclear Thermal Rocket (LPNTR) concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsthaler, J. H.

    1991-01-01

    A background and a description of the low pressure nuclear thermal system are presented. Performance, mission analysis, development, critical issues, and some conclusions are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: LPNTR's inherent advantages in critical NTR requirement; reactor trade studies; reference LPNTR; internal configuration and flow of preliminary LPNTR; particle bed fuel assembly; preliminary LPNTR neutronic study results; multiple LPNTR engine concept; tank and engine configuration for mission analysis; LPNTR reliability potential; LPNTR development program; and LPNTR program costs.

  12. Low-Pressure-Drop Shutoff Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornborrow, John

    1994-01-01

    Flapper valve remains open under normal flow conditions but closes upon sudden increases to high rate of flow and remains closed until reset. Valve is fluid/mechanical analog of electrical fuse or circuit breaker. Low-pressure-drop shutoff valve contains flapper machined from cylindrical surface. During normal flow conditions, flapper presents small cross section to flow. (Useful in stopping loss of fluid through leaks in cooling systems.)

  13. New optical tomographic & topographic techniques for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, Jan

    The mammalian middle ear contains the eardrum and the three auditory ossicles, and forms an impedance match between sound in air and pressure waves in the fluid of the inner ear. Without this intermediate system, with its unsurpassed efficiency and dynamic range, we would be practically deaf. Physics-based modeling of this extremely complex mechanical system is necessary to help our basic understanding of the functioning of hearing. Highly realistic models will make it possible to predict the outcome of surgical interventions and to optimize design of ossicle prostheses and active middle ear implants. To obtain such models and with realistic output, basic input data is still missing. In this dissertation I developed and used two new optical techniques to obtain two essential sets of data: accurate three-dimensional morphology of the middle ear structures, and elasticity parameters of the eardrum. The first technique is a new method for optical tomography of macroscopic biomedical objects, which makes it possible to measure the three-dimensional geometry of the middle ear ossicles and soft tissues which are connecting and suspending them. I made a new and high-resolution version of this orthogonal-plane fluorescence optical sectioning method, to obtain micrometer resolution in macroscopic specimens. The result is thus a complete 3-D model of the middle (and inner) ear of gerbil in unprecedented quality. On top of high-resolution morphological models of the middle ear structures, I applied the technique in other fields of research as well. The second device works according to a new optical profilometry technique which allows to measure shape and deformations of the eardrum and other membranes or objects. The approach is called projection moire profilometry, and creates moire interference fringes which contain the height information. I developed a setup which uses liquid crystal panels for grid projection and optical demodulation. Hence no moving parts are present and

  14. Spintronic microfluidic platform for biomedical and environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, F. A.; Martins, V. C.; Fonseca, L. P.; Germano, J.; Sousa, L. A.; Piedade, M. S.; Freitas, P. P.

    2010-09-01

    Faster, more sensitive and easy to operate biosensing devices still are a need at important areas such as biomedical diagnostics, food control and environmental monitoring. Recently, spintronic-devices have emerged as a promising alternative to the existent technologies [1-3]. A number of advantages, namely high sensitivity, easy integration, miniaturization, scalability, robustness and low cost make these devices potentially capable of responding to the existent technological need. In parallel, the field of microfluidics has shown great advances [4]. Microfluidic systems allow the analysis of small sample volumes (from micro- down to pico-liters), often by automate sample processing with the ability to integrate several steps into a single device (analyte amplification, concentration, separation and/or labeling), all in a reduced assay time (minutes to hours) and affordable cost. The merging of these two technologies, magnetoresistive biochips and microfluidics, will enable the development of highly competitive devices. This work reports the integration of a magnetoresistive biochip with a microfluidic system inside a portable and autonomous electronic platform aiming for a fully integrated device. A microfluidic structure fabricated in polydimethylsiloxane with dimensions of W: 0.5mm, H: 0.1mm, L: 10mm, associated to a mechanical system to align and seal the channel by pressure is presented (Fig. 1) [5]. The goal is to perform sample loading and transportation over the chip and simultaneously control the stringency and uniformity of the wash-out process. The biochip output is acquired by an electronic microsystem incorporating the circuitry to control, address and read-out the 30 spin-valve sensors sequentially (Fig. 1) [2]. This platform is being applied to the detection of water-borne microbial pathogens (e.g. Salmonella and Escherichia coli) and genetic diseases diagnosis (e.g. cystic fibrosis) through DNA hybridization assays. Open chamber measurements were

  15. Engineering of Brome mosaic virus for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ibrahim; Tsvetkova, Irina; Wen, Amy M.; Shukla, Sourabh; Masarapu, M. Hema; Dragnea, Bogdan; Steinmetz, Nicole F.

    2016-01-01

    Viral nanoparticles (VNPs) are becoming versatile tools in platform technology development. Their well-defined structures as well as their programmability through chemical and genetic modification allow VNPs to be engineered for potential imaging and therapeutic applications. In this article, we report the application of a variety of bioconjugation chemistries to the plant VNP Brome mosaic virus (BMV). Functional BMV nanoparticles displaying multiple copies of fluorescent dyes, PEG molecules, chemotherapeutic drug moieties, targeting proteins and cell penetrating peptides were formulated. This opens the door for the application of BMV in nanomedicine. PMID:28018580

  16. Synthesis and biomedical applications of copper sulfide nanoparticles: from sensors to theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Shreya; Chen, Feng; Cai, Weibo

    2014-02-26

    Copper sulfide (CuS) nanoparticles have attracted increasing attention from biomedical researchers across the globe, because of their intriguing properties which have been mainly explored for energy- and catalysis-related applications to date. This focused review article aims to summarize the recent progress made in the synthesis and biomedical applications of various CuS nanoparticles. After a brief introduction to CuS nanoparticles in the first section, we will provide a concise outline of the various synthetic routes to obtain different morphologies of CuS nanoparticles, which can influence their properties and potential applications. CuS nanoparticles have found broad applications in vitro, especially in the detection of biomolecules, chemicals, and pathogens which will be illustrated in detail. The in vivo uses of CuS nanoparticles have also been investigated in preclinical studies, including molecular imaging with various techniques, cancer therapy based on the photothermal properties of CuS, as well as drug delivery and theranostic applications. Research on CuS nanoparticles will continue to thrive over the next decade, and tremendous opportunities lie ahead for potential biomedical/clinical applications of CuS nanoparticles. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. 热一次风加热器与低压省煤器的联合应用%Combined application of hot primary air heater and low pressure economizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛宁; 印旭洋; 王春昌

    2015-01-01

    A hot primary air heater (HPAH)technology was introduced,which uses the heater installed on the hot primary air duct to heat condensation water,so the steam extraction amount can be reduced to in﹣crease the turbine's work ability,thus to save the energy.Moreover,the combined application of the HPAH and low pressure economizer (LPE)was studied,and the its application in a 600MW unit was designed and calculated.The results show that,the HPAH is suitable for units with large quantity of cool air,high ex﹣haust temperature and surplus pressure margin of primary draft fan.The energy conservation potential of the LPE is lower at low load,but the HPAH is on the contrary.The combined application of them can save net coal consumption rate by more than 3 g/(kW•h)at both low and high load.%介绍了一种热一次风加热器技术,该技术通过在热一次风道上增加换热设备,加热凝结水,利用凝结水回收热量,减少汽轮机抽汽量,增加汽轮机做功能力,实现节能。同时,对热一次风加热器与低压省煤器联合应用技术进行了研究,并对某600 MW 机组的联合应用方案进行了设计与计算。结果表明:热一次风加热器技术适用于制粉系统冷风量较大、排烟温度高且一次风机压力具有一定裕量的机组;低压省煤器技术在低负荷时节能潜力降低,而热风加热器技术随负荷降低,节能能力增强,两者联合应用方案在机组高、低负荷段均可节省供电煤耗3 g/(kW•h)以上,节能效果明显。

  18. Molecularly imprinted polymers for biomedical and biotechnological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, E. V.; Pyshnaya, I. A.; Martyanov, O. N.; Pyshnyi, D. V.

    2016-05-01

    This survey covers main advances in the preparation and application of molecularly imprinted polymers which are capable of specific recognition of biologically active compounds. The principles underlying the production of highly efficient and template-specific molecularly imprinted polymers are discussed. The focus is on the imprinting of highly structured macromolecular and supramolecular templates. The existing and potential applications of molecularly imprinted polymers in various fields of chemistry and molecular biology are considered. The bibliography includes 261 references.

  19. Flexible piezoelectric thin-film energy harvesters and nanosensors for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Geon-Tae; Byun, Myunghwan; Jeong, Chang Kyu; Lee, Keon Jae

    2015-04-02

    The use of inorganic-based flexible piezoelectric thin films for biomedical applications has been actively reported due to their advantages of highly piezoelectric, pliable, slim, lightweight, and biocompatible properties. The piezoelectric thin films on plastic substrates can convert ambient mechanical energy into electric signals, even responding to tiny movements on corrugated surfaces of internal organs and nanoscale biomechanical vibrations caused by acoustic waves. These inherent properties of flexible piezoelectric thin films enable to develop not only self-powered energy harvesters for eliminating batteries of bio-implantable medical devices but also sensitive nanosensors for in vivo diagnosis/therapy systems. This paper provides recent progresses of flexible piezoelectric thin-film harvesters and nanosensors for use in biomedical fields. First, developments of flexible piezoelectric energy-harvesting devices by using high-quality perovskite thin film and innovative flexible fabrication processes are addressed. Second, their biomedical applications are investigated, including self-powered cardiac pacemaker, acoustic nanosensor for biomimetic artificial hair cells, in vivo energy harvester driven by organ movements, and mechanical sensor for detecting nanoscale cellular deflections. At the end, future perspective of a self-powered flexible biomedical system is also briefly discussed with relation to the latest advancements of flexible electronics. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Integration of heterogeneous biomedical sensors into an ISO/IEEE 11073 compliant application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, A; Fico, G; Arredondo, M T; Salvi, D; Villalar, J L

    2010-01-01

    Current trends in healthcare technology include mobile-based applications. Relevant advances in the integration of vital signs monitoring devices with mobile platforms are widely reported nowadays. In this context, conceiving and designing an interoperable application is essential due to the growing necessity of integrating a huge and heterogeneous amount of biomedical data, coming from a wide range of devices and sensors. In this paper the key research issues associated with such integration are presented as well as a specific proposal to solve these problems. It is based on a middleware architecture for the integration of biomedical sensors with mobile devices, derived from the ISO/IEEE 11073 standards family. The application has been developed in the framework of an EU-funded R&D project called METABO.

  1. Fabrication of functional PLGA-based electrospun scaffolds and their applications in biomedical engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Wen, E-mail: wenzhao@nwpu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Space Biosciences and Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Li, Jiaojiao; Jin, Kaixiang; Liu, Wenlong [Key Laboratory for Space Biosciences and Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Qiu, Xuefeng [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Li, Chenrui [Key Laboratory for Space Biosciences and Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China)

    2016-02-01

    Electrospun PLGA-based scaffolds have been applied extensively in biomedical engineering, such as tissue engineering and drug delivery system. Due to lack of the recognition sites on cells, hydropholicity and single-function, the applications of PLGA fibrous scaffolds are limited. In order to tackle these issues, many works have been done to obtain functional PLGA-based scaffolds, including surface modifications, the fabrication of PLGA-based composite scaffolds and drug-loaded scaffolds. The functional PLGA-based scaffolds have significantly improved cell adhesion, attachment and proliferation. Moreover, the current study has summarized the applications of functional PLGA-based scaffolds in wound dressing, vascular and bone tissue engineering area as well as drug delivery system. - Highlights: • We summarize the strategies to functionalize PLGA-based electrospun scaffolds. • The applications of PLGA-based scaffolds in biomedical engineering are concluded. • The future challenges and opportunities of PLGA-based scaffolds are proposed.

  2. Quaternized Chitosan as an Antimicrobial Agent: Antimicrobial Activity, Mechanism of Action and Biomedical Applications in Orthopedics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziwei Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan (CS is a linear polysaccharide with good biodegradability, biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity, which makes it potentially useful for biomedical applications, including an antimicrobial agent either alone or blended with other polymers. However, the poor solubility of CS in most solvents at neutral or high pH substantially limits its use. Quaternary ammonium CS, which was prepared by introducing a quaternary ammonium group on a dissociative hydroxyl group or amino group of the CS, exhibited improved water solubility and stronger antibacterial activity relative to CS over an entire range of pH values; thus, this quaternary modification increases the potential biomedical applications of CS in the field of anti-infection. This review discusses the current findings on the antimicrobial properties of quaternized CS synthesized using different methods and the mechanisms of its antimicrobial actions. The potential antimicrobial applications in the orthopedic field and perspectives regarding future studies in this field are also considered.

  3. Biomedical Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles: Delivering Genes and Remote Control of Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Jon

    2013-03-01

    The use of magnetic micro- and nanoparticles for biomedical applications was first proposed in the 1920s as a way to measure the rehological properties of the cell's cytoplasm. Since that time, magnetic micro- and nanoparticle synthesis, coating and bio-functionalization have advanced significantly, as have the applications for these particles. Magnetic micro- and nanoparticles are now used in a variety of biomedical techniques such as targeted drug delivery, MRI contrast enhancement, gene transfection, immno-assay and cell sorting. More recently, magnetic micro- and nanoparticles have been used to investigate and manipulate cellular processes both in vitro and in vivo. This talk will focus on magnetic nanoparticle targeting to and actuation of cell surface receptors to control cell signaling cascades to control cell behavior. This technology has applications in disease therapy, cell engineering and regenerative medicine. The use of magnetic nanoparticles and oscillating magnet arrays for enhanced gene delivery will also be discussed.

  4. Rational engineering of physicochemical properties of nanomaterials for biomedical applications with nanotoxicological perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navya, P. N.; Daima, Hemant Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Innovative engineered nanomaterials are at the leading edge of rapidly emerging fields of nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. Meticulous synthesis, unique physicochemical properties, manifestation of chemical or biological moieties on the surface of materials make engineered nanostructures suitable for a variety of biomedical applications. Besides, tailored nanomaterials exhibit entirely novel therapeutic applications with better functionality, sensitivity, efficiency and specificity due to their customized unique physicochemical and surface properties. Additionally, such designer made nanomaterials has potential to generate series of interactions with various biological entities including DNA, proteins, membranes, cells and organelles at nano-bio interface. These nano-bio interactions are driven by colloidal forces and predominantly depend on the dynamic physicochemical and surface properties of nanomaterials. Nevertheless, recent development and atomic scale tailoring of various physical, chemical and surface properties of nanomaterials is promising to dictate their interaction in anticipated manner with biological entities for biomedical applications. As a result, rationally designed nanomaterials are in extensive demand for bio-molecular detection and diagnostics, therapeutics, drug and gene delivery, fluorescent labelling, tissue engineering, biochemical sensing and other pharmaceuticals applications. However, toxicity and risk associated with engineered nanomaterials is rather unclear or not well understood; which is gaining considerable attention and the field of nanotoxicology is evolving promptly. Therefore, this review explores current knowledge of articulate engineering of nanomaterials for biomedical applications with special attention on potential toxicological perspectives.

  5. Lignocellulosic Biomass Derived Functional Materials: Synthesis and Applications in Biomedical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Peng, Xinwen; Zhong, Linxin; Chua, Weitian; Xiang, Zhihua; Sun, Runcang

    2017-09-18

    The pertinent issue of resources shortage arising from global climate change in the recent years has accentuated the importance of materials that are environmental friendly. Despite the merits of current material like cellulose as the most abundant natural polysaccharide on earth, the incorporation of lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to value-add the recent development of cellulose-derivatives in drug delivery systems. Lignocellulosic biomass, with a hierarchical structure, comprised of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. As an excellent substrate that is renewable, biodegradable, biocompatible and chemically accessible for modified materials, lignocellulosic biomass sets forth a myriad of applications. To date, materials derived from lignocellulosic biomass have been extensively explored for new technological development and applications, such as biomedical, green electronics and energy products. In this review, chemical constituents of lignocellulosic biomass are first discussed before we critically examine the potential alternatives in the field of biomedical application. In addition, the pretreatment methods for extracting cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin from lignocellulosic biomass as well as their biological applications including drug delivery, biosensor, tissue engineering etc will be reviewed. It is anticipated there will be an increasing interest and research findings in cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin from natural resources, which help provide important directions for the development in biomedical applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Amperometric and impedance monitoring systems for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Punter-Villagrasa, Jaime; del Campo, Francisco J; Miribel, Pere

    2017-01-01

    The book presents the conception and realization of a pervasive electronic architecture for electrochemical applications, focusing on electronic instrumentation design and device development, particularly in electrochemical Point-of-Care and Lab-on-a-Chip devices, covering examples based on amperometric (DC) and impedance detection (AC) techniques. The presented electronics combine tailored front-end instrumentation and back-end data post-processing, enabling applications in different areas, and across a variety of techniques, analytes, transducers and environments. It addresses how the electronics are designed and implemented with special interest in the flow process: starting from electronic circuits and electrochemical biosensor design to a final validation and implementation for specific applications. Similarly, other important aspects are discussed throughout the book, such as electrochemical techniques, different analytes, targets, electronics reliability and robustness. The book also describes the use ...

  7. A special issue on reviews in biomedical applications of nanomaterials, tissue engineering, stem cells, bioimaging, and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalwa, Hari Singh

    2014-10-01

    This second special issue of the Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology in a series contains another 30 state-of-the-art reviews focused on the biomedical applications of nanomaterials, biosensors, bone tissue engineering, MRI and bioimaging, single-cell detection, stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, toxicity and biosafety of nanodrugs, nanoparticle-based new therapeutic approaches for cancer, hepatic and cardiovascular disease.

  8. Graphene-based nanomaterials for nanobiotechnology and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, K Vijaya; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Verma, Sandeep; Bianco, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Graphene family nanomaterials are currently being extensively explored for applications in the field of nanotechnology. The unique intrinsic properties treasured in their simple molecular design and their ability to work in coherence with other existing nanomaterials make graphene family nanomaterials the most promising candidates for different types of applications. This review highlights the scope and utility of these multifaceted nanomaterials in nanobiotechnology and biomedicine. In a tandem approach, this review presents the smooth inclusion of these nanomaterials into existing designs for creating efficient working models at the nanoscale level as well as discussing their broad future possibilities.

  9. Carbohydrate nanocarriers in biomedical applications: functionalization and construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Biao; Opatz, Till; Landfester, Katharina; Wurm, Frederik R

    2015-11-21

    The specific targeting of either tumor cells or immune cells in vivo by carefully designed and appropriately surface-functionalized nanocarriers may become an effective therapeutic treatment for a variety of diseases. Carbohydrates, which are prominent biomolecules, have shown their outstanding ability in balancing the biocompatibility, stability, biodegradability, and functionality of nanocarriers. The recent applications of sugar (mono/oligosaccharides and/or polysaccharides) for the development of nanomedicines are summarized in this review, including the application of carbohydrates for the surface-functionalization of various nanocarriers and for the construction of the nanocarrier itself. Current problems and challenges are also addressed.

  10. Porous titanium for biomedical applications : development, characterization and biological evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, JiaPing

    2007-01-01

    Metallic biomaterials have so far shown the greatest potential to be the basis of implants for long-term load-bearing orthopedic and dental applications, owing to their excellent mechanical strength when compared to alternative biomaterials, such as polymers and ceramics. Particularly titanium and i

  11. Micro- and nanofluidic devices for environmental and biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardeniers, Han; Berg, van den Albert

    2004-01-01

    During the last decade, an increasing amount of pocket-size chemistry equipment based on the so-called 'lab-on-a-chip'approach has become available. Besides the popular application in the analysis of biological macromolecules, such chips in combination with portable electronic equipment are applicab

  12. Micro and nanofluidic devices for environmental and biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; van den Berg, Albert

    2004-01-01

    During the last decade, an increasing amount of pocket-size chemistry equipment based on the so-called 'lab-on-a-chip'approach has become available. Besides the popular application in the analysis of biological macromolecules, such chips in combination with portable electronic equipment are

  13. Porous titanium for biomedical applications : development, characterization and biological evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li Jiaping, L.

    2007-01-01

    Metallic biomaterials have so far shown the greatest potential to be the basis of implants for long-term load-bearing orthopedic and dental applications, owing to their excellent mechanical strength when compared to alternative biomaterials, such as polymers and ceramics. Particularly titanium and i

  14. Biomedical applications and diagnostics of atmospheric pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Z. Lj; Puač, N.; Lazović, S.; Maletić, D.; Spasić, K.; Malović, G.

    2012-03-01

    Numerous applications of non-equilibrium (cold, low temperature) plasmas require those plasmas to operate at atmospheric pressure. Achieving non-equilibrium at atmospheric pressure is difficult since the ionization growth is very fast at such a high pressure. High degree of ionization on the other hand enables transfer of energy between electrons and ions and further heating of the background neutral gas through collisions between ions and neutrals. Thus, all schemes to produce non-equilibrium plasmas revolve around some form of control of ionization growth. Diagnostics of atmospheric pressure plasmas is difficult and some of the techniques cannot be employed at all. The difficulties stem mostly from the small size. Optical emission spectroscopy and laser absorption spectroscopy require very high resolution in order to resolve the anatomy of the discharges. Mass analysis is not normally applicable for atmospheric pressure plasmas, but recently systems with triple differential pumping have been developed that allow analysis of plasma chemistry at atmospheric pressures which is essential for numerous applications. Application of such systems is, however, not free from problems. Applications in biomedicine require minimum heating of the ambient air. The gas temperature should not exceed 40 °C to avoid thermal damage to the living tissues. Thus, plasmas should operate at very low powers and power control is essential. We developed unique derivative probes that allow control of power well below 1 W and studied four different sources, including dielectric barrier discharges, plasma needle, atmospheric pressure jet and micro atmospheric pressure jet. The jet operates in plasma bullet regime if proper conditions are met. Finally, we cover results on treatment of bacteria and human cells as well as treatment of plants by plasmas. Localized delivery of active species by plasmas may lead to a number of medical procedures that may also involve removal of bacteria, fungi and

  15. Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Eugene [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), B.Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation) and Forimtech S.A., Route de Malagnou 32, Geneva 1208 (Switzerland)]. E-mail: grigoriev@forimtech.ch; Akindinov, Alexander [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), B.Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Breitenmoser, Marco [Forimtech S.A., Route de Malagnou 32, Geneva 1208 (Switzerland); Buono, Stefano [Advanced Accelerator Applications S.A (AAA), 20 rue Diesel, 01630 St. Genis Pouilly (France); Charbon, Edoardo [Ecole Politechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), AQUA Group, Lausanne 1015 (Switzerland); Niclass, Cristiano [Ecole Politechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), AQUA Group, Lausanne 1015 (Switzerland); Desforges, Iris [Forimtech S.A., Route de Malagnou 32, Geneva 1208 (Switzerland); Rocca, Roberto [Advanced Accelerator Applications S.A (AAA), 20 rue Diesel, 01630 St. Genis Pouilly (France)

    2007-02-01

    Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) have been used for photon counting since the 1960s, but only in the recent decade multi-pixel structures based on SPAD-arrays and silicon photomultipliers have been developed. These devices are finding more and more applications in many fields, where detection of light at the level of a single photon is needed. Due to their exclusive properties (fast response, low operating voltage, single photon sensitivity at room temperature, extremely high gain, stability, compactness, robustness and low price), such sensors are successfully replacing traditional vacuum photomultipliers in many devices. The paper briefly describes the state of the art and suggests some new applications in biology and medicine.

  16. Bioinspired Nanoscale Materials for Biomedical and Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2014-05-01

    The demand of green, affordable and environmentally sustainable materials has encouraged scientists in different fields to draw inspiration from nature in developing materials with unique properties such as miniaturization, hierarchical organization, and adaptability. Together with the exceptional properties of nanomaterials, over the past century, the field of bioinspired nanomaterials has taken huge leaps. While on one hand, the sophistication of hierarchical structures endow biological systems with multifunctionality, the synthetic control on the creation of nanomaterials enables the design of materials with specific functionalities. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive, up-to-date overview of the field of bioinspired nanomaterials, which we have broadly categorized into biotemplates and biomimics. We will discuss the application of bioinspired nanomaterials as biotemplates in catalysis, nanomedicine, immunoassays and in energy, drawing attention to novel materials such as protein cages. Further, the applications of bioinspired materials in tissue engineering and biomineralization will also be discussed.

  17. Nanostructured Si-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, Julietta V., E-mail: giulietta.rau@ism.cnr.it [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100-00133 Rome (Italy); Fosca, Marco [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100-00133 Rome (Italy); Cacciotti, Ilaria [Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale,UR INSTM “Roma Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico, 1-00133 Rome (Italy); Laureti, Sara [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Salaria km 29.300-00016 Monterotondo Scalo (RM) (Italy); Bianco, Alessandra [Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale,UR INSTM “Roma Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico, 1-00133 Rome (Italy); Teghil, Roberto [Università della Basilicata, Dipartimento di Scienze, Via dell' Ateneo Lucano 10-85100, Potenza (Italy)

    2013-09-30

    In the present work, the Si-HAp coatings were deposited on titanium substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. For deposition, the Si-HAp targets (1.4 wt.% of Si), produced starting from wet synthesized powders, were used. The properties of coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and Vickers microhardness. The obtained Si-HAp coatings presented a nanosized structure, proper thickness and hardness for applications in orthopedical and dental surgery, aimed at improving the stability and the osteointegration of bone implants. - Highlights: ► Pulsed Laser Deposition method was applied to coat heated Titanium supports. ► Films were deposited using a target of Silicon-Hydroxyapatite sintered ceramics. ► Nanostructured crystalline hard film was grown replicating target composition. ► Prepared coating could be used for orthopedic and dental implants applications.

  18. Recent progress in biomedical applications of persistent luminescence nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Ma, Qinqin; Wang, Yingqian; Shen, Haijing; Yuan, Quan

    2017-05-18

    Persistent luminescence nanoparticles (PLNPs) are an emerging group of promising luminescent materials that can remain luminescent after the excitation ceases. In the past decade, PLNPs with intriguing optical properties have been developed and their applications in biomedicine have been widely studied. Due to the ultra-long decay time of persistent luminescence, autofluorescence interference in biosensing and bioimaging can be efficiently eliminated. Moreover, PLNPs can remain luminescent for hours, making them valuable in bio-tracing. Also, persistent luminescence imaging can guide cancer therapy with a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and superior sensitivity. Briefly, PLNPs are demonstrated to be a newly-emerging class of functional materials with unprecedented advantages in biomedicine. In this review, we summarized recent advances in the preparation of PLNPs and the applications of PLNPs in biosensing, bioimaging and cancer therapy.

  19. Biomedical technology transfer. Applications of NASA science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    Ongoing projects described address: (1) intracranial pressure monitoring; (2) versatile portable speech prosthesis; (3) cardiovascular magnetic measurements; (4) improved EMG biotelemetry for pediatrics; (5) ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration; (6) pediatric roentgen densitometry; (7) X-ray spatial frequency multiplexing; (8) mechanical impedance determination of bone strength; (9) visual-to-tactile mobility aid for the blind; (10) Purkinje image eyetracker and stabilized photocoalqulator; (11) neurological applications of NASA-SRI eyetracker; (12) ICU synthesized speech alarm; (13) NANOPHOR: microelectrophoresis instrument; (14) WRISTCOM: tactile communication system for the deaf-blind; (15) medical applications of NASA liquid-circulating garments; and (16) hip prosthesis with biotelemetry. Potential transfer projects include a person-portable versatile speech prosthesis, a critical care transport sytem, a clinical information system for cardiology, a programmable biofeedback orthosis for scoliosis a pediatric long-bone reconstruction, and spinal immobilization apparatus.

  20. Recent progresses in biomedical applications of aptamer-functionalized systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fei; Gao, Yangguang; He, Xianran

    2017-09-15

    Aptamers, known as "chemical antibodies" are screened via a combinational technology of systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Due to their specific targeting ability, high binding affinity, low immunogenicity and easy modification, aptamer-functionalized systems have been extensively applied in various fields and exhibit favorable results. However, there is still a long way for them to be commercialized, and few aptamer-functionalized systems have yet successfully entered clinical and industrial use. Thus, it is necessary to overview the recent research progresses of aptamer-functionalized systems for the researchers to improve or design novel and better aptamer-functionalized systems. In this review, we first introduce the recent progresses of aptamer-functionalized systems' applications in biosensing, targeted drug delivery, gene therapy and cancer cell imaging, followed by a discussion of the challenges faced with extensive applications of aptamer-functionalized systems and speculation of the future prospects of them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High-energy proton imaging for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prall, M.; Durante, M.; Berger, T.; Przybyla, B.; Graeff, C.; Lang, P. M.; Latessa, C.; Shestov, L.; Simoniello, P.; Danly, C.; Mariam, F.; Merrill, F.; Nedrow, P.; Wilde, C.; Varentsov, D.

    2016-06-01

    The charged particle community is looking for techniques exploiting proton interactions instead of X-ray absorption for creating images of human tissue. Due to multiple Coulomb scattering inside the measured object it has shown to be highly non-trivial to achieve sufficient spatial resolution. We present imaging of biological tissue with a proton microscope. This device relies on magnetic optics, distinguishing it from most published proton imaging methods. For these methods reducing the data acquisition time to a clinically acceptable level has turned out to be challenging. In a proton microscope, data acquisition and processing are much simpler. This device even allows imaging in real time. The primary medical application will be image guidance in proton radiosurgery. Proton images demonstrating the potential for this application are presented. Tomographic reconstructions are included to raise awareness of the possibility of high-resolution proton tomography using magneto-optics.

  2. Treatment of textile surfaces by plasma technology for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Labay, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Medical applications of technical textiles are an expanding field of research. One of the added values of these new materials would be that they were suitable to contain and release active compounds in a controlled and sustained manner. Drug incorporation and release from synthetic fibers is related to the interaction of the drug with the polymer and probably greatly depends on the surface chemistry of the fiber. Plasma technology is a tool that enables to modify physical and chemical prop...

  3. Piezoelectric films for high frequency ultrasonic transducers in biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qifa; Lau, Sienting; WU, DAWEI; Shung, K. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Piezoelectric films have recently attracted considerable attention in the development of various sensor and actuator devices such as nonvolatile memories, tunable microwave circuits and ultrasound transducers. In this paper, an overview of the state of art in piezoelectric films for high frequency transducer applications is presented. Firstly, the basic principles of piezoelectric materials and design considerations for ultrasound transducers will be introduced. Following the review, the curr...

  4. Biomedical applications of digital autoradiography with a MWPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellazzini, R.; Betti, G.; Del Guerra, A.; Massai, M.M.; Ragadini, M.; Spandre, G.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, R.; Zito, F.

    1982-05-01

    A Multiwire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) was used as a ..beta../sup -/ radioactivity detector in biological and medical applications. Two different kinds of experiments were performed: the study of variations in the ability of cell clones to incorporate a radioactive precursor of DNA biosynthesis (/sup 3/H-thymidine) and the regional carbohydrate consumption in myocardial tissue by means of a deposit tracer of glucose metabolism (/sup 3/H-deoxyglucose).

  5. In-situ gelling polymers for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the research involving in situ gelling polymers and can be used as a guidebook for academics, industrialists and postgraduates interested in this area. This work summaries the academic contributions from the top authorities in the field and explore the fundamental principles of in situ gelling polymeric networks, along with examples of their major applications. This book aims to provide an up-to-date resource of in situ gelling polymer research.

  6. Biomedical applications of digital autoradiography with a MWPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellazzini, R.; Betti, G.; Del Guerra, A.; Massai, M.M.; Ragadini, M.; Spandre, G.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, R.; Zito, F.

    1982-05-01

    A Multiwire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) was used as a ..beta../sup -/ radioactivity detector in biological and medical applications. Two different kinds of experiments were performed: the study of variations in the ability of cell clones to incorporate a radioactive precursor of DNA biosynthesis (/sup 3/H-thymidine) and the regional carbohydrate consumption in myocardial tissue by means of a deposit tracer of glucose metabolism (/sup 3/H-deoxyglucose).

  7. Light-Guided Surface Engineering for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayagopal, Ashwath; Stone, Gregory P.; Haselton, Frederick R.

    2010-01-01

    Free radical species generated through fluorescence photobleaching have been reported to effectively couple a water-soluble species to surfaces containing electron-rich sites (1). In this report, we expand upon this strategy to control the patterned attachment of antibodies and peptides to surfaces for biosensing and tissue engineering applications. In the first application, we compare hydrophobic attachment and photobleaching methods to immobilize FITC-labeled anti-M13K07 bacteriophage antibodies to the SiO2 layer of a differential capacitive biosensor and to the polyester filament of a feedback-controlled filament array. On both surfaces, antibody attachment and function were superior to the previously employed hydrophobic attachment. Furthermore, a laser scanning confocal microscope could be used for automated, software-guided photoattachment chemistry. In a second application, the cell-adhesion peptide RGDS was site-specifically photocoupled to glass coated with fluorescein-conjugated poly(ethylene glycol). RGDS attachment and bioactivity were characterized by a fibroblast adhesion assay. Cell adhesion was limited to sites of RGDS photocoupling. These examples illustrate that fluorophore-based photopatterning can be achieved by both solution-phase fluorophores or surface-adhered fluorophores. The coupling preserves the bioactivity of the patterned species, is amenable to a variety of surfaces, and is readily accessible to laboratories with fluorescence imaging equipment. The flexibility offered by visible light patterning will likely have many useful applications in bioscreening and tissue engineering where the controlled placement of biomolecules and cells is critical, and should be considered as an alternative to chemical coupling methods. PMID:18314938

  8. Piezoelectric films for high frequency ultrasonic transducers in biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qifa; Lau, Sienting; Wu, Dawei; Shung, K Kirk

    2011-02-01

    Piezoelectric films have recently attracted considerable attention in the development of various sensor and actuator devices such as nonvolatile memories, tunable microwave circuits and ultrasound transducers. In this paper, an overview of the state of art in piezoelectric films for high frequency transducer applications is presented. Firstly, the basic principles of piezoelectric materials and design considerations for ultrasound transducers will be introduced. Following the review, the current status of the piezoelectric films and recent progress in the development of high frequency ultrasonic transducers will be discussed. Then details for preparation and structure of the materials derived from piezoelectric thick film technologies will be described. Both chemical and physical methods are included in the discussion, namely, the sol-gel approach, aerosol technology and hydrothermal method. The electric and piezoelectric properties of the piezoelectric films, which are very important for transducer applications, such as permittivity and electromechanical coupling factor, are also addressed. Finally, the recent developments in the high frequency transducers and arrays with piezoelectric ZnO and PZT thick film using MEMS technology are presented. In addition, current problems and further direction of the piezoelectric films for very high frequency ultrasound application (up to GHz) are also discussed.

  9. Conductive polymer-based sensors for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Shruti; Yeow, John T W

    2011-01-15

    A class of organic polymers, known as conducting polymers (CPs), has become increasingly popular due to its unique electrical and optical properties. Material characteristics of CPs are similar to those of some metals and inorganic semiconductors, while retaining polymer properties such as flexibility, and ease of processing and synthesis, generally associated with conventional polymers. Owing to these characteristics, research efforts in CPs have gained significant traction to produce several types of CPs since its discovery four decades ago. CPs are often categorised into different types based on the type of electric charges (e.g., delocalized pi electrons, ions, or conductive nanomaterials) responsible for conduction. Several CPs are known to interact with biological samples while maintaining good biocompatibility and hence, they qualify as interesting candidates for use in a numerous biological and medical applications. In this paper, we focus on CP-based sensor elements and the state-of-art of CP-based sensing devices that have potential applications as tools in clinical diagnosis and surgical interventions. Representative applications of CP-based sensors (electrochemical biosensor, tactile sensing 'skins', and thermal sensors) are briefly discussed. Finally, some of the key issues related to CP-based sensors are highlighted.

  10. The Potential of Liquid Marbles for Biomedical Applications: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Nuno M; Reis, Rui L; Mano, João F

    2017-08-10

    Liquid marbles (LM) are freestanding droplets covered by micro/nanoparticles with hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties, which can be manipulated as a soft solid. The phenomenon that generates these soft structures is regarded as a different method to generate a superhydrophobic behavior in the liquid/solid interface without modifying the surface. Several applications for the LM have been reported in very different fields, however the developments for biomedical applications are very recent. At first, the LM properties are reviewed, namely shell structure, LM shape, evaporation, floatability and robustness. The different strategies for LM manipulation are also described, which make use of magnetic, electrostatic and gravitational forces, ultraviolet and infrared radiation, and approaches that induce LM self-propulsion. Then, very distinctive applications for LM in the biomedical field are presented, namely for diagnostic assays, cell culture, drug screening and cryopreservation of mammalian cells. Finally, a critical outlook about the unexplored potential of LM for biomedical applications is presented, suggesting possible advances on this emergent scientific area. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications: Emerging Trends and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimene, David; Alge, Daniel L; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2015-12-02

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials are ultrathin nanomaterials with a high degree of anisotropy and chemical functionality. Research on 2D nanomaterials is still in its infancy, with the majority of research focusing on elucidating unique material characteristics and few reports focusing on biomedical applications of 2D nanomaterials. Nevertheless, recent rapid advances in 2D nanomaterials have raised important and exciting questions about their interactions with biological moieties. 2D nanoparticles such as carbon-based 2D materials, silicate clays, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and transition metal oxides (TMOs) provide enhanced physical, chemical, and biological functionality owing to their uniform shapes, high surface-to-volume ratios, and surface charge. Here, we focus on state-of-the-art biomedical applications of 2D nanomaterials as well as recent developments that are shaping this emerging field. Specifically, we describe the unique characteristics that make 2D nanoparticles so valuable, as well as the biocompatibility framework that has been investigated so far. Finally, to both capture the growing trend of 2D nanomaterials for biomedical applications and to identify promising new research directions, we provide a critical evaluation of potential applications of recently developed 2D nanomaterials.

  12. Biomedical and environmental applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Unnikrishnan; K S Choudhari; Suresh D Kulkarni; Rajesh Nayak; V B Kartha; C Santhosh; B M Suri

    2014-02-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging analytical technique with numerous advantages such as rapidity, multi-elemental analysis, minimal sample preparation, minimal destruction, low cost and versatility of being applied to a wide range of materials. In this paper, we report the preliminary observations we obtained using LIBS for clinical and environmental samples. Elemental analysis has been done qualitatively in human teeth samples which show encouraging results. It has also been demonstrated in this paper that LIBS can be very well utilized in field applications such as plastic waste sorting and recycling.

  13. An approach to design new coatings for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    El-Hadad, Amir Abdel-Samie

    2012-01-01

    Ti6Al4V alloy is widely used as implants for orthopedic and dental applications because of its superior mechanical properties, excellent corrosion resistance and good biocompatibility. However, it takes long period of several months for Ti6Al4V implants to integrate with the bone tissue due to their bio-inert feature in nature. An innovating and incipient method to solve the above mentioned drawbacks consist of the development of new coatings which could improve both the biological and corros...

  14. Light-emitting diodes - Their potential in biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Naichia Gary; Wu, Chia-Hao [College of Applied Sciences, MingDao University, 369 Wen-Hua Road, Peetou, Changhua 52345 (China); Cheng, Ta Chih [Department of Tropical Agriculture and International Cooperation, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1 Hseuh-Fu Rd., Nei-Pu Hsiang, Pingtung 91201 (China)

    2010-10-15

    The rapid development of high brightness light-emitting diodes (LEDs) makes feasible the use of LEDs, among other light sources (such as laser, intense pulse light and other incoherent light systems), for medical treatment and light therapy. This paper provides a general review on red, green, blue, ultraviolet LED applications in photo rejuvenation and medical treatments of a variety of physical abnormalities, as well as the relief of stress, circadian rhythm disorders, and seasonal affective disorder. The review, concentrated in the papers published after 1990, intends to show that LEDs are well qualified to succeed its more energy demanding counterparts in the named areas and beyond. (author)

  15. Preparation of animal polysaccharides nanofibers by electrospinning and their potential biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen; Liu, Wenlong; Li, Jiaojiao; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Ying

    2015-02-01

    Animal polysaccharides belong to a class of biological macromolecules. They are natural biopolymers with numerous advantages for biomedical applications, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-antigenicity and non-toxicity. Electrospinning is a versatile and facile technique which can produce continuous fibers with nanoscale from a wide range of natural and synthetic polymers. The review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the preparation of animal polysaccharides nanofibers by electrospinning and their potential biomedical applications such as tissue engineering, wound healing, and drug delivery. Various animal polysaccharides including chitin and chitosan (CS), hyaluronic acid (HA), heparin and heparan sulfate (HS), and chondroitin sulfate (ChS), are discussed. The challenges and some useful strategies in electrospinning of animal polysaccharides also are summarized. In addition, future study of animal polysaccharides nanofibers by electrospinning is proposed.

  16. Raman and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafft, Christoph; Dietzek, Benjamin; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, Jürgen

    2012-04-01

    A tutorial article is presented for the use of linear and nonlinear Raman microspectroscopies in biomedical diagnostics. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is the most frequently applied nonlinear variant of Raman spectroscopy. The basic concepts of Raman and CARS are introduced first, and subsequent biomedical applications of Raman and CARS are described. Raman microspectroscopy is applied to both in-vivo and in-vitro tissue diagnostics, and the characterization and identification of individual mammalian cells. These applications benefit from the fact that Raman spectra provide specific information on the chemical composition and molecular structure in a label-free and nondestructive manner. Combining the chemical specificity of Raman spectroscopy with the spatial resolution of an optical microscope allows recording hyperspectral images with molecular contrast. We also elaborate on interfacing Raman spectroscopic tools with other technologies such as optical tweezing, microfluidics and fiber optic probes. Thereby, we aim at presenting a guide into one exciting branch of modern biophotonics research.

  17. Chitosan functionalized poly(vinyl alcohol) for prospects biomedical and industrial applications: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Ammara; Mahmood Zia, Khalid; Zuber, Mohammad; Tabasum, Shazia; Rehman, Saima

    2016-06-01

    Chitin and chitosan are amino polysaccharides having multidimensional properties, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, antibacterial properties and non-toxicity, muco-adhesivity, adsorption properties, etc., and thus they can be widely used in variety of areas. Although human history mainly relies on the biopolymers, however synthetic materials like polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) have good mechanical, chemical and physical properties. Functionalization of PVA with chitin and chitosan is considered very appropriate for the development of well-designed biomaterials such as biodegradable films, for membrane separation, for tissue engineering, for food packaging, for wound healing and dressing, hydro gels formation, gels formation, etc. Considering versatile properties of the chitin and chitosan, and wide industrial and biomedical applications of PVA, this review sheds a light on chitin and chitosan based PVA materials with their potential applications especially focusing the bio-medical field. All the technical scientific issues have been addressed highlighting the recent advancement.

  18. Biomedical Applications of Quantum Dots, Nucleic Acid-Based Aptamers, and Nanostructures in Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshik, Xenia; Farid, Sidra; Choi, Min; Lan, Yi; Mukherjee, Souvik; Datta, Debopam; Dutta, Mitra; Stroscio, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    This review is a survey of the biomedical applications of semiconductor quantum dots, nucleic acid-based aptamers, and nanosensors as molecular biosensors. It focuses on the detection of analytes in biomedical applications using (1) advances in molecular beacons incorporating semiconductor quantum dots and nanoscale quenching elements; (2) aptamer-based nanosensors on a variety of platforms, including graphene; (3) Raman scattering and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using nanostructures for enhanced SERS spectra of biomolecules, including aptamers; and (4) the electrical and optical properties of nanostructures incorporated into molecular beacons and aptamer-based nanosensors. Research done at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) is highlighted throughout since it emphasizes the specific approaches taken by the bioengineering department at UIC.

  19. Mechanical characterization of Ti-12Mo-13Nb alloy for biomedical application hot swaged and aged

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, Sinara Borborema; Rezende, Monica Castro; Almeida, Luiz Henrique de, E-mail: sinara@metalmat.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais; Dille, Jean [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium); Mei, Paulo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica; Baldan, Renato; Nunes, Carlos Angelo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2015-07-01

    Beta titanium alloys were developed for biomedical applications due to the combination of its mechanical properties including low elasticity modulus, high strength, fatigue resistance, good ductility and with excellent corrosion resistance. With this perspective a metastable beta titanium alloy Ti-12Mo-13Nb was developed with the replacement of both vanadium and aluminum from the traditional alloy Ti-6Al-4V. This paper presents the microstructure, mechanical properties of the Ti-12Mo-13Nb hot swaged and aged at 500 deg C for 24 h under high vacuum and then water quenched. The alloy structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Tensile tests were carried out at room temperature. The results show a microstructure consisting of a fine dispersed α phase in a β matrix and good mechanical properties including low elastic modulus. The results indicate that Ti-12Mo-13Nb alloy can be a promising alternative for biomedical application. (author)

  20. Designed synthesis and surface engineering strategies of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Jiang, Chang Zhong; Roy, Vellaisamy A L

    2016-12-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) hold great promise for future biomedical applications because of their magnetic properties as well as other intrinsic properties such as low toxicity, colloidal stability, and surface engineering capability. Numerous related studies on iron oxide NPs have been conducted. Recent progress in nanochemistry has enabled fine control over the size, crystallinity, uniformity, and surface properties of iron oxide NPs. This review examines various synthetic approaches and surface engineering strategies for preparing naked and functional iron oxide NPs with different physicochemical properties. Growing interest in designed and surface-engineered iron oxide NPs with multifunctionalities was explored in in vitro/in vivo biomedical applications, focusing on their combined roles in bioseparation, as a biosensor, targeted-drug delivery, MR contrast agents, and magnetic fluid hyperthermia. This review outlines the limitations of extant surface engineering strategies and several developing strategies that may overcome these limitations. This study also details the promising future directions of this active research field.

  1. The Potential of Magnesium Alloys as Bioabsorbable/ Biodegradable Implants for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Živić

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential of magnesium alloys as bioabsorbable / biodegradable implants for biomedical applications has been extensively studied as emerging direction. This paper gives a review of current topics in this field. Research activities related to biomedical magnesium alloys have been pursued in two main directions, orthopedic and cardiovascular implants, by investigating different aspects of alloying system design, novel structures, degradation rate control, and surface modification methods. Magnesium alloys are currently considered for applications as load-bearing implant devices such as plates, screws and pins for repairing bone fracture. Highly important direction of research is degradable coronary stents. Degradable vessel stents promote stable vessel regeneration, unlike permanent stents. Different combinations of alloying elements have been investigated in order to decrease corrosion rate.Tribological issues are also important for understanding of different phenomenon related to prolongation of Mg alloys corrosion degradation time/rate, such as tribocorrosion, corrosion fatigue, and fatigue crack growth behavior.

  2. Hydroxyapatite/alumina nanocrystalline composite powders synthesized by sol-gel process for biomedical applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Khorsand; M.H.Fathi; S.Salehi; S.Amirkhanlou

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite/alumina nanocrystalline composite powders needed for various biomedical applications were successfully synthe-sized by sol-gel process. Structural and morphological investigations of the prepared composite powders were performed using X-ray dif-fractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X'Pert HighScore software, and Clemex Vision image analysis software. The re-sults show that the crystallite size of the obtained composite powders is in the range of 25 to 90 nm. SEM evaluation shows that the obtained composite powders have a porous structure, which is very useful for biomedical applications. The spherical nanoparticles in the range of 60 to 800 nm are embedded in the agglomerated clusters of the prepared composite powders.

  3. Recent Advances of Graphene-based Hybrids with Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegret, Nuria; Criado, Alejandro; Prato, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of graphene-based nanomaterials combined with magnetic nanoparticles offers key benefits in the modern biomedicine. In this minireview, we focus on the most recent advances in hybrids of magnetic graphene derivatives for biomedical applications. We initially analyze the several methodologies employed for the preparation of graphene-based composites with magnetic nanoparticles, more specifically the kind of linkage between the two components. In the last section, we focus on the biomedical applications where these magnetic-graphene hybrids are essential and pay special attention on how the addition of graphene improves the resulting devices in magnetic resonance imaging, controlled drug delivery, magnetic photothermal therapy and cellular separation and isolation. Finally, we highlight the use of these magnetic hybrids as multifunctional material that will lead to a next generation of theranostics. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Highly fluorescent and superparamagnetic nanosystem for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Mariana P.; E Cabral Filho, Paulo; Silva, Camila M. C. M.; Oliveira, Rita M.; Geraldes, Carlos F. G. C.; Castro, M. Margarida C. A.; Costa, Benilde F. O.; Henriques, Marta S. C.; Paixão, José A.; Carvalho, Luiz B., Jr.; Santos, Beate S.; Hallwass, Fernando; Fontes, Adriana; Pereira, Giovannia A. L.

    2017-07-01

    This work reports on highly fluorescent and superparamagnetic bimodal nanoparticles (BNPs) obtained by a simple and efficient method as probes for fluorescence analysis and/or contrast agents for MRI. These promising BNPs with small dimensions (ca. 17 nm) consist of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) covalently bound with CdTe quantum dots (ca. 3 nm). The chemical structure of the magnetic part of BNPs is predominantly magnetite, with minor goethite and maghemite contributions, as shown by Mössbauer spectroscopy, which is compatible with the x-ray diffraction data. Their size evaluation by different techniques showed that the SPION derivatization process, in order to produce the BNPs, does not lead to a large size increase. The BNPs saturation magnetization, when corrected for the organic content of the sample, is ca. 68 emu g-1, which is only slightly reduced relative to the bare nanoparticles. This indicates that the SPION surface functionalization does not change considerably the magnetic properties. The BNP aqueous suspensions presented stability, high fluorescence, high relaxivity ratio (r 2/r 1 equal to 25) and labeled efficiently HeLa cells as can be seen by fluorescence analysis. These BNP properties point to their applications as fluorescent probes as well as negative T 2-weighted MRI contrast agents. Moreover, their potential magnetic response could also be used for fast bioseparation applications.

  5. Biomedical photonics handbook biomedical diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    Shaped by Quantum Theory, Technology, and the Genomics RevolutionThe integration of photonics, electronics, biomaterials, and nanotechnology holds great promise for the future of medicine. This topic has recently experienced an explosive growth due to the noninvasive or minimally invasive nature and the cost-effectiveness of photonic modalities in medical diagnostics and therapy. The second edition of the Biomedical Photonics Handbook presents fundamental developments as well as important applications of biomedical photonics of interest to scientists, engineers, manufacturers, teachers, studen

  6. Optical depth sectioning in self-mixing lasers for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Cabedo Bru, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Illumination in scattering media provides a general means to provide optical diagnosis in a noninvasive, painless and low cost approach, which has pushed forward the interest of the field both in biomedical and industrial applications. Several biophotonics techniques are based on the use of the therapeutic window of skin, where diffusion of light is dominant and the classical geometrical optics approach gets lost, with only radiometric methods being valid in practice. A comparable analysis is...

  7. Superhydrophobic surfaces produced using natural silica-based structures with potential for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Nuno M.; Reis, R. L.; Mano, J. F.

    2013-01-01

    Publicado em "Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine", vol. 17, supp. 1 (2013) Superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS) are characterized for exhibit extreme water repellency. Where water droplets roll easily and have a contact angle higher than 150º. The inspiration to produce artificial SHS comes from nature, the Lotus leaf. Hierarchical surface topographies at micro/nanoscale are critical for this effect. On biomedical and tissue engineering fields several applications for SHS h...

  8. Highly Efficient Bienzyme Functionalized Nanocomposite-Based Microfluidics Biosensor Platform for Biomedical Application

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Azahar Ali; Saurabh Srivastava; Solanki, Pratima R.; Venu Reddy; Ved V. Agrawal; CheolGi Kim; Renu John; Malhotra, Bansi D.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the fabrication of a novel microfluidics nanobiochip based on a composite comprising of nickel oxide nanoparticles (nNiO) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), as well as the chip's use in a biomedical application. This nanocomposite was integrated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannels, which were constructed using the photolithographic technique. A structural and morphological characterization of the fabricated microfluidics chip, which was functionalized ...

  9. Advanced manufacturing of ceramics for biomedical applications: Subjection methods for biocompatible materials

    OpenAIRE

    Minguella Canela, Joaquim; Cuiñas, D; Uceda, Roger; Rodríguez, J. V.; Vivancos Calvet, Joan

    2013-01-01

    The continuously growing utilization of ceramic compounds in the field of medicine, industry and aerospace, among others, imply a high degree of specialization in terms of the material properties and functionalization due to the diversity of the requirements of the ceramic parts. The necessity of lightweight final parts with suitable surface properties oriented to biomedic applications demands innovative ceramic compounds whose machining is, in many cases, considerably difficult due to the fr...

  10. Optical coherence tomography: technology and applications (biological and medical physics, biomedical engineering)

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is the optical analog of ultrasound imaging and is emerging as a powerful imaging technique that enables non-invasive, in vivo, high resolution, cross-sectional imaging in biological tissue. This book introduces OCT technology and applications not only from an optical and technological viewpoint, but also from biomedical and clinical perspectives. The chapters are written by leading research groups, in a style comprehensible to a broad audience.

  11. Frontiers in biomaterials the design, synthetic strategies and biocompatibility of polymer scaffolds for biomedical application

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Shunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Frontiers in Biomaterials: The Design, Synthetic Strategies and Biocompatibility of Polymer Scaffolds for Biomedical Application, Volume 1" highlights the importance of biomaterials and their interaction with biological system. The need for the development of biomaterials as scaffold for tissue regeneration is driven by the increasing demands for materials that mimic functions of extracellular matrices of body tissues.This ebook covers the latest challenges on the biocompatibility of scaffold overtime after implantation and discusses the requirement of innovative technologies and strategies f

  12. Biologically Inspired Design of Biocompatible Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Demirer, Gözde S.; Okur, Aysu C; Kızılel, Seda

    2015-01-01

    During the last couple of decades considerable research efforts have been directed towards the synthesis and coating of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) for biomedical applications. To address the current limitations, recent studies have focused on the design of new generation nanoparticle systems whose internalization and targeting capabilities have been improved through surface modifications. This review covers the most recent challenges and advances in the development of IONPs with enhance...

  13. PLA/chitosan/keratin composites for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanase, Constantin Edi, E-mail: etanase@live.com [Faculty of Medical Bioengineering, ‘Grigore T. Popa’ University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 9-13 Kogalniceanu Street, 700454 Iasi (Romania); Spiridon, Iuliana [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania)

    2014-07-01

    Novel composites based on PLA, chitosan and keratin was obtained via blend preparation. The goal of this contribution was to evaluate mechanical and in vitro behavior of the composites. The results point out composites with improved Young modulus and decreased tensile strength, significant increase in hardness (compared to PLA) and a good uptake of the surface properties. Biological assessments using human osteosarcoma cell line on these composites indicate a good viability/proliferation outcome. Hence preliminary results regarding mechanical behavior and in vitro osteoblast response suggest that these composites might have prospective application in medical field. - Highlights: • PLA, chitosan and keratin composites are prepared by blend preparation. • PLA, chitosan and keratin composites present improved mechanical properties and water uptake compare to PLA. • PLA, chitosan and keratin composites present good in vitro behavior.

  14. A THz heterodyne instrument for biomedical imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Peter H.

    2004-01-01

    An ultra-wide-dynamic-range heterodyne imaging system operating at 2.5 THz is described. The instrument employs room temperature Schottky barrier diode mixers and far infrared gas laser sources developed for NASA space applications. A dynamic range of over 100dB at fixed intermediate frequencies has been realized. Amplitude/phase tracking circuitry results in stability of 0.02 dB and +-2 degrees of phase. The system is being employed to characterize biological (human and animal derived tissues) and a variety of materials of interest to NASA. This talk will describe the instrument and some of the early imaging experiments on everything from mouse tail to aerogel.

  15. Silver nanoparticles in X-ray biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattea, Facundo; Vedelago, José; Malano, Francisco; Gomez, Cesar; Strumia, Miriam C.; Valente, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    The fluorescence of silver nanoparticles or ions can be used for detection and dose enhancement purposes in X-ray irradiation applications. This study is focused on the full integration of the chemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles suitable for dosimetric and radiological purposes with characteristics that can be exploited in radiotherapy and radiodiagnostic. A narrow size distribution and a compatible stabilizing agent is often desired in order to obtain homogeneous behaviors in nanoparticle suspension. With the method proposed in this study, nanoparticles ranging from 5 to 20 nm were obtained. The fluorescence of aqueous suspensions of silver nanoparticles has been measured experimentally and simulated with the Monte Carlo PENELOPE code for different silver concentrations and geometrical configurations. Finally, the feasibility of using these nanoparticles for the elaboration of Fricke gel dosimeters has been tested obtaining a dose enhancement when compared with the same material irradiated below the silver K-edge.

  16. Microarrays—Current and Future Applications in Biomedical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Certa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Microarrays covers research where microarrays are applied to address complex biological questions. This new open access journal publishes articles where novel applications or state-of-the art technology developments in the field are reported. In addition, novel methods or data analysis algorithms are under the scope of Microarrays. This journal will serve as a platform for fast and efficient sharing of data within this large user community. As one of the first microarray users in Europe back in 1996, I am proud to serve as Editor-in-Chief and I believe we have assembled a highly proficient Editorial Board, responsible for a fair and fast peer-review of articles.

  17. Preparation and characterization of mucilage polysaccharide for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, G; Sabina, K; Babuskin, S; Radhakrishnan, K; Fayidh, Mohammed A; Babu, P Azhagu Saravana; Sivarajan, M; Sukumar, M

    2013-10-15

    In the present investigation, the polysaccharide/mucilage from waste of Abelmoscus esculentus by modification in hot extraction using two different solvents (Acetone, Methanol) were extracted, characterized and further compared with seaweed polysaccharide for their potential applications. The percentage yield, emulsifying capacity and swelling index of this mucilage were determined. The macro algae and okra waste, gave high % yield (22.2% and 8.6% respectively) and good emulsifying capacity (EC%=52.38% and 54.76% respectively) with acetone, compared to methanol (11.3% and 0.28%; EC%=50%) (PH=7) while swelling index was greater with methanol than acetone extracts respectively. The infrared (I.R.) spectrum of the samples was recorded to investigate the chemical structure of mucilage. Thermal analysis of the mucilage was done with TGA (Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer) and DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter) which showed both okra and algal polysaccharide were thermostable hydrogels.

  18. Bioactive luminescent transition-metal complexes for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dik-Lung; He, Hong-Zhang; Leung, Ka-Ho; Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2013-07-22

    The serendipitous discovery of the anticancer drug cisplatin cemented medicinal inorganic chemistry as an independent discipline in the 1960s. Luminescent metal complexes have subsequently been widely applied for sensing, bio-imaging, and in organic light-emitting diode applications. Transition-metal complexes possess a variety of advantages that make them suitable as therapeutics and as luminescent probes for biomolecules. It is thus highly desirable to develop new luminescent metal complexes that either interact with DNA through different binding modes or target alternative cellular machinery such as proteins as well as to provide a more effective means of monitoring disease progression. In this Review, we highlight recent examples of biologically active luminescent metal complexes that can target and probe a specific biomolecule, and offer insights into the future potential of these compounds for the investigation and treatment of human diseases.

  19. Periodical Microstructures Based on Novel Piezoelectric Material for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janusas, Giedrius; Ponelyte, Sigita; Brunius, Alfredas; Guobiene, Asta; Prosycevas, Igoris; Vilkauskas, Andrius; Palevicius, Arvydas

    2015-12-15

    A novel cantilever type piezoelectric sensing element was developed. Cost-effective and simple fabrication design allows the use of this element for various applications in the areas of biomedicine, pharmacy, environmental analysis and biosensing. This paper proposes a novel piezoelectric composite material whose basic element is PZT and a sensing platform where this material was integrated. Results showed that a designed novel cantilever-type element is able to generate a voltage of up to 80 µV at 50 Hz frequency. To use this element for sensing purposes, a four micron periodical microstructure was imprinted. Silver nanoparticles were precipitated on the grating to increase the sensitivity of the designed element, i.e., Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) effect appears in the element. To tackle some issues (a lack of sensitivity, signal delays) the element must have certain electronic and optical properties. One possible solution, proposed in this paper, is a combination of piezoelectricity and SPR in a single element.

  20. Biodegradable ceramic-polymer composites for biomedical applications: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadek, Michal; Stodolak-Zych, Ewa; Cholewa-Kowalska, Katarzyna

    2017-02-01

    The present work focuses on the state-of-the-art of biodegradable ceramic-polymer composites with particular emphasis on influence of various types of ceramic fillers on properties of the composites. First, the general needs to create composite materials for medical applications are briefly introduced. Second, various types of polymeric materials used as matrices of ceramic-containing composites and their properties are reviewed. Third, silica nanocomposites and their material as well as biological characteristics are presented. Fourth, different types of glass fillers including silicate, borate and phosphate glasses and their effect on a number of properties of the composites are described. Fifth, wollastonite as a composite modifier and its effect on composite characteristics are discussed. Sixth, composites containing calcium phosphate ceramics, namely hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate and biphasic calcium phosphate are presented. Finally, general possibilities for control of properties of composite materials are highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.