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Sample records for low-order eight-node tetrahedral

  1. A suitable low-order, eight-node tetrahedral finite element for solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, S.W.; Heinstein, M.S.; Stone, C.M.; Mello, F.J.; Blanford, M.L.; Budge, K.G.

    1998-03-01

    To use the all-tetrahedral mesh generation existing today, the authors have explored the creation of a computationally efficient eight-node tetrahedral finite element (a four-node tetrahedral finite element enriched with four mid-face nodal points). The derivation of the element`s gradient operator, studies in obtaining a suitable mass lumping, and the element`s performance in applications are presented. In particular they examine the eight-node tetrahedral finite element`s behavior in longitudinal plane wave propagation, in transverse cylindrical wave propagation, and in simulating Taylor bar impacts. The element samples only constant strain states and, therefore, has 12 hour-glass modes. In this regard it bears similarities to the eight-node, mean-quadrature hexahedral finite element. Comparisons with the results obtained from the mean-quadrature eight-node hexahedral finite element and the four-node tetrahedral finite element are included. Given automatic all-tetrahedral meshing, the eight-node, constant-strain tetrahedral finite element is a suitable replacement for the eight-node hexahedral finite element in those cases where mesh generation requires an inordinate amount of user intervention and direction to obtain acceptable mesh properties.

  2. A suitable low-order, eight-node tetrahedral finite element for solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, S.W.; Heinstein, M.S.; Stone, C.M.; Mello, F.J.; Blanford, M.L.; Budge, K.G.

    1998-03-01

    To use the all-tetrahedral mesh generation existing today, the authors have explored the creation of a computationally efficient eight-node tetrahedral finite element (a four-node tetrahedral finite element enriched with four mid-face nodal points). The derivation of the element's gradient operator, studies in obtaining a suitable mass lumping, and the element's performance in applications are presented. In particular they examine the eight-node tetrahedral finite element's behavior in longitudinal plane wave propagation, in transverse cylindrical wave propagation, and in simulating Taylor bar impacts. The element samples only constant strain states and, therefore, has 12 hour-glass modes. In this regard it bears similarities to the eight-node, mean-quadrature hexahedral finite element. Comparisons with the results obtained from the mean-quadrature eight-node hexahedral finite element and the four-node tetrahedral finite element are included. Given automatic all-tetrahedral meshing, the eight-node, constant-strain tetrahedral finite element is a suitable replacement for the eight-node hexahedral finite element in those cases where mesh generation requires an inordinate amount of user intervention and direction to obtain acceptable mesh properties

  3. Tetrahedral hohlraums at omega

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrala, G.A.; Goldman, S.R.; Batha, S.H.; Wallace, J.M.; Klare, K.A.; Schappert, G.T.; Oertel, J.; Turner, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    We have initiated a study of the usefulness of tetrahedrally illuminated spherical hohlraums, using the Omega laser beams, to drive planar shocks in packages that require indirect drive. A first suite of experiments used spherical hohlraums with a 2-μm thick gold wall surrounded by a 100-μm thick epoxy layer and had an internal diameter of 2.8 mm. Four laser entrance holes each of diameter 700 μm, located on the tips of a regular tetrahedron were used. The shock velocities and the shock uniformities were measured using optical shock break out techniques. The hohlraum x-ray radiation spectrum was also measured using a 10-channel x-ray detector. Tentatively, peak temperatures approaching 195 eV were achieved and shock speeds of 60 μm/ns were measured, when the hohlraum was driven by 22 kJ of 3 ω radiation. (authors)

  4. Streaming simplification of tetrahedral meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Huy T; Callahan, Steven P; Lindstrom, Peter; Pascucci, Valerio; Silva, Cláudio T

    2007-01-01

    Unstructured tetrahedral meshes are commonly used in scientific computing to represent scalar, vector, and tensor fields in three dimensions. Visualization of these meshes can be difficult to perform interactively due to their size and complexity. By reducing the size of the data, we can accomplish real-time visualization necessary for scientific analysis. We propose a two-step approach for streaming simplification of large tetrahedral meshes. Our algorithm arranges the data on disk in a streaming, I/O-efficient format that allows coherent access to the tetrahedral cells. A quadric-based simplification is sequentially performed on small portions of the mesh in-core. Our output is a coherent streaming mesh which facilitates future processing. Our technique is fast, produces high quality approximations, and operates out-of-core to process meshes too large for main memory.

  5. Video Vectorization via Tetrahedral Remeshing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Zhu, Jie; Guo, Yanwen; Wang, Wenping

    2017-02-09

    We present a video vectorization method that generates a video in vector representation from an input video in raster representation. A vector-based video representation offers the benefits of vector graphics, such as compactness and scalability. The vector video we generate is represented by a simplified tetrahedral control mesh over the spatial-temporal video volume, with color attributes defined at the mesh vertices. We present novel techniques for simplification and subdivision of a tetrahedral mesh to achieve high simplification ratio while preserving features and ensuring color fidelity. From an input raster video, our method is capable of generating a compact video in vector representation that allows a faithful reconstruction with low reconstruction errors.

  6. Vibrational Spectra of Tetrahedral Fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng; Li; Tang

    1999-01-01

    From the topological structures of the following classes of tetrahedral fullerenes-(1) Cn(h, h; -i, i), Cn(h, 0; -i, 2i), Cn(2h + i, -h + i; i, i), Cn(h - i, h + 2i; -i, 2i), and Cn(h, i; 0, i) for Td symmetry; (2) Cn(h, k; k, h), Cn(h, k; -h - k, k), and Cn(h, k; -h, h + k) for Th symmetry; (3) Cn(h, k; i, j) for T symmetry-we have obtained theoretically the formulas for the numbers of their IR and Raman active modes for all of the tetrahedral fullerenes through the decomposition of their nuclear motions into irreducible representations by means of group theory. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  7. Tetrahedrality and hydrogen bonds in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Eszter; Varga, Imre K.; Baranyai, András

    2016-06-01

    We carried out extensive calculations of liquid water at different temperatures and pressures using the BK3 model suggested recently [P. T. Kiss and A. Baranyai, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 204507 (2013)]. In particular, we were interested in undercooled regions to observe the propensity of water to form tetrahedral coordination of closest neighbors around a central molecule. We compared the found tetrahedral order with the number of hydrogen bonds and with the partial pair correlation functions unfolded as distributions of the closest, the second closest, etc. neighbors. We found that contrary to the number of hydrogen bonds, tetrahedrality changes substantially with state variables. Not only the number of tetrahedral arrangements increases with lowering the pressure, the density, and the temperature but the domain size of connecting tetrahedral structures as well. The difference in tetrahedrality is very pronounced between the two sides of the Widom line and even more so between the low density amorphous (LDA) and high density amorphous (HDA) phases. We observed that in liquid water and in HDA, the 5th water molecule, contrary to ice and LDA, is positioned between the first and the second coordination shell. We found no convincing evidence of structural heterogeneity or regions referring to structural transition.

  8. Electronic structure of filled tetrahedral semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, D.M.; Zunger, Alex; Groot, R. de

    1985-01-01

    We discuss the susceptibility of zinc-blende semiconductors to band-structure modification by insertion of small atoms at their tetrahedral interstitial states. GaP is found to become a direct-gap semiconductor with two He atoms present at its interstitial sites; Si does not. Analysis of the factors

  9. Atomic Nuclei with Tetrahedral and Octahedral Symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, J.; Gozdz, A.; Schunck, N.

    2003-01-01

    We present possible manifestations of octahedral and tetrahedral symmetries in nuclei. These symmetries are associated with the O D h and T D d double point groups. Both of them have very characteristic finger-prints in terms of the nucleonic level properties - unique in the Fermionic universe. The tetrahedral symmetry leads to the four-fold degeneracies in the nucleonic spectra; it does not preserve the parity. The octahedral symmetry leads to the four-fold degeneracies in the nucleonic spectra as well but it does preserve the parity. Microscopic predictions have been obtained using mean-field theory based on the relativistic equations and confirmed by using ''traditional'' Schrodinger equation formalism. Calculations are performed in multidimensional deformation spaces using newly designed algorithms. We discuss some experimental fingerprints of the hypothetical new symmetries and possibilities of their verification through experiments. (author)

  10. ALGORITHMS FOR TETRAHEDRAL NETWORK (TEN) GENERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The Tetrahedral Network(TEN) is a powerful 3-D vector structure in GIS, which has a lot of advantages such as simple structure, fast topological relation processing and rapid visualization. The difficulty of TEN application is automatic creating data structure. Al though a raster algorithm has been introduced by some authors, the problems in accuracy, memory requirement, speed and integrity are still existent. In this paper, the raster algorithm is completed and a vector algorithm is presented after a 3-D data model and structure of TEN have been introducted. Finally, experiment, conclusion and future work are discussed.

  11. Feature-Sensitive Tetrahedral Mesh Generation with Guaranteed Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jun; Yu, Zeyun

    2012-01-01

    Tetrahedral meshes are being extensively used in finite element methods (FEM). This paper proposes an algorithm to generate feature-sensitive and high-quality tetrahedral meshes from an arbitrary surface mesh model. A top-down octree subdivision is conducted on the surface mesh and a set of tetrahedra are constructed using adaptive body-centered cubic (BCC) lattices. Special treatments are given to the tetrahedra near the surface such that the quality of the resulting tetrahedral mesh is prov...

  12. Low-order feedforward controllers: Optimal performance and practical considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Hast, Martin; Hägglund, Tore

    2014-01-01

    Feedforward control from measurable disturbances can significantly improve the performance in control loops. However, tuning rules for such controllers are scarce. In this paper design rules for how to choose optimal low-order feedforward controller parameter are presented. The parameters are chosen so that the integrated squared error, when the system is subject to a step disturbance, is minimized. The approach utilizes a controller structure that decouples the feedforward and the feedback c...

  13. Low order physical models of vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Anna; Dabiri, John; Koseff, Jeffrey

    2016-11-01

    In order to examine the ability of low-order physical models of vertical axis wind turbines to accurately reproduce key flow characteristics, experiments were conducted on rotating turbine models, rotating solid cylinders, and stationary porous flat plates (of both uniform and non-uniform porosities). From examination of the patterns of mean flow, the wake turbulence spectra, and several quantitative metrics, it was concluded that the rotating cylinders represent a reasonably accurate analog for the rotating turbines. In contrast, from examination of the patterns of mean flow, it was found that the porous flat plates represent only a limited analog for rotating turbines (for the parameters examined). These findings have implications for both laboratory experiments and numerical simulations, which have previously used analogous low order models in order to reduce experimental/computational costs. NSF GRF and SGF to A.C; ONR N000141211047 and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Grant GBMF2645 to J.D.; and the Bob and Norma Street Environmental Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University.

  14. Multiscale high-order/low-order (HOLO) algorithms and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacón, L.; Chen, G.; Knoll, D.A.; Newman, C.; Park, H.; Taitano, W.; Willert, J.A.; Womeldorff, G.

    2017-01-01

    We review the state of the art in the formulation, implementation, and performance of so-called high-order/low-order (HOLO) algorithms for challenging multiscale problems. HOLO algorithms attempt to couple one or several high-complexity physical models (the high-order model, HO) with low-complexity ones (the low-order model, LO). The primary goal of HOLO algorithms is to achieve nonlinear convergence between HO and LO components while minimizing memory footprint and managing the computational complexity in a practical manner. Key to the HOLO approach is the use of the LO representations to address temporal stiffness, effectively accelerating the convergence of the HO/LO coupled system. The HOLO approach is broadly underpinned by the concept of nonlinear elimination, which enables segregation of the HO and LO components in ways that can effectively use heterogeneous architectures. The accuracy and efficiency benefits of HOLO algorithms are demonstrated with specific applications to radiation transport, gas dynamics, plasmas (both Eulerian and Lagrangian formulations), and ocean modeling. Across this broad application spectrum, HOLO algorithms achieve significant accuracy improvements at a fraction of the cost compared to conventional approaches. It follows that HOLO algorithms hold significant potential for high-fidelity system scale multiscale simulations leveraging exascale computing.

  15. Multiscale high-order/low-order (HOLO) algorithms and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacón, L., E-mail: chacon@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Chen, G.; Knoll, D.A.; Newman, C.; Park, H.; Taitano, W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Willert, J.A. [Institute for Defense Analyses, Alexandria, VA 22311 (United States); Womeldorff, G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We review the state of the art in the formulation, implementation, and performance of so-called high-order/low-order (HOLO) algorithms for challenging multiscale problems. HOLO algorithms attempt to couple one or several high-complexity physical models (the high-order model, HO) with low-complexity ones (the low-order model, LO). The primary goal of HOLO algorithms is to achieve nonlinear convergence between HO and LO components while minimizing memory footprint and managing the computational complexity in a practical manner. Key to the HOLO approach is the use of the LO representations to address temporal stiffness, effectively accelerating the convergence of the HO/LO coupled system. The HOLO approach is broadly underpinned by the concept of nonlinear elimination, which enables segregation of the HO and LO components in ways that can effectively use heterogeneous architectures. The accuracy and efficiency benefits of HOLO algorithms are demonstrated with specific applications to radiation transport, gas dynamics, plasmas (both Eulerian and Lagrangian formulations), and ocean modeling. Across this broad application spectrum, HOLO algorithms achieve significant accuracy improvements at a fraction of the cost compared to conventional approaches. It follows that HOLO algorithms hold significant potential for high-fidelity system scale multiscale simulations leveraging exascale computing.

  16. Theory and Low-Order Modeling of Unsteady Airfoil Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Kiran

    Unsteady flow phenomena are prevalent in a wide range of problems in nature and engineering. These include, but are not limited to, aerodynamics of insect flight, dynamic stall in rotorcraft and wind turbines, leading-edge vortices in delta wings, micro-air vehicle (MAV) design, gust handling and flow control. The most significant characteristics of unsteady flows are rapid changes in the circulation of the airfoil, apparent-mass effects, flow separation and the leading-edge vortex (LEV) phenomenon. Although experimental techniques and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods have enabled the detailed study of unsteady flows and their underlying features, a reliable and inexpensive loworder method for fast prediction and for use in control and design is still required. In this research, a low-order methodology based on physical principles rather than empirical fitting is proposed. The objective of such an approach is to enable insights into unsteady phenomena while developing approaches to model them. The basis of the low-order model developed here is unsteady thin-airfoil theory. A time-stepping approach is used to solve for the vorticity on an airfoil camberline, allowing for large amplitudes and nonplanar wakes. On comparing lift coefficients from this method against data from CFD and experiments for some unsteady test cases, it is seen that the method predicts well so long as LEV formation does not occur and flow over the airfoil is attached. The formation of leading-edge vortices (LEVs) in unsteady flows is initiated by flow separation and the formation of a shear layer at the airfoil's leading edge. This phenomenon has been observed to have both detrimental (dynamic stall in helicopters) and beneficial (high-lift flight in insects) effects. To predict the formation of LEVs in unsteady flows, a Leading Edge Suction Parameter (LESP) is proposed. This parameter is calculated from inviscid theory and is a measure of the suction at the airfoil's leading edge. It

  17. Low-order longitudinal modes of single-component plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinkle, M.D.; Greaves, R.G.; Surko, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The low-order modes of spheroidal, pure electron plasmas have been studied experimentally, both in a cylindrical electrode structure and in a quadrupole trap. Comparison is made between measurements of mode frequencies, recent analytical theories, and numerical simulations. Effects considered include trap anharmonicity, image charges, and temperature. Quantitative agreement is obtained between the predictions and these measurements for spheroidal plasmas in the quadrupole trap. In many experiments on single-component plasmas, including antimatter plasmas, the standard diagnostic techniques used to measure the density and temperature are not appropriate. A new method is presented for determining the size, shape, average density, and temperature of a plasma confined in a Penning trap from measurements of the mode frequencies. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  18. Nonperturbative Quantum Physics from Low-Order Perturbation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera, Héctor; Pedersen, Thomas G; Nikolić, Branislav K

    2015-10-02

    The Stark effect in hydrogen and the cubic anharmonic oscillator furnish examples of quantum systems where the perturbation results in a certain ionization probability by tunneling processes. Accordingly, the perturbed ground-state energy is shifted and broadened, thus acquiring an imaginary part which is considered to be a paradigm of nonperturbative behavior. Here we demonstrate how the low order coefficients of a divergent perturbation series can be used to obtain excellent approximations to both real and imaginary parts of the perturbed ground state eigenenergy. The key is to use analytic continuation functions with a built-in singularity structure within the complex plane of the coupling constant, which is tailored by means of Bender-Wu dispersion relations. In the examples discussed the analytic continuation functions are Gauss hypergeometric functions, which take as input fourth order perturbation theory and return excellent approximations to the complex perturbed eigenvalue. These functions are Borel consistent and dramatically outperform widely used Padé and Borel-Padé approaches, even for rather large values of the coupling constant.

  19. Are Low-order Covariance Estimates Useful in Error Analyses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. F.; Schimel, D.

    2005-12-01

    Atmospheric trace gas inversions, using modeled atmospheric transport to infer surface sources and sinks from measured concentrations, are most commonly done using least-squares techniques that return not only an estimate of the state (the surface fluxes) but also the covariance matrix describing the uncertainty in that estimate. Besides allowing one to place error bars around the estimate, the covariance matrix may be used in simulation studies to learn what uncertainties would be expected from various hypothetical observing strategies. This error analysis capability is routinely used in designing instrumentation, measurement campaigns, and satellite observing strategies. For example, Rayner, et al (2002) examined the ability of satellite-based column-integrated CO2 measurements to constrain monthly-average CO2 fluxes for about 100 emission regions using this approach. Exact solutions for both state vector and covariance matrix become computationally infeasible, however, when the surface fluxes are solved at finer resolution (e.g., daily in time, under 500 km in space). It is precisely at these finer scales, however, that one would hope to be able to estimate fluxes using high-density satellite measurements. Non-exact estimation methods such as variational data assimilation or the ensemble Kalman filter could be used, but they achieve their computational savings by obtaining an only approximate state estimate and a low-order approximation of the true covariance. One would like to be able to use this covariance matrix to do the same sort of error analyses as are done with the full-rank covariance, but is it correct to do so? Here we compare uncertainties and `information content' derived from full-rank covariance matrices obtained from a direct, batch least squares inversion to those from the incomplete-rank covariance matrices given by a variational data assimilation approach solved with a variable metric minimization technique (the Broyden-Fletcher- Goldfarb

  20. A geometric toolbox for tetrahedral finite element partitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.; Korotov, S.; Křížek, M.; Axelsson, O.; Karátson, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a survey of some geometric results on tetrahedral partitions and their refinements in a unified manner. They can be used for mesh generation and adaptivity in practical calculations by the finite element method (FEM), and also in theoretical finite element (FE) analysis.

  1. Tetrahedral meshing via maximal Poisson-disk sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei; Yan, Dongming; Chen, Li; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Deussen, Oliver; Wonka, Peter

    2016-01-01

    -distributed point sets in arbitrary domains. We first perform MPS on the boundary of the input domain, we then sample the interior of the domain, and we finally extract the tetrahedral mesh from the samples by using 3D Delaunay or regular triangulation for uniform

  2. Tetrahedral meshing via maximal Poisson-disk sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei

    2016-02-15

    In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective method to generate 3D-conforming tetrahedral meshes from closed 2-manifold surfaces. Our approach is inspired by recent work on maximal Poisson-disk sampling (MPS), which can generate well-distributed point sets in arbitrary domains. We first perform MPS on the boundary of the input domain, we then sample the interior of the domain, and we finally extract the tetrahedral mesh from the samples by using 3D Delaunay or regular triangulation for uniform or adaptive sampling, respectively. We also propose an efficient optimization strategy to protect the domain boundaries and to remove slivers to improve the meshing quality. We present various experimental results to illustrate the efficiency and the robustness of our proposed approach. We demonstrate that the performance and quality (e.g., minimal dihedral angle) of our approach are superior to current state-of-the-art optimization-based approaches.

  3. A computational study of nodal-based tetrahedral element behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullerud, Arne S.

    2010-09-01

    This report explores the behavior of nodal-based tetrahedral elements on six sample problems, and compares their solution to that of a corresponding hexahedral mesh. The problems demonstrate that while certain aspects of the solution field for the nodal-based tetrahedrons provide good quality results, the pressure field tends to be of poor quality. Results appear to be strongly affected by the connectivity of the tetrahedral elements. Simulations that rely on the pressure field, such as those which use material models that are dependent on the pressure (e.g. equation-of-state models), can generate erroneous results. Remeshing can also be strongly affected by these issues. The nodal-based test elements as they currently stand need to be used with caution to ensure that their numerical deficiencies do not adversely affect critical values of interest.

  4. Tetrahedral gray code for visualization of genome information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsuhiro Ichinose

    Full Text Available We propose a tetrahedral Gray code that facilitates visualization of genome information on the surfaces of a tetrahedron, where the relative abundance of each [Formula: see text]-mer in the genomic sequence is represented by a color of the corresponding cell of a triangular lattice. For biological significance, the code is designed such that the [Formula: see text]-mers corresponding to any adjacent pair of cells differ from each other by only one nucleotide. We present a simple procedure to draw such a pattern on the development surfaces of a tetrahedron. The thus constructed tetrahedral Gray code can demonstrate evolutionary conservation and variation of the genome information of many organisms at a glance. We also apply the tetrahedral Gray code to the honey bee (Apis mellifera genome to analyze its methylation structure. The results indicate that the honey bee genome exhibits CpG overrepresentation in spite of its methylation ability and that two conserved motifs, CTCGAG and CGCGCG, in the unmethylated regions are responsible for the overrepresentation of CpG.

  5. Relativistic Jahn-Teller effect in tetrahedral systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opalka, Daniel; Domcke, Wolfgang; Segado, Mireia; Poluyanov, Leonid V.

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that orbitally degenerate states in highly symmetric systems are split by Jahn-Teller forces which are of relativistic origin (that is, they arise from the spin-orbit coupling operator). For the example of tetrahedral systems, the relativistic Jahn-Teller Hamiltonians of orbitally degenerate electronic states with spin 1/2 are derived. While both electrostatic and relativistic forces contribute to the Jahn-Teller activity of vibrational modes of E and T 2 symmetry in 2 T 2 states of tetrahedral systems, the electrostatic and relativistic Jahn-Teller couplings are complementary for 2 E states: The E mode is Jahn-Teller active through electrostatic forces, while the T 2 mode is Jahn-Teller active through the relativistic forces. The relativistic Jahn-Teller parameters have been computed with ab initio relativistic electronic-structure methods. It is shown for the example of the tetrahedral cluster cations of the group V elements that the relativistic Jahn-Teller couplings can be of the same order of magnitude as the familiar electrostatic Jahn-Teller couplings for the heavier elements.

  6. Electron emission induced modifications in amorphous tetrahedral diamondlike carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer, T.W.; DiNardo, N.J.; Rothman, J.B.; Siegal, M.P.; Friedmann, T.A.; Martinez-Miranda, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    The cold-cathode electron emission properties of amorphous tetrahedral diamondlike carbon are promising for flat-panel display and vacuum microelectronics technologies. The onset of electron emission is, typically, preceded by open-quotes conditioningclose quotes where the material is stressed by an applied electric field. To simulate conditioning and assess its effect, we combined the spatially localized field and current of a scanning tunneling microscope tip with high-spatial-resolution characterization. Scanning force microscopy shows that conditioning alters surface morphology and electronic structure. Spatially resolved electron-energy-loss spectroscopy indicates that the predominant bonding configuration changes from predominantly fourfold to threefold coordination. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  7. Practical implementation of tetrahedral mesh reconstruction in emission tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutchko, R.; Sitek, A.; Gullberg, G. T.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a practical implementation of image reconstruction on tetrahedral meshes optimized for emission computed tomography with parallel beam geometry. Tetrahedral mesh built on a point cloud is a convenient image representation method, intrinsically three-dimensional and with a multi-level resolution property. Image intensities are defined at the mesh nodes and linearly interpolated inside each tetrahedron. For the given mesh geometry, the intensities can be computed directly from tomographic projections using iterative reconstruction algorithms with a system matrix calculated using an exact analytical formula. The mesh geometry is optimized for a specific patient using a two stage process. First, a noisy image is reconstructed on a finely-spaced uniform cloud. Then, the geometry of the representation is adaptively transformed through boundary-preserving node motion and elimination. Nodes are removed in constant intensity regions, merged along the boundaries, and moved in the direction of the mean local intensity gradient in order to provide higher node density in the boundary regions. Attenuation correction and detector geometric response are included in the system matrix. Once the mesh geometry is optimized, it is used to generate the final system matrix for ML-EM reconstruction of node intensities and for visualization of the reconstructed images. In dynamic PET or SPECT imaging, the system matrix generation procedure is performed using a quasi-static sinogram, generated by summing projection data from multiple time frames. This system matrix is then used to reconstruct the individual time frame projections. Performance of the new method is evaluated by reconstructing simulated projections of the NCAT phantom and the method is then applied to dynamic SPECT phantom and patient studies and to a dynamic microPET rat study. Tetrahedral mesh-based images are compared to the standard voxel-based reconstruction for both high and low signal-to-noise ratio

  8. Practical implementation of tetrahedral mesh reconstruction in emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutchko, R; Gullberg, G T; Sitek, A

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a practical implementation of image reconstruction on tetrahedral meshes optimized for emission computed tomography with parallel beam geometry. Tetrahedral mesh built on a point cloud is a convenient image representation method, intrinsically three-dimensional and with a multi-level resolution property. Image intensities are defined at the mesh nodes and linearly interpolated inside each tetrahedron. For the given mesh geometry, the intensities can be computed directly from tomographic projections using iterative reconstruction algorithms with a system matrix calculated using an exact analytical formula. The mesh geometry is optimized for a specific patient using a two stage process. First, a noisy image is reconstructed on a finely-spaced uniform cloud. Then, the geometry of the representation is adaptively transformed through boundary-preserving node motion and elimination. Nodes are removed in constant intensity regions, merged along the boundaries, and moved in the direction of the mean local intensity gradient in order to provide higher node density in the boundary regions. Attenuation correction and detector geometric response are included in the system matrix. Once the mesh geometry is optimized, it is used to generate the final system matrix for ML-EM reconstruction of node intensities and for visualization of the reconstructed images. In dynamic PET or SPECT imaging, the system matrix generation procedure is performed using a quasi-static sinogram, generated by summing projection data from multiple time frames. This system matrix is then used to reconstruct the individual time frame projections. Performance of the new method is evaluated by reconstructing simulated projections of the NCAT phantom and the method is then applied to dynamic SPECT phantom and patient studies and to a dynamic microPET rat study. Tetrahedral mesh-based images are compared to the standard voxel-based reconstruction for both high and low signal-to-noise ratio

  9. Tetrahedral hydrocarbon nanoparticles in space: X-ray spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilalbegović, G.; Maksimović, A.; Valencic, L. A.

    2018-06-01

    It has been proposed, or confirmed, that diamond nanoparticles exist in various environments in space: close to active galactic nuclei, in the vicinity of supernovae and pulsars, in the interior of several planets in the Solar system, in carbon planets, and other exoplanets, carbon-rich stars, meteorites, in X-ray active Herbig Ae/Be stars, and in the interstellar medium. Using density functional theory methods, we calculate the carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectrum of two large tetrahedral nanodiamonds: C26H32 and C51H52. We also study and test our methods on the astrophysical molecule CH4, the smallest C-H tetrahedral structure. A possible detection of nanodiamonds from X-ray spectra by future telescopes, such as the project Arcus, is proposed. Simulated spectra of the diffuse interstellar medium using Cyg X-2 as a source show that nanodiamonds studied in this work can be detected by Arcus, a high-resolution X-ray spectrometer mission selected by NASA for a Phase A concept study.

  10. Chemical bonding modifications of tetrahedral amorphous carbon and nitrogenated tetrahedral amorphous carbon films induced by rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, R.; Roy, S.S.; Papakonstantinou, P.; Bain, M.F.; Gamble, H.S.; McLaughlin, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) and nitrogenated tetrahedral amorphous carbon films (ta-CN x ), deposited by double bend off plane Filtered Vacuum Cathodic Arc were annealed up to 1000 deg. C in flowing argon for 2 min. Modifications on the chemical bonding structure of the rapidly annealed films, as a function of temperature, were investigated by NEXAFS, X-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopies. The interpretation of these spectra is discussed. The results demonstrate that the structure of undoped ta-C films prepared at floating potential with an arc current of 80 A remains stable up to 900 deg. C, whereas that of ta-CN x containing 12 at.% nitrogen is stable up to 700 deg. C. At higher temperatures, all the spectra indicated the predominant formation of graphitic carbon. Through NEXAFS studies, we clearly observed three π* resonance peaks at the ' N K edge structure. The origin of these three peaks is not well established in the literature. However our temperature-dependant study ascertained that the first peak originates from C=N bonds and the third peak originates from the incorporation of nitrogen into the graphite like domains

  11. Nuclear tetrahedral symmetry: possibly present throughout the periodic table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, J; Goźdź, A; Schunck, N; Miśkiewicz, M

    2002-06-24

    More than half a century after the fundamental, spherical shell structure in nuclei had been established, theoretical predictions indicated that the shell gaps comparable or even stronger than those at spherical shapes may exist. Group-theoretical analysis supported by realistic mean-field calculations indicate that the corresponding nuclei are characterized by the TD(d) ("double-tetrahedral") symmetry group. Strong shell-gap structure is enhanced by the existence of the four-dimensional irreducible representations of TD(d); it can be seen as a geometrical effect that does not depend on a particular realization of the mean field. Possibilities of discovering the TD(d) symmetry in experiment are discussed.

  12. 3He/4He production ratios by tetrahedral symmetric condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Akito

    2006-01-01

    The present paper treats application of the Electronic Quasi-Particle Expansion Theory (EQPET) model for Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensate (TSC) of H/D mixed systems for Pd host metal. Production ratios of 3 He/ 4 He for multi-body fusion reactions in H/D mixed TSC systems are calculated as a function of H/D mixing ratio. The model is further extended to treat direct nuclear interactions between host-metal nucleus and TSC of pure four protons (or four deuterons), since TSC can become very small (far less than 1 pm radius) charge-neutral pseudo-particle. Results for the case of Ni + 4p/TSC are discussed with Ni + p capture reactions and Ni + 4p fission reactions. (authors)

  13. Modeling amorphization of tetrahedral structures under local approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesurum, C.E.; Pulim, V.; Berger, B.; Hobbs, L.W.

    1997-01-01

    Many crystalline ceramics can be topologically disordered (amorphized) by disordering radiation events involving high-energy collision cascades or (in some cases) successive single-atom displacements. The authors are interested in both the potential for disorder and the possible aperiodic structures adopted following the disordering event. The potential for disordering is related to connectivity, and among those structures of interest are tetrahedral networks (such as SiO 2 , SiC and Si 3 N 4 ) comprising corner-shared tetrahedral units whose connectivities are easily evaluated. In order to study the response of these networks to radiation, the authors have chosen to model their assembly according to the (simple) local rules that each corner obeys in connecting to another tetrahedron; in this way they easily erect large computer models of any crystalline polymorphic form. Amorphous structures can be similarly grown by application of altered rules. They have adopted a simple model of irradiation in which all bonds in the neighborhood of a designated tetrahedron are destroyed, and they reform the bonds in this region according to a set of (possibly different) local rules appropriate to the environmental conditions. When a tetrahedron approaches the boundary of this neighborhood, it undergoes an optimization step in which a spring is inserted between two corners of compatible tetrahedra when they are within a certain distance of one another; component forces are then applied that act to minimize the distance between these corners and minimize the deviation from the rules. The resulting structure is then analyzed for the complete adjacency matrix, irreducible ring statistics, and bond angle distributions

  14. LOO: a low-order nonlinear transport scheme for acceleration of method of characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lulu; Smith, Kord; Forget, Benoit; Ferrer, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new physics-based multi-grid nonlinear acceleration method: the low-order operator method, or LOO. LOO uses a coarse space-angle multi-group method of characteristics (MOC) neutron transport calculation to accelerate the fine space-angle MOC calculation. LOO is designed to capture more angular effects than diffusion-based acceleration methods through a transport-based low-order solver. LOO differs from existing transport-based acceleration schemes in that it emphasizes simplified coarse space-angle characteristics and preserves physics in quadrant phase-space. The details of the method, including the restriction step, the low-order iterative solver and the prolongation step are discussed in this work. LOO shows comparable convergence behavior to coarse mesh finite difference on several two-dimensional benchmark problems while not requiring any under-relaxation, making it a robust acceleration scheme. (author)

  15. Low-order modelling of a drop on a highly-hydrophobic substrate: statics and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Alexander W.; Matar, Omar K.; Davis, Stephen H.

    2017-11-01

    We analyse the behaviour of droplets resting on highly-hydrophobic substrates. This problem is of practical interest due to its appearance in many physical contexts involving the spreading, wetting, and dewetting of fluids on solid substrates. In mathematical terms, it exhibits an interesting challenge as the interface is multi-valued as a function of the natural Cartesian co-ordinates, presenting a stumbling block to typical low-order modelling techniques. Nonetheless, we show that in the static case, the interfacial shape is governed by the Young-Laplace equation, which may be solved explicitly in terms of elliptic functions. We present simple low-order expressions that faithfully reproduce the shapes. We then consider the dynamic case, showing that the predictions of our low-order model compare favourably with those obtained from direct numerical simulations. We also examine the characteristic flow regimes of interest. EPSRC, UK, MEMPHIS program Grant (EP/K003976/1), RAEng Research Chair (OKM).

  16. Polyamorphism in tetrahedral substances: Similarities between silicon and ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcez, K. M. S.; Antonelli, A.

    2015-07-01

    Tetrahedral substances, such as silicon, water, germanium, and silica, share various unusual phase behaviors. Among them, the so-called polyamorphism, i.e., the existence of more than one amorphous form, has been intensively investigated in the last three decades. In this work, we study the metastable relations between amorphous states of silicon in a wide range of pressures, using Monte Carlo simulations. Our results indicate that the two amorphous forms of silicon at high pressures, the high density amorphous (HDA) and the very high density amorphous (VHDA), can be decompressed from high pressure (˜20 GPa) down to the tensile regime, where both convert into the same low density amorphous. Such behavior is also observed in ice. While at high pressure (˜20 GPa), HDA is less stable than VHDA, at the pressure of 10 GPa both forms exhibit similar stability. On the other hand, at much lower pressure (˜5 GPa), HDA and VHDA are no longer the most stable forms, and, upon isobaric annealing, an even less dense form of amorphous silicon emerges, the expanded high density amorphous, again in close similarity to what occurs in ice.

  17. Hydrogen solution in tetrahedral or octahedral interstitial sites in Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, C.A.; Hu, J.P.; Ouyang, C.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The physical nature of the site preference for H solution in BCC Al is revealed. → The site preference is result of competition between Al-H bonding interaction and local lattice distortion. → The Al-H bonding interaction lowers the solution energy while the local lattice distortion increases the solution energy. - Abstract: It is reported that H atoms prefer to stay at interstitial (defect) sites with larger space in most metals. However, H atom prefers to occupy tetrahedral interstitial sites (T-site) that provide smaller space than octahedral sites (O-site) in Al. This paper studied the H-Al interactions from first principles calculations. Through analysis of the H-induced electronic states and the local atomic relaxations, we show that H-Al bonding interaction is stronger for T-site H, which is in favor of the solution energy. On the other hand, larger local atomic distortion is observed around the T-site H, which increases the total energy.

  18. Fast and Exact Fiber Surfaces for Tetrahedral Meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klacansky, Pavol; Tierny, Julien; Carr, Hamish; Zhao Geng

    2017-07-01

    Isosurfaces are fundamental geometrical objects for the analysis and visualization of volumetric scalar fields. Recent work has generalized them to bivariate volumetric fields with fiber surfaces, the pre-image of polygons in range space. However, the existing algorithm for their computation is approximate, and is limited to closed polygons. Moreover, its runtime performance does not allow instantaneous updates of the fiber surfaces upon user edits of the polygons. Overall, these limitations prevent a reliable and interactive exploration of the space of fiber surfaces. This paper introduces the first algorithm for the exact computation of fiber surfaces in tetrahedral meshes. It assumes no restriction on the topology of the input polygon, handles degenerate cases and better captures sharp features induced by polygon bends. The algorithm also allows visualization of individual fibers on the output surface, better illustrating their relationship with data features in range space. To enable truly interactive exploration sessions, we further improve the runtime performance of this algorithm. In particular, we show that it is trivially parallelizable and that it scales nearly linearly with the number of cores. Further, we study acceleration data-structures both in geometrical domain and range space and we show how to generalize interval trees used in isosurface extraction to fiber surface extraction. Experiments demonstrate the superiority of our algorithm over previous work, both in terms of accuracy and running time, with up to two orders of magnitude speedups. This improvement enables interactive edits of range polygons with instantaneous updates of the fiber surface for exploration purpose. A VTK-based reference implementation is provided as additional material to reproduce our results.

  19. Low-order aeroelastic models of wind turbines for controller design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Ivan Bergquist

    Wind turbine controllers are used to optimize the performance of wind turbines such as to reduce power variations and fatigue and extreme loads on wind turbine components. Accurate tuning and design of modern controllers must be done using low-order models that accurately captures the aeroelastic...... response of the wind turbine. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the necessary model complexity required in aeroelastic models used for controller design and to analyze and propose methods to design low-order aeroelastic wind turbine models that are suited for model-based control design....... The thesis contains a characterization of the dynamics that influence the open-loop aeroelastic frequency response of a modern wind turbine, based on a high-order aeroelastic wind turbine model. One main finding is that the transfer function from collective pitch to generator speed is affected by two low...

  20. A feasibility study of low-order harmonics expansion applied to loading pattern search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaohong, Z.; Dong, L.; Tao, W. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., 1954 Hua Shan Road, Shanghai, 200030 (China); Chao, Y. A. [Westinghouse Electric Company, P. O. Box 355, Pittsburgh, PA 15230-0355 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Despite significant progress in core loading pattern search methods over years, there still remains the issue of large computing workload and the need for improving the speed of evaluating loading pattern candidates during the search process. This paper focuses on improving the computing speed for loading pattern evaluation, rather than the method of searching for the patterns. A low order harmonics expansion method for flux distribution representation is proposed for fast LP evaluation application. The novel feature of the method is the separation of the short range local perturbation effect from the long range global tilt effect. The latter effect can be captured by low order harmonics expansion. Demonstration examples are presented to show that even for extremely large perturbations induced by fuel shuffling the proposed method can accurately calculate the flux distribution for the LP with very minimal computation. (authors)

  1. Estimating Discharge in Low-Order Rivers With High-Resolution Aerial Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    King, Tyler V.; Neilson, Bethany T.; Rasmussen, Mitchell T.

    2018-01-01

    Remote sensing of river discharge promises to augment in situ gauging stations, but the majority of research in this field focuses on large rivers (>50 m wide). We present a method for estimating volumetric river discharge in low-order (wide) rivers from remotely sensed data by coupling high-resolution imagery with one-dimensional hydraulic modeling at so-called virtual gauging stations. These locations were identified as locations where the river contracted under low flows, exposing a substa...

  2. Utility of low-order linear nuclear-power-plant models in plant diagnostics and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylee, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    A low-order, linear model of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant is described and evaluated. The model consists of 23 linear, first-order difference equations and simulates all subsystems of both the primary and secondary sides of the plant. Comparisons between the calculated model response and available test data show the model to be an adequate representation of the actual plant dynamics. Suggested use for the model in an on-line digital plant diagnostics and control system are presented

  3. Low-order moment expansions to tight binding for interatomic potentials: Successes and failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, J.D.; Voter, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the use of moment-based approximations to tight binding. Using a maximum entropy form for the electronic density of states, we show that a general interatomic potential can be defined that is suitable for molecular-dynamics simulations and has several other desirable features. For covalent materials (C and Si), properties where the atoms are in equivalent environments are well converged at low-order moments. For defect environments, which offer a more critical (and relevant) test, the method is found to give less satisfactory results. For example, the vacancy formation energy for Si is too low by ∼2 eV at 10 moments relative to exact tight binding. Attempts to improve the accuracy were unsuccessful, leading to the conclusion that potentials based on this approach are inadequate for covalent materials. We speculate that this may be a deficiency of low-order moment methods in general. For metals, in contrast to the covalent systems, we find that the low-order moment approach is better behaved. This finding is consistent with the success of existing empirical fourth-moment potentials for metals

  4. Estimating Discharge in Low-Order Rivers With High-Resolution Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tyler V.; Neilson, Bethany T.; Rasmussen, Mitchell T.

    2018-02-01

    Remote sensing of river discharge promises to augment in situ gauging stations, but the majority of research in this field focuses on large rivers (>50 m wide). We present a method for estimating volumetric river discharge in low-order (standard deviation of 6%). Sensitivity analyses were conducted to determine the influence of inundated channel bathymetry and roughness parameters on estimated discharge. Comparison of synthetic rating curves produced through sensitivity analyses show that reasonable ranges of parameter values result in mean percent errors in predicted discharges of 12%-27%.

  5. Presentation, calibration and validation of the low-order, DCESS Earth System Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaffer, G.; Olsen, S. Malskaer; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    2008-01-01

    A new, low-order Earth system model is described, calibrated and tested against Earth system data. The model features modules for the atmosphere, ocean, ocean sediment, land biosphere and lithosphere and has been designed to simulate global change on time scales of years to millions of years...... remineralization. The lithosphere module considers outgassing, weathering of carbonate and silicate rocks and weathering of rocks containing old organic carbon and phosphorus. Weathering rates are related to mean atmospheric temperatures. A pre-industrial, steady state calibration to Earth system data is carried...

  6. NAOMI: a low-order adaptive optics system for the VLT interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonté, Frédéric Yves J.; Alonso, Jaime; Aller-Carpentier, Emmanuel; Andolfato, Luigi; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Cortes, Angela; Delplancke-Strobele, Françoise; Donaldson, Rob; Dorn, Reinhold J.; Dupuy, Christophe; Egner, Sebastian E.; Huber, Stefan; Hubin, Norbert; Kirchbauer, Jean-Paul; Le Louarn, Miska; Lilley, Paul; Jolley, Paul; Martis, Alessandro; Paufique, Jérôme; Pasquini, Luca; Quentin, Jutta; Ridings, Robert; Reyes, Javier; Shchkaturov, Pavel; Suarez, Marcos; Phan Duc, Thanh; Valdes, Guillermo; Woillez, Julien; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Rochat, Sylvain; Vérinaud, Christophe; Moulin, Thibaut; Delboulbé, Alain; Michaud, Laurence; Correia, Jean-Jacques; Roux, Alain; Maurel, Didier; Stadler, Eric; Magnard, Yves

    2016-08-01

    The New Adaptive Optics Module for Interferometry (NAOMI) will be developed for and installed at the 1.8-metre Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) at ESO Paranal. The goal of the project is to equip all four ATs with a low-order Shack- Hartmann adaptive optics system operating in the visible. By improving the wavefront quality delivered by the ATs for guide stars brighter than R = 13 mag, NAOMI will make the existing interferometer performance less dependent on the seeing conditions. Fed with higher and more stable Strehl, the fringe tracker(s) will achieve the fringe stability necessary to reach the full performance of the second-generation instruments GRAVITY and MATISSE.

  7. Controlled synthesis of concave tetrahedral palladium nanocrystals by reducing Pd(acac)2 with carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Hai; Chi, Quan; Zhao, Yanxi; Li, Chunya; Tang, Heqing; Li, Jinlin; Huang, Tao; Liu, Hanfan

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: By using CO as a reducing agent, uniform and well-defined concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals were successfully synthesized. CO flow rate was the most essential for the formation of the concave tetrahedral nanostructures. The morphologies and sizes of the final products can be well controlled by adjusting the flow rate of CO. Highlights: ► By using CO as a reducing agent, concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals were obtained. ► CO flow rate is critical to the formation of concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals. ► The selective adsorption of CO on (1 1 0) facets is essential to concave Pd tetrahedra. -- Abstract: CO reducing strategy to control the morphologies of palladium nanocrystals was investigated. By using CO as a reducing agent, uniform and well-defined concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals with a mean size of about 55 ± 2 nm were readily synthesized with Pd(acac) 2 as a precursor and PVP as a stabilizer. The structures of the as-prepared Pd nanocrystals were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements. The results demonstrated that CO was the most essential for the formation of the concave tetrahedral Pd nanostructures. The morphologies and sizes of the final products can be well controlled by adjusting the flow rate of CO. The most appropriate CO flow rate, temperature and time for the formation of the ideal concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals was 0.033 mL s −1 , 100 °C and 3 h, respectively.

  8. A low-order coupled chemistry meteorology model for testing online and offline data assimilation schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haussaire, J.-M.; Bocquet, M.

    2015-08-01

    Bocquet and Sakov (2013) have introduced a low-order model based on the coupling of the chaotic Lorenz-95 model which simulates winds along a mid-latitude circle, with the transport of a tracer species advected by this zonal wind field. This model, named L95-T, can serve as a playground for testing data assimilation schemes with an online model. Here, the tracer part of the model is extended to a reduced photochemistry module. This coupled chemistry meteorology model (CCMM), the L95-GRS model, mimics continental and transcontinental transport and the photochemistry of ozone, volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides. Its numerical implementation is described. The model is shown to reproduce the major physical and chemical processes being considered. L95-T and L95-GRS are specifically designed and useful for testing advanced data assimilation schemes, such as the iterative ensemble Kalman smoother (IEnKS) which combines the best of ensemble and variational methods. These models provide useful insights prior to the implementation of data assimilation methods on larger models. We illustrate their use with data assimilation schemes on preliminary, yet instructive numerical experiments. In particular, online and offline data assimilation strategies can be conveniently tested and discussed with this low-order CCMM. The impact of observed chemical species concentrations on the wind field can be quantitatively estimated. The impacts of the wind chaotic dynamics and of the chemical species non-chaotic but highly nonlinear dynamics on the data assimilation strategies are illustrated.

  9. Determination of the population of octahedral and tetrahedral interstitials in zirconium hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, V.M.; Gogava, V.V.; Shilo, S.I.; Biryukova, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    Results of neutron investigations of ZrHsub(1.66), ZrHsub(1.75) and ZrHsub(1.98) zirconium hydrides are presented. Investigations were conducted using plane polycrystal samples by multidetector system of scattered neutron detection. Neutron diffraction method was used to determine the number of interstitial hydrogen atoms in interstitials of the lattice cell in the case of statistic atom distribution. The numbers of interstitial atoms in octahedral interstitials for zirconium hydrides were determined experimentally; the difference of potential energies of hydrogen atoms in octa- and tetrahedral interstitials was determined as well. It is shown that experimentally determined difference of potential energies of hydrogen atoms, occupying octa- and tetrahedral positions in investigated zirconium hydrides results at room temperature in the pretailing occupation of tetrahedral interstitials by hydrogen atoms (85-90%); the occupation number grows with temperature decrease and the ordering of interstitial vacancies with formation of hydrogen superstructure takes place at low temperatures

  10. Efficient solutions to the NDA-NCA low-order eigenvalue problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willert, J. A.; Kelley, C. T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent algorithmic advances combine moment-based acceleration and Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) methods to accelerate the computation of the dominant eigenvalue in a k-eigenvalue calculation. In particular, NDA-NCA [1], builds a sequence of low-order (LO) diffusion-based eigenvalue problems in which the solution converges to the true eigenvalue solution. Within NDA-NCA, the solution to the LO k-eigenvalue problem is computed by solving a system of nonlinear equation using some variant of Newton's method. We show that we can speed up the solution to the LO problem dramatically by abandoning the JFNK method and exploiting the structure of the Jacobian matrix. (authors)

  11. Packet loss replacement in voip using a recursive low-order autoregressive modelbased speech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miralavi, Seyed Reza; Ghorshi, Seyed; Mortazavi, Mohammad; Choupan, Jeiran

    2011-01-01

    In real-time packet-based communication systems one major problem is misrouted or delayed packets which results in degraded perceived voice quality. When some speech packets are not available on time, the packet is known as lost packet in real-time communication systems. The easiest task of a network terminal receiver is to replace silence for the duration of lost speech segments. In a high quality communication system in order to avoid quality reduction due to packet loss a suitable method and/or algorithm is needed to replace the missing segments of speech. In this paper, we introduce a recursive low order autoregressive (AR) model for replacement of lost speech segment. The evaluation results show that this method has a lower mean square error (MSE) and low complexity compared to the other efficient methods like high-order AR model without any substantial degradation in perceived voice quality.

  12. Anomalous scaling of low-order structure functions of turbulent velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Dhruva, B.; Kurien, S.; Sreenivasan, K.R.; Taylor, M.A.

    2006-12-01

    It is now believed that the scaling exponents of moments of velocity increments are anomalous, or that the departures from Kolmogorov's (1941) self-similar scaling increase nonlinearly with the increasing order of the moment. This appears to be true whether one considers velocity increments themselves or their absolute values. However, moments of order lower than 2 of the absolute values of velocity increments have not been investigated thoroughly for anomaly. Here, we discuss the importance of the scaling of non-integer moments of order between +2 and -1, and obtain them from direct numerical simulations at moderate Taylor microscale Reynolds numbers R λ ≤ 450, and experimental data at high Reynolds numbers (R λ ∼ 10 000). The relative difference between the measured exponents and Kolmogorov's prediction increases as the moment order decreases towards -1, thus showing that the anomaly is manifested in low-order moments as well. (author)

  13. Extrusion induced low-order starch matrices: Enzymic hydrolysis and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Dhital, Sushil; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Luckman, Paul; Halley, Peter J; Gidley, Michael J

    2015-12-10

    Waxy, normal and highwaymen maize starches were extruded with water as sole plasticizer to achieve low-order starch matrices. Of the three starches, we found that only high-amylose extrudate showed lower digestion rate/extent than starches cooked in excess water. The ordered structure of high-amylose starches in cooked and extruded forms was similar, as judged by NMR, XRD and DSC techniques, but enzyme resistance was much greater for extruded forms. Size exclusion chromatography suggested that longer chains were involved in enzyme resistance. We propose that the local molecular density of packing of amylose chains can control the digestion kinetics rather than just crystallinity, with the principle being that density sufficient to either prevent/limit binding and/or slow down catalysis can be achieved by dense amorphous packing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Coarse-mesh discretized low-order quasi-diffusion equations for subregion averaged scalar fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anistratov, D. Y.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we develop homogenization procedure and discretization for the low-order quasi-diffusion equations on coarse grids for core-level reactor calculations. The system of discretized equations of the proposed method is formulated in terms of the subregion averaged group scalar fluxes. The coarse-mesh solution is consistent with a given fine-mesh discretization of the transport equation in the sense that it preserves a set of average values of the fine-mesh transport scalar flux over subregions of coarse-mesh cells as well as the surface currents, and eigenvalue. The developed method generates numerical solution that mimics the large-scale behavior of the transport solution within assemblies. (authors)

  15. Low-order models of wave interactions in the transition to baroclinic chaos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-G. Früh

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchy of low-order models, based on the quasi-geostrophic two-layer model, is used to investigate complex multi-mode flows. The different models were used to study distinct types of nonlinear interactions, namely wave- wave interactions through resonant triads, and zonal flow-wave interactions. The coupling strength of individual triads is estimated using a phase locking probability density function. The flow of primary interest is a strongly modulated amplitude vacillation, whose modulation is coupled to intermittent bursts of weaker wave modes. This flow was found to emerge in a discontinuous bifurcation directly from a steady wave solution. Two mechanism were found to result in this flow, one involving resonant triads, and the other involving zonal flow-wave interactions together with a strong β-effect. The results will be compared with recent laboratory experiments of multi-mode baroclinic waves in a rotating annulus of fluid subjected to a horizontal temperature gradient.

  16. Automatic low-order aberration correction based on geometrical optics for slab lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Dong, Lizhi; Lai, Boheng; Yang, Ping; Liu, Yong; Kong, Qingfeng; Yang, Kangjian; Tang, Guomao; Xu, Bing

    2017-02-20

    In this paper, we present a method based on geometry optics to simultaneously correct low-order aberrations and reshape the beams of slab lasers. A coaxial optical system with three lenses is adapted. The positions of the three lenses are directly calculated based on the beam parameters detected by wavefront sensors. The initial sizes of the input beams are 1.8  mm×11  mm, and peak-to-valley (PV) values of the wavefront range up to several tens of microns. After automatic correction, the dimensions may reach nearly 22  mm×22  mm as expected, and PV values of the wavefront are less than 2 μm. The effectiveness and precision of this method are verified with experiments.

  17. Statistically accurate low-order models for uncertainty quantification in turbulent dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapsis, Themistoklis P; Majda, Andrew J

    2013-08-20

    A framework for low-order predictive statistical modeling and uncertainty quantification in turbulent dynamical systems is developed here. These reduced-order, modified quasilinear Gaussian (ROMQG) algorithms apply to turbulent dynamical systems in which there is significant linear instability or linear nonnormal dynamics in the unperturbed system and energy-conserving nonlinear interactions that transfer energy from the unstable modes to the stable modes where dissipation occurs, resulting in a statistical steady state; such turbulent dynamical systems are ubiquitous in geophysical and engineering turbulence. The ROMQG method involves constructing a low-order, nonlinear, dynamical system for the mean and covariance statistics in the reduced subspace that has the unperturbed statistics as a stable fixed point and optimally incorporates the indirect effect of non-Gaussian third-order statistics for the unperturbed system in a systematic calibration stage. This calibration procedure is achieved through information involving only the mean and covariance statistics for the unperturbed equilibrium. The performance of the ROMQG algorithm is assessed on two stringent test cases: the 40-mode Lorenz 96 model mimicking midlatitude atmospheric turbulence and two-layer baroclinic models for high-latitude ocean turbulence with over 125,000 degrees of freedom. In the Lorenz 96 model, the ROMQG algorithm with just a single mode captures the transient response to random or deterministic forcing. For the baroclinic ocean turbulence models, the inexpensive ROMQG algorithm with 252 modes, less than 0.2% of the total, captures the nonlinear response of the energy, the heat flux, and even the one-dimensional energy and heat flux spectra.

  18. Low-Order Modeling of Dynamic Stall on Airfoils in Incompressible Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsipur, Shreyas

    Unsteady aerodynamics has been a topic of research since the late 1930's and has increased in popularity among researchers studying dynamic stall in helicopters, insect/bird flight, micro air vehicles, wind-turbine aerodynamics, and ow-energy harvesting devices. Several experimental and computational studies have helped researchers gain a good understanding of the unsteady ow phenomena, but have proved to be expensive and time-intensive for rapid design and analysis purposes. Since the early 1970's, the push to develop low-order models to solve unsteady ow problems has resulted in several semi-empirical models capable of effectively analyzing unsteady aerodynamics in a fraction of the time required by high-order methods. However, due to the various complexities associated with time-dependent flows, several empirical constants and curve fits derived from existing experimental and computational results are required by the semi-empirical models to be an effective analysis tool. The aim of the current work is to develop a low-order model capable of simulating incompressible dynamic-stall type ow problems with a focus on accurately modeling the unsteady ow physics with the aim of reducing empirical dependencies. The lumped-vortex-element (LVE) algorithm is used as the baseline unsteady inviscid model to which augmentations are applied to model unsteady viscous effects. The current research is divided into two phases. The first phase focused on augmentations aimed at modeling pure unsteady trailing-edge boundary-layer separation and stall without leading-edge vortex (LEV) formation. The second phase is targeted at including LEV shedding capabilities to the LVE algorithm and combining with the trailing-edge separation model from phase one to realize a holistic, optimized, and robust low-order dynamic stall model. In phase one, initial augmentations to theory were focused on modeling the effects of steady trailing-edge separation by implementing a non-linear decambering

  19. Ab initio investigation of inversion in tetrahedral molecules of transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musaev, D.G.; Boldyrev, A.I.

    1984-01-01

    Tetrahedral and plane square configurations of TiH 4 , TiF 4 , molecules and ScH 4 - , ScF 4 - anions are optimized in the frames of Hartree-Fock-Roothaan method with the bases of DZHD and DZRS type. Inversion barriers of tetrahedral molecules through plane sqUare configuration which make up 46; 70; 27 and 39 kcal/mol in TiH 4 , TiF 4 , SoH 4 - and ScF 4 - respectively are estimated. Correlation diagrams under inversion are analyzed

  20. Physics at low spin in the mass 160 region: the search for tetrahedral shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bark, R.A.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.F.; Maliage, S.M.; Madiba, T.E.; Komati, F.S.; Lawrie, E.A.; Lawrie, J.J.; Lindasy, R.; Maine, P.; Mullins, S.M.; Murray, S.H.T.; Ncapayi, N.J.; Ramashidza, T.M.; Smit, F.D.; Vymers, P.

    2010-01-01

    The low-lying, odd-spin negative parity bands in the mass 160 region have been identified as candidates for the rotation of a tetrahedral shape, as they have very weak in-band E2 transitions. We report the observation of such bands in 160 Yb and 154 Gd. They are crossed by 2 quasiparticle bands which allow band mixing calculations to be carried out to derive relative quadrupole moments. However, those studied are not consistent with zero, as required for tetrahedral shape. The aligned angular momenta of the bands suggest an octupole vibrational assignment.

  1. Low-order dynamical system model of a fully developed turbulent channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Nicholas; Tutkun, Murat; Cal, Raúl Bayoán

    2017-06-01

    A reduced order model of a turbulent channel flow is composed from a direct numerical simulation database hosted at the Johns Hopkins University. Snapshot proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is used to identify the Hilbert space from which the reduced order model is obtained, as the POD basis is defined to capture the optimal energy content by mode. The reduced order model is defined by coupling the evolution of the dynamic POD mode coefficients through their respective time derivative with a least-squares polynomial fit of terms up to third order. Parameters coupling the dynamics of the POD basis are defined in analog to those produced in the classical Galerkin projection. The resulting low-order dynamical system is tested for a range of basis modes demonstrating that the non-linear mode interactions do not lead to a monotonic decrease in error propagation. A basis of five POD modes accounts for 50% of the integrated turbulence kinetic energy but captures only the largest features of the turbulence in the channel flow and is not able to reflect the anticipated flow dynamics. Using five modes, the low-order model is unable to accurately reproduce Reynolds stresses, and the root-mean-square error of the predicted stresses is as great as 30%. Increasing the basis to 28 modes accounts for 90% of the kinetic energy and adds intermediate scales to the dynamical system. The difference between the time derivatives of the random coefficients associated with individual modes and their least-squares fit is amplified in the numerical integration leading to unstable long-time solutions. Periodic recalibration of the dynamical system is undertaken by limiting the integration time to the range of the sampled data and offering the dynamical system new initial conditions. Renewed initial conditions are found by pushing the mode coefficients in the end of the integration time toward a known point along the original trajectories identified through a least-squares projection. Under

  2. A tetrapyridine ligand with a rigid tetrahedral core forms metal-organic frameworks with PtS type architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Christopher B; Vukotic, V Nicholas; Sirizzotti, Natalie M; Loeb, Stephen J

    2011-08-14

    A new tetradentate, pyridine ligand with a rigid tetrahedral core can be prepared in good yield by a cross-coupling methodology. Two metal organic framework structures of Cu(II) with PtS-type topology having a carbon atom as the tetrahedral node have been characterized utilising this ligand. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  3. Splitting Method for Solving the Coarse-Mesh Discretized Low-Order Quasi-Diffusion Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiruta, Hikaru; Anistratov, Dmitriy Y.; Adams, Marvin L.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the development is presented of a splitting method that can efficiently solve coarse-mesh discretized low-order quasi-diffusion (LOQD) equations. The LOQD problem can reproduce exactly the transport scalar flux and current. To solve the LOQD equations efficiently, a splitting method is proposed. The presented method splits the LOQD problem into two parts: (a) the D problem that captures a significant part of the transport solution in the central parts of assemblies and can be reduced to a diffusion-type equation and (b) the Q problem that accounts for the complicated behavior of the transport solution near assembly boundaries. Independent coarse-mesh discretizations are applied: the D problem equations are approximated by means of a finite element method, whereas the Q problem equations are discretized using a finite volume method. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency of the methodology presented. This methodology can be used to modify existing diffusion codes for full-core calculations (which already solve a version of the D problem) to account for transport effects

  4. Wind farm density and harvested power in very large wind farms: A low-order model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, G.; Sharma, V.; Calaf, M.

    2017-07-01

    In this work we create new understanding of wind turbine wakes recovery process as a function of wind farm density using large-eddy simulations of an atmospheric boundary layer diurnal cycle. Simulations are forced with a constant geostrophic wind and a time varying surface temperature extracted from a selected period of the Cooperative Atmospheric Surface Exchange Study field experiment. Wind turbines are represented using the actuator disk model with rotation and yaw alignment. A control volume analysis around each turbine has been used to evaluate wind turbine wake recovery and corresponding harvested power. Results confirm the existence of two dominant recovery mechanisms, advection and flux of mean kinetic energy, which are modulated by the background thermal stratification. For the low-density arrangements advection dominates, while for the highly loaded wind farms the mean kinetic energy recovers through fluxes of mean kinetic energy. For those cases in between, a smooth balance of both mechanisms exists. From the results, a low-order model for the wind farms' harvested power as a function of thermal stratification and wind farm density has been developed, which has the potential to be used as an order-of-magnitude assessment tool.

  5. Low-order models of a single-screw expander for organic Rankine cycle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziviani, D.; Desideri, A.; Lemort, V.; De Paepe, M.; van den Broek, M.

    2015-08-01

    Screw-type volumetric expanders have been demonstrated to be a suitable technology for organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems because of higher overall effectiveness and good part-load behaviour over other positive displacement machines. An 11 kWe single-screw expander (SSE) adapted from an air compressor has been tested in an ORC test-rig operating with R245fa as working fluid. A total of 60 steady-steady points have been obtained at four different rotational speeds of the expander in the range between 2000 rpm and 3300 rpm. The maximum electrical power output and overall isentropic effectiveness measured were 7.3 kW and 51.9%, respectively. In this paper, a comparison between two low-order models is proposed in terms of accuracy of the predictions, the robustness of the model and the computational time. The first model is the Pacejka equation-based model and the second is a semi-empirical model derived from a well-known scroll expander model and modified to include the geometric aspects of a single screw expander. The models have been calibrated with the available steady-state measurement points by identifying the proper parameters.

  6. Role of low-order rational surfaces in transport barrier formation on the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, K.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, F.

    2010-11-01

    In the Large Helical Device, edge transport barrier (ETB) was formed by H-mode transition near the low-order rational surfaces, that is, at the ι/2π=1 resonant layer (ι/2π: the rotational transform) in outward-shifted plasmas of R ax =3.9m (R ax : the magnetic axis position in the vacuum field), and the ι/2π=2 resonant layer in inward-shifted plasmas of R ax =3.6m. The ι/2π=1 and 2 resonant layers reside in the stochastic field region existing just outside the last closed magnetic surface (LCFS). In the outward-shifted plasmas, H-modes without edge localized modes (ELM-free H-modes) followed by giant ELMs were obtained, while H-modes with high frequency and low amplitude ELMs were obtained in the inward-shifted plasmas. A new type of barrier formation induced by TAE bursts was observed in the plasmas of R ax =3.6m, where the transport barrier is formed near the ι/2π=1 surface locates inside LCFS. (author)

  7. The AOLI Non-Linear Curvature Wavefront Sensor: High sensitivity reconstruction for low-order AO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crass, Jonathan; King, David; Mackay, Craig

    2013-12-01

    Many adaptive optics (AO) systems in use today require bright reference objects to determine the effects of atmospheric distortions on incoming wavefronts. This requirement is because Shack Hartmann wavefront sensors (SHWFS) distribute incoming light from reference objects into a large number of sub-apertures. Bright natural reference objects occur infrequently across the sky leading to the use of laser guide stars which add complexity to wavefront measurement systems. The non-linear curvature wavefront sensor as described by Guyon et al. has been shown to offer a significant increase in sensitivity when compared to a SHWFS. This facilitates much greater sky coverage using natural guide stars alone. This paper describes the current status of the non-linear curvature wavefront sensor being developed as part of an adaptive optics system for the Adaptive Optics Lucky Imager (AOLI) project. The sensor comprises two photon-counting EMCCD detectors from E2V Technologies, recording intensity at four near-pupil planes. These images are used with a reconstruction algorithm to determine the phase correction to be applied by an ALPAO 241-element deformable mirror. The overall system is intended to provide low-order correction for a Lucky Imaging based multi CCD imaging camera. We present the current optical design of the instrument including methods to minimise inherent optical effects, principally chromaticity. Wavefront reconstruction methods are discussed and strategies for their optimisation to run at the required real-time speeds are introduced. Finally, we discuss laboratory work with a demonstrator setup of the system.

  8. Large wood mobility processes in low-order Chilean river channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iroumé, Andrés; Mao, Luca; Andreoli, Andrea; Ulloa, Héctor; Ardiles, María Paz

    2015-01-01

    Large wood (LW) mobility was studied over several time periods in channel segments of four low-order mountain streams, southern Chile. All wood pieces found within the bankfull channels and on the streambanks extending into the channel with dimensions more than 10 cm in diameter and 1 m in length were measured and their position was referenced. Thirty six percent of measured wood pieces were tagged to investigate log mobility. All segments were first surveyed in summer and then after consecutive rainy winter periods. Annual LW mobility ranged between 0 and 28%. Eighty-four percent of the moved LW had diameters ≤ 40 cm and 92% had lengths ≤ 7 m. Large wood mobility was higher in periods when maximum water level (Hmax) exceeded channel bankfull depth (HBk) than in periods with flows less than HBk, but the difference was not statistically significant. Dimensions of moved LW showed no significant differences between periods with flows exceeding and with flows less than bankfull stage. Statistically significant relationships were found between annual LW mobility (%) and unit stream power (for Hmax) and Hmax/HBk. The mean diameter of transported wood pieces per period was significantly correlated with unit stream power for H15% and H50% (the level above which the flow remains for 15 and 50% of the time, respectively). These results contribute to an understanding of the complexity of LW mobilization processes in mountain streams and can be used to assess and prevent potential damage caused by LW mobilization during floods.

  9. Assessment of low-order theories for analysis and design of shrouded wind turbines using CFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranake, Aniket C; Lakshminarayan, Vinod K; Duraisamy, Karthik

    2014-01-01

    The use of a shroud around the rotor of a wind turbine has been known to augment the airflow through the rotor plane and hence result in improved performance. This work uses Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to assess the validity of several simple theories which attempt to extend Betz theory to shrouded turbines. Two CFD models are employed and compared to predictions of previously published models. The first makes use of a fixed pressure-drop actuator disk, while the second incorporates the twist and chord distribution of the turbine blade as well as an airfoil polar using a technique much like the classical blade element momentum (BEM) method. Calculations are performed for a sweep of turbine loadings using the fixed pressure-drop model and a sweep of tip speed ratios using the BEM model for both an open and shrouded turbine. Power is computed using a control volume approach for the fixed pressure-drop model and by integrating tangential forces for the BEM model. Information including mass flow ratio, power coefficient ratio, axial induction, and shroud force is extracted from the solution fields and compared against the predictions of low-order theories. Finally, the blade element model is used to redesign the turbine twist distribution to achieve greater performance across a range of tip speed ratios

  10. Low-order-mode harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier in W band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Y. S.; Chen, C. H.; Yang, S. J.; Lai, C. H.; Lin, T. Y.; Lo, Y. C.; Hong, J. W.; Hung, C. L.; Chang, T. H.

    2012-01-01

    Harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifiers (gyro-TWAs) allow for magnetic field reduction and frequency multiplication. To avoid absolute instabilities, this work proposes a W-band harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA operating at low-order modes. By amplifying a fundamental harmonic TE 11 drive wave, the second harmonic component of the beam current initiates a TE 21 wave to be amplified. Absolute instabilities in the gyro-TWA are suppressed by shortening the interaction circuit and increasing wall losses. Simulation results reveal that compared with Ka-band gyro-TWTs, the lower wall losses effectively suppress absolute instabilities in the W-band gyro-TWA. However, a global reflective oscillation occurs as the wall losses decrease. Increasing the length or resistivity of the lossy section can reduce the feedback of the oscillation to stabilize the amplifier. The W-band harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA is predicted to yield a peak output power of 111 kW at 98 GHz with an efficiency of 25%, a saturated gain of 26 dB, and a bandwidth of 1.6 GHz for a 60 kV, 7.5 A electron beam with an axial velocity spread of 8%.

  11. DNA tetrahedral scaffolds-based platform for the construction of electrochemiluminescence biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qiu-Mei; Zhou, Zhen; Li, Mei-Xing; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2017-04-15

    Proximal metallic nanoparticles (NPs) could quench the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) emission of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) due to Förster energy transfer (FRET), but at a certain distance, the coupling of light-emission with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) result in enhanced ECL. Thus, the modification strategies and distances control between QDs and metallic NPs are critical for the ECL intensity of QDs. In this strategy, a SPR enhanced ECL sensor based on DNA tetrahedral scaffolds modified platform was reported for the detection of telomerase activity. Due to the rigid three-dimensional structure, DNA tetrahedral scaffolds grafting on the electrode surface could accurately modulate the distance between CdS QDs and luminol labelled gold nanoparticles (L-Au NPs), meanwhile provide an enhanced spatial dimension and accessibility for the assembly of multiple L-Au NPs. The ECL intensities of both CdS QDs (-1.25V vs. SCE) and luminol (+0.33V vs. SCE) gradually increased along with the formation of multiple L-Au NPs at the vertex of DNA tetrahedral scaffolds induced by telomerase, bringing in a dual-potential ECL analysis. The proposed method showed high sensitivity for the identification of telomerase and was successfully applied for the differentiation of cancer cells from normal cells. This work suggests that DNA tetrahedral scaffolds could serve as an excellent choice for the construction of SPR-ECL system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydrologic and Geomorphic Impacts of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods From Low-Order Tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, S. W.; Jacquet, J.; McGrath, D.; George, D. L.; Koschitzki, R.; Nimick, D.; Fahey, M. J.; Okuinghttons, J.

    2017-12-01

    Lakes dammed by glacial ice or moraines are common features in the headwaters of both glaciated and recently deglaciated catchments. These dams can fail releasing water in a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF), which raises the question: do GLOFs from low-order tributaries significantly alter the hydrology and sediment transport regimes of the large mainstem rivers to which they drain? Here we use repeat satellite imagery, in situ measurements, and 2D hydrodynamic modeling to quantify the hydrologic and geomorphic changes that resulted from 22 GLOFs that occurred between 2008 and 2016 from Lago Cachet Dos, Patagonia, Chile. We find that the complicated flood path that includes two lakes and a broad floodplain can dampen peak discharges from over 15,000 m³/s at the source lake to generally less than 2,000 m³/s where the floods enter the mainstem Rio Baker, 40 km downstream. Despite this dampening of GLOF peak discharge, peak discharges still exceeded the peak annual discharge of the Rio Baker, the largest river in Chile by volume, by 1 to 2 times, which in turn increased the frequency and magnitude of flood events. We also document the sediment dynamics in the source lake, where we find that over 25,000,000 m³ of stored sediment was removed during the GLOF cycle that began in 2008. Further downstream, repeat satellite imagery reveals that the large discharges associated with GLOFs produced a nonsteady channel configuration in which old stable channels were abandoned, many new channels were formed, and conveyance capacity changed, best illustrated by the 200 m of delta progradation from the GLOF-affected tributary into the Rio Baker that locally narrowed the Rio Baker channel width from 300 m to 60 m. In total, this analysis demonstrates that GLOFs from distant source lakes can have an outsized impact, both in terms of changing flood characteristics as well as sediment transport, even on the largest river systems.

  13. Environmentally stable adsorbent of tetrahedral silica and non-tetrahedral alumina for removal and recovery of malachite green dye from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, Chellapandian; Sundaram, Thiravium; Palvannan, Thayumanavan

    2008-01-01

    The conventional adsorbents like activated carbon, agricultural wastes, molecular sieves, etc., used for dye adsorption are unstable in the environment for long time, and hence the adsorbed dyes again gets liberated and pollute the environment. To avoid this problem, environmentally stable adsorbent of silica and alumina should be employed for malachite green adsorption. The adsorbents were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to confirm the tetrahedral framework of silica and non-tetrahedral framework of alumina. The adsorption equilibrium of dye on alumina and silica were 4 and 5 h, respectively, this less adsorption time on alumina might be due to the less activation energy on alumina (63.46 kJ mol -1 ) than silica (69.93 kJ mol -1 ). Adsorption increased with increase of temperature on silica, in alumina, adsorption increased up to 60 deg. C, and further increase of temperature decreased the adsorption due to the structural change of non-tetrahedral alumina in water. The optimum pH for dye adsorption on alumina was 5 and silica was 6. The dye adsorptions on both adsorbents followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The adsorption well matched with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms and found that adsorption capacity on alumina was more than silica. The thermodynamic studies proved that the adsorption was endothermic and chemisorptions (ΔH o > 40 kJ mol -1 ) on alumina and silica. Recovery of dye on alumina and silica were studied from 30 to 90 deg. C and observed that 52% of dye was recovered from alumina and only 3.5% from silica. The less recovery on silica proved the strong adsorption of dye on silica than alumina

  14. Environmentally stable adsorbent of tetrahedral silica and non-tetrahedral alumina for removal and recovery of malachite green dye from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, Chellapandian [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636011, Tamilnadu (India)], E-mail: chellapandiankannan@gmail.com; Sundaram, Thiravium [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636011, Tamilnadu (India); Palvannan, Thayumanavan [Department of Biochemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636011, Tamilnadu (India)

    2008-08-30

    The conventional adsorbents like activated carbon, agricultural wastes, molecular sieves, etc., used for dye adsorption are unstable in the environment for long time, and hence the adsorbed dyes again gets liberated and pollute the environment. To avoid this problem, environmentally stable adsorbent of silica and alumina should be employed for malachite green adsorption. The adsorbents were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to confirm the tetrahedral framework of silica and non-tetrahedral framework of alumina. The adsorption equilibrium of dye on alumina and silica were 4 and 5 h, respectively, this less adsorption time on alumina might be due to the less activation energy on alumina (63.46 kJ mol{sup -1}) than silica (69.93 kJ mol{sup -1}). Adsorption increased with increase of temperature on silica, in alumina, adsorption increased up to 60 deg. C, and further increase of temperature decreased the adsorption due to the structural change of non-tetrahedral alumina in water. The optimum pH for dye adsorption on alumina was 5 and silica was 6. The dye adsorptions on both adsorbents followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The adsorption well matched with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms and found that adsorption capacity on alumina was more than silica. The thermodynamic studies proved that the adsorption was endothermic and chemisorptions ({delta}H{sup o} > 40 kJ mol{sup -1}) on alumina and silica. Recovery of dye on alumina and silica were studied from 30 to 90 deg. C and observed that 52% of dye was recovered from alumina and only 3.5% from silica. The less recovery on silica proved the strong adsorption of dye on silica than alumina.

  15. Atomic Scale Picture of the Ion Conduction Mechanism in Tetrahedral Network of Lanthanum Barium Gallate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalarvo, Niina H [ORNL; Gourdon, Olivier [ORNL; Bi, Zhonghe [ORNL; Gout, Delphine J [ORNL; Ohl, Michael E [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Combined experimental study of impedance spectroscopy, neutron powder diffraction and quasielastic neutron scattering was performed to shed light into the atomic scale ion migration processes in proton and oxide ion conductor; La0.8Ba1.2GaO3.9 . This material consist of tetrahedral GaO4 units, which are rather flexible and rocking motion of these units promotes the ionic migration process. The oxide ion (vacancy) conduction takes place on channels along c axis, involving a single elementary step, which occurs between adjacent tetrahedron (inter-tetrahedron jump). The proton conduction mechanism consists of intra-tetrahedron and inter-tetrahedron elementary processes. The intra-tetrahedron proton transport is the rate-limiting process, with activation energy of 0.44 eV. The rocking motion of the GaO4 tetrahedron aids the inter-tetrahedral proton transport, which has the activation energy of 0.068 eV.

  16. Presentation, calibration and validation of the low-order, DCESS Earth System Model (Version 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Pepke Pedersen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A new, low-order Earth System Model is described, calibrated and tested against Earth system data. The model features modules for the atmosphere, ocean, ocean sediment, land biosphere and lithosphere and has been designed to simulate global change on time scales of years to millions of years. The atmosphere module considers radiation balance, meridional transport of heat and water vapor between low-mid latitude and high latitude zones, heat and gas exchange with the ocean and sea ice and snow cover. Gases considered are carbon dioxide and methane for all three carbon isotopes, nitrous oxide and oxygen. The ocean module has 100 m vertical resolution, carbonate chemistry and prescribed circulation and mixing. Ocean biogeochemical tracers are phosphate, dissolved oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon for all three carbon isotopes and alkalinity. Biogenic production of particulate organic matter in the ocean surface layer depends on phosphate availability but with lower efficiency in the high latitude zone, as determined by model fit to ocean data. The calcite to organic carbon rain ratio depends on surface layer temperature. The semi-analytical, ocean sediment module considers calcium carbonate dissolution and oxic and anoxic organic matter remineralisation. The sediment is composed of calcite, non-calcite mineral and reactive organic matter. Sediment porosity profiles are related to sediment composition and a bioturbated layer of 0.1 m thickness is assumed. A sediment segment is ascribed to each ocean layer and segment area stems from observed ocean depth distributions. Sediment burial is calculated from sedimentation velocities at the base of the bioturbated layer. Bioturbation rates and oxic and anoxic remineralisation rates depend on organic carbon rain rates and dissolved oxygen concentrations. The land biosphere module considers leaves, wood, litter and soil. Net primary production depends on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and

  17. The low-order wavefront control system for the PICTURE-C mission: high-speed image acquisition and processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewawasam, Kuravi; Mendillo, Christopher B.; Howe, Glenn A.; Martel, Jason; Finn, Susanna C.; Cook, Timothy A.; Chakrabarti, Supriya

    2017-09-01

    The Planetary Imaging Concept Testbed Using a Recoverable Experiment - Coronagraph (PICTURE-C) mission will directly image debris disks and exozodiacal dust around nearby stars from a high-altitude balloon using a vector vortex coronagraph. The PICTURE-C low-order wavefront control (LOWC) system will be used to correct time-varying low-order aberrations due to pointing jitter, gravity sag, thermal deformation, and the gondola pendulum motion. We present the hardware and software implementation of the low-order ShackHartmann and reflective Lyot stop sensors. Development of the high-speed image acquisition and processing system is discussed with the emphasis on the reduction of hardware and computational latencies through the use of a real-time operating system and optimized data handling. By characterizing all of the LOWC latencies, we describe techniques to achieve a framerate of 200 Hz with a mean latency of ˜378 μs

  18. A tetrahedrally coordinated cobalt(II) aminophosphonate containing one-dimensional channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmill, William R.; Smith, Mark D.; Reisner, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    A tetrahedrally coordinated cobalt(II) phosphonate, Co(O 3 PCH 2 CH 2 NH 2 ), has been synthesized using hydrothermal techniques. X-ray diffraction indicates that this material is a three-dimensional open framework with rings aligned along a single axis forming infinite one-dimensional channels. The framework decomposes just above 400 deg. C. Magnetic susceptibility data are consistent with weak antiferromagnetic ordering at low temperatures

  19. Urea-functionalized crystalline capsules for recognition and separation of tetrahedral oxoanions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custelcean, Radu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division

    2012-12-21

    We reviewed the persistent ability of tripodal TREN-based tris-urea receptors (TREN = tris(2-aminoethyl)amine) to self-assemble with a variety of oxoanions into dimeric capsules upon crystallization. The capsule crystallization allows for charge-, shape-, and size-selective encapsulation of tetrahedral XO4n-anions (n = 2,3), and provides an effective way to separate these anions from competitive aqueous environments.

  20. Shutdown dose rate analysis with CAD geometry, Cartesian/tetrahedral mesh, and advanced variance reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondo, Elliott D.; Davis, Andrew; Wilson, Paul P.H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A CAD-based shutdown dose rate analysis workflow has been implemented. • Cartesian and superimposed tetrahedral mesh are fully supported. • Biased and unbiased photon source sampling options are available. • Hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic techniques accelerate photon transport. • The workflow has been validated with the FNG-ITER benchmark problem. - Abstract: In fusion energy systems (FES) high-energy neutrons born from burning plasma activate system components to form radionuclides. The biological dose rate that results from photons emitted by these radionuclides after shutdown—the shutdown dose rate (SDR)—must be quantified for maintenance planning. This can be done using the Rigorous Two-Step (R2S) method, which involves separate neutron and photon transport calculations, coupled by a nuclear inventory analysis code. The geometric complexity and highly attenuating configuration of FES motivates the use of CAD geometry and advanced variance reduction for this analysis. An R2S workflow has been created with the new capability of performing SDR analysis directly from CAD geometry with Cartesian or tetrahedral meshes and with biased photon source sampling, enabling the use of the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) variance reduction technique. This workflow has been validated with the Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG)-ITER SDR benchmark using both Cartesian and tetrahedral meshes and both unbiased and biased photon source sampling. All results are within 20.4% of experimental values, which constitutes satisfactory agreement. Photon transport using CADIS is demonstrated to yield speedups as high as 8.5·10"5 for problems using the FNG geometry.

  1. Influence of low-order rational magnetic surfaces on heat transport in TJ-II heliac ECRH plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castejon, F.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; Estrada, T.; Ascasibar, E.; Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.

    2004-01-01

    We study the effect of low-order rational surfaces on electron heat transport in plasmas confined in the TJ-II stellarator (Alejaldre et al 1990 Fusion Technol. 17 131) and heated by electron cyclotron waves. Enhancement of core electron heat confinement is observed when the rational surface is placed in the vicinity of the power deposition zone, either by performing a magnetic configuration scan or by inducing Ohmic current in a single discharge. The key to improving heat confinement seems to be a locally strong positive radial electric field, which is made possible by a synergistic effect between enhanced electron heat fluxes through radial positions around low-order rationals and pump out mechanisms in the heat deposition zone. (author)

  2. Broadband three-dimensional diamond-shaped invisible cloaks composed of tetrahedral homogeneous blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinhua; Qu Shaobo; Wu Xiang; Wang Jiafu; Ma Hua; Xu Zhuo

    2010-01-01

    By means of embedded optical transformation, three-dimensional diamond-shaped invisible cloaks composed of tetrahedral homogeneous blocks have been designed in this paper. The constitutive parameters of the invisible cloaks can be obtained based on the form invariance of Maxwell's equations in coordinate transformation. Numerical methods using the finite element method verified the diamond-shaped cloaks. The invisible properties of the designed cloaks are nearly perfect when the original line section is sufficiently short compared with its counterpart in the after-transformed space. The designed cloaks can operate in a wide bandwidth due to the line transformation in the coordinate transformation process.

  3. A three-dimensional tetrahedral-shaped conjugated small molecule for organic solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIN Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of a novel three-dimensional tetrahedral-shaped small molecule,SO,containing a tetraphenylsilane core and cyanoester functionalized terthiophene arms.A deep lying HOMO energy level of -5.3 eV and a narrow bandgap of 1.9 eV were obtained from cyclic voltammetry measurements.Absorption,X-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry experiments all indicate high crystallinity of this compound.Solar cells employing SO were fabricated and evaluated.The relatively low performance was mainly ascribed to lack of appreciable phase separation,which is confirmed by optical microscopy.

  4. Electromagnetic forward modelling for realistic Earth models using unstructured tetrahedral meshes and a meshfree approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, C.; Long, J.; Lu, X.; Lelievre, P. G.

    2017-12-01

    Real-life geology is complex, and so, even when allowing for the diffusive, low resolution nature of geophysical electromagnetic methods, we need Earth models that can accurately represent this complexity when modelling and inverting electromagnetic data. This is particularly the case for the scales, detail and conductivity contrasts involved in mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and development, but also for the larger scale of lithospheric studies. Unstructured tetrahedral meshes provide a flexible means of discretizing a general, arbitrary Earth model. This is important when wanting to integrate a geophysical Earth model with a geological Earth model parameterized in terms of surfaces. Finite-element and finite-volume methods can be derived for computing the electric and magnetic fields in a model parameterized using an unstructured tetrahedral mesh. A number of such variants have been proposed and have proven successful. However, the efficiency and accuracy of these methods can be affected by the "quality" of the tetrahedral discretization, that is, how many of the tetrahedral cells in the mesh are long, narrow and pointy. This is particularly the case if one wants to use an iterative technique to solve the resulting linear system of equations. One approach to deal with this issue is to develop sophisticated model and mesh building and manipulation capabilities in order to ensure that any mesh built from geological information is of sufficient quality for the electromagnetic modelling. Another approach is to investigate other methods of synthesizing the electromagnetic fields. One such example is a "meshfree" approach in which the electromagnetic fields are synthesized using a mesh that is distinct from the mesh used to parameterized the Earth model. There are then two meshes, one describing the Earth model and one used for the numerical mathematics of computing the fields. This means that there are no longer any quality requirements on the model mesh, which

  5. H2O-induced trigonal-to-tetrahedral transition in boron zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fois, E.; Gamba, A.; Trudu, F.; Tabacchi, G.

    2008-01-01

    The behaviour of a protonated boron-containing zeolite at intermediate hydration degree has been investigated by means of periodic DFT approaches. Results of a combined room-temperature Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics blue-moon path sampling simulation indicate that, in the line with experimental findings, the BO 3 /Si-OH acid site typical of dry samples is converted to a hydrated H 3 O + hydrogen bonded to tetrahedral BO 4 - at moderate water content (four H 2 O per B site) with an activation free barrier of the order of few k T.

  6. The application of Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics to the study of tetrahedral amorphous carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, D.R.; McCulloch, D.G.; Goringe, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Car-Parrinello method for carrying out molecular dynamics enables the forces between atoms to be calculated by solving Schroedinger's equation for the valence electrons using Density Functional Theory. The method is capable of giving good structural predictions for amorphous network solids by quenching from the melt, even in situations where the bonding changes from one site to another. In amorphous carbon where, depending on its environment, carbon may show sp 2 or sp 3 bonds. The method is applied here to the study of network solids using the example of tetrahedral amorphous carbon

  7. Soft Chemistry, Coloring and Polytypism in Filled Tetrahedral Semiconductors: Toward Enhanced Thermoelectric and Battery Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Miles A; Medina-Gonzalez, Alan M; Vela, Javier

    2018-03-12

    Filled tetrahedral semiconductors are a rich family of compounds with tunable electronic structure, making them ideal for applications in thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, and battery anodes. Furthermore, these materials crystallize in a plethora of related structures that are very close in energy, giving rise to polytypism through the manipulation of synthetic parameters. This Minireview highlights recent advances in the solution-phase synthesis and nanostructuring of these materials. These methods enable the synthesis of metastable phases and polytypes that were previously unobtainable. Additionally, samples synthesized in solution phase have enhanced thermoelectric performance due to their decreased grain size. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Matrix elements of vibration kinetic energy operator of tetrahedral molecules in non-orthogonal-dependent coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protasevich, Alexander E.; Nikitin, Andrei V.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we propose an algorithm for calculating the matrix elements of the kinetic energy operator for tetrahedral molecules. This algorithm uses the dependent six-angle coordinates (6A) and takes into account the full symmetry of molecules. Unlike A.V. Nikitin, M. Rey, and Vl. G. Tyuterev who operate with the kinetic energy operator only in Radau orthogonal coordinates, we consider a general case. The matrix elements are shown to be a sum of products of one-dimensional integrals.

  9. Tetrahedral ↔ octahedral network structure transition in simulated vitreous SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Van Hoang; Nguyen Trung Hai; Hoang Zung

    2006-01-01

    By using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations we found a transition from a tetrahedral to an octahedral network structure in an amorphous SiO 2 model under compression from 2.20 to 5.35 g/cm 3 . And on heating of a high density amorphous (hda) model of 5.35 g/cm 3 at zero pressure, the structure transforms to a low density amorphous (lda) form. Simulations were done in a model containing 3000 particles under periodic boundary conditions with interatomic potentials which have a weak Coulomb interaction and a Morse type short-range interaction

  10. Highly parallel demagnetization field calculation using the fast multipole method on tetrahedral meshes with continuous sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmesi, P.; Exl, L.; Bruckner, F.; Abert, C.; Suess, D.

    2017-11-01

    The long-range magnetic field is the most time-consuming part in micromagnetic simulations. Computational improvements can relieve problems related to this bottleneck. This work presents an efficient implementation of the Fast Multipole Method [FMM] for the magnetic scalar potential as used in micromagnetics. The novelty lies in extending FMM to linearly magnetized tetrahedral sources making it interesting also for other areas of computational physics. We treat the near field directly and in use (exact) numerical integration on the multipole expansion in the far field. This approach tackles important issues like the vectorial and continuous nature of the magnetic field. By using FMM the calculations scale linearly in time and memory.

  11. DNA-mediated self-assembly of tetrahedral plasmonic clusters for metafluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Nicholas; Sun, Li; Lee, You-Jin; Fan, Jonathan; Capasso, Federico; Yi, Gi-Ra; Manoharan, Vinothan

    2014-03-01

    We direct the self-assembly of clusters of gold nanospheres with the goal of creating a bulk, isotropic, optical metafluid. We use spherical gold nanoparticles that are exceptionally smooth, monocrystalline, and monodisperse. These particles exhibit highly reproducible scattering spectra compared with commercially available gold colloids. We label them with DNA sequences and mix them together to self-assemble small clusters. By controlling the particle sizes and the interactions between them, we maximize the yield of tetrahedral clusters, the ideal structures for isotropic metamaterials.

  12. Tetrahedral-Mesh Simulation of Turbulent Flows with the Space-Time Conservative Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan; Venkatachari, Balaji; Cheng, Gary C.

    2015-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows are predominantly carried out using structured, hexahedral meshes despite decades of development in unstructured mesh methods. Tetrahedral meshes offer ease of mesh generation around complex geometries and the potential of an orientation free grid that would provide un-biased small-scale dissipation and more accurate intermediate scale solutions. However, due to the lack of consistent multi-dimensional numerical formulations in conventional schemes for triangular and tetrahedral meshes at the cell interfaces, numerical issues exist when flow discontinuities or stagnation regions are present. The space-time conservative conservation element solution element (CESE) method - due to its Riemann-solver-free shock capturing capabilities, non-dissipative baseline schemes, and flux conservation in time as well as space - has the potential to more accurately simulate turbulent flows using unstructured tetrahedral meshes. To pave the way towards accurate simulation of shock/turbulent boundary-layer interaction, a series of wave and shock interaction benchmark problems that increase in complexity, are computed in this paper with triangular/tetrahedral meshes. Preliminary computations for the normal shock/turbulence interactions are carried out with a relatively coarse mesh, by direct numerical simulations standards, in order to assess other effects such as boundary conditions and the necessity of a buffer domain. The results indicate that qualitative agreement with previous studies can be obtained for flows where, strong shocks co-exist along with unsteady waves that display a broad range of scales, with a relatively compact computational domain and less stringent requirements for grid clustering near the shock. With the space-time conservation properties, stable solutions without any spurious wave reflections can be obtained without a need for buffer domains near the outflow/farfield boundaries. Computational results for the

  13. Tetrahedral 1B4Sb nanoclusters in GaP:(B, Sb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elyukhin, V A, E-mail: elyukhin@cinvestav.m [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica-SEES, CINVESTAV-IPN, Avenida IPN 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, C. P. 07360, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    Self-assembling conditions of 1B4Sb tetrahedral nanoclusters in GaP doped with boron and Sb isoelectronic impurities are represented in the ultradilute and dilute limits of the boron and Sb contents, respectively. The fulfilled estimates demonstrated the preferential complete or almost complete allocation of boron atoms in 1B4Sb nanoclusters at temperatures of 500 {sup 0}C and 900 {sup 0}C, respectively. The significant decrease of the sum of the free energies of the constituent compounds is the main origin of self-assembling. The reduction of the strain energy is the additional cause of this phenomenon.

  14. The Effect of Titanium Tetrahedral Coordination of Silica-Titania Catalyst on the Physical Properties of Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizar, U. K.; Hidayatul, J.; Sundari, R.; Bahrizal, B.; Amran, A.; Putra, A.; Latisma DJ, L.; Dewata, I.

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates the correlation of the number of titanium tetrahedral coordination and biodiesel production. The solid-state method has been used to synthesis of silica-titania catalyst for biodiesel production, which the precursors, i.e. silica and titania commercials were heated in the temperature range of 450 - 550°C. The characterization of the prepared silica-titania has been studied by FTIR and DR UV-Vis in order to identify and calculate the presence of titanium tetrahedral coordination in silica-titania catalyst. A very small peak at around 950 cm-1 indicated the presence of titanium tetrahedral coordination through Si–O–Ti bonds. Deconvolution of DR UV-Vis spectra showed the coordination of titanium in silica-titania is more octahedral. However, the number of titanium tetrahedral coordination of the prepared silica-titania is found higher than that of TiO2 commercial. The increasing of titanium tetrahedral fraction in silica-titania affects the physical properties of biodiesel in terms of boiling point, viscosity and density, which is produced by the reaction of methanol and palm oil.

  15. Verification of the three-dimensional tetrahedral grid SN code THOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunert, S.; Ferrer, R.; Azmy, Y.

    2013-01-01

    In this work current capabilities implemented in the novel, arbitrary-order, tetrahedral-grid short characteristics S N radiation transport code THOR are verified based on four benchmark problems: (1) A one-group Method of Manufactured Solution (MMS) problem on a cuboidal domain, (2) an infinite medium eigenvalue problem with up-scattering, (3) a homogeneous torus and (4) a bare cube eigenvalue problem with anisotropic scattering up to order three. The first benchmark problem exercises the various spatial discretization options available in THOR: The short characteristics method in conjunction with polynomial expansions of the source and face fluxes either using the complete or Lagrange family of arbitrary orders. Using the numerical solution's order of convergence test in the framework of a mesh refinement study, correct implementation of a selection of spatial expansion orders is demonstrated for two meshes with tetrahedral aspect ratios close to unity and 50. The second benchmark problem exercises the implementation of angular fluxes on reflective boundary faces that are implicit within a mesh sweep, and up-scattering. The third benchmark problem comprises cyclic dependencies within the mesh sweep thus exercising the algorithm devised for 'breaking' the cyclic dependencies. Finally, the fourth benchmark problem, a simple bare cube, is used to test correct implementation of the anisotropic scattering capability. For all test problems THOR obtains solutions that converge to the reference/exact solution with the expected rate thereby contributing to our confidence in the correctness of its tested features in the present implementation. (authors)

  16. Spectroscopic criteria for identification of nuclear tetrahedral and octahedral symmetries: Illustration on a rare earth nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, J.; Curien, D.; Dedes, I.; Mazurek, K.; Tagami, S.; Shimizu, Y. R.; Bhattacharjee, T.

    2018-02-01

    We formulate criteria for identification of the nuclear tetrahedral and octahedral symmetries and illustrate for the first time their possible realization in a rare earth nucleus 152Sm. We use realistic nuclear mean-field theory calculations with the phenomenological macroscopic-microscopic method, the Gogny-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach, and general point-group theory considerations to guide the experimental identification method as illustrated on published experimental data. Following group theory the examined symmetries imply the existence of exotic rotational bands on whose properties the spectroscopic identification criteria are based. These bands may contain simultaneously states of even and odd spins, of both parities and parity doublets at well-defined spins. In the exact-symmetry limit those bands involve no E 2 transitions. We show that coexistence of tetrahedral and octahedral deformations is essential when calculating the corresponding energy minima and surrounding barriers, and that it has a characteristic impact on the rotational bands. The symmetries in question imply the existence of long-lived shape isomers and, possibly, new waiting point nuclei—impacting the nucleosynthesis processes in astrophysics—and an existence of 16-fold degenerate particle-hole excitations. Specifically designed experiments which aim at strengthening the identification arguments are briefly discussed.

  17. Artificial intelligence approach to planning the robotic assembly of large tetrahedral truss structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homemdemello, Luiz S.

    1992-01-01

    An assembly planner for tetrahedral truss structures is presented. To overcome the difficulties due to the large number of parts, the planner exploits the simplicity and uniformity of the shapes of the parts and the regularity of their interconnection. The planning automation is based on the computational formalism known as production system. The global data base consists of a hexagonal grid representation of the truss structure. This representation captures the regularity of tetrahedral truss structures and their multiple hierarchies. It maps into quadratic grids and can be implemented in a computer by using a two-dimensional array data structure. By maintaining the multiple hierarchies explicitly in the model, the choice of a particular hierarchy is only made when needed, thus allowing a more informed decision. Furthermore, testing the preconditions of the production rules is simple because the patterned way in which the struts are interconnected is incorporated into the topology of the hexagonal grid. A directed graph representation of assembly sequences allows the use of both graph search and backtracking control strategies.

  18. Impact of local symmetry breaking on the physical properties of tetrahedral liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rui; Tanaka, Hajime

    2018-02-27

    Water and silica are the most important materials with local tetrahedral symmetry. They have similar crystalline polymorphs and exhibit anomalous density maximum in the liquid state. However, water and silica also show very different characteristics. For instance, the density of water varies much more sharply than that of liquid silica near the maximum as temperature changes. More notably, silica is a very good glass-former, but water is an extremely poor one. The physical origins of these similarities and differences still remain elusive, due to the lack of a microscopic understanding of the structural ordering in these two important liquids. Here, by accessing microscopic structural information by computer simulations, we reveal that local translational symmetry breaking is responsible for the density anomalies. On the other hand, the difference in the degree of local orientational symmetry breaking between water and silica, which originates from the difference in their bonding nature, causes not only the difference in the sharpness of density anomalies, but also their distinct glass-forming abilities. Our work not only shows the crucial roles of local translational and orientational symmetry breaking in the physical properties of the two extremely important materials, water and silica, but also provides a unified scenario applicable for other tetrahedral liquids such as Si, Ge, C, BeF 2 , and GeO 2 .

  19. Evolution of stacking fault tetrahedral and work hardening effect in copper single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai Tao; Zhu, Xiu Fu; Sun, Ya Zhou; Xie, Wen Kun

    2017-11-01

    Stacking fault tetrahedral (SFT), generated in machining of copper single crystal as one type of subsurface defects, has significant influence on the performance of workpiece. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is used to investigate the evolution of stacking fault tetrahedral in nano-cutting of copper single crystal. The result shows that SFT is nucleated at the intersection of differently oriented stacking fault (SF) planes and SFT evolves from the preform only containing incomplete surfaces into a solid defect. The evolution of SFT contains several stress fluctuations until the complete formation. Nano-indentation simulation is then employed on the machined workpiece from nano-cutting, through which the interaction between SFT and later-formed dislocations in subsurface is studied. In the meanwhile, force-depth curves obtained from nano-indentation on pristine and machined workpieces are compared to analyze the mechanical properties. By simulation of nano-cutting and nano-indentation, it is verified that SFT is a reason of the work hardening effect.

  20. Diffusion Coefficient Calculations With Low Order Legendre Polynomial and Chebyshev Polynomial Approximation for the Transport Equation in Spherical Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasa, F.; Anli, F.; Guengoer, S.

    2007-01-01

    We present analytical calculations of spherically symmetric radioactive transfer and neutron transport using a hypothesis of P1 and T1 low order polynomial approximation for diffusion coefficient D. Transport equation in spherical geometry is considered as the pseudo slab equation. The validity of polynomial expansionion in transport theory is investigated through a comparison with classic diffusion theory. It is found that for causes when the fluctuation of the scattering cross section dominates, the quantitative difference between the polynomial approximation and diffusion results was physically acceptable in general

  1. Tetrahedral mesh generation of real terrain and topography effect on ERT image in Beishan region, Gansu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Debao; Zhou Qiyou; Xiao Anlin; Song Zhen

    2014-01-01

    The paper starts from tetrahedral meshes generation of real terrain, a detailed way of tetradralization toward complicated terrain has been proposed based on comparing of advantage and disadvantage of several methods. DEM image has been used to help to generate tetrahedral mesh of research area. And then, forward soft Gmdata is used to calculate and analyze the topography effect on ERT Image with different kinds of terrain. Meanwhile, a quantitative way to define the topography effect was presented. Based on that, the method is used to eliminate the topography effect. The results show the method is effective and useful. (authors)

  2. Low order modelling and closed-loop thermal control of a ventilated plate subject to a heat source disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videcoq, E; Girault, M; Petit, D

    2012-01-01

    A multi-input multi-output (MIMO) thermal control problem in real-time is investigated. An aluminum slab is heated on one side by a radiative heat source and cooled on the other side by a fan panel. Starting from a nominal steady state configuration of heat source power and ventilation level, the objective is to control temperature at 4 chosen locations on the rear side when the thermal system is subject to a perturbation: the heat source power. The 4 actuators are the ventilation levels of 4 fans. The hypothesis of small inputs and temperature responses deviations is made, resulting in the assumption of a linear control problem. The originality of this work is twofold: (i) instead of a (large-sized) classical heat transfer model built from spatial discretization of local partial differential equations governing physics over the system domain, a low order model is identified from experimental data using the Modal Identification Method, (ii) this low order model is used to perform state feedback control in real time through a Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) compensator.

  3. Delaunay Tetrahedralization of the Heart Based on Integration of Open Source Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavarino, E; Neves, L A; Machado, J M; Momente, J C; Zafalon, G F D; Pinto, A R; Valêncio, C R; Godoy, M F de; Shiyou, Y; Nascimento, M Z do

    2014-01-01

    The Finite Element Method (FEM) is a way of numerical solution applied in different areas, as simulations used in studies to improve cardiac ablation procedures. For this purpose, the meshes should have the same size and histological features of the focused structures. Some methods and tools used to generate tetrahedral meshes are limited mainly by the use conditions. In this paper, the integration of Open Source Softwares is presented as an alternative to solid modeling and automatic mesh generation. To demonstrate its efficiency, the cardiac structures were considered as a first application context: atriums, ventricles, valves, arteries and pericardium. The proposed method is feasible to obtain refined meshes in an acceptable time and with the required quality for simulations using FEM

  4. Amorphous-tetrahedral diamondlike carbon layered structures resulting from film growth energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, M. P.; Barbour, J. C.; Provencio, P. N.; Tallant, D. R.; Friedmann, T. A.

    1998-08-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) shows that amorphous-tetrahedral diamondlike carbon (a-tC) films grown by pulsed-laser deposition on Si(100) consist of three-to-four layers, depending on the growth energetics. We estimate the density of each layer using both HRTEM image contrast and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The first carbon layer and final surface layer have relatively low density. The bulk of the film between these two layers has higher density. For films grown under the most energetic conditions, there exists a superdense a-tC layer between the interface and bulk layers. The density of all four layers, and the thickness of the surface and interfacial layers, correlate well with the energetics of the depositing carbon species.

  5. Single walled carbon nanotube network—Tetrahedral amorphous carbon composite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Ajai, E-mail: ajai.iyer@aalto.fi; Liu, Xuwen; Koskinen, Jari [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, POB 16200, 00076 Espoo (Finland); Kaskela, Antti; Kauppinen, Esko I. [NanoMaterials Group, Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Aalto University, POB 15100, 00076 Espoo (Finland); Johansson, Leena-Sisko [Department of Forest Products Technology, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, POB 16400, 00076 Espoo (Finland)

    2015-06-14

    Single walled carbon nanotube network (SWCNTN) was coated by tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) using a pulsed Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc system to form a SWCNTN—ta-C composite film. The effects of SWCNTN areal coverage density and ta-C coating thickness on the composite film properties were investigated. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements prove the presence of high quality sp{sup 3} bonded ta-C coating on the SWCNTN. Raman spectroscopy suggests that the single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) forming the network survived encapsulation in the ta-C coating. Nano-mechanical testing suggests that the ta-C coated SWCNTN has superior wear performance compared to uncoated SWCNTN.

  6. First-principles study of anharmonic phonon effects in tetrahedral semiconductors via an external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabiri, Zohreh, E-mail: z.dabiri@stu.yazd.ac.ir [Physics Department, Yazd University, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazempour, Ali [Department of Physics, Payame Noor University, P.O. BOX 119395-3697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Structured Coatings Institute of Yazd Payame Noor University, P.O. Code 89431-74559, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghzadeh, Mohammad Ali [Physics Department, Yazd University, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    The strength of phonon anharmonicity is investigated in the framework of the Density Functional Perturbation Theory via an applied constant electric field. In contrast to routine approaches, we have employed the electric field as an effective probe to quest after the quasi-harmonic and anharmonic effects. Two typical tetrahedral semiconductors (diamond and silicon) have been selected to test the efficiency of this approach. In this scheme the applied field is responsible for establishing the perturbation and also inducing the anharmonicity in systems. The induced polarization is a result of changing the electronic density while ions are located at their ground state coordinates or at a specified strain. Employing this method, physical quantities of the semiconductors are calculated in presence of the electron–phonon interaction directly and, phonon–phonon interaction, indirectly. The present approach, which is in good agreement with previous theoretical and experimental studies, can be introduced as a benchmark to simply investigate the anharmonicity and pertinent consequences in materials.

  7. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in tetrahedral amorphous carbon: carrier trapping versus electron-hole recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpene, E; Mancini, E; Dallera, C; Schwen, D; Ronning, C; Silvestri, S De

    2007-01-01

    We report the investigation of the ultrafast carrier dynamics in thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon films by means of femtosecond time-resolved reflectivity. We estimated the electron-phonon relaxation time of a few hundred femtoseconds and we observed that under low optical excitation photo-generated carriers decay according to two distinct mechanisms attributed to trapping by defect states and direct electron-hole recombination. With high excitation, when photo-carrier and trap densities are comparable, a unique temporal evolution develops, as the time dependence of the trapping process becomes degenerate with the electron-hole recombination. This experimental evidence highlights the role of defects in the ultrafast electronic dynamics and is not specific to this particular form of carbon, but has general validity for amorphous and disordered semiconductors

  8. Three-dimensional modeling of capsule implosions in OMEGA tetrahedral hohlraums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnittman, J. D.; Craxton, R. S.

    2000-01-01

    Tetrahedral hohlraums have been proposed as a means for achieving the highly uniform implosions needed for ignition with inertial confinement fusion (ICF) [J. D. Schnittman and R. S. Craxton, Phys. Plasmas 3, 3786 (1996)]. Recent experiments on the OMEGA laser system have achieved good drive uniformity consistent with theoretical predictions [J. M. Wallace et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3807 (1999)]. To better understand these experiments and future investigations of high-convergence ICF implosions, the three-dimensional (3-D) view-factor code BUTTERCUP has been expanded to model the time-dependent radiation transport in the hohlraum and the hydrodynamic implosion of the capsule. Additionally, a 3-D postprocessor has been written to simulate x-ray images of the imploded core. Despite BUTTERCUP's relative simplicity, its predictions for radiation drive temperatures, fusion yields, and core deformation show close agreement with experiment. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  9. Self-assembly of a tetrahedral 58-nuclear barium vanadium oxide cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Katharina; Puscher, Bianka; Streb, Carsten

    2013-01-07

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a molecular barium vanadium oxide cluster featuring high nuclearity and high symmetry. The tetrameric, 2.3 nm cluster H(5)[Ba(10)(NMP)(14)(H(2)O)(8)[V(12)O(33)](4)Br] is based on a bromide-centred, octahedral barium scaffold which is capped by four previously unknown [V(12)O(33)](6-) clusters in a tetrahedral fashion. The compound represents the largest polyoxovanadate-based heterometallic cluster known to date. The cluster is formed in organic solution and it is suggested that the bulky N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solvent ligands allow the isolation of this giant molecule and prevent further condensation to a solid-state metal oxide. The cluster is fully characterized using single-crystal XRD, elemental analysis, ESI mass spectrometry and other spectroscopic techniques.

  10. Verification of the three-dimensional tetrahedral grid S{sub N} code THOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunert, S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University (United States); Ferrer, R. [Studsvik Scandpower, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Azmy, Y. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In this work current capabilities implemented in the novel, arbitrary-order, tetrahedral-grid short characteristics S{sub N} radiation transport code THOR are verified based on four benchmark problems: (1) A one-group Method of Manufactured Solution (MMS) problem on a cuboidal domain, (2) an infinite medium eigenvalue problem with up-scattering, (3) a homogeneous torus and (4) a bare cube eigenvalue problem with anisotropic scattering up to order three. The first benchmark problem exercises the various spatial discretization options available in THOR: The short characteristics method in conjunction with polynomial expansions of the source and face fluxes either using the complete or Lagrange family of arbitrary orders. Using the numerical solution's order of convergence test in the framework of a mesh refinement study, correct implementation of a selection of spatial expansion orders is demonstrated for two meshes with tetrahedral aspect ratios close to unity and 50. The second benchmark problem exercises the implementation of angular fluxes on reflective boundary faces that are implicit within a mesh sweep, and up-scattering. The third benchmark problem comprises cyclic dependencies within the mesh sweep thus exercising the algorithm devised for 'breaking' the cyclic dependencies. Finally, the fourth benchmark problem, a simple bare cube, is used to test correct implementation of the anisotropic scattering capability. For all test problems THOR obtains solutions that converge to the reference/exact solution with the expected rate thereby contributing to our confidence in the correctness of its tested features in the present implementation. (authors)

  11. Evaluation of a 3D point cloud tetrahedral tomographic reconstruction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N F; Sitek, A, E-mail: nfp4@bwh.harvard.ed, E-mail: asitek@bwh.harvard.ed [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital-Harvard Medical School Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-09-21

    Tomographic reconstruction on an irregular grid may be superior to reconstruction on a regular grid. This is achieved through an appropriate choice of the image space model, the selection of an optimal set of points and the use of any available prior information during the reconstruction process. Accordingly, a number of reconstruction-related parameters must be optimized for best performance. In this work, a 3D point cloud tetrahedral mesh reconstruction method is evaluated for quantitative tasks. A linear image model is employed to obtain the reconstruction system matrix and five point generation strategies are studied. The evaluation is performed using the recovery coefficient, as well as voxel- and template-based estimates of bias and variance measures, computed over specific regions in the reconstructed image. A similar analysis is performed for regular grid reconstructions that use voxel basis functions. The maximum likelihood expectation maximization reconstruction algorithm is used. For the tetrahedral reconstructions, of the five point generation methods that are evaluated, three use image priors. For evaluation purposes, an object consisting of overlapping spheres with varying activity is simulated. The exact parallel projection data of this object are obtained analytically using a parallel projector, and multiple Poisson noise realizations of these exact data are generated and reconstructed using the different point generation strategies. The unconstrained nature of point placement in some of the irregular mesh-based reconstruction strategies has superior activity recovery for small, low-contrast image regions. The results show that, with an appropriately generated set of mesh points, the irregular grid reconstruction methods can out-perform reconstructions on a regular grid for mathematical phantoms, in terms of the performance measures evaluated.

  12. Evaluation of a 3D point cloud tetrahedral tomographic reconstruction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, N. F.; Sitek, A.

    2010-09-01

    Tomographic reconstruction on an irregular grid may be superior to reconstruction on a regular grid. This is achieved through an appropriate choice of the image space model, the selection of an optimal set of points and the use of any available prior information during the reconstruction process. Accordingly, a number of reconstruction-related parameters must be optimized for best performance. In this work, a 3D point cloud tetrahedral mesh reconstruction method is evaluated for quantitative tasks. A linear image model is employed to obtain the reconstruction system matrix and five point generation strategies are studied. The evaluation is performed using the recovery coefficient, as well as voxel- and template-based estimates of bias and variance measures, computed over specific regions in the reconstructed image. A similar analysis is performed for regular grid reconstructions that use voxel basis functions. The maximum likelihood expectation maximization reconstruction algorithm is used. For the tetrahedral reconstructions, of the five point generation methods that are evaluated, three use image priors. For evaluation purposes, an object consisting of overlapping spheres with varying activity is simulated. The exact parallel projection data of this object are obtained analytically using a parallel projector, and multiple Poisson noise realizations of these exact data are generated and reconstructed using the different point generation strategies. The unconstrained nature of point placement in some of the irregular mesh-based reconstruction strategies has superior activity recovery for small, low-contrast image regions. The results show that, with an appropriately generated set of mesh points, the irregular grid reconstruction methods can out-perform reconstructions on a regular grid for mathematical phantoms, in terms of the performance measures evaluated.

  13. Evaluation of a 3D point cloud tetrahedral tomographic reconstruction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, N F; Sitek, A

    2010-01-01

    Tomographic reconstruction on an irregular grid may be superior to reconstruction on a regular grid. This is achieved through an appropriate choice of the image space model, the selection of an optimal set of points and the use of any available prior information during the reconstruction process. Accordingly, a number of reconstruction-related parameters must be optimized for best performance. In this work, a 3D point cloud tetrahedral mesh reconstruction method is evaluated for quantitative tasks. A linear image model is employed to obtain the reconstruction system matrix and five point generation strategies are studied. The evaluation is performed using the recovery coefficient, as well as voxel- and template-based estimates of bias and variance measures, computed over specific regions in the reconstructed image. A similar analysis is performed for regular grid reconstructions that use voxel basis functions. The maximum likelihood expectation maximization reconstruction algorithm is used. For the tetrahedral reconstructions, of the five point generation methods that are evaluated, three use image priors. For evaluation purposes, an object consisting of overlapping spheres with varying activity is simulated. The exact parallel projection data of this object are obtained analytically using a parallel projector, and multiple Poisson noise realizations of these exact data are generated and reconstructed using the different point generation strategies. The unconstrained nature of point placement in some of the irregular mesh-based reconstruction strategies has superior activity recovery for small, low-contrast image regions. The results show that, with an appropriately generated set of mesh points, the irregular grid reconstruction methods can out-perform reconstructions on a regular grid for mathematical phantoms, in terms of the performance measures evaluated.

  14. Results and simulations on γ-spectroscopy of deformed nuclei: cases of isomers and tetrahedral nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vancraeyenest, A.

    2010-10-01

    The major part of this work is about the realization and complete analysis of an experiment for studying isomeric states in 138,139,140 Nd nuclei. This was performed at Jyvaeskylae laboratory (Finland) using a fusion-evaporation reaction with 48 Ca beam on a thin 96 Zr target. Experimental setup consisted in the target position gamma ray detector Jurogam II which was coupled with the RITU recoil separator and the GREAT focal plane detector array. This particularly well adapted setup permit to manage γ spectroscopy of the interest nuclei around isomeric states. Indeed, we used prompt-delayed matrices to separate rays that come onto isomeric states and these who decay from them. Then, the correlations between the two components permit to establish feeding transitions of isomeric states. Thanks to this experiment, a new isomeric state was also highlighted in 139 Nd with spin 23/2+, which was predicted and interpreted in Cranked-Nilsson-Strutinsky calculation. Finally, very clean time spectra allow to determine precisely life-time of four states in four nuclei. This Ph.d. is also made of a part of the analysis of the first experimental search for fingerprints of tetrahedral symmetry in 156 Gd using high fold gamma ray spectroscopy. Thanks to a large number of triple coincidence events, we managed a detailed spectroscopy of this nucleus. Particularly, we found out 13 new transitions in positive parity bands. As a complement of this work, we have done GEANT4 simulations about the detection limits of low intensity transitions by Agata multidetector. Indeed, tetrahedral symmetry predicts vanishing of E2 transitions at lower spin states and simulations permit to determine observation limit of these transitions with different version of Agata. (author)

  15. The asc trinodal platform: Two-step assembly of triangular, tetrahedral, and trigonal-prismatic molecular building blocks

    KAUST Repository

    Schoedel, Alexander; Cairns, Amy; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Wojtas, Łukasz; Mohamed, Mona Hassan; Zhang, ZhenJie; Proserpio, Davide Maria; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Zaworotko, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The self-assembly of triangular, tetrahedral, and trigonal-prismatic molecular building blocks affords the first example of a trinodal family of metal-organic materials. Four examples of isoreticular expanded and functionalized frameworks are detailed. Gas adsorption experiments validated the permanent porosity of the parent structure. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The asc trinodal platform: Two-step assembly of triangular, tetrahedral, and trigonal-prismatic molecular building blocks

    KAUST Repository

    Schoedel, Alexander

    2013-02-10

    The self-assembly of triangular, tetrahedral, and trigonal-prismatic molecular building blocks affords the first example of a trinodal family of metal-organic materials. Four examples of isoreticular expanded and functionalized frameworks are detailed. Gas adsorption experiments validated the permanent porosity of the parent structure. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Transitions to improved core electron heat confinement triggered by low order rational magnetic surfaces in the stellarator TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, T.; Medina, F.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; AscasIbar, E.; BalbIn, R.; Cappa, A.; Castejon, F.; Eguilior, S.; Fernandez, A.; Guasp, J.; Hidalgo, C.; Petrov, S.

    2007-01-01

    Transitions to improved core electron heat confinement are triggered by low order rational magnetic surfaces in TJ-II electron cyclotron heated (ECH) plasmas. Experiments are performed changing the magnetic shear around the rational surface n = 3/m = 2 to study its influence on the transition; ECH power modulation is used to look at transport properties. The improvement in the electron heat confinement shows no obvious dependence on the magnetic shear. Transitions triggered by the rational surface n = 4/m = 2 show, in addition, an increase in the ion temperature synchronized with the increase in the electron temperature. Ion temperature changes had not been previously observed either in TJ-II or in any other helical device. SXR measurements demonstrate that, under certain circumstances, the rational surface positioned inside the plasma core region precedes and provides a trigger for the transition

  18. Cause and Cure - Deterioration in Accuracy of CFD Simulations With Use of High-Aspect-Ratio Triangular Tetrahedral Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Venkatachari, Balaji Shankar

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally high-aspect ratio triangular/tetrahedral meshes are avoided by CFD re-searchers in the vicinity of a solid wall, as it is known to reduce the accuracy of gradient computations in those regions and also cause numerical instability. Although for certain complex geometries, the use of high-aspect ratio triangular/tetrahedral elements in the vicinity of a solid wall can be replaced by quadrilateral/prismatic elements, ability to use triangular/tetrahedral elements in such regions without any degradation in accuracy can be beneficial from a mesh generation point of view. The benefits also carry over to numerical frameworks such as the space-time conservation element and solution element (CESE), where triangular/tetrahedral elements are the mandatory building blocks. With the requirement of the CESE method in mind, a rigorous mathematical framework that clearly identities the reason behind the difficulties in use of such high-aspect ratio triangular/tetrahedral elements is presented here. As will be shown, it turns out that the degree of accuracy deterioration of gradient computation involving a triangular element is hinged on the value of its shape factor Gamma def = sq sin Alpha1 + sq sin Alpha2 + sq sin Alpha3, where Alpha1; Alpha2 and Alpha3 are the internal angles of the element. In fact, it is shown that the degree of accuracy deterioration increases monotonically as the value of Gamma decreases monotonically from its maximal value 9/4 (attained by an equilateral triangle only) to a value much less than 1 (associated with a highly obtuse triangle). By taking advantage of the fact that a high-aspect ratio triangle is not necessarily highly obtuse, and in fact it can have a shape factor whose value is close to the maximal value 9/4, a potential solution to avoid accuracy deterioration of gradient computation associated with a high-aspect ratio triangular grid is given. Also a brief discussion on the extension of the current mathematical framework to the

  19. Adjoint-based sensitivity analysis of low-order thermoacoustic networks using a wave-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, José G.; Magri, Luca; Juniper, Matthew P.

    2017-07-01

    Strict pollutant emission regulations are pushing gas turbine manufacturers to develop devices that operate in lean conditions, with the downside that combustion instabilities are more likely to occur. Methods to predict and control unstable modes inside combustion chambers have been developed in the last decades but, in some cases, they are computationally expensive. Sensitivity analysis aided by adjoint methods provides valuable sensitivity information at a low computational cost. This paper introduces adjoint methods and their application in wave-based low order network models, which are used as industrial tools, to predict and control thermoacoustic oscillations. Two thermoacoustic models of interest are analyzed. First, in the zero Mach number limit, a nonlinear eigenvalue problem is derived, and continuous and discrete adjoint methods are used to obtain the sensitivities of the system to small modifications. Sensitivities to base-state modification and feedback devices are presented. Second, a more general case with non-zero Mach number, a moving flame front and choked outlet, is presented. The influence of the entropy waves on the computed sensitivities is shown.

  20. Design method for low order two-degree-of-freedom controller based on Pade approximation of the denominator series expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Katsuo

    1999-01-01

    Having advantages of setting independently feedback characteristics such as disturbance rejection specification and reference response characteristics, two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) control is widely utilized to improve the control performance. The ordinary design method such as model matching usually derives high-ordered feedforward element of 2DOF controller. In this paper, we propose a new design method for low order feedforward element which is based on Pade approximation of the denominator series expansion. The features of the proposed method are as follows: (1) it is suited to realize reference response characteristics in low frequency region, (2) the order of the feedforward element can be selected apart from the feedback element. These are essential to the 2DOF controller design. With this method, 2DOF reactor power controller is designed and its control performance is evaluated by numerical simulation with reactor dynamics model. For this evaluation, it is confirmed that the controller designed by the proposed method possesses equivalent control characteristics to the controller by the ordinary model matching method. (author)

  1. Benthic Communities of Low-Order Streams Affected by Acid Mine Drainages: A Case Study from Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Svitok

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Only little attention has been paid to the impact of acid mine drainages (AMD on aquatic ecosystems in Central Europe. In this study, we investigate the physico-chemical properties of low-order streams and the response of benthic invertebrates to AMD pollution in the Banská Štiavnica mining region (Slovakia. The studied streams showed typical signs of mine drainage pollution: higher conductivity, elevated iron, aluminum, zinc and copper loads and accumulations of ferric precipitates. Electric conductivity correlated strongly with most of the investigated elements (weighted mean absolute correlation = 0.95 and, therefore, can be recommended as a good proxy indicator for rapid AMD pollution assessments. The diversity and composition of invertebrate assemblages was related to water chemistry. Taxa richness decreased significantly along an AMD-intensity gradient. While moderately affected sites supported relatively rich assemblages, the harshest environmental conditions (pH < 2.5 were typical for the presence of a limited number of very tolerant taxa, such as Oligochaeta and some Diptera (Limnophyes, Forcipomyiinae. The trophic guild structure correlated significantly with AMD chemistry, whereby predators completely disappeared under the most severe AMD conditions. We also provide a brief review of the AMD literature and outline the needs for future detailed studies involving functional descriptors of the impact of AMD on aquatic ecosystems.

  2. Modeling and Analysis of Size-Dependent Structural Problems by Using Low- Order Finite Elements with Strain Gradient Plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Moon Shik; Suh, Yeong Sung; Song, Seung

    2011-01-01

    An elasto-plastic finite element method using the theory of strain gradient plasticity is proposed to evaluate the size dependency of structural plasticity that occurs when the configuration size decreases to micron scale. For this method, we suggest a low-order plane and three-dimensional displacement-based elements, eliminating the need for a high order, many degrees of freedom, a mixed element, or super elements, which have been considered necessary in previous researches. The proposed method can be performed in the framework of nonlinear incremental analysis in which plastic strains are calculated and averaged at nodes. These strains are then interpolated and differentiated for gradient calculation. We adopted a strain-gradient-hardening constitutive equation from the Taylor dislocation model, which requires the plastic strain gradient. The developed finite elements are tested numerically on the basis of typical size-effect problems such as micro-bending, micro-torsion, and micro-voids. With respect to the strain gradient plasticity, i.e., the size effects, the results obtained by using the proposed method, which are simple in their calculation, are in good agreement with the experimental results cited in previously published papers

  3. Simultaneous correction of large low-order and high-order aberrations with a new deformable mirror technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooms, F.; Camet, S.; Curis, J. F.

    2010-02-01

    A new technology of deformable mirror will be presented. Based on magnetic actuators, these deformable mirrors feature record strokes (more than +/- 45μm of astigmatism and focus correction) with an optimized temporal behavior. Furthermore, the development has been made in order to have a large density of actuators within a small clear aperture (typically 52 actuators within a diameter of 9.0mm). We will present the key benefits of this technology for vision science: simultaneous correction of low and high order aberrations, AO-SLO image without artifacts due to the membrane vibration, optimized control, etc. Using recent papers published by Doble, Thibos and Miller, we show the performances that can be achieved by various configurations using statistical approach. The typical distribution of wavefront aberrations (both the low order aberration (LOA) and high order aberration (HOA)) have been computed and the correction applied by the mirror. We compare two configurations of deformable mirrors (52 and 97 actuators) and highlight the influence of the number of actuators on the fitting error, the photon noise error and the effective bandwidth of correction.

  4. A Low-order Coupled Chemistry Meteorology Model for Testing Online and Offline Advanced Data Assimilation Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquet, M.; Haussaire, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Bocquet and Sakov have recently introduced a low-order model based on the coupling of thechaotic Lorenz-95 model which simulates winds along a mid-latitude circle, with thetransport of a tracer species advected by this wind field. It has been used to testadvanced data assimilation methods with an online model that couples meteorology andtracer transport. In the present study, the tracer subsystem of the model is replacedwith a reduced photochemistry module meant to emulate reactive air pollution. Thiscoupled chemistry meteorology model, the L95-GRS model, mimics continental andtranscontinental transport and photochemistry of ozone, volatile organic compounds andnitrogen dioxides.The L95-GRS is specially useful in testing advanced data assimilation schemes, such as theiterative ensemble Kalman smoother (IEnKS) that combines the best of ensemble andvariational methods. The model provides useful insights prior to any implementation ofthe data assimilation method on larger models. For instance, online and offline dataassimilation strategies based on the ensemble Kalman filter or the IEnKS can easily beevaluated with it. It allows to document the impact of species concentration observationson the wind estimation. The model also illustrates a long standing issue in atmosphericchemistry forecasting: the impact of the wind chaotic dynamics and of the chemical speciesnon-chaotic but highly nonlinear dynamics on the selected data assimilation approach.

  5. Molecular dinamics of tetrahedral clelate compounds of Cd(2) in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nivorozhkin, L.E.; Minkin, V.I.; Borisenko, N.I.; Konstantinovskij, L.E.; Korobov, M.S.; Olekhnovich, R.Ya.

    1981-01-01

    Interconversion kinetics of enantiomers of tetrahedral intracomplex compounds of metals (ICM) on the base of unsymmetric ligands in solu-- tions is studied for several series of compounds according to the temperature dependence of the shape of line of prochiral substituents using the methods of the dynamic NMR (DNMR). The use of tetracoordinated ICM in the solutions of synthesized compounds of Cd(2) with the inclusion of magnetic isotope 111 Cd(S=1/2) to study molecular dynamics and the application of the corresponding methods of calculation of the DNMR signal forms permitted to clearly separate the mechanisms of digonal twist and degenerated ligand exchange. In ICM solutions the low-barrier transformations, connected with intramolecular digonal twist, take place as well as high-barrier processes of degenerated ligand exchange. The technique suggested can be applied to the studies of ICM molecular dynamics with other magnetic isotopes of metals ( 207 Pb, 199 Hg, etc.) and rapid non-degenerated ligand exchanges [ru

  6. Ion-Assisted Pulsed Laser Deposition of amorphous tetrahedral-coordinated carbon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, T. A.; Tallant, D. R.; Sullivan, J. P.; Siegal, M. P.; Simpson, R. L.

    1994-04-01

    A parametric study has been performed of amorphous tetrahedral carbon (a-tC) films produced by ion-assisted pulsed laser deposition (IAPLD). The ion voltage, current density, and feed gas composition (nitrogen in argon) have been varied. The resultant films were characterized by thickness, residual stress, Raman spectroscopy, and electrical resistivity. The Raman spectra have been fit to two gaussian peaks, the so called graphitic (G) peak and the disorder (D) peak. It has been found that the magnitude of the D peak and the residual compressive stress are inversely correlated. At low beam voltages and currents, the magnitude of the D peak is low, increasing as the ion beam voltage and current are raised. The ion beam voltage has the most dramatic effect on the magnitude of the D peak. At low voltages (200-500 V) the magnitude of the D peak is greater for ion beams with high percentages of nitrogen possibly indicative of C-N bonding in the films. At higher voltages (500-1500 V) the D peak intensity is less sensitive to the nitrogen content of the beam.

  7. Tetrahedral node for Transmission-Line Modeling (TLM) applied to Bio-heat Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Hugo F M; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2016-12-01

    Transmission-Line Modeling (TLM) is a numerical method used to solve complex and time-domain bio-heat transfer problems. In TLM, parallelepipeds are used to discretize three-dimensional problems. The drawback in using parallelepiped shapes is that instead of refining only the domain of interest, a large additional domain would also have to be refined, which results in increased computational time and memory space. In this paper, we developed a tetrahedral node for TLM applied to bio-heat transfer that does not have the drawback associated with the parallelepiped node. The model includes heat source, blood perfusion, boundary conditions and initial conditions. The boundary conditions could be adiabatic, temperature, heat flux, or convection. The predicted temperature and heat flux were compared against results from an analytical solution and the results agreed within 2% for a mesh size of 69,941 nodes and a time step of 5ms. The method was further validated against published results of maximum skin-surface temperature difference in a breast with and without tumor and the results agreed within 6%. The published results were obtained from a model that used parallelepiped TLM node. An open source software, TLMBHT, was written using the theory developed herein and is available for download free-of-charge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ordering principles for tetrahedral chains in Ga- and Co-substituted YBCO intergrowths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milat, O.; Krekels, T.; Tendeloo, G. van; Amelinckx, S.

    1993-01-01

    A model for superstructure ordering in the ''chain'' layers of Ga (Co) substituted YBCO intergrowths with general formula (REO 2 ) N Sr 2 MCu 2 O 5 (M Co, Ga; n = 1, 2, ..) is proposed. By Ga or Co substitution for Cu, the structure of the ''chain'' layer changes: instead of the CuO 4 planar squares, the chains consist of MO 4 tetrahedra (M = Ga, Co) running along the [110] perovskite direction. The existing model for the Ga substituted ''123'' implies that all the chains are the same. Our new model is based on the results of Electron diffraction and High-resolution electron microscopy investigations. The model reveals the occurene of two types of chains as a consequence of ''opposite'' ordering between neighbouring tetrahedra. The corner linked tetrahedra in each chain appear as alternatingly rotated in opposite sense, and a chain itself, as being displaced with respect to the underlying structure in one of two senses; either forth (right) or back (left) along the chain direction. The regular alternation of chains of opposite type doubles the periodicity within a layer and induces the possibility for intrinsic disorder in the chain layer stacking sequence. The planar superstructure and a staggered stacking of the tetrahedral chain layers is found irrespective of the rest of the intergrowth structure. Superstructure ordering in the case of Co substitution is more perfect than for the Ga substitution. (orig.)

  9. A Rac1--GDP trimer complex binds zinc with tetrahedral and octahedral coordination, displacing magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prehna, G.; Stebbins, C

    2007-01-01

    The Rho family of small GTPases represent well characterized signaling molecules that regulate many cellular functions such as actin cytoskeletal arrangement and the cell cycle by acting as molecular switches. A Rac1-GDP-Zn complex has been crystallized in space group P3221 and its crystal structure has been solved at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. These trigonal crystals reveal the unexpected ability of Rac1 to coordinate Zn atoms in a tetrahedral fashion by use of its biologically relevant switch I and switch II regions. Upon coordination of zinc, the switch I region is stabilized in the GDP-bound conformation and contributes to a Rac1 trimer in the asymmetric unit. Zinc coordination causes switch II to adopt a novel conformation with a symmetry-related molecule. Additionally, zinc was found to displace magnesium from its octahedral coordination at switch I, although GDP binding remained stable. This structure represents the first reported Rac1-GDP-Zn complex, which further underscores the conformational flexibility and versatility of the small GTPase switch regions.

  10. A Rac1-GDP Trimer Complex Binds Zinc with Tetrahedral and Octahedral Coordination, Displacing Magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prehna,G.; Stebbins, E.

    2007-01-01

    The Rho family of small GTPases represent well characterized signaling molecules that regulate many cellular functions such as actin cytoskeletal arrangement and the cell cycle by acting as molecular switches. A Rac1-GDP-Zn complex has been crystallized in space group P3{sub 2}21 and its crystal structure has been solved at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. These trigonal crystals reveal the unexpected ability of Rac1 to coordinate Zn atoms in a tetrahedral fashion by use of its biologically relevant switch I and switch II regions. Upon coordination of zinc, the switch I region is stabilized in the GDP-bound conformation and contributes to a Rac1 trimer in the asymmetric unit. Zinc coordination causes switch II to adopt a novel conformation with a symmetry-related molecule. Additionally, zinc was found to displace magnesium from its octahedral coordination at switch I, although GDP binding remained stable. This structure represents the first reported Rac1-GDP-Zn complex, which further underscores the conformational flexibility and versatility of the small GTPase switch regions.

  11. Correlation between substrate bias, growth process and structural properties of phosphorus incorporated tetrahedral amorphous carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Aiping; Zhu Jiaqi; Han Jiecai; Wu Huaping; Jia Zechun

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the growth process and structural properties of phosphorus incorporated tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C:P) films which are deposited at different substrate biases by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique with PH 3 as the dopant source. The films are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, residual stress measurement, UV/VIS/NIR absorption spectroscopy and temperature-dependent conductivity measurement. The atomic fraction of phosphorus in the films as a function of substrate bias is obtained by XPS analysis. The optimum bias for phosphorus incorporation is about -80 V. Raman spectra show that the amorphous structures of all samples with atomic-scaled smooth surface are not remarkably changed when PH 3 is implanted, but some small graphitic crystallites are formed. Moreover, phosphorus impurities and higher-energetic impinging ions are favorable for the clustering of sp 2 sites dispersed in sp 3 skeleton and increase the level of structural ordering for ta-C:P films, which further releases the compressive stress and enhances the conductivity of the films. Our analysis establishes an interrelationship between microstructure, stress state, electrical properties, and substrate bias, which helps to understand the deposition mechanism of ta-C:P films

  12. Erasing no-man's land by thermodynamically stabilizing the liquid-liquid transition in tetrahedral particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallenburg, Frank; Filion, Laura; Sciortino, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    One of the most controversial hypotheses for explaining the origin of the thermodynamic anomalies characterizing liquid water postulates the presence of a metastable second-order liquid-liquid critical point [1] located in the "no-man's land" [2]. In this scenario, two liquids with distinct local structure emerge near the critical temperature. Unfortunately, since spontaneous crystallization is rapid in this region, experimental support for this hypothesis relies on significant extrapolations, either from the metastable liquid or from amorphous solid water [3, 4]. Although the liquid-liquid transition is expected to feature in many tetrahedrally coordinated liquids, including silicon [5], carbon [6] and silica, even numerical studies of atomic and molecular models have been unable to conclusively prove the existence of this transition. Here we provide such evidence for a model in which it is possible to continuously tune the softness of the interparticle interaction and the flexibility of the bonds, the key ingredients controlling the existence of the critical point. We show that conditions exist where the full coexistence is thermodynamically stable with respect to crystallization. Our work offers a basis for designing colloidal analogues of water exhibiting liquid-liquid transitions in equilibrium, opening the way for experimental confirmation of the original hypothesis.

  13. Growth Mechanism and Origin of High s p3 Content in Tetrahedral Amorphous Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Miguel A.; Deringer, Volker L.; Koskinen, Jari; Laurila, Tomi; Csányi, Gábor

    2018-04-01

    We study the deposition of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films from molecular dynamics simulations based on a machine-learned interatomic potential trained from density-functional theory data. For the first time, the high s p3 fractions in excess of 85% observed experimentally are reproduced by means of computational simulation, and the deposition energy dependence of the film's characteristics is also accurately described. High confidence in the potential and direct access to the atomic interactions allow us to infer the microscopic growth mechanism in this material. While the widespread view is that ta-C grows by "subplantation," we show that the so-called "peening" model is actually the dominant mechanism responsible for the high s p3 content. We show that pressure waves lead to bond rearrangement away from the impact site of the incident ion, and high s p3 fractions arise from a delicate balance of transitions between three- and fourfold coordinated carbon atoms. These results open the door for a microscopic understanding of carbon nanostructure formation with an unprecedented level of predictive power.

  14. Insights into Substrate Specificity and Metal Activation of Mammalian Tetrahedral Aspartyl Aminopeptidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Farquhar, Erik R.; Chance, Mark R.; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Kiser, Philip D. (Case Western)

    2012-07-11

    Aminopeptidases are key enzymes involved in the regulation of signaling peptide activity. Here, we present a detailed biochemical and structural analysis of an evolutionary highly conserved aspartyl aminopeptidase called DNPEP. We show that this peptidase can cleave multiple physiologically relevant substrates, including angiotensins, and thus may play a key role in regulating neuron function. Using a combination of x-ray crystallography, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and single particle electron microscopy analysis, we provide the first detailed structural analysis of DNPEP. We show that this enzyme possesses a binuclear zinc-active site in which one of the zinc ions is readily exchangeable with other divalent cations such as manganese, which strongly stimulates the enzymatic activity of the protein. The plasticity of this metal-binding site suggests a mechanism for regulation of DNPEP activity. We also demonstrate that DNPEP assembles into a functionally relevant tetrahedral complex that restricts access of peptide substrates to the active site. These structural data allow rationalization of the enzyme's preference for short peptide substrates with N-terminal acidic residues. This study provides a structural basis for understanding the physiology and bioinorganic chemistry of DNPEP and other M18 family aminopeptidases.

  15. Tetrahedral silsesquioxane-C2H2Ti complex for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, Ravinder; Tavhare, Priyanka; Ingale, Nilesh; Chaudhari, Ajay

    2018-04-01

    The interaction of molecular hydrogen with tetrahedral silsesquioxane (T4)-C2H2Ti complex has been studied using Density Functional Theory with M06-2X functional and MP2 method with 6-311++G** basis set. T4-C2H2Ti complex can absorb maximum five hydrogen molecules with the gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity of 3.4 wt %. Adsorption energy calculations show that H2 adsorption on T4-C2H2Ti complex is favorable at room temperature by both the methods. We have studied the effect of temperature and pressure on Gibbs free energy corrected adsorption energies. Molecular dynamics simulations for H2 adsorbed T4-C2H2Ti complex have also been performed at 300K and show that loosely bonded H2 molecule flies away within 1fs. Various interaction energies within the complex are studied. Stability of a complex is predicted by means of a gap between Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HUMO) and Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO). The H2 desorption temperature for T4-C2H2Ti complex is calculated with Van't Hoff equation and it is found to be 229K.

  16. Split-Cell Exponential Characteristic Transport Method for Unstructured Tetrahedral Meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, Charles R.; Miller, Rodney L.; Mathews, Kirk A.

    2001-01-01

    The nonlinear, exponential characteristic (EC) method is extended to unstructured meshes of tetrahedral cells in three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates. The split-cell approach developed for the linear characteristic (LC) method on such meshes is used. Exponential distributions of the source within a cell and of the inflow flux on upstream faces of the cell are assumed. The coefficients of these distributions are determined by nonlinear root solving so as to match the zeroth and first moments of the source or entering flux. Good conditioning is achieved by casting the formulas for the moments of the source, inflow flux, and solution flux as sums of positive functions and by using accurate and robust algorithms for evaluation of those functions. Various test problems are used to compare the performance of the EC and LC methods. The EC method is somewhat less accurate than the LC method in regions of net out leakage but is strictly positive and retains good accuracy with optically thick cells, as in shielding problems, unlike the LC method. The computational cost per cell is greater for the EC method, but the use of substantially coarser meshes can make the EC method less expensive in total cost. The EC method, unlike the LC method, may fail if negative cross sections or angular quadrature weights are used. It is concluded that the EC and LC methods should be practical, reliable, and complimentary schemes for these meshes

  17. Magnetic Grüneisen parameter and magnetocaloric properties of a coupled spin–electron double-tetrahedral chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gálisová, Lucia; Strečka, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    Magnetocaloric effect in a double-tetrahedral chain, in which nodal lattice sites occupied by the localized Ising spins regularly alternate with three equivalent lattice sites available for mobile electrons, is exactly investigated by considering the one-third electron filling and the ferromagnetic Ising exchange interaction between the mobile electrons and their nearest Ising neighbours. The entropy and the magnetic Grüneisen parameter, which closely relate to the magnetocaloric effect, are exactly calculated in order to investigate the relation between the ground-state degeneracy and the cooling efficiency of the hybrid spin–electron system during the adiabatic demagnetization. - Highlights: • A double-tetrahedral chain of mobile electrons and localized Ising spins is studied. • Magnetic Grüneisen parameter for the system is exactly derived. • Macroscopically degenerate phases FRU and FM constitute the ground state. • MCE is three times higher nearby FRU–FM transition than in FRU phase at small fields

  18. The AOLI low-order non-linear curvature wavefront sensor: laboratory and on-sky results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crass, Jonathan; King, David; MacKay, Craig

    2014-08-01

    Many adaptive optics (AO) systems in use today require the use of bright reference objects to determine the effects of atmospheric distortions. Typically these systems use Shack-Hartmann Wavefront sensors (SHWFS) to distribute incoming light from a reference object between a large number of sub-apertures. Guyon et al. evaluated the sensitivity of several different wavefront sensing techniques and proposed the non-linear Curvature Wavefront Sensor (nlCWFS) offering improved sensitivity across a range of orders of distortion. On large ground-based telescopes this can provide nearly 100% sky coverage using natural guide stars. We present work being undertaken on the nlCWFS development for the Adaptive Optics Lucky Imager (AOLI) project. The wavefront sensor is being developed as part of a low-order adaptive optics system for use in a dedicated instrument providing an AO corrected beam to a Lucky Imaging based science detector. The nlCWFS provides a total of four reference images on two photon-counting EMCCDs for use in the wavefront reconstruction process. We present results from both laboratory work using a calibration system and the first on-sky data obtained with the nlCWFS at the 4.2 metre William Herschel Telescope, La Palma. In addition, we describe the updated optical design of the wavefront sensor, strategies for minimising intrinsic effects and methods to maximise sensitivity using photon-counting detectors. We discuss on-going work to develop the high speed reconstruction algorithm required for the nlCWFS technique. This includes strategies to implement the technique on graphics processing units (GPUs) and to minimise computing overheads to obtain a prior for a rapid convergence of the wavefront reconstruction. Finally we evaluate the sensitivity of the wavefront sensor based upon both data and low-photon count strategies.

  19. Interacting spin-1/2 tetrahedral system Cu2Te2O5X2 (X = Cl, Br)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic ordering and excitations of Cu2Te2O5Cl2 are analyzed in terms of a tetramerized spin model for the tetrahedral Cu clusters of spin 1/2. The mean-field model is able to account for the main properties of the incommensurable magnetic structure observed by Zaharko et al. [Phys. Rev. B 73......-dimensional fashion. Preliminary model calculations for the Cu2Te2O5Br2 system lead to the same conclusion. Udgivelsesdato: 7. Januar...

  20. Simultaneous travel time tomography for updating both velocity and reflector geometry in triangular/tetrahedral cell model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Chao-ying; He, Lei-yu; Li, Xing-wang; Sun, Jia-yu

    2018-05-01

    To conduct forward and simultaneous inversion in a complex geological model, including an irregular topography (or irregular reflector or velocity anomaly), we in this paper combined our previous multiphase arrival tracking method (referred as triangular shortest-path method, TSPM) in triangular (2D) or tetrahedral (3D) cell model and a linearized inversion solver (referred to as damped minimum norms and constrained least squares problem solved using the conjugate gradient method, DMNCLS-CG) to formulate a simultaneous travel time inversion method for updating both velocity and reflector geometry by using multiphase arrival times. In the triangular/tetrahedral cells, we deduced the partial derivative of velocity variation with respective to the depth change of reflector. The numerical simulation results show that the computational accuracy can be tuned to a high precision in forward modeling and the irregular velocity anomaly and reflector geometry can be accurately captured in the simultaneous inversion, because the triangular/tetrahedral cell can be easily used to stitch the irregular topography or subsurface interface.

  1. Simple shearing flow of dry soap foams with tetrahedrally close-packed structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinelt, Douglas A. [Department of Mathematics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275-0156 (United States); Kraynik, Andrew M. [Engineering Sciences Center, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0834 (United States)

    2000-05-01

    The microrheology of dry soap foams subjected to quasistatic, simple shearing flow is analyzed. Two different monodisperse foams with tetrahedrally close-packed (TCP) structure are examined: Weaire-Phelan (A15) and Friauf-Laves (C15). The elastic-plastic response is evaluated by using the Surface Evolver to calculate foam structures that minimize total surface area at each value of strain. The foam geometry and macroscopic stress are piecewise continuous functions of strain. The stress scales as T/V{sup 1/3}, where T is surface tension and V is cell volume. Each discontinuity corresponds to large changes in foam geometry and topology that restore equilibrium to unstable configurations that violate Plateau's laws. The instabilities occur when the length of an edge on a polyhedral foam cell vanishes. The length can tend to zero smoothly or abruptly with strain. The abrupt case occurs when a small increase in strain changes the energy profile in the neighborhood of a foam structure from a local minimum to a saddle point, which can lead to symmetry-breaking bifurcations. In general, the new structure associated with each stable solution branch results from an avalanche of local topology changes called T1 transitions. Each T1 cascade produces different cell neighbors, reduces surface energy, and provides an irreversible, film-level mechanism for plastic yield behavior. Stress-strain curves and average stresses are evaluated by examining foam orientations that admit strain-periodic behavior. For some orientations, the deformation cycle includes Kelvin cells instead of the original TCP structure; but the foam does not remain perfectly ordered. Bifurcations during subsequent T1 cascades lead to disorder and can even cause strain localization. (c) 2000 Society of Rheology.

  2. The use of tetrahedral mesh geometries in Monte Carlo simulation of applicator based brachytherapy dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva; Yoriyaz, Hélio; Landry, Guillaume; White, Shane; Reniers, Brigitte; Verhaegen, Frank; D’Amours, Michel; Beaulieu, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Accounting for brachytherapy applicator attenuation is part of the recommendations from the recent report of AAPM Task Group 186. To do so, model based dose calculation algorithms require accurate modelling of the applicator geometry. This can be non-trivial in the case of irregularly shaped applicators such as the Fletcher Williamson gynaecological applicator or balloon applicators with possibly irregular shapes employed in accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) performed using electronic brachytherapy sources (EBS). While many of these applicators can be modelled using constructive solid geometry (CSG), the latter may be difficult and time-consuming. Alternatively, these complex geometries can be modelled using tessellated geometries such as tetrahedral meshes (mesh geometries (MG)). Recent versions of Monte Carlo (MC) codes Geant4 and MCNP6 allow for the use of MG. The goal of this work was to model a series of applicators relevant to brachytherapy using MG. Applicators designed for 192 Ir sources and 50 kV EBS were studied; a shielded vaginal applicator, a shielded Fletcher Williamson applicator and an APBI balloon applicator. All applicators were modelled in Geant4 and MCNP6 using MG and CSG for dose calculations. CSG derived dose distributions were considered as reference and used to validate MG models by comparing dose distribution ratios. In general agreement within 1% for the dose calculations was observed for all applicators between MG and CSG and between codes when considering volumes inside the 25% isodose surface. When compared to CSG, MG required longer computation times by a factor of at least 2 for MC simulations using the same code. MCNP6 calculation times were more than ten times shorter than Geant4 in some cases. In conclusion we presented methods allowing for high fidelity modelling with results equivalent to CSG. To the best of our knowledge MG offers the most accurate representation of an irregular APBI balloon applicator. (paper)

  3. Nanodiamonds on tetrahedral amorphous carbon significantly enhance dopamine detection and cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, Emilia; Wester, Niklas; Holt, Katherine B; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Koskinen, Jari; Myllymäki, Vesa; Laurila, Tomi

    2017-02-15

    We hypothesize that by using integrated carbon nanostructures on tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C), it is possible to take the performance and characteristics of these bioelectrodes to a completely new level. The integrated carbon electrodes were realized by combining nanodiamonds (NDs) with ta-C thin films coated on Ti-coated Si-substrates. NDs were functionalized with mixture of carboxyl and amine groups ND andante or amine ND amine , carboxyl ND vox or hydroxyl groups ND H and drop-casted or spray-coated onto substrate. By utilizing these novel structures we show that (i) the detection limit for dopamine can be improved by two orders of magnitude [from 10µM to 50nM] in comparison to ta-C thin film electrodes and (ii) the coating method significantly affects electrochemical properties of NDs and (iii) the ND coatings selectively promote cell viability. ND andante and ND H showed most promising electrochemical properties. The viability of human mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblastic SaOS-2 cells was increased on all ND surfaces, whereas the viability of mouse neural stem cells and rat neuroblastic cells was improved on ND andante and ND H and reduced on ND amine and ND vox. The viability of C6 cells remained unchanged, indicating that these surfaces will not cause excess gliosis. In summary, we demonstrated here that by using functionalized NDs on ta-C thin films we can significantly improve sensitivity towards dopamine as well as selectively promote cell viability. Thus, these novel carbon nanostructures provide an interesting concept for development of various in vivo targeted sensor solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Exploring the pullback attractors of a low-order quasigeostrophic ocean model subject to deterministic and random forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghil, M.; Pierini, S.; Chekroun, M.

    2017-12-01

    A low-order quasigeostrophic model [1] captures several key features of intrinsic low-frequency variability of the oceans' wind-driven circulation. This double-gyre model is used here as a prototype of an unstable and nonlinear dynamical system with time-dependent forcing to explore basic features of climate change in the presence of natural variability. The studies rely on the theoretical framework of nonautonomous dynamical systems and of their pullback attractors (PBAs), namely the time-dependent invariant sets that attract all trajectories initialized in the remote past [2,3]. Ensemble simulations help us explore these PBAs. The chaotic PBAs of the periodically forced model [4] are found to be cyclo-stationary and cyclo-ergodic. Two parameters are then introduced to analyze the topological structure of the PBAs as a function of the forcing period; their joint use allows one to identify four distinct forms of sensitivity to initial state that correspond to distinct types of system behavior. The model's response to periodic forcing turns out to be, in most cases, very sensitive to the initial state. The system is then forced by a synthetic aperiodic forcing [5]. The existence of a global PBA is rigorously demonstrated. We then assess the convergence of trajectories to this PBA by computing the probability density function (PDF) of trajectory localization in the model's phase space. A sensitivity analysis with respect to forcing amplitude shows that the global PBA experiences large modifications if the underlying autonomous system is dominated by small-amplitude limit cycles, while the changes are less dramatic in a regime characterized by large-amplitude relaxation oscillations. The dependence of the attracting sets on the choice of the ensemble of initial states is analyzed in detail. The extension to random dynamical systems is described and connected to the model's autonomous and periodically forced behavior. [1] Pierini, S., 2011. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 41, 1585

  5. Role of low order rational q-values in the ITB events in JT-60U reverse shear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neudatchin, S.V.; Takizuka, T.; Hayashi, N.; Isayama, A.; Shirai, H.; Fujita, T.; Kamada, Y.; Koide, Y.; Suzuki, T.

    2004-01-01

    Non-local confinement bifurcations inside and around internal transport barriers (ITBs) with a ms timescale (ITB events) have previously been found in JT-60U reverse shear (RS) and high-β p plasmas. ITB events are observed as the simultaneous rise and decay of T e in two zones. They are created by an abrupt non-local reduction (or increase) of heat flux inside 30-40% of the minor radius. Under sufficient neutral beam power P nbi (above ∼8 MW for the 1.2-1.5 MA/3.8 T pulses described below), ITB events were previously detected at various q min values. However, the role of q min equal to 3.5, 3, 2.5, 2 is not obvious for ITB formation. In this paper, we focus on new features of ITB evolution near low-order-rational values of q min . The formation of a stronger ITB and its further splitting into two radially separated ITBs is described. These ITBs are located in both positive and negative shear zones of a plasma with L-mode edge. The similarity of space-time evolution of T e and T i at sufficient power is highlighted (even when the variation is significant and complicated in space and time). Within error-bars, ITB splitting occurs as q min passes through 2.5. The similarity of space-time evolution of T e and T i suggests a similarity in the qualitative behaviour of electron and ion heat diffusivities in time and space. The temporal formation of an ITB in the zone with small positive shear, while q min passes through 3 (after periodical improvements and degradations via ITB events with 8 ms period) in H-mode, with P nbi = 8 MW, is described. At lower powers, ITB events are observed only near rational values of q min . In weak RS shots with P nbi = 4 MW, transport is reduced via ITB events during 0.08 s at q min = 3.5, and repetitive short-term phases of reduced transport are observed as q min passes through 3. The behaviour of T i looks different. The difference in T e and T i evolution, which was detected regularly under low power, probably indicates a decoupling

  6. Full-field and anomaly initialization using a low-order climate model: a comparison and proposals for advanced formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrassi, A.; Weber, R. J. T.; Guemas, V.; Doblas-Reyes, F. J.; Asif, M.; Volpi, D.

    2014-04-01

    Initialization techniques for seasonal-to-decadal climate predictions fall into two main categories; namely full-field initialization (FFI) and anomaly initialization (AI). In the FFI case the initial model state is replaced by the best possible available estimate of the real state. By doing so the initial error is efficiently reduced but, due to the unavoidable presence of model deficiencies, once the model is let free to run a prediction, its trajectory drifts away from the observations no matter how small the initial error is. This problem is partly overcome with AI where the aim is to forecast future anomalies by assimilating observed anomalies on an estimate of the model climate. The large variety of experimental setups, models and observational networks adopted worldwide make it difficult to draw firm conclusions on the respective advantages and drawbacks of FFI and AI, or to identify distinctive lines for improvement. The lack of a unified mathematical framework adds an additional difficulty toward the design of adequate initialization strategies that fit the desired forecast horizon, observational network and model at hand. Here we compare FFI and AI using a low-order climate model of nine ordinary differential equations and use the notation and concepts of data assimilation theory to highlight their error scaling properties. This analysis suggests better performances using FFI when a good observational network is available and reveals the direct relation of its skill with the observational accuracy. The skill of AI appears, however, mostly related to the model quality and clear increases of skill can only be expected in coincidence with model upgrades. We have compared FFI and AI in experiments in which either the full system or the atmosphere and ocean were independently initialized. In the former case FFI shows better and longer-lasting improvements, with skillful predictions until month 30. In the initialization of single compartments, the best

  7. Electron transport determines the electrochemical properties of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomäki, Tommi; Wester, Niklas; Caro, Miguel A.; Sainio, Sami; Protopopova, Vera; Koskinen, Jari; Laurila, Tomi

    2017-01-01

    Amorphous carbon based electrodes are very promising for electrochemical sensing applications. In order to better understand their structure-function relationship, the effect of film thickness on the electrochemical properties of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) electrodes was investigated. ta-C thin films of 7, 15, 30, 50 and 100 nm were characterized in detail with Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), conductive atomic force microscopy (c-AFM), scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to assess (i) the surface properties of the films, (ii) the effect of film thickness on their structure and electrical properties and (iii) the subsequent correlation with their electrochemistry. The electrochemical properties were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) using two different outer-sphere redox probes, Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+/2+ and FcMeOH, and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Computational simulations using density functional theory (DFT) were carried out to rationalize the experimental findings. The characterization results showed that the sp 2 /sp 3 ratio increased with decreasing ta-C film thickness. This correlated with a decrease in mobility gap value and an increase in the average current through the films, which was also consistent with the computational results. XAS indicated that the surface of the ta-C films was always identical and composed of a sp 2 -rich layer. The CV measurements indicated reversible reaction kinetics for both outer-sphere redox probes at 7 and 15 nm ta-C films with a change to quasi-reversible behavior at a thickness of around 30 nm. The charge transfer resistance, obtained from EIS measurements, decreased with decreasing film thickness in accordance with the CV results. Based on the characterization and electrochemical results, we conclude that the reaction kinetics in the case of outer-sphere redox systems is determined mainly by the electron transport through the

  8. Low-order model of the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor plant for use in Kalman filter-based optimal estimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylee, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    A low-order, nonlinear model of the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor plant, for use in Kalman filter estimators, is developed, described, and evaluated. This model consists of 31 differential equations and represents all major subsystems of both the primary and secondary sides of the LOFT plant. Comparisons between model calculations and available LOFT power range testing transients demonstrate the accuracy of the low-order model. The nonlinear model is numerically linearized for future implementation in Kalman filter and optimal control algorithms. The linearized model is shown to be an adequate representation of the nonlinear plant dynamics

  9. LiBSi2: a tetrahedral semiconductor framework from boron and silicon atoms bearing lithium atoms in the channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Michael; van Wüllen, Leo; Benson, Daryn; Kranak, Verina F; Konar, Sumit; Fässler, Thomas F; Häussermann, Ulrich

    2013-06-03

    Silicon swallows up boron: The novel open tetrahedral framework structure (OTF) of the Zintl phase LiBSi2 was made by applying high pressure to a mixture of LiB and elemental silicon. The compound represents a new topology in the B-Si net (called tum), which hosts Li atoms in the channels (see picture). LiBSi2 is the first example where B and Si atoms form an ordered common framework structure with B engaged exclusively in heteronuclear B-Si contacts.

  10. LiBSi{sub 2}: a tetrahedral semiconductor framework from boron and silicon atoms bearing lithium atoms in the channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeilinger, Michael; Faessler, Thomas F. [Department of Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Wuellen, Leo van [Department of Physics, University of Augsburg (Germany); Benson, Daryn [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Kranak, Verina F.; Konar, Sumit; Haeussermann, Ulrich [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University (Sweden)

    2013-06-03

    Silicon swallows up boron. The novel open tetrahedral framework structure (OTF) of the Zintl phase LiBSi{sub 2} was made by applying high pressure to a mixture of LiB and elemental silicon. The compound represents a new topology in the B-Si net (called tum), which hosts Li atoms in the channels. LiBSi{sub 2} is the first example where B and Si atoms form an ordered common framework structure with B engaged exclusively in heteronuclear B-Si contacts. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. The Case for Tetrahedral Oxy-subhydride (TOSH Structures in the Exclusion Zones of Anchored Polar Solvents Including Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Oehr

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesize a mechanistic model of how negatively-charged exclusion zones (EZs are created. While the growth of EZs is known to be associated with the absorption of ambient photonic energy, the molecular dynamics giving rise to this process need greater elucidation. We believe they arise due to the formation of oxy-subhydride structures (OH−(H2O4 with a tetrahedral (sp3 (OH−(H2O3 core. Five experimental data sets derived by previous researchers were assessed in this regard: (1 water-derived EZ light absorbance at specific infrared wavelengths, (2 EZ negative potential in water and ethanol, (3 maximum EZ light absorbance at 270 nm ultraviolet wavelength, (4 ability of dimethyl sulphoxide but not ether to form an EZ, and (5 transitory nature of melting ice derived EZs. The proposed tetrahedral oxy-subhydride structures (TOSH appear to adequately account for all of the experimental evidence derived from water or other polar solvents.

  12. A Low-Order Harmonic Elimination Scheme for Induction Motor Drives Using a Multilevel Octadecagonal Space Vector Structure With a Single DC Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boby, Mathews; Rahul, Arun; Gopakumar, K.

    2018-01-01

    Conventional voltage-source inverters used for induction motor drives generate a hexagonal space vector structure. In the overmodulation range, the hexagonal space vector structure generates low-order harmonics in the phase voltage resulting in low-order torque ripple in the motor. Inverter...... topologies with an octadecagonal (18 sided) space vector structure eliminate fifth-, seventh-, eleventh-, and thirteenth-order harmonics from the phase voltage, and hence, the dominant sixth- and twelfth-order torque ripple generation is eliminated. Octadecagonal space vector structures proposed in the past...... require multiple dc sources, which makes four-quadrant operation of the drive system difficult and costly. In this paper, the formation of a multilevel nine-concentric octadecagonal space vector structure using a single dc source is proposed. Detailed experimental results, using open-loop V/f control...

  13. Influences of the land use pattern on water quality in low-order streams of the Dongjiang River basin, China: A multi-scale analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jiao; Jiang, Yuan; Liu, Qi; Hou, Zhaojiang; Liao, Jianyu; Fu, Lan; Peng, Qiuzhi

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the relationships between land use patterns and water quality in low-order streams is useful for effective landscape planning to protect downstream water quality. A clear understanding of these relationships remains elusive due to the heterogeneity of land use patterns and scale effects. To better assess land use influences, we developed empirical models relating land use patterns to the water quality of low-order streams at different geomorphic regions across multi-scales in the Dongjiang River basin using multivariate statistical analyses. The land use pattern was quantified in terms of the composition, configuration and hydrological distance of land use types at the reach buffer, riparian corridor and catchment scales. Water was sampled under summer base flow at 56 low-order catchments, which were classified into two homogenous geomorphic groups. The results indicated that the water quality of low-order streams was most strongly affected by the configuration metrics of land use. Poorer water quality was associated with higher patch densities of cropland, orchards and grassland in the mountain catchments, whereas it was associated with a higher value for the largest patch index of urban land use in the plain catchments. The overall water quality variation was explained better by catchment scale than by riparian- or reach-scale land use, whereas the spatial scale over which land use influenced water quality also varied across specific water parameters and the geomorphic basis. Our study suggests that watershed management should adopt better landscape planning and multi-scale measures to improve water quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Calculation of energetic characteristics of 3d-transition metal ion aquacomplexes in tetrahedral and octahedral coordination by broadened Hukkel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhogolev, D.A.; Bunyatyan, B.Kh.; Yatsimirskij, K.B.

    1975-01-01

    Aquacomplexes formation energies of bi- and trivalent ions of 3d transition metals from Sc to Ni in the tetrahedral and octahedral coordinations have been calculated to compare their energetic advantages. Unlike ions of alkali metals and halogens, a tendency for higher or at least equal energetic effect of the formation of a tetrahedral complex, compared to octahedral, is characteristic of the ions under study. This can be explained by an increase in the covalency degree of the bond ion-ligand and by a considerable charge transfer from ligands to the central ion in the case of transition elements

  15. Direct Observation of Very Large Zero-Field Splitting in a Tetrahedral Ni(II)Se4 Coordination Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shang-Da; Maganas, Dimitrios; Levesanos, Nikolaos; Ferentinos, Eleftherios; Haas, Sabrina; Thirunavukkuarasu, Komalavalli; Krzystek, J; Dressel, Martin; Bogani, Lapo; Neese, Frank; Kyritsis, Panayotis

    2015-10-14

    The high-spin (S = 1) tetrahedral Ni(II) complex [Ni{(i)Pr2P(Se)NP(Se)(i)Pr2}2] was investigated by magnetometry, spectroscopic, and quantum chemical methods. Angle-resolved magnetometry studies revealed the orientation of the magnetization principal axes. The very large zero-field splitting (zfs), D = 45.40(2) cm(-1), E = 1.91(2) cm(-1), of the complex was accurately determined by far-infrared magnetic spectroscopy, directly observing transitions between the spin sublevels of the triplet ground state. These are the largest zfs values ever determined--directly--for a high-spin Ni(II) complex. Ab initio calculations further probed the electronic structure of the system, elucidating the factors controlling the sign and magnitude of D. The latter is dominated by spin-orbit coupling contributions of the Ni ions, whereas the corresponding effects of the Se atoms are remarkably smaller.

  16. Mo-containing tetrahedral amorphous carbon deposited by dual filtered cathodic vacuum arc with selective pulsed bias voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasaja, Nitisak; Sansongsiri, Sakon; Intarasiri, Saweat; Vilaithong, Thiraphat; Anders, Andre

    2007-01-01

    Metal-containing tetrahedral amorphous carbon films were produced by dual filtered cathodic vacuum arc plasma sources operated in sequentially pulsed mode. Negatively pulsed bias was applied to the substrate when carbon plasma was generated, whereas it was absent when the molybdenum plasma was presented. Film thickness was measured after deposition by profilometry. Glass slides with silver pads were used as substrates for the measurement of the sheet resistance. The microstructure and composition of the films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering, respectively. It was found that the electrical resistivity decreases with an increase of the Mo content, which can be ascribed to an increase of the sp 2 content and an increase of the sp 2 cluster size

  17. Calculation of fluctuations and photoemission properties in a tetrahedral-cluster model for an intermediate-valence system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, A.; Falicov, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    An exact solution of a four-site tetrahedral-crystal model, the smallest face-centered-cubic crystal, is presented in the case of an intermediate-valence system. The model consists of the following: (a) one extended orbital and one localized orbital per atom, (b) an interatomic transfer term between extended orbitals, (c) an interatomic hybridization between the localized and extended orbitals, (d) strong intra-atomic Coulomb repulsion between opposite-spin localized states, and (e) intermediate-strength intra-atomic Coulomb repulsion between the localized and extended states. These competing effects are examined as they manifest themselves in the intermediate-valence, photoemission, inverse-photoemission, and thermodynamic properties

  18. The Space-Time Conservative Schemes for Large-Scale, Time-Accurate Flow Simulations with Tetrahedral Meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachari, Balaji Shankar; Streett, Craig L.; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Friedlander, David J.; Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of development of unstructured mesh methods, high-fidelity time-accurate simulations are still predominantly carried out on structured, or unstructured hexahedral meshes by using high-order finite-difference, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO), or hybrid schemes formed by their combinations. In this work, the space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) method is used to simulate several flow problems including supersonic jet/shock interaction and its impact on launch vehicle acoustics, and direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows using tetrahedral meshes. This paper provides a status report for the continuing development of the space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) numerical and software framework under the Revolutionary Computational Aerosciences (RCA) project. Solution accuracy and large-scale parallel performance of the numerical framework is assessed with the goal of providing a viable paradigm for future high-fidelity flow physics simulations.

  19. Krylov solvers preconditioned with the low-order red-black algorithm for the PN hybrid FEM for the instant code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yaqi; Rabiti, Cristian; Palmiotti, Giuseppe, E-mail: yaqi.wang@inl.gov, E-mail: cristian.rabiti@inl.gov, E-mail: giuseppe.palmiotti@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper proposes a new set of Krylov solvers, CG and GMRes, as an alternative of the Red-Black (RB) algorithm on on solving the steady-state one-speed neutron transport equation discretized with PN in angle and hybrid FEM (Finite Element Method) in space. A pre conditioner with the low-order RB iteration is designed to improve their convergence. These Krylov solvers can reduce the cost of pre-assembling the response matrices greatly. Numerical results with the INSTANT code are presented in order to show that they can be a good supplement on solving the PN-HFEM system. (author)

  20. Krylov solvers preconditioned with the low-order red-black algorithm for the PN hybrid FEM for the instant code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yaqi; Rabiti, Cristian; Palmiotti, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new set of Krylov solvers, CG and GMRes, as an alternative of the Red-Black (RB) algorithm on on solving the steady-state one-speed neutron transport equation discretized with PN in angle and hybrid FEM (Finite Element Method) in space. A pre conditioner with the low-order RB iteration is designed to improve their convergence. These Krylov solvers can reduce the cost of pre-assembling the response matrices greatly. Numerical results with the INSTANT code are presented in order to show that they can be a good supplement on solving the PN-HFEM system. (author)

  1. Low-order non-spatial effects dominate second-order spatial effects in the texture quantifier analysis of 18F-FDG-PET images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J Brooks

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in applying image texture quantifiers to assess the intra-tumor heterogeneity observed in FDG-PET images of various cancers. Use of these quantifiers as prognostic indicators of disease outcome and/or treatment response has yielded inconsistent results. We study the general applicability of some well-established texture quantifiers to the image data unique to FDG-PET.We first created computer-simulated test images with statistical properties consistent with clinical image data for cancers of the uterine cervix. We specifically isolated second-order statistical effects from low-order effects and analyzed the resulting variation in common texture quantifiers in response to contrived image variations. We then analyzed the quantifiers computed for FIGOIIb cervical cancers via receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and via contingency table analysis of detrended quantifier values.We found that image texture quantifiers depend strongly on low-effects such as tumor volume and SUV distribution. When low-order effects are controlled, the image texture quantifiers tested were not able to discern only the second-order effects. Furthermore, the results of clinical tumor heterogeneity studies might be tunable via choice of patient population analyzed.Some image texture quantifiers are strongly affected by factors distinct from the second-order effects researchers ostensibly seek to assess via those quantifiers.

  2. A low-order coupled chemistry meteorology model for testing online and offline data assimilation schemes: L95-GRS (v1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haussaire, J.-M.; Bocquet, M.

    2016-01-01

    Bocquet and Sakov (2013) introduced a low-order model based on the coupling of the chaotic Lorenz-95 (L95) model, which simulates winds along a mid-latitude circle, with the transport of a tracer species advected by this zonal wind field. This model, named L95-T, can serve as a playground for testing data assimilation schemes with an online model. Here, the tracer part of the model is extended to a reduced photochemistry module. This coupled chemistry meteorology model (CCMM), the L95-GRS (generic reaction set) model, mimics continental and transcontinental transport and the photochemistry of ozone, volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides. Its numerical implementation is described. The model is shown to reproduce the major physical and chemical processes being considered. L95-T and L95-GRS are specifically designed and useful for testing advanced data assimilation schemes, such as the iterative ensemble Kalman smoother (IEnKS), which combines the best of ensemble and variational methods. These models provide useful insights prior to the implementation of data assimilation methods into larger models. We illustrate their use with data assimilation schemes on preliminary yet instructive numerical experiments. In particular, online and offline data assimilation strategies can be conveniently tested and discussed with this low-order CCMM. The impact of observed chemical species concentrations on the wind field estimate can be quantitatively assessed. The impacts of the wind chaotic dynamics and of the chemical species non-chaotic but highly nonlinear dynamics on the data assimilation strategies are illustrated.

  3. A parallel electrostatic Particle-in-Cell method on unstructured tetrahedral grids for large-scale bounded collisionless plasma simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averkin, Sergey N.; Gatsonis, Nikolaos A.

    2018-06-01

    An unstructured electrostatic Particle-In-Cell (EUPIC) method is developed on arbitrary tetrahedral grids for simulation of plasmas bounded by arbitrary geometries. The electric potential in EUPIC is obtained on cell vertices from a finite volume Multi-Point Flux Approximation of Gauss' law using the indirect dual cell with Dirichlet, Neumann and external circuit boundary conditions. The resulting matrix equation for the nodal potential is solved with a restarted generalized minimal residual method (GMRES) and an ILU(0) preconditioner algorithm, parallelized using a combination of node coloring and level scheduling approaches. The electric field on vertices is obtained using the gradient theorem applied to the indirect dual cell. The algorithms for injection, particle loading, particle motion, and particle tracking are parallelized for unstructured tetrahedral grids. The algorithms for the potential solver, electric field evaluation, loading, scatter-gather algorithms are verified using analytic solutions for test cases subject to Laplace and Poisson equations. Grid sensitivity analysis examines the L2 and L∞ norms of the relative error in potential, field, and charge density as a function of edge-averaged and volume-averaged cell size. Analysis shows second order of convergence for the potential and first order of convergence for the electric field and charge density. Temporal sensitivity analysis is performed and the momentum and energy conservation properties of the particle integrators in EUPIC are examined. The effects of cell size and timestep on heating, slowing-down and the deflection times are quantified. The heating, slowing-down and the deflection times are found to be almost linearly dependent on number of particles per cell. EUPIC simulations of current collection by cylindrical Langmuir probes in collisionless plasmas show good comparison with previous experimentally validated numerical results. These simulations were also used in a parallelization

  4. TU-AB-202-05: GPU-Based 4D Deformable Image Registration Using Adaptive Tetrahedral Mesh Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Z; Zhuang, L [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Gu, X; Wang, J [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Chen, H; Zhen, X [Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Deformable image registration (DIR) has been employed today as an automated and effective segmentation method to transfer tumor or organ contours from the planning image to daily images, instead of manual segmentation. However, the computational time and accuracy of current DIR approaches are still insufficient for online adaptive radiation therapy (ART), which requires real-time and high-quality image segmentation, especially in a large datasets of 4D-CT images. The objective of this work is to propose a new DIR algorithm, with fast computational speed and high accuracy, by using adaptive feature-based tetrahedral meshing and GPU-based parallelization. Methods: The first step is to generate the adaptive tetrahedral mesh based on the image features of a reference phase of 4D-CT, so that the deformation can be well captured and accurately diffused from the mesh vertices to voxels of the image volume. Subsequently, the deformation vector fields (DVF) and other phases of 4D-CT can be obtained by matching each phase of the target 4D-CT images with the corresponding deformed reference phase. The proposed 4D DIR method is implemented on GPU, resulting in significantly increasing the computational efficiency due to its parallel computing ability. Results: A 4D NCAT digital phantom was used to test the efficiency and accuracy of our method. Both the image and DVF results show that the fine structures and shapes of lung are well preserved, and the tumor position is well captured, i.e., 3D distance error is 1.14 mm. Compared to the previous voxel-based CPU implementation of DIR, such as demons, the proposed method is about 160x faster for registering a 10-phase 4D-CT with a phase dimension of 256×256×150. Conclusion: The proposed 4D DIR method uses feature-based mesh and GPU-based parallelism, which demonstrates the capability to compute both high-quality image and motion results, with significant improvement on the computational speed.

  5. TU-AB-202-05: GPU-Based 4D Deformable Image Registration Using Adaptive Tetrahedral Mesh Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Z; Zhuang, L; Gu, X; Wang, J; Chen, H; Zhen, X

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Deformable image registration (DIR) has been employed today as an automated and effective segmentation method to transfer tumor or organ contours from the planning image to daily images, instead of manual segmentation. However, the computational time and accuracy of current DIR approaches are still insufficient for online adaptive radiation therapy (ART), which requires real-time and high-quality image segmentation, especially in a large datasets of 4D-CT images. The objective of this work is to propose a new DIR algorithm, with fast computational speed and high accuracy, by using adaptive feature-based tetrahedral meshing and GPU-based parallelization. Methods: The first step is to generate the adaptive tetrahedral mesh based on the image features of a reference phase of 4D-CT, so that the deformation can be well captured and accurately diffused from the mesh vertices to voxels of the image volume. Subsequently, the deformation vector fields (DVF) and other phases of 4D-CT can be obtained by matching each phase of the target 4D-CT images with the corresponding deformed reference phase. The proposed 4D DIR method is implemented on GPU, resulting in significantly increasing the computational efficiency due to its parallel computing ability. Results: A 4D NCAT digital phantom was used to test the efficiency and accuracy of our method. Both the image and DVF results show that the fine structures and shapes of lung are well preserved, and the tumor position is well captured, i.e., 3D distance error is 1.14 mm. Compared to the previous voxel-based CPU implementation of DIR, such as demons, the proposed method is about 160x faster for registering a 10-phase 4D-CT with a phase dimension of 256×256×150. Conclusion: The proposed 4D DIR method uses feature-based mesh and GPU-based parallelism, which demonstrates the capability to compute both high-quality image and motion results, with significant improvement on the computational speed.

  6. Laboratory and On-sky Validation of the Shaped Pupil Coronagraph’s Sensitivity to Low-order Aberrations With Active Wavefront Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thayne; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Groff, Tyler D.; Lozi, Julien; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Guyon, Olivier; Brandt, Timothy; Martinache, Frantz; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Skaf, Nour; Kuhn, Jonas; Pathak, Prashant; Kudo, Tomoyuki

    2018-04-01

    We present early laboratory simulations and extensive on-sky tests validating of the performance of a shaped pupil coronagraph (SPC) behind an extreme-AO corrected beam of the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system. In tests with the SCExAO internal source/wavefront error simulator, the normalized intensity profile for the SPC degrades more slowly than for the Lyot coronagraph as low-order aberrations reduce the Strehl ratio from extremely high values (S.R. ∼ 0.93–0.99) to those characteristic of current ground-based extreme AO systems (S.R. ∼ 0.74–0.93) and then slightly lower values down to S.R. ∼ 0.57. On-sky SCExAO data taken with the SPC and other coronagraphs for brown dwarf/planet-hosting stars HD 1160 and HR 8799 provide further evidence for the SPC’s robustness to low-order aberrations. From H-band Strehl ratios of 80% to 70%, the Lyot coronagraph’s performance versus that of the SPC may degrade even faster on sky than is seen in our internal source simulations. The 5-σ contrast also degrades faster (by a factor of two) for the Lyot than the SPC. The SPC we use was designed as a technology demonstrator only, with a contrast floor, throughput, and outer working angle poorly matched for SCExAO’s current AO performance and poorly tuned for imaging the HR 8799 planets. Nevertheless, we detect HR 8799 cde with SCExAO/CHARIS using the SPC in broadband mode, where the S/N for planet e is within 30% of that obtained using the vortex coronagraph. The shaped-pupil coronagraph is a promising design demonstrated to be robust in the presence of low-order aberrations and may be well-suited for future ground and space-based direct imaging observations, especially those focused on follow-up exoplanet characterization and technology demonstration of deep contrast within well-defined regions of the image plane.

  7. Erasing no-man’s land by thermodynamically stabilizing the liquid-liquid transition in tetrahedral particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallenburg, Frank; Filion, Laura; Sciortino, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    One of the most controversial hypotheses for explaining the origin of the thermodynamic anomalies characterizing liquid water postulates the presence of a metastable second-order liquid-liquid critical point located in the `no-man’s land’. In this scenario, two liquids with distinct local structure emerge near the critical temperature. Unfortunately, as spontaneous crystallization is rapid in this region, experimental support for this hypothesis relies on significant extrapolations, either from the metastable liquid or from amorphous solid water. Although the liquid-liquid transition is expected to feature in many tetrahedrally coordinated liquids, including silicon, carbon and silica, even numerical studies of atomic and molecular models have been unable to conclusively prove the existence of this transition. Here we provide such evidence for a model in which it is possible to continuously tune the softness of the interparticle interaction and the flexibility of the bonds, the key ingredients controlling the existence of the critical point. We show that conditions exist where the full coexistence is thermodynamically stable with respect to crystallization. Our work offers a basis for designing colloidal analogues of water exhibiting liquid-liquid transitions in equilibrium, opening the way for experimental confirmation of the original hypothesis.

  8. Conductivity enhancement of ion tracks in tetrahedral amorphous carbon by doping with N, B, Cu and Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauser, J.; Nix, A.-K.; Gehrke, H.-G.; Hofsäss, H.; Trautmann, C.; Weidinger, A.

    2012-01-01

    Conducting ion tracks are formed when high-energy heavy ions (e.g. 1 GeV Au) pass through tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C). These nanowires with a diameter of about 8 nm are embedded in the insulating ta-C matrix and of interest for various nanotechnological applications. Usually the overall conductivity of the tracks and the current/voltage characteristics (Ohmic or non-Ohmic) vary strongly from track to track, even when measured on the same sample, indicating that the track formation is neither complete nor homogeneous. To improve the track conductivity, doping of ta-C with N, B, Cu, or Fe is investigated. Beneficial changes in track conductivity after doping compete with a conductivity increase of the surrounding matrix material. Best results are achieved by incorporation of 1 at.% Cu, while for different reasons, the improvement of the tracks remains moderate for N, B, and Fe doping. Conductivity enhancement of the tracks is assumed to develop during the ion track formation process by an increased number of localized states which contribute to the current transport.

  9. Effect of nanoparticles as lubricant additives on friction and wear behavior of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As diamond like carbon (DLC coating becomes increasingly popular in providing low friction and wear under lubricated conditions, the effect of various oil additives on tribological behavior of DLC coating is drawing more attention. Various oil additives, such as ZnDTP and MoDTC, have been widely used in automobile engine industry to pursuit excellent tribological performance in the insufficient lubrication condition. Although such commercial oil additives have been proven to reduce friction or/and wear to some extent, usage of such high -SAPS (sulphuric ash, phosphor, sulfphur conventional additives is bound to arouse concerns due to environmental reasons. In this research, we investigate the effect of two nanoparticle oil additives, which are cerium oxide (CeO2 and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2, on friction and wear of non-hydrogen tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C coating. The results show that by adding ZrO2 nanoparticle, the friction of DLC coating could be reduced about 32% compared to non-additive base oil scenario, but specific wear rate increases by 40%. When CeO2 nanoparticle is used, friction increases by 22% compared to non-additive base oil scenario, however wear decreases by nearly 77%.

  10. Silicon nitride gradient film as the underlayer of ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon overcoat for magnetic recording slider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Guigen, E-mail: wanggghit@yahoo.com [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Kuang Xuping; Zhang Huayu; Zhu Can [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Han Jiecai [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Center for Composite Materials, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Zuo Hongbo [Center for Composite Materials, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Ma Hongtao [SAE Technologies Development (Dongguan) Co., Ltd., Dongguan 523087 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ultra-thin carbon films with different silicon nitride (Si-N) film underlayers were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It highlighted the influences of Si-N underlayers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbon films with Si-N underlayers obtained by nitriding especially at the substrate bias of -150 V, can exhibit better corrosion protection properties - Abstract: There are higher technical requirements for protection overcoat of magnetic recording slider used in high-density storage fields for the future. In this study, silicon nitride (Si-N) composition-gradient films were firstly prepared by nitriding of silicon thin films pre-sputtered on silicon wafers and magnetic recording sliders, using microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source. The ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon films were then deposited on the Si-N films by filtered cathodic vacuum arc method. Compared with amorphous carbon overcoats with conventional silicon underlayers, the overcoats with Si-N underlayers obtained by plasma nitriding especially at the substrate bias of -150 V, can provide better corrosion protection for high-density magnetic recording sliders.

  11. Silicon nitride gradient film as the underlayer of ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon overcoat for magnetic recording slider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guigen; Kuang Xuping; Zhang Huayu; Zhu Can; Han Jiecai; Zuo Hongbo; Ma Hongtao

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The ultra-thin carbon films with different silicon nitride (Si-N) film underlayers were prepared. ► It highlighted the influences of Si-N underlayers. ► The carbon films with Si-N underlayers obtained by nitriding especially at the substrate bias of −150 V, can exhibit better corrosion protection properties - Abstract: There are higher technical requirements for protection overcoat of magnetic recording slider used in high-density storage fields for the future. In this study, silicon nitride (Si-N) composition-gradient films were firstly prepared by nitriding of silicon thin films pre-sputtered on silicon wafers and magnetic recording sliders, using microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source. The ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon films were then deposited on the Si-N films by filtered cathodic vacuum arc method. Compared with amorphous carbon overcoats with conventional silicon underlayers, the overcoats with Si-N underlayers obtained by plasma nitriding especially at the substrate bias of −150 V, can provide better corrosion protection for high-density magnetic recording sliders.

  12. Cause and Cure-Deterioration in Accuracy of CFD Simulations with Use of High-Aspect-Ratio Triangular/Tetrahedral Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Venkatachari, Balaji

    2017-01-01

    In the multi-dimensional space-time conservation element and solution element16 (CESE) method, triangles and tetrahedral mesh elements turn out to be the most natural building blocks for 2D and 3D spatial grids, respectively. As such, the CESE method is naturally compatible with the simplest 2D and 3D unstructured grids and thus can be easily applied to solve problems with complex geometries. However, because (a) accurate solution of a high-Reynolds number flow field near a solid wall requires that the grid intervals along the direction normal to the wall be much finer than those in a direction parallel to the wall and, as such, the use of grid cells with extremely high aspect ratio (103 to 106) may become mandatory, and (b) unlike quadrilateral hexahedral grids, it is well-known that accuracy of gradient computations involving triangular tetrahedral grids tends to deteriorate rapidly as cell aspect ratio increases. As a result, the use of triangular tetrahedral grid cells near a solid wall has long been deemed impractical by CFD researchers. In view of (a) the critical role played by triangular tetrahedral grids in the CESE development, and (b) the importance of accurate resolution of high-Reynolds number flow field near a solid wall, as will be presented in the main paper, a comprehensive and rigorous mathematical framework that clearly identifies the reasons behind the accuracy deterioration as described above has been developed for the 2D case involving triangular cells. By avoiding the pitfalls identified by the 2D framework, and its 3D extension, it has been shown numerically.

  13. A Deep Penetration Problem Calculation Using AETIUS:An Easy Modeling Discrete Ordinates Transport Code UsIng Unstructured Tetrahedral Mesh, Shared Memory Parallel

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, Jong Woon; LEE, Young-Ouk

    2017-09-01

    As computing power gets better and better, computer codes that use a deterministic method seem to be less useful than those using the Monte Carlo method. In addition, users do not like to think about space, angles, and energy discretization for deterministic codes. However, a deterministic method is still powerful in that we can obtain a solution of the flux throughout the problem, particularly as when particles can barely penetrate, such as in a deep penetration problem with small detection volumes. Recently, a new state-of-the-art discrete-ordinates code, ATTILA, was developed and has been widely used in several applications. ATTILA provides the capabilities to solve geometrically complex 3-D transport problems by using an unstructured tetrahedral mesh. Since 2009, we have been developing our own code by benchmarking ATTILA. AETIUS is a discrete ordinates code that uses an unstructured tetrahedral mesh such as ATTILA. For pre- and post- processing, Gmsh is used to generate an unstructured tetrahedral mesh by importing a CAD file (*.step) and visualizing the calculation results of AETIUS. Using a CAD tool, the geometry can be modeled very easily. In this paper, we describe a brief overview of AETIUS and provide numerical results from both AETIUS and a Monte Carlo code, MCNP5, in a deep penetration problem with small detection volumes. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of AETIUS for such calculations.

  14. Finite-element design and optimization of a three-dimensional tetrahedral porous titanium scaffold for the reconstruction of mandibular defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Danmei; Rong, Qiguo; Chen, Quan

    2017-09-01

    Reconstruction of segmental defects in the mandible remains a challenge for maxillofacial surgery. The use of porous scaffolds is a potential method for repairing these defects. Now, additive manufacturing techniques provide a solution for the fabrication of porous scaffolds with specific geometrical shapes and complex structures. The goal of this study was to design and optimize a three-dimensional tetrahedral titanium scaffold for the reconstruction of mandibular defects. With a fixed strut diameter of 0.45mm and a mean cell size of 2.2mm, a tetrahedral structural porous scaffold was designed for a simulated anatomical defect derived from computed tomography (CT) data of a human mandible. An optimization method based on the concept of uniform stress was performed on the initial scaffold to realize a minimal-weight design. Geometric and mechanical comparisons between the initial and optimized scaffold show that the optimized scaffold exhibits a larger porosity, 81.90%, as well as a more homogeneous stress distribution. These results demonstrate that tetrahedral structural titanium scaffolds are feasible structures for repairing mandibular defects, and that the proposed optimization scheme has the ability to produce superior scaffolds for mandibular reconstruction with better stability, higher porosity, and less weight. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Controls/CFD Interdisciplinary Research Software Generates Low-Order Linear Models for Control Design From Steady-State CFD Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Kevin J.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing analytical methods and software tools to create a bridge between the controls and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) disciplines. Traditionally, control design engineers have used coarse nonlinear simulations to generate information for the design of new propulsion system controls. However, such traditional methods are not adequate for modeling the propulsion systems of complex, high-speed vehicles like the High Speed Civil Transport. To properly model the relevant flow physics of high-speed propulsion systems, one must use simulations based on CFD methods. Such CFD simulations have become useful tools for engineers that are designing propulsion system components. The analysis techniques and software being developed as part of this effort are an attempt to evolve CFD into a useful tool for control design as well. One major aspect of this research is the generation of linear models from steady-state CFD results. CFD simulations, often used during the design of high-speed inlets, yield high resolution operating point data. Under a NASA grant, the University of Akron has developed analytical techniques and software tools that use these data to generate linear models for control design. The resulting linear models have the same number of states as the original CFD simulation, so they are still very large and computationally cumbersome. Model reduction techniques have been successfully applied to reduce these large linear models by several orders of magnitude without significantly changing the dynamic response. The result is an accurate, easy to use, low-order linear model that takes less time to generate than those generated by traditional means. The development of methods for generating low-order linear models from steady-state CFD is most complete at the one-dimensional level, where software is available to generate models with different kinds of input and output variables. One-dimensional methods have been extended

  16. Three-dimensional dynamic rupture simulation with a high-order discontinuous Galerkin method on unstructured tetrahedral meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Pelties, Christian

    2012-02-18

    Accurate and efficient numerical methods to simulate dynamic earthquake rupture and wave propagation in complex media and complex fault geometries are needed to address fundamental questions in earthquake dynamics, to integrate seismic and geodetic data into emerging approaches for dynamic source inversion, and to generate realistic physics-based earthquake scenarios for hazard assessment. Modeling of spontaneous earthquake rupture and seismic wave propagation by a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method combined with an arbitrarily high-order derivatives (ADER) time integration method was introduced in two dimensions by de la Puente et al. (2009). The ADER-DG method enables high accuracy in space and time and discretization by unstructured meshes. Here we extend this method to three-dimensional dynamic rupture problems. The high geometrical flexibility provided by the usage of tetrahedral elements and the lack of spurious mesh reflections in the ADER-DG method allows the refinement of the mesh close to the fault to model the rupture dynamics adequately while concentrating computational resources only where needed. Moreover, ADER-DG does not generate spurious high-frequency perturbations on the fault and hence does not require artificial Kelvin-Voigt damping. We verify our three-dimensional implementation by comparing results of the SCEC TPV3 test problem with two well-established numerical methods, finite differences, and spectral boundary integral. Furthermore, a convergence study is presented to demonstrate the systematic consistency of the method. To illustrate the capabilities of the high-order accurate ADER-DG scheme on unstructured meshes, we simulate an earthquake scenario, inspired by the 1992 Landers earthquake, that includes curved faults, fault branches, and surface topography. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Effect of high substrate bias and hydrogen and nitrogen incorporation on filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposited tetrahedral amorphous carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panwar, O.S.; Khan, Mohd. Alim; Kumar, Mahesh; Shivaprasad, S.M.; Satyanarayana, B.S.; Dixit, P.N.; Bhattacharyya, R.; Khan, M.Y.

    2008-01-01

    The application of a sufficiently high negative substrate bias, during the growth of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C), is usually associated with low sp 3 bonding configuration and stressed films. However, in an effort to understand and utilize the higher pseudo thermo dynamical conditions during the film growth, at high negative substrate bias (- 300 V), reported here is a study on ta-C films grown under different hydrogen and nitrogen concentration. As grown ta-C films were studied under different negative substrate bias conditions. The variation of the sp 3 content and sp 3 /sp 2 ratio in the ta-C films exhibits a trend similar to those reported in literature, with a subtle variation in this report being the substrate bias voltage, which was observed to be around - 200 V, for obtaining the highest sp 3 (80%) bonding and sp 3 /sp 2 (3.95) ratio. The hydrogen and nitrogen incorporated ta-C films studied, at a bias of - 300 V, show an increase in sp 3 (87-91%) bonding and sp 3 /sp 2 (7-10) ratio in the range of studies reported. The inference is drawn on the basis of the set of data obtained from measurements carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray induced Auger electron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy of as grown and hydrogen and nitrogen incorporated ta-C films deposited using an S bend filtered cathodic vacuum arc system. The study indicates the possibility of further tailoring ta-C film properties and also extending capabilities of the cathodic arc system for developing carbon based films for electronics and tribological applications

  18. Effect of high substrate bias and hydrogen and nitrogen incorporation on filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposited tetrahedral amorphous carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panwar, O.S. [Plasma Processed Materials Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110 012 (India)], E-mail: ospanwar@mail.nplindia.ernet.in; Khan, Mohd. Alim [Plasma Processed Materials Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110 012 (India); Kumar, Mahesh; Shivaprasad, S.M. [Surface Physics and Nanostructures Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110 012 (India); Satyanarayana, B.S. [MIT Innovation Centre and Electronics and Communication Department, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal-579104 (India); Dixit, P.N. [Plasma Processed Materials Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110 012 (India); Bhattacharyya, R. [Emeritus Scientist, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India); Khan, M.Y. [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, Central University, New Delhi-110025 (India)

    2008-02-29

    The application of a sufficiently high negative substrate bias, during the growth of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C), is usually associated with low sp{sup 3} bonding configuration and stressed films. However, in an effort to understand and utilize the higher pseudo thermo dynamical conditions during the film growth, at high negative substrate bias (- 300 V), reported here is a study on ta-C films grown under different hydrogen and nitrogen concentration. As grown ta-C films were studied under different negative substrate bias conditions. The variation of the sp{sup 3} content and sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} ratio in the ta-C films exhibits a trend similar to those reported in literature, with a subtle variation in this report being the substrate bias voltage, which was observed to be around - 200 V, for obtaining the highest sp{sup 3} (80%) bonding and sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} (3.95) ratio. The hydrogen and nitrogen incorporated ta-C films studied, at a bias of - 300 V, show an increase in sp{sup 3} (87-91%) bonding and sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} (7-10) ratio in the range of studies reported. The inference is drawn on the basis of the set of data obtained from measurements carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray induced Auger electron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy of as grown and hydrogen and nitrogen incorporated ta-C films deposited using an S bend filtered cathodic vacuum arc system. The study indicates the possibility of further tailoring ta-C film properties and also extending capabilities of the cathodic arc system for developing carbon based films for electronics and tribological applications.

  19. 3-D minimum-structure inversion of magnetotelluric data using the finite-element method and tetrahedral grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahandari, H.; Farquharson, C. G.

    2017-11-01

    Unstructured grids enable representing arbitrary structures more accurately and with fewer cells compared to regular structured grids. These grids also allow more efficient refinements compared to rectilinear meshes. In this study, tetrahedral grids are used for the inversion of magnetotelluric (MT) data, which allows for the direct inclusion of topography in the model, for constraining an inversion using a wireframe-based geological model and for local refinement at the observation stations. A minimum-structure method with an iterative model-space Gauss-Newton algorithm for optimization is used. An iterative solver is employed for solving the normal system of equations at each Gauss-Newton step and the sensitivity matrix-vector products that are required by this solver are calculated using pseudo-forward problems. This method alleviates the need to explicitly form the Hessian or Jacobian matrices which significantly reduces the required computation memory. Forward problems are formulated using an edge-based finite-element approach and a sparse direct solver is used for the solutions. This solver allows saving and re-using the factorization of matrices for similar pseudo-forward problems within a Gauss-Newton iteration which greatly minimizes the computation time. Two examples are presented to show the capability of the algorithm: the first example uses a benchmark model while the second example represents a realistic geological setting with topography and a sulphide deposit. The data that are inverted are the full-tensor impedance and the magnetic transfer function vector. The inversions sufficiently recovered the models and reproduced the data, which shows the effectiveness of unstructured grids for complex and realistic MT inversion scenarios. The first example is also used to demonstrate the computational efficiency of the presented model-space method by comparison with its data-space counterpart.

  20. Nonmarine time-stratigraphy in a rift setting: An example from the Mid-Permian lower Quanzijie low-order cycle Bogda Mountains, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Obrist-Farner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentological and stratigraphic studies of seven stratigraphic sections of Permian Hongyanchi (HYC and Quanzijie (QZJ low-order cycles (LCs in the Tarlong-Taodonggou half graben and Dalongkou area in Bogda Mountains, NW China, demonstrate effective approaches and methodology in cyclo- and time-stratigraphic analyses of complex fluvial-lacustrine deposits in an intracontinental rift setting. A new synchronous stratigraphic unit, the lower QZJ LC is defined. The lower and upper boundaries of this cycle include a regionally correlative disconformity, erosional unconformity, and conformity, across which significant and abrupt changes in palaeoenvironments and tectonic and climatic conditions occurred. The lower boundary is an erosional unconformity and disconformity with a high-relief topography that juxtaposes lacustrine deposits of the underlying HYC LC with the overlying meandering stream deposits of the lower QZJ LC, and was caused by a regional tectonic uplift. The upper boundary is a disconformity and local erosional unconformity and conformity, juxtaposing stacked paleosols developed on fluvial sediments with overlying fluvial and loessial deposits of the upper QZJ LC. The paleosols indicate landscape stability and a prolonged period of subaerial exposure and minimal deposition and suggest that climatic conditions were semi-arid with strong precipitation seasonality in the Tarlong-Taodonggou half graben and subhumid in the Dalongkou area. The fluvial-loessial deposits indicate a renewed tectonic uplift and a change in the atmospheric circulation pattern. The newly-defined lower QZJ LC facilitates accurate palaeogeographic reconstruction in the study area during a period of major tectonic and climatic changes. The interpreted tectonic and climatic conditions provide a critical data point in the mid-latitude east coast of NE Pangea during the Mid-Permian icehouse-hothouse transition. The results demonstrate that a process-response approach

  1. Origin of lacustrine carbonate-dominated clinoforms in the lower- Permian Lucaogou low-order cycle, southern Bogda Mountains, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yiran

    Lacustrine carbonate clinoforms deposit can reflect ancient lake condition like paleoclimate and lake type. Complex lithofacies of a carbonate-dominated clinoform package in lower Permian Lucaogou low order cycle, Bogda Mountains, NW China, provide clues on clinoform-forming processes in a half-graben lake. The clinoform package is 5.2 m thick, prograding from S to N for 200 m with a maximum 15o dip angle, and spans 4 km laterally. A clinoform consists of a lower siliciclastic-rich and an upper carbonate-rich beds, forming a clinoform cycle. Results of petrographic study of 30 thin sections suggest that the clinoform package is composed of mixed siliciclasticcarbonate rocks. Carbonate-rich bed is composed of diagenetically-altered lithic packstone and wackestone, and siliciclastic-rich clinoform of micritic sandstone. The foundation rock is mainly microbial boundstone, indicating a shallow littoral environment. The carbonate-rich beds mainly consist of coarse peloids, rip-up intraclasts, aggregate grains, and volcanic lithics. The siliciclastic-rich clinoform is rich in coarse volcanic lithics. Both types of clinoforms contain abundant current laminations, indicating frequent strong current activities. The lack of evidence of unidirectional current flow suggests that the carbonate-dominated clinoform package was probably primarily formed by wave and longshore current processes. Unlike grains in wave-built terrace in the Glenns Ferry Formation (Swirydczuk et al., 1979, 1980), few ooids were observed in the studied strata, which do not have local sediments as nucleus and are often broken. This indicates that the wave was not facing the lake margin directly but was more oblique to the lake margin. The carbonate-dominated clinoform package is thus interpreted as a bar or spit, controlled primarily by lake shoreline morphology and strong wave and current activities. The shift between carbonate and siliciclastic rich clinoform beds within a clinoform cycle suggests high

  2. Winter NH low-frequency variability in a hierarchy of low-order stochastic dynamical models of earth-atmosphere system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan

    2018-02-01

    The origin of winter Northern Hemispheric low-frequency variability (hereafter, LFV) is regarded to be related to the coupled earth-atmosphere system characterized by the interaction of the jet stream with mid-latitude mountain ranges. On the other hand, observed LFV usually appears as transitions among multiple planetary-scale flow regimes of Northern Hemisphere like NAO + , AO +, AO - and NAO - . Moreover, the interaction between synoptic-scale eddies and the planetary-scale disturbance is also inevitable in the origin of LFV. These raise a question regarding how to incorporate all these aspects into just one framework to demonstrate (1) a planetary-scale dynamics of interaction of the jet stream with mid-latitude mountain ranges can really produce LFV, (2) such a dynamics can be responsible for the existence of above multiple flow regimes, and (3) the role of interaction with eddy is also clarified. For this purpose, a hierarchy of low-order stochastic dynamical models of the coupled earth-atmosphere system derived empirically from different timescale ranges of indices of Arctic Oscillation (AO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Pacific/North American (PNA), and length of day (LOD) and related probability density function (PDF) analysis are employed in this study. The results seem to suggest that the origin of LFV cannot be understood completely within the planetary-scale dynamics of the interaction of the jet stream with mid-latitude mountain ranges, because (1) the existence of multiple flow regimes such as NAO+, AO+, AO- and NAO- resulted from processes with timescales much longer than LFV itself, which may have underlying dynamics other than topography-jet stream interaction, and (2) we find LFV seems not necessarily to come directly from the planetary-scale dynamics of the interaction of the jet stream with mid-latitude mountain, although it can produce similar oscillatory behavior. The feedback/forcing of synoptic-scale eddies on the planetary

  3. Domain decomposition method using a hybrid parallelism and a low-order acceleration for solving the Sn transport equation on unstructured geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odry, Nans

    2016-01-01

    advantages of both the distributed memory parallelism MPI and the shared-memory parallelism OpenMP: local data blocks are built on each sub-domain, then distributed among computing nodes thanks to MPI communications (data parallelism). The shared-memory parallelism is then used inside each node (task parallelism). Performances of such a strategy applied to domain decomposition are very promising. 3) The very principle of domain decomposition delays the propagation of information inside the core. The number of iterations and the computing time both increase due to this convergence penalty. To tackle the issue, a Coarse Mesh Re-balance acceleration method has been developed, using a low order calculation to improve the knowledge each sub-domain has of its environment. Performances show that the acceleration can efficiently balance the convergence penalty. 4) The potential of the new calculation scheme is demonstrated on a 3D core of the CFV-kind. A heterogeneous description of absorbent rods is kept, while fuel assemblies are homogenized. Doing so, traditional difficulties of core codes to correctly model subcritical media (particularly control rods reactivity) are overcome. We show that domain decomposition open the way to more challenging computations, that exceed the traditional calculation capabilities in terms of memory requirements or computing time. These results are very promising, even more so, considering that there is still room for improvement. (author) [fr

  4. An Adaptive B-Spline Method for Low-order Image Reconstruction Problems - Final Report - 09/24/1997 - 09/24/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xin; Miller, Eric L.; Rappaport, Carey; Silevich, Michael

    2000-04-11

    A common problem in signal processing is to estimate the structure of an object from noisy measurements linearly related to the desired image. These problems are broadly known as inverse problems. A key feature which complicates the solution to such problems is their ill-posedness. That is, small perturbations in the data arising e.g. from noise can and do lead to severe, non-physical artifacts in the recovered image. The process of stabilizing these problems is known as regularization of which Tikhonov regularization is one of the most common. While this approach leads to a simple linear least squares problem to solve for generating the reconstruction, it has the unfortunate side effect of producing smooth images thereby obscuring important features such as edges. Therefore, over the past decade there has been much work in the development of edge-preserving regularizers. This technique leads to image estimates in which the important features are retained, but computationally the y require the solution of a nonlinear least squares problem, a daunting task in many practical multi-dimensional applications. In this thesis we explore low-order models for reducing the complexity of the re-construction process. Specifically, B-Splines are used to approximate the object. If a ''proper'' collection B-Splines are chosen that the object can be efficiently represented using a few basis functions, the dimensionality of the underlying problem will be significantly decreased. Consequently, an optimum distribution of splines needs to be determined. Here, an adaptive refining and pruning algorithm is developed to solve the problem. The refining part is based on curvature information, in which the intuition is that a relatively dense set of fine scale basis elements should cluster near regions of high curvature while a spares collection of basis vectors are required to adequately represent the object over spatially smooth areas. The pruning part is a greedy

  5. Decoration of the Truncated Tetrahedron—An Archimedean Polyhedron—To Produce a New Class of Convex Equilateral Polyhedra with Tetrahedral Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Schein

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Goldberg construction of symmetric cages involves pasting a patch cut out of a regular tiling onto the faces of a Platonic host polyhedron, resulting in a cage with the same symmetry as the host. For example, cutting equilateral triangular patches from a 6.6.6 tiling of hexagons and pasting them onto the full triangular faces of an icosahedron produces icosahedral fullerene cages. Here we show that pasting cutouts from a 6.6.6 tiling onto the full hexagonal and triangular faces of an Archimedean host polyhedron, the truncated tetrahedron, produces two series of tetrahedral (Td fullerene cages. Cages in the first series have 28n2 vertices (n ≥ 1. Cages in the second (leapfrog series have 3 × 28n2. We can transform all of the cages of the first series and the smallest cage of the second series into geometrically convex equilateral polyhedra. With tetrahedral (Td symmetry, these new polyhedra constitute a new class of “convex equilateral polyhedra with polyhedral symmetry”. We also show that none of the other Archimedean polyhedra, six with octahedral symmetry and six with icosahedral, can host full-face cutouts from regular tilings to produce cages with the host’s polyhedral symmetry.

  6. Structural characterization of rondorfite, calcium silica chlorine mineral containing magnesium in tetrahedral position [MgO4]6-, with the aid of the vibrational spectroscopies and fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulski, M; Bulou, A; Marzec, K M; Galuskin, E V; Wrzalik, R

    2013-01-15

    Raman and infrared spectra of rondorfite Ca8Mg(SiO4)4Cl2, a calcium chlorosilica mineral containing magnesium in tetrahedral position, has been studied in terms of spectra-structure relations. Raman spectra have been measured at different excited laser lines: 780 nm, 532 nm, 488 nm and 457 nm. This mineral is characterized by a single sharp intense Raman band at 863 cm(-1) assigned to the ν1 [SiO4]4- (Ag) symmetric stretching mode in the magnesiosilicate pentamer. Due to symmetry restriction the other Raman bands have a small intensity. Two Raman bands observed at 564 cm(-1) and 526 cm(-1) are associated simultaneously with ν4 [MgO4]6- and ν4 [SiO4]4- symmetric and antisymmetric modes where magnesium occurs in the tetrahedral configuration. The weak bands at 422 cm(-1) and 386 cm(-1) are associated with the ν2 bending mode of CaO6 in octahedral configuration, respectively. Moreover the infrared spectrum shows very weak bands associated with the hydroxyl group and/or water molecule. Additionally, the strong fluorescence phenomenon was observed and related to the presence of chlorine atoms, magnesium Mg2+ ions in atypical configuration or point defects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Tetrahedral cluster and pseudo molecule: New approaches to Calculate Absolute Surface Energy of Zinc Blende (111)/(-1-1-1) Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiou; Zhang, Jingzhao; Tse, Kinfai; Wong, Lun; Chan, Chunkai; Deng, Bei; Zhu, Junyi

    Determining accurate absolute surface energies for polar surfaces of semiconductors has been a great challenge in decades. Here, we propose pseudo-hydrogen passivation to calculate them, using density functional theory approaches. By calculating the energy contribution from pseudo-hydrogen using either a pseudo molecule method or a tetrahedral cluster method, we obtained (111)/(-1-1-1) surfaces energies of Si, GaP, GaAs, and ZnS with high self-consistency. Our findings may greatly enhance the basic understandings of different surfaces and lead to novel strategies in the crystal growth. We would like to thank Su-huai Wei for helpful discussions. Computing resources were provided by the High Performance Cluster Computing Centre, Hong Kong Baptist University. This work was supported by the start-up funding and direct Grant with the Project.

  8. On the ground-state degeneracy and entropy in a double-tetrahedral chain formed by the localized Ising spins and mobile electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálisová, Lucia

    2018-05-01

    Ground-state properties of a hybrid double-tetrahedral chain, in which the localized Ising spins regularly alternate with triangular plaquettes occupied by a variable number of mobile electrons, are exactly investigated. We demonstrate that the zero-temperature phase diagram of the model involves several non-degenerate, two-fold degenerate and macroscopically degenerate chiral phases. Low-temperature dependencies of the entropy and specific heat are also examined in order to gain a deeper insight into the degeneracy of individual ground-state phases and phase transitions. It is shown that a diversity of the ground-state degeneracy manifests itself in multiple-peak structures of both thermodynamic quantities. A remarkable temperature dependencies of the specific heat with two and three Schottky-type maxima are discussed in detail.

  9. COMPUTATIONAL EFFICIENCY OF A MODIFIED SCATTERING KERNEL FOR FULL-COUPLED PHOTON-ELECTRON TRANSPORT PARALLEL COMPUTING WITH UNSTRUCTURED TETRAHEDRAL MESHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JONG WOON KIM

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we introduce a modified scattering kernel approach to avoid the unnecessarily repeated calculations involved with the scattering source calculation, and used it with parallel computing to effectively reduce the computation time. Its computational efficiency was tested for three-dimensional full-coupled photon-electron transport problems using our computer program which solves the multi-group discrete ordinates transport equation by using the discontinuous finite element method with unstructured tetrahedral meshes for complicated geometrical problems. The numerical tests show that we can improve speed up to 17∼42 times for the elapsed time per iteration using the modified scattering kernel, not only in the single CPU calculation but also in the parallel computing with several CPUs.

  10. Oxygen trapped by rare earth tetrahedral clusters in Nd4FeOS6: Crystal structure, electronic structure, and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Qisheng; Taufour, Valentin; Zhang, Yuemei; Wood, Max; Drtina, Thomas; Bud’ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Miller, Gordon J.

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of Nd 4 FeOS 6 were grown from an Fe–S eutectic solution. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a Nd 4 MnOSe 6 -type structure (P6 3 mc, a=9.2693(1) Å, c=6.6650(1)Å, V=495.94(1) Å 3 , Z=2), featuring parallel chains of face-sharing [FeS 6×1/2 ] 4− trigonal antiprisms and interlinked [Nd 4 OS 3 ] 4+ cubane-like clusters. Oxygen atoms were found to be trapped by Nd 4 clusters in the [Nd 4 OS 3 ] 4 + chains. Structural differences among Nd 4 MnOSe 6 -type Nd 4 FeOS 6 and the related La 3 CuSiS 7 − and Pr 8 CoGa 3 -type structures have been described. Magnetic susceptibility measurements on Nd 4 FeOS 6 suggested the dominance of antiferromagnetic interactions at low temperature, but no magnetic ordering down to 2 K was observed. Spin-polarized electronic structure calculations revealed magnetic frustration with dominant antiferromagnetic interactions. - Graphical abstract: Trapping of oxygen in Nd 4 tetrahedral clusters results in the formation of the Nd 4 MnOSe 6 -type Nd 4 FeOS 6 , in contrast to the La 3 CuSiS 7 -type oxygen-free Nd 4 FeS 7 and related Pr 8 CoGa 3 -type structures. Complex magnetic frustration inhibits magnetic ordering at low temperature. - Highlights: • Single crystals of Nd 4 FeOS 6 were grown using self-flux method. • Oxygen was found trapped by Nd 4 tetrahedral clusters. • Comparison with two closely related structural types were discussed. • Magnetic measurements revealed antiferromagnetic (AFM) interaction. • VASP calculations confirmed strong magnetic frustration in AFM model

  11. Recent Development in the CESE Method for the Solution of the Navier-Stokes Equations Using Unstructured Triangular or Tetrahedral Meshes With High Aspect Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Yen, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    In the multidimensional CESE development, triangles and tetrahedra turn out to be the most natural building blocks for 2D and 3D spatial meshes. As such the CESE method is compatible with the simplest unstructured meshes and thus can be easily applied to solve problems with complex geometries. However, because the method uses space-time staggered stencils, solution decoupling may become a real nuisance in applications involving unstructured meshes. In this paper we will describe a simple and general remedy which, according to numerical experiments, has removed any possibility of solution decoupling. Moreover, in a real-world viscous flow simulation near a solid wall, one often encounters a case where a boundary with high curvature or sharp corner is surrounded by triangular/tetrahedral meshes of extremely high aspect ratio (up to 106). For such an extreme case, the spatial projection of a space-time compounded conservation element constructed using the original CESE design may become highly concave and thus its centroid (referred to as a spatial solution point) may lie far outside of the spatial projection. It could even be embedded beyond a solid wall boundary and causes serious numerical difficulties. In this paper we will also present a new procedure for constructing conservation elements and solution elements which effectively overcomes the difficulties associated with the original design. Another difficulty issue which was addressed more recently is the wellknown fact that accuracy of gradient computations involving triangular/tetrahedral grids deteriorates rapidly as the aspect ratio of grid cells increases. The root cause of this difficulty was clearly identified and several remedies to overcome it were found through a rigorous mathematical analysis. However, because of the length of the current paper and the complexity of mathematics involved, this new work will be presented in another paper.

  12. Detailed intermolecular structure of molecular liquids containing slightly distorted tetrahedral molecules with C(3v) symmetry: chloroform, bromoform, and methyl-iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothoczki, Szilvia; Temleitner, László; Pusztai, László

    2011-01-28

    Analyses of the intermolecular structure of molecular liquids containing slightly distorted tetrahedral molecules of the CXY(3)-type are described. The process is composed of the determination of several different distance-dependent orientational correlation functions, including ones that are introduced here. As a result, a complete structure classification could be provided for CXY(3) molecular liquids, namely for liquid chloroform, bromoform, and methyl-iodide. In the present work, the calculations have been conducted on particle configurations resulting from reverse Monte Carlo computer modeling: these particle arrangements have the advantage that they are fully consistent with structure factors from neutron and x-ray diffraction measurements. It has been established that as the separation between neighboring molecules increases, the dominant mutual orientations change from face-to-face to edge-to-edge, via the edge-to-face arrangements. Depending on the actual liquid, these geometrical elements (edges and faces of the distorted tetrahedra) were found to contain different atoms. From the set of liquids studied here, the structure of methyl-iodide was found to be easiest to describe on the basis of pure steric effects (molecular shape, size, and density) and the structure of liquid chloroform seems to be the furthest away from the corresponding "flexible fused hard spheres" like reference system.

  13. How do glycerol and dimethyl sulphoxide affect local tetrahedral structure of water around a nonpolar solute at low temperature? Importance of preferential interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daschakraborty, Snehasis

    2018-04-01

    Glycerol and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) have vital roles in cryoprotection of living cells, tissues, etc. The above action has been directly linked with disruption of hydrogen (H-) bond structure and dynamics of water by these cosolvents at bulk region and around various complex units, such as peptide, amino acid, protein, and lipid membrane. However, the disruption of the local structure of the water solvent around a purely hydrophobic solute is still not studied extensively. The latter is also important in the context of stabilization of protein from cold denaturation. Through all-atom molecular dynamics simulation, we have investigated the comparative effect of glycerol and DMSO on the orientational order of water around a nonpolar solute at -5 °C. A steady reduction of the tetrahedral order of water is observed at bulk (>10 Å distance from the solute) and solute interface (structure of the interfacial water more than that of the bulk water, glycerol affects the water structure almost uniformly at all regions around the solute. Furthermore, while glycerol helps to retain water molecules at the interface, DMSO significantly reduces the water content in that region. We have put forward a plausible mechanism for these contrasting roles of these cosolvents. The solute-cosolvent hydrophobic-interaction-induced orientational alignment of an interfacial cosolvent molecule determines whether the involvement of the cosolvent molecules in H-bonding with solvent water in the interface is akin to the bulk region or not.

  14. BeP2: a tetrahedral structure of type order-disorder which obeys a coordination rule for short-range order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Haridon, P.; David, J.; Lang, J.; Parthe, E.

    1976-01-01

    Single-crystal studies on BeP 2 indicate that this compound possesses an OD structure. The substructure has a tetragonal unit cell with: a = 3.546 A, c = 15.01 A, Z = 4, space group: I4 1 /amd. The final R factor has a value of 0.033. The atom sites in this substructure correspond to the sites of diamond if the latter is described with a tetragonal cell, where a = (2/sup 1/2//a/sub diamond/ and c = 3a/sub diamond/. A short-range order governs the occupation of these sites with Be and P atoms. Each Be has four tetrahedral P neighbors and every P has two Be and two P neighbors. Consideration of the maxima on the diffuse streaks between the sharp reflectins of the substructure leads to an intermediate unit cell with a = 7.09 A and c = 30.02 A. Coordination considerations allow a structure proposal to be formulated for this intermediate structure which is triclinic but pseudotetragonal. The true unit cell is also pseudotetragonal with a = 7.09 A and c = N . 15.01 A, where N is a large integer

  15. Comprehensive understanding of mole concept subject matter according to the tetrahedral chemistry education (empirical study on the first-year chemistry students of Technische Universität Dresden)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabowo, D. W.; Mulyani, S.; van Pée, K.-H.; Indriyanti, N. Y.

    2018-05-01

    This research aims to apprehend: (1) the shape of tetrahedral chemistry education which is called the future of chemistry education, (2) comprehensive understanding of chemistry first-year students of Technische Universität Dresden according to the chemistry education’s tetrahedral shape on mole concept subject matter. This research used quantitative and qualitative; paper and pencil test and interview. The former was conducted in the form of test containing objective test instrument. The results of this study are (1) learning based on tetrahedral shape of chemistry education put the chemical substance (macroscopic), symbolic representation (symbol), and its process (molecular) in the context of human beings (human element) by integrating content and context, without emphasis on one thing and weaken another, (2) first-year chemistry students of Technische Universität Dresden have comprehensively understood the mole concept associated with the context of everyday life, whereby students are able to find out macroscopic information from statements that are contextual to human life and then by using symbols and formulas are able to comprehend the molecular components as well as to interpret and analyse problems effectively.

  16. A direct Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian ADER-WENO finite volume scheme on unstructured tetrahedral meshes for conservative and non-conservative hyperbolic systems in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscheri, Walter; Dumbser, Michael

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we present a new family of high order accurate Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) one-step ADER-WENO finite volume schemes for the solution of nonlinear systems of conservative and non-conservative hyperbolic partial differential equations with stiff source terms on moving tetrahedral meshes in three space dimensions. A WENO reconstruction technique is used to achieve high order of accuracy in space, while an element-local space-time Discontinuous Galerkin finite element predictor on moving curved meshes is used to obtain a high order accurate one-step time discretization. Within the space-time predictor the physical element is mapped onto a reference element using a high order isoparametric approach, where the space-time basis and test functions are given by the Lagrange interpolation polynomials passing through a predefined set of space-time nodes. Since our algorithm is cell-centered, the final mesh motion is computed by using a suitable node solver algorithm. A rezoning step as well as a flattener strategy are used in some of the test problems to avoid mesh tangling or excessive element deformations that may occur when the computation involves strong shocks or shear waves. The ALE algorithm presented in this article belongs to the so-called direct ALE methods because the final Lagrangian finite volume scheme is based directly on a space-time conservation formulation of the governing PDE system, with the rezoned geometry taken already into account during the computation of the fluxes. We apply our new high order unstructured ALE schemes to the 3D Euler equations of compressible gas dynamics, for which a set of classical numerical test problems has been solved and for which convergence rates up to sixth order of accuracy in space and time have been obtained. We furthermore consider the equations of classical ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) as well as the non-conservative seven-equation Baer-Nunziato model of compressible multi-phase flows with

  17. Effect of mating materials on wear properties of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H coating and tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C coating in base oil boundary lubrication condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, wear behavior of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H coating and tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C coating when sliding against various mating materials in base oil boundary lubrication condition is comparatively investigated to find out the optimal combinations of DLC/mating material and corresponding wear mechanism of both DLC coating. Tribological tests were performed in a cylinder-on-disc tribometer, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, Raman spectroscopy is used for characterization of ta-C and a-C:H worn surface. The results show that the specific wear rate of ta-C coating increases along with the hardness and roughness of mating material increases, while the specific wear rate of a-C:H coating increases together with an increment in the ID/IG ratio. It is concluded that for ta-C coating, local stress concentration-induced microfracture is the main wear mechanism in relative high wear scenario, along with minor graphitization-induced wear which prevails in low wear scenario. On the other hand, a-C:H coating showed that simultaneous generation and removal of the graphitized layer on the contact surface is the predominant wear mechanism.

  18. Electronic and optical properties of the LiCdX (X = N, P, As and Sb) filled-tetrahedral compounds with the Tran–Blaha modified Becke–Johnson density functional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhemadou, A.; Bin-Omran, S.; Allali, D.; Al-Otaibi, S.M.; Khenata, R.; Al-Douri, Y.; Chegaar, M.; Reshak, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Electronic and optical properties of the LiCdX compounds have been predicted. • Tran–Blaha-modified Becke–Johnson functional significantly improves the band gap. • We predict a direct band gap in all of the considered LiCdX compounds. • Origin of the peaks in the optical spectra is determined. - Abstract: The structural, electronic and optical properties of the LiCdN, LiCdP, LiCdAs and LiCdSb filled-tetrahedral compounds have been explored from first-principles. The calculated structural parameters are consistent with the available experimental results. Since DFT with the common LDA and GGA underestimates the band gap, we use a new developed functional able to accurately describe the electronic structure of semiconductors, namely the Tran–Blaha-modified Becke–Johnson potential. The four investigated compounds demonstrate semiconducting behavior with direct band gap ranging from about 0.32 to 1.65 eV. The charge-carrier effective masses are evaluated at the topmost valence band and at the bottommost conduction band. The evolution of the value and nature of the energy band gap under pressure effect is also investigated. The frequency-dependent complex dielectric function and some macroscopic optical constants are estimated. The microscopic origins of the structures in the optical spectra are determined in terms of the calculated energy band structures

  19. Electronic and optical properties of the LiCdX (X = N, P, As and Sb) filled-tetrahedral compounds with the Tran–Blaha modified Becke–Johnson density functional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhemadou, A., E-mail: a_bouhemadou@yahoo.fr [Laboratory for Developing New Materials and their Characterization, University of Setif 1, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Bin-Omran, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science & Humanitarian Studies, Salman Bin Abdalaziz University, Alkharj 11942 (Saudi Arabia); Allali, D. [Laboratory for Developing New Materials and their Characterization, University of Setif 1, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Al-Otaibi, S.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), Département de Technologie, Université de Mascara, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Al-Douri, Y. [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kangar, Perlis 01000 (Malaysia); Chegaar, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Setif 1, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Reshak, A.H. [New Technologies-Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, Pilson 306 14 (Czech Republic); Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, Kangar, Perlis 01007 (Malaysia)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Electronic and optical properties of the LiCdX compounds have been predicted. • Tran–Blaha-modified Becke–Johnson functional significantly improves the band gap. • We predict a direct band gap in all of the considered LiCdX compounds. • Origin of the peaks in the optical spectra is determined. - Abstract: The structural, electronic and optical properties of the LiCdN, LiCdP, LiCdAs and LiCdSb filled-tetrahedral compounds have been explored from first-principles. The calculated structural parameters are consistent with the available experimental results. Since DFT with the common LDA and GGA underestimates the band gap, we use a new developed functional able to accurately describe the electronic structure of semiconductors, namely the Tran–Blaha-modified Becke–Johnson potential. The four investigated compounds demonstrate semiconducting behavior with direct band gap ranging from about 0.32 to 1.65 eV. The charge-carrier effective masses are evaluated at the topmost valence band and at the bottommost conduction band. The evolution of the value and nature of the energy band gap under pressure effect is also investigated. The frequency-dependent complex dielectric function and some macroscopic optical constants are estimated. The microscopic origins of the structures in the optical spectra are determined in terms of the calculated energy band structures.

  20. Tribological properties of amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) diamond-like carbon coatings under jatropha biodegradable lubricating oil at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, H. M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Mohamad, E. Niza; Kalam, M. A.; Rashedul, H. K.; Rashed, M. M.; Habibullah, M.

    2014-10-01

    The application of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on automotive components is emerging as a favorable strategy to address the recent challenges in the industry. DLC coatings can effectively lower the coefficient of friction (CoF) and wear rate of engine components, thereby improving their fuel efficiency and durability. The lubrication of ferrous materials can be enhanced by a large amount of unsaturated and polar components of oils. Therefore, the interaction between nonferrous coatings (e.g., DLC) and vegetable oil should be investigated. A ball-on-plate tribotester was used to run the experiments. Stainless steel plates coated with amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) DLC and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) DLC that slide against 440C stainless steel ball were used to create a ball-on-plate tribotester. The wear track was investigated through scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies were used to analyze the tribofilm inside the wear track. Raman analysis was performed to investigate the structural changes in the coatings. At high temperatures, the CoF in both coatings decreased. The wear rate, however, increased in the a-C:H but decreased in the ta-C DLC-coated plates. The CoF and the wear rate (coated layer and counter surface) were primarily influenced by the graphitization of the coating. Tribochemical films, such as polyphosphate glass, were formed in ta-C and acted as protective layers. Therefore, the wear rate of the ta-C DLC was lower than that of the-C:H DLC.

  1. Identification of low order models for large scale processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wattamwar, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    Many industrial chemical processes are complex, multi-phase and large scale in nature. These processes are characterized by various nonlinear physiochemical effects and fluid flows. Such processes often show coexistence of fast and slow dynamics during their time evolutions. The increasing demand

  2. Time scale interaction in low-order climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Lennaert van

    2002-01-01

    Over the last decades, the study of climate variability has attracted ample attention. The observation of structural climatic change has led to questions about the causes and the mechanisms involved. The task to understand interactions in the complex climate system is particularly di±cult because of

  3. A low order adaptive control scheme for hydraulic servo systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Bech, Michael Møller

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with high-performance position control of hydraulics servo systems in general. The hydraulic servo system used is a two link robotic manipulator actuated by two hydraulic servo cylinders. A non-linear model of the hydraulic system and a Newton-Euler based model of the mechanical...

  4. Joint importance sampling of low-order volumetric scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiev, Iliyan; Křivánek, Jaroslav; Hachisuka, Toshiya

    2013-01-01

    Central to all Monte Carlo-based rendering algorithms is the construction of light transport paths from the light sources to the eye. Existing rendering approaches sample path vertices incrementally when constructing these light transport paths. The resulting probability density is thus a product...... of the conditional densities of each local sampling step, constructed without explicit control over the form of the final joint distribution of the complete path. We analyze why current incremental construction schemes often lead to high variance in the presence of participating media, and reveal...... that such approaches are an unnecessary legacy inherited from traditional surface-based rendering algorithms. We devise joint importance sampling of path vertices in participating media to construct paths that explicitly account for the product of all scattering and geometry terms along a sequence of vertices instead...

  5. Local Nonobtuse Tetrahedral Refinements of a Cube

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korotov, S.; Křížek, Michal

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 16, - (2003), s. 1101-1104 ISSN 0893-9659 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : finite-element method * nonobtuse tetrahedron * path tetrahedron Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.395, year: 2003

  6. Planet map generation by tetrahedral subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for generating pseudo-random, zoomable planet maps for games and art.  The method is based on spatial subdivision using tetrahedrons.  This ensures planet maps without discontinuities caused by mapping a flat map onto a sphere. We compare the method to other map...

  7. Tribological properties of amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) diamond-like carbon coatings under jatropha biodegradable lubricating oil at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobarak, H.M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Mohamad, E. Niza; Kalam, M.A.; Rashedul, H.K.; Rashed, M.M.; Habibullah, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We tested a-C:H and ta-C DLC coatings as a function of temperature. • Jatropha oil contains large amounts of polar components that enhanced the lubricity of coatings. • CoF decreases with increasing temperature for both contacts. • Wear rate increases with increasing temperature in a-C:H and decreases in ta-C DLC. • At high temperature, ta-C coatings confer more protection than a-C:H coatings. - Abstract: The application of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on automotive components is emerging as a favorable strategy to address the recent challenges in the industry. DLC coatings can effectively lower the coefficient of friction (CoF) and wear rate of engine components, thereby improving their fuel efficiency and durability. The lubrication of ferrous materials can be enhanced by a large amount of unsaturated and polar components of oils. Therefore, the interaction between nonferrous coatings (e.g., DLC) and vegetable oil should be investigated. A ball-on-plate tribotester was used to run the experiments. Stainless steel plates coated with amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) DLC and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) DLC that slide against 440C stainless steel ball were used to create a ball-on-plate tribotester. The wear track was investigated through scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies were used to analyze the tribofilm inside the wear track. Raman analysis was performed to investigate the structural changes in the coatings. At high temperatures, the CoF in both coatings decreased. The wear rate, however, increased in the a-C:H but decreased in the ta-C DLC-coated plates. The CoF and the wear rate (coated layer and counter surface) were primarily influenced by the graphitization of the coating. Tribochemical films, such as polyphosphate glass, were formed in ta-C and acted as protective layers. Therefore, the wear rate of the ta-C DLC was lower than that of the-C:H DLC

  8. Tribological properties of amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) diamond-like carbon coatings under jatropha biodegradable lubricating oil at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobarak, H.M., E-mail: mobarak.ho31@yahoo.com; Masjuki, H.H.; Mohamad, E. Niza, E-mail: edzrol@um.edu.my; Kalam, M.A.; Rashedul, H.K.; Rashed, M.M.; Habibullah, M.

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • We tested a-C:H and ta-C DLC coatings as a function of temperature. • Jatropha oil contains large amounts of polar components that enhanced the lubricity of coatings. • CoF decreases with increasing temperature for both contacts. • Wear rate increases with increasing temperature in a-C:H and decreases in ta-C DLC. • At high temperature, ta-C coatings confer more protection than a-C:H coatings. - Abstract: The application of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on automotive components is emerging as a favorable strategy to address the recent challenges in the industry. DLC coatings can effectively lower the coefficient of friction (CoF) and wear rate of engine components, thereby improving their fuel efficiency and durability. The lubrication of ferrous materials can be enhanced by a large amount of unsaturated and polar components of oils. Therefore, the interaction between nonferrous coatings (e.g., DLC) and vegetable oil should be investigated. A ball-on-plate tribotester was used to run the experiments. Stainless steel plates coated with amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) DLC and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) DLC that slide against 440C stainless steel ball were used to create a ball-on-plate tribotester. The wear track was investigated through scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies were used to analyze the tribofilm inside the wear track. Raman analysis was performed to investigate the structural changes in the coatings. At high temperatures, the CoF in both coatings decreased. The wear rate, however, increased in the a-C:H but decreased in the ta-C DLC-coated plates. The CoF and the wear rate (coated layer and counter surface) were primarily influenced by the graphitization of the coating. Tribochemical films, such as polyphosphate glass, were formed in ta-C and acted as protective layers. Therefore, the wear rate of the ta-C DLC was lower than that of the-C:H DLC.

  9. 73Ge, 119Sn and 207Pb: general cooperative effects of single atom ligands on the NMR signals observed in tetrahedral [MXnY4-n] (M = Ge, Sn, Pb; 1 ≤ n ≤ 4; X, Y = Cl, Br, I) coordination compounds of heavier XIV group elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, M; De Castro, F; Fanizzi, F P

    2017-02-28

    An inverse linear relationship between 73 Ge, 119 Sn and 207 Pb NMR chemical shifts and the overall sum of ionic radii of coordinated halido ligands has been discovered in tetrahedral [MX n Y 4-n ] (M = Ge, Sn, Pb; 1 ≤ n ≤ 4; X, Y = Cl, Br, I) coordination compounds. This finding is consistent with a previously reported correlation found in octahedral, pentacoordinate and square planar platinum complexes. The effect of the coordinated halido ligands acting on the metal as shielding conducting rings is therefore confirmed also by 73 Ge, 119 Sn and 207 Pb NMR spectroscopy.

  10. Global and Local Refinement Techniques Yielding Nonobtuse Tetrahedral Partitions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korotov, S.; Křížek, Michal

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 5 (2005), s. 1105-1113 ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1019201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : elliptic equations * parabolic equations * discrete maximum principle Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.430, year: 2005

  11. Nonobtuse local tetrahedral refinements towards a polygonal face/interface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korotov, S.; Křížek, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 6 (2011), s. 817-821 ISSN 0893-9659 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : finite element method * nonobtuse tetrahedron * local refinement * discrete maximum principle * boundary and interior layers * interface problem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.371, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0893965910004726

  12. Anomalous Magnetic Excitations of Cooperative Tetrahedral Spin Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prsa, K.; Rønnow, H.M.; Zaharko, O.

    2009-01-01

    An inelastic neutron scattering study of Cu2Te2O5X2 (X=Cl, Br) shows strong dispersive modes with large energy gaps persisting far above T-N, notably in Cu2Te2O5Br2. The anomalous features: a coexisting unusually weak Goldstone-like mode observed in Cu2Te2O5Cl2 and the size of the energy gaps can...... cannot be explained by existing theories, such as our mean-field or random-phase approximation. We argue that our findings represent a new general type of behavior due to intercluster quantum fluctuations and call for development of a new theoretical approach....

  13. Surface Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Delaunay Tetrahedralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, M G; Neves, L A; Zafalon, G F D; Valêncio, C; Pinto, A R; Nascimento, M Z

    2015-01-01

    In this work is presented a new method for sensor deployment on 3D surfaces. The method was structured on different steps. The first one aimed discretizes the relief of interest with Delaunay algorithm. The tetrahedra and relative values (spatial coordinates of each vertex and faces) were input to construction of 3D Voronoi diagram. Each circumcenter was calculated as a candidate position for a sensor node: the corresponding circular coverage area was calculated based on a radius r. The r value can be adjusted to simulate different kinds of sensors. The Dijkstra algorithm and a selection method were applied to eliminate candidate positions with overlapped coverage areas or beyond of surface of interest. Performance evaluations measures were defined using coverage area and communication as criteria. The results were relevant, once the mean coverage rate achieved on three different surfaces were among 91% and 100%

  14. Structure of inorganic phosphorus-nitrogen tetrahedral compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitola, A.; Ronis, J.; Avotins, V.; Millers, T.

    1997-01-01

    The structure analysis of phosphorus-nitrogen compounds has shown the possibility of the P(O,N) 4 tetrahedra to form various kinds of structures. The wide spectrum of the properties determined by the diversity of structures marks the considerable promise to the future application of phosphorus-nitrogen compounds

  15. Tetrahedral Mesh Improvement Using Multi-face Retriangulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Anton, François

    2009-01-01

    the algorithm is completely general with regard to quality criterion, we target improvement of the dihedral angle. The central idea in our algorithm is the introduction of a new local operation called multi-face retriangulation (MFRT) which supplements other known local operations. Like in many previous papers...

  16. Multi-phase Volume Segmentation with Tetrahedral Mesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen Trung, Tuan; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    Volume segmentation is efficient for reconstructing material structure, which is important for several analyses, e.g. simulation with finite element method, measurement of quantitative information like surface area, surface curvature, volume, etc. We are concerned about the representations of the 3......D volumes, which can be categorized into two groups: fixed voxel grids [1] and unstructured meshes [2]. Among these two representations, the voxel grids are more popular since manipulating a fixed grid is easier than an unstructured mesh, but they are less efficient for quantitative measurements....... In many cases, the voxel grids are converted to explicit meshes, however the conversion may reduce the accuracy of the segmentations, and the effort for meshing is also not trivial. On the other side, methods using unstructured meshes have difficulty in handling topology changes. To reduce the complexity...

  17. Estimation of Bulk modulus and microhardness of tetrahedral semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorai, Sanjay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A general empirical formula was found for calculating of bulk modulus (B) and microhardness (H) from electronegativity and principal quantum number of II-VI, III-V semiconductors. Constant C1, appearing the in the expression of bulk modulus and constants C2 and C3, appearing in the expression of microhardness and the exponent M have following values respectively The numerical values of C1,C2, C3 and M are respectively 206.6, 8.234, 1.291, -1.10 for II-VI 72.4, 31.87, 7.592, -0.95 for III-V semiconductors. Both electro-negativity and principal quantum number can effectively reflect on the chemical bonding behaviour of constituent atoms in these semiconductors. The calculated values of bulk modulus and microhardness are in good agreement with the reported values in the literature. Present study helps in designing novel semiconductor materials, and to further explore the mechanical properties of these semiconductors.

  18. Some notes on tetrahedrally closed spherical sets in Euclidean spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    47

    is a relation between these sets. P is called the point set, L the line set and I the incidence relation. A point-line geometry S = (P,L,I) is called a near polygon if every two distinct points are incident with at most one line and if for every point x and every line L, there exists a unique point on L that is nearest to x with respect to ...

  19. Kinetic and dynamic Delaunay tetrahedralizations in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Gernot; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2004-09-01

    We describe algorithms to implement fully dynamic and kinetic three-dimensional unconstrained Delaunay triangulations, where the time evolution of the triangulation is not only governed by moving vertices but also by a changing number of vertices. We use three-dimensional simplex flip algorithms, a stochastic visibility walk algorithm for point location and in addition, we propose a new simple method of deleting vertices from an existing three-dimensional Delaunay triangulation while maintaining the Delaunay property. As an example, we analyse the performance in various cases of practical relevance. The dual Dirichlet tessellation can be used to solve differential equations on an irregular grid, to define partitions in cell tissue simulations, for collision detection etc.

  20. Development of a Low-order Adaptive Optics System at Udaipur ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the influence matrix, we restricted our usable actuators to only 7. To check the influence matrix and the code for the estimation of voltages from the shift vector, an arbitrary voltage set was applied to the deformable mirror and the shift vectors along the x- and y-directions in the sub-aperture plane were recorded as shown by.

  1. Seismic-Acoustic Active Range Monitoring for Characterizing Low-Order Ordnance Detonation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Thomas S; Weale, Jason C

    2006-01-01

    .... The Distributed Sources focus area strives to characterize the level of contamination in range environments attributed to ordnance residue for the purpose of range management and environmental remediation...

  2. Four-quadrant propeller modeling: A low-order harmonic approximation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Haeusler, A.J; Saccon, A.; Hauser, J; Pascoal, A.M.; Aguiar, A.P.

    . We explore the connection between the propeller thrust, torque, and efficiency curves and the lift and drag curves of the propeller blades. The model originates from a well-known four-quadrant model, based on a sinusoidal approximation...

  3. Optimized low-order explicit Runge-Kutta schemes for high- order spectral difference method

    KAUST Repository

    Parsani, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    Optimal explicit Runge-Kutta (ERK) schemes with large stable step sizes are developed for method-of-lines discretizations based on the spectral difference (SD) spatial discretization on quadrilateral grids. These methods involve many stages and provide the optimal linearly stable time step for a prescribed SD spectrum and the minimum leading truncation error coefficient, while admitting a low-storage implementation. Using a large number of stages, the new ERK schemes lead to efficiency improvements larger than 60% over standard ERK schemes for 4th- and 5th-order spatial discretization.

  4. M-Adapting Low Order Mimetic Finite Differences for Dielectric Interface Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Duncan A. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Gyrya, Vitaliy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Manzini, Gianmarco [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-07

    We consider a problem of reducing numerical dispersion for electromagnetic wave in the domain with two materials separated by a at interface in 2D with a factor of two di erence in wave speed. The computational mesh in the homogeneous parts of the domain away from the interface consists of square elements. Here the method construction is based on m-adaptation construction in homogeneous domain that leads to fourth-order numerical dispersion (vs. second order in non-optimized method). The size of the elements in two domains also di ers by a factor of two, so as to preserve the same value of Courant number in each. Near the interface where two meshes merge the mesh with larger elements consists of degenerate pentagons. We demonstrate that prior to m-adaptation the accuracy of the method falls from second to rst due to breaking of symmetry in the mesh. Next we develop m-adaptation framework for the interface region and devise an optimization criteria. We prove that for the interface problem m-adaptation cannot produce increase in method accuracy. This is in contrast to homogeneous medium where m-adaptation can increase accuracy by two orders.

  5. Explicit calibration and simulation of stochastic fields by low-order ARMA processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2011-01-01

    A simple framework for autoregressive simulation of stochastic fields is presented. The autoregressive format leads to a simple exponential correlation structure in the time-dimension. In the case of scalar processes a more detailed correlation structure can be obtained by adding memory...... to the process via an extension to autoregressive moving average (ARMA) processes. The ARMA format incorporates a more detailed correlation structure by including previous values of the simulated process. Alternatively, a more detailed correlation structure can be obtained by including additional 'state......-space' variables in the simulation. For a scalar process this would imply an increase of the dimension of the process to be simulated. In the case of a stochastic field the correlation in the time-dimension is represented, although indirectly, in the simultaneous spatial correlation. The model with the shortest...

  6. Low-order modelling of shallow water equations for sensitivity analysis using proper orthogonal decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zokagoa, Jean-Marie; Soulaïmani, Azzeddine

    2012-06-01

    This article presents a reduced-order model (ROM) of the shallow water equations (SWEs) for use in sensitivity analyses and Monte-Carlo type applications. Since, in the real world, some of the physical parameters and initial conditions embedded in free-surface flow problems are difficult to calibrate accurately in practice, the results from numerical hydraulic models are almost always corrupted with uncertainties. The main objective of this work is to derive a ROM that ensures appreciable accuracy and a considerable acceleration in the calculations so that it can be used as a surrogate model for stochastic and sensitivity analyses in real free-surface flow problems. The ROM is derived using the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method coupled with Galerkin projections of the SWEs, which are discretised through a finite-volume method. The main difficulty of deriving an efficient ROM is the treatment of the nonlinearities involved in SWEs. Suitable approximations that provide rapid online computations of the nonlinear terms are proposed. The proposed ROM is applied to the simulation of hypothetical flood flows in the Bordeaux breakwater, a portion of the 'Rivière des Prairies' located near Laval (a suburb of Montreal, Quebec). A series of sensitivity analyses are performed by varying the Manning roughness coefficient and the inflow discharge. The results are satisfactorily compared to those obtained by the full-order finite volume model.

  7. Low order anti-aliasing filters for sparse signals in embedded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The computation load increases only linearly with the number of signals, N since the ... We have considered, for simulation, the simple case of acquiring two signals .... Oppenheim A V and Schafer R W 1989 Discrete-time signal processing.

  8. Reggeon calculus as a low-order perturbation theory for the Pomeron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeTar, C.

    1975-01-01

    We review the foundations of the Gribov Reggeon calculus with an emphasis on the relationship between the energy-plane and J-plane descriptions of the diagrams of the calculus. The question of the ''large-rapidity-gap cutoff'' for the Pomeron and the problem of signature are treated in more detail than in the traditional approach to the calculus. Except for some slight differences, the main results agree with Gribov's original formulation. We advocate the use of the Reggeon calculus as a refinement on the contemporary ''two-component'' model for the Pomeron and collect some formulas useful for phenomenological applications

  9. On the efficient numerical solution of lattice systems with low-order couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammon, A.; Genz, A.; Hartung, T.; Jansen, K.; Volmer, J.; Leoevey, H.

    2015-10-01

    We apply the Quasi Monte Carlo (QMC) and recursive numerical integration methods to evaluate the Euclidean, discretized time path-integral for the quantum mechanical anharmonic oscillator and a topological quantum mechanical rotor model. For the anharmonic oscillator both methods outperform standard Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods and show a significantly improved error scaling. For the quantum mechanical rotor we could, however, not find a successful way employing QMC. On the other hand, the recursive numerical integration method works extremely well for this model and shows an at least exponentially fast error scaling.

  10. Magnetic properties and microstructure of low ordering temperature L10 FePt thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, A.C.; Kuo, P.C.; Chen, S.C.; Chou, C.Y.; Huang, H.L.; Hsu, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Polycrystalline Fe 52 Pt 48 alloy thin films were prepared by dc magnetron sputtering on preheated natural-oxidized silicon wafer substrates. The film thickness was varied from 10 to 100 nm. The as-deposited film was encapsulated in a quartz tube and postannealed in vacuum at various temperatures for 1 h, then furnace cooled. It is found that the ordering temperature from as-deposited soft magnetic fcc FePt phase to hard magnetic fct L1 0 FePt phase could be reduced to about 350 deg. C by preheating substrate and furnace cooling treatment. The magnetic properties measurements indicated that the in-plane coercivity of the films was increased rapidly as annealing temperature is increased from 300 to 400 deg. C, but it decreased when the annealing temperature is higher than 400 deg. C. X-ray diffraction analysis shown that the as-deposited FePt thin film was a disorder fcc FePt phase. The magnetic measurement indicated that the transformation of disorder fcc FePt to fct L1 0 FePt phase was started at about 350 deg. C, which is consistent with the analysis of x-ray diffraction patterns. From scanning electron microscopy observation and selected area energy disperse spectrum analysis, the distributions of Fe and Pt elements in the films became nonuniform when the annealing temperature was higher than 500 deg. C due to the formation of the Fe 3 Pt phase. After annealing at 400 deg. C, the in plane coercivity of Fe 52 Pt 48 thin film with film thickness of 100 nm is 10 kOe, M s is 580 emu/cm3, and grain size is about 12 nm

  11. Solitary attractors and low-order filamentation in anisotropic self-focusing media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zozulya, A.A.; Anderson, D.Z.; Mamaev, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the properties and formation of single solitons and higher-order bound dipole pairs in media with anisotropic nonlocal photorefractive material response. The single solitons are elliptical beams, whereas the dipole pairs are formed by a pair of displa......We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the properties and formation of single solitons and higher-order bound dipole pairs in media with anisotropic nonlocal photorefractive material response. The single solitons are elliptical beams, whereas the dipole pairs are formed by a pair...

  12. Detection of Low-order Curves in Images using Biologically-plausible Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-29

    the intersections of iso-eccentricity and iso-polar contours were entered into the computer via a graphics tablet . In regions where there was...functional mri . Cerebral Cortex, 7:181 – 192, 1997. [25] Jacob Feldman. Bayesian contour integration. Perception and Psychophysics, 63:1171 – 1182, 2001. [26

  13. Spatial properties of odd and even low order harmonics generated in gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, G; Andreev, A; Gautier, J; Giannessi, L; Malka, V; Petralia, A; Sebban, S; Stremoukhov, S; Tissandier, F; Vodungbo, B; Zeitoun, Ph

    2015-01-14

    High harmonic generation in gases is developing rapidly as a soft X-ray femtosecond light-source for applications. This requires control over all the harmonics characteristics and in particular, spatial properties have to be kept very good. In previous literature, measurements have always included several harmonics contrary to applications, especially spectroscopic applications, which usually require a single harmonic. To fill this gap, we present here for the first time a detailed study of completely isolated harmonics. The contribution of the surrounding harmonics has been totally suppressed using interferential filtering which is available for low harmonic orders. In addition, this allows to clearly identify behaviors of standard odd orders from even orders obtained by frequency-mixing of a fundamental laser and of its second harmonic. Comparisons of the spatial intensity profiles, of the spatial coherence and of the wavefront aberration level of 5ω at 160 nm and 6ω at 135 nm have then been performed. We have established that the fundamental laser beam aberrations can cause the appearance of a non-homogenous donut-shape in the 6ω spatial intensity distribution. This undesirable effect can be easily controlled. We finally conclude that the spatial quality of an even harmonic can be as excellent as in standard generation.

  14. Streamflow and nutrient dependence of temperature effects on dissolved oxygen in low-order forest streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    April Mason; Y. Jun Xu; Philip Saksa; Adrienne Viosca; Johnny M. Grace; John Beebe; Richard Stich

    2007-01-01

    Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in streams can be linked to both natural conditions and human activities. In Louisiana, natural stream conditions such as low flow, high temperature and high organic content, often result in DO levels already below current water quality criteria, making it difficult to develop standards for Best Management Practices (BMPs)....

  15. A low-order model of water vapor, clouds, and thermal emission for tidally locked terrestrial planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jun; Abbot, Dorian S., E-mail: junyang28@uchicago.edu [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    In the spirit of minimal modeling of complex systems, we develop an idealized two-column model to investigate the climate of tidally locked terrestrial planets with Earth-like atmospheres in the habitable zone of M-dwarf stars. The model is able to approximate the fundamental features of the climate obtained from three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) simulations. One important reason for the two-column model's success is that it reproduces the high cloud albedo of the GCM simulations, which reduces the planet's temperature and delays the onset of a runaway greenhouse state. The two-column model also clearly illustrates a secondary mechanism for determining the climate: the nightside acts as a 'radiator fin' through which infrared energy can be lost to space easily. This radiator fin is maintained by a temperature inversion and dry air on the nightside, and plays a similar role to the subtropics on modern Earth. Since one-dimensional radiative-convective models cannot capture the effects of the cloud albedo and radiator fin, they are systematically biased toward a narrower habitable zone. We also show that cloud parameters are the most important in the two-column model for determining the day-night thermal emission contrast, which decreases and eventually reverses as the stellar flux increases. This reversal is important because it could be detected by future extrasolar planet characterization missions, which would suggest that the planet has Earth-like water clouds and is potentially habitable.

  16. A spectral approach to compute the mean performance measures of the queue with low-order BMAP input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Woo Lee

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper targets engineers and practitioners who want a simple procedure to compute the mean performance measures of the Batch Markovian Arrival process (BMAP/G/1 queueing system when the parameter matrices order is very low. We develop a set of system equations and derive the vector generating function of the queue length. Starting from the generating function, we propose a spectral approach that can be understandable to those who have basic knowledge of M/G/1 queues and eigenvalue algebra.

  17. Full Field and Anomaly Initialisation using a low order climate model: a comparison, and proposals for advanced formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Robin; Carrassi, Alberto; Guemas, Virginie; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco; Volpi, Danila

    2014-05-01

    Full Field (FFI) and Anomaly Initialisation (AI) are two schemes used to initialise seasonal-to-decadal (s2d) prediction. FFI initialises the model on the best estimate of the actual climate state and minimises the initial error. However, due to inevitable model deficiencies, the trajectories drift away from the observations towards the model's own attractor, inducing a bias in the forecast. AI has been devised to tackle the impact of drift through the addition of this bias onto the observations, in the hope of gaining an initial state closer to the model attractor. Its goal is to forecast climate anomalies. The large variety of experimental setups, global coupled models, and observational networks adopted world-wide have led to varying results with regards to the relative performance of AI and FFI. Our research is firstly motivated in a comparison of these two initialisation approaches under varying circumstances of observational errors, observational distributions, and model errors. We also propose and compare two advanced schemes for s2d prediction. Least Square Initialisation (LSI) intends to propagate observational information of partially initialized systems to the whole model domain, based on standard practices in data assimilation and using the covariance of the model anomalies. Exploring the Parameters Uncertainty (EPU) is an online drift correction technique applied during the forecast run after initialisation. It is designed to estimate, and subtract, the bias in the forecast related to parametric error. Experiments are carried out using an idealized coupled dynamics in order to facilitate better control and robust statistical inference. Results show that an improvement of FFI will necessitate refinements in the observations, whereas improvements in AI are subject to model advances. A successful approximation of the model attractor using AI is guaranteed only when the differences between model and nature probability distribution functions (PDFs) are limited to the first order. Significant higher order differences can lead to an initial conditions distribution for AI that is less representative of the model PDF and lead to a degradation of the initalisation skill. Finally, both ad- vanced schemes lead to significantly improved skill scores, encouraging their implementation for models of higher complexity.

  18. In situ studies with Asian clams (Carbacula fluminea) detect acid mine drainage and nutrient inputs in low-order streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soucek, D. J.; Schmidt, T. S.; Cherry, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluates the correlation between transplanted Asiatic clam and indigenous community responses to acid mine drainage and nutrient loading in first-to-third-order streams, by comparing the toxicological endpoints of clam survival and growth with benthic macro-invertebrate community indices as community responses to both acid mine drainage and nutrient loading. Clam survival was found to be positively correlated with water column pH and negatively correlated with conductivity and metal concentrations. There was also a positive correlation with the relative abundance of the macro-invertebrate Ephemeroptera, the most sensitive taxonomic group, to acid mine drainage in this watershed. No correlation was found between clam growth and acid mine drainage inputs, but there was evidence of positive correlation with nitrate concentrations and the relative abundance of collector-filterer functional feeding groups. These results suggest that clam growth is related to nutrient levels and accurately reflect benthic macro-invertebrate responses to nutrient loading. 28 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  19. Predicting Vulnerability of the Integrity and Connectivity Associated with Culverts in Low Order Streams of Northern Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, C. H.; Wagenbrenner, J.; Fedora, M.; Watkins, D.; Watkins, M. K.; Huckins, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Great Lakes Region of North America has experienced more frequent extreme precipitation events in recent decades, resulting in a large number of stream crossing failures. While there are accepted methods for designing stream crossings to accommodate peak storm discharges, less attention has been paid to assessing the risk of failure. To evaluate failure risk and potential impacts, coarse-resolution stream crossing surveys were completed on 51 stream crossings and dams in the North Branch Paint River watershed in Michigan's Upper Peninsula. These inventories determined stream crossing dimensions along with stream and watershed characteristics. Eleven culverts were selected from the coarse surveys for high resolution hydraulic analysis to estimate discharge conditions expected at crossing failure. Watershed attributes upstream of the crossing, including area, slope, and storage, were acquired. Sediment discharge and the economic impact associated with a failure event were also estimated for each stream crossing. Impacts to stream connectivity and fish passability were assessed from the coarse-level surveys. Using information from both the coarse and high-resolution surveys, we also developed indicators to predict failure risk without the need for complex hydraulic modeling. These passability scores and failure risk indicators will help to prioritize infrastructure replacement and improve the overall connectivity of river systems throughout the upper Great Lakes Region.

  20. Development of a thermodynamic low order model for a twin screw expander with emphasis on pulsations in the inlet pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papes, Iva; Degroote, Joris; Vierendeels, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-chamber model is developed from the mass and energy conservation laws. • To better predict inlet pipe pulsations a 3D inlet pipe model is coupled to it. • Flow coefficients are derived from 3D CFD calculations. • Maximal deviation between the full CFD and the presented model is around 5%. • This model is a good compromise between accuracy and computational resources. - Abstract: A twin screw expander is a positive displacement machine used in various applications of waste heat recovery. The performance of this machine is influenced by internal leakages, gas pulsations formed in the inlet pipe and the properties of the refrigerant. In this paper a multi-chamber mathematical model of a twin screw expander is presented to predict its performance. From the mass and energy conservation laws, differential equations are derived which are then solved together with the appropriate Equation of State (EoS) in the instantaneous control volumes. In order to calculate the mass flow rates through leakage paths more accurately, flow coefficients used in the converging nozzle model were derived from 3D Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) calculation. Due to high gas pulsation levels at the inlet port, a coupling with a 3D CFD inlet pipe model is introduced in order to better predict throttling losses. The maximal deviation between predictions by the developed model and 3D CFD calculations of the complete machine is around 5% for the mass flow rate and the power output.

  1. Role of low order rational q values on the ITB-events in JT-60U plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neudatchin, S.V.; Takizuka, T.; Hayashi, N.; Shirai, H.; Fujita, T.; Isayama, A.; Kamada, Y.; Koide, Y.; Suzuki, T.

    2003-01-01

    The formation of internal transport barriers (ITBs) near q=2,3 surfaces in normal (NrS) or optimized shear discharges of JT-60U and JET is well known. In reverse shear (RS) JT-60U plasmas, the role of q minimum (q min ) equal to 3, 5, 3, 2, 5, 2 is not obvious for ITB formation. ITB-events (non-local confinement bifurcations inside and around ITB in a ms timescale) are found in various JT-60U NrS and RS plasmas. Under sufficient power, ITB-events are seen at rational and not rational values of q min . The space-time evolution of T e and T i is similar even being strongly varied in space and time, suggesting same mechanism(s) of T e and T i transport. The temporal formation of strong ITB in H-mode under passing of q min =3 (after periodical improvements and degradations via ITB-events with 8ms period) in RS mode with P nbi =8MW is presented. Under smaller power, ITB-events are observed only at rational values of q min . In a weak RS shot with P nbi =4MW, abrupt rise of T e is seen at q min =3.5, while more cases of T i rise are observed. The difference of the T e and T i evolution seen regularly under the low power, suggests decoupling of T e and T i transport. (author)

  2. Role of low order rational q values in the ITB-events in JT-60U plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neudatchin, S.V.

    2002-01-01

    The formation of internal transport barriers (ITBs) near q=2,3 surfaces in normal (NrS) or optimized shear discharges of JT-60U and JET is well known. In reverse shear (RS) JT-60U plasmas, the role of q minimum (q min ) equal to 3.5, 3, 2.5, 2 is not obvious for ITB evolution. ITB-events (non-local confinement bifurcations inside and around ITB in a ms timescale) are found in various JT-60U NrS and RS plasmas. (a) Under sufficient power, ITB-events are seen at rational and not rational values of q min . The space-time evolution of Te and Ti is similar. The temporal creation of stronger ITB in H-mode (after periodical improvements and degradations via ITB-events with 8 ms period) under passing of q min = 3 is presented (P nbi = 8 MW, 1.5 MA / 3.7 T). (b) Under smaller power, the influence of some rational q min is seen clearly for ITB-events on T e . In 1.3MA/3.7T shot with very weak RS (Pnbi = 4 MW), abrupt rise of T e is seen at q min 3:5, while more cases of T i rise are observed. (c) The possible role of MHD-activity as ITB-events trigger (ms time scale correlation in some NrS and RS cases) is under investigation. (author)

  3. Air Vehicle Integration and Technology Research (AVIATR). Delivery Order 0013: Nonlinear, Low-Order/Reduced-Order Modeling Applications and Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    junction end of the duplex wire. These wire pairs were then directly tack- welded to the titanium panel to make the thermocouple junction, using the...attachment structure at a stress concentration (Kt) detail. These Kt details may be fastener holes, bend radii, machined steps, welds , etc. These...allowables are random s-N curves of new materials (Kt=1, R=-1), and allowables of joints (bonded, bolted, welded , etc.) using a test specimen like the

  4. Thermal deformation prediction in reticles for extreme ultraviolet lithography based on a measurement-dependent low-order model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikcora, C.; Weiland, S.; Coene, W.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    In extreme ultraviolet lithography, imaging errors due to thermal deformation of reticles are becoming progressively intolerable as the source power increases. Despite this trend, such errors can be mitigated by adjusting the wafer and reticle stages based on a set of predicted deformation-induced

  5. Weakened acute type condition for tetrahedral triangulations and the discrete maximum principle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korotov, S.; Křížek, Michal; Neittaanmäki, P.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 233 (2001), s. 107-119 ISSN 0025-5718 Grant - others:GA Academy of Finland(FI) 752205 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.990, year: 2001

  6. Earliest stage of the tetrahedral nanochannel formation in cubosome particles from unilamellar nanovesicles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Angelov, Borislav; Angelova, A.; Garamus, V. M.; Drechsler, M.; Willumeit, R.; Mutafchieva, R.; Štěpánek, Petr; Lesieur, S.

    Roč. 28, č. 48 ( 2012 ), s. 16647-16655 ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/1600 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : cryoTEM electron microscopy * SAXS * soft matter Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.187, year: 2012

  7. Electron doping through lithium intercalation to interstitial channels in tetrahedrally bonded SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Yuki [Department of Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Center for Computational Materials, Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Oshiyama, Atsushi [Department of Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2015-11-07

    We report on first-principles calculations that clarify the effect of lithium atom intercalation into zinc blende 3C-silicon carbide (3C-SiC) on electronic and structural properties. Lithium atoms inside 3C-SiC are found to donate electrons to 3C-SiC that is an indication of a new way of electron doping through the intercalation. The electrons doped into the conduction band interact with lithium cations and reduce the band spacing between the original valence and conduction bands. We have also found that a silicon monovacancy in 3C-SiC promotes the lithium intercalation, showing that the vacancy generation makes SiC as a possible anode material for lithium-ion battery.

  8. Global Time Tomography of Finite Frequency Waves with Optimized Tetrahedral Grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelli, R.; Montelli, R.; Nolet, G.; Dahlen, F. A.; Masters, G.; Hung, S.

    2001-12-01

    Besides true velocity heterogeneities, tomographic images reflect the effect of data errors, model parametrization, linearization, uncertainties involved with the solution of the forward problem and the greatly inadequate sampling of the earth by seismic rays. These influences cannot be easily separated and often produce artefacts in the final image with amplitudes comparable to those of the velocity heterogeneities. In practice, the tomographer uses some form of damping of the ill-resolved aspects of the model to get a unique solution and reduce the influence of the errors. However damping is not fully adequate, and may reveal a strong influence of the ray path coverage in tomographic images. If some cells are ill determinated regularization techniques may lead to heterogeneity because these cells are damped towards zero. Thus we want a uniform resolution of the parameters in our model. This can be obtained by using an irregular grid with variable length scales. We have introduced an irregular parametrization of the velocity structure by using a Delaunay triangulation. Extensively work on error analysis of tomographic images together with mesh optimization has shown that both resolution and ray density can provide the critical informations needed to re-design grids. However, criteria based on resolution are preferred in the presence of narrow ray beams coming from the same direction. This can be understood if we realise that resolution is not only determined by the number of rays crossing a region, but also by their azimutal coverage. We shall discuss various strategies for grid optimization. In general the computation of the travel times is restricted to ray theory, the infinite frequency approximation of the elastodynamic equation of motion. This simplifies the mathematic and is therefore widely applied in seismic tomography. But ray theory does not account for scattering, wavefront healing and other diffraction effects that render the traveltime of a finite frequency seismic waves sensitive to three-dimensional structure off rays. Dahlen et al (2000) used the Born approximation to find a double-ray sum representation of the 3D Fréchet kernel. Destructive interference among adjacent frequencies in the broad-band pulse renders a cross-correlation traveltime measurement sensitive only to the wave speed in a hollow banana-shaped region surrounding the unperturbed geometrical ray. We combined the banana-doughnut kernel with the formalism for the adaptive parametrization based on resolution criterion for a long-period body wave data set. Both absolute and differential times are computed using cross-correlation of each observed arrival with a synthetic pulse contructed by convolving the impulse response of the instrument at Albuquerque (ANMO) and an attenuation operator for the preliminary reference earth model (PREM). We shall present some first results illustrating the effects of using banana-doughnut Fréchet kernels instead of ray theory on the contruction of optimized Delaunay meshes.

  9. Erasing no-man's land by thermodynamically stabilizing the liquid-liquid transition in tetrahedral particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallenburg, Frank; Filion, Laura|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326823484; Sciortino, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    One of the most controversial hypotheses for explaining the origin of the thermodynamic anomalies characterizing liquid water postulates the presence of a metastable second-order liquid-liquid critical point located in the 'no-man's land'. In this scenario, two liquids with distinct local structure

  10. Configuring PSx tetrahedral clusters in Li-excess Li7P3S11 solid electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wo Dum Jung

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that the Li-ion conductivity can be improved by adding a certain amount of Li (x = 0.25–0.5 as a charge carrier to the composition of glass-ceramic Li7+xP3S11. Structural analysis clarified that the structural changes caused by the ratio of ortho-thiophosphate tetrahedra PS43− and pyro-thiophosphate ditetrahedra P2S74− affect the Li-ion conductivity. The ratio of PS43− and P2S74− varies depending on x and the highest Li-ion conductivity (2.5 × 10−3 S cm−1 at x = 0.25. All-solid-state LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2/Li7.25P3S11/In-metal cell exhibits the discharge capacity of 106.2 mAh g−1. This ion conduction enhancement from excess Li is expected to contribute to the future design of sulfide-type electrolytes.

  11. Strongly regular family of boundary-fitted tetrahedral meshes of bounded C^2 domains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošek, Radim

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2016), s. 233-251 ISSN 0862-7940 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : boundary fitted mesh * strongly regular family * Sommerville tetrahedron Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.618, year: 2016 http://hdl.handle.net/10338.dmlcz/145699

  12. Antimalarial, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, DNA interaction and SOD like activities of tetrahedral copper(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Jugal V.; Gajera, Sanjay B.; Patel, Mohan N.

    2015-02-01

    The mononuclear copper(II) complexes with P, O-donor ligand and different fluoroquinolones have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, electronic spectra, TGA, EPR, FT-IR and LC-MS spectroscopy. An antimicrobial efficiency of the complexes has been tested against five different microorganisms in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and displays very good antimicrobial activity. The binding strength and binding mode of the complexes with Herring Sperm DNA (HS DNA) have been investigated by absorption titration and viscosity measurement studies. The studies suggest the classical intercalative mode of DNA binding. Gel electrophoresis assay determines the ability of the complexes to cleave the supercoiled form of pUC19 DNA. Synthesized complexes have been tested for their SOD mimic activity using nonenzymatic NBT/NADH/PMS system and found to have good antioxidant activity. All the complexes show good cytotoxic and in vitro antimalarial activities.

  13. Analysis of rotation-vibration relative equilibria on the example of a tetrahedral four atom molecule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efstathiou, K; Sadovskii, DA; Zhilinskii, BI

    2004-01-01

    We study relative equilibria ( RE) of a nonrigid molecule, which vibrates about a well-defined equilibrium configuration and rotates as a whole. Our analysis unifies the theory of rotational and vibrational RE. We rely on the detailed study of the symmetry group action on the initial and reduced

  14. Finite element method for solving Kohn-Sham equations based on self-adaptive tetrahedral mesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dier; Shen Lihua; Zhou Aihui; Gong Xingao

    2008-01-01

    A finite element (FE) method with self-adaptive mesh-refinement technique is developed for solving the density functional Kohn-Sham equations. The FE method adopts local piecewise polynomials basis functions, which produces sparsely structured matrices of Hamiltonian. The method is well suitable for parallel implementation without using Fourier transform. In addition, the self-adaptive mesh-refinement technique can control the computational accuracy and efficiency with optimal mesh density in different regions

  15. Orientational order and rotational relaxation in the plastic crystal phase of tetrahedral molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Rossend

    2008-01-17

    A methodology recently introduced to describe orientational order in liquid carbon tetrachloride is extended to the plastic crystal phase of XY4 molecules. The notion that liquid and plastic crystal phases are germane regarding orientational order is confirmed for short intermolecular distances but is seen to fail beyond, as long range orientational correlations are found for the simulated solid phase. It is argued that, if real, such a phenomenon may not to be accessible with direct (diffraction) methods due to the high molecular symmetry. This behavior is linked to the existence of preferential orientation with respect to the fcc crystalline network defined by the centers of mass. It is found that the dominant class accounts, at most, for one-third of all configurations, with a feeble dependence on temperature. Finally, the issue of rotational relaxation is also addressed, with an excellent agreement with experimental measures. It is shown that relaxation is nonhomogeneous in the picosecond range, with a slight dispersion of decay times depending on the initial orientational class. The results reported mainly correspond to neopentane over a wide temperature range, although results for carbon tetrachloride are included, as well.

  16. Accurate reaction-diffusion operator splitting on tetrahedral meshes for parallel stochastic molecular simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepburn, I.; De Schutter, E., E-mail: erik@oist.jp [Computational Neuroscience Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Onna, Okinawa 904 0495 (Japan); Theoretical Neurobiology & Neuroengineering, University of Antwerp, Antwerp 2610 (Belgium); Chen, W. [Computational Neuroscience Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Onna, Okinawa 904 0495 (Japan)

    2016-08-07

    Spatial stochastic molecular simulations in biology are limited by the intense computation required to track molecules in space either in a discrete time or discrete space framework, which has led to the development of parallel methods that can take advantage of the power of modern supercomputers in recent years. We systematically test suggested components of stochastic reaction-diffusion operator splitting in the literature and discuss their effects on accuracy. We introduce an operator splitting implementation for irregular meshes that enhances accuracy with minimal performance cost. We test a range of models in small-scale MPI simulations from simple diffusion models to realistic biological models and find that multi-dimensional geometry partitioning is an important consideration for optimum performance. We demonstrate performance gains of 1-3 orders of magnitude in the parallel implementation, with peak performance strongly dependent on model specification.

  17. Gas-liquid phase coexistence in a tetrahedral patchy particle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Flavio; Tartaglia, Piero; Sciortino, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the location of the gas-liquid coexistence line and of the associated critical point for the primitive model for water (PMW), introduced by Kolafa and Nezbeda (1987 Mol. Phys. 61 161). Besides being a simple model for a molecular network forming liquid, the PMW is representative of patchy proteins and novel colloidal particles interacting with localized directional short-range attractions. We show that the gas-liquid phase separation is metastable, i.e. it takes place in the region of the phase diagram where the crystal phase is thermodynamically favoured, as in the case of particles interacting via short-range attractive spherical potentials. We do not observe crystallization close to the critical point. The region of gas-liquid instability of this patchy model is significantly reduced as compared to that from equivalent models of spherically interacting particles, confirming the possibility of observing kinetic arrest in a homogeneous sample driven by bonding as opposed to packing. (fast track communication)

  18. Shredders are abundant and species-rich in tropical continental-island low-order streams: Gorgona Island, Tropical Eastern Pacific, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnolia Longo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrate shredders may have been overlooked in tropical streams due to the geographical bias of early studies, methodological limitations, and the complex influences of local-scale factors. While shredders seem to be scarce in most oceanic island streams, we here test if they are abundant in a continental island. Gut content analyses of benthic macroinvertebrates were used to identify shredding taxa in streams located in different types of forest in Gorgona Island (Tropical Eastern Pacific. General dietary overlap (GO was quantified and relative biomass, relative frequency and the leaf litter percentage in the guts were used to establish the relative importance of each taxon in the shredding guild. Various indices were used to identify the spatial arrangement (i.e. contagious or random of each taxon and shredding guild among streams. We identified 31 shredding taxa that were divided into specialist-shredders (14 taxa, generalist-shredders (10, and collector-shredders (7. There was a complete GO (0.75, p<0.001 for the guild. Cockroaches (Epilampra were the most represented shredders due to the greatest contribution to guild total biomass and to the highest content of leaf litter in their guts. These organisms were more important than shrimps and crabs in terms of abundance and biomass in leaf pack samples. Potimirin shrimps ranked second and Stenochironomus midges ranked third. Among aquatic insects, other secondarily important species were Leptohyphes (Ephemeroptera, Macrelmis, Anchytarsus and Tetraglosa (Coleoptera. Ten taxa exhibited contagious spatial pattern and twenty-one exhibited a random distribution. Resource distribution (i.e., leaf packs between streams was random too. The guild was contagiously distributed, but this result could be highly influenced by the taxa with contagious distribution. Mean abundance, richness and mean biomass of shredders were not significantly correlated with any of the environmental variables measured. Three factors seemly explain the high richness and abundance of shredders in Gorgona Island: (1 its continental origin, (2 its current proximity to the continent (35 km, and (3 the high diversity and availability of leaf litter and woody debris inputs to the streams. Although crabs, shrimps, aquatic insects and semiaquatic-cockroaches coexisted in Gorgona Island, the latter were the most important leaf litter shredders in terms of biomass. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (Suppl. 1: 85-105. Epub 2014 February 01.

  19. The Effect of Vee Maps and Laboratory Reports on High- and Low-Order Content-Knowledge Achievement in Agriscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoron, Andrew C.; Rubenstein, Eric D.

    2013-01-01

    Instruction in the laboratory is essential to the success of a total agricultural education program. The development of students' critical thinking, argumentation skills, technical skills, reasoning ability, and engagement are all found within the agriscience laboratory. Yet, utilizing the laboratory setting to its maximum potential is challenging…

  20. Deep bore well water level fluctuations in the Koyna region, India: the presence of a low order dynamical system in a seismically active environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Ramana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Water level fluctuations in deep bore wells in the vicinity of seismically active Koyna region in western India provides an opportunity to understand the causative mechanism underlying reservoir-triggered earthquakes. As the crustal porous rocks behave nonlinearly, their characteristics can be obtained by analysing water level fluctuations, which reflect an integrated response of the medium. A Fractal dimension is one such measure of nonlinear characteristics of porous rock as observed in water level data from the Koyna region. It is inferred in our study that a low nonlinear dynamical system with three variables can predict the water level fluctuations in bore wells.

  1. Wave functions and low-order density matrices for a class of two-electron 'artificial atoms' embracing Hookean and Moshinsky models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holas, A.; Howard, I.A.; March, N.H.

    2003-01-01

    A class of model two-electron 'artificial atoms' is proposed which embraces both Hookean and Moshinsky models. Particle densities and spinless first-order density matrices are obtained for this class of models. These quantities and the interacting system kinetic energy can be calculated using the ground-state solution of an explicit single-particle radial Schroedinger equation

  2. Paleosols in low-order streams and valley heads in the Araucaria Plateau - Record of continental environmental conditions in southern Brazil at the end of MIS 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisani, Julio Cesar; Pontelli, Marga Eliz; Osterrieth, Margarita Luisa; Paisani, Sani Daniela Lopes; Fachin, Andressa; Guerra, Simone; Oliveira, Leandro

    2014-10-01

    The Araucaria Plateau is a geomorphological unit that occupies approximately three-quarters of the terrain in the southern region of Brazil. The plateau displays different altitudinal levels (600 to relief inversion occurred, which resulted in fossilization of the valleys.

  3. Land use effects on leaf litter breakdown in low-order streams draining a rapidly developing tropical watershed in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J Torres

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El uso de la tierra influye significativamente sobre los procesos en ecosistemas de riachuelo, como la descomposición de la hojarasca. En el presente estudio, se evaluaron las tasas de descomposición de la hojarasca en arroyos tropicales menores de zonas boscosa, agrícola y urbana en Puerto Rico. Para medir las tasas de descomposición se colocaron bolsas de malla gruesa en nueve riachuelos, tres para cada uno de los tipos de uso de tierra. Se midieron los cambios en la masa de hojarasca con el tiempo, las tasas de descomposición, la composición de macroinvertebrados y los aspectos fisico-químicos del riachuelo. Los riachuelos mostraron diferencias en la fisico-química del agua: los riachuelos urbanos presentaron los valores más altos en casi todas las variables. Las características físicas del riachuelo fueron evaluadas utilizando un protocolo visual, el cual indica que los riachuelos urbanos y asociados a la agricultura están más degradados que los asociados a bosques. La tasa de descomposición de la hojarasca fue rápida en todos los riachuelos (k=0.006-0.024. La descomposición estuvo relacionada con las condiciones físicas del riachuelo, siendo más rápido en aquellos asociados al bosque. Los invertebrados que colonizaron las hojas fueron principalmente efemerópteros (Leptophlebiidae, Baetidae, and Caenidae, dípteros (Chironomidae, tricópteros (Polycentropodidae y escarabajos (Elmidae and Gyrinidae. Contrario a lo encontrado en otros estudios, no hallamos decápodos. Hubo poca evidencia de que los insectos afecten la descomposición. Los resultados sugieren que el uso de la tierra es un factor importante que afecta el proceso de descomposición de la hojarasca en los riachuelos. Contrario a los estudios en zonas templadas, hallamos evidencia de una relación positiva de los nutrientes de tierra agrícola con las tasas de descomposición. Los cambios en las características físicas de los riachuelos parecen ser los factores principales en los patrones de descomposición.

  4. Bacterial genomes lacking long-range correlations may not be modeled by low-order Markov chains: the role of mixing statistics and frame shift of neighboring genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocho, Germinal; Miramontes, Pedro; Mansilla, Ricardo; Li, Wentian

    2014-12-01

    We examine the relationship between exponential correlation functions and Markov models in a bacterial genome in detail. Despite the well known fact that Markov models generate sequences with correlation function that decays exponentially, simply constructed Markov models based on nearest-neighbor dimer (first-order), trimer (second-order), up to hexamer (fifth-order), and treating the DNA sequence as being homogeneous all fail to predict the value of exponential decay rate. Even reading-frame-specific Markov models (both first- and fifth-order) could not explain the fact that the exponential decay is very slow. Starting with the in-phase coding-DNA-sequence (CDS), we investigated correlation within a fixed-codon-position subsequence, and in artificially constructed sequences by packing CDSs with out-of-phase spacers, as well as altering CDS length distribution by imposing an upper limit. From these targeted analyses, we conclude that the correlation in the bacterial genomic sequence is mainly due to a mixing of heterogeneous statistics at different codon positions, and the decay of correlation is due to the possible out-of-phase between neighboring CDSs. There are also small contributions to the correlation from bases at the same codon position, as well as by non-coding sequences. These show that the seemingly simple exponential correlation functions in bacterial genome hide a complexity in correlation structure which is not suitable for a modeling by Markov chain in a homogeneous sequence. Other results include: use of the (absolute value) second largest eigenvalue to represent the 16 correlation functions and the prediction of a 10-11 base periodicity from the hexamer frequencies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High- and Low-Order Overtaking-Ability Affordances: Drivers Rely on the Maximum Velocity and Acceleration of Their Cars to Perform Overtaking Maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilio, Numa; Morice, Antoine H P; Marti, Geoffrey; Montagne, Gilles

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to answer the question, Do drivers take into account the action boundaries of their car when overtaking? The Morice et al. affordance-based approach to visually guided overtaking suggests that the "overtake-ability" affordance can be formalized as the ratio of the "minimum satisfying velocity" (MSV) of the maneuver to the maximum velocity (V(max)) of the driven car. In this definition, however, the maximum acceleration (A(max)) of the vehicle is ignored. We hypothesize that drivers may be sensitive to an affordance redefined with the ratio of the "minimum satisfying acceleration" (MSA) to the A(max) of the car. Two groups of nine drivers drove cars differing in their A(max). They were instructed to attempt overtaking maneuvers in 25 situations resulting from the combination of five MSA and five MSV values. When overtaking frequency was expressed as a function of MSV and MSA, maneuvers were found to be initiated differently for the two groups. However, when expressed as a function of MSV/V(max) and MSA/A(max), overtaking frequency was quite similar for both groups. Finally, a multiple regression coefficient analysis demonstrated that overtaking decisions are fully explained by a composite variable comprising MSA/A(max) and the time required to reach MSV. Drivers reliably decide whether overtaking is safe (or not) by using low- and high-order variables taking into account their car's maximum velocity and acceleration, respectively, as predicted by "affordance-based control" theory. Potential applications include the design of overtaking assistance, which should exploit the MSA/A(max) variables in order to suggest perceptually relevant overtaking solutions. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  6. On numerical regularity of the face-to-face longest-edge bisection algorithm for tetrahedral partitions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hannukainen, A.; Korotov, S.; Křížek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, Part A (2014), s. 34-41 ISSN 0167-6423 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : bisection algorithm * conforming finite element method * regular family of partitions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.715, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167642313001226

  7. Three-dimensional dynamic rupture simulation with a high-order discontinuous Galerkin method on unstructured tetrahedral meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Pelties, Christian; de la Puente, Josep; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Brietzke, Gilbert B.; Kä ser, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Accurate and efficient numerical methods to simulate dynamic earthquake rupture and wave propagation in complex media and complex fault geometries are needed to address fundamental questions in earthquake dynamics, to integrate seismic and geodetic

  8. Methods of quantum chemistry and nanotechnology as applied to the study of the energy states of amorphous tetrahedral structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Golodenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique and results of an experimental research of power conditions of amorphous alloy hydrogenated carbide silicon is described. Application of power spectra of a silicon valence zone for definition phase structure of its amorphous hydrogenated carbide is shown. Quantitative dependence of a share carbide phases of silicon in structure of its alloy from the maintenance of methane in an initial gas mix is established.

  9. Ab initio van der waals interactions in simulations of water alter structure from mainly tetrahedral to high-density-like

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelhøj, Andreas; Kelkkanen, Kari André; Wikfeldt, K Thor

    2011-01-01

    The structure of liquid water at ambient conditions is studied in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations in the NVE ensemble using van der Waals (vdW) density-functional theory, i.e., using the new exchange-correlation functionals optPBE-vdW and vdW-DF2, where the latter has softer nonlocal...... protocol could cause the deviation. An O-O PCF consisting of a linear combination of 70% from vdW-DF2 and 30% from low-density liquid water, as extrapolated from experiments, reproduces near-quantitatively the experimental O-O PCF for ambient water. This suggests the possibility that the new functionals...... shows some resemblance with experiment for high-density water ( Soper , A. K. and Ricci , M. A. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2000 , 84 , 2881 ), but not directly with experiment for ambient water. Considering the accuracy of the new functionals for interaction energies, we investigate whether the simulation...

  10. Multinuclear NMR spectroscopy of the tetrahedral uranium(IV) complex U(BH3CH3)4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamp, E.; Shinomoto, R.; Edelstein, N.; McGarvey, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the 1 H, 11 B, and 13 C NMR spectra of T/sub d/ U(BH 3 CH 3 ) 4 in solution is reported. The paramagnetic shifts are interpreted as originating purely from spin delocalization mechanisms with no contribution from the metal-orbital dipolar interaction. It is shown that the temperature dependence of both 1 H shifts (bridging and terminal protons) is identical with that calculated from a polarization theory which assumes the shift is proportional to the average value of electron spin in the inner 5f orbitals. The proportionality constant is -5.64 MHz for the bridging protons and -0.59 MHz for the terminal protons. The temperature dependences of 11 B and 13 shifts are found to depart significantly from that predicted by the polarization theory with the largest deviations shown by the 11 B shifts. It is shown how those deviations can be accounted for by postulating a second spin delocalization through direct covalency involving molecular orbitals formed from the uranium 5f orbitals and ligand s and p orbitals. 29 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  11. Coordination Behavior of Ni2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ in Tetrahedral 1-Methylimidazole Complexes: A DFT/CSD Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tetteh, Samuel

    2018-01-01

    The interaction between nickel (Ni2+), copper (Cu2+), and zinc (Zn2+) ions and 1-methylimidazole has been studied by exploring the geometries of eleven crystal structures in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD). The coordination behavior of the respective ions was further investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) methods. The gas-phase complexes were fully optimized using B3LYP/GENECP functionals with 6-31G∗ and LANL2DZ basis sets. The Ni2+ and Cu2+ complexes show distorted ...

  12. Multi-pass TIG welding process: simulating thermal SS304

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harinadh, Vemanaboina; Akella, S.; Buddu, Ramesh Kumar; Edision, G.

    2015-01-01

    Welding is basic requirement in the construction of nuclear reactors, power plants and structural components development. A basic studies on various aspects of the welding is essential to ensure the stability and structural requirement conditions. The present study explored the thermo-mechanical analysis of the multipass welds of austenitic stainless steels which are widely used in fusion and fission reactor components development. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model is developed to investigate thermally induced stress field during TIG welding process for SS304 material. The transient thermal analysis is performed to obtain the temperature history, which then is applied to the mechanical (stress) analysis. The present thermal analysis is conducted using element type DC3D8. This element type has a three dimensional thermal conduction capability and eight nodes. The 6 mm thick plated is welded with six numbers of passes. The geometry and meshed model with tetrahedral shape with volume sweep. The analysis is on TIG welding process using 3D-weld interface plug-in on ABAQUS-6.14. The results are reported in the present paper

  13. A Deep Penetration Problem Calculation Using AETIUS:An Easy Modeling Discrete Ordinates Ṯransport Code UsIng Unstructured Tetrahedral Mesh, Shared Memory Parallel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIM Jong Woon

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a brief overview of AETIUS and provide numerical results from both AETIUS and a Monte Carlo code, MCNP5, in a deep penetration problem with small detection volumes. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of AETIUS for such calculations.

  14. A family of mixed-metal cyanide cubes with alternating octahedral and tetrahedral corners exhibiting a variety of magnetic behaviors including single molecule magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelter, Eric J; Karadas, Ferdi; Avendano, Carolina; Prosvirin, Andrey V; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Dunbar, Kim R

    2007-07-04

    A series of structurally related pseudocubic metal cyanide clusters of Re(II) and 3d metal ions [{MX}4{Re(triphos)(CN)3}4] (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn; X = Cl, I, -OCH3) have been prepared, and their magnetic and electrochemical properties have been probed to evaluate the effect of changing the identity of the 3d metal ion. Electrochemistry of the clusters reveals several rhenium-based oxidation and reduction processes, some of which result in cluster fragmentation. The richest electrochemistry was observed for the iron congener, which exists as the Re(I)/Fe(III) cluster at the resting potential and exhibits six clear one-electron reversible redox couples and two, closely spaced one-electron quasi-reversible processes. The [{MnIICl}4{ReII(triphos)(CN)3}4] complex exhibits single molecule magnetism with a fast tunneling relaxation process observed at H = 0 determined by micro-SQUID magnetization measurements. A comparative evaluation of the magnetic properties across the series reveals that the compounds exhibit antiferromagnetic coupling between the metal ions, except for [{NiIICl}4{ReII(triphos)(CN)3}4] that shows ferromagnetic behavior. Despite the large ground-state spin value of [{NiIICl}4{ReII(triphos)(CN)3}4] (S = 6), only manganese congeners exhibit SMM behavior to 1.8 K.

  15. Understanding the fast phase-change mechanism of tetrahedrally bonded Cu2GeTe3 : Comprehensive analyses of electronic structure and transport phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Keisuke; Skelton, Jonathan M.; Saito, Yuta; Shindo, Satoshi; Kobata, Masaaki; Fons, Paul; Kolobov, Alexander V.; Elliott, Stephen; Ando, Daisuke; Sutou, Yuji

    2018-05-01

    Cu2GeTe3 (CGT) phase-change material, a promising candidate for advanced fast nonvolatile random-access-memory devices, has a chalcopyritelike structure with s p3 bonding in the crystalline phase; thus, the phase-change (PC) mechanism is considered to be essentially different from that of the standard PC materials (e.g., Ge-Sb-Te) with threefold to sixfold p -like bonding. In order to reveal the PC mechanism of CGT, the electronic structure change due to PC has been investigated by laboratory hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and combined first-principles density-functional theory molecular-dynamics simulations. The valence-band spectra, in both crystalline and amorphous phases, are well simulated by the calculations. An inherent tendency of Te 5 s lone-pair formation and an enhanced participation of Cu 3 d orbitals in the bonding are found to play dominant roles in the PC mechanism. The electrical conductivity of as-deposited films and its change during the PC process is investigated in connection with valence-band spectral changes near the Fermi level. The results are successfully analyzed, based on a model proposed by Davis and Mott for chalcogenide amorphous semiconductors. The results suggest that robustness of the defect-band states against thermal stress is a key to the practical application of this material for memory devices.

  16. Nuclear Magnetic Shielding of Monoboranes: Calculation and Assessment of B-11 NMR Chemical Shifts in Planar BX3 and in Tetrahedral [BX4](-) Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháček, Jan; Bühl, M.; Fanfrlík, Jindřich; Hnyk, Drahomír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 50 (2017), s. 9631-9637 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-08045S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Electrostatic potentials * Nonrelativistic * Nuclear magnetic shieldings Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 2.847, year: 2016

  17. Synthesis, crystal structure and electrical properties of the tetrahedral quaternary chalcogenides CuM{sub 2}InTe{sub 4} (M=Zn, Cd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolas, George S., E-mail: gnolas@usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Hassan, M. Shafiq; Dong, Yongkwan [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Martin, Joshua [Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Quaternary chalcogenides form a large class of materials that continue to be of interest for energy-related applications. Certain compositions have recently been identified as possessing good thermoelectric properties however these materials typically have the kesterite structure type with limited variation in composition. In this study we report on the structural, optical and electrical properties of the quaternary chalcogenides CuZn{sub 2}InTe{sub 4} and CuCd{sub 2}InTe{sub 4} which crystallize in the modified zinc-blende crystal structure, and compare their properties with that of CuZn{sub 2}InSe{sub 4}. These p-type semiconductors have direct band gaps of about 1 eV resulting in relatively high Seebeck coefficient and resistivity values. This work expands on the research into quaternary chalcogenides with new compositions and structure types in order to further the fundamental investigation of multinary chalcogenides for potential thermoelectrics applications. - Graphical abstract: The structural, optical and electrical properties of the quaternary chalcogenides CuZn{sub 2}InTe{sub 4} and CuCd{sub 2}InTe{sub 4} are reported for the first time. The unique crystal structure allows for relatively good electrical transports and therefore potential for thermoelectric applications. - Highlights: • The physical properties of CuZn{sub 2}InTe{sub 4} and CuCd{sub 2}InTe{sub 4} are reported for the first time. • These materials have potential for thermoelectric applications. • Their direct band gaps also suggest potential for photovoltaics applications.

  18. Topotactic oxidation of TiGaPO-1, a pyridine-templated titanium gallophosphate with a new octahedral-tetrahedral 3-D framework structure containing Ti(III)/Ti(IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippindale, Ann M; Grimshaw, Mark R; Powell, Anthony V; Cowley, Andrew R

    2005-06-13

    The first 3-D open-framework TiGaPO complex, constructed from Ti(III)O(6), Ti(IV)O(6), GaO(4), and PO(4) polyhedra, contains pyridinium cations in a 1-D pore network and can be oxidized in air at 543 K with retention of the original framework structure.

  19. Cr1/3Zr2P3O12 with unusual tetrahedral coordination of Cr(III): peculiarities of the formation, thermal stability and application as a pigment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gorodylova, N.; Kosinová, V.; Šulcová, P.; Bělina, P.; Vlček, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 41 (2014), s. 15439-15449 ISSN 1477-9226 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : magnetic properties * crystal structure * cation distibution Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.197, year: 2014

  20. Impact of Network Coding on Delay and Throughput in Practical Wireless Chain Topologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøll, Martin; Rein, Stephan Alexander; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present results from a practical evaluation of network coding in a setup consisting of eight nodes deployed in a chain topology. With the tradition pure relaying, delay increases dramatically as the network gets congested, and here network coding helps to moderate this increase ...

  1. Effect of bimodularity on frequency response of cylindrical panels ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The actual stress strain behaviour ... The work on frequency response of bimodular structures is scarce in open literature (Khan .... Analysis is carried out using a C0 eight-noded serendipity quadrilateral shear flexible shell ..... specified convergence tolerance (each incremental displacement becomes less than equal to. 10.

  2. A Simulation Method for High-Cycle Fatigue-Driven Delamination using a Cohesive Zone Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Brian Lau Verndal; Turon, A.; Lindgaard, Esben

    2016-01-01

    on parameter fitting of any kind. The method has been implemented as a zero-thickness eight-node interface element for Abaqus and as a spring element for a simple finite element model in MATLAB. The method has been validated in simulations of mode I, mode II, and mixed-mode crack loading for both self...

  3. Transient and steady state behaviour of elasto–aerodynamic air foil bearings, considering bump foil compliance and top foil inertia and flexibility: A numerical investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bjerregaard; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2017-01-01

    utilise two types of eight-node isoparametric elements. The rotor is modelled as a rigid body without rotational inertia, i.e. as a journal. The bump foil is included via a bilinear version of the simple elastic foundation model. This paper introduces the bilinear simple elastic foundation model, which...

  4. Strongly coupled partitioned FSI using proper orthogonal decomposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bogaers, Alfred EJ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available structural deformation. The structural and fluid field solvers employed for this problem are the open-source solvers Calculix and OpenFOAM. 1600 eight node hexahedral finite-volume elements and 96 twenty node quadratic brick finite elements are employed...

  5. Re4As6S3, a thio-spinel-related cluster system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besnard, Celine; Svensson, Christer; Ståhl, Kenny

    2003-01-01

    . The rhenium atoms form tetrahedral clusters linked via tetrahedral arsenic clusters to produce an NaCl-type arrangement. The oxidation state of rhenium is IV and the number of electrons shared by the rhenium atoms in the cluster is 12. The structure is based on an ordered defect thio-spinel A((1-x))B(2)X(4......) where the B-type atoms form tetrahedral clusters....

  6. H-Morph: An indirect approach to advancing front hex meshing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OWEN,STEVEN J.; SAIGAL,SUNIL

    2000-05-30

    H-Morph is a new automatic algorithm for the generation of a hexahedral-dominant finite element mesh for arbitrary volumes. The H-Morph method starts with an initial tetrahedral mesh and systematically transforms and combines tetrahedral into hexahedra. It uses an advancing front technique where the initial front consists of a set of prescribed quadrilateral surface facets. Fronts are individually processed by recovering each of the six quadrilateral faces of a hexahedron from the tetrahedral mesh. Recovery techniques similar to those used in boundary constrained Delaunay mesh generation are used. Tetrahedral internal to the six hexahedral faces are then removed and a hexahedron is formed. At any time during the H-Morph procedure a valid mixed hexahedral-tetrahedral mesh is in existence within the volume. The procedure continues until no tetrahedral remain within the volume, or tetrahedral remain which cannot be transformed or combined into valid hexahedral elements. Any remaining tetrahedral are typically towards the interior of the volume, generally a less critical region for analysis. Transition from tetrahedral to hexahedra in the final mesh is accomplished through pyramid shaped elements. Advantages of the proposed method include its ability to conform to an existing quadrilateral surface mesh, its ability to mesh without the need to decompose or recognize special classes of geometry, and its characteristic well-aligned layers of elements parallel to the boundary. Example test cases are presented on a variety of models.

  7. The application of finite volume methods for modelling three-dimensional incompressible flow on an unstructured mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, R. D.; Webster, R.

    This paper demonstrates the application of a simple finite volume approach to a finite element mesh, combining the economy of the former with the geometrical flexibility of the latter. The procedure is used to model a three-dimensional flow on a mesh of linear eight-node brick (hexahedra). Simulations are performed for a wide range of flow problems, some in excess of 94,000 nodes. The resulting computer code ASTEC that incorporates these procedures is described.

  8. Off-fault plasticity in three-dimensional dynamic rupture simulations using a modal Discontinuous Galerkin method on unstructured meshes: Implementation, verification, and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollherr, Stephanie; Gabriel, Alice-Agnes; Uphoff, Carsten

    2018-05-01

    The dynamics and potential size of earthquakes depend crucially on rupture transfers between adjacent fault segments. To accurately describe earthquake source dynamics, numerical models can account for realistic fault geometries and rheologies such as nonlinear inelastic processes off the slip interface. We present implementation, verification, and application of off-fault Drucker-Prager plasticity in the open source software SeisSol (www.seissol.org). SeisSol is based on an arbitrary high-order derivative modal Discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) method using unstructured, tetrahedral meshes specifically suited for complex geometries. Two implementation approaches are detailed, modelling plastic failure either employing sub-elemental quadrature points or switching to nodal basis coefficients. At fine fault discretizations the nodal basis approach is up to 6 times more efficient in terms of computational costs while yielding comparable accuracy. Both methods are verified in community benchmark problems and by three dimensional numerical h- and p-refinement studies with heterogeneous initial stresses. We observe no spectral convergence for on-fault quantities with respect to a given reference solution, but rather discuss a limitation to low-order convergence for heterogeneous 3D dynamic rupture problems. For simulations including plasticity, a high fault resolution may be less crucial than commonly assumed, due to the regularization of peak slip rate and an increase of the minimum cohesive zone width. In large-scale dynamic rupture simulations based on the 1992 Landers earthquake, we observe high rupture complexity including reverse slip, direct branching, and dynamic triggering. The spatio-temporal distribution of rupture transfers are altered distinctively by plastic energy absorption, correlated with locations of geometrical fault complexity. Computational cost increases by 7% when accounting for off-fault plasticity in the demonstrating application. Our results

  9. Double-bond defect modelling in As-S glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyko, V; Shpotyuk, O; Hyla, M

    2010-01-01

    Ab initio calculations with the RHF/6-311G* basis set are used for geometrical optimization of regular pyramidal and defect quasi-tetrahedral clusters in binary As-S glasses. It is shown that quasi-tetrahedral S=AsS 3/2 structural units are impossible as main network-building blocks in these glasses.

  10. Double-bond defect modelling in As-S glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyko, V; Shpotyuk, O; Hyla, M, E-mail: shpotyuk@novas.lviv.ua

    2010-11-15

    Ab initio calculations with the RHF/6-311G* basis set are used for geometrical optimization of regular pyramidal and defect quasi-tetrahedral clusters in binary As-S glasses. It is shown that quasi-tetrahedral S=AsS{sub 3/2} structural units are impossible as main network-building blocks in these glasses.

  11. Cu and Al co-substituted cobalt ferrite: structural analysis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... 400 cm−1 (v2). They are attributed to the tetrahedral and octahedral group complexes of the spinel .... Intensity (a.u.). 2 (degree) ... Heating iron-hydroxides in air is known to yield haematite ... M–O distance in tetrahedral and octahedral sites.

  12. Perspective on the structure of liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, A.; Pettersson, L.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Liquid water can be described in a fluctuating inhomogeneous picture with two local structural motifs that are spatially separated. At ambient temperatures most molecules favor a closer packing than tetrahedral, with strongly distorted hydrogen bonds giving higher density (yellow), which allows the quantized librational modes to be excited and contribute to the entropy, but with enthalpically favored tetrahedrally bonded water patches appearing as fluctuations (blue), i.e. a competition between entropy and enthalpy. Upon cooling water the amount of molecules participating in tetrahedral structures and the size of the tetrahedral patches increase. Highlights: ► Two components maximizing either enthalpy (tetrahedral, low-density) or entropy (non-specific H-bonding, higher density). ► Interconvert discontinuously and ratio depends on temperature. ► Density fluctuations on 1 nm length scale. ► Increasing size in supercooled region. ► Connection to Widom line and 2nd critical point. - Abstract: We present a picture that combines discussions regarding the thermodynamic anomalies in ambient and supercooled water with recent interpretations of X-ray spectroscopy and scattering data of water in the ambient regime. At ambient temperatures most molecules favor a closer packing than tetrahedral, with strongly distorted hydrogen bonds, which allows the quantized librational modes to be excited and contribute to the entropy, but with enthalpically favored tetrahedrally bonded water patches appearing as fluctuations, i.e. a competition between entropy and enthalpy. Upon cooling water the amount of molecules participating in tetrahedral structures and the size of the tetrahedral patches increase. The two local structures are connected to the liquid–liquid critical point hypothesis in supercooled water corresponding to high density liquid and low density liquid. We will discuss the interpretation of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray emission

  13. Chemical states of p-boronophenylalanine in aqueous carboxylic acids and polyols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Mitsue; Kitaoka, Yoshinori

    1995-01-01

    Chemical states of p-boronophenylalanine were studied by infrared (IR) spectroscopy in aqueous carboxylic acids and in aqueous fructose. For BPA in water, the absorption band due to the B-O stretching of trigonal boron was observed, while that of tetrahedral boron was observed for BPA in aqueous oxalic acid. This means BPA forms a complex of tetrahedral boron with oxalate. It was proved that BPA also formed complexes of tetrahedral boron with citric acid as well as with fructose. No appreciable interaction was detected between BPA and maleic acid. (author)

  14. Variation of the energy release rate as a crack approaches and passes through an elastic inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongshun; Chudnovsky, A.

    1993-01-01

    The variation of the energy release rate (ERP) at the tip of a crack penetrating an elastic inclusion is analyzed using an approach involving modeling the random array of microcracks or other defects by an elastic inclusion with effective elastic properties. Computations are carried out using a finite element procedure. The eight-noded isoparametric serendipity element with the shift of the midpoint to the quarter-point is used to simulate the singularity at the crack tip, and the crack growth is accommodated by implementing a mesh regeneration technique. The ERP values were calculated for various crack tip positions which simulate the process of the crack approaching and penetrating the inclusion.

  15. State of the art of parallel scientific visualization applications on PC clusters; Etat de l'art des applications de visualisation scientifique paralleles sur grappes de PC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juliachs, M

    2004-07-01

    In this state of the art on parallel scientific visualization applications on PC clusters, we deal with both surface and volume rendering approaches. We first analyze available PC cluster configurations and existing parallel rendering software components for parallel graphics rendering. CEA/DIF has been studying cluster visualization since 2001. This report is part of a study to set up a new visualization research platform. This platform consisting of an eight-node PC cluster under Linux and a tiled display was installed in collaboration with Versailles-Saint-Quentin University in August 2003. (author)

  16. State of the art of parallel scientific visualization applications on PC clusters; Etat de l'art des applications de visualisation scientifique paralleles sur grappes de PC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juliachs, M

    2004-07-01

    In this state of the art on parallel scientific visualization applications on PC clusters, we deal with both surface and volume rendering approaches. We first analyze available PC cluster configurations and existing parallel rendering software components for parallel graphics rendering. CEA/DIF has been studying cluster visualization since 2001. This report is part of a study to set up a new visualization research platform. This platform consisting of an eight-node PC cluster under Linux and a tiled display was installed in collaboration with Versailles-Saint-Quentin University in August 2003. (author)

  17. State of the art of parallel scientific visualization applications on PC clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliachs, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this state of the art on parallel scientific visualization applications on PC clusters, we deal with both surface and volume rendering approaches. We first analyze available PC cluster configurations and existing parallel rendering software components for parallel graphics rendering. CEA/DIF has been studying cluster visualization since 2001. This report is part of a study to set up a new visualization research platform. This platform consisting of an eight-node PC cluster under Linux and a tiled display was installed in collaboration with Versailles-Saint-Quentin University in August 2003. (author)

  18. Study on Destructuring effect of trehalose on water by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branca, C.; Maisano, G.; Migliardo, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFM, Universita' di Messina, PO Box 55, 98166 Messina (Italy); Magazu' , V. [Facolta di Ingeeneria, Universita' di Messina, 98166 Messina (Italy); Soper, A.K. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    In this work results on trehalose/water solutions by neutron diffraction are reported. The study of the partial structure factors and spatial distribution functions gives evidence of a decreasing tetrahedrality degree of water and justifies its cryoprotectant effectiveness. (orig.)

  19. Ultra-Tuning of the Rare-Earth fcu-MOF Aperture Size for Selective Molecular Exclusion of Branched Paraffins

    KAUST Repository

    Assen, Ayalew Hussen Assen; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Adil, Karim; Bhatt, Prashant; Xue, Dongxu; Jiang, Hao; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    , namely fumarate, to bridge the 12-connected RE hexanuclear clusters has afforded the contraction of the well-defined RE-fcu-MOF triangular window aperture, the sole access to the two interconnected octahedral and tetrahedral cages. The newly constructed

  20. Interactive volume visualization of general polyhedral grids

    KAUST Repository

    Muigg, Philipp; Hadwiger, Markus; Doleisch, Helmut; Grö ller, Eduard M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel framework for visualizing volumetric data specified on complex polyhedral grids, without the need to perform any kind of a priori tetrahedralization. These grids are composed of polyhedra that often are non

  1. Study on Destructuring effect of trehalose on water by neutron diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Branca, C; Migliardo, F; Magazù, V; Soper, A K

    2002-01-01

    In this work results on trehalose/water solutions by neutron diffraction are reported. The study of the partial structure factors and spatial distribution functions gives evidence of a decreasing tetrahedrality degree of water and justifies its cryoprotectant effectiveness. (orig.)

  2. NEW THIO S2- ADDUCTS WITH ANTIMONY (III AND V HALIDE: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN ALLOUCH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Five new S2- adducts with SbIII and SbV halides have been synthesized and studied by infrared. Discrete structures have been suggested, the environment around the antimony being tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramidal or octahedral.

  3. Study of hydrogen implanted in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugeat, J.P.; Chami, A.C.; Danielou, R.; Ligeon, E.

    1976-01-01

    An aluminium sample was implanted with deuterium and hydrogen at 5keV and 10keV respectively. The 1 H( 11 B,α) 8 Be* and D( 3 He,p) 4 He reactions were used for the analysis of H and D respectively. The implanted deuterium was shown to be as a whole in a tetrahedral site as far as the implantation temperature is lower than 175K, beyond that temperature the deuterium is randomly located. When the implantation temperature increases from 33K up to 275K the tetrahedral siting remains during annealing. The migration temperatures of hydrogen (or temperature of transition from the tetrahedral siting to a random distribution) experimentally observed during annealing (300K) and for increased implantation temperatures, show that the tetrahedral site is associated with a monovacancy migrating at 300K, the diffusion temperature of hydrogen being lower than 180K [fr

  4. The logics behind isomorphous substitution in molecular sieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastore, Heloise de O.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of an ideal molecular sieve framework as being ionic and having all its components in a tetrahedral configuration is reconsidered based on the weath of compositions/structures now available. (author)

  5. Fundamentals of semiconductors physics and materials properties

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Peter Y

    2005-01-01

    Provides detailed explanations of the electronic, vibrational, transport, and optical properties of semiconductors. This textbook emphasizes understanding the physical properties of Si and similar tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors and features an extensive collection of tables of material parameters, figures, and problems.

  6. Focused Application Software for Ferrite Patch Antennas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trott, Keith

    1999-01-01

    ... (brick and tetrahedral elements) are combined by MRC via a graphical user interface (GUI) into a user friendly code capable of modeling conformal antennas with ferrite sub and superstrates recessed in planar surfaces.

  7. optimised intake stroke analysis for flat and dome head pistons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The piston models were meshed using tetrahedral mesh of base size 0.001m. ... applied to simulate the actual intake stroke process for normal operating conditions and initial conditions. ... simulation of optimization characteristics has followed.

  8. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chemical ideas makes possible extensive new engineering developments (2),. À much ... to two questions which we sometimes ask 18-year old students applying for ... postulate of tetrahedral methane before the advent of physcial methods.

  9. THE SYSTEMIC APPROACH TO TEACHING AND LEARNING:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rita Wilkinson

    central carbon. ... tetrahedral placement of the bonds around the central carbon. ... Remove the concealed lone pair on the central atom by retracting your opposable ... Sulfur dioxide: Central Atom Sulfur; Two bonding pairs and one lone pair.

  10. High-Order Curvilinear Finite Element Methods for Lagrangian Hydrodynamics [High Order Curvilinear Finite Elements for Lagrangian Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrev, Veselin A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kolev, Tzanio V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rieben, Robert N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-09-20

    -grid hydrodynamics (SGH) approach and we show that under specific low-order assumptions, we exactly recover the classical SGH method. We also present numerical results from an extensive series of verification tests that demonstrate several important practical advantages of using high-order finite elements in this context.

  11. Development of efficient finite elements for structural integrity analysis of solid rocket motor propellant grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marimuthu, R.; Nageswara Rao, B.

    2013-01-01

    Solid propellant rocket motors (SRM) are regularly used in the satellite launch vehicles which consist of mainly three different structural materials viz., solid propellant, liner, and casing materials. It is essential to assess the structural integrity of solid propellant grains under the specified gravity, thermal and pressure loading conditions. For this purpose finite elements developed following the Herrmann formulation are: twenty node brick element (BH20), eight node quadrilateral plane strain element (PH8) and, eight node axi-symmetric solid of revolution element (AH8). The time-dependent nature of the solid propellant grains is taken into account utilizing the direct inverse method of Schepary to specify the effective Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. The developed elements are tested considering various problems prior to implementation in the in-house software package (viz., Finite Element Analysis of STructures, FEAST). Several SRM configurations are analyzed to assess the structural integrity under different loading conditions. Finite element analysis results are found to be in good agreement with those obtained earlier from MARC software. -- Highlights: • Developed efficient Herrmann elements. • Accuracy of finite elements demonstrated solving several known solution problems. • Time dependent structural response obtained using the direct inverse method of Schepary. • Performed structural analysis of grains under gravity, thermal and pressure loads

  12. Linear Discontinuous Expansion Method using the Subcell Balances for Unstructured Geometry SN Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Ser Gi; Kim, Jong Woon; Lee, Young Ouk; Kim, Kyo Youn

    2010-01-01

    The subcell balance methods have been developed for one- and two-dimensional SN transport calculations. In this paper, a linear discontinuous expansion method using sub-cell balances (LDEM-SCB) is developed for neutral particle S N transport calculations in 3D unstructured geometrical problems. At present, this method is applied to the tetrahedral meshes. As the name means, this method assumes the linear distribution of the particle flux in each tetrahedral mesh and uses the balance equations for four sub-cells of each tetrahedral mesh to obtain the equations for the four sub-cell average fluxes which are unknowns. This method was implemented in the computer code MUST (Multi-group Unstructured geometry S N Transport). The numerical tests show that this method gives more robust solution than DFEM (Discontinuous Finite Element Method)

  13. Van der Waals epitaxial growth of MoS2 on SiO2/Si by chemical vapor deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2013-01-01

    Recently, single layer MoS2 with a direct band gap of 1.9 eV has been proposed as a candidate for two dimensional nanoelectronic devices. However, the synthetic approach to obtain high-quality MoS2 atomic thin layers is still problematic. Spectroscopic and microscopic results reveal that both single layers and tetrahedral clusters of MoS2 are deposited directly on the SiO2/Si substrate by chemical vapor deposition. The tetrahedral clusters are mixtures of 2H- and 3R-MoS2. By ex situ optical analysis, both the single layers and tetrahedral clusters can be attributed to van der Waals epitaxial growth. Due to the similar layered structures we expect the same growth mechanism for other transition-metal disulfides by chemical vapor deposition. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in niobium and tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, P.; Miranda, L.; Lagos, M.

    1988-08-01

    We show that the current data on hydrogen diffusion in Tantalum between 15K and 550K and in Niobium between 135K and 400K can be quantitatively explained by the small polaron theory. The experimental data can be understood assuming ground-state to ground-state tunneling between interstitial sites with tetrahedral symmetry plus an activated contribution due to tunneling between excited states having octahedral symmetry. The break of the diffusivity curve at T approx. = 250K follows naturally. It evidences the transition between the tetrahedral and octahedral hopping. For Ta the second break of the diffusivity curve at T approx. = 20K indicated the recovering of the ground-state hopping with tetrahedral symmetry. Below T approx. = 10K for Ta and T approx. = 7K for Nb the diffusion coefficient becomes independent of T. (author). 17 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  15. Mesoporous titanium phosphate molecular sieves with ion-exchange capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, A; Inagaki, S

    2001-01-31

    Novel open framework molecular sieves, titanium(IV) phosphates named, i.e., TCM-7 and -8 (Toyota Composite Materials, numbers 7 and 8), with new mesoporous cationic framework topologies obtained by using both cationic and anionic surfactants are reported. The (31)P MAS NMR, UV-visible absorption, and XANES data suggest the tetrahedral state of P and Ti, and stabilization of the tetrahedral state of Ti in TCM-7/8 is due to the incorporation of phosphorus (at Ti/P = 1:1) vis-à-vis the most stable octahedral state of Ti in the pure mesoporous TiO(2). Mesoporous TCM-7 and -8 show anion exchange capacity due to the framework phosphonium cation and cation exchange capacity due to defective P-OH groups. The high catalytic activity in the liquid-phase partial oxidation of cyclohexene with a dilute H(2)O(2) oxidant supports the tetrahedral coordination of Ti in these materials.

  16. Order-disorder transition in the complex lithium spinel Li2CoTi3O8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, Nik; Pasero, Denis; West, Anthony R.

    2007-01-01

    Li 2 CoTi 3 O 8 has an ordered Li 2 BB' 3 O 8 spinel structure, space group P4 3 32, at room temperature with 3:1 ordering of Ti and Li on the octahedral sites, and Li, Co disordered over the tetrahedral site. Rietveld refinement of variable temperature neutron powder diffraction data has shown an order-disorder phase transition in Li 2 CoTi 3 O 8 which commences at ∼500 deg. C with Li and Co mixing on the tetrahedral and 4-fold octahedral sites and is complete at a first order structural discontinuity at ∼915 deg. C. The fraction of Ti on the 12-fold octahedral site exhibits a small decrease with increasing temperature, which may suggest that the disordering involves all three cations. Above 930 deg. C, the structure, space group Fd3-barm, has Li, Co and Ti sharing a single-octahedral site and Li, Co sharing a tetrahedral site, although Co still exhibits a preference for tetrahedral coordination. A labelling scheme for ordered and partially ordered 3:1 spinels is devised which focuses on the occupancy of the Li,B cations. - Graphical abstract: Rietveld refinement of variable temperature neutron powder diffraction data shows an order-disorder phase transition in Li 2 CoTi 3 O 8 commencing at ∼500 deg. C with Li,Co mixing on tetrahedral and octahedral sites. This becomes complete at a first-order structural discontinuity at ∼915 deg. C. Above 930 deg. C, the structure, space group Fd3-barm, has Li, Co and Ti sharing a single-octahedral site and Li, Co sharing a tetrahedral site

  17. Ultrafast dynamics of two copper bis-phenanthroline complexes measured by x-ray transient absorption spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelley, Matthew S.; Shelby, Megan L.; Mara, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    have the general formula [Cu(I)(R)2]+, where R = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dmp) and 2,9-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline disulfonic acid disodium salt (dpps). [Cu(I)(dmp)2]+ has methyl groups at the 2,9 positions of phenanthroline (phen) and adopts a pseudo-tetrahedral geometry. In contrast, [Cu......(I)(dpps)2]+ possesses two bulky phenyl-sulfonate groups attached to each phen ligand that force the molecule to adopt a flattened tetrahedral geometry in the ground state. Previously, optical transient absorption (OTA) and synchrotron based XTA experiments with 100 ps time resolution have been employed...

  18. ALI (Autonomous Lunar Investigator): Revolutionary Approach to Exploring the Moon with Addressable Reconfigurable Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Curtis, S. A.; Rilee, M. L.; Floyd, S. R.

    2005-01-01

    Addressable Reconfigurable Technology (ART) based structures: Mission Concepts based on Addressable Reconfigurable Technology (ART), originally studied for future ANTS (Autonomous Nanotechnology Swarm) Space Architectures, are now being developed as rovers for nearer term use in lunar and planetary surface exploration. The architecture is based on the reconfigurable tetrahedron as a building block. Tetrahedra are combined to form space-filling networks, shaped for the required function. Basic structural components are highly modular, addressable arrays of robust nodes (tetrahedral apices) from which highly reconfigurable struts (tetrahedral edges), acting as supports or tethers, are efficiently reversibly deployed/stowed, transforming and reshaping the structures as required.

  19. A possible mechanism of ultrafast amorphization in phase-change memory alloys: an ion slingshot from the crystalline to amorphous position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolobov, A V; Mishchenko, A S; Fons, P; Yakubenya, S M; Tominaga, J

    2007-01-01

    We propose that the driving force of the ultrafast crystalline-to-amorphous transition in phase-change memory alloys is caused by strained bonds existing in the (metastable) crystalline phase. For the prototypical example of Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 , we demonstrate that upon breaking of the longer Ge-Te bond by photoexcitation, a Ge ion is shot from an octahedral crystalline to a tetrahedral amorphous position by the uncompensated force of strained short bonds. Subsequent lattice relaxation stabilizes the tetrahedral surroundings of the Ge atoms and ensures the long-term stability of the optically induced phase

  20. Chemical states of piled-up phosphorus and arsenic atoms at the SiO2/Si interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Yusuke; Ono, Kanta; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Shinjiro; Sato, Yoshiyuki; Uematsu, Masashi; Baba, Yuji; Hirose, Kazuyuki; Oshima, Masaharu

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the positions of the piled-up phosphorus atoms at the SiO 2 /Si interface using the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The EXAFS and XPS data can be well explained on the assumption that the piled-up arsenic atoms exist at the tetrahedral sites. On the contrary, phosphorus atoms exist not at the tetrahedral sites but at the denser sites. The depth profile measurements of XPS have revealed that the piled-up arsenic and phosphorus atoms exist within 20A from the interface. (author)

  1. TET_2MCNP: A conversion program to implement tetrahearal-mesh models in MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Min Cheol; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Nguyen, Thng Tat; Choi, Chan Soo; Lee, Hyun Su; Kim, Chan Hyeong

    2016-01-01

    Tetrahedral-mesh geometries can be used in the MCNP code, but the MCNP code accepts only the geometry in the Abaqus input file format; hence, the existing tetrahedral-mesh models first need to be converted to the Abacus input file format to be used in the MCNP code. In the present study, we developed a simple but useful computer program, TET_2MCNP, for converting TetGen-generated tetrahedral-mesh models to the Abacus input file format. TET_2MCNP is written in C++ and contains two components: one for converting a TetGen output file to the Abacus input file and the other for the reverse conversion process. The TET_2MCP program also produces an MCNP input file. Further, the program provides some MCNP-specific functions: the maximum number of elements (i.e., tetrahedrons) per part can be limited, and the material density of each element can be transferred to the MCNP input file. To test the developed program, two tetrahedral-mesh models were generated using TetGen and converted to the Abaqus input file format using TET_2MCNP. Subsequently, the converted files were used in the MCNP code to calculate the object- and organ-averaged absorbed dose in the sphere and phantom, respectively. The results show that the converted models provide, within statistical uncertainties, identical dose values to those obtained using the PHITS code, which uses the original tetrahedral-mesh models produced by the TetGen program. The results show that the developed program can successfully convert TetGen tetrahedral-mesh models to Abacus input files. In the present study, we have developed a computer program, TET_2MCNP, which can be used to convert TetGen-generated tetrahedral-mesh models to the Abaqus input file format for use in the MCNP code. We believe this program will be used by many MCNP users for implementing complex tetrahedral-mesh models, including computational human phantoms, in the MCNP code

  2. Quantum chemical study of penicillin: Reactions after acylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Feng, Dacheng; Zhu, Feng

    The density functional theory methods were used on the model molecules of penicillin to determine the possible reactions after their acylation on ?-lactamase, and the results were compared with sulbactam we have studied. The results show that, the acylated-enzyme tetrahedral intermediate can evolves with opening of ?-lactam ring as well as the thiazole ring; the thiazole ring-open products may be formed via ?-lactam ring-open product or from tetrahedral intermediate directly. Those products, in imine or enamine form, can tautomerize via hydrogen migration. In virtue of the water-assisted, their energy barriers are obviously reduced.

  3. Muonium hyperfine parameters in Si1-x Ge x alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Philip; Lichti, Roger; Cottrell, Stephen; Yonenaga, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    We present studies of muonium behaviour in bulk, Czochralski-grown Si 1- x Ge x alloy material, focusing in particular on the hyperfine parameter of the tetrahedral muonium species. In contrast to the bond-centred species, the hyperfine parameter of the tetrahedral-site muonium centre (Mu T ) appears to vary non-linearly with alloy composition. The temperature dependence of the Mu T hyperfine parameter observed in low-Ge alloy material is compared with that seen in pure Si, and previous models of the Mu T behaviour in Si are discussed in the light of results from Si 1- x Ge x alloys

  4. Identification of the interstitial Mn site in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2093111; Wahl, Ulrich; Augustyns, Valerie; Silva, Daniel; Granadeiro Costa, Angelo Rafael; Houben, K; Edmonds, Kevin W; Gallagher, BL; Campion, RP; Van Bael, MJ; Castro Ribeiro Da Silva, Manuel; Martins Correia, Joao; Esteves De Araujo, Araujo Joao Pedro; Temst, Kristiaan; Vantomme, André; Da Costa Pereira, Lino Miguel

    2015-01-01

    We determined the lattice location of Mn in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As using the electron emission channeling technique. We show that interstitial Mn occupies the tetrahedral site with As nearest neighbors (TAs) both before and after thermal annealing at 200 °C, whereas the occupancy of the tetrahedral site with Ga nearest neighbors (TGa) is negligible. TAs is therefore the energetically favorable site for interstitial Mn in isolated form as well as when forming complexes with substitutional Mn. These results shed new light on the long standing controversy regarding TAs versus TGa occupancy of interstitial Mn in (Ga,Mn)As.

  5. Symmetries of the octonionic root system of E8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koca, M.

    1990-09-01

    Octonionic root system of E 8 is decomposed as the 9 sets of Hurwitz integers, each set satisfying the binary tetrahedral group structure, and the 12 sets of quaternionic units, each set obeying the dicyclic group structure of order 12. This fact is used to prove that the automorphism group of the octonionic root system of E 7 is the finite subgroup of G 2 , of order 12096; an explicit 7 x 7 matrix realization of which is constructed. Possible use of the octonionic representation of the E 6 root system as orbifolds and the relevance of the binary tetrahedral structures with the statistical mechanics models are suggested. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs

  6. TET{sub 2}MCNP: A conversion program to implement tetrahearal-mesh models in MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Min Cheol; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Nguyen, Thng Tat; Choi, Chan Soo; Lee, Hyun Su; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Tetrahedral-mesh geometries can be used in the MCNP code, but the MCNP code accepts only the geometry in the Abaqus input file format; hence, the existing tetrahedral-mesh models first need to be converted to the Abacus input file format to be used in the MCNP code. In the present study, we developed a simple but useful computer program, TET{sub 2}MCNP, for converting TetGen-generated tetrahedral-mesh models to the Abacus input file format. TET{sub 2}MCNP is written in C++ and contains two components: one for converting a TetGen output file to the Abacus input file and the other for the reverse conversion process. The TET{sub 2}MCP program also produces an MCNP input file. Further, the program provides some MCNP-specific functions: the maximum number of elements (i.e., tetrahedrons) per part can be limited, and the material density of each element can be transferred to the MCNP input file. To test the developed program, two tetrahedral-mesh models were generated using TetGen and converted to the Abaqus input file format using TET{sub 2}MCNP. Subsequently, the converted files were used in the MCNP code to calculate the object- and organ-averaged absorbed dose in the sphere and phantom, respectively. The results show that the converted models provide, within statistical uncertainties, identical dose values to those obtained using the PHITS code, which uses the original tetrahedral-mesh models produced by the TetGen program. The results show that the developed program can successfully convert TetGen tetrahedral-mesh models to Abacus input files. In the present study, we have developed a computer program, TET{sub 2}MCNP, which can be used to convert TetGen-generated tetrahedral-mesh models to the Abaqus input file format for use in the MCNP code. We believe this program will be used by many MCNP users for implementing complex tetrahedral-mesh models, including computational human phantoms, in the MCNP code.

  7. Compressibility and thermal expansion of cubic silicon nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Lindelov, H.; Gerward, Leif

    2002-01-01

    The compressibility and thermal expansion of the cubic silicon nitride (c-Si3N4) phase have been investigated by performing in situ x-ray powder-diffraction measurements using synchrotron radiation, complemented with computer simulations by means of first-principles calculations. The bulk...... compressibility of the c-Si3N4 phase originates from the average of both Si-N tetrahedral and octahedral compressibilities where the octahedral polyhedra are less compressible than the tetrahedral ones. The origin of the unit cell expansion is revealed to be due to the increase of the octahedral Si-N and N-N bond...

  8. Free vibration of laminated composite stiffened hyperbolic paraboloid shell panel with cutout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sarmila

    2016-08-01

    Composite shell structures are extensively used in aerospace, civil, marine and other engineering applications. In practical civil engineering applications, the necessity of covering large column free open areas is often an issue and hyperbolic paraboloid shells are used as roofing units. Quite often, to save weight and also to provide a facility for inspection, cutouts are provided in shell panels. The paper considers free vibration characteristics of stiffened composite hyperbolic paraboloid shell panel with cutout in terms of natural frequency and mode shapes. A finite element code is developed for the purpose by combining an eight noded curved shell element with a three noded curved beam element. The size of the cutouts and their positions with respect to the shell centre are varied for different edge conditions to arrive at a set of inferences of practical engineering significances.

  9. A comparative study on free vibration analysis of delaminated torsion stiff and bending stiff composite shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Sudip; Karmakar, Amit

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a finite element method to compare the effects of delamination on free vibration of graphite-epoxy bending stiff and torsion stiff composite pretwisted shallow conical shells. The generalized dynamic equilibrium equation is derived from Lagrange's equation of motion neglecting the Coriolis effect for moderate rotational speeds. An eight noded isoparametric plate bending element is employed incorporating rotary inertia and effects of transverse shear deformation based on Mindlin's theory. The multipoint constraint; algorithm is utilized to ensure the compatibility of deformation and equilibrium of resultant forces and moments at the delamination crack front. The standard eigen value problem is solved by applying the QR iteration algorithm. Mode shapes for typical configurations are also depicted. Numerical results obtained are the first known non-dimensional frequencies which could serve as reference solutions for the future investigators.

  10. Time dependent response of low velocity impact induced composite conical shells under multiple delamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Sudip; Karmakar, Amit

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the time dependent response of multiple delaminated angle-ply composite pretwisted conical shells subjected to low velocity normal impact. The finite element formulation is based on Mindlin's theory incorporating rotary inertia and effects of transverse shear deformation. An eight-noded isoparametric plate bending element is employed to satisfy the compatibility of deformation and equilibrium of resultant forces and moments at the delamination crack front. A multipoint constraint algorithm is incorporated which leads to asymmetric stiffness matrices. The modified Hertzian contact law which accounts for permanent indentation is utilized to compute the contact force, and the time dependent equations are solved by Newmark's time integration algorithm. Parametric studies are conducted with respect to triggering parameters like laminate configuration, location of delamination, angle of twist, velocity of impactor, and impactor's displacement for centrally impacted shells.

  11. A layered shell containing patches of piezoelectric fibers and interdigitated electrodes: Finite element modeling and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bjerregaard; Nielsen, Martin S.; Santos, Ilmar

    2017-01-01

    The work gives a theoretical and experimental contribution to the problem of smart materials connected to double curved flexible shells. In the theoretical part the finite element modeling of a double curved flexible shell with a piezoelectric fiber patch with interdigitated electrodes (IDEs......) is presented. The developed element is based on a purely mechanical eight-node isoparametric layered element for a double curved shell, utilizing first-order shear deformation theory. The electromechanical coupling of piezoelectric material is added to all elements, but can also be excluded by setting...... the piezoelectric material properties to zero. The electrical field applied via the IDEs is aligned with the piezoelectric fibers, and hence the direct d33 piezoelectric constant is utilized for the electromechanical coupling. The dynamic performance of a shell with a microfiber composite (MFC) patch...

  12. Soil Structure Interaction for Integral Abutment Bridge Using Spring Analogy Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thanoon, W A; Abdulrazeg, A A; Jaafar, M S; Kohnehpooshi, O; Noorzaei, J

    2011-01-01

    The reaction of the backfill behind the abutments and adjacent to the piles plays a significant role in the behavior of the Integral bridge. The handling of soil-structure interaction in the analysis and design of integral abutment bridges has always been problematic due to its complexity. This study describes the implementation of a 2-D finite element model of IAB system which explicitly incorporates the soil response. The superstructure members and the pile have been represented by means of three-node isoperimetric beam elements with three degree of freedom per node. The Eight node isoperimetric quadrilateral element has been used to model the abutment. The backfill was idealized by uncoupled 'Winkler' spring. The applic1ability of this model is demonstrated by analyzing a single span IA bridge. The results have shown that the shear forces at the tops of the supported piles were only 12% to 16% of the load which at the top of abutment.

  13. Soil Structure Interaction for Integral Abutment Bridge Using Spring Analogy Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanoon, W A [Faculty Engineering, Nizwa University (Oman); Abdulrazeg, A A; Jaafar, M S; Kohnehpooshi, O [Department of Civil Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Noorzaei, J, E-mail: jamal@eng.upm.edu.my [Institute of Advance Technology, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    The reaction of the backfill behind the abutments and adjacent to the piles plays a significant role in the behavior of the Integral bridge. The handling of soil-structure interaction in the analysis and design of integral abutment bridges has always been problematic due to its complexity. This study describes the implementation of a 2-D finite element model of IAB system which explicitly incorporates the soil response. The superstructure members and the pile have been represented by means of three-node isoperimetric beam elements with three degree of freedom per node. The Eight node isoperimetric quadrilateral element has been used to model the abutment. The backfill was idealized by uncoupled 'Winkler' spring. The applic1ability of this model is demonstrated by analyzing a single span IA bridge. The results have shown that the shear forces at the tops of the supported piles were only 12% to 16% of the load which at the top of abutment.

  14. JAC3D -- A three-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffle, J.H.

    1993-02-01

    JAC3D is a three-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equation. The method is implemented in a three-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. An eight-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic-plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere.

  15. Free vibration of laminated composite stiffened hyperbolic paraboloid shell panel with cutout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Sarmila

    2016-01-01

    Composite shell structures are extensively used in aerospace, civil, marine and other engineering applications. In practical civil engineering applications, the necessity of covering large column free open areas is often an issue and hyperbolic paraboloid shells are used as roofing units. Quite often, to save weight and also to provide a facility for inspection, cutouts are provided in shell panels. The paper considers free vibration characteristics of stiffened composite hyperbolic paraboloid shell panel with cutout in terms of natural frequency and mode shapes. A finite element code is developed for the purpose by combining an eight noded curved shell element with a three noded curved beam element. The size of the cutouts and their positions with respect to the shell centre are varied for different edge conditions to arrive at a set of inferences of practical engineering significances. (paper)

  16. Development of a neural network technique for KSTAR Thomson scattering diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hun, E-mail: leesh81@nfri.re.kr; Lee, J. H. [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Yamada, I. [National Institute Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Park, Jae Sun [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Neural networks provide powerful approaches of dealing with nonlinear data and have been successfully applied to fusion plasma diagnostics and control systems. Controlling tokamak plasmas in real time is essential to measure the plasma parameters in situ. However, the χ{sup 2} method traditionally used in Thomson scattering diagnostics hampers real-time measurement due to the complexity of the calculations involved. In this study, we applied a neural network approach to Thomson scattering diagnostics in order to calculate the electron temperature, comparing the results to those obtained with the χ{sup 2} method. The best results were obtained for 10{sup 3} training cycles and eight nodes in the hidden layer. Our neural network approach shows good agreement with the χ{sup 2} method and performs the calculation twenty times faster.

  17. Thermal stress analysis of the fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.W.

    1991-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a nonlinear finite-element analysis to determine the structural integrity of the walls of the nuclear fuel storage room in the Radio Isotope Power System Facility of the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) Project. The analysis was performed to assess the effects of thermal loading on the walls that would result from a loss-of-cooling accident. The results obtained from using the same three-dimensional finite-element model with different types of elements, the eight-node brick element and the nonlinear concrete element, and the calculated results using the analytical solutions, are compared. The concrete responses in terms of octahedral normal and shearing stresses are described. The crack and crush states of the concrete were determined on the basis of multiaxial failure criteria

  18. Analysis of interlaminar stresses in symmetric and unsymmetric laminates under various loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, C. A.; Chan, W. S.

    1993-04-01

    A quasi-three-dimensional finite-element model is developed to investigate the interlaminar stresses in a composite laminate under combined loadings. An isoparametric quadrilateral element with eight nodes and three degrees of freedom per node is the finite element used in this study. The element is used to model a composite laminate cross section loaded by tension, torsion, transverse shear, and both beam and chord bending which are representative of loading in a helicopter rotor system. Symmetric and unsymmetric laminates are examined with comparisons made between the interlaminar stress distributions and magnitudes for each laminate. Unsymmetric results are compared favorably to limited results found in literature. The unsymmetric interlaminar normal stress distribution in a symmetric laminate containing a free edge delamination is also examined.

  19. Performance analysis of smart laminated composite plate integrated with distributed AFC material undergoing geometrically nonlinear transient vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, J.; Ashok, M. H.; Khadakbhavi, Vishwanath; Pujari, Sanjay; Nandurkar, Santosh

    2018-02-01

    The present work focuses on geometrically nonlinear transient analysis of laminated smart composite plates integrated with the patches of Active fiber composites (AFC) using Active constrained layer damping (ACLD) as the distributed actuators. The analysis has been carried out using generalised energy based finite element model. The coupled electromechanical finite element model is derived using Von Karman type nonlinear strain displacement relations and a first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). Eight-node iso-parametric serendipity elements are used for discretization of the overall plate integrated with AFC patch material. The viscoelastic constrained layer is modelled using GHM method. The numerical results shows the improvement in the active damping characteristics of the laminated composite plates over the passive damping for suppressing the geometrically nonlinear transient vibrations of laminated composite plates with AFC as patch material.

  20. JAC3D -- A three-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biffle, J.H.

    1993-02-01

    JAC3D is a three-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equation. The method is implemented in a three-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. An eight-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic-plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere

  1. 1 SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION A novel zinc(II) complex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BİLGİSAYAR

    1. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. A novel zinc(II) complex containing square pyramidal, octahedral and tetrahedral geometries on the same polymeric chain constructed from pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid and 1-vinylimidazole. HAKAN YILMAZ* and OMER ANDAC. Department of Chemistry, Ondokuz Mayis University, ...

  2. Inertial confinement fusion quarterly report, October-December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, J.

    1997-01-01

    The articles in this issue report progress on: Supernova Hydrodynamics Experiments on the Nova Laser; Characterization of Laser-Driven Shock Waves Using Interferometry; Absolute Equation of State Measurements of Compressed Liquid Deuterium Using Nova; Low-Density-Foam Shells; Tetrahedral Hohlraums; The Rosseland Mean Opacity of a Composite Material at High Temperatures.

  3. Neutron diffraction studies on Ca1−xBaxZr4P6O24 solid solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NZP bears special attention for disposal of nuclear waste materials as a significant extent of diversified chemical elements that can be accommodated in the lattice. [2]. The NZP crystallizes in a rhombohedral lattice (space group R-3c) formed by linking ZrO6 octahedral and PO4 tetrahedral units [3]. The Na atom occupies ...

  4. Structural transition in alcohol–water binary mixtures: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Abstract. The strengthening of the hydrogen bonding (H-bond) network as well as transition from the tetrahedral-like water network to the zigzag chain structure of alcohol upon increasing the alcohol con- centration in ethanol–water and tertiary butanol (TBA) – water mixtures have been studied by using both steady state ...

  5. Structural variations in aromatic 2π-electron three-membered rings ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Isoelectronic replacement of a carbon of the ring by other group elements is expected to retain this description. Yet, experimental observations indicate dramatic variations that exist out- side the norms of carbon chemistry. The basic unit of tetrahedral tetracoordination of carbon is not followed among many heavier elements ...

  6. Origin of enhanced Brønsted acidity of NiF-modified synthetic mica-montmorillonite clay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Chong; Pidko, Evgeny A.; Hensen, Emiel J.M.

    2018-01-01

    The Brønsted acidity of synthetic mica-montmorillonite (SMM) clay was studied by periodic DFT calculations. Different structural models were compared to determine the Brønsted acidity of protons of the SMM clay based on (i) isomorphous substitution of Si4+ by Al3+ in the tetrahedral silicate layer

  7. Highly porous ionic rht metal-organic framework for H2 and CO2 storage and separation: A molecular simulation study

    KAUST Repository

    Babarao, Ravichandar; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; JIANG, Jianwen

    2010-01-01

    adsorption occurs near the NO 3 - ions that act as preferential sites. With increasing pressure, H2 molecules occupy the tetrahedral and cuboctahedral cages and the intersection regions. The predicted isotherm of H2 at 77 K agrees well with the experimental

  8. Superconvergence phenomena on three-dimensional meshes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížek, Michal

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2005), s. 43-56 ISSN 1705-5105 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/04/1503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : linear and quadratic tetrahedral elements * acute partitions * Poisson equation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  9. Speciation and phase separation of water in quartz (A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By sp3-hybridization of electron bonds, the water molecule exhibits a tetrahedral charged structure, leading to various water point defects in the form of substitution of ... The formation of combined defect [SiO4]-H2O-M+ [M3+O4] upon water speciation (M+ is metallic ion), is an indication of the presence of hydrous species.

  10. Characterization of natural bentonite by NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Sidnei Q.M.; Dieguez, Lidia C.; Menezes, Sonia M.C.; San Gil, Rosane A.S.

    1993-01-01

    Solid state NMR as well as several other instrumental chemical analysis techniques were used in order to characterize two natural occurring bentonite. The methodology is described. The NMR spectra, together with the other used techniques suggest that the observed differences are due to iron inclusions in tetrahedral and octahedral sites

  11. The Total Synthesis of Chlorophyll

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    led to the porphyrin14, which when held at 110oC in AcOH afforded the purpurine 15. This is the first example of porphyrin → purpurin change. Indeed Woodward anticipated this because such a change not only makes 7 and 8 tetrahedral, but also relieves the strain around the lower bridge! As the next step, the CH. 2. CH.

  12. Structural and magnetic properties of nickel antimony ferrospinels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, S. A.; Tellgren, R.; Porcher, F.; Andre, G.; Ericsson, T.; Nordblad, P; Sadovskaya, N.; Kaleva, G.; Politova, E.; Baldini, M.; Sun, C.; Arvanitis, D.; Kumar, P. Anil; Mathieu, R.

    2015-05-05

    Spinel-type compounds of Fe–Ni–Sb–O system were synthesized as polycrystalline powders. The crystal and magnetic properties were investigated using X-ray and neutron powder diffraction, Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. The samples crystallize in the cubic system, space group Fd – 3 m. The distribution of cations between octahedral and tetrahedral sites was refined from the diffraction data sets using constraints imposed by the magnetic, Mössbauer and EDS results and the ionic radii. The cation distribution and the temperature dependence of the lattice parameter (a) and the oxygen positional parameter (u) were obtained. A chemical formula close to Fe0.8Ni1.8Sb0.4O4 was determined, with Sb5+ cations occupying octahedral sites, and Fe3+ and Ni2+ occupying both tetrahedral and octahedral sites. Fe3+ mainly (85/15 ratio) occupy tetrahedral sites, and conversely Ni2+ mainly reside on octahedral ones. The magnetic unit cell is the same as the crystallographic one, having identical symmetry relations. The results indicate that the compounds have a collinear ferrimagnetic structure with antiferromagnetic coupling between the tetrahedral (A) and octahedral (B) sites. Uniquely, the temperature dependence of the net magnetization of this rare earth free ferrimagnet exhibits a compensation point.

  13. Multiphase flow of immiscible fluids on unstructured moving meshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Erleben, Kenny; Bargteil, Adam

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for animating multiphase flow of immiscible fluids using unstructured moving meshes. Our underlying discretization is an unstructured tetrahedral mesh, the deformable simplicial complex (DSC), that moves with the flow in a Lagrangian manner. Mesh optimization op...

  14. Fusion process of Lennard-Jones clusters: global minima and magic numbers formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Greiner, Walter

    2004-01-01

    We present a new theoretical framework for modeling the fusion process of Lennard–Jones (LJ) clusters. Starting from the initial tetrahedral cluster configuration, adding new atoms to the system and absorbing its energy at each step, we find cluster growing paths up to the cluster size of 150 atoms...

  15. The preferential retention of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Zhangjie; Yin, Hui; Wang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Qin; Lan, Shuai; Koopal, Luuk K.; Zheng, Lirong; Feng, Xionghan; Liu, Fan

    2018-01-01

    Zn is a common heavy metal in soils and sediments. In this study, the release behaviors of octahedral (VIZn) and tetrahedral (IVZn) Zn complexes on synthesized hexagonal birnessite were explored by solution chemistry method in combination with spectroscopic analysis. In acidic dissolution processes,

  16. Nonlinear finite-element analysis and biomechanical evaluation of the lumbar spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Christian; Gehrchen, P Martin; Darvann, Tron

    2003-01-01

    A finite-element analysis (FEA) model of an intact lumbar disc-body unit was generated. The vertebral body of the FEA model consisted of a solid tetrahedral core of trabecular bone surrounded by a cortical shell. The disc consisted of an incompressible nucleus surrounded by nonlinear annulus fibe...

  17. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance studies of phosphorus and boron in coals and combustion residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchill, P.; Howarth, O.W.; Richards, D.G.; Sword, B.J. (British Coal Corporation, Stoke Orchard (UK). Coal Research Establishment)

    1990-04-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with magic angle spinning (MAS-n.m.r.) was used to study the occurrence of phosphorus and boron in coal, and their fate on combustion. These elements are only minor components of coal, but may significantly influence the utilization properties. {sup 31} P MAS-n.m.r. spectroscopy has confirmed that phosphorus is present in coal predominantly as apatite. This mineral is thermally stable under oxidizing conditions, and survives largely unaltered in high temperature ashes. However, under the semi-reducing bed conditions of certain stoker-fired boilers, it may be decomposed, volatilizing the phosphorus. The {sup 31}P MAS-n.m.r. spectra of bonded deposits show phosphorus in a markedly different coordination environment to that in apatite, the chemical shift suggesting aluminium phosphate or boron phosphate. {sup 11}B MAS-n.m.r. spectra of coals exhibit resonances due to both trigonal and tetrahedrally coordinated boron. Trigonal boron is probably present as tourmaline, but the nature of the tetrahedral boron is less certain; it may be held in tetrahedral sites within certain clay minerals. In common with phosphorus, boron may be volatilized during combustion. The {sup 11}B MAS-n.m.r. spectra of bonded deposits show a tetrahedral resonance with a chemical shift quite consistent with that of boron phosphate. 39 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Are N-methyl groups of Tetramethylurea (TMU) Hydrophobic? A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of three dimensional tetrahedral H-bond network to two dimensional zig-zag chain-like structure often found in alcohols. A comparison to ... All these results indicate hydrophobic interaction-induced aggregation of TMU in dilute aqueous solutions which .... off by gently blowing hot air around the outer surface of the cuvette.

  19. High pressure effect on MoS2 and MoSe2 single crystals grown by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    tetrahedral anvil apparatus up to 5 GPa. In this paper we report room temperature resistance mea- surements as a function of pressure on MoS2 and MoSe2 single crystals. In each case the resistance decreases un- der pressure due to an increase in the carrier concentration. 2. Experimental. Single crystals of MoS2 and ...

  20. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, a novel tetrahedral molecule TPPY was successfully designed and synthesized. The self-assembly of TPPY with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in toluene has also been investigated. The aggregation morphologies of Au NPs can be controlled to produce different aggregate structures by changing the ...

  1. Synthesis and Single Crystal X-Ray Structure Determination of 3,3',5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Single crystal structure determination at 100 K revealed needle-like crystals in an orthorhombic crystal system. The asymmetric unit of the cell consists of an isolated chloride ion, one half of a tetrahedral [MnCl4]2- anion, a [H2Me4bpz]2+ dication and one half of a molecule of water. Keywords: Crystal Engineering, Hydrogen ...

  2. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Article ID 32. A novel zinc(II) complex containing square pyramidal, octahedral and tetrahedral geometries on the same polymeric chain constructed from pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid and 1-vinylimidazole · HAKAN YILMAZ OMER ANDAC · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. In this study, a novel Zn(II) complex of ...

  3. Aluminium hydro(oxide)–based (AO) adsorbent for defluoridation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High resolution 27Al Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (27Al MAS NMR) spectra of AO, AA, and PB were recorded, to analyse the coordination geometry of solid Al species and the results showed that aluminium is coordinated octahedrally and tetrahedrally in all cases. Regeneration experiments showed ...

  4. Lattice location of Tm in Si and Ge determined from ion channeling followed by Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Wakaiki, M.; Ikeda, A.; Kido, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The lattice location of Tm implanted into Si(1 0 0) and Ge(1 1 1) with energy of 180 keV was determined precisely by ion channeling followed by Monte Carlo simulations of ion trajectories. The implantations were performed at 550 deg. C with a dose of 5 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 . In the case of Tm in Si, 25 at.% and 50 at.% of Tm are located in the tetrahedral interstitial site and in the random site, respectively and the rest takes the substitutional position. The assumption of the Gaussian distribution centered at the exact tetrahedral site with a standard deviation of 0.2 Angstroms reproduced the azimuth angular-scan spectrum around the [1 1 0] axis. However, the observed angular spectrum is significantly broader than the simulated one. This is probably due to the fact that there exist slightly different Tm lattice sites from the exact tetrahedral position. For Ge(1 1 1) substrates, 25 at.% of Tm occupied the tetrahedral interstitial site and the rest was located randomly

  5. Antimicrobial activity, DNA cleavage, thermal analysis data and crystal structure of some new CdLX.sub.2./sub. complexes: a supramolecular network

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Montazerozohori, M.; Nazaripour, A.; Masoudiasl, A.; Naghiha, R.; Dušek, Michal; Kučeráková, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, Oct (2015), s. 462-470 ISSN 0928-4931 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03276S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : cadmium(II) * Schiff base * supramolecular * antimicrobial * tetrahedral * x-ray Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.420, year: 2015

  6. The hydrogen interaction in an FCC FePd alloy with a vacancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardenghi, S [Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE), CC 67-Suc 28 (C1428ZAA) Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gonzalez, E; Jasen, P; Juan, A [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253 BahIa Blanca (8000) (Argentina)], E-mail: cajuan@uns.edu.ar

    2009-04-15

    The absorption of hydrogen in the ordered face-centered cubic FePd alloy is investigated using a density functional calculation method. Changes in the electronic structure and bonding after introducing an Fe or Pd vacancy are analysed. H locates close to a tetrahedral site and the H-metal bond is achieved at the expense of the interfacial Fe-Pd bond.

  7. Deprotonation induced ligand-to-metal electron transfer: Synthesis of a mixed-valence Rh(-I,I) dinuclear compound and its reaction with dioxygen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tejel, C.; Ciriano, M.A.; del Río, M.P.; van den Bruele, F.J.; Hetterscheid, D.G.H.; Tsichlis i Spithas, N.; de Bruin, B.

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of bis(2-picolyl)amine (bpa) with [{Rh(nbd)(mu-OMe))(2)] leads to unexpected and unique redox asymmetric dinuclear Rh-I, Rh+I complex [{Rh(ndb)}(2)(bpa-2H)] (2) with a pi-coordinating imine bound to a tetrahedral low valent rhodate(-I). Mono-oxygenation of the deprotonated bpa ligand in 2

  8. Lactam hydrolysis catalyzed by mononuclear metallo-ß-bactamases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars; Antony, J; Ryde, U

    2003-01-01

    Two central steps in the hydrolysis of lactam antibiotics catalyzed by mononuclear metallo-beta-lactamases, formation of the tetrahedral intermediate and its breakdown by proton transfer, are studied for model systems using the density functional B3LYP method. Metallo-beta-lactamases have two metal...

  9. Lactam hydrolysis catalyzed by mononuclear metallo-beta-lactamases: A density functional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Lars Bo Stegeager; Olsen, L.; Antony, J.

    2003-01-01

    Two central steps in the hydrolysis of lactam antibiotics catalyzed by mononuclear metallo-beta-lactamases, formation of the tetrahedral intermediate and its breakdown by proton transfer, are studied for model systems using the density functional B3LYP method. Metallo-beta-lactamases have two metal...

  10. demonstrating close-packing of atoms using spherical bubble gums

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    chemistry and junior inorganic chemistry courses. However, the subject of three dimen- sional close-packing of atoms has always been difficult for students to understand. In particular, students find it difficult to visualize the packing of atoms in different layers. They cannot clearly identify tetrahedral and octahedral holes, and.

  11. Structural and electronic properties of non-magnetic intermetallic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LAPW) method based on the density functional theory (DFT), within the generalized gradient approximation. (GGA). ... A class of compounds that has attracted a great attention in recent years is RETX, .... states (DOS) was determined by the tetrahedral integration ... The features of the occupied densities of states for both ...

  12. (μ-2,3-Dihydroxybutane-1,4-dithiolatobis[triphenyltin(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiping Li

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Sn2(C6H56(C4H8O2S2], the geometry around the Sn atoms is distorted tetrahedral. The hydroxy groups are involved in O—H...O hydrogen bonding, which connects molecules into centrosymmetric dimers.

  13. Mesoporous titanium phosphates and related molecular sieves ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    phosphate using a dilute H2O2 oxidant supports the tetrahedral coordination of Ti in ... production of H2 by photo-reduction of water under UV light irradiation. ... have been extensively studied and used as acid catalysts, adsorbents and ion ... mesoporous silica materials is also of outstanding interest because of their ...

  14. 2-[4-(Dimethylaminophenyl]-3,3-difluoro-3H-naphtho[1,2-e][1,3,2]oxazaborinin-2-ium-3-uide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Dziuk

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C19H17BF2N2O, a twist about the N—C single bond is observed, making the cross conjugation not as efficient as in the case of a planar structure. The borone complex has tetrahedral geometry. In the crystal, molecules are conected by weak C—H...F hydrogen bonds.

  15. On the time-stepping stability of continuous mass-lumped and discontinuous Galerkin finite elements for the 3D acoustic wave equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhebel, E.; Minisini, S.; Mulder, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    We solve the three-dimensional acoustic wave equation, discretized on tetrahedral meshes. Two methods are considered: mass-lumped continuous finite elements and the symmetric interior-penalty discontinuous Galerkin method (SIP-DG). Combining the spatial discretization with the leap-frog

  16. Efficient Computation of Casimir Interactions between Arbitrary 3D Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, M. T. Homer; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; White, Jacob; Johnson, Steven G.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce an efficient technique for computing Casimir energies and forces between objects of arbitrarily complex 3D geometries. In contrast to other recently developed methods, our technique easily handles nonspheroidal, nonaxisymmetric objects, and objects with sharp corners. Using our new technique, we obtain the first predictions of Casimir interactions in a number of experimentally relevant geometries, including crossed cylinders and tetrahedral nanoparticles.

  17. Characterization of natural bentonite by NMR; Caracterizacao de bentonitas naturais por ressonancia magnetica nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Sidnei Q.M.; Dieguez, Lidia C [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Menezes, Sonia M.C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; San Gil, Rosane A.S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1994-12-31

    Solid state NMR as well as several other instrumental chemical analysis techniques were used in order to characterize two natural occurring bentonite. The methodology is described. The NMR spectra, together with the other used techniques suggest that the observed differences are due to iron inclusions in tetrahedral and octahedral sites 5 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Inverse simulated annealing: Improvements and application to amorphous InSb

    OpenAIRE

    Los, Jan H.; Gabardi, Silvia; Bernasconi, Marco; Kühne, Thomas D.

    2014-01-01

    An improved inverse simulated annealing method is presented to determine the structure of complex disordered systems from first principles in agreement with available experimental data or desired predetermined target properties. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated by revisiting the structure of amorphous InSb. The resulting network is mostly tetrahedral and in excellent agreement with available experimental data.

  19. The Crystal Structure of Cu4Bi4Se9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, E.; Søtofte, Inger; Karup-Møller, S.

    2002-01-01

    contains three square pyramidal Bi sites, an octahedrally coordinated Bi site as well as two tetrahedrally and two irregularly coordinated Cu sites. The structure is an intergrowth of PbS-like slabs with irregularly configured slabs of Bi pyramids and Cu tetrahedra. It contains covalently bonded Se-2...

  20. Inelastic Neutron Scattering Study of the Specific Features of the Phase Transitions in (NH4)2WO2F4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Lev S.; Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Flerov, I.N.; Laptash, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    Oxyfluoride (NH4)2WO2F4 has been studied by the inelastic neutron scattering method over a wide temperature range 10 300 K at two initial neutron energies of 15 and 60 meV. The role of tetrahedral ammonium groups in the mechanism of sequential phase transitions at T1 = 201 K and T2 = 160 K has been discussed

  1. Occurrence of tetrasporangia in Ceramium bisporum (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon Diaz, M Natalia; Gavio, Brigitte; Santos Martinez, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    The presence of tetrahedrally divided tatrasporangia in Ceramium bisporum ballantine is reported for the first time. The plant was found as epiphytic on calcareous Halimeda tuna in coral reef environment in Caribbean Colombia. The taxon represents a new record for the country.

  2. Palygorskite Hybridized Carbon Nanocomposite as a High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Pd nanoparticles were deposited on the hybrid support as an electrocatalyst for formic acid oxida- tion. .... synthetic procedure using conventional borohydride reduction .... as Al2O3, CaO and MgO, which may exist in both the tetrahedral.

  3. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... two indole thiohydrazide arms forming SNONS coordinating sites. NMR and IR spectral studies show that the ligand exists in thioketo form. Each Zn ion in the dinuclear core is in tetrahedral environment with endogenous phenolate bridging and exogenous acetate bridging. The zinc complex in DMF exhibits fluorescence.

  4. Polyhedral charge-packing model for blood pH changes in disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    packing pH zone' (From pH = 7.30, for tetrahedral, to pH = 7.65 for dodecahedral packing), which lies in the neighborhood of the well known physiological pH range. Literature is cited in support of pH 7.65 as the extreme upper limit of tolerable ...

  5. ANTIMONY HALIDES AND HgX2 (X = Cl, Br AMINE ADDUCTS: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NDONGO GUEYE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight new SbF3, SbCl5 and HgX2 (X = Cl, Br amine adducts have been synthesized and their infrared study carried out. Discrete structures have been suggested on the basis of elemental analysis and infrared data, the coordination number of antimony varying from five to nine, while the environment around Hg is tetrahedral.

  6. Solid Mesh Registration for Radiotherapy Treatment Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Karsten Østergaard; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild

    2010-01-01

    We present an algorithm for solid organ registration of pre-segmented data represented as tetrahedral meshes. Registration of the organ surface is driven by force terms based on a distance field representation of the source and reference shapes. Registration of internal morphology is achieved usi...

  7. Synthesis, crystal structure and DFT calculations of a new Hg (II) metal-organic polymer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mirtamizdoust, B.; Roodsari, M.S.; Shaabani, B.; Dušek, Michal; Fejfarová, Karla

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 3 (2016), s. 257-266 ISSN 1024-1221 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : mercury (II) iodide * coordination polymer * square planar * tetrahedral geometry * density functional calculation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.565, year: 2016

  8. Amorphous Solid Water:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Jack; Linderstrøm-Lang, C. U.; Rice, Stuart A.

    1975-01-01

    -like structure factor. The Fourier-transformed structure e factor yields a real space pair distribution function consistent with local tetrahedral coordination and hydrogen bonding, as in other condensed phases of water. The intramolecular OD separation is 1.00 angstrom; the lack of data for very large wave...

  9. Synthesis and characterization of ternary compound, Mn2SnTe4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Magnetic semiconducting materials have attractive pro- perties and have received attention because of their poten- tial application in optoelectronic and magnetic devices. (Furdyna and Kossut 1988). The materials more frequently studied are known as semimagnetic semiconductors, obtained from the tetrahedrally ...

  10. Rigid Bodies in Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebe, Sarah Maria

    . A contact point determination method, based on boolean surface maps, is developed to handle collisions between tetrahedral meshes. The novel nonsmooth nonlinear conjugate gradient (NNCG) method is presented. The NNCG method is comparable in terms of accuracy to the state-of-the-art method, projected Gauss...

  11. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ted to the study of alloy phase stability. The cluster method proposed by Allen and Cahn is applied to non-ideal hop structures under tetrahedral approximation using multiatom interactions. The possible ground-state structures which are stable at absolute zero temperature are obtained. A geometrical representation in 4D ...

  12. X-ray and neutron scattering investigations of YCo3-H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benham, M.J.; Bennington, S.M.; Ross, D.K.; Noreus, D.; Yamaguchi, M.

    1989-01-01

    Various structural studies of YCo 3 H(D) x in the β-phase (0 2 . Neutron diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering were also used in tandem, and hydrogen occupation of a single (36i) tetrahedral site was inferred for the entire concentration range. (orig.)

  13. A Raman spectroscopic study of the structural aspects of K2MgCl4 and Cs2MgCl4 as solid single crystals and molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooker, M.H.

    1975-01-01

    Polarized Raman spectra have been obtained for oriented single crystals of K 2 MgCl 4 and Cs 2 MgCl 4 at 77 and 298 K. The data are in excellent agreement with factor group analyses based on the space groups I 4 /mmm (D 17 4 /subh/) and Pnma (D 16 2 /subh/) for the K 2 MgCl 4 and Cs 2 MgCl 4 crystals. In K 2 MgCl 4 the magnesium is surrounded by six chloride ions in a distorted octahedral arrangement with a network structure such that neighboring octahedra share corners. In Cs 2 MgCl 4 a discrete tetrahedral MgCl 4 2- species is present. The 35 Cl-- 37 Cl isotopic splitting of the symmetric stetching mode of the tetrahedral MgCl 4 2- species has been resolved at 77 K and is similar to that observed for CCl 4 . Raman spectra for the high temperature solids and molten salts suggest that the coordination number of magnesium changes from six in solid K 2 MgCl 4 to four in the melt, whereas Cs 2 MgCl 4 melts with retention of the MgCl 4 2- tetrahedral complex. Additional evidence is presented to support previous reports that the MgCl 4 2- tetrahedral species is the principal complex ion in the melts, although a fraction of the magnesium appears to be present in a polynuclear complex, perhaps Mg 2 Cl 6 2-

  14. Characterization and Identification of Bituminous Materials Modified with Montmorillonite Nanoclay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, G.

    2011-01-01

    Montmorillonite (Mt) nanoclay is a layered silicate mineral with a 2:1-type layer structure, two tetrahedrals sandwiching one octahedral. In recent decades, it is successfully introduced into polymer systems to form polymer-clay nanocomposites (PCN) in which the silicate layers of the Mt are

  15. Specific heat of Cr-based semimagnetic semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twardowski, A.; Eggenkamp, P.J.T.; Mac, W.; Swagten, H.J.M.; Demianiuk, M.

    1993-01-01

    Specific heat of ZnCrSe and ZnCrS was measured for 1.5 tetrahedral crystal field, tetragonal Jahn-Teller distortion and spin-orbit interaction.

  16. Correlation between thermal expansion and Seebeck coefficient in polycrystalline cobalt oxide (Co3O4)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broemme, A.D.D.

    1991-01-01

    Characteristics of the cobalt-oxide spinel Co3O4 are described. Spinel is the name for a certain crystal structure that is built up out of three sublattices; one sublattice contains, in this case, only oxygen ions, and the other two sublattices, tetrahedral and octahedral, contain the metal cobalt

  17. Ba3(P1−xMnxO4)2 : Blue/green inorganic materials based on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ‡Chemical Science and Technology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology ... We describe a blue/green inorganic material, Ba3(P1−xMnxO4)2 (I) based on tetrahedral MnO3−. 4 .... the synthesis at 600–950.

  18. Multiphase Flow of Immiscible Fluids on Unstructured Moving Meshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Erleben, Kenny; Bargteil, Adam

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for animating multiphase flow of immiscible fluids using unstructured moving meshes. Our underlying discretization is an unstructured tetrahedral mesh, the deformable simplicial complex (DSC), that moves with the flow in a Lagrangian manner. Mesh optimization op...

  19. Structural and magnetic properties of nickel antimony ferrospinels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, S.A. [Center of Materials Science, Karpov’ Institute of Physical Chemistry, Moscow, 105064 (Russian Federation); Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Tellgren, R. [Department of Chemistry, Uppsala University, Box 538, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Porcher, F.; André, G. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, Saclay (France); Ericsson, T. [Department of Chemistry, Uppsala University, Box 538, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Nordblad, P. [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Sadovskaya, N.; Kaleva, G.; Politova, E. [Center of Materials Science, Karpov’ Institute of Physical Chemistry, Moscow, 105064 (Russian Federation); Baldini, M. [HPSynC, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Sun, C. [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Arvanitis, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Anil Kumar, P. [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Mathieu, R., E-mail: roland.mathieu@angstrom.uu.se [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-05-05

    Spinel-type compounds of Fe–Ni–Sb–O system were synthesized as polycrystalline powders. The crystal and magnetic properties were investigated using X-ray and neutron powder diffraction, Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. The samples crystallize in the cubic system, space group Fd – 3 m. The distribution of cations between octahedral and tetrahedral sites was refined from the diffraction data sets using constraints imposed by the magnetic, Mössbauer and EDS results and the ionic radii. The cation distribution and the temperature dependence of the lattice parameter (a) and the oxygen positional parameter (u) were obtained. A chemical formula close to Fe{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 1.8}Sb{sub 0.4}O{sub 4} was determined, with Sb{sup 5+} cations occupying octahedral sites, and Fe{sup 3+} and Ni{sup 2+} occupying both tetrahedral and octahedral sites. Fe{sup 3+} mainly (85/15 ratio) occupy tetrahedral sites, and conversely Ni{sup 2+} mainly reside on octahedral ones. The magnetic unit cell is the same as the crystallographic one, having identical symmetry relations. The results indicate that the compounds have a collinear ferrimagnetic structure with antiferromagnetic coupling between the tetrahedral (A) and octahedral (B) sites. Uniquely, the temperature dependence of the net magnetization of this rare earth free ferrimagnet exhibits a compensation point. - Highlights: • Polycrystalline spinel-type compounds of (Fe,Ni)[Fe,Ni,Sb]2O4 were synthesized. • Fe (3+) and Ni (2+) cations occupy mainly tetrahedral (resp. octahedral) sites. • The ferrimagnetic behavior observed below 650 K is investigated in detail. • Squid magnetometry and neutron powder diffraction data are compared.

  20. Structural and magnetic properties of nickel antimony ferrospinels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, S.A.; Tellgren, R.; Porcher, F.; André, G.; Ericsson, T.; Nordblad, P.; Sadovskaya, N.; Kaleva, G.; Politova, E.; Baldini, M.; Sun, C.; Arvanitis, D.; Anil Kumar, P.; Mathieu, R.

    2015-01-01

    Spinel-type compounds of Fe–Ni–Sb–O system were synthesized as polycrystalline powders. The crystal and magnetic properties were investigated using X-ray and neutron powder diffraction, Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. The samples crystallize in the cubic system, space group Fd – 3 m. The distribution of cations between octahedral and tetrahedral sites was refined from the diffraction data sets using constraints imposed by the magnetic, Mössbauer and EDS results and the ionic radii. The cation distribution and the temperature dependence of the lattice parameter (a) and the oxygen positional parameter (u) were obtained. A chemical formula close to Fe 0.8 Ni 1.8 Sb 0.4 O 4 was determined, with Sb 5+ cations occupying octahedral sites, and Fe 3+ and Ni 2+ occupying both tetrahedral and octahedral sites. Fe 3+ mainly (85/15 ratio) occupy tetrahedral sites, and conversely Ni 2+ mainly reside on octahedral ones. The magnetic unit cell is the same as the crystallographic one, having identical symmetry relations. The results indicate that the compounds have a collinear ferrimagnetic structure with antiferromagnetic coupling between the tetrahedral (A) and octahedral (B) sites. Uniquely, the temperature dependence of the net magnetization of this rare earth free ferrimagnet exhibits a compensation point. - Highlights: • Polycrystalline spinel-type compounds of (Fe,Ni)[Fe,Ni,Sb]2O4 were synthesized. • Fe (3+) and Ni (2+) cations occupy mainly tetrahedral (resp. octahedral) sites. • The ferrimagnetic behavior observed below 650 K is investigated in detail. • Squid magnetometry and neutron powder diffraction data are compared

  1. Intralayer Cation Ordering in a Brownmillerite Superstructure: Synthesis, Crystal, and Magnetic Structures of Ca2FeCoO5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramezanipour, Farshid; Greedan, John E.; Grosvenor, Andrew; Britten, James; Cranswick, Lachlan M.D.

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis, crystal, and magnetic structures and the bulk magnetic properties of Ca2FeCoO5, a brownmillerite type oxide, are presented. The crystal structure, solved and refined from single crystal X-ray and powder neutron diffraction data, is described in Pbcm with cell parameters, a = 5.3652(3), b = 11.0995(5), c = 14.7982(7) . Thus, one axis, b in this setting, is doubled in comparison with the standard brownmillerite structure description giving rise to two sets of octahedral and tetrahedral sites. Aided by the strong scattering contrast between Fe and Co for neutrons, a nearly perfect intralayer cation site ordering, not observed for any brownmillerite before, is detected in the tetrahedral layers. There is a lesser degree of cation site ordering in the octahedral sites. Overall, the Fe/Co site ordering is of the NaCl type both within and between the tetrahedral and octahedral layers. There are also both intra- and interlayer ordering of tetrahedral chain orientations. The left- and right-handed orientations alternate within each tetrahedral layer as well as between the closest tetrahedral layers. The occurrence of the rare Pbcm space group in Ca2FeCoO5 is not consistent with a recently proposed structure-field map for brownmillerite oxides. The magnetic structure is G-type antiferromagnetic, with preferred orientation of magnetic moments parallel to the longest axis between 3.8 K to 100 K which switches to the shortest axis between 225 K and 550 K. The neutron diffraction data indicate different site specific ordering temperatures at about 450(5) K and 555(5) K. The refined ordered moments at 3.8 K are somewhat smaller than expected for Fe3+ and Co3+(high spin) but are similar to those found in Sr2FeCoO5. There is evidence for spin canting from isothermal magnetization data that shows well pronounced hystereses and remnant magnetizations at 5 K and 200 K.

  2. SUMMARY OF 2010 DOE EM INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM STUDIES OF WASTE GLASS STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Choi, A.; Marra, J.; Billings, A.

    2011-02-07

    Collaborative work between the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and SIA Radon in Russia was divided among three tasks for calendar year 2010. The first task focused on the study of simplified high level waste glass compositions with the objective of identifying the compositional drivers that lead to crystallization and poor chemical durability. The second task focused on detailed characterization of more complex waste glass compositions with unexpectedly poor chemical durabilities. The third task focused on determining the structure of select high level waste glasses made with varying frit compositions in order to improve models under development for predicting the melt rate of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glasses. The majority of these tasks were carried out at SIA Radon. Selection and fabrication of the glass compositions, along with chemical composition measurements and evaluations of durability were carried out at SRNL and are described in this report. SIA Radon provided three summary reports based on the outcome of the three tasks. These reports are included as appendices to this document. Briefly, the result of characterization of the Task 1 glasses may indicate that glass compositions where iron is predominantly tetrahedrally coordinated have more of a tendency to crystallize nepheline or nepheline-like phases. For the Task 2 glasses, the results suggested that the relatively low fraction of tetrahedrally coordinated boron and the relatively low concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} available to form [BO{sub 4/2}]{sup -}Me{sup +} and [AlO{sub 4/2}]{sup -}Me{sup +} tetrahedral units are not sufficient to consume all of the alkali ions, and thus these alkali ions are easily leached from the glasses. All of the twelve Task 3 glass compositions were determined to be mainly amorphous, with some minor spinel phases. Several key structural units such as metasilicate chains and rings were identified, which confirms the current modeling

  3. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Development of a Low-order Adaptive Optics System at Udaipur Solar Observatory ... A low-order Adaptive Optics (AO) system is being developed at the Udaipur Solar Observatory and we present in this paper the status of the project, which includes ... Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately.

  4. Dynamic pulse buckling of cylindrical shells under axial impact: A comparison of 2D and 3D finite element calculations with experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1995-04-01

    A series of tests investigating dynamic pulse buckling of a cylindrical shell under axial impact is compared to several 2D and 3D finite element simulations of the event. The purpose of the work is to investigate the performance of various analysis codes and element types on a problem which is applicable to radioactive material transport packages, and ultimately to develop a benchmark problem to qualify finite element analysis codes for the transport package design industry. Four axial impact tests were performed on 4 in-diameter, 8 in-long, 304 L stainless steel cylinders with a 3/16 in wall thickness. The cylinders were struck by a 597 lb mass with an impact velocity ranging from 42.2 to 45.1 ft/sec. During the impact event, a buckle formed at each end of the cylinder, and one of the two buckles became unstable and collapsed. The instability occurred at the top of the cylinder in three tests and at the bottom in one test. Numerical simulations of the test were performed using the following codes and element types: PRONTO2D with axisymmetric four-node quadrilaterals; PRONTO3D with both four-node shells and eight-node hexahedrons; and ABAQUS/Explicit with axisymmetric two-node shells and four-node quadrilaterals, and 3D four-node shells and eight-node hexahedrons. All of the calculations are compared to the tests with respect to deformed shape and impact load history. As in the tests, the location of the instability is not consistent in all of the calculations. However, the calculations show good agreement with impact load measurements with the exception of an initial load spike which is proven to be the dynamic response of the load cell to the impact. Finally, the PRONIT02D calculation is compared to the tests with respect to strain and acceleration histories. Accelerometer data exhibited good qualitative agreement with the calculations. The strain comparisons show that measurements are very sensitive to gage placement

  5. Conforming to interface structured adaptive mesh refinement: 3D algorithm and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Anand; Soghrati, Soheil

    2018-03-01

    A new non-iterative mesh generation algorithm named conforming to interface structured adaptive mesh refinement (CISAMR) is introduced for creating 3D finite element models of problems with complex geometries. CISAMR transforms a structured mesh composed of tetrahedral elements into a conforming mesh with low element aspect ratios. The construction of the mesh begins with the structured adaptive mesh refinement of elements in the vicinity of material interfaces. An r-adaptivity algorithm is then employed to relocate selected nodes of nonconforming elements, followed by face-swapping a small fraction of them to eliminate tetrahedrons with high aspect ratios. The final conforming mesh is constructed by sub-tetrahedralizing remaining nonconforming elements, as well as tetrahedrons with hanging nodes. In addition to studying the convergence and analyzing element-wise errors in meshes generated using CISAMR, several example problems are presented to show the ability of this method for modeling 3D problems with intricate morphologies.

  6. Structural study of Mg doped cobalt ferrite thin films on ITO coated glass substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Mahesh; Bapna, Komal; Kumar, Kishor; Ahuja, B. L.

    2018-05-01

    We have synthesized thin films of Co1-xMgxFe2O4 (x = 0, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1) on transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate by pulsed laser deposition method. The structural properties of the grown films were analyzed by the X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, which suggest the single phase growth of these films. Raman spectra revealed the incorporation of Mg ions into CoFe2O4 lattice and suggest that the Mg ions initially go both to the octahedral and tetrahedral sites upto a certain concentration. For higher concentration, Mg ions prefer to occupy the tetrahedral sites.

  7. Nuclear spin relaxation by translational diffusion in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, W.A.; Sholl, C.A.

    1978-01-01

    The theory of nuclear spin relaxation by translational diffusion in solids developed in previous papers is applied to two-spin systems and third-nearest-neighbour jump models in FCC crystals. The two-spin systems describe the dipole-dipole interactions between stationary host spins and spins migrating amongst either the tetrahedral or the octahedral interstitial sites. The tetrahedral sites in a FCC crystal form a SC lattice and two models, the symmetric and asymmetric jump models, are considered for third-nearest-neighbour jumps on this lattice. Numerical results for the correlation function relevant for single crystals and polycrystals are presented over the entire temperature range. It is found that the simpler, but unphysical, symmetric jump model is a good approximation to the more complicated asymmetric jump model. (author)

  8. Correlation between protein secondary structure, backbone bond angles, and side-chain orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Martin; Niemi, Antti J.

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the fine structure of the sp3 hybridized covalent bond geometry that governs the tetrahedral architecture around the central Cα carbon of a protein backbone, and for this we develop new visualization techniques to analyze high-resolution x-ray structures in the Protein Data Bank. We observe that there is a correlation between the deformations of the ideal tetrahedral symmetry and the local secondary structure of the protein. We propose a universal coarse-grained energy function to describe the ensuing side-chain geometry in terms of the Cβ carbon orientations. The energy function can model the side-chain geometry with a subatomic precision. As an example we construct the Cα-Cβ structure of HP35 chicken villin headpiece. We obtain a configuration that deviates less than 0.4 Å in root-mean-square distance from the experimental x-ray structure.

  9. Two Comments on Bond Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, P.

    1997-09-01

    Tetrahedral Bond Angle from Elementary Trigonometry The alternative approach of using the scalar (or dot) product of vectors enables the determination of the bond angle in a tetrahedral molecule in a simple way. There is, of course, an even more straightforward derivation suitable for students who are unfamiliar with vectors, or products thereof, but who do know some elementary trigonometry. The starting point is the figure showing triangle OAB. The point O is the center of a cube, and A and B are at opposite corners of a face of that cube in which fits a regular tetrahedron. The required bond angle alpha = AÔB; and using Pythagoras' theorem, AB = 2(square root 2) is the diagonal of a face of the cube. Hence from right-angled triangle OEB, tan(alpha/2) = (square root 2) and therefore alpha = 2tan-1(square root 2) is approx. 109° 28' (see Fig. 1).

  10. Transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil glycerides: Theoretical and experimental studies of biodiesel reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neyda C. Om Tapanes; Donato A. Gomes Aranda; Jose W. de Mesquita Carneiro; Octavio A. Ceva Antunes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Laboratorio GREENTEC

    2008-08-15

    Vegetal oil, also known as triglycerides, is a mixture of fatty acid triesters of glycerol. In the triglycerides alkyl chains of Jatropha curcas oil, predominate the palmitic, oleic and linoleic fatty acids. The process usually used to convert these triglycerides to biodiesel is called transesterification. The overall process is a sequence of three equivalent, consecutive and reversible reactions, in which di- and monoglycerides are formed as intermediates. Semi-empirical AM1 molecular orbital calculations were used to investigate the reaction pathways of base-catalyzed transesterification of glycerides of palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid. The most probable pathway and the rate determining-step of the reactions were estimated from the molecular orbital calculations. Our results suggest the formation of only one tetrahedral intermediate, which in a subsequent step rearranges to form the products. The rate determining-step is the break of this tetrahedral intermediate. 27 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. The effects of topology on the structural, dynamic and mechanical properties of network-forming materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The effects of network topology on the static structural, mechanical and dynamic properties of MX 2 network-forming liquids (with tetrahedral short-range order) are discussed. The network topology is controlled via a single model parameter (the anion polarizability) which effectively constrains the inter-tetrahedral linkages in a physically transparent manner. Critically, it is found to control the balance between the stability of corner- and edge-sharing tetrahedra. A potential rigidity transformation is investigated. The vibrational density of states is investigated, using an instantaneous normal model analysis, as a function of both anion polarizability and temperature. A low frequency peak is seen to appear and is shown to be correlated with the fraction of cations which are linked through solely edge-sharing structural motifs. A modified effective mean atom coordination number is proposed which allows the appearance of the low frequency feature to be understood in terms of a mean field rigidity percolation threshold. (paper)

  12. Co3(PO42·4H2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Kim

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of Co3(PO42·4H2O, tricobalt(II bis[orthophosphate(V] tetrahydrate, were obtained under hydrothermal conditions. The title compound is isotypic with its zinc analogue Zn3(PO42·4H2O (mineral name hopeite and contains two independent Co2+ cations. One Co2+ cation exhibits a slightly distorted tetrahedral coordination, while the second, located on a mirror plane, has a distorted octahedral coordination environment. The tetrahedrally coordinated Co2+ is bonded to four O atoms of four PO43− anions, whereas the six-coordinate Co2+ is cis-bonded to two phosphate groups and to four O atoms of four water molecules (two of which are located on mirror planes, forming a framework structure. In addition, hydrogen bonds of the type O—H...O are present throughout the crystal structure.

  13. Growth of sodium chlorate crystals in the presence of potassium sulphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E. L.; Tsyganova, A. A.; Vorontsov, D. A.; Ovsetsina, T. I.; Katkova, M. R.; Lykov, V. A.; Portnov, V. N.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we investigated the morphology and growth rates of NaClO3 crystals in solutions with K2SO4 additives. NaClO3 crystals were grown using the temperature gradient technique under concentration convection. We found that the crystal habitus changed from cubic to tetrahedral, and the growth of the cubic {100}, tetrahedral {111} and rhomb-dodecahedral {110} faces decelerated with an increase in the concentration of SO42- ions. The {110} face was the most and the {100} face was the least inhibited by sulphate ions. The mechanism of SO42- ions action is their adsorption on the crystal surface, which impedes attachment of the crystal's building units. We conclude that different atomic structure and charge state of various crystal faces determine their sensitivity to the action of the SO42- ions.

  14. Model of the thermodynamic properties and structure of the non-stoichiometric plutonium and cerium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manes, L.; Mari, C.; Ray, I.

    1979-01-01

    The tetrahedral defect consisting of one oxygen vacancy bonded to two reduced cations - is an important concept, which, as shown in the present work, can explain both the thermodynamic properties and the structures of the phases of the PuO 2 -x and CeO 2 -x systems. Based on this concept a statistical thermodynamic model has been developed and this model is described along with some preliminary calculations. A relatively good agreement with experimental thermodynamic data was obtained in this calculation. Using the exclusion principle, defect complexes each containing one tetrahedral defect are derived and it is shown that a systematic packing of these gives a good description both of the non-stoichiometric and the ordered phases observed for these oxide systems. (orig.) [de

  15. Perturbation theory for water with an associating reference fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Bennett D.

    2017-11-01

    The theoretical description of the thermodynamics of water is challenged by the structural transition towards tetrahedral symmetry at ambient conditions. As perturbation theories typically assume a spherically symmetric reference fluid, they are incapable of accurately describing the liquid properties of water at ambient conditions. In this paper we address this problem by introducing the concept of an associated reference perturbation theory (APT). In APT we treat the reference fluid as an associating hard sphere fluid which transitions to tetrahedral symmetry in the fully hydrogen bonded limit. We calculate this transition in a theoretically self-consistent manner without appealing to molecular simulations. This associated reference provides the reference fluid for a second order Barker-Henderson perturbative treatment of the long-range attractions. We demonstrate that this approach gives a significantly improved description of water as compared to standard perturbation theories.

  16. Hardware Accelerated Simulated Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laney, D; Callahan, S; Max, N; Silva, C; Langer, S; Frank, R

    2005-01-01

    We present the application of hardware accelerated volume rendering algorithms to the simulation of radiographs as an aid to scientists designing experiments, validating simulation codes, and understanding experimental data. The techniques presented take advantage of 32 bit floating point texture capabilities to obtain validated solutions to the radiative transport equation for X-rays. An unsorted hexahedron projection algorithm is presented for curvilinear hexahedra that produces simulated radiographs in the absorption-only regime. A sorted tetrahedral projection algorithm is presented that simulates radiographs of emissive materials. We apply the tetrahedral projection algorithm to the simulation of experimental diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion experiments on a laser at the University of Rochester. We show that the hardware accelerated solution is faster than the current technique used by scientists

  17. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Characterization Methods for Sigma=3 Twin Defects in Cubic Semiconductor (100) Wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Kim, Hyun Jung (Inventor); Skuza, Jonathan R. (Inventor); Lee, Kunik (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An X-ray defraction (XRD) characterization method for sigma=3 twin defects in cubic semiconductor (100) wafers includes a concentration measurement method and a wafer mapping method for any cubic tetrahedral semiconductor wafers including GaAs (100) wafers and Si (100) wafers. The methods use the cubic semiconductor's (004) pole figure in order to detect sigma=3/{111} twin defects. The XRD methods are applicable to any (100) wafers of tetrahedral cubic semiconductors in the diamond structure (Si, Ge, C) and cubic zinc-blend structure (InP, InGaAs, CdTe, ZnSe, and so on) with various growth methods such as Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) growth, Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE), Organometallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (OMVPE), Czochralski growth and Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) growth.

  18. Co2+ ion exchange with NaY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, I.; Solache-Rios, M.; Bulbulian, S.; Bosch, P.

    1993-01-01

    Co 2+ ion exchange from aqueous cobalt chloride-sodium chloride solutions with NaY zeolite has been investigated. The effect of contact time on the sorption of Co 2+ by dehydrated Y zeolite at 150 degrees C is unusual. A fast sorption uptake is observed in which 1.73 mequiv/g of zeolite of Na + ions is replaced by cobalt ions, followed by a desorption process where the uptake decreases to 1.56 mequiv/g of zeolite. This behavior is explained by the location and coordination of cobalt in Y zeolite sites. It is suggested that the maximum uptake corresponds to cobalt ions being simultaneously in two sites; tetrahedrally coordinated in the sodalite units and octahedrally coordinated in the large cavities. It is also suggested that the desorption process is a consequence of a reaction between Cl - ions and the tetrahedral species. 20 refs., 4 figs

  19. Preparation, infrared, raman and nmr spectra of N,N'-diethylthiourea complexes with zinc(II), cadmium(II) and mercury(II) halides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcotrigiano, G [Bari Univ. (Italy). Cattedra di Chimica, Facolta di Medicina-Veterinaria

    1976-05-01

    Several complexes of N,N'-diethylthiourea (Dietu) with zinc(II), cadmium(II) and mercury(II) halides were prepared and characterized by i.r. (4000-60 cm/sup -1/), raman (400-60 cm/sup -1/), in the solid state and n.m.r. and conductometric methods in solution. The complexes Zn(Dietu)/sub 2/X/sub 2/, Cd(Dietu)/sub 2/X/sub 2/ (X=Cl, Br, I) and Hg(Dietu)/sub 2/X/sub 2/ (X=Br, I) are tetrahedral species in which intramolecular -NH...X interactions have been observed. The 1:1 mercury(II) complexes, Hg(Dietu)X/sub 2/ (X=Cl, Br), appear to have a dimeric tetrahedral halide-bridged structure in the solid state. In all these complexes N,N'-diethylthiourea is sulphur-bonded to the metal.

  20. Crystallization in the systems Cu-I-HI-H2O and CuI-HI-H2O at elevated temperatures and pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popolitov, V.I.; Mininzon, Yu.M.

    1983-01-01

    Physicochemical investigation on synthesis and recrystallization of copper monoiodide monocrystals in the systems CU-I-HI-H 2 O and CuI-HI-W 2 O at high temperatures and pressures (200-300 deg and 50-160 atm) has been carried out. The optimum conditions for the growth of the Main tetrahedral facet (111) are clarified. The conditions are as follows: aqueous solution concentration Csub(HI)=32-35 mas.%, temperature 230-270 deg and external temperature gap 25-35 deg. Depending on synthesis conditions monocrystals CUI are prepared with different morphology of tetrahedral and cubooctahedral image. Kinetic regularities of CuI monocrystal preparation are presented and their physical properties, luminescence in particular, are studied

  1. An insight into the local O{sub h} {yields}T{sub d} instability in BaF{sub 2}:Mn{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Fernandez, P; Aramburu, J A; Barriuso, M T; Moreno, M, E-mail: morenom@unican.e

    2010-11-01

    While most complexes in fluorite-type lattices (CaF{sub 2}, SrF{sub 2}, CdF{sub 2}) containing Mn{sup 2+} impurities remain cubic at all temperatures, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements have shown that the one in BaF{sub 2} is tetrahedral below 50K. This surprising behaviour is intrinsic to the centre and not associated to any close defect or pure lattice phase-transition. Through the use of density functional (DFT) calculations we show that the distortion is linked to the unexpected low force constant along the tetrahedral distortion mode with a{sub 2u} symmetry in these complexes and the large metal-ligand distance existing in BaF{sub 2}:Mn{sup 2+}. Ultimately, these facts reflect that, for substitutional impurities in fluorite-type crystals, the ligand-ligand interaction is dominant over the metal-ligand one.

  2. First-principles study of hydrogen diffusion in transition metal Rhodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Wulijibilige; Cui, Xin; Wang, Zhi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the diffuse pattern and path of hydrogen in transition metal rhodium are investigated by the first-principles calculations. Density functional theory is used to calculate the system energies of hydrogen atom occupying different positions in rhodium crystal lattice. The results indicate that the most stable position of hydrogen atom in rhodium crystal lattice locates at the octahedral interstice, and the tetrahedral interstice is the second stable site. The activation barrier energy for the diffusion of atomic hydrogen in transition metal rhodium is quantified by determining the most favorable path, i.e., the minimum-energy pathway for diffusion, that is the indirect octahedral-tetrahedral-octahedral (O-T-O) pathway, and the activation energy is 0.8345eV

  3. Application of FUN3D Solver for Aeroacoustics Simulation of a Nose Landing Gear Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsa, Veer N.; Lockard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    2011-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been performed for a nose landing gear configuration corresponding to the experimental tests conducted in the Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. A widely used unstructured grid code, FUN3D, is examined for solving the unsteady flow field associated with this configuration. A series of successively finer unstructured grids has been generated to assess the effect of grid refinement. Solutions have been obtained on purely tetrahedral grids as well as mixed element grids using hybrid RANS/LES turbulence models. The agreement of FUN3D solutions with experimental data on the same size mesh is better on mixed element grids compared to pure tetrahedral grids, and in general improves with grid refinement.

  4. Site occupation state of deuterium atoms in fcc Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Katsutoshi; Machida, Akihiko; Saitoh, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Takanori; Sano-Furukawa, Asami

    2015-01-01

    The deuterization process of fcc Fe to form solid-solution fcc FeD x was investigated by in situ neutron diffraction measurements at high temperature and high pressure. In a completely deuterized specimen at 988 K and 6.3 GPa, deuterium atoms occupy the octahedral and tetrahedral interstitial sites with an occupancy of 0.532(9) and 0.056(5), respectively, giving a deuterium composition x of 0.64(1). During deuterization, the metal-lattice expands approximately linearly with deuterium composition at a rate of 2.21 Å 3 per deuterium atom. The minor occupation of tetrahedral site is likely driven by the intersite movement of deuterium atoms along the <111> direction in the fcc metal lattice. These results provide implications for the light elements in the Earth's core and the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement of ferrous metals. (author)

  5. Hardware-Accelerated Simulated Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laney, D; Callahan, S; Max, N; Silva, C; Langer, S.; Frank, R

    2005-01-01

    We present the application of hardware accelerated volume rendering algorithms to the simulation of radiographs as an aid to scientists designing experiments, validating simulation codes, and understanding experimental data. The techniques presented take advantage of 32-bit floating point texture capabilities to obtain solutions to the radiative transport equation for X-rays. The hardware accelerated solutions are accurate enough to enable scientists to explore the experimental design space with greater efficiency than the methods currently in use. An unsorted hexahedron projection algorithm is presented for curvilinear hexahedral meshes that produces simulated radiographs in the absorption-only regime. A sorted tetrahedral projection algorithm is presented that simulates radiographs of emissive materials. We apply the tetrahedral projection algorithm to the simulation of experimental diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion experiments on a laser at the University of Rochester

  6. One-pot production of copper ferrite nanoparticles using a chemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, Naoki, E-mail: nnishida@rs.tus.ac.jp; Amagasa, Shota [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Chemistry (Japan); Kobayashi, Yoshio [The University of Electro-Communications, Department of Engineering Science (Japan); Yamada, Yasuhiro [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Chemistry (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Copper ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized via the oxidation of precipitates obtained from the reaction of FeCl{sub 2}, CuSO{sub 4} and N{sub 2}H{sub 4} in the presence of gelatin. These copper ferrite particles were subsequently examined using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The average size of the copper ferrite nanoparticles was less than 5 nm, and they exhibited superparamagnetic behavior as a result of their small size. The low temperature Mössbauer spectrum exhibited three sets of sextets, two corresponding to the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the copper spinel structure and one with small hyperfine magnetic field corresponding to the surface or defects of the nanoparticles. When the ratio of copper salt was increased, the tetrahedral site became preferable for copper, and metallic copper and copper ferrite were both present in a single nanoparticle.

  7. Site-specific local structure of Mn in artificial manganese ferrite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsov, E.; Haskel, D.; Cady, A.; Yang, A.; Vittoria, C.; Harris, V. G.; Zuo, X.

    2006-01-01

    Diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS) spectroscopy has been applied to resolve site-specific Mn local structure in manganese ferrite films grown under nonequilibrium conditions. The DAFS spectra were measured at a number of Bragg reflections in the vicinity of the Mn absorption K edge. The DAFS data analysis done with an iterative Kramers-Kroenig algorithm made it possible to solve separately the local structure around crystallographically inequivalent Mn sites in the unit cell with nominal octahedral and tetrahedral coordination. The strong preference for Mn to be tetrahedrally coordinated in this compound is not only manifested in the relative site occupancies but also in a strong reduction in coordination number for Mn ions at nominal octahedral sites

  8. Vibrational spectroscopy of the borate mineral kotoite Mg₃(BO₃)₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Ray L; Xi, Yunfei

    2013-02-15

    Vibrational spectroscopy has been used to assess the structure of kotoite a borate mineral of magnesium which is isostructural with jimboite. The mineral is orthorhombic with point group: 2/m 2/m 2/m. The mineral has the potential as a new memory insulator material. The mineral has been characterised by a combination of Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The Raman spectrum is dominated by a very intense band at 835 cm(-1), assigned to the symmetric stretching mode of tetrahedral boron. Raman bands at 919, 985 and 1015 cm(-1) are attributed to the antisymmetric stretching modes of tetrahedral boron. Kotoite is strictly an hydrous borate mineral. An intense Raman band observed at 3559 cm(-1) is attributed to the stretching vibration of hydroxyl units, more likely to be associated with the borate mineral hydroxyborate. The lack of observation of water bending modes proves the absence of water in the kotoite structure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lagrangian finite element method for 3D time-dependent non-isothermal flow of K-BKZ fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Román Marín, José Manuel; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2009-01-01

    equation is replaced with a temperature dependent pseudo time. The spatial coordinate system attached to the particles is discretized by 10-node quadratic tetrahedral elements using Cartesian coordinates. The temperature and the pressure are discretized by 10-node quadratic and linear interpolation...... utilizing an implicit variable step backwards differencing (BDF2) scheme, obtaining second order convergence of the temperature in time. A quadratic interpolation in time is applied to approximate the time integral in the K-BKZ equation. This type of scheme ensures third order accuracy with respect......, respectively, in the tetrahedral particle elements. The spatial discretization of the governing equations follows a mixed Galerkin finite element method. This type of scheme ensures third order accuracy with respect to the discretization of spatial dimension. The temperature equation is solved in time...

  10. First-principles simulations of iron with nitrogen: from surface adsorption to bulk diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, M H; Liu, X H; Gu, J F; Jin, Z H

    2013-01-01

    Adsorption, absorption and diffusion pathways of nitrogen are studied for ferromagnetic body-centered cubic iron via spin-polarized density functional theory in combination with the climbing image nudged elastic band method. The computed data suggest that, depending on the coverage of N atoms, N prefers to stay on particular surface sites. Once pinned down well below the surface, N prefers to move into octahedral interstices rather than tetrahedral interstices. However, the tetrahedral interstices are crucial because they act as transition states and yield the saddle point energies of the corresponding minimum energy pathways. In comparison with carbon, we found that nitrogen prefers a different pathway from the (1 0 0) surface to the subsurface due to its strong repulsive interaction with Fe ions. (paper)

  11. High pressure and high temperature EXAFS and diffraction study of AgI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshiasa, Akira; Arima, Hiroshi; Fukui, Hiroshi; Okube, Maki; Katayama, Yoshinori; Ohtaka, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    We have determined the precise P-T phase diagram of AgI by in-situ high-pressure high-temperature synchrotron experiments. X-ray diffraction and XAFS measurements were performed up to 6.0 GPa and 1100 K using a multi-anvil high-pressure device and synchrotron radiation from SPring-8. In the disordered rock-salt phase, Ag ions occupy both octahedral and tetrahedral sites and twenty percent of Ag ions occupy the tetrahedral site as a maximum value at 2 GPa. From the viewpoint of the local structure analyses, some sudden changes are recognized near broad phase transition point. Analysis of EXAFS Debye-Waller factor is useful because the force constant can be decided directly even at high pressure and high temperature. Pressure influences greatly the effective potential and anharmonicity decreases with increasing pressure. (author)

  12. Raman scattering in La1-xSrxFeO3-δ thin films: annealing-induced reduction and phase transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad A.; Xie, Yujun; Scafetta, Mark D.; May, Steven J.; Spanier, Jonathan E.

    2015-04-01

    Raman scattering in thin film La0.2Sr0.8FeO3-δ on MgO(0 0 1) collected at 300 K after different stages of annealing at selected temperatures T (300 K topotactic transformation of the crystal structure from that of the rhombohedral ABO3 perovskites to that of Brownmillerite-like structure consisting of octahedrally and tetrahedrally coordinated Fe atoms.

  13. Lattice site of helium implanted in Si and diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, W.R.

    1993-01-01

    Single crystals of silicon and diamond were implanted at 300K with 70 keV 3 He. Ion channeling analyses were executed by application of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and nuclear reaction analysis. Helium exhibits a non-random lattice site in the channeling angular distributions for silicon and diamond. A major fraction of the implanted He was qualitatively identified to be near to the tetrahedral interstice in both materials

  14. Asymptotics of relativistic spin networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, John W; Steele, Christopher M

    2003-01-01

    The stationary phase technique is used to calculate asymptotic formulae for SO(4) relativistic spin networks. For the tetrahedral spin network this gives the square of the Ponzano-Regge asymptotic formula for the SU(2) 6j-symbol. For the 4-simplex (10j-symbol) the asymptotic formula is compared with numerical calculations of the spin network evaluation. Finally, we discuss the asymptotics of the SO(3, 1) 10j-symbol

  15. Principal component analysis of NEXAFS spectra for molybdenum speciation in hydrotreating catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faro Junior, Arnaldo da C.; Rodrigues, Victor de O.; Eon, Jean-G.; Rocha, Angela S.

    2010-01-01

    Bulk and supported molybdenum based catalysts, modified by nickel, phosphorous or tungsten were studied by NEXAFS spectroscopy at the Mo L III and L II edges. The techniques of principal component analysis (PCA) together with a linear combination analysis (LCA) allowed the detection and quantification of molybdenum atoms in two different coordination states in the oxide form of the catalysts, namely tetrahedral and octahedral coordination. (author)

  16. Bis[(diphenylphosphanylmethyldiphenylphosphane sulfide-κ2P,S]copper(I hexafluoridophosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Jing Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Cu(C25H22P2S2]PF6, the CuI atom, lying on a twofold rotation axis, adopts a distorted tetrahedral geometry. The (diphenylphosphanylmethyldiphenylphosphane sulfide ligand coordinates to the CuI atom through one S and one P atom, forming a stable five-membered chelate ring. The P atom of the PF6− anion also lies on a twofold rotation axis.

  17. Exact Polynomial Eigenmodes for Homogeneous Spherical 3-Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Weeks, Jeffrey R.

    2005-01-01

    Observational data hints at a finite universe, with spherical manifolds such as the Poincare dodecahedral space tentatively providing the best fit. Simulating the physics of a model universe requires knowing the eigenmodes of the Laplace operator on the space. The present article provides explicit polynomial eigenmodes for all globally homogeneous 3-manifolds: the Poincare dodecahedral space S3/I*, the binary octahedral space S3/O*, the binary tetrahedral space S3/T*, the prism manifolds S3/D...

  18. Nodal O(h4)-superconvergence in 3D by averaging piecewise linear, bilinear, and trilinear FE approximations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hannukainen, A.; Korotov, S.; Křížek, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2010), s. 1-10 ISSN 0254-9409 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : higher order error estimates * tetrahedral and prismatic elements * superconvergence * averaging operators Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.760, year: 2010 http://www.jstor.org/stable/43693564

  19. Comparative study of structural properties of trehalose water solutions by neutron diffraction, synchrotron radiation and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesaro, A.; Magazu, V.; Migliardo, F.; Sussich, F.; Vadala, M

    2004-07-15

    Neutron diffraction measurements combined with H/D substitution have been performed on trehalose aqueous solutions as a function of temperature and concentration by using the SANDALS diffractometer at ISIS Facility (UK). The findings point out a high capability of trehalose to strongly affect the tetrahedral hydrogen bond network of water. The neutron diffraction results are also compared with simulation and experimental data obtained by synchrotron radiation on the phospholipid bilayer membranes (DPPC)/trehalose/H{sub 2}O ternary system.

  20. [4-(Di-tert-butylfluorosilanylphenyl]methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuba Iovkova-Berends

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C15H25FOSi, contains two independent molecules. Each of the Si atoms approximates the expected tetrahedral geometry with Si—F bond lengths of 1.6128 (11 and 1.6068 (11 Å in the two independent molecules. In the crystal, supramolecular chains along a are found mediated by O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  1. Coordination Structure of Aluminum in Magnesium Aluminum Hydroxide Studied by 27Al NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The coordination structure of aluminum in magnesium aluminum hydroxide was studiedby 27Al NMR. The result showed that tetrahedral aluminum (AlⅣ) existed in magnesiumaluminum hydroxide, and the contents of AlⅣ increased with the increase of the ratio of Al/Mg andwith the peptizing temperature. AlⅣ originated from the so-called Al13 polymer with the structureof one Al tetrahedron surrounded by twelve Al octahedrons.

  2. Dielectric constant of GaAs during a subpicosecond laser-induced phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Y.; Glezer, E. N.; Mazur, E.

    1994-06-01

    We measured the time evolution of the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant of GaAs following femtosecond laser pulse excitation. The data show a collapse of the average optical gap, or average bonding-antibonding energy-level separation. The rate of collapse increases with pump fluence. The decrease in the gap indicates that the pump beam induces a structural transformation from a covalent, tetrahedrally coordinated crystal to a phase with metallic cohesive properties.

  3. Engineered Multifunctional Nanophotonic Materials for Ultrafast Optical Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    and Co3 + placed at tetrahedral and octahedral sites, respectively. Single -layer thin films of Co3O4 nanoparticles have large optical nonlinearity and...the first two methodologies in systems having weakly resonant structures, including 3-D and/or 1-D photonic crystal structures (i.e. nonlinear Bragg...Nonlinear optical transmission of lead phthalocyanine-doped nematic liquid crystal composites for multiscale nonlinear switching from nanosecond to

  4. Crystal growth of carbonate apatite using a CaCO3 flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Y; Tanaka, J

    1999-09-01

    Single crystals of carbonate apatite were grown using a CaCO3 flux under an Ar gas pressure of 55 MPa. The crystals obtained were observed by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Electron probe microanalyses and thermal analyses were performed. CO3 ions in planar triangle form replaced both OH sites and PO4 tetrahedral sites in the apatite structure: in particular, the OH sites were perfectly substituted by CO3 ions using this method.

  5. ACOSS Eight (Active Control of Space Structures), Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    A-2 A-2 Nominal Model - Equipment Section and Solar Panels ....... A-3 A-3 Nominal Model - Upper Support .-uss ...... ............ A-4 A...sensitivity analysis technique ef selecting critical system parameters is applied tc the Diaper tetrahedral truss structure (See Section 4-2...and solar panels are omitted. The precision section is mounted on isolators to inertially r•" I fixed rigid support. The mode frequencies of this

  6. The α-Amino Group of the Threonine Substrate As The General Base During tRNA Aminoacylation: A New Version of Substrate Assisted Catalysis Predicted by Hybrid DFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, WenJuan; Bushnell, Eric A. C.; Francklyn, Christopher S.; Gauld, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Density functional theory-based methods in combination with large chemical models have been used to investigate the mechanism of the second half-reaction catalyzed by Thr-tRNA synthetase; aminoacyl transfer from Thr-AMP onto the A763'OH of the cognate tRNA. In particular, we have examined pathways in which an active site His309 residue is either protonated or neutral (i.e., potentially able to act as a base). In the protonated His309-assisted mechanism, the rate-limiting step is formation of the tetrahedral intermediate. The barrier for this step is 155.0 kJ mol−1 and thus, such a pathway is concluded to not be enzymatically feasible. For the neutral His309-assisted mechanism two models were used with the difference being whether Lys465 was included. For either model the barrier of the rate-limiting step is below the upper-thermodynamic enzymatic limit of ∼125 kJ mol−1. Specifically, without Lys465 the rate-limiting barrier is 122.1 kJ mol−1 and corresponds to a rotation about the tetrahedral intermediates Ccarb—OH bond. For the model with Lys465 the rate-limiting barrier is slightly lower and corresponds to the formation of the tetrahedral intermediate. Importantly, for both neutral His309’ models the neutral amino group of the threonyl substrate directly acts as the proton accepter; in the formation of the tetrahedral intermediate the A763'OH proton is directly transferred onto the Thr-NH2. Therefore, the overall mechanism follows a general substrate assisted catalytic mechanism. PMID:21942566

  7. Multi-color and artistic dithering

    OpenAIRE

    Ostromoukhov, Victor; Hersch, Roger D.

    1999-01-01

    A multi-color dithering algorithm is proposed, which converts a barycentric combination of color intensities into a multi-color non-overlapping surface coverage. Multi-color dithering is a generalization of standard bi-level dithering. Combined with tetrahedral color separation, multi-color dithering makes it possible to print images made of a set of non-standard inks. In contrast to most previous color halftoning methods, multi-color dithering ensures by construction that the different selec...

  8. Determination of formal redox potentials in aqueous solution of copper(II) complexes with ligands having nitrogen and oxygen donor atoms and comparison with their EPR and UV-Vis spectral features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbì, Giovanni; Giuffrida, Alessandro; Bonomo, Raffaele P

    2013-11-01

    Formal redox potentials in aqueous solution were determined for copper(II) complexes with ligands having oxygen and nitrogen as donor atoms. All the chosen copper(II) complexes have well-known stereochemistries (pseudo-octahedral, square planar, square-based pyramidal, trigonal bipyramidal or tetrahedral) as witnessed by their reported spectroscopic, EPR and UV-visible (UV-Vis) features, so that a rough correlation between the measured redox potential and the typical geometrical arrangement of the copper(II) complex could be established. Negative values have been obtained for copper(II) complexes in tetragonally elongated pseudo-octahedral geometries, when measured against Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Copper(II) complexes in tetrahedral environments (or flattened tetrahedral geometries) show positive redox potential values. There is a region, always in the field of negative redox potentials which groups the copper(II) complexes exhibiting square-based pyramidal arrangements. Therefore, it is suggested that a measurement of the formal redox potential could be of great help, when some ambiguities might appear in the interpretation of spectroscopic (EPR and UV-Vis) data. Unfortunately, when the comparison is made between copper(II) complexes in square-based pyramidal geometries and those in square planar environments (or a pseudo-octahedral) a little perturbed by an equatorial tetrahedral distortion, their redox potentials could fall in the same intermediate region. In this case spectroscopic data have to be handled with great care in order to have an answer about a copper complex geometrical characteristics. © 2013.

  9. Diaquabis(5-fluoro-2-hydroxybenzoato-κO1zinc(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Zn(C7H4FO32(H2O2], is a monomeric ZnII complex. The ZnII atom, which lies on a twofold rotation axis, is situated in a distorted tetrahedral environment composed of two monodentate carboxlyate O atoms and two water O atoms. O—H...O hydrogen bonds link these units, forming sheets that are stacked along the c axis.

  10. Vibrational spectra of four-coordinated random networks with periodic boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttman, L.

    1976-01-01

    Examples of perfectly four-coordinated networks satisfying periodic boundary conditions are constructed by a pseudo-random process, starting from a crystalline region. The unphysical features (high density, large deviations from the tetrahedral bond-angle) are removed by systematic modification of the bonding scheme. The vibrational spectra are calculated, using a valence-force potential, and the neutron scattering is computed by a phonon-expansion approximation

  11. [2-(Piperidin-1-ylethylamine]dithiocyanatozinc(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yi Wang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the mononuclear title compound, [Zn(NCS2(C7H16N2], the ZnII atom is four-coordinated by two N atoms of the chelating 2-(piperidin-1-ylethylamine ligand and two N atoms from two thiocyanate ligands in a distorted tetrahedral geometry. In the crystal structure, molecules are linked through intermolecular N—H...S hydrogen bonds, forming chains along the b axis.

  12. Geometrical approach to central molecular chirality: a chirality selection rule

    OpenAIRE

    Capozziello, S.; Lattanzi, A.

    2004-01-01

    Chirality is of primary importance in many areas of chemistry and has been extensively investigated since its discovery. We introduce here the description of central chirality for tetrahedral molecules using a geometrical approach based on complex numbers. According to this representation, for a molecule having n chiral centres, it is possible to define an index of chirality. Consequently a chirality selection rule has been derived which allows the characterization of a molecule as achiral, e...

  13. Selective binding of choline by a phosphate-coordination-based triple helicate featuring an aromatic box

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jia, C.; Zuo, W.; Yang, D.; Chen, Y.; Cao, L.; Custelcean, R.; Hostaš, Jiří; Hobza, Pavel; Glaser, R.; Wang, Y.-Y.; Yang, X.-J.; Wu, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, Oct 16 (2017), č. článku 938. ISSN 2041-1723 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : transition metal catalysis * tetrahedral anion cage * biological recognition Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 12.124, year: 2016 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-017-00915-8

  14. Selective oxoanion separation using a tripodal ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custelcean, Radu; Moyer, Bruce A.; Rajbanshi, Arbin

    2016-02-16

    The present invention relates to urea-functionalized crystalline capsules self-assembled by sodium or potassium cation coordination and by hydrogen-bonding water bridges to selectively encapsulate tetrahedral divalent oxoanions from highly competitive aqueous alkaline solutions and methods using this system for selective anion separations from industrial solutions. The method involves competitive crystallizations using a tripodal tris(urea) functionalized ligand and, in particular, provides a viable approach to sulfate separation from nuclear wastes.

  15. PHOSPHATO AND PHOSPHONATO ADDUCTS: SYNTHESIS AND SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouhamadou Birame Diop

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Two new adducts have been synthesized and studied by infrared and NMR spectroscopy. The suggested structures are discrete or of infinite chain type with a phosphate behaving as a bidentate ligand, a phosphonate acting as a monodentate ligand, the environments around the tin centre being tetrahedral or trigonal bipyramidal. In all the studied compounds, supramolecular architectures are obtained when hydrogen bonds are considered.

  16. Synthesis and vibrational spectrum of antimony phosphate, SbPO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockner, Wolfgang; Hoyer, Lars P

    2002-07-01

    SbPO4 was synthesized via a new route by reacting antimony metal with meta-phosphoric acid, (HPO3)n at high temperatures. The Raman and IR spectra of the title compound were recorded and the vibrational modes assigned on the basis of a factor group analysis. The internal vibrations are derived from tetrahedral PO4 units (approaching Sb[PO4]) by the correlation method, although the structure is polymeric and not ionic.

  17. Large homogeneity ranges in the rare earth hydrides: a fiction to be revised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conder, K.; Longmei Wang; Boroch, E.; Kaldis, E.

    1991-01-01

    A large composition range of the solid solutions LnH 2 -LnH 3 (Ln=La, Ce) has been assumed for a long time. The structure of these solutions was believed to be cubic Fm3m with H atoms occupying tetrahedral and octahedral interstitials. Using x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry we have shown the existence of a large number of phases in both systems at T x ) are presented

  18. Fe K-EDGE X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF SILICATE MINERALS AND GLASSES

    OpenAIRE

    Binsted , N.; Greaves , G.; Henderson , C.

    1986-01-01

    Structural parameters determined for crystalline iron, fayalite and aegirine agree closely with X-ray crystallograhic data. A glass of NaFeSi2O6 composition has Fe predominantly present as Fe3+ in tetrahedral coordination i.e. as a network former. CaFeSiO4 and CaFeSi2O6 glasses have about 1/3 of the total Fe in octahedral coordination i.e. as a network modifier.

  19. Low-field multi-step magnetization of GaV4S8 single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H; Kajinami, Y; Tabata, Y [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Ikeno, R; Motoyama, G; Kohara, T, E-mail: h.nakamura@ht8.ecs.kyoto-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan)

    2009-01-01

    The magnetization process of single crystalline GaV4S8 including tetrahedral magnetic clusters was measured in the magnetically ordered state below T{sub C} {approx_equal} 13 K. Just below TC, steps were observed at very low fields of the order of 100 Oe, suggesting the competition of several intra- and inter-cluster interactions in a low energy range.

  20. Impact of Nd{sup 3+} in CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel ferrite nanoparticles on cation distribution, structural and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Raghvendra Singh, E-mail: yadav@fch.vutbr.cz [Materials Research Centre, Brno University of Technology, Purkyňova 464/118, 61200 Brno (Czech Republic); Havlica, Jaromir; Masilko, Jiri; Kalina, Lukas; Wasserbauer, Jaromir; Hajdúchová, Miroslava; Enev, Vojtěch [Materials Research Centre, Brno University of Technology, Purkyňova 464/118, 61200 Brno (Czech Republic); Kuřitka, Ivo; Kožáková, Zuzana [Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Nad Ovčírnou 3685, 760 01 Zlín (Czech Republic)

    2016-02-01

    Nd{sup 3+} doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles have been synthesized by starch-assisted sol–gel auto-combustion method. The significant role played by Nd{sup 3+} added to cobalt ferrite in changing cation distribution and further in influencing structural and magnetic properties, was explored and reported. The crystal structure formation and crystallite size were studied from X-ray diffraction studies. The microstructural features were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy that demonstrates the nanocrystalline grain formation with spherical morphology. An infrared spectroscopy study shows the presence of two absorption bands related to tetrahedral and octahedral group complexes within the spinel ferrite lattice system. The change in Raman modes in synthesized ferrite system were observed with Nd{sup 3+} substitution, particle size and cation redistribution. The impact of Nd{sup 3+} on cation distribution of Co{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} at octahedral and tetrahedral sites in spinel ferrite cobalt ferrite nanoparticles was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Room temperature magnetization measurements showed that the saturation magnetization and coercivity increase with addition of Nd{sup 3+} substitution in cobalt ferrite. - Highlights: • Nd{sup 3+} doped CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles by starch-assisted sol–gel auto-combustion method. • The change in Raman modes with Nd{sup 3+} substitution. • Presence of absorption infrared bands related to octahedral and tetrahedral site. • The impact of Nd{sup 3+} on cation distribution at octahedral and tetrahedral sites. • Influence of Nd{sup 3+} substitution in cobalt ferrite on magnetic properties.

  1. The use of physics engines in quantifying breakwater damage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gledhill, Irvy MA

    2013-07-08

    Full Text Available for present purposes is PhysX™ (NVIDIA, 2012). The components of a physics engine are object representation, collision detection, collision processing, and particle kinematics. Each body is represented by a tetrahedral mesh model. It is important... Techniques SIGGRAPH ’08., 2008. Munjiza, A., 2004. The Combined Finite-Discrete Element Method. Wiley. Munjiza, A., 2011. Computational mechanics of discontinua. John Wiley and Sons. NVIDIA, 2012. PhysX. [Online] Available at: HYPERLINK "file...

  2. High-Order Hyperbolic Residual-Distribution Schemes on Arbitrary Triangular Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-22

    for efficient CFD calculations in high-order methods,3 because the grid adaptation almost necessarily introduces irregularity in the grid. In fact...problems. References 1P.A. Gnoffo. Multi-dimensional, inviscid flux reconstruction for simulation of hypersonic heating on tetrahedral grids. In Proc. of...Kitamura, E. Shima, Y. Nakamura, and P.L. Roe. Evaluation of euler fluxes for hypersonic heating computations. AIAA J., 48(4):763–776, 2010. 3Z.J. Wang, K

  3. Configuration and mobility of hydrogen implanted in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugeat, J.P.; Chami, A.C.; Ligeon, E.

    1976-01-01

    Localization methods through channeling and nuclear reaction analysis using low energy ion beam were applied to the study of deuterium and hydrogen implanted in aluminium single crystals. It was shown that implanted hydrogen occupies a tetrahedral site in the lattice as far as the implantation temperature is lower than 175K. This fact is interpreted by considering an interaction between hydrogen and monovacancies created during the implantation [fr

  4. Carbon–carbon bond cleavage for Cu-mediated aromatic trifluoromethylations and pentafluoroethylations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyuka Sugiishi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This short review highlights the copper-mediated fluoroalkylation using perfluoroalkylated carboxylic acid derivatives. Carbon–carbon bond cleavage of perfluoroalkylated carboxylic acid derivatives takes place in fluoroalkylation reactions at high temperature (150–200 °C or under basic conditions to generate fluoroalkyl anion sources for the formation of fluoroalkylcopper species. The fluoroalkylation reactions, which proceed through decarboxylation or tetrahedral intermediates, are useful protocols for the synthesis of fluoroalkylated aromatics.

  5. Diiodidobis(N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylthiourea-κScadmium(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Nawaz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [CdI2(C5H12N2S2], the CdII ion is located on a twofold rotation axis and is coordinated in a distorted tetrahedral mode by two iodide ions and by two tetramethylthiourea (tmtu ligands through their S atoms. The crystal structure is stabilized by C—H...N and C—H...S hydrogen bonds.

  6. Dichloridobis(N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylthiourea-κSmercury(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Nawaz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [HgCl2(C5H12N2S2], the HgII atom is located on a twofold rotation axis and is bonded in a distorted tetrahedral coordination mode to two chloride ions and to two tetramethylthiourea (tmtu molecules through their S atoms. The crystal structure is stabilized by C—H...N and C—H...S hydrogen bonds.

  7. Dielectric and optical properties of glasses of CdO-B2O3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semin, V.N.; Mal'tsev, V.T.; Panich, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    Dielectric and optical properties of glasses of CdO-B 2 O 3 system are investigated. It is shown, that on changing the composition, cadmic-borate glasses undergo structural changes, similar to those, taking place in lead-borate glasses, and the maximum part of the boron atoms in the oxygen tetrahedral coordination is at CdO:B 2 O 3 =3:2

  8. Bis(5,5-diphenylhydantoinato-κN3(ethylenediaminezinc(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xilan Hu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Zn(C15H11N2O22(C2H8N2], the ZnII atom is coordinated in a distorted tetrahedral geometry. Intramolecular N—H...O, C—H...O and C—H...N hydrogen bonds occur. In the crystal, molecules are linked by intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  9. Quininium tetrachloridozinc(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Zhuang Chen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound {systematic name: 2-[hydroxy(6-methoxyquinolin-1-ium-4-ylmethyl]-8-vinylquinuclidin-1-ium tetrachloridozinc(II}, (C20H26N2O2[ZnCl4], consists of a double protonated quininium cation and a tetrachloridozinc(II anion. The ZnII ion is in a slightly distorted tetrahedral coordination environment. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular N—H...Cl and O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  10. Crystal structure of bis(N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylguanidinium tetrachloridocuprate(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamadou Ndiaye

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the structure of the title salt, (C5H14N32[CuCl4], the CuII atom in the anion lies on a twofold rotation axis. The tetrachloridocuprate(II anion adopts a flattened tetrahedral coordination environment and interacts electrostatically with the tetramethylguanidinium cation. The crystal packing is additionally consolidated through N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, resulting in a three-dimensional network structure.

  11. Sensitivity field distributions for segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis based on real human anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, A A; Rudnev, S G; V Vassilevski, Yu; Kramarenko, V K; Nikolaev, D V; Smirnov, A V; Salamatova, V Yu

    2013-01-01

    In this work, an adaptive unstructured tetrahedral mesh generation technology is applied for simulation of segmental bioimpedance measurements using high-resolution whole-body model of the Visible Human Project man. Sensitivity field distributions for a conventional tetrapolar, as well as eight- and ten-electrode measurement configurations are obtained. Based on the ten-electrode configuration, we suggest an algorithm for monitoring changes in the upper lung area.

  12. Sensitivity field distributions for segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis based on real human anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, A. A.; Kramarenko, V. K.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Salamatova, V. Yu; Smirnov, A. V.; Vassilevski, Yu V.

    2013-04-01

    In this work, an adaptive unstructured tetrahedral mesh generation technology is applied for simulation of segmental bioimpedance measurements using high-resolution whole-body model of the Visible Human Project man. Sensitivity field distributions for a conventional tetrapolar, as well as eight- and ten-electrode measurement configurations are obtained. Based on the ten-electrode configuration, we suggest an algorithm for monitoring changes in the upper lung area.

  13. Low Dimensional Carbon Materials for Nanooptics and Nanoplasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-11

    structure of the 2D glass supported by a graphene window and identified it as a bi-tetrahedral layer of SiO2 only 3 atoms thick. Our atomic resolution...developed can be directly applied to study other 2D materials such as molybdenum disulfide and 2D glasses . Novel properties in these materials open...up new avenues for studying old and new physics including glass phase transition and valley Hall effect. 15. SUBJECT TERMS graphene, bilayer graphene

  14. Interpretation of the shape of electron diffraction spots from small polyhedral crystals by means of the crystal shape amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, W.; Hofmeister, H.; Heydenreich, J.; Komrska, J.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of the crystal shape on the fine structure of transmission electron diffraction (TED) patterns described by the crystal shape amplitude is discussed. A general algebraic expression for the crystal shape amplitude of any crystal polyhedron is used for computing the intensity distribution of TED reflections. The computer simulation method is applied to the analysis of the fine structure of TED patterns of small gold and palladium crystals having octahedral and tetrahedral habits. (orig.)

  15. Investigation of Room Temperature Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide Nanoclusters Dispersed on Cubic MCM-48 Mesoporous Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar Budhi; Chia-Ming Wu; Dan Zhao; Ranjit T. Koodali

    2015-01-01

    Titania containing cubic MCM-48 mesoporous materials were synthesized successfully at room temperature by a modified Stöber method. The integrity of the cubic mesoporous phase was retained even at relatively high loadings of titania. The TiO2-MCM-48 materials were extensively characterized by a variety of physico-chemical techniques. The physico-chemical characterization indicate that Ti4+ ions can be substituted in framework tetrahedral positions. The relative amount of Ti4+ ions in tetrahe...

  16. DAFS study of site-specific local structure of Mn in manganese ferrite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsov, E.; Haskel, D.; Cady, A.; Yang, A.; Vittoria, C.; Zuo, X.; Harris, V.G.

    2006-01-01

    Manganese ferrite (MnFe 2 O 4 ) is a well-known magnetic material widely used in electronics for many years. It is well established that its magnetic behavior is strongly influenced by local structural properties of Mn ions, which are distributed between crystallographically inequivalent tetrahedral and octahedral sites in the unit cell. In order to understand and be able to tune properties of these structures, it is necessary to have detailed site-specific structural information on the system. Here we report on the application of diffraction-anomalous fine structure (DAFS) spectroscopy to resolve site-specific Mn local structures in manganese ferrite films. The DAFS measurements were done at undulator beamline 4-ID-D of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. The DAFS spectra (Fig. 1) were measured at several Bragg reflections in the vicinity of the Mn absorption K-edge, having probed separately contributions from tetrahedrally and octahedrally coordinated Mn sites. The DAFS data analysis done with an iterative Kramers-Kroenig algorithm made it possible to solve separately the local structure around different inequivalent Mn sites in the unit cell. The reliability of the data treatment was checked carefully, and it was showed that the site-specific structural parameters obtained with DAFS allow us to describe fluorescence EXAFS spectrum measured independently. Fig. 2 shows individual site contributions to the imaginary part of the resonant scattering amplitude obtained from the treatment of the data of Fig. 1. The analysis of the refined site-specific absorption spectra was done using EXAFS methods based on theoretical standards. We provided direct evidence for the tetrahedral Mn-O bond distance being increased relative to the corresponding Fe-O distance in bulk manganese ferrites. The first coordination shell number was found to be reduced significantly for Mn atoms at these sites. This finding is consistent with the well-known tendency of Mn

  17. Influence of ligand coordination of cobalt ions on structural properties of ZnO-ZnF{sub 2}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass system by means of spectroscopic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naresh, P.; Naga Raju, G. [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University-Nuzvid Campus, Nuzvid 521201, A.P. (India); Srinivasa Rao, Ch. [Department of Physics, Andhra Loyola College, Vijayawada 520008, A.P. (India); Prasad, S.V.G.V.A. [Department of Physics, Andhra Jateeya Kalasala, Machilipatnam 520001, A.P. (India); Ravi Kumar, V. [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University-Nuzvid Campus, Nuzvid 521201, A.P. (India); Veeraiah, N., E-mail: nvr8@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University-Nuzvid Campus, Nuzvid 521201, A.P. (India)

    2012-02-15

    The glasses of the composition 10ZnO-30ZnF{sub 2}-60B{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped with different concentrations of CoO were prepared. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) studies, optical absorption, photoluminescence and infrared spectra of these glasses have been carried out. DSC studies have indicated that the resistance of the glass against devitrification increases with the increase in the concentration of CoO. Optical absorption spectra have exhibited one octahedral band due to {sup 4}T{sub 1g}(F){yields}{sup 2}T{sub 1g}(H) and two tetrahedral bands due to {sup 4}A{sub 2}({sup 4}F){yields}{sup 4}T{sub 1}({sup 4}P) {sup 4}A{sub 2}({sup 4}F){yields}{sup 4}T{sub 1}({sup 4}F) transitions of Co{sup 2+} ions at about 525, 570 and 1400 nm, respectively. As the concentration of CoO is increased the tetrahedral bands are observed to grow at the expense of octahedral band. The luminescence spectra have exhibited two emission bands in the spectral regions of 600-700 nm and 800-900 nm due to {sup 4}T{sub 1}({sup 4}P){yields}{sup 4}A{sub 2}({sup 4}F) and {sup 4}T{sub 1}({sup 4}P){yields}{sup 4}T{sub 2}({sup 4}F) tetrahedral transitions of Co{sup 2+} ions, respectively. With the increasing content of cobalt ions in the glass matrix, the half width and intensity of these bands are observed to increase. The analysis of the results of these two spectra coupled with IR spectra has indicated that as the concentration of CoO is increased in the glass matrix, the tetrahedral occupancy of cobalt ions dominates over the octahedral occupancy and increase the rigidity of the glass network.

  18. Sorption of VX to Clay Minerals and Soils: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Kaolinite, a member of the kaolin family, is a 1:1 clay, consisting of a single silicon-containing tetrahedral sheet linked to a single aluminum...14,15,18,19 The kaolinite is a white-firing, plastic kaolinite mined from claystone deposits in Georgia. This clay, identified as no. 6 tile kaolin , was...Validation of Model Predictions for the Dispersion and Fate of Reactive Chemical Releases in a Sub- Estuary of the Chesapeake Bay. Presented at the 2011

  19. Magnetic field effect on sublattice contributions into the Faraday effect in Y3Fe5o12 yttrium ferrite-garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivashintsova, V.L.; Pisarev, R.V.

    1980-01-01

    Field dependencies of the Faraday effect in yttrium ferrite-garnet in the 80-600 K temperature range on the 1.15 μm wavelength are studied. It is shown that the changes observed in the Faraday effect under the influence of the external field can be explained by magnetic susceptibility of the tetrahedric and octahedric sublattices, and also by the field effect on the specific sublattice contributions into the Faraday effect

  20. Isotope mixtures of hydrogen in vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecking-Schloetensack, P.

    1982-03-01

    The properties of isotope-mixtures of Protium and Deuterium stored in Vanadium have been studied. Protium and Deuterium are existing as interstitial-atoms on tetrahedral sites as well as on octahedral sites in this system. This feature leads to large isotopic-effects between the two isotopes. The dependence of the thermodynamic functions like heat of solution, nonconfigurational entropy, specific heat and ordering temperatures from the composition of the isotope-mixture has been determined. (orig.)

  1. Rietveld refinement of the mixed boracite Fe1.59Zn1.41B7O13Br

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ulloa-Godínez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The structural characterization of the new iron–zinc heptaborate bromide with composition Fe1.59Zn1.41B7O13Br, prepared by chemical transport is reported. A rigid-body model with constrained generalized coordinates was defined in order to hold the positions of the B atoms at reasonable interatomic distances that typically would reach unacceptable values because of the weak scattering power of boron. There are three independent sites for the B atoms of which two are tetrahedrally coordinated. The bond-valence sum around the third B atom, located on a threefold rotation axis, was calculated considering two cases of coordination of boron with oxygens: trigonal-planar and tetrahedral. The contribution of the fourth O atom to the bond-valence sum was found to be only 0.06 v.u., indicating the presence of a very weak bond in the right position to have a distorted tetrahedral coordination in favour of the trigonal-planar coordination for the third B atom. X-ray fluorescence (XRF was used to determinate the Fe/Zn ratio.

  2. Rietveld refinement of the mixed boracite Fe(1.59)Zn(1.41)B(7)O(13)Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa-Godínez, Sandra; Rosales, Ivonne; Bucio, Lauro; Farías, Mario H; Campa-Molina, Jorge

    2009-10-31

    The structural characterization of the new iron-zinc hepta-borate bromide with composition Fe(1.59)Zn(1.41)B(7)O(13)Br, prepared by chemical transport is reported. A rigid-body model with constrained generalized coordinates was defined in order to hold the positions of the B atoms at reasonable inter-atomic distances that typically would reach unacceptable values because of the weak scattering power of boron. There are three independent sites for the B atoms of which two are tetra-hedrally coordinated. The bond-valence sum around the third B atom, located on a threefold rotation axis, was calculated considering two cases of coordination of boron with oxygens: trigonal-planar and tetrahedral. The contribution of the fourth O atom to the bond-valence sum was found to be only 0.06 v.u., indicating the presence of a very weak bond in the right position to have a distorted tetra-hedral coordination in favour of the trigonal-planar coordination for the third B atom. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used to determinate the Fe/Zn ratio.

  3. High-Temperature Decomposition of Brønsted Acid Sites in Gallium-Substituted Zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K Al-majnouni; N Hould; W Lonergan; D Vlachos; R Lobo

    2011-12-31

    The dehydroxylation of Broensted acid sites (BAS) in Ga-substituted zeolites was investigated at temperatures up to 850 C using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and mass spectrometry-temperature programmed desorption (MS-TPD). X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) revealed that the majority of gallium has tetrahedral coordination even after complete dehydroxylation. The interatomic gallium-oxygen distance and gallium coordination number determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) are consistent with gallium in tetrahedral coordination at low T (< 550 C). Upon heating Ga-Beta and Ga-ZSM5 to 850 C, analysis of the EXAFS showed that 70 and 80% of the gallium was still in tetrahedral coordination. The remainder of the gallium was found to be in octahedral coordination. No trigonal Ga atoms were observed. FTIR measurements carried out at similar temperatures show that the intensity of the OH vibration due to BAS has been eliminated. MS-TPD revealed that hydrogen in addition to water evolved from the samples during dehydroxylation. This shows that dehydrogenation in addition to dehydration is a mechanism that contributes to BAS decomposition. Dehydrogenation was further confirmed by exposing the sample to hydrogen to regenerate some of the BAS as monitored by FTIR and MS-TPD.

  4. Steerable sound transport in a 3D acoustic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bai-Zhan; Jiao, Jun-Rui; Dai, Hong-Qing; Yin, Sheng-Wen; Zheng, Sheng-Jie; Liu, Ting-Ting; Chen, Ning; Yu, De-Jie

    2017-10-01

    Quasi-lossless and asymmetric sound transports, which are exceedingly desirable in various modern physical systems, are almost always based on nonlinear or angular momentum biasing effects with extremely high power levels and complex modulation schemes. A practical route for the steerable sound transport along any arbitrary acoustic pathway, especially in a three-dimensional (3D) acoustic network, can revolutionize the sound power propagation and the sound communication. Here, we design an acoustic device containing a regular-tetrahedral cavity with four cylindrical waveguides. A smaller regular-tetrahedral solid in this cavity is eccentrically emplaced to break spatial symmetry of the acoustic device. The numerical and experimental results show that the sound power flow can unimpededly transport between two waveguides away from the eccentric solid within a wide frequency range. Based on the quasi-lossless and asymmetric transport characteristic of the single acoustic device, we construct a 3D acoustic network, in which the sound power flow can flexibly propagate along arbitrary sound pathways defined by our acoustic devices with eccentrically emplaced regular-tetrahedral solids.

  5. Liquid-solid transition in the bond particle model for elemental semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badirkhan, Z.; Tosi, M.P.; Rovere, M.

    1991-07-01

    Freezing of Silicon and Germanium involves a reconstruction of covalent tetrahedral bonds from a metallic liquid having density and coordination then the solid. We first contrast the metallic liquid structure of Germanium with that of its semiconducting amorphous state, in order to emphasize the changes in the atomic structure factor that arise from reconstruction of the interatomic bonds. We then use the density wave theory of freezing to discuss the liquid-solid transition within a pseudoclassical model, which describes the liquid structure by means of partial structure factors giving the pair correlations between atoms and bond particles. The phase transition is viewed as a freezing of the bonds driven by tetrahedrally constrained attractions between ionic cores and valence electrons and accompanied by an opening of the structure to allow long-range connectivity of tetrahedral atomic units. Quantitative calculations on the bond particle model illustrate the relationship between the liquid structure and the microscopic Fourier components of the single-particle densities of atoms and bonds. In further support of this picture, we also present calculations for freezing of a liquid having the density and the atomic structure of compacted amorphous Germanium. (author). 25 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  6. Chemical synthesis and characterization of palladium nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Viet Long; Hayakawa, Tomokatsu; Nogami, Masayuki; Nguyen, Duc Chien; Hirata, Hirohito; Ohtaki, Michitaka

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the results of the successful preparation of Pd nanoparticles by the polyol method and the proposed techniques of controlling their size and shape. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) stabilized Pd nanoparticles of various shapes with the largest sizes in the forms of octahedrons (24 nm), tetrahedrons (22 nm) and cubes (20 nm) have been obtained by alcohol reduction in ethanol with the addition of a hydrochloric acid catalyst. Moreover, PVP–Pd nanoparticles of well-controlled spherical shapes have also been prepared by a modified polyol method. PVP–Pd nanoparticles of cubic, octahedral, tetrahedral and spherical shapes with well-controlled size achieved by using ethylene glycol (EG) as reductant and various inorganic species were also fabricated. In particular, Pd nanorods with sizes of 47 nm and 16 nm formed due to the anisotropic growth mechanism of Pd nanoparticles were found. At the same time, tetrahedral particles of sharp shapes of 120 nm and 70 nm sizes have been observed. A high concentration of inorganic species was used to control the size and shape of the Pd nanoparticles, leading to the appearance of various irregular sizes and shapes. There was evidence of the very sharp corners and edges of tetrahedral and octahedral Pd nanoparticles or others that were formed in the clustering and combination of the seeds of smaller particles

  7. The synthesis and characterization of platinum nanoparticles: a method of controlling the size and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Nguyen Viet; Hayakawa, Tomokatsu; Lakshminarayana, Gandham; Nogami, Masayuki; Chien, Nguyen Duc; Hirata, Hirohito

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, Pt nanoparticles with good shapes of nanocubes and nano-octahedra and well-controlled sizes in the range 5-7 and 8-12 nm, respectively, have been successfully synthesized. The modified polyol method by adding silver nitrate and varying the molar ratio of the solutions of silver nitrate and H 2 PtCl 6 has been used to produce Pt nanoparticles of the size and shape to be controlled. The size and morphology of Pt nanoparticles have been studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM). The results have shown that their very sharp and good shapes exist in the main forms of cubic, cuboctahedral, octahedral and tetrahedral shapes directly related to the crystal nucleation along various directions of the {100} cubic, {111} octahedral and {111} tetrahedral facets during synthesis. In particular, various irregular and new shapes of Pt nanoparticles have been found. Here, it is concluded that the role of silver ions has to be considered as an important factor for promoting and controlling the development of Pt nanoparticles of {100} cubic, {111} octahedral and {111} tetrahedral facets, and also directly orienting the growth and formation of Pt nanoparticles.

  8. Interactions of "bora-penicilloates" with serine β-lactamases and DD-peptidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhekieva, Liudmila; Adediran, S A; Pratt, R F

    2014-10-21

    Specific boronic acids are generally powerful tetrahedral intermediate/transition state analogue inhibitors of serine amidohydrolases. This group of enzymes includes bacterial β-lactamases and DD-peptidases where there has been considerable development of boronic acid inhibitors. This paper describes the synthesis, determination of the inhibitory activity, and analysis of the results from two α-(2-thiazolidinyl) boronic acids that are closer analogues of particular tetrahedral intermediates involved in β-lactamase and DD-peptidase catalysis than those previously described. One of them, 2-[1-(dihydroxyboranyl)(2-phenylacetamido)methyl]-5,5-dimethyl-1,3-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, is a direct analogue of the deacylation tetrahedral intermediates of these enzymes. These compounds are micromolar inhibitors of class C β-lactamases but, very unexpectedly, not inhibitors of class A β-lactamases. We rationalize the latter result on the basis of a new mechanism of boronic acid inhibition of the class A enzymes. A stable inhibitory complex is not accessible because of the instability of an intermediate on its pathway of formation. The new boronic acids also do not inhibit bacterial DD-peptidases (penicillin-binding proteins). This result strongly supports a central feature of a previously proposed mechanism of action of β-lactam antibiotics, where deacylation of β-lactam-derived acyl-enzymes is not possible because of unfavorable steric interactions.

  9. Structural, electronic, and vibrational properties of high-density amorphous silicon: a first-principles molecular-dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Tetsuya

    2009-05-21

    We report a first-principles study of the structural, electronic, and dynamical properties of high-density amorphous (HDA) silicon, which was found to be formed by pressurizing low-density amorphous (LDA) silicon (a normal amorphous Si) [T. Morishita, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 055503 (2004); P. F. McMillan, M. Wilson, D. Daisenberger, and D. Machon, Nature Mater. 4, 680 (2005)]. Striking structural differences between HDA and LDA are revealed. The LDA structure holds a tetrahedral network, while the HDA structure contains a highly distorted tetrahedral network. The fifth neighboring atom in HDA tends to be located at an interstitial position of a distorted tetrahedron composed of the first four neighboring atoms. Consequently, the coordination number of HDA is calculated to be approximately 5 unlike that of LDA. The electronic density of state (EDOS) shows that HDA is metallic, which is consistent with a recent experimental measurement of the electronic resistance of HDA Si. We find from local EDOS that highly distorted tetrahedral configurations enhance the metallic nature of HDA. The vibrational density of state (VDOS) also reflects the structural differences between HDA and LDA. Some of the characteristic vibrational modes of LDA are dematerialized in HDA, indicating the degradation of covalent bonds. The overall profile of the VDOS for HDA is found to be an intermediate between that for LDA and liquid Si under pressure (high-density liquid Si).

  10. Optical Lattice Bose-Einstein Condensates and the dd Fusion - Iwamura Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Talbot

    2003-03-01

    My conjecture: LENR dd fusion occurs in PdDx when a subset of the interstitial deuterons occupy tetrahedral sites in a PdDx crystallite. The tetrahedral deuterons(d's), which occupy shallow potential wells, behave as a superfluid, similar to ultracold Na atoms in shallow-well optical traps, as modeled by Jaksch et al.(D. Jaksch, et al, Phys. Rev. Lett., 81, 3108 (1998).) The tetrahedral d's form a deuteron (d) subsystem, which is neutralized by an electron subsystem containing an equal number of electrons. In the superfluid all the properties of each quasiparticle d are partitioned among N_s_i_te equivalent sites. The partitioning of the d point charge reduces the Coulomb self-repulsion within each quasiparticle pair, which causes wave function overlap at large N_s_i_t_e, allowing d-d fusion. Similarly, partitioning of the point charge of each single quasiparticle d reduces the Coulomb repulsion between it and an obstructing impurity atom, which causes wave function overlap between quasiparticle and atom at large N_s_i_t_e, allowing transmutation of the impurity atom. The Iwamura reaction(Y. Iwamura, et al, Japan J. of Appl. Physics, 41A, 4642 (2002).) is 4 ^2D^+_B_l_o_ch + 4 e^-_B_l_o_ch + ^1^3^3Cs arrow ^1^4^1Pr, with the reaction energy incoherently transferred to the lattice.

  11. Thermal behavior of natural zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bish, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal behavior of natural zeolites impacts their application and identification and varies significantly from zeolite to zeolite. Zeolites evolve H 2 0 upon heating, but recent data show that distinct ''types'' of water (e.g., loosely bound or tightly bound zeolitic water) do not exist. Rather water is bound primarily to extra-framework cations with a continuum of energies, giving rise to pseudocontinuous loss of water accompanied by a dynamic interaction between remaining H 2 0 molecules and extra-framework cations. These interactions in the channels of zeolites give rise to dehydration dependent on the extra-framework cation, in addition to temperature and water vapor pressure. The dehydration reaction and the extra-framework cation also affect the thermal expansion/contraction. Most zeolites undergo dehydration-induced contractions that may be anisotropic, although minor thermal expansion can be seen with some zeolites. Such contractions can be partially or completely irreversible if they involve modifications of the tetrahedral framework and/or if rehydration is sluggish. Thermally induced structural modifications are also driven initially by dehydration and the concomitant contraction and migration of extra-framework cations. Contraction is accommodated by rotations of structural units and tetrahedral cation-oxygen linkages may break. Thermal reactions that involve breaking of tetrahedral cation-oxygen bonds markedly irreversible and may be kinetically limited, producing large differences between short- and long-term heating

  12. EPR, mu-Raman and Crystallographic properties of spinel type ZnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas-Hernandez, C; Almanza, O; Jurado, J F, E-mail: cvargash@unal.edu.c [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Manizales-Colombia Laboratorio de Propiedades Opticas de Materiales-POM (Colombia)

    2009-05-01

    Structural, vibrational and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis for compound ZnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} are shown in this work. These types of materials are used in technological applications as humidity sensors and piezoelectric devices. The compound was obtained by mean of solid state reaction technique from binary precursors ZnO and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. After three thermal treatments the sample structure was monitoring using X ray diffraction (XRD), the spinel cubic phase has been indexed within O{sup 7}{sub h}(Fd3m) spatial group. It is observed normal spinel phase. Micro-Raman analysis revealed bands for normal vibration modes of Zn and Cr atoms in tetrahedral and octahedral environments formed by oxygen atoms at approximately 400 and 900 cm{sup -1}, respectively. Bands around 941 cm{sup -1} are associated possibly to vacancies in the tetrahedral and octahedral sites due to interaction between Zn and Cr ions. EPR signal from 150 to 300 K isothermals indicates a transition between inverse spinel to normal spinel type in a central field around 3350 G. A signal at approximately 3400 G corresponding to the C'r{sup +3} in tetrahedral sites is observed near the central field.

  13. Three-dimensional static shape control analysis of composite plates using distributed piezoelectric actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaik Dawood, M S I; Iannucci, L; Greenhalgh, E S

    2008-01-01

    In this work, based on a linear piezoelectric constitutive model, a three-dimensional finite element code using an eight-node brick element that includes the anisotropic and coupled field effects of piezoelectric actuators has been developed for the static shape control analysis of fibre reinforced composite laminates. The code was used to study voltage sensing and actuation capabilities of piezoelectric actuators on composite laminates. The required input voltages to the actuators in order to achieve a specified structural shape were determined using a weighted shape control method. The code was validated using two test cases obtained from the literature. The results were found to show good correlation for voltage actuation. However, since determining input voltages to achieve the desired structural shape is a type of inverse problem, there are no explicit solutions and hence the results obtained from the present model were not similar to those reported in the literature. The second validation also suggests that the anisotropic and coupled field effects of the piezoelectric actuators cannot be neglected as this has been shown to underestimate the required control voltages. The effects of different lamination angles, boundary conditions, plate length-to-thickness ratios and actuator dimensions on the control voltages have also been reported

  14. MotifNet: a web-server for network motif analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoly, Ilan Y; Lerman, Eugene; Ziv-Ukelson, Michal; Yeger-Lotem, Esti

    2017-06-15

    Network motifs are small topological patterns that recur in a network significantly more often than expected by chance. Their identification emerged as a powerful approach for uncovering the design principles underlying complex networks. However, available tools for network motif analysis typically require download and execution of computationally intensive software on a local computer. We present MotifNet, the first open-access web-server for network motif analysis. MotifNet allows researchers to analyze integrated networks, where nodes and edges may be labeled, and to search for motifs of up to eight nodes. The output motifs are presented graphically and the user can interactively filter them by their significance, number of instances, node and edge labels, and node identities, and view their instances. MotifNet also allows the user to distinguish between motifs that are centered on specific nodes and motifs that recur in distinct parts of the network. MotifNet is freely available at http://netbio.bgu.ac.il/motifnet . The website was implemented using ReactJs and supports all major browsers. The server interface was implemented in Python with data stored on a MySQL database. estiyl@bgu.ac.il or michaluz@cs.bgu.ac.il. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Optimization and Static Stress Analysis of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Composite Leaf Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luay Muhammed Ali Ismaeel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A monofiber reinforced composite leaf spring is proposed as an alternative to the typical steel one as it is characterized by high strength-to-weight ratio. Different reinforcing schemes are suggested to fabricate the leaf spring. The composite and the typical steel leaf springs are subjected to the same working conditions. A weight saving of about more than 60% can be achieved while maintaining the strength for the structures under consideration. The objective of the present study was to replace material for leaf spring. This study suggests various materials of hybrid fiber reinforced plastics (HFRP. Also the effects of shear moduli of the fibers, matrices, and the composites on the composites performance and responses are discussed. The results and behaviors of each are compared with each other and verified by comparison with analytical solution; a good convergence is found between them. The elastic properties of the hybrid composites are calculated using rules of mixtures and Halpin-Tsi equation through the software of MATLAB v-7. The problem is also analyzed by the technique of finite element analysis (FEA through the software of ANSYS v-14. An element modeling was done for every leaf with eight-node 3D brick element (SOLID185 3D 8-Node Structural Solid.

  16. Using neural networks to describe tracer correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Lary

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural networks are ideally suited to describe the spatial and temporal dependence of tracer-tracer correlations. The neural network performs well even in regions where the correlations are less compact and normally a family of correlation curves would be required. For example, the CH4-N2O correlation can be well described using a neural network trained with the latitude, pressure, time of year, and methane volume mixing ratio (v.m.r.. In this study a neural network using Quickprop learning and one hidden layer with eight nodes was able to reproduce the CH4-N2O correlation with a correlation coefficient between simulated and training values of 0.9995. Such an accurate representation of tracer-tracer correlations allows more use to be made of long-term datasets to constrain chemical models. Such as the dataset from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE which has continuously observed CH4  (but not N2O from 1991 till the present. The neural network Fortran code used is available for download.

  17. MPIGeneNet: Parallel Calculation of Gene Co-Expression Networks on Multicore Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Dominguez, Jorge; Martin, Maria J

    2017-10-10

    In this work we present MPIGeneNet, a parallel tool that applies Pearson's correlation and Random Matrix Theory to construct gene co-expression networks. It is based on the state-of-the-art sequential tool RMTGeneNet, which provides networks with high robustness and sensitivity at the expenses of relatively long runtimes for large scale input datasets. MPIGeneNet returns the same results as RMTGeneNet but improves the memory management, reduces the I/O cost, and accelerates the two most computationally demanding steps of co-expression network construction by exploiting the compute capabilities of common multicore CPU clusters. Our performance evaluation on two different systems using three typical input datasets shows that MPIGeneNet is significantly faster than RMTGeneNet. As an example, our tool is up to 175.41 times faster on a cluster with eight nodes, each one containing two 12-core Intel Haswell processors. Source code of MPIGeneNet, as well as a reference manual, are available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/mpigenenet/.

  18. Parallel Block Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement on Graphics Processing Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckingsale, D. A. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Aldermaston (United Kingdom); Gaudin, W. P. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Aldermaston (United Kingdom); Hornung, R. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gunney, B. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gamblin, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Herdman, J. A. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Aldermaston (United Kingdom); Jarvis, S. A. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Aldermaston (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-17

    Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement is a technique that can be used when solving partial differential equations to reduce the number of zones necessary to achieve the required accuracy in areas of interest. These areas (shock fronts, material interfaces, etc.) are recursively covered with finer mesh patches that are grouped into a hierarchy of refinement levels. Despite the potential for large savings in computational requirements and memory usage without a corresponding reduction in accuracy, AMR adds overhead in managing the mesh hierarchy, adding complex communication and data movement requirements to a simulation. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a native GPU-based AMR library, including: the classes used to manage data on a mesh patch, the routines used for transferring data between GPUs on different nodes, and the data-parallel operators developed to coarsen and refine mesh data. We validate the performance and accuracy of our implementation using three test problems and two architectures: an eight-node cluster, and over four thousand nodes of Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Titan supercomputer. Our GPU-based AMR hydrodynamics code performs up to 4.87× faster than the CPU-based implementation, and has been scaled to over four thousand GPUs using a combination of MPI and CUDA.

  19. Synchronous Databus Network in ITER: Open source real-time network for the next nuclear fusion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncagni, L.; Centioli, C.; Iannone, F.; Neri, C.; Panella, M.; Pangione, L.; Riva, M.; Scappaticci, M.; Vitale, V.; Zaccarian, L.

    2008-01-01

    The next nuclear fusion experiment, ITER, is providing the infrastructure for the optimal operation of a burning plasma, requiring feedback control of discharge parameters and on-line evaluation of computationally intensive models running in a cluster of controller nodes. Thus, the synchronization of the available information on the plasma and plant state variables among the controller nodes is a key issue for ITER. The ITER conceptual design aims to perform feedback control on a cluster of distributed controllers connected by a Synchronous Databus Network (SDN). Therefore it is mandatory to achieve a deterministic data exchange among the controller nodes with a refresh rate of at least 1 kHz and a jitter of at least 50 μs. Thus, a conservative estimate of the data flow within the controller network can be 3 kSample/ms. In this paper the open source RTnet project is evaluated to meet the requirements of the SDN of ITER. A testbed involving a cluster of eight nodes connected over a standard ethernet network has been set up to simulate a distributed real-time control system. The main goal of the test is to verify the compliance of the performance with the ITER SDN requirements

  20. ParBiBit: Parallel tool for binary biclustering on modern distributed-memory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domínguez, Jorge; Expósito, Roberto R

    2018-01-01

    Biclustering techniques are gaining attention in the analysis of large-scale datasets as they identify two-dimensional submatrices where both rows and columns are correlated. In this work we present ParBiBit, a parallel tool to accelerate the search of interesting biclusters on binary datasets, which are very popular on different fields such as genetics, marketing or text mining. It is based on the state-of-the-art sequential Java tool BiBit, which has been proved accurate by several studies, especially on scenarios that result on many large biclusters. ParBiBit uses the same methodology as BiBit (grouping the binary information into patterns) and provides the same results. Nevertheless, our tool significantly improves performance thanks to an efficient implementation based on C++11 that includes support for threads and MPI processes in order to exploit the compute capabilities of modern distributed-memory systems, which provide several multicore CPU nodes interconnected through a network. Our performance evaluation with 18 representative input datasets on two different eight-node systems shows that our tool is significantly faster than the original BiBit. Source code in C++ and MPI running on Linux systems as well as a reference manual are available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/parbibit/.